A wide range of factors affect the skin's ability to withstand pressure, friction and shear. Clinically validated pressure-relieving equipment is essential to prevent pressure sores in acutely ill patients. A successful pressure sore prevention strategy depends on sufficient resource allocation, appropriate levels and types of preventive equipment and evaluation.
The shift towards providing critical care in general wards has changed the way acutely ill patients are identified, treated and managed in hospital. This requires the expertise of knowledgeable, informed and capable staff. Effective education and appropriate knowledge and skills are required to aid identification of the deteriorating patient and provide prompt, timely and appropriate intervention to prevent further deterioration and possibly death. This article provides information about a systematic approach that will enable healthcare professionals to intervene to prevent deterioration in acutely ill patients.
Lam, R C S; Chien, Wai-Tong
The global euthanasia debate by health care professionals has raised important ethical issues concerning the professional duties and responsibilities of nurses caring for terminal patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of acutely ill patients towards the practice of euthanasia in Hong Kong. A modified form of the 23-item Questionnaire for General Household Survey scale was used. This cross-sectional survey study was conducted with a stratified sample of in-patients recruited from a wide variety of departments in a regional, acute general hospital. Seventy-seven out of 129 patients responded (59.7%) and a high proportion of patients agreed with the use of euthanasia in the following circumstances: 'where they were a third party', if 'someone they loved' was affected, or if 'they themselves were the patient'. Of the 77 patients, 54 agreed with active euthanasia (70.1%) and 65 with passive (84.4%). The results also indicated that a few socio-demographic characteristics (such as age, gender and household income) statistically significantly correlated with patients' attitudes towards euthanasia. These findings highlight that Chinese patients with acute illness generally accept the use of euthanasia. Further research on the attitudes and perceptions of patients towards the use of euthanasia is recommended, particularly in diverse groups of Chinese and Asian patients with acute or terminal illness.
Matthews, Ellyn E; Tanner, J Mark; Dumont, Natalie A
Intensive care units may place acutely ill patients with cancer at additional risk for sleep loss and associated negative effects. Research suggests that communication about sleep in patients with cancer is suboptimal and sleep problems are not regularly assessed or adequately treated throughout the cancer trajectory. However, many sleep problems and fatigue can be managed effectively. This article synthesizes the current literature regarding the prevalence, cause, and risk factors that contribute to sleep disturbance in the context of acute cancer care. It describes the consequences of poor sleep and discusses appropriate assessment and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeddian, Ali Reza; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Marshall, Tom; Rashidian, Arash; Sayadi, Leila; Jafari, Nazila
The number of acutely ill patients has risen in general wards due to the aging population, more advanced and complicated therapeutic methods, economic changes in the health system, therapeutic choices and shortage of intensive care unit beds. This may lead to adverse events and outcomes with catastrophic results. The purpose of this study was to describe the conditions of acutely ill patients, from the perspective of caregivers. The study was conducted in Tehran University of Medical Sciences and its two affiliated general teaching hospitals. Ten nurses and physicians participated in interviews, which were analyzed using qualitative content analysis methods. Four main categories of difficulties in caring for acutely ill patients in general wards were described: problems in identifying acutely ill patients, problems in clinical management of acutely ill patients, inappropriate use of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds, and poor structure for mortality control. The staff do not appropriately diagnose the signs of deterioration. There are problems with the appropriate management of acutely ill patients, even if they are considered to be acutely ill and in need of special attention in general wards. Many shortcomings exist caring for acutely ill patients, ranging from identification to clinical management; there are also structural and contextual problems. An immediate plan is necessary to circumvent the challenges and to improve the care for acutely ill patients. These challenges highlight the need for changes in current levels of care for acutely ill patients, as well as the need for appropriate support systems.
Cohen, Alexander T; Harrington, Robert A; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell D; Wiens, Brian L; Gold, Alex; Hernandez, Adrian F; Gibson, C Michael
Patients with acute medical illnesses are at prolonged risk for venous thrombosis. However, the appropriate duration of thromboprophylaxis remains unknown. Patients who were hospitalized for acute medical illnesses were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous enoxaparin (at a dose of 40 mg once daily) for 10±4 days plus oral betrixaban placebo for 35 to 42 days or subcutaneous enoxaparin placebo for 10±4 days plus oral betrixaban (at a dose of 80 mg once daily) for 35 to 42 days. We performed sequential analyses in three prespecified, progressively inclusive cohorts: patients with an elevated d-dimer level (cohort 1), patients with an elevated d-dimer level or an age of at least 75 years (cohort 2), and all the enrolled patients (overall population cohort). The statistical analysis plan specified that if the between-group difference in any analysis in this sequence was not significant, the other analyses would be considered exploratory. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of asymptomatic proximal deep-vein thrombosis and symptomatic venous thromboembolism. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding. A total of 7513 patients underwent randomization. In cohort 1, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 6.9% of patients receiving betrixaban and 8.5% receiving enoxaparin (relative risk in the betrixaban group, 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 1.00; P=0.054). The rates were 5.6% and 7.1%, respectively (relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.98; P=0.03) in cohort 2 and 5.3% and 7.0% (relative risk, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.92; P=0.006) in the overall population. (The last two analyses were considered to be exploratory owing to the result in cohort 1.) In the overall population, major bleeding occurred in 0.7% of the betrixaban group and 0.6% of the enoxaparin group (relative risk, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.12; P=0.55). Among acutely ill medical patients with an elevated d-dimer level, there was no significant difference between extended
Vellinga, Namkje A R; Boerma, E Christiaan; Koopmans, Matty; Donati, Abele; Dubin, Arnaldo; Shapiro, Nathan I; Pearse, Rupert M; Machado, Flavia R; Fries, Michael; Akarsu-Ayazoglu, Tulin; Pranskunas, Andrius; Hollenberg, Steven; Balestra, Gianmarco; van Iterson, Mat; van der Voort, Peter H J; Sadaka, Farid; Minto, Gary; Aypar, Ulku; Hurtado, F Javier; Martinelli, Giampaolo; Payen, Didier; van Haren, Frank; Holley, Anthony; Pattnaik, Rajyabardhan; Gomez, Hernando; Mehta, Ravindra L; Rodriguez, Alejandro H; Ruiz, Carolina; Canales, Héctor S; Duranteau, Jacques; Spronk, Peter E; Jhanji, Shaman; Hubble, Sheena; Chierego, Marialuisa; Jung, Christian; Martin, Daniel; Sorbara, Carlo; Tijssen, Jan G P; Bakker, Jan; Ince, Can
Microcirculatory alterations are associated with adverse outcome in subsets of critically ill patients. The prevalence and significance of microcirculatory alterations in the general ICU population are unknown. We studied the prevalence of microcirculatory alterations in a heterogeneous ICU population and its predictive value in an integrative model of macro- and microcirculatory variables. Multicenter observational point prevalence study. The Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients study was conducted in 36 ICUs worldwide. A heterogeneous ICU population consisting of 501 patients. None. Demographic, hemodynamic, and laboratory data were collected in all ICU patients who were 18 years old or older. Sublingual Sidestream Dark Field imaging was performed to determine the prevalence of an abnormal capillary microvascular flow index (< 2.6) and its additional value in predicting hospital mortality. In 501 patients with a median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 15 (10-21), a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 5 (2-8), and a hospital mortality of 28.4%, 17% exhibited an abnormal capillary microvascular flow index. Tachycardia (heart rate > 90 beats/min) (odds ratio, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.67-4.39; p < 0.001), mean arterial pressure (odds ratio, 0.979; 95% CI, 0.963-0.996; p = 0.013), vasopressor use (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.11-3.07; p = 0.019), and lactate level more than 1.5 mEq/L (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.28-3.62; p = 0.004) were independent risk factors for hospital mortality, but not abnormal microvascular flow index. In reference to microvascular flow index, a significant interaction was observed with tachycardia. In patients with tachycardia, the presence of an abnormal microvascular flow index was an independent, additive predictor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.30-8.06; p = 0.011). This was not true for nontachycardic patients nor for the total group of patients. In a heterogeneous ICU
Wald, Heidi L.; Leykum, Luci K.; Mattison, Melissa L. P.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Meltzer, David O.
Hospitalists and others acute care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients (ACOP) Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through four steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a Partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of ten research questions in the following areas: advanced care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision-making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. PMID:25877486
Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O
Hospitalists and others acute-care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through 4 steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of 10 research questions in the following areas: advanced-care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training.
Papadakis, Marios; Ambe, Peter C; Zirngibl, Hubert
Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis and surgery is the standard of care for young and fit patients. However, due to high risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality, surgical management of critically ill patients remains a controversy. It is not clear, whether the increased risk of perioperative complications associated with the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis is secondary to reduced physiologic reserve per se or to the severity of gallbladder inflammation. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in a university hospital over a three-year-period was performed. The ASA scores at the time of presentation were used to categorize patients into two groups. The study group consisted of critically ill patients with ASA 3 and 4, while the control group was made up of fit patients with ASA 1 and 2. Both groups were compared with regard to perioperative data, postoperative outcome and extent of gallbladder inflammation on histopathology. Two hundred and seventeen cases of acute cholecystitis with complete charts were available for analysis. The study group included 67 critically ill patients with ASA 3 and 4, while the control group included 150 fit patients with ASA 1 and 2. Both groups were comparable with regard to perioperative data. Histopathology confirmed severe cholecystitis in a significant number of cases in the study group compared to the control group (37 % vs. 18 %, p = 0.03). Significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality were recorded in the study group (p < 0.05). Equally, significantly more patients from the study group were managed in the ICU (40 % vs. 8 %, p = 0.001). Critically ill patients presenting with acute cholecystitis are at increased risk for extensive gallbladder inflammation. The increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in such patients might partly be secondary to severe acute
Turpie, A G G
Summary. Patients who are hospitalized for an acute medical illness are at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Current evidence-based guidelines recommend prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin in acutely ill medical patients who are admitted to hospital with congestive heart failure, severe respiratory disease, or who are bedridden with an additional VTE risk factor. The need for thromboprophylaxis is therefore clear in this patient population; however, the optimal duration of prophylaxis in these patients is less clear. In patients undergoing orthopedic or cancer surgery, extended-duration prophylaxis has been shown to be superior to placebo. To date, however, no large-scale clinical trials have assessed the benefits of extended-duration prophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients. This review therefore focuses on the VTE risk profile of acutely ill medical patients, examines the currently available literature for evidence of a potential benefit of extended-duration prophylaxis in these patients, and provides a rationale for the testing of such a hypothesis in a randomized clinical trial.
Thueringer, Jessica T; Doll, Natalie K; Gertner, Elie
To report on the efficacy and safety of anakinra for treatment of acute gouty arthritis in medically complex, critically ill patients. Retrospective chart review of 13 critically ill hospitalized patients treated with anakinra for 20 episodes of acute gouty arthritis between 2009 and 2014 at a single health plan and institution (HealthPartners Medical Group and Regions Hospital) in Saint Paul, Minnesota. Data was obtained on baseline characteristics, medical comorbidities, reason for hospitalization, prior gout treatment, reason for choosing anakinra over standard therapy, anakinra dosing, response to treatment, and adverse outcomes. A total of 10 patients were in the Intensive Care Unit, 1 was in the Burn Unit for extensive 3rd degree burns, 1 was critically ill with a new diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and 1 was critically ill in isolation with active disseminated multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Of these patients, 85% had active infections and 92% had renal insufficiency. All patients had a significant response to anakinra treatment: 50% (10/20 episodes) within 24h, an additional 40% (8/20 episodes) by 48h, and the remaining 10% (2/20 episodes) by 72h. Anakinra was well tolerated with only 1 case of leukopenia and 1 possible infectious complication. Anakinra is a safe and efficacious treatment for acute gouty arthritis in medically complex, critically ill patients when standard treatment modalities cannot be used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilkinson, C; Khanji, M; Cotter, P E; Dunne, O; O'Keeffe, S T
To determine patient preferences for information and for participation in decision-making, and the determinants of these preferences in patients recently admitted to an acute hospital. Prospective questionnaire-based study. Medical wards of an acute teaching hospital. One hundred and fifty-two consecutive acute medical inpatients, median age 74 years. Standardised assessment included abbreviated mental test and subjective measure of severity of illness. Patients' desire for information was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale, and their desire for a role in medical decision-making using the Degner Control of Preferences Scale. Of the 152 patients, 93 (61%) favoured a passive approach to decision-making (either "leave all decisions to the doctor" or "doctor makes final decision but seriously considers my opinion." In contrast, 101 (66%) patients sought "very extensive" or "a lot" of information about their condition. No significant effects of age, sex, socio-economic group or severity of acute illness on desire for information or the Degner scale result were found. There was no agreement between patients' preferences on the Degner scale and their doctors' predictions of those preferences. Acute medical inpatients want to receive a lot of information about their illness, but most prefer a relatively passive role in decision-making. The only way to determine individual patient preferences is to ask them; preferences cannot be predicted from clinical or sociodemographic data.
Aji, Budi; Yamamoto, Shelby Suzanne; Sauerborn, Rainer
Background Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high treatment costs. Design Interviews were conducted with 19 insured households of three different health insurance programs with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic or acute illnesses in either Banyumas or Margono Sukarjo hospitals in Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. A thematic analysis was applied to guide the interpretation of the data. Results Insured households with a family member that had been hospitalized for severe chronic and acute illnesses were greatly affected by the high treatment costs. Four major issues emerged from this qualitative study: insured patients are still burdened with high out-of-pocket payments, households adopt various strategies to cope with the high cost of treatments, households experience financial hardships, and positive and negative perceptions of the insured regarding their health insurance coverage for acute and chronic illnesses. Conclusions Askes and Jamsostek patients faced financial burdens from high cost sharing for hospital amenities, non-covered drugs, and treatments and other indirect costs. Meanwhile, Jamkesmas beneficiaries faced no financial burden for related medical services but were rather burdened with indirect costs for the carers. Households relied on internal resources to cover hospital bills as the first strategy, which included the mobilization of savings, sale of assets, and borrowing of money. External support was tapped secondarily and included financial support from extended family members
Koehler, Michael; Koehler, Katharina; Koenigsmann, Michael; Kreutzmann, Nicole; Fischer, Thomas; Frommer, Joerg
Every acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient asks: why me? But from the patients' perspective, there are no objective medical causes and no clear picture of AML. However, based on these missing medical answers, patients develop their own ideas about illness and treatment. These subjective theories of illness (STOI) are defined as the cognitive constructions ill people make regarding: (1) the nature of their disease; (2) its source; and (3) its treatment. STOI present a challenge for the physician-patient relationship. After the first interim staging, 12 patients with AML were interviewed. Case analyses were assigned to interindividual comparisons representing the predefined subject areas of STOI. Patients' vague subjective conceptions about the personalized etiology of AML resulted not only from health literacy deficits but also from their avoiding medical information to protect themselves from negative emotions. Through STOI, patients significantly co-determine the selection of (un-)conscious coping strategies with consequences for physician-patient communication.
Cohen, Alexander Thomas; Spiro, Theodore Erich; Büller, Harry Roger; Haskell, Lloyd; Hu, Dayi; Hull, Russell; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Merli, Geno; Schellong, Sebastian; Spyropoulos, Alex; Tapson, Victor
Patients with acute medical illnesses are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in these patients but questions remain regarding the optimal duration of therapy. The aim of this study is to determine whether oral rivaroxaban is non-inferior to standard-duration (approximately 10 days) subcutaneous (s.c.) enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE in acutely ill medical patients, and whether extended-duration (approximately 5 weeks) rivaroxaban is superior to standard-duration enoxaparin. Patients aged 40 years or older and hospitalized for various acute medical illnesses with risk factors for VTE randomly receive either s.c. enoxaparin 40 mg once daily (od) for 10 ± 4 days or oral rivaroxaban 10 mg od for 35 ± 4 days. The primary efficacy outcomes are the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT), symptomatic DVT, symptomatic non-fatal pulmonary embolism (PE), and VTE-related death up to day 10 + 4 and up to day 35 + 4. The primary safety outcome is the composite of treatment-emergent major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding. As of July 2010, 8,101 patients from 52 countries have been randomized. These patients have a broad range of medical conditions: approximately one-third were diagnosed with acute heart failure, just under one-third were diagnosed with acute infectious disease, and just under one-quarter were diagnosed with acute respiratory insufficiency. MAGELLAN will determine the efficacy, safety, and pharmacological profile of oral rivaroxaban for the prevention of VTE in a diverse population of medically ill patients and the potential of extended-duration therapy to reduce incidence of VTE.
De Rosa, Silvia; Samoni, Sara; Villa, Gianluca; Ronco, Claudio
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for developing critical illness and for admission to intensive care units (ICU). 'Critically ill CKD patients' frequently develop an acute worsening of renal function (i.e. acute-on-chronic, AoC) that contributes to long-term kidney dysfunction, potentially leading to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). An integrated multidisciplinary effort is thus necessary to adequately manage the multi-organ damage of those kidney patients and contemporaneously reduce the progression of kidney dysfunction when they are critically ill. The aim of this review is to describe (1) the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of AoC kidney dysfunction and its role in the progression toward ESKD; (2) the most common clinical presentations of critical illness among CKD/ESKD patients; and (3) the continuum of care for CKD/ESKD patients from maintenance hemodialysis/peritoneal dialysis to acute renal replacement therapy performed in ICU and, vice-versa, for AoC patients who develop ESKD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kasper, Matthew R; Blair, Patrick J; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L; Burgess, Timothy H; Wierzba, Thomas F; Putnam, Shannon D
The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.
Kahn, Jeremy M.; Werner, Rachel M.; David, Guy; Have, Thomas R. Ten; Benson, Nicole M.; Asch, David A.
Background For patients recovering from severe acute illness, admission to a long-term acute care hospital (LTAC) is an increasingly common alternative to continued management in an intensive care unit. Objective To examine the effectiveness of LTAC transfer in patients with chronic critical illness. Research Design Retrospective cohort study in United States hospitals from 2002 to 2006. Subjects Medicare beneficiaries with chronic critical illness, defined as mechanical ventilation and at least 14 days of intensive care. Measures Survival, costs and hospital readmissions. We used multivariate analyses and instrumental variables to account for differences in patient characteristics, the timing of LTAC transfer and selection bias. Results A total of 234,799 patients met our definition of chronic critical illness. Of these, 48,416 (20.6%) were transferred to an LTAC. In the instrumental variable analysis, patients transferred to an LTAC experienced similar survival compared to patients who remained in an intensive care unit (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.01, p=0.27). Total hospital-related costs in the 180 days following admission were lower among patients transferred to LTACs (adjusted cost difference = -$13,422, 95% CI: -26,662 to -223, p=0.046). This difference was attributable to a reduction in skilled nursing facility admissions (adjusted admission rate difference = -0.591 (95% CI: -0.728 to -0.454, p <0.001). Total Medicare payments were higher (adjusted cost difference = $15,592, 95% CI: 6,343 to 24,842, p=0.001). Conclusions Patients with chronic critical illness transferred to LTACs experience similar survival compared with patients who remain in intensive care units, incur fewer health care costs driven by a reduction in post-acute care utilization, but invoke higher overall Medicare payments. PMID:22874500
Korzets, Asher; Azoulay, Odile; Ori, Yaacov; Zevin, Dina; Boaz, Mona; Herman, Michal; Chagnac, Avri; Gafter, Uzi
Protein/caloric malnutrition is a problem in chronically haemodialysed patients, and is an independent risk factor for increased mortality in these patients. To assess the safety and efficiency of intradialytic parenteral nutritional (IDPN) as nutritional support in acutely ill haemodialysis patients. Twenty-two haemodialysis patients received IDPN after either major surgical or medical illnesses. Parameters measured included possible complications of IDPN, dialysis adequacy, patients' weight, protein catabolic rate (PCR) and serum levels of albumin, pre-albumin, creatinine, cholesterol, c-reactive protein (c-RP) and haemoglobin. After the end of the study all patients were followed-up for a further 6 months. Patients received IDPN for 1.5-48 months. Eighteen patients received IDPN <6 months. IDPN was safe for all patients. Throughout this period dialysis remained adequate. Weight loss in all patients ceased after approximately 2 months of IDPN. PRC, serum albumin, pre-albumin, cholesterol and creatinine levels all increased significantly. c-RP dropped from 77+/-86 mg/l to 9+/-10 mg/l. IDPN can be safely used in haemodialysed patients who are acutely ill and are unable to meet daily nutritional requirements with an oral intake. All studied parameters of nutrition and inflammation improved significantly while patients were treated with IDPN.
Johnston, Dawn; Franklin, Kevin; Rigby, Paul; Bergman, Karen; Davidson, Scott B
Transportation of acutely or critically ill patients is a challenge for health care providers. Among the difficulties that providers face is the balance between adequate sedation and analgesia for the transportation event and maintaining acceptable respiratory and physiologic parameters of the patient. This article describes common challenges in providing sedation and analgesia during various phases of transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spira, Ram M; Nissan, Aviran; Zamir, Oded; Cohen, Tzeela; Fields, Scott I; Freund, Herbert R
The ultimate therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy. However, in critically ill elderly patients the mortality of emergency cholecystectomy may reach up to 30%. Open cholecystostomy performed under local anesthesia was considered to be the procedure of choice for treatment of acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients. In recent years, ultrasound- or computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy (PTHC) replaced open cholecystostomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the results of a 5-year protocol using PTHC followed by delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. We reviewed the charts of 55 patients who underwent PTHC at the Hadassah University Hospital Mount Scopus during the years 1994 to 1999. The main indications for PTHC among this group of severely sick and high-risk patients was biliary sepsis and septic shock in 23 patients (42%); and severe comorbidities in 32 patients (58%). The median age was 74 (32 to 98) years, 33 were female and 22 male. Successful biliary drainage by PTHC was achieved in 54 of 55 (98%) of the patients. The majority of the patients (31 of 55) were drained transhepaticlly under CT guidance. The rest, (24 of 55) were drained using ultrasound guidance followed by cholecystography for verification. Complications included hepatic bleeding that required surgical intervention in 1 patient and dislodgment of the catheter in 9 patients that was reinserted in 2 patients. Three patients died of multisystem organ failure 12 to 50 days following the procedure. The remaining 52 patients recovered well with a mean hospital stay of 15.5 plus minus 11.4 days. Thirty-one patients were able to undergo delayed surgery: 28 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy of whom 4 (14%) were converted to open cholecystectomy. This was compared with a 1.9% conversion rate in 1
Gariballa, Salah; Forster, Sarah; Powers, Hilary
Although a number of studies have reported riboflavin deficiency in free-living older people, no data are available on riboflavin intake and status in older people during acute illness. To determine the riboflavin response to dietary supplements during acute illness, 297 hospitalized, acutely ill older patients are randomly assigned to receive a daily oral nutritional supplement containing 1.3 mg of riboflavin or a placebo for 6 weeks. Outcome measures are riboflavin intake and riboflavin biochemical status at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months using the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC), a measure of riboflavin tissue saturation. EGRAC values are inversely proportional to riboflavin status. Fifty-six percent of patients (167/297) have suboptimal riboflavin status (EGRAC > 1.30). No significant correlation is found between EGRAC and either total energy or riboflavin intakes. Significant correlations are found between total energy intake and riboflavin intakes both in hospital and at home (r = 0.67, P < .0001 and r = 0.57, P < .0001, respectively). Smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have lower riboflavin status (high EGRAC values) compared with nonsmokers and those without COPD. Riboflavin status improves significantly in the supplement group at 6 weeks compared with the placebo group, but status declines between 6 weeks and 6 months, after patients stop taking the supplements. A high proportion of acutely ill patients have suboptimal riboflavin status. Supplementation with a physiological amount of riboflavin in a mixed-nutrient supplement significantly improves riboflavin status, but the effect is transient and status deteriorates again after patients stop taking the supplements.
Bogovic, Petra; Logar, Mateja; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Strle, Franc; Lotric-Furlan, Stanka
The aim of the present study was to quantify the severity of acute illness in patients with tick-borne encephalitis and to ascertain this approach by comparing it to standard clinical assessment. We designed scoring system for quantification of the severity of acute illness in patients with tick-borne encephalitis. Certain number of points was allotted to the presence, intensity, and duration of individual symptoms/signs. According to the obtained score the disease was classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Tick-borne encephalitis was assessed clinically as mild when only signs/symptoms of meningeal involvement were found, moderate in case of monofocal neurological signs and/or mild to moderate signs/symptoms of central nervous system dysfunction, and severe in patients with multifocal neurological signs and/or symptoms of severe dysfunction of central nervous system. By designed scoring system 282 adult patients, 146 males and 136 females, average aged 52.2 ± 15.5 years (range 15–82 years), with confirmed tick-borne encephalitis, were prospectively assessed. In 279/282 (98.9%) patients the severity according to clinical assessment matched with the score ranges for mild, moderate, and severe disease. The proposed approach enables precise and straightforward appraisal of the severity of acute illness and could be useful for comparison of findings within/between study groups. PMID:24895617
Ribeiro, Vânia; Melão, Filipa; Duarte Rodrigues, Joana; Machado Leite, Sérgio; Garcia, Raquel M; Dias, Paula; Maciel, Maria Júlia
Interpretation of the symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can influence the time of hospital admission and negatively affect patients' prognosis. We decided to explore illness perception and its predictors among patients with ACS. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with ACS admitted to the cardiology department of a tertiary hospital between January and September 2011. Data were obtained from patients' medical records and telephone interviews. One hundred and eighty-six patients with ACS (mean age 64 ± 12 years; 70% male) were included. The majority (62.6%) had no perception of ACS until informed by their doctor. Only 26% of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction had perception of cardiac disease. Among those who had perception, 82.6% were men and 58% had a previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Gender and previous diagnosis of IHD were independent predictors of ACS perception, with male gender and patients with previous IHD having greater illness perception. No association was found between ACS perception and age or residence area (rural vs. urban). The illness perception of ACS patients needs to be improved, independently of sociodemographic factors. An educational program for the general population, but particularly for women and individuals without a past history of IHD, focusing on the alert signs for ACS, may help to improve illness perception in this setting. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Bright, Debby; Walker, Wendy; Bion, Julian
We examined the literature relating to the safe care of acutely ill hospitalized patients, and found that there are substantial opportunities for improvement. Recent research suggests substantial benefit may be obtained by systems of outreach care that facilitate better integration, co-ordination, collaboration and continuity of multidisciplinary care. Herein we review the various approaches that are being adopted, and suggest the need for continuing evaluation of these systems as they are introduced into different health care systems. PMID:14975043
Premawardhana, Lakdasa D.
In health, an efficient negative feedback mechanism maintains serum thyroid hormone concentrations within an exquisitely controlled narrow range. Therefore any change that occurs to thyroid hormones in intrinsic thyroid disease is concordant and easy to interpret. Optimal functioning of the many tissues they influence is thereby facilitated. The situation in acute illnesses is different. Mechanisms that operate in these circumstances influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and its components producing thyroid test results, which are discordant, do not fit recognizable patterns and are difficult to interpret. The yield of abnormalities is also low (about 7%). As many studies indicate, thyroid tests are expensive and consume large amounts of the hospital budget and resources of hospital laboratories. Other studies have shown that when abnormalities are detected, clinicians do not intervene or follow up these subjects. Therefore the clinical utility of thyroid testing in acutely ill patients is debatable. Interventions to change requestor behaviour with regard to thyroid testing in acutely ill subjects and the success of some audit and educational interventions are worthy of note. Thyroid testing in acutely ill patients is often an expensive distraction and is of limited clinical value. Targeted thyroid testing should be offered in this group only to those with: (a) symptoms or signs of thyroid disease e.g. goiter or orbitopathy; (b) risk factors for thyroid disease, previous or family history of thyroid disease; (c) taking drugs which potentially affect thyroid function e.g. thyroxine replacement therapy, amiodarone, lithium, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, interferon, alemtuzumab etc; (d) unexplained tachydysrhythmias. PMID:28694722
Frankenfield, David C; Ashcraft, Christine M
There are many equations used for calculating energy needs of nutrition support patients but few developed specifically for the subset of spontaneously breathing acutely ill patients. The purpose of the current study was to validate existing equations and to start developing new equations for this cohort. Acutely ill patients not requiring mechanical ventilation had their resting metabolic rate measured using an indirect calorimeter. Metabolic rate was also calculated using the Mifflin-St Jeor equation, the Ireton-Jones equation for spontaneously breathing patients, and a modification of the Penn State equation in which the minute ventilation-dependent variable was removed. These calculated values were compared with measured expenditure and considered accurate if they fell within 10% of the measurement. Fifty-five patients were measured successfully. The modified Penn State equation was accurate in 71% of patients compared with 44% for Ireton-Jones and 42% for Mifflin-St Jeor. Several forms of a new equation were outlined but not validated. The equation with the highest R(2) (0.82) was as follows: resting metabolic rate (kcal/d) = weight in kg (20) - age in years (3) + male sex (197) + body mass index in kg/m(2) (25.9) + mean heart rate in beats/min (9.4) + 89. A modification of the Penn State equation for predicting resting metabolic rate was shown to accurately predict resting metabolic rate in acutely ill, spontaneously breathing patients if body mass index was ≥20.5 kg/m(2). A new set of population-specific equations was outlined but should not be used until validated.
Fagugli, Riccardo Maria; Patera, Francesco; Battistoni, Sara; Tripepi, Giovanni
Abstract Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) treatment has significantly increased in incidence over the years, with more than 400 new cases per million population/y, 2/3 of which concern noncritically ill patients. In these patients, there are little data on mortality or on information of care organization and its impact on outcome. Specialty training and integrated teams, as well as a high volume of activity, seem to be linked to better hospital outcome. The study investigates mortality of patients admitted to and in-care of nephrology (NEPHROpts), a closed-staff organization, and to other medical wards (MEDpts), representing a model of open-staff organization. This is a single center, case–control cohort study derived from a prospective epidemiology investigation on patients with AKI-D admitted to or in-care of the Hospital of Perugia during the period 2007 to 2014. Noncritically ill AKI-D patients were analyzed: inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to avoid possible bias on the cause of hospital admittance and comorbidities, and a propensity score (PS) matching was performed. Six hundred fifty-four noncritically ill patients were observed and 296 fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria. PS matching resulted in 2 groups: 100 NEPHROpts and 100 MEDpts. Characteristics, comorbidities, acute kidney injury causes, risk–injury–failure acute kidney injury criteria, and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS 2) were similar. Mortality was 36%, and a difference was reported between NEPHROpts and MEDpts (20% vs 52%, χ2 = 23.2, P < 0.001). Patients who died differed in age, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen/s.Creatinine ratio, dialysis urea reduction rate (URR), SAPS 2 and Charlson score; they presented a higher rate of heart disease, and a larger proportion required noradrenaline/dopamine for shock. After correction for mortality risk factors, multivariate Cox analysis revealed that site of treatment (medical vs nephrology wards
Monreal, M; Kakkar, A K; Caprini, J A; Barba, R; Uresandi, F; Valle, R; Suarez, C; Otero, R
The history of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and the rationale for thromboprophylaxis in surgical patients are well understood. The situation is less clear for acutely ill medical patients. To compare the clinical presentation of VTE and clinical outcomes of immobile acutely ill medical patients with surgical patients. RIETE (Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbolica) is a Spanish registry of consecutively enrolled patients with objectively confirmed, symptomatic acute VTE. In this analysis, clinical characteristics of patients, details of anticoagulant therapy, and outcomes of all enrolled acutely ill medical patients with immobility >/= 4 days, and surgical patients are included. Of 6160 patients enrolled up to December 2003, 756 (12%) were acutely ill medical patients with immobility >/= 4 days, and 884 (14%) were surgical patients who developed VTE within 2 months of surgical intervention. Only 28% of acutely ill medical patients had received thromboprophylaxis, compared with 67% of surgical patients. During the 3-month follow-up period, both fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) and fatal bleeding occurred more frequently in acutely ill medical patients. Immobility in acutely ill medical patients, cancer, and PE were associated with a significantly higher risk of fatal PE or bleeding. In patients treated for VTE, the incidences of fatal PE, fatal bleeding, and major bleeding were significantly higher in acutely ill medical patients compared with surgical patients. Given the low percentage of acutely ill medical patients who had received thromboprophylaxis, increasing its use appropriately may reduce the incidence of VTE and associated complications.
Stuck, Anna K; Spirk, David; Schaudt, Jil; Kucher, Nils
Although the use of thromboprophylaxis is recommended for acutely ill medical patients at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), it remains unclear which risk assessment model (RAM) should be routinely used to identify at-risk patients requiring thromboprophylaxis. We therefore aimed to describe existing RAMs, and to compare these tools in terms of validity and applicability for clinical decision-making. We performed a comprehensive systematic search in MEDLINE from the date of initiation until May 2016 for studies in acutely ill medical patients investigating validity of RAMs for VTE. Two reviewers independently screened the title, abstract, and full text, and evaluated the characteristics of studies, and the composition, evidence of validation, and results on validity of the RAMs. We included 11 studies assessing eight RAMs: 4-Element RAM, Caprini RAM, a full logistic model, Geneva risk score, IMPROVE-RAM, Kucher Model, a "Multivariable Model", and Padua Prediction Score. The 4-Element RAM, IMPROVE-RAM, Multivariable Model, and full logistic model had derivation by identifying factors with predictive power. The other four RAMs were empirically generated based on consensus guidelines, published data, and clinical expertise. The Kucher Model, the Padua Prediction Score, the Geneva Risk Score and the IMPROVE-RAM underwent multicenter external validation. The Kucher Model, the Padua Prediction Score, and the Geneva Risk Score improved rates of thromboprophylaxis or clinical outcomes. In conclusion, existing RAMs to evaluate the need of thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients are difficult to compare and none fulfills the criteria of an ideal RAM. Nevertheless, the adequacy of thromboprophylaxis may be improved by implementing one of the validated RAMs.
Cruz, Marília Galvão; Dantas, João Gabriel Athayde de Oliveira; Levi, Talita Machado; Rocha, Mário de Seixas; de Souza, Sérgio Pinto; Boa-Sorte, Ney; de Moura, Carlos Geraldo Guerreiro; Cruz, Constança Margarida Sampaio
Objective This study aimed to describe and compare the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with septic and non-septic acute kidney injury. Methods This study evaluated an open cohort of 117 critically ill patients with acute kidney injury who were consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit, excluding patients with a history of advanced-stage chronic kidney disease, kidney transplantation, hospitalization or death in a period shorter than 24 hours. The presence of sepsis and in-hospital death were the exposure and primary variables in this study, respectively. A confounding analysis was performed using logistic regression. Results No significant differences were found between the mean ages of the groups with septic and non-septic acute kidney injury [65.30±21.27 years versus 66.35±12.82 years, respectively; p=0.75]. In the septic and non-septic acute kidney injury groups, a predominance of females (57.4% versus 52.4%, respectively; p=0.49) and Afro-descendants (81.5% versus 76.2%, respectively; p=0.49) was observed. Compared with the non-septic patients, the patients with sepsis had a higher mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score [21.73±7.26 versus 15.75±5.98; p<0.001)] and a higher mean water balance (p=0.001). Arterial hypertension (p=0.01) and heart failure (p<0.001) were more common in the non-septic patients. Septic acute kidney injury was associated with a greater number of patients who required dialysis (p=0.001) and a greater number of deaths (p<0.001); however, renal function recovery was more common in this group (p=0.01). Sepsis (OR: 3.88; 95%CI: 1.51-10.00) and an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score >18.5 (OR: 9.77; 95%CI: 3.73-25.58) were associated with death in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Sepsis was an independent predictor of death. Significant differences were found between the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with septic versus non-septic acute kidney
Heitkamp, Darel E; Albin, Matthias M; Chung, Jonathan H; Crabtree, Traves P; Iannettoni, Mark D; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Jokerst, Clinton; McComb, Barbara L; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Ravenel, James G
The respiratory system is often affected by complications of immunodeficiency, typically manifesting clinically as acute respiratory illness. Ongoing literature reviews regarding the appropriateness of imaging in these patients are critical, as advanced medical therapies including stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, and immunosuppressive therapies for autoimmune disease continue to keep the population of immunosuppressed patients in our health care system high. This ACR Appropriateness Criteria topic describes clinical scenarios of acute respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients with cough, dyspnea, chest pain, and fever, in those with negative, equivocal, or nonspecific findings on chest radiography, in those with multiple, diffuse, or confluent opacities on chest radiography, and in those in whom noninfectious disease is suspected. The use of chest radiography, chest computed tomography, transthoracic needle biopsy, and nuclear medicine imaging is discussed in the context of these clinical scenarios. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or is not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
Anders, Robert L; Olson, Tom; Bader, Julia
The relationship between quality of care and patient satisfaction has been documented. The specific research aim related to this study is to determine if differences exist among Caucasians, Asians, and Pacific Islanders who are hospitalized for an acute mental illness with regard to their perceived satisfaction with the care. The results of the overall study have been reported elsewhere. The sample was composed of 138 patients, of whom 34.7% were Caucasian, 31.2% Pacific Islanders, and 34.8% Asians. Within 24 hours of discharge, patients completed the Perceptions of Care instrument. Caucasians were over-represented in our sample in comparison to their percentage in the general population of Hawaii. These patients were significantly more satisfied (p = .04) with their care than the other ethnic groups. No single variable was found to specifically indicate why they were more satisfied than Pacific Islanders and Asians.
Singh, Tarun D; O'Horo, John C; Gajic, Ognjen; Sakusic, Amra; Day, Courtney N; Mandrekar, Jay; Kashyap, Rahul; Reddy, Dereddi Raja Shekar; Rabinstein, Alejandro A
To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of acute brain failure (ABF) in a mixed medical and surgical cohort of critically ill patients and its effect on ICU & hospital mortality. Observational electronic medical record (EMR) based retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to the ICU between 2006 and 2013. Tertiary academic medical center. Consecutive adult (>18years) critically ill patients admitted to medical and surgical ICUs. Patients admitted to the Neuroscience, Pediatric and Neonatal ICUs were excluded. None. ABF was defined by the presence of delirium (positive CAM-ICU) or depressed level of consciousness (by abnormal GCS and FOUR scores) in the absence of deep sedation (RASS<-3). Severity of ABF was categorized as grade I if there was delirium with GCS consistently >8 and grade II if the GCS was ≤8 with or without delirium during the ICU hospitalization. ABF duration was not used for this study. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to access the factors associated with the development of ABF and its effect on short and long term mortality. Of 67,333 ICU patients included in the analysis, ABF was present in 30,610 (44.6%). Patients with ABF had an isolated delirium in 1985 (6.5%) patients, isolated depressed consciousness in 18,323 (59.9%), and both delirium and depressed consciousness in 10,302 (33.6%) patients. When adjusted for comorbidities and severity of illness ABF was associated with increased hospital (OR 3.47; 95% CI 3.19-3.79), and at one year (OR 2.36; 95% CI 2.24-2.50) mortality. Both hospital and one year mortality correlated with the increased severity of ABF. The factors most strongly associated with ABF were pre-admission dementia (OR 7.86; 95% CI 6.15-10.19) and invasive ventilation (OR 2.32; 95% CI 2.24-2.40) but older age, female sex, presence of liver disease, renal failure, diabetes mellitus, malignancy and COPD were also associated with increased risk of ABF. ABF is a common complication
Umber, Afia; Wolley, Martin J; Golper, Thomas A; Shaver, Mary J; Marshall, Mark R
Sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED) involves the use of standard dialysis machines for prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients. In this study we aimed to quantify dialysate amino acid (AA) and albumin losses in 5 patients who underwent successful SLED treatment. This was a prospective observational study. The study was performed in a general intensive care unit. The study was performed in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury undergoing SLED using low-flux hemodialyzers. We performed total dialysate collection and measured dialysate AA profiles by reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography using an automated AA analyser. Individual and total amino acid losses. Albumin was undetectable in dialysate. The median (mean ± SD) total amino acid loss was 15.7 (23.4 ± 19.2) g/treatment, or 122.1 (180.6 ± 148.5) mmol/treatment. Two patients were receiving intravenous nutrition. One patient had severe hepatic failure with encephalopathy, and had high dialysate AA levels with a total loss of 57 g/treatment. During SLED with low-flux hemodialyzers, albumin losses are negligible but AA losses to dialysate are comparable to those during continuous renal replacement therapy. Patients' nutritional protein prescriptions should be augmented to account for this.
Marengoni, A; Corrao, S; Nobili, A; Tettamanti, M; Pasina, L; Salerno, F; Iorio, A; Marcucci, M; Bonometti, F; Mannucci, P M
The aim of the study was to explore the association of dementia with in-hospital death in acutely ill medical patients. Thirty-four internal medicine and 4 geriatric wards in Italy participated in the Registro Politerapie SIMI-REPOSI-study during 2008. One thousand three hundred and thirty two in-patients aged 65 years or older were enrolled. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of dementia with in-hospital death. Socio-demographic characteristics, morbidity (single diseases and the Charlson Index), number of drugs, and adverse clinical events during hospitalization were considered as potential confounders. One hundred and seventeen participants were diagnosed as being affected by dementia. Patients with dementia were more likely to be women, older, to have cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, and a higher number of adverse clinical events during hospitalization. The percentage of patients affected by dementia who died during hospitalization was higher than that of patients without dementia (9.4 versus 4.9%). After multiadjustment, the diagnosis of dementia was associated with in-hospital death (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0-4.5). Having dementia and at least one adverse clinical event during hospitalization showed an additive effect on in-hospital mortality (OR = 20.7; 95% CI = 6.9-61.9). Acutely ill elderly patients affected by dementia are more likely to die shortly after hospital admission. Having dementia and adverse clinical events during hospital stay increases the risk of death. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stefan, Mihaela S.; Nathanson, Brian H.; Higgins, Thomas L.; Steingrub, Jay S.; Lagu, Tara; Rothberg, Michael B.; Lindenauer, Peter K.
Objective To compare the characteristics and hospital outcomes of patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) treated in the ICU with initial noninvasive (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Design Retrospective, multicenter cohort studyof prospectively collected data. We used propensity matching to compare the outcomes of patients treated with NIV to those treated with IMV. We also assessed predictors for NIV failure. Setting Thirty-eight hospitals participating in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) database from 2008 through 2012. Subjects A total of 3,520 with a diagnosis of COPD exacerbation including 27.7% who received NIV and 45.5% who received IMV. Measurements and Main Results NIV failure was recorded in 13.7% from patients ventilated noninvasively. Hospital mortality was 7.4% for patients treated with NIV; 16.1% for those treated with IMV; and 22.5% for those who failed NIV. In the propensity matched analysis, patients initially treated with NIV had a 41% lower risk of death compared with those treated with IMV (RR: 0.59, 95% CI 0.36, 0.97). Factors that were independently associated with NIV failure were SAPS-II score (relative risk = 1.04 per point increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.04) and the presence of cancer (2.29, 95% CI: 0.96, 5.45). Conclusions Among critically ill adults with COPD exacerbation, the receipt of NIV was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality compared to IMV; NIV failure was associated with the worst outcomes. These results support the use NIV as a first line therapy in appropriately selected critically ill patients with COPD while also highlighting the risks associated with NIV failure and the need to be cautious in the face of severe disease. PMID:25768682
Rainey, Helen; Ehrich, Kathryn; Mackintosh, Nicola; Sandall, Jane
Poor recognition of and response to acute illness in hospitalized patients continues to cause significant harm despite the implementation of safety strategies such as early warning scores. Patients and their relatives may be able to contribute to their own safety by speaking up about changes in condition, but little is known about the factors that influence this. This study examined the experiences and views of patients and their relatives to determine the potential for involvement in promoting their own safety. This data set is drawn from a wider ethnographic study of the management of the acutely ill patient in hospital. Thirteen patients and seven relatives from two medical settings in two UK NHS Trusts were interviewed. Thematic analysis identified factors likely to influence patients' and their relatives' ability to contribute to the management of deterioration. All patients interviewed had experienced their acute illness within the context of a long-term health problem. Speaking up was influenced by the ability to recognize changes in clinical condition, self-monitoring, confidence and trust, and culture and system of health care. When patients or relatives did raise concerns, health-care staff had a mediating effect on their comfort with and the effectiveness of speaking up. Safety strategies based on patient involvement must take account of the complexities of acute illness. Those that promote partnership may be more acceptable to patients, their families and staff than those that promote challenging behaviour and may ultimately prove to be most safe and effective. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bagshaw, Sean M; George, Carol; Bellomo, Rinaldo
The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative Group has published a consensus definition/classification system for acute kidney injury (AKI) termed the RIFLE criteria. The Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) group has recently proposed modifications to this system. It is currently unknown whether there are advantages between these criteria. We interrogated the Australian New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Adult Patient Database (APD) for all adult admissions to 57 ICUs from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2005. We compared the performance of the RIFLE and AKIN criteria for diagnosis and classification of AKI and for robustness of hospital mortality. We included 120 123 critically ill patients, of which 27.8% had a primary diagnosis of sepsis. We found only small differences (<1%) in the number of patients classified as having some degree of kidney injury using either the AKIN or RIFLE definition or classification systems. AKIN slightly increased the number of patients classified as Stage I injury (category R in RIFLE) (from 16.2 to 18.1%) but decreased the number of patients classified as having Stage II injury (category I in RIFLE) (13.6% versus 10.1%). The area under the ROC curve for hospital mortality was 0.66 for RIFLE and 0.67 for AKIN in all patients and it was 0.65 for both in septic patients. Compared to the RIFLE criteria, the AKIN criteria do not materially improve the sensitivity, robustness and predictive ability of the definition and classification of AKI in the first 24 h after admission to ICU.
Córdova-Sánchez, Bertha M; Herrera-Gómez, Ángel; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and is associated with higher mortality. Cancer patients are at an increased risk of AKI. Our objective was to determine the incidence of AKI in our critically ill cancer patients, using the criteria of serum creatinine (SCr) and urine output (UO) proposed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively collected database at the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología from January 2013 to March 2015. Results. We classified AKI according to the KDIGO definition. We included 389 patients; using the SCr criterion, 192 (49.4%) had AKI; using the UO criterion, 219 (56.3%) had AKI. Using both criteria, we diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All stages were independently associated with six-month mortality; stage 1 HR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.14-3.68, p = 0.017), stage 2 HR was 2.73 (95% CI 1.53-4.88, p = 0.001), and stage 3 HR was 4.5 (95% CI 2.25-8.02, p < 0.001). Patients who fulfilled both criteria had a higher mortality compared with patients who fulfilled just one criterion (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.03-6.24, p < 0.001). Conclusion. We diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All AKI stages were associated with higher risk of death at six months, even for patients who fulfilled just one AKI criterion.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and is associated with higher mortality. Cancer patients are at an increased risk of AKI. Our objective was to determine the incidence of AKI in our critically ill cancer patients, using the criteria of serum creatinine (SCr) and urine output (UO) proposed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively collected database at the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología from January 2013 to March 2015. Results. We classified AKI according to the KDIGO definition. We included 389 patients; using the SCr criterion, 192 (49.4%) had AKI; using the UO criterion, 219 (56.3%) had AKI. Using both criteria, we diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All stages were independently associated with six-month mortality; stage 1 HR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.14–3.68, p = 0.017), stage 2 HR was 2.73 (95% CI 1.53–4.88, p = 0.001), and stage 3 HR was 4.5 (95% CI 2.25–8.02, p < 0.001). Patients who fulfilled both criteria had a higher mortality compared with patients who fulfilled just one criterion (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.03–6.24, p < 0.001). Conclusion. We diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All AKI stages were associated with higher risk of death at six months, even for patients who fulfilled just one AKI criterion. PMID:27803928
Zielske, J; Bohne, S; Axer, H; Brunkhorst, F M; Guntinas-Lichius, O
Dysphagia is a severe complication in critically ill patients and affects more than half the patients in an intensive care unit. Dysphagia also has a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for the development of dysphagia are neurological diseases, age >55-70 years, intubation >7 days and sepsis. With increasing numbers of long-term survivors chronic dysphagia is becoming an increasing problem. There is not much knowledge on the influence of specific diseases, including the direct impact of sepsis on the development of dysphagia. Fiberoptic evaluation of swallowing is a standardized tool for bedside evaluation, helping to plan swallowing training during the acute phase and to decrease the rate of chronic dysphagia. For evaluation of chronic dysphagia even more extensive diagnostic tools as well as several options of stepwise rehabilitation using restitution, compensation and adaption strategies for swallowing exist. Currently it seems that these options are not being sufficiently utilized. In general, there is a need for controlled clinical trials analyzing specific swallowing rehabilitation concepts for former critically ill patients and long-term survivors.
Rishi, Muhammad Adeel; Kashyap, Rahul; Wilson, Gregory; Schenck, Louis; Hocker, Sara
An association between extubation failure and neurologic and functional outcomes in patients with primary neurologic illness has not been investigated rigorously. We plan to conduct a retrospective chart review to study this association. A total of 949 unique patients intubated and ventilated for at least 48 h in Neuro ICU (NICU) were obtained. Extubation failure was defined as need for reintubation within 48 h of initial extubation. Independent and dependent association between extubation failure and clinical parameters was assessed. The patients had a median age [interquartile range (IQR)] of 58.5 (23.0) years. 60.5% were male and 81.9% were Caucasian. Extubation failure occurred in 108 (12.8%) patients. There was no difference in age, APACHE 3 score, FOUR score, or GCS score of patients at ICU admission between those who experienced extubation failure and those who did not. Extubation failure was associated with longer NICU and hospital LOS [median (IQR); 13.7 (11.3) vs. 9.1(8.2) days, P < 0.01 and 24.5 (20.0) vs. 16.8 (16.7) days, P < 0.01]. Patients with extubation failure had worse functional outcomes at 6 months as measured by the modified Rankin score [MRS; median (IQR), 5.0 (2.0) vs. 4.0 (3.0), P < 0.01]. After adjusting for confounders, extubation failure was associated with longer hospital and ICU LOS and worse functional outcomes. In patients with acute neurological illness, extubation failure is associated with longer ICU and hospital stays but does not impact hospital mortality. Patients with extubation failure may experience a worsening of their functional status over time.
Di Nisio, Marcello; Porreca, Ettore
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication among acutely ill medical patients hospitalized for congestive heart failure, acute respiratory insufficiency, rheumatologic disorders, and acute infectious and/or inflammatory diseases. Based on robust data from randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses showing a reduced incidence of VTE by 40% to about 60% with pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, prevention of VTE with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH), or fondaparinux is currently recommended in all at-risk hospitalized acutely ill medical patients. In patients who are bleeding or are at high risk for major bleeding, mechanical prophylaxis with graduated compression stockings or intermittent pneumatic compression may be suggested. Thromboprophylaxis is generally continued for 6 to 14 days or for the duration of hospitalization. Selected cases could benefit from extended thromboprophylaxis beyond this period, although the risk of major bleeding remains a concern, and additional studies are needed to identify patients who may benefit from prolonged prophylaxis. For hospitalized acutely ill medical patients with renal insufficiency, a low dose (1.5 mg once daily) of fondaparinux or prophylactic LMWH subcutaneously appears to have a safe profile, although proper evaluation in randomized studies is lacking. The evidence on the use of prophylaxis for VTE in this latter group of patients, as well as in those at higher risk of bleeding complications, such as patients with thrombocytopenia, remains scarce. For critically ill patients hospitalized in intensive care units with no contraindications, LMWH or UFH are recommended, with frequent and careful assessment of the risk of bleeding. In this review, we discuss the evidence for use of thromboprophylaxis for VTE in acutely ill hospitalized medical patients, with a focus on (low-dose) fondaparinux.
Mandelbaum, Tal; Scott, Daniel J; Lee, Joon; Mark, Roger G.; Malhotra, Atul; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Howell, Michael D.; Talmor, Daniel
Objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 5–7% of all hospitalized patients with a much higher incidence in the critically ill. The Acute Kidney Injury Network proposed a definition in which serum creatinine rises (>0.3mg/dl) and/or oliguria (<0.5/ml/kg/h) for a period of 6 hours are used to detect AKI. Accurate urine output measurements as well as serum creatinine values from our database were used to detect patients with AKI and calculate their corresponding mortality risk and length of stay. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 7 intensive care units at, a large, academic, tertiary medical center. Patients Adult patients without evidence of end stage renal disease, with more than 2 creatinine measurements and at least a 6 hours urine output recording, who were admitted to the ICU between 2001 and 2007. Interventions Medical records of all the patients were reviewed. Demographic information, lab results, charted data, discharge diagnoses, physiological data and patient outcomes were extracted from the MIMIC-II database using a SQL query. Measurements and main results From 19,677 adult patient records, 14,524 patients met the inclusion criteria. 57% developed AKI during their ICU stay. In-hospital mortality rates were: 13.9%, 16.4%, 33.8% for AKI 1, 2 and 3 respectively compared to only 6.2% in patients without AKI (p<0.0001). After adjusting for multiple covariates AKI was associated with increased hospital mortality (OR 1.4 and 1.3 for AKI1 and AKI2 and 2.5 for AKI3; p<0.0001). Using multivariate logistic regression, we found that in patients who developed AKI, urine output alone was a better mortality predictor than creatinine alone or the combination of both. Conclusions More than 50% of our critically ill patients developed some stage of AKI resulting in stage-wise increased mortality risk. However, the mortality risk associated with AKI stages 1 and 2 does not differ significantly. In light of these findings reevaluation of the AKIN staging
Levi, T.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Almeida, D.N.; Martins, R.T.C.; Silva, M.G.C.; Santana, N.C.P.; Sanjuan, I.T.; Cruz, C.M.S.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients. Diuretics are used without any evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect on renal function. The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of AKI in an intensive care unit (ICU) and if there is an association between the use of furosemide and the development of AKI. The study involved a hospital cohort in which 344 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2011. A total of 132 patients (75 females and 57 males, average age 64 years) remained for analysis. Most exclusions were related to ICU discharge in the first 24 h. Laboratory, sociodemographic and clinical data were collected until the development of AKI, medical discharge or patient death. The incidence of AKI was 55% (95%CI = 46-64). The predictors of AKI found by univariate analysis were septic shock: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.36-7.14; use of furosemide: OR = 3.27, 95%CI = 1.57-6.80, and age: OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 1.00-1.04. Analysis of the subgroup of patients with septic shock showed that the odds ratio of furosemide was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.16-26.02) for development of AKI. Age, use of furosemide, and septic shock were predictors of AKI in critically ill patients. Use of furosemide in the subgroup of patients with sepsis/septic shock increased (68.4%) the chance of development of AKI when compared to the sample as a whole (43.9%) PMID:22641414
Fabrellas, Núria; Sánchez, Carmen; Juvé, Eulàlia; Aurin, Eva; Monserrat, Dolors; Casanovas, Esther; Urrea, Magali
Attention to patients with acute minor-illnesses requesting same-day consultation represents a major burden in primary care. The workload is assumed by general practitioners in many countries. A number of reports suggest that care to these patients may be provided, at in least in part, by nurses. However, there is scarce information with respect to the applicability of a program of nurse management for adult patients with acute minor-illnesses in large areas. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a program of nurse algorithm-guided care for adult patients with acute minor illnesses requesting same-day consultation in primary care in a largely populated area. A cross-sectional study of all adult patients seeking same day consultation for 16 common acute minor illnesses in a large geographical area with 284 primary care practices. Patients were included in a program of nurse case management using management algorithms. The main outcome measure was case resolution, defined as completion of the algorithm by the nurse without need of referral of the patient to the general practitioner. The secondary outcome measure was return to consultation, defined as requirement of new consultation for the same reason as the first one, in primary care within a 7-day period. During a two year period (April 2009-April 2011), a total of 1,209,669 consultations were performed in the program. Case resolution was achieved by nurses in 62.5% of consultations. The remaining cases were referred to a general practitioner. Resolution rates ranged from 94.2% in patients with burns to 42% in patients with upper respiratory symptoms. None of the 16 minor illnesses had a resolution rate below 40%. Return to consultation during a 7-day period was low, only 4.6%. A program of algorithms-guided care is effective for nurse case management of patients requesting same day consultation for minor illnesses in primary care.
Egberts, Angelique; van der Craats, Saskia T; van Wijk, Melissa D; Alkilabe, Shams; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S
Several studies investigated the possible association between anticholinergic drugs and diverse clinical outcomes in older persons, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticholinergic drug exposure is associated with delirium on admission, length of hospital stay, postdischarge institutionalization and in-hospital mortality in acutely ill hospitalized older patients. In this observational chart review study, we included acutely ill patients aged 65 and older who were admitted to the geriatric ward of the Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, between 2012 and 2015 (n = 905). Anticholinergic drug exposure on admission was defined as the use of anticholinergic drugs, total number of anticholinergic drugs and anticholinergic drug burden score (ADB), quantified with the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale (ACB) and the list of Chew et al. (Chew). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and the aforementioned outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, non-anticholinergic drugs and delirium, where appropriate. Moderate and high ADB measured with the ARS were associated with delirium on admission with odds ratios (OR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-2.49) and 1.83 (95% CI = 1.06-3.15), respectively. High ADB measured with the ARS was also associated with postdischarge institutionalization (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.24-4.75). No associations were found using the ACB and Chew. Future studies are warranted to investigate the clinical usefulness of the ARS in reducing complications in older persons.
Masakhwe, Clement; Ochanda, Horace; Nyakoe, Nancy; Ochiel, Daniel; Waitumbi, John
Background Most acute febrile illnesses (AFI) are usually not associated with a specific diagnosis because of limitations of available diagnostics. This study reports on the frequency of EBV viremia and viral load in children and adults presenting with febrile illness in hospitals in Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings A pathogen surveillance study was conducted on patients presenting with AFI (N = 796) at outpatient departments in 8 hospitals located in diverse regions of Kenya. Enrollment criterion to the study was fever without a readily diagnosable infection. All the patients had AFI not attributable to the common causes of fever in Kenyan hospitals, such as malaria or rickettsiae, leptospira, brucella and salmonella and they were hence categorized as having AFI of unknown etiology. EBV was detected in blood using quantitative TaqMan-based qPCR targeting a highly conserved BALF5 gene. The overall frequency of EBV viremia in this population was 29.2%, with significantly higher proportion in younger children of <5years (33.8%, p = 0.039) compared to patients aged ≥5 years (26.3% for 5–15 years or 18.8% for >15 years). With respect to geographical localities, the frequency of EBV viremia was higher in the Lake Victoria region (36.4%), compared to Kisii highland (24.6%), Coastal region (22.2%) and Semi-Arid region (25%). Furthermore, patients from the malaria endemic coastal region and the Lake Victoria region presented with significantly higher viremia than individuals from other regions of Kenya. Conclusions/Significance This study provides profiles of EBV in patients with AFI from diverse eco-regions of Kenya. Of significant interest is the high frequency of EBV viremia in younger children. The observed high frequencies of EBV viremia and elevated viral loads in residents of high malaria transmission areas are probably related to malaria induced immune activation and resultant expansion of EBV infected B-cells. PMID:27163791
Wooley, Jennifer A; Btaiche, Imad F; Good, Kelley L
Acute renal failure (ARF) is rarely an isolated process but is often a complication of underlying conditions such as sepsis, trauma, and multiple-organ failure in critically ill patients. As such, concomitant clinical conditions significantly affect patient outcome. Poor nutritional status is a major factor in increasing patients' morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition in ARF patients is caused by hypercatabolism and hypermetabolism that parallel the severity of illness. When dialytic intervention is indicated, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a commonly used alternative to intermittent hemodialysis because it is well tolerated by hemodynamically unstable patients. This paper reviews the metabolic and nutritional alterations associated with ARF and provides recommendations regarding the nutritional, fluid, electrolyte, micronutrient, and acid-base management of these patients. The basic principles of CRRT are addressed, along with their nutritional implications in critically ill patients. A patient case is presented to illustrate the clinical application of topics covered within the paper.
Btaiche, Imad F; Mohammad, Rima A; Alaniz, Cesar; Mueller, Bruce A
Acute kidney injury in critically ill patients is often a complication of an underlying condition such as organ failure, sepsis, or drug therapy. In these patients, stress-induced hypercatabolism results in loss of body cell mass. Unless nutrition support is provided, malnutrition and negative nitrogen balance may ensue. Because of metabolic, fluid, and electrolyte abnormalities, optimization of nutrition to patients with acute kidney injury presents a challenge to the clinician. In patients treated with conventional intermittent hemodialysis, achieving adequate amino acid intake can be limited by azotemia and fluid restriction. With the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), however, better control of azotemia and liberalization of fluid intake allow amino acid intake to be maximized to support the patient's metabolic needs. High amino acid doses up to 2.5 g/kg/day in patients treated with CRRT improved nitrogen balance. However, to our knowledge, no studies have correlated increased amino acid intake with improved outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Data from large, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed to optimize the dosing of amino acids in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury who are treated with CRRT and to study the safety of high doses and their effects on patient morbidity and survival.
Cracco, Christophe; Fartoukh, Muriel; Prodanovic, Hélène; Azoulay, Elie; Chenivesse, Cécile; Lorut, Christine; Beduneau, Gaëtan; Bui, Hoang Nam; Taille, Camille; Brochard, Laurent; Demoule, Alexandre; Maitre, Bernard
Background Safety of fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in nonintubated critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure have not been extensively evaluated. We aimed to measure the incidence of intubation and need to increase ventilatory support following FOB and to identify predictive factors of this event. Methods A prospective multicenter observational study was carried out in 8 French adult intensive care units. 169 FOB performed in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio equal or less than 300 were analyzed. Our main end point was intubation rate. The secondary end point was rate of increased ventilatory support defined as greater than a 50% increase in oxygen requirement, the need to start non invasive-positive pressure ventilation (NI-PPV) or increase NI-PPV support. Results Within 24 hours, an increase in ventilatory support was required following 59 (35%) bronchoscopies, of which 25 (15%) led to endotracheal intubation. The existence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR:5.2 [1.6–17.8], p=0.007) or immunosuppression (OR : 5.4 [1.7–17.2], p=0.004) were significantly associated with the need for intubation in multivariable analysis. None of the baseline physiological parameters including the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was associated with intubation. Conclusion Bronchoscopy is often followed by an increase in ventilatory support in hypoxemic critically ill patients, but less frequently by the need for intubation. COPD, immunosuppression are associated with a need for invasive ventilation in the following 24 hours. PMID:23070123
Yatabe, Tomoaki; Inoue, Shigeaki; Sakaguchi, Masahiko; Egi, Moritoki
The optimal target blood glucose concentration for acute glycemic control remains unclear because few studies have directly compared 144-180 with 110-144 or >180 mg/dL. Accordingly, we performed a network meta-analysis to compare four different target blood glucose levels (<110, 110-144, 144-180, and >180 mg/dL) in terms of the benefit and risk of insulin therapy. We included all of the studies from three systematic reviews and searched the PubMed and Cochrane databases for other studies investigating glucose targets among critically ill patients. The primary outcome was hospital mortality, and the secondary outcomes were sepsis or bloodstream infection and the risk of hypoglycemia. Network meta-analysis to identify an optimal target glucose concentration. The network meta-analysis included 18,098 patients from 35 studies. There were no significant differences in the risk of mortality and infection among the four blood glucose ranges overall or in subgroup analysis. Conversely, target concentrations of <110 and 110-144 mg/dL were associated with a four to ninefold increase in the risk of hypoglycemia compared with 144-180 and >180 mg/dL. However, there were no significant differences between the target concentrations of 144-180 and >180 mg/dL. This network meta-analysis found no significant difference in the risk of mortality and infection among four target blood glucose ranges in critically ill patients, but indicated that target blood glucose levels of <110 and 110-144 mg/dL were associated with a higher risk of hypoglycemia than target levels of 144-180 and >180 mg/dL. Further studies are required to refute or confirm our findings.
Choi, Seong-Ho; Chung, Jin-Won; Kim, Hye Ryoun
Because increasing numbers of nasopharyngeal swab specimens from adult patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI) are being tested by respiratory virus (RV) multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RVM-RT-PCR), multiple RV detection (MRVD) is being encountered more frequently. However, the clinical relevance of MRVD in adult patients has rarely been evaluated. The clinical characteristics of hospitalized adult patients with ARI and MRVD by RVM-RT-PCR tests were compared to those of patients with single RV detection (SRVD) during a single year at a tertiary care center. MRVD was observed in 26 of the 190 adult patients (13.7%). The patients with MRVD had a higher incidence of chronic lung disease than the patients with SRVD (34.6% versus 15.9%, crude odds ratio [OR]=2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13 to 6.98, P=0.03). Although the former were more likely than the latter to receive mechanical ventilation (19.2% versus 6.7%, crude OR=3.31, 95% CI=1.05 to 10.47, P=0.049), the length of hospital stay (median, 7 versus 6.5 days; P=0.66), and the in-hospital mortality rate (7.7% versus 4.3%, crude OR=1.87, 95% CI=0.37 to 9.53, P=0.35) were not different between the two groups. In multivariate analysis, chronic lung disease was associated with MRVD (adjusted OR=3.08, 95% CI=1.12 to 8.46, P=0.03). In summary, it was not uncommon to encounter adult patients with ARI and MRVD by RVM-RT-PCR tests of nasopharyngeal swab specimens. MRVD was associated with chronic lung disease rather than the severity of the ARI.
Schenkel, Lindsay S.; Pavuluri, Mani N.; Herbener, Ellen S.; Harral, Erin M.; Sweeney, John A.
Objective: Past investigations indicate facial emotion-processing abnormalities in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) subjects. However, the extent to which these deficits represent state- and trait-related factors is unclear. We investigated facial affect processing in acutely ill and clinically stabilized children with PBD and matched healthy…
Galate, Lata Baswanna; Agrawal, Sachee R; Shastri, Jayanthi S; Londhey, Vikram
Background: Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an arboviral disease. Dengue fever (DENG) and CHIK are indistinguishable clinically and need to be differentiated by laboratory investigations. Purpose: This study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of CHIK mono-infection and CHIK and DENG dual infection in suspected patients. We also analyzed the age, sex distribution, joint involvement, and relation of joint movement restriction with visual analog scale (VAS). Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients clinically suspected with DENG and CHIK were enrolled from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mumbai from April 2012 to October 2013. The detailed history and examination findings were recorded. Serum samples were subjected to DENG and CHIK immunoglobulin G (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The seroprevalence of CHIK was 12.5%. Mono-infection of CHIK was 3%, and CHIK and DENG dual infection was 9.5%. Most affected age group in CHIK cases was 46–60 years wherein female preponderance was seen. All 6 patients with CHIK mono-infection had fever and joint involvement; knee and elbow were the most commonly affected joints. All CHIK patients had VAS score of 6–10 with restricted joint movement. Of the patients with dual infection, the majorities were from 31 to 45 years with male preponderance; all had fever and joint pain mainly affecting knee and elbow. Of patients who had VAS score 6–10 in patients with dual infection, only 5.26% had restricted joint movement. Conclusion: IgM ELISA for Chikungunya infection should be included in the routine laboratory tests for acute febrile illness. PMID:27365916
Beitz, Janice M
Fecal incontinence presents a major challenge in the comprehensive nursing care of acutely and critically ill patients. When manifested as diarrhea, the effects of fecal incontinence can range from mild (superficial skin irritation) to profound (severe perineal dermatitis, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and sepsis). Fecal incontinence has many etiologies and risk factors. These include damage to the anal sphincter or pelvic floor, liquid stool consistency, abnormal colonic transport, and decreased intestinal capacity. To avoid or minimize complications, the cause of diarrhea should be addressed, fecal leakage prevented, stool contained, and skin integrity preserved. Management options addressing these goals include diet, pharmacological therapy, and the use of containment products. Management options and their respective advantages and disadvantages are presented with a special focus on safety issues. Diverse approaches are safe only if they are knowledgeably selected, carefully instituted, and constantly monitored for their effects on patient outcomes. Research to identify which options work best in selected clinical situations and which combinations of therapies are most effective is needed.
Burkhardt, Olaf; Hafer, Carsten; Langhoff, Anita; Kaever, Volkhard; Kumar, Vipul; Welte, Tobias; Haller, Hermann; Fliser, Danilo; Kielstein, Jan T
Extended (daily) dialysis (EDD) is an increasingly popular mode of renal replacement therapy in the ICU (intensive care unit) as it combines the advantages of intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), i.e. excellent detoxification accompanied by cardiovascular tolerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetics (PK) of ertapenem, the newest carbapenem with once-daily dosing, in critically ill patients with anuric acute renal failure (ARF) undergoing EDD. In a single-centre, prospective, open-label study six ICU patients with ARF undergoing EDD were treated with 1 g ertapenem given as a single intravenous dose. EDD was performed using a high-flux dialyzer (polysulphone, 1.3 m(2)). Blood and dialysate flow were 160 mL/min, and the length of treatment was 480 min. Plasma samples were collected at different time-points up to 24 h after medication. Drug concentrations were determined by a validated LC-MS method. Free drug concentrations were estimated using a two-class binding site equation. After a single dose of 1000 mg free ertapenem, protein-unbound plasma concentrations exceeded a MIC(90) value of 2 mg/L for >20 h after dosing. The clearance of the tested dialyzer was 38.5 +/- 14.2 mL/min. In contrast to patients undergoing regular IHD, in which a dose reduction is required, our data suggest that in patients treated with EDD a standard dose of ertapenem (1 g/day), i.e. dose for patients without renal failure, is required to maintain adequate plasma drug levels.
Zarzar, Theodore; Sheitman, Brian; Cook, Alan; Robbins, Brian
Psychiatric inpatient bed numbers have been markedly reduced in recent decades often resulting in long emergency department wait times for acutely ill psychiatric patients. The authors describe a model utilizing short-term residential treatment to substitute for acute inpatient care when the barrier to discharge for patients with serious mental illness (SMI) is finding appropriate community placement. Thirty-eight patients (community hospital (n = 30) and a state hospital (n = 8)) were included. Clinical variables, pre-/post-step down length of stay, and adverse outcomes are reported. Thirty of the 38 patients completed treatment on the residential unit and were discharged to the community. Five of the patients required readmission to an inpatient unit and the other three had pre-planned state hospital discharges. The majority of patients with SMI awaiting placement can be stepped down to residential treatment, potentially freeing up an inpatient bed for an acutely ill patient. Reforms in healthcare funding are necessary to incentivize such an approach on a larger scale, despite likely cost savings.
Schennach, R; Riedel, M; Obermeier, M; Seemüller, F; Jäger, M; Schmauss, M; Laux, G; Pfeiffer, H; Naber, D; Schmidt, L G; Gaebel, W; Klosterkötter, J; Heuser, I; Maier, W; Lemke, M R; Rüther, E; Klingberg, S; Gastpar, M; Möller, H-J
Aim was to examine depressive symptoms in acutely ill schizophrenia patients on a single symptom basis and to evaluate their relationship with positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms. Two hundred and seventy-eight patients suffering from a schizophrenia spectrum disorder were analysed within a naturalistic study by the German Research Network on Schizophrenia. Using the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) depressive symptoms were examined and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to assess positive, negative and general symptoms. Correlation and factor analyses were calculated to detect the underlying structure and relationship of the patient's symptoms. The most prevalent depressive symptoms identified were depressed mood (80%), observed depression (62%) and hopelessness (54%). Thirty-nine percent of the patients suffered from depressive symptoms when applying the recommended cut-off of a CDSS total score of >6 points at admission. Negligible correlations were found between depressive and positive symptoms as well as most PANSS negative and global symptoms despite items on depression, guilt and social withdrawal. The factor analysis revealed that the factor loading with the PANSS negative items accounted for most of the data variance followed by a factor with positive symptoms and three depression-associated factors. The naturalistic study design does not allow a sufficient control of study results for the effect of different pharmacological treatments possibly influencing the appearance of depressive symptoms. Results suggest that depressive symptoms measured with the CDSS are a discrete symptom domain with only partial overlap with positive or negative symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zuliani, Giovanni; Bonetti, Francesco; Magon, Stefania; Prandini, Stefano; Sioulis, Fotini; D'Amato, Marco; Zampi, Elena; Gasperini, Beatrice; Cherubini, Antonio
In older individuals, acute medical illnesses and admission to hospital are often associated with a deterioration of cognitive status, also in the absence of dementia and full-blown delirium. We evaluated the prevalence of subsyndromal delirium (SSD) and its correlates in a sample of elderly medical inpatients. From 763 consecutive inpatients, 325 participants with known dementia or delirium were excluded, whereas 438 (mean age: 80.6 years; female participants: 60.1%) were enrolled. SSD was diagnosed within 48 hour from admission, when at least two DSM-IV delirium criteria including disorientation, attention or memory deficit, altered level of consciousness, or perceptual disturbances were present. Cognitive performance was evaluated by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE). General, clinical, and laboratory parameters were also registered. One hundred and sixty-six patients (37%) had SSD. Compared with controls, SSD patients were older individuals, had less formal education, higher comorbidity, lower hemoglobin/lymphocytes counts, and higher creatinine levels. A trend toward higher prevalence of previous stroke and widowhood was observed. A MMSE score of less than 24/30 identified SSD with 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. In SSD patients, MMSE independently correlated with years of education, high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels, and O2 arterial saturation (model adjusted r (2) = 0.30, p = .001); conversely, only years of education were associated with MMSE in controls (adjusted r (2) = 0.06, p = .01). Our data suggest that SSD is common in hospitalized older medical inpatients, and low MMSE score might be useful for identification of participants at risk of SSD. Current inflammatory response and reduced O2 arterial saturation were the only independent determinants of cognitive performance in SSD patients.
Peters, Esther; Heemskerk, Suzanne; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Pickkers, Peter
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disease in the intensive care unit and accounts for high morbidity and mortality. Sepsis, the predominant cause of AKI in this setting, involves a complex pathogenesis in which renal inflammation and hypoxia are believed to play an important role. A new therapy should be aimed at targeting both these processes, and the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, with its dual mode of action, might be a promising candidate. First, alkaline phosphatase is able to reduce inflammation through dephosphorylation and thereby detoxification of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), which is an important mediator of sepsis. Second, adenosine triphosphate, released during cellular stress caused by inflammation and hypoxia, has detrimental effects but can be converted by alkaline phosphatase into adenosine with anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective effects. These postulated beneficial effects of alkaline phosphatase have been confirmed in animal experiments and two phase 2a clinical trials showing that kidney function improved in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated AKI. Because renal inflammation and hypoxia also are observed commonly in AKI induced by other causes, it would be of interest to investigate the therapeutic effect of alkaline phosphatase in these nephropathies as well.
Introduction Recent reports have highlighted the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and suggested an association with excess mortality in critically ill patients. Serum vitamin D concentrations in these studies were measured following resuscitation. It is unclear whether aggressive fluid resuscitation independently influences serum vitamin D. Methods Nineteen patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Serum 25(OH)D3, 1α,25(OH)2D3, parathyroid hormone, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ionised calcium were measured at five defined timepoints: T1 - baseline, T2 - 5 minutes after onset of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (time of maximal fluid effect), T3 - on return to the intensive care unit, T4 - 24 hrs after surgery and T5 - 5 days after surgery. Linear mixed models were used to compare measures at T2-T5 with baseline measures. Results Acute fluid loading resulted in a 35% reduction in 25(OH)D3 (59 ± 16 to 38 ± 14 nmol/L, P < 0.0001) and a 45% reduction in 1α,25(OH)2D3 (99 ± 40 to 54 ± 22 pmol/L P < 0.0001) and i(Ca) (P < 0.01), with elevation in parathyroid hormone (P < 0.0001). Serum 25(OH)D3 returned to baseline only at T5 while 1α,25(OH)2D3 demonstrated an overshoot above baseline at T5 (P < 0.0001). There was a delayed rise in CRP at T4 and T5; this was not associated with a reduction in vitamin D levels at these time points. Conclusions Hemodilution significantly lowers serum 25(OH)D3 and 1α,25(OH)2D3, which may take up to 24 hours to resolve. Moreover, delayed overshoot of 1α,25(OH)2D3 needs consideration. We urge caution in interpreting serum vitamin D in critically ill patients in the context of major resuscitation, and would advocate repeating the measurement once the effects of the resuscitation have abated. PMID:21110839
Harrison, S L; Robertson, N; Graham, C D; Williams, J; Steiner, M C; Morgan, M D L; Singh, S J
Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) reduces hospital admissions following an acute exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) but adherence is known to be poor. Patients' illness perceptions may affect adherence to disease-management strategies but to date have not been explored following an exacerbation. The study aim is two-fold; firstly to prospectively explore acceptance and uptake of post-exacerbation PR and secondly to identify possible clusters of patients' illness perceptions following hospitalisation for an exacerbation of COPD. Patients admitted to hospital with an exacerbation of COPD were recruited to a prospective observational study. Self-reported illness perceptions, mood, health status and self-efficacy were assessed. Acceptance and uptake of PR were recorded at six months. Cluster analysis of Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised data was used to establish groups of patients holding distinct beliefs. 128 patients were recruited. Acceptance and uptake of PR following an acute exacerbation was poor with only 9% (n = 11) completing the programme. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct groups: Cluster 1 'in control' (n = 52), Cluster 2 'disengaged' (n = 36) and Cluster 3 'distressed' (n = 40). Significant between-cluster differences were observed in mood, health status and self-efficacy (p < 0.01). Acceptance and uptake of PR did not differ between clusters. Acceptance/uptake of post-exacerbation PR was found to be poor. Three distinct illness schema exist in patients following an acute exacerbation. This information may be useful in developing novel psychologically-informed interventions designed to reduce feelings of distress and perhaps facilitate a PR intervention for this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Dan-Qin; Zheng, Chen-Fei; Liu, Wen-Yue; Van Poucke, Sven; Mao, Zhi; Shi, Ke-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ji-Dong; Zheng, Ming-Hua
Critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are associated with high mortality rates. The aims of this study were to develop a specific prognostic score for critically ill cirrhotic patients with AKI, the acute kidney injury - Chronic Liver Failure - Sequential Organ Failure- Assessment score (AKI-CLIF-SOFA) score. This study focused on 527 cirrhotic patients with AKI admitted to intensive care unit and constructed a new scoring system, the AKI-CLIF-SOFA, which can be used to prognostically assess mortality in these patient population. Parameters included in this model were analysed by cox regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (auROC) of AKI-CLIF-SOFA scoring system was 0.74 in 30 days, 0.74 in 90 days, 0.72 in 270 days and 0.72 in 365 days. Additionally, this study demonstrated that the new model had more discriminatory power than chronic liver failure- sequential organ failure assessment score (CLIF-SOFA), SOFA, model for end stage liver disease (MELD), kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) and simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) (auROC: 0.72, 0.66, 0.64, 0.62, 0.63 and 0.65 respectively, all P < 0.05) for the prediction of the 365-days mortality. Therefore, AKI-CLIF-SOFA demonstrated a valuable discriminative ability compared with KDIGO, CLIF-SOFA, MELD, SAPS II and SOFA in critically ill cirrhotic patients with AKI. PMID:28114104
Soares, Douglas de Sousa; Reis, André da Fonte; Silva Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Leite, Tacyano Tavares; Parente Filho, Sérgio Luiz Arruda; Rocha, Carina Vieira de Oliveira; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco
This study aims to investigate renal toxicities of Polymyxin B and Vancomycin among critically ill patients and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: those who used association of Polymyxin B + Vancomycin (Group I) and those who used only Polymyxin B (Group II). Risk factors for AKI were also analyzed. A total of 115 patients were included. Mean age was 59.2 ± 16.1 years, and 52.2% were males. Group I presented higher GFR (117.1 ± 70.5 vs. 91.5 ± 50 ml/min/1.73 m², p = 0.02) as well as lower creatinine (0.9 ± 0.82 vs. 1.0 ± 0.59 mg/dL, p = 0.014) and urea (51.8 ± 23.7 vs. 94.5 ± 4.9 mg/dL, p = 0.006) than group II on admission. Group I also manifested significantly higher incidence of AKI than group II (62.7% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.005), even when stratified according to RIFLE criteria ('Risk' 33.9% vs. 10.7%; 'Injury' 10.2% vs. 8.9%; 'Failure' 18.6% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.03). Accumulated Polymyxin B dose > 10 million IU was an independent predictor for AKI (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.13-6.51, p = 0.024). Although patients who received Polymyxin B plus vancomycin had more favorable clinical profile and higher previous GFR, they presented a higher AKI incidence than those patients who received Polymyxin B alone. Cumulative Polymyxin B dose > 10 million IU was independently associated to AKI.
Neyra, Javier A; Li, Xilong; Yessayan, Lenar; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Yee, Jerry; Toto, Robert D
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of sepsis, a pro-inflammatory state that alters tubular handling of filtered albumin. We hypothesized that dipstick albuminuria (DA) is associated with a lower rate of AKI recovery in septic patients. This was a single-centre, retrospective cohort study of adults with sepsis-associated AKI in an urban academic intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with unknown baseline serum creatinine (SCr), absent urinalysis, and those with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <15 mL/min per 1.73m(2) or receiving chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT) were excluded. The independent variable was DA (negative or trace, 30 mg/dL, and ≥100 mg/dL) within the first 72 h of ICU stay. The outcome variable was AKI recovery at 30 days following hospital discharge, defined as the last SCr returning to a level less than 1.5 times the baseline SCr level and independence of RRT. A total of 988 patients were included in the study. The median length of hospitalization was 11 days. The patients with higher degree of DA had worse critical illness scores. After adjustment for several confounders, DA ≥30 mg/dL was independently associated with "no AKI recovery" at 30 days post-discharge (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI, 1.01-1.95 for DA =30 mg/dL and 1.67, 1.15-2.42 for DA ≥100 mg/dL, P = 0.02). Other independent predictors of "no AKI recovery" were cumulative fluid balance, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, exposure to diuretics, and the need for mechanical ventilation. Dipstick albuminuria ≥30 mg/dL is independently associated with lower rate of AKI recovery at 30 days post-discharge. Our findings emphasize the potential utility of a simple routine test of DA in the risk-stratification of AKI recovery in ICU septic patients. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Ethgen, Olivier; Schneider, Antoine G; Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Kellum, John A
The obective of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing intermittent with continuous renal replacement therapy (IRRT versus CRRT) as initial therapy for acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Assuming some patients would potentially be eligible for either modality, we modeled life year gained, the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and healthcare costs for a cohort of 1000 IRRT patients and a cohort of 1000 CRRT patients. We used a 1-year, 5-year and a lifetime horizon. A Markov model with two health states for AKI survivors was designed: dialysis dependence and dialysis independence. We applied Weibull regression from published estimates to fit survival curves for CRRT and IRRT patients and to fit the proportion of dialysis dependence among CRRT and IRRT survivors. We then applied a risk ratio reported in a large retrospective cohort study to the fitted CRRT estimates in order to determine the proportion of dialysis dependence for IRRT survivors. We conducted sensitivity analyses based on a range of differences for daily implementation cost between CRRT and IRRT (base case: CRRT day $632 more expensive than IRRT day; range from $200 to $1000) and a range of risk ratios for dialysis dependence for CRRT as compared with IRRT (from 0.65 to 0.95; base case: 0.80). Continuous renal replacement therapy was associated with a marginally greater gain in QALY as compared with IRRT (1.093 versus 1.078). Despite higher upfront costs for CRRT in the ICU ($4046 for CRRT versus $1423 for IRRT in average), the 5-year total cost including the cost of dialysis dependence was lower for CRRT ($37 780 for CRRT versus $39 448 for IRRT on average). The base case incremental cost-effectiveness analysis showed that CRRT dominated IRRT. This dominance was confirmed by extensive sensitivity analysis. Initial CRRT is cost-effective compared with initial IRRT by reducing the rate of long-term dialysis dependence among critically ill AKI
Kudlow, Paul; Burns, Karen E A; Adhikari, Neill K J; Bell, Benjamin; Klein, David J; Xie, Bin; Friedrich, Jan O; Wald, Ron
Patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) who are hospitalized at centers that do not provide renal replacement therapy (RRT) are frequently subjected to inter-hospital transfer for the provision of RRT. It is unclear whether such transfers are associated with worse patient outcomes as compared with the receipt of initial care in a center that provides RRT. This study examined the relationship between inter-hospital transfer and 30-day mortality among critically ill patients with AKI who received RRT. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all critically ill patients who commenced RRT for AKI at two academic hospitals in Toronto, Canada. The exposure of interest was inter-hospital transfer for the administration of RRT. We evaluated the relationship between transfer status and 30-day mortality (primary outcome) and RRT dependence at 30 days following RRT initiation (secondary outcome), by using multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for patient demographics, clinical factors, biochemical indices, and severity of illness. Of 370 patients who underwent RRT for AKI, 82 (22.2%) were transferred for this purpose from another hospital. Compared with non-transferred patients who started RRT, transferred patients were younger (61 ± 15 versus 65 ± 15 years, P = 0.03) and had a higher serum creatinine concentration at RRT initiation (474 ± 295 versus 365 ± 169 μmol/L, P = 0.002). Inter-hospital transfer was not associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 1.12) or RRT-dependence (adjusted odds ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 3.81) at 30 days. Within the limitations of this observational study and the potential for residual confounding, inter-hospital transfer of critically ill patients with AKI was not associated with a higher risk of death or dialysis dependence 30 days after the initiation of acute RRT.
Vidart, Josi; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Leite, Rogério Sarmento; Manica, André; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Larsen, P. Reed
Context: The acute phase of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is characterized by low T3 and high rT3 levels, affecting up to 75% of critically ill patients. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causative factor of the disturbed peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent intracellular antioxidant, can prevent NTIS in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Design: This was a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Settings: Consecutive patients admitted to the emergency and intensive care units of two tertiary hospitals in southern Brazil were recruited. Patients and intervention included 67 patients were randomized to receive NAC or placebo during 48 hours. Baseline characteristics and blood samples for thyroid hormones and oxidative parameters were collected. Main Outcome: Variation of serum T3 and rT3 levels was measured. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (all P > .05). T3 levels decreased in the placebo group at 12 hours of follow-up (P = .002) but not in NAC-treated patients (P = .10). Baseline rT3 levels were elevated in both groups and decreased over the initial 48 hours in the NAC-treated patients (P = .003) but not in the control group (P = .75). The free T4 and TSH levels were virtually identical between the groups throughout the study period (P > .05). Measurement of total antioxidant status and total carbonyl content demonstrated that oxidative balance was deranged in acute myocardial infarction patients, whereas NAC corrected these alterations (P < .001). Conclusions: NAC administration prevents the derangement in thyroid hormone concentrations commonly occurring in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction, indicating that oxidative stress is involved in the NTIS pathophysiology. PMID:25148231
Vidart, Josi; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Leite, Rogério Sarmento; Manica, André; Schaan, Beatriz D; Larsen, P Reed; Maia, Ana Luiza
The acute phase of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is characterized by low T3 and high rT3 levels, affecting up to 75% of critically ill patients. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causative factor of the disturbed peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism. The objective of the study was to investigate whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent intracellular antioxidant, can prevent NTIS in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This was a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Consecutive patients admitted to the emergency and intensive care units of two tertiary hospitals in southern Brazil were recruited. Patients and intervention included 67 patients were randomized to receive NAC or placebo during 48 hours. Baseline characteristics and blood samples for thyroid hormones and oxidative parameters were collected. Variation of serum T3 and rT3 levels was measured. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (all P > .05). T3 levels decreased in the placebo group at 12 hours of follow-up (P = .002) but not in NAC-treated patients (P = .10). Baseline rT3 levels were elevated in both groups and decreased over the initial 48 hours in the NAC-treated patients (P = .003) but not in the control group (P = .75). The free T4 and TSH levels were virtually identical between the groups throughout the study period (P > .05). Measurement of total antioxidant status and total carbonyl content demonstrated that oxidative balance was deranged in acute myocardial infarction patients, whereas NAC corrected these alterations (P < .001). NAC administration prevents the derangement in thyroid hormone concentrations commonly occurring in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction, indicating that oxidative stress is involved in the NTIS pathophysiology.
Main, Michael L; Hibberd, Mark G; Ryan, Amy; Lowe, Timothy J; Miller, Paula; Bhat, Gajanan
The objective of this observational study was to compare 48-h all-cause mortality (as well as hospital stay mortality) among critically ill patients who underwent echocardiography either with or without an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA). The safety of perflutren-based UCAs has been questioned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (particularly when administered to critically ill patients) following rare reports of deaths or life-threatening adverse reactions that occurred in close temporal relationship to UCA administration. This was a retrospective observational outcome study conducted in critically ill patients to compare all-cause 48-h and hospital stay mortality subsequent to echocardiography procedures performed either with or without a UCA. The study utilized discharge data from a database maintained by Premier, Inc. (Charlotte, North Carolina). Premier's database is the largest U.S. hospital-based, service-level comparative database for quality and outcomes research, and provides detailed resource utilization data along with patients' primary and secondary diagnoses and procedure billing codes. A propensity score-matching algorithm between UCA-enhanced echocardiography patients and non-contrast-enhanced echocardiography patients was utilized to reduce the potential for imbalance in covariates of selected patients in the comparison of mortality between groups. Patients undergoing echocardiography with a UCA had lower mortality at 48 h compared with patients undergoing non-contrast-enhanced echocardiography (1.70% vs. 2.50%), with an odds ratio = 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54 to 0.80). Patients undergoing echocardiography with a UCA had lower hospital stay mortality compared with patients undergoing noncontrast echocardiography (14.85% vs. 15.66%), with an odds ratio = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.84 to 0.96). In critically ill, propensity-matched hospitalized patients undergoing echocardiography, use of a UCA is associated with a 28% lower mortality at
Hadley, H. Roger; Rutherford, Harold G.; Smith, Louis L.; Briggs, Burton A.; Neilsen, Ivan R.; Rau, Richard
The need exists for a simplified and ecomonical computer based monitoring system for critically ill surgical patients. Such a system would enjoy widespread use in surgical intensive care units in regional, as well as larger community hospitals. We have assembled such a system which provides digital readout of the usual physiologic parameters, and also provide computer storage of accumulated data for review and evaluation of patient care. The computer provides graphic and digital display and digital printout for subsequent inclusion in the patient records. Most frequent indications for this system include the development of acute respiratory insufficiency or acute circulatory failure due to invasive sepsis and/or severe arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Information most beneficial in patient care included measurement of cardiac output;alveolar arterial oxygen gradient. ImagesFigure 1Figure 5Figure 9Figure 11
Kim, Il Young; Kim, Joo Hui; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Rhee, Harin; Seong, Eun Young; Kwak, Ihm Soo
Background Fluid overload is known to be associated with increased mortality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who are critically ill. In this study, we intended to uncover whether the adverse effect of fluid overload on survival could be applied to all of the patients with AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods We analyzed 341 patients with AKI who received CRRT in our intensive care units. The presence of fluid overload was defined as a minimum 10% increase in body weight from the baseline. Demographics, comorbid diseases, clinical data, severity of illness [the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, number of vasopressors, diagnosis of sepsis, use of ventilator] upon ICU admission, fluid overload status, and time elapsed from AKI diagnosis until CRRT initiation were reviewed from the medical charts. Results Patients with total fluid overload from 3 days before CRRT initiation to ICU discharge had a significantly lower survival rate after ICU admission, as compared to patients with no fluid overload (P < 0.001). Among patients with sepsis (P < 0.001) or with high SOFA scores (P < 0.001), there was a significant difference in survival of the patients with and without fluid overload. In patients without sepsis or with low SOFA score, there was no significant difference in survival of patients irrespective of fluid overload. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the adverse effect of fluid overload on survival is more evident in patients with sepsis or with more severe illness, and that it might not apply to patients without sepsis or with less severe illness. PMID:28196107
Kim, Il Young; Kim, Joo Hui; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Rhee, Harin; Seong, Eun Young; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Song, Sang Heon
Fluid overload is known to be associated with increased mortality in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who are critically ill. In this study, we intended to uncover whether the adverse effect of fluid overload on survival could be applied to all of the patients with AKI who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). We analyzed 341 patients with AKI who received CRRT in our intensive care units. The presence of fluid overload was defined as a minimum 10% increase in body weight from the baseline. Demographics, comorbid diseases, clinical data, severity of illness [the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, number of vasopressors, diagnosis of sepsis, use of ventilator] upon ICU admission, fluid overload status, and time elapsed from AKI diagnosis until CRRT initiation were reviewed from the medical charts. Patients with total fluid overload from 3 days before CRRT initiation to ICU discharge had a significantly lower survival rate after ICU admission, as compared to patients with no fluid overload (P < 0.001). Among patients with sepsis (P < 0.001) or with high SOFA scores (P < 0.001), there was a significant difference in survival of the patients with and without fluid overload. In patients without sepsis or with low SOFA score, there was no significant difference in survival of patients irrespective of fluid overload. Our study demonstrates that the adverse effect of fluid overload on survival is more evident in patients with sepsis or with more severe illness, and that it might not apply to patients without sepsis or with less severe illness.
Vesconi, Sergio; Cruz, Dinna N; Fumagalli, Roberto; Kindgen-Milles, Detlef; Monti, Gianpaola; Marinho, Anibal; Mariano, Filippo; Formica, Marco; Marchesi, Mariano; René, Robert; Livigni, Sergio; Ronco, Claudio
Introduction The optimal dialysis dose for the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) is controversial. We sought to evaluate the relationship between renal replacement therapy (RRT) dose and outcome. Methods We performed a prospective multicentre observational study in 30 intensive care units (ICUs) in eight countries from June 2005 to December 2007. Delivered RRT dose was calculated in patients treated exclusively with either continuous RRT (CRRT) or intermittent RRT (IRRT) during their ICU stay. Dose was categorised into more-intensive (CRRT ≥ 35 ml/kg/hour, IRRT ≥ 6 sessions/week) or less-intensive (CRRT < 35 ml/kg/hour, IRRT < 6 sessions/week). The main outcome measures were ICU mortality, ICU length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. Results Of 15,200 critically ill patients admitted during the study period, 553 AKI patients were treated with RRT, including 338 who received CRRT only and 87 who received IRRT only. For CRRT, the median delivered dose was 27.1 ml/kg/hour (interquartile range (IQR) = 22.1 to 33.9). For IRRT, the median dose was 7 sessions/week (IQR = 5 to 7). Only 22% of CRRT patients and 64% of IRRT patients received a more-intensive dose. Crude ICU mortality among CRRT patients were 60.8% vs. 52.5% (more-intensive vs. less-intensive groups, respectively). In IRRT, this was 23.6 vs. 19.4%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, there was no significant association between RRT dose and ICU mortality (Odds ratio (OR) more-intensive vs. less-intensive: CRRT OR = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66 to 2.21; IRRT OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.48 to 4.67). Among survivors, shorter ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation were observed in the more-intensive RRT groups (more-intensive vs. less-intensive for all: CRRT (median): 15 (IQR = 8 to 26) vs. 19.5 (IQR = 12 to 33.5) ICU days, P = 0.063; 7 (IQR = 4 to 17) vs. 14 (IQR = 5 to 24) ventilation days, P = 0.031; IRRT: 8 (IQR = 5.5 to 14) vs. 18 (IQR = 13 to 35) ICU days, P = 0
Fagugli, Riccardo Maria; Patera, Francesco; Battistoni, Sara; Tripepi, Giovanni
Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) treatment has significantly increased in incidence over the years, with more than 400 new cases per million population/y, 2/3 of which concern noncritically ill patients. In these patients, there are little data on mortality or on information of care organization and its impact on outcome. Specialty training and integrated teams, as well as a high volume of activity, seem to be linked to better hospital outcome. The study investigates mortality of patients admitted to and in-care of nephrology (NEPHROpts), a closed-staff organization, and to other medical wards (MEDpts), representing a model of open-staff organization.This is a single center, case-control cohort study derived from a prospective epidemiology investigation on patients with AKI-D admitted to or in-care of the Hospital of Perugia during the period 2007 to 2014. Noncritically ill AKI-D patients were analyzed: inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to avoid possible bias on the cause of hospital admittance and comorbidities, and a propensity score (PS) matching was performed.Six hundred fifty-four noncritically ill patients were observed and 296 fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria. PS matching resulted in 2 groups: 100 NEPHROpts and 100 MEDpts. Characteristics, comorbidities, acute kidney injury causes, risk-injury-failure acute kidney injury criteria, and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS 2) were similar. Mortality was 36%, and a difference was reported between NEPHROpts and MEDpts (20% vs 52%, χ = 23.2, P < 0.001). Patients who died differed in age, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen/s.Creatinine ratio, dialysis urea reduction rate (URR), SAPS 2 and Charlson score; they presented a higher rate of heart disease, and a larger proportion required noradrenaline/dopamine for shock. After correction for mortality risk factors, multivariate Cox analysis revealed that site of treatment (medical vs nephrology wards) represents an
Mackintosh, Nicola; Sandall, Jane
The normative position in acute hospital care when a patient is seriously ill is to resuscitate and rescue. However, a number of UK and international reports have highlighted problems with the lack of timely recognition, treatment and referral of patients whose condition is deteriorating while being cared for on hospital wards. This article explores the social practice of rescue, and the structural and cultural influences that guide the categorisation and ordering of acutely ill patients in different hospital settings. We draw on Strauss et al.'s notion of the patient trajectory and link this with the impact of categorisation practices, thus extending insights beyond those gained from emergency department triage to care management processes further downstream on the hospital ward. Using ethnographic data collected from medical wards and maternity care settings in two UK inner city hospitals, we explore how differences in population, cultural norms, categorisation work and trajectories of clinical deterioration interlink and influence patient safety. An analysis of the variation in findings between care settings and patient groups enables us to consider socio-political influences and the specifics of how staff manage trade-offs linked to the enactment of core values such as safety and equity in practice.
Cimminiello, Claudio; Prandoni, Paolo; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Di Minno, Giovanni; Polo Friz, Hernan; Scaglione, Francesco; Boracchi, Patrizia; Marano, Giuseppe; Harenberg, Job
Subjects undergoing major orthopedic surgery and acutely ill hospitalized medical patients represent a population at medium-high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). They are treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and direct oral anticoagulants [DOACs] for VTE prevention. We conducted a meta-analysis of phase III randomized clinical trials evaluating LMWH enoxaparin versus DOACs for prophylaxis of VTE by combining studies including patients undergoing elective total hip and knee replacement surgery, and acutely ill hospitalized medical subjects. Studies were searched using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases until December 2016. Differences in clinical outcomes for efficacy and safety endpoints between treatment groups were expressed as risk differences with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), using random effects regression models. Fourteen RCTs were considered (60,467 subjects). Overall mortality, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, non-fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) major bleeding (MB) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (CRNMB) are not different between treatment regimens. Treatment with LMWH enoxaparin is associated with a lower risk of fatal PE plus VTE-related death compared therapy with DOACs (RD = 0.040%, 95% CI 0.001-0.080%, p = 0.0434). Subgroup analysis shows an incidence of MB (RD = 0.181%, 95% CI 0.029-0.332%, p = 0.0033) and CRNMB (RD = 0.546%, 95% CI 0.009-1.082%, p = 0.0462) in patients treated with 40 mg OD enoxaparin compared to DOACs. In major orthopedic surgery and acutely ill hospitalized medical patients, DOACs do not offer clear advantages in terms of clinical efficacy compared to enoxaparin. The advantage of the latter in terms of major and CRNMB, when used at a dose of 40 mg, is statistically significant, but small in terms of clinical relevance.
Pan, Heng-Chih; Chien, Yu-Shan; Jenq, Chang-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang
Critically ill cirrhotic patients have high mortality rates, particularly when they present with acute kidney injury (AKI) on admission. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group aimed to standardize the definition of AKI and recently published a new AKI classification. However, the efficacy of the KDIGO classification for predicting outcomes of critically ill cirrhotic patients is unclear. We prospectively enrolled 242 cirrhotic patients from a 10-bed specialized hepatogastroenterology intensive care unit (ICU) in a 2000-bed tertiary-care referral hospital. Demographic parameters and clinical variables on day 1 of admission were prospectively recorded. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 62.8%. Liver diseases were usually attributed to hepatitis B viral infection (26.9%). The major cause of ICU admission was upper gastrointestinal bleeding (38.0%). Our result showed that the KDIGO classification had better discriminatory power than RIFLE and AKIN criteria in predicting in-hospital mortality. Cumulative survival rates at the 6-month after hospital discharge differed significantly between patients with and without AKI on ICU admission day. In summary, we identified that the outcome prediction performance of KDIGO classification is superior to that of AKIN or RIFLE classification in critically ill cirrhotic patients.
Pan, Heng-Chih; Chien, Yu-Shan; Jenq, Chang-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang
Critically ill cirrhotic patients have high mortality rates, particularly when they present with acute kidney injury (AKI) on admission. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group aimed to standardize the definition of AKI and recently published a new AKI classification. However, the efficacy of the KDIGO classification for predicting outcomes of critically ill cirrhotic patients is unclear. We prospectively enrolled 242 cirrhotic patients from a 10-bed specialized hepatogastroenterology intensive care unit (ICU) in a 2000-bed tertiary-care referral hospital. Demographic parameters and clinical variables on day 1 of admission were prospectively recorded. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 62.8%. Liver diseases were usually attributed to hepatitis B viral infection (26.9%). The major cause of ICU admission was upper gastrointestinal bleeding (38.0%). Our result showed that the KDIGO classification had better discriminatory power than RIFLE and AKIN criteria in predicting in-hospital mortality. Cumulative survival rates at the 6-month after hospital discharge differed significantly between patients with and without AKI on ICU admission day. In summary, we identified that the outcome prediction performance of KDIGO classification is superior to that of AKIN or RIFLE classification in critically ill cirrhotic patients. PMID:26983372
Reller, Megan E; Bodinayake, Champica; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara-Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J; Flom, Judith E; Østbye, Truls; Woods, Christopher W; Dumler, J Stephen
We studied rickettsioses in southern Sri Lanka. Of 883 febrile patients with paired serum samples, 156 (17.7%) had acute rickettsioses; rickettsioses were unsuspected at presentation. Additionally, 342 (38.7%) had exposure to spotted fever and/or typhus group rickettsioses and 121 (13.7%) scrub typhus. Increased awareness of rickettsioses and better tests are needed.
Ma, Feng; Bai, Ming; Li, Yangping; Yu, Yan; Liu, Yirong; Zhou, Meilan; Li, Li; Jing, Rui; Zhao, Lijuan; He, Lijie; Li, Rong; Huang, Chen; Wang, Hanmin; Sun, Shiren
Patients with severe hypernatremia who receive conventional treatment are often undertreated. Data on the management of acute hypernatremia using continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) are limited to anecdotes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CVVH treatment for acute severe hypernatremia in critically ill patients in a retrospective cohort. A total of 95 patients who were admitted to our ICU between January 2009 and January 2014 were analyzed as the original cohort. These patients were divided into CVVH and conventional treatment groups. The patients in the conventional and CVVH groups were then matched by age, reason for ICU admission, vasopressor dependency, basic serum sodium concentration, and Glasgow scores. A Cox regression model was used to adjust the confounding variables. In the original cohort, the 28-day survival rates were 41.9% and 25.0% for the CVVH and conventional treatment groups, respectively. Conventional treatment (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.8, P = 0.019) was an independent predictor of patient mortality in the multivariate Cox regression model. In the matched cohort, the two groups were not significantly different in baseline characteristics. The CVVH group had a significantly greater reduction in the serum sodium concentration (0.78 [0.63-1.0] mmol/L/h versus 0.13 [0.009-0.33] mmol/L/h), P < 0.001) and an improved 28-day survival rate (34.8% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.002) compared with the conventional treatment group. The two groups did not differ significantly in treatment-related complications. CVVH treatment is possibly more effective than conventional treatment for the management of acute severe hypernatremia in critically ill patients.
Extrinsic Factors and Central Venous Catheter Infections i n t-ho Arutely TI I Pat i nt 6. AUTHOR(S) Helen Frances Edwards, Captain 7. PERFORMING...AND CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER INFECTIONS IN THE ACUTELY ILL PATIENT For by L >C Helen Frances Edwards .J l ’, r ..... :!l d By DC_ t Hb dtIi; I Dist A...obstaculo debido a educacion o lenguaje no ha impedido un entendimiento claro de su participacion en este proyecto. Firma do Investigador Firma do
Bagshaw, Sean M; Darmon, Michael; Ostermann, Marlies; Finkelstein, Fredric O; Wald, Ron; Tolwani, Ashita J; Goldstein, Stuart L; Gattas, David J; Uchino, Shigehiko; Hoste, Eric A; Gaudry, Stephane
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with incremental risk for death and chronic kidney disease and represents a mounting clinical challenge for healthcare professionals. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) use in ICU settings is rising, likely in response to similar trends in AKI, taken together with an ageing population burdened by high prevalence of multi-morbidity and high illness acuity. Numerous features of RRT prescription and delivery are not standardized, nor are they supported from high-quality evidence derived from randomized trials. Despite the publication of rigorous clinical practice guidelines focused on RRT for AKI that are intended to optimize the quality and reliability of RRT in ICU settings, practice patterns and outcomes continue to show significant variability. In this concise review, we aim to summarize new knowledge and recent advances for the provision of RRT for critically ill patients with AKI.
Lorenzen, Johan M.; Broll, Michael; Kaever, Volkhard; Burhenne, Heike; Hafer, Carsten; Clajus, Christian; Knitsch, Wolfgang; Burkhardt, Olaf
Summary Background and objectives The fixed antibacterial combination of ampicillin and sulbactam is frequently used for various infections. Intact kidneys eliminate approximately 71% of ampicillin and 78% of sulbactam. Patients on thrice-weekly low-flux hemodialysis exhibit an ampicillin t1/2 of 2.3 hours on and 17.4 hours off dialysis. Despite its frequent use in intensive care units, there are no available dosing recommendations for patients with AKI undergoing renal replacement therapy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin/sulbactam in critically ill patients with AKI undergoing extended dialysis (ED) and to establish a dosing recommendation for this treatment method. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twelve critically ill patients with anuric AKI being treated with ED were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, observational pharmacokinetic study. Pharmacokinetics after a single dose of ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) was obtained in 12 patients. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics after 4 days of twice-daily ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) was obtained in three patients. Results The mean dialyzer clearance for ampicillin/sulbactam was 80.1±7.7/83.3±12.1 ml/min. The t1/2 of ampicillin and sulbactam in patients with AKI undergoing ED were 2.8±0.8 hours and 3.5±1.5 hours, respectively. There was no significant accumulation using a twice-daily dosage of 2 g/1 g ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusions Our data suggest that in patients treated with ED using a high-flux dialyzer (polysulphone, 1.3 m2; blood and dialysate flow, 160 ml/min; treatment time, 480 minutes), a twice-daily dosing schedule of at least 2 g/1 g ampicillin/sulbactam, with one dose given after ED, should be used to avoid underdosing. PMID:22223613
Bartanusz, Viktor; Corneille, Michael G; Sordo, Salvador; Gildea, Marianne; Michalek, Joel E; Nair, Prakash V; Stewart, Ronald M; Jezova, Daniela
Acute trauma patients represent a specific subgroup of the critically ill population due to sudden and dramatic changes in homeostasis and consequently extreme demands on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Salivary cortisol is an accepted surrogate for serum free cortisol in the assessment of HPA axis function. The purpose of this study was (1) to establish the feasibility of salivary cortisol measurement in acute trauma patients in the neurosurgical-surgical intensive care unit (NSICU), and (2) to determine the diurnal pattern of salivary cortisol in the acute phase after injury. Saliva from 50 acute trauma patients was prospectively collected twice a day at 6AM and 4PM during the first week after injury in the NSICU. Mean PM cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in subjects versus controls (p<0.001). Subjects failed to develop the expected PM versus AM decrease in cortisol concentration seen in controls (p=0.005). Salivary cortisol did not vary significantly with baseline Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score, sex, injury type, ethnicity, or age. When comparing mean AM and PM salivary cortisol by GCS severity category (GCS ⩽8 and GCS >8) the AM salivary cortisol was significantly higher in patients with GCS ⩽8 (p=0.002). The results show a loss of diurnal cortisol variation in acute trauma patient in the NSICU during the first week of hospitalization. Patients with severe brain injury had higher morning cortisol levels than those with mild/moderate brain injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hegerová, Petra; Dědková, Zuzana; Sobotka, Luboš
An acute disease is regularly associated with inflammation, decreased food intake, and low physical activity; the consequence is loss of muscle mass. However, the restoration of muscle tissue is problematic, especially in older patients. Loss of muscle mass leads to further decrease of physical activity which leads, together with recurring disease, to the progressive muscle mass loss accompanied by loss of self-sufficiency. Early nutrition support and physical activity could reverse this situation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether an active approach based on early nutritional therapy and exercise would influence the development of sarcopenia and impaired self-sufficiency during acute illness. Two hundred patients >78 y were admitted to a hospital internal medicine department and participated in a prospective, randomized controlled study. The patients were randomized to a control group receiving standard treatment (n = 100) or to an intervention group (n = 100). The intervention consisted of nutritional supplements (600 kcal, 20 g/d protein) added to a standard diet and a simultaneous intensive rehabilitation program. The tolerance of supplements and their influence on spontaneous food intake, self-sufficiency, muscle strength, and body composition were evaluated during the study period. The patients were then regularly monitored for 1 y post-discharge. The provision of nutritional supplements together with early rehabilitation led to increased total energy and protein intake while the intake of standard hospital food was not reduced. The loss of lean body mass and a decrease in self-sufficiency were apparent at discharge from the hospital and 3 mo thereafter in the control group. Nutritional supplementation and the rehabilitation program in the study group prevented these alterations. A positive effect of nutritional intervention and exercise during the hospital stay was apparent at 6 mo post-discharge. The early nutritional intervention
Hull, Russell D; Schellong, Sebastian M; Tapson, Victor F; Monreal, Manuel; Samama, Meyer-Michel; Nicol, Philippe; Vicaut, Eric; Turpie, Alexander G G; Yusen, Roger D
Extended-duration low-molecular-weight heparin has been shown to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in high-risk surgical patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-duration enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients. Randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. Randomization was computer-generated. Allocation was centralized. Patients, caregivers, and outcome assessors were blinded to group assignment. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00077753) SETTING: 370 sites in 20 countries across North and South America, Europe, and Asia. Acutely ill medical patients 40 years or older with recently reduced mobility (bed rest or sedentary without [level 1] or with [level 2] bathroom privileges). Eligibility criteria for patients with level 2 immobility were amended to include only those who had additional VTE risk factors (age >75 years, history of VTE, or active or previous cancer) after interim analyses suggested lower-than-expected VTE rates. Enoxaparin, 40 mg/d subcutaneously (2975 patients), or placebo (2988 patients), for 28 +/- 4 days after receiving open-label enoxaparin for an initial 10 +/- 4 days. Incidence of VTE up to day 28 and of major bleeding events up to 48 hours after the last study treatment dose. Extended-duration enoxaparin reduced VTE incidence compared with placebo (2.5% vs. 4%; absolute risk difference favoring enoxaparin, -1.53% [95.8% CI, -2.54% to -0.52%]). Enoxaparin increased major bleeding events (0.8% vs. 0.3%; absolute risk difference favoring placebo, 0.51% [95% CI, 0.12% to 0.89%]). The benefits of extended-duration enoxaparin seemed to be restricted to women, patients older than 75 years, and those with level 1 immobility. Estimates of efficacy and safety for the overall trial population are difficult to interpret because of the change in eligibility criteria during the trial. Use of extended-duration enoxaparin reduces VTE more than it increases major bleeding events in acutely ill medical
Ganesan, Muthusamy V; Annigeri, Rajeev A; Shankar, Bhuvaneswari; Rao, Budithi Subba; Prakash, Kowdle C; Seshadri, Rajagopalan; Mani, Muthu Krishna
To assess the nutritional status of critically ill patients with acute renal failure on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and their protein needs by estimating the protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance (PNA). Prospective, observational study. A 74-bed intensive care unit in a single tertiary care hospital. Twenty-five consecutive critically ill patients with acute renal failure on CRRT. The patients were studied over a period of 24 hours, at initiation on CRRT. The nutritional status was assessed by anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis. The PNA was estimated using the Bergstrom equation and PNA was normalized to body weight. The mean age was 58.2 +/- 17 years and 20 (80%) were male. The mean weight was 67 +/- 12 kg, body mass index was 25 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2), and triceps and subscapular skin fold thickness were 13 +/- 4.6 mm and 15 +/- 2.5 mm, respectively. Bioimpedance studies showed that the total body water was increased at 61.7 +/- 5.5% and body fat was 31.8 +/- 5.4%. The PNA was 103 +/- 35 g/day and normalized PNA was 1.57 +/- 0.4 g/kg/day. The mean protein intake was 0.56 +/- 0.38 g/kg/day, resulting in mean net negative protein balance of 1.0 +/- 0.6 g/kg/day. Malnutrition was uncommon in patients with acute renal failure at the time of initiation on CRRT, but their total body water was increased. They exhibited hypercatabolism and the mean normalized PNA was 1.57 g/kg/day. A large negative nitrogen balance was observed in them, since their protein intake was suboptimal.
Vender, Robert J.; Vender, Robert L.
Background Blood cultures are obtained clinically to confirm site and source of acute infection as well as to guide effective antibiotic therapies. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at risk for blood stream infection (BSI) as identified from positive blood culture results. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of 190 adult CF patients from January 1, 2001 through December 1, 2015. All positive blood culture results were identified as to clinical relevance and source of BSI. Results There were a total of 3,053 blood cultures. One hundred fifty-one positive blood cultures were considered pathogenic and clinically significant. Venous access device-related BSI was identified in 31 evaluable patients and 106 blood cultures. Nineteen patients and 45 positive blood cultures were attributable to organ-specific sources. Conclusion Two patterns of BSI were identified: 1) venous access device infections without causal mortality and 2) organ-specific site infections with associated 26% mortality. PMID:27829951
Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Fan, Pei-Chun; Chang, Ming-Yang; Tian, Ya-Chung; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yung-Chang
Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and also often part of a multiple organ failure syndrome. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an excellent tool for assessing the extent of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome prediction ability of SOFA and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score in ICU patients with AKI. Methods A total of 543 critically ill patients were admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary-care hospital from July 2007 to June 2008. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were prospectively recorded for post hoc analysis as predictors of survival on the first day of ICU admission. Results One hundred and eighty-seven (34.4%) patients presented with AKI on the first day of ICU admission based on the risk of renal failure, injury to kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE) classification. Major causes of the ICU admissions involved respiratory failure (58%). Overall in-ICU mortality was 37.9% and the hospital mortality was 44.7%. The predictive accuracy for ICU mortality of SOFA (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves: 0.815±0.032) was as good as APACHE III in the AKI group. However, cumulative survival rates at 6-month follow-up following hospital discharge differed significantly (p<0.001) for SOFA score ≤10 vs. ≥11 in these ICU patients with AKI. Conclusions For patients coexisting with AKI admitted to ICU, this work recommends application of SOFA by physicians to assess ICU mortality because of its practicality and low cost. A SOFA score of ≥ “11” on ICU day 1 should be considered an indicator of negative short-term outcome. PMID:25279844
Hoste, Eric AJ; Clermont, Gilles; Kersten, Alexander; Venkataraman, Ramesh; Angus, Derek C; De Bacquer, Dirk; Kellum, John A
Introduction The lack of a standard definition for acute kidney injury has resulted in a large variation in the reported incidence and associated mortality. RIFLE, a newly developed international consensus classification for acute kidney injury, defines three grades of severity – risk (class R), injury (class I) and failure (class F) – but has not yet been evaluated in a clinical series. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study, in seven intensive care units in a single tertiary care academic center, on 5,383 patients admitted during a one year period (1 July 2000–30 June 2001). Results Acute kidney injury occurred in 67% of intensive care unit admissions, with maximum RIFLE class R, class I and class F in 12%, 27% and 28%, respectively. Of the 1,510 patients (28%) that reached a level of risk, 840 (56%) progressed. Patients with maximum RIFLE class R, class I and class F had hospital mortality rates of 8.8%, 11.4% and 26.3%, respectively, compared with 5.5% for patients without acute kidney injury. Additionally, acute kidney injury (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.28–2.13; P < 0.001) and maximum RIFLE class I (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.88; P = 0.037) and class F (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.03–3.55; P < 0.001) were associated with hospital mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates. Conclusion In this general intensive care unit population, acute kidney 'risk, injury, failure', as defined by the newly developed RIFLE classification, is associated with increased hospital mortality and resource use. Patients with RIFLE class R are indeed at high risk of progression to class I or class F. Patients with RIFLE class I or class F incur a significantly increased length of stay and an increased risk of inhospital mortality compared with those who do not progress past class R or those who never develop acute kidney injury, even after adjusting for baseline severity of illness, case mix
Juckel, Georg; Schaub, Daniela; Fuchs, Nina; Naumann, Ute; Uhl, Idun; Witthaus, Henning; Hargarter, Ludger; Bierhoff, Hans-Werner; Brüne, Martin
In trying to more broadly define outcome in the efficient long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia it is necessary to consider not only a reduction in psychopathological symptoms but also a successful psychosocial reintegration. Thus, a more exact assessment of psychosocial functioning is needed. Since the GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) scale and the SOFAS (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale) are less operationalized and confuse psychosocial facts with psychopathological symptoms, the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale was developed [Morosini, P.L., Magliano, L., Brambilla, L., Ugolini, S., Pioli, R. (2000). Development, reliability and acceptability of a new version of the DSM-IV Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) to assess routine social functioning. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 1001, 323-329.] containing the four main areas "socially useful activities, personal and social relationships, self-care, as well as disturbing and aggressive behaviour". Validation of the PSP scale was conducted in a sample of 62 patients with acute schizophrenia. Rating instruments were PSP, GAF, SOFAS, PANSS, CGI, and Mini-ICF-P (Mini-ICF-Rating for Mental Disorders). The results showed good reliability with alpha=.64-.84, high test-retest reliability as well as good inter-rater reliability for the PSP scale. Furthermore, PSP proved good validity with high correlations to GAF (r=.91), SOFAS (r=.91), and Mini-ICF-P (r=-.69). The hypothesis that more critically ill patients would show lower scores on PSP than lesser ill patients was only confirmed for PANSS negative symptoms. Thus, the findings prove the PSP scale to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing social functioning of patients with schizophrenia during the course of treatment as well as in the acute state.
Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Robertson, Thomas A; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A
Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent in critically ill patients. It is predominantly (60-80%) excreted unchanged in urine. Sustained low-efficiency diafiltration (SLED-f) is increasingly being utilised in critically ill patients because of its practical advantages over continuous renal replacement therapy. To date, the effect of SLED-f on fluconazole pharmacokinetics and dosing has not been studied. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving SLED-f and to compare this with other forms of renal replacement therapy. Serial blood samples were collected at pre- and post-filter ports within the SLED-f circuit during SLED-f and from an arterial catheter before and after SLED-f from three patients during one session. Fluconazole concentrations were measured using a validated chromatography method. Median clearance (CL) and 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) were 2.1L/h and 152 mg·h/L, respectively, whilst receiving SLED-f. Moreover, 72% of fluconazole was cleared by a single SLED-f session (6h) compared with previous reports of 33-38% clearance by a 4-h intermittent haemodialysis session. CL and AUC0-24 were comparable with previous observations in a pre-dilution mode of continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration. The observed rebound concentration of fluconazole post SLED-f was <2%. Although a definitive dosing recommendation is not possible due to the small patient number, it is clear that doses >200mg daily are likely to be required to achieve the PK/PD target for common pathogens because of significant fluconazole clearance by SLED-f.
Bagshaw, Sean M; Sood, Manish M; Long, Jennifer; Fowler, Robert A; Adhikari, Neill K J
Canada's pandemic H1N1 influenza A (pH1N1) outbreak led to a high burden of critical illness. Our objective was to describe the incidence of AKI (acute kidney injury) in these patients and risk factors for AKI, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and mortality. From a prospective cohort of critically ill adults with confirmed or probable pH1N1 (16 April 2009-12 April 2010), we abstracted data on demographics, co-morbidities, acute physiology, AKI (defined by RIFLE criteria for Injury or Failure), treatments in the intensive care unit, and clinical outcomes. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between clinical characteristics and the outcomes of AKI, RRT, and hospital mortality. We included 562 patients with pH1N1-related critical illness (479 [85.2%] confirmed, 83 [14.8%] probable]: mean age 48.0 years, 53.4% female, and 13.3% aboriginal. Common co-morbidities included obesity, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AKI occurred in 60.9%, with RIFLE categories of Injury (23.0%) and Failure (37.9%). Independent predictors of AKI included obesity (OR 2.94; 95%CI, 1.75-4.91), chronic kidney disease (OR 4.50; 95%CI, 1.46-13.82), APACHE II score (OR per 1-unit increase 1.06; 95%CI, 1.03-1.09), and P(a)O2/F(i)O2 ratio (OR per 10-unit increase 0.98; 95%CI, 0.95-1.00). Of patients with AKI, 24.9% (85/342) received RRT and 25.8% (85/329) died. Independent predictors of RRT were obesity (OR 2.25; 95% CI, 1.14-4.44), day 1 mechanical ventilation (OR 4.09; 95% CI, 1.21-13.84), APACHE II score (OR per 1-unit increase 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12), and day 1 creatinine (OR per 10 μmol/L increase, 1.06; 95%CI, 1.03-1.10). Development of AKI was not independently associated with hospital mortality. The incidence of AKI and RRT utilization were high among Canadian patients with critical illness due to pH1N1.
Palmieri, Tina; Lavrentieva, Athina; Greenhalgh, David G
The aim of this study was to apply the RIFLE [risk (R), injury (I), failure (F), loss (L) and end-stage kidney disease (E)] criteria in burn ICU patients, to identify the risk factors for occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI), as well as to analyze the progression between stages (classes) of RIFLE classification, and the impact of progression of AKI on morbidity and mortality. Retrospective, descriptive cohort study. Single-center, 8 bed burn ICU facility. All consecutive patients aged >18 years with a burn injury of 20% or more of a total body surface area percent (TBSA%) admitted during a 2-year-period were included in the study. None. Data of 60 patients were studied. AKI occurred in 32 (53.3%) of patients with severe burns with the maximum RIFLE category: Risk in 9 (28.1%), Injury in 6 (18.8%) and Failure 17 (53.1%). Patients with AKI had a mortality rate of 34.4%. None of patients who did not develop AKI during ICU stay died. Thirteen patients progressed to higher RIFLE I class of AKI. Patients who progressed to higher RIFLE class had higher mortality rate (46%) compared to those who remained at the same (Risk or Injury) RIFLE class (7.7%). The progression to higher RIFLE class was associated with the higher extrarenal SOFA and the higher SOFA at maximum RIFLE class, the use of nephrotoxic drugs, the number of operations, the cumulative fluid balance prior the maximum RIFLE and the presence of sepsis. Logistic regression analysis indicated that maximum SOFA score, presence of sepsis and Failure class of AKI (p=0.033) were the independent risk factors for mortality. This study demonstrated (a) the high incidence of AKI in patients with severe burns; (b) the number of predisposing to progression of AKI factors (severity of organ failure, presence of sepsis, use of nephrotoxic drugs, number of previous surgical operations, cumulative fluid balance); (c) the association of Failure class of acute kidney injury with high mortality. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd
Hofmann, W; Rösler, A; Vogel, W; Nehen, H G
Dementia is an increasing challenge for care providers in nursing homes and hospitals. Since the 1980s, special acute care units in nursing homes have developed rapidly. In Germany, the first unit in a hospital opened in 1990. In 2013, there were 22 units. In the following paper, the German Geriatric Society ("Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geriatrie e. V.") recommends basic standards for these wards. The basic standards for these wards include the following: a maximum of 20 beds, an area physically separated from the geriatric hospital department, their own dayroom and therapy room, a structured daily routine suitable for patients with dementia, the selection of permanent staff on a voluntary basis, specialized training, extended geriatric assessment, and special consideration of the background and social situation of the patients.
Imberti, Davide; Benedetti, Raffaella; Ageno, Walter
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common potentially life-threatening complication in acutely ill medical patients; over 70 % of the fatal episodes of pulmonary embolism during hospitalization occur in non-surgical patients. In the absence of thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of venographically detected deep vein thrombosis is about 15 % in medical patients. Several trials and meta-analyses have clearly demonstrated the prophylactic role of unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin and fondaparinux. Although over the past few years the knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and prophylaxis in medical patients has significantly improved, there remain a number of controversial areas that require further investigation. Newer VTE risk assessment models have been proposed to select high risk hospitalized medical patients, but they still require external validation; scarce data are available to stratify patients to identify their individual bleeding risk. The optimal duration of thromboprophylaxis in medical patients is still a matter of debate; currently, extended prophylaxis after discharge is not recommended, but it may be required for subgroup of patients with persistently high VTE risk and a negligible risk of bleeding. Based on the results of recent studies, the new oral anticoagulants appear to have a very limited role, if any. However, a better risk stratification of patients who have a persistently increased risk of VTE is warranted to improve the risk to benefit profile of any anticoagulant drug to be used in this setting.
Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Akhoundi, Abbasali; Ahmed, Adil H; Kashani, Kianoush B
In the current acute kidney injury (AKI) definition, the urine output (UO) criterion does not specify which body weights (BW), i.e. actual (ABW) versus ideal (IBW), should be used to diagnose and stage AKI, leading to heterogeneity across research studies. This is a single center, retrospective, observational study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. All adult patients who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at our institution for a minimum of 6 continuous hours between January and March 2010 and had a urinary catheter for hourly urine output monitoring were eligible for this study. Patients' AKI stages, based on UO criterion, were assessed by calculating each milliliter of urine per kilogram per hour, using ABW versus IBW. A total of 493 ICU patients were included in the analysis. The median ABW and IBW were 82 (IQR 68-96) and 70 (IQR 60-77) kg, respectively. Using the IBW criterion, 154 patients (31.2%) were diagnosed with AKI, while 204 (41.4%) were diagnosed using the ABW measurement (P-value<.01). Patients who had AKI regardless of BW type had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.76 (95% CI 1.05-2.95) for 90-day mortality, whereas patients who had AKI according to ABW but not IBW had no significant increase in the risk of 90-day mortality, adjusted OR 0.76; (95% CI 0.25-1.91), compared to patients who had no AKI. Using ABW to diagnose and stage AKI by UO criterion is more sensitive and less specific than IBW. Based on the application of the definition, different BW types could be utilized.
Lacave, Guillaume; Caille, Vincent; Bruneel, Fabrice; Palette, Catherine; Legriel, Stéphane; Grimaldi, David; Eurin, Mathilde; Bedos, Jean-Pierre
Abstract For vancomycin therapy of severe infections, the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends high vancomycin trough levels, whose potential for inducing nephrotoxicity is controversial. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients given continuous intravenous vancomycin with target serum vancomycin levels of 20 to 30 mg/L. We retrospectively studied 107 continuous intravenous vancomycin treatments of ≥48 hours’ duration with at least 2 serum vancomycin levels ≥20 mg/L in critically ill patients. Nephrotoxicity was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guideline for AKI (ie, serum creatinine elevation by ≥26.5 μmoL/L or to ≥1.5 times baseline). Risk factors for AKI were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. AKI developed in 31 (29%) courses. Higher serum vancomycin levels were associated with AKI (P < 0.01). Factors independently associated with AKI were highest serum vancomycin ≥40 mg/L (odds ratio [OR], 3.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–10.37; P < 0.01), higher cumulative number of organ failures (OR, 2.63 95%CI, 1.42–5.31; P < 0.01), and cirrhosis of the liver (OR, 5.58; 95%CI, 1.08–31.59; P = 0.04). In this study, 29% of critically ill patients had AKI develop during continuous intravenous vancomycin therapy targeting serum levels of 20 to 30 mg/L. Serum vancomycin level ≥40 mg/L was independently associated with AKI. PMID:28207512
Wernly, Bernhard; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Kabisch, Bjoern; Muessig, Johanna; Masyuk, Maryna; Kelm, Malte; Hoppe, Uta C.; Jung, Christian
Hyperglycemia is a common condition in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). These patients represent an inhomogeneous collective and hyperglycemia might need different evaluation depending on the underlying disorder. To elucidate this, we investigated and compared associations of severe hyperglycemia (>200 mg/dL) and mortality in patients admitted to an ICU for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or sepsis as the two most frequent admission diagnoses. From 2006 to 2009, 2551 patients 69 (58–77) years; 1544 male; 337 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2DM)) who were admitted because of either AMI or sepsis to an ICU in a tertiary care hospital were investigated retrospectively. Follow-up of patients was performed between May 2013 and November 2013. In a Cox regression analysis, maximum glucose concentration at the day of admission was associated with mortality in the overall cohort (HR = 1.006, 95% CI: 1.004–1.009; p < 0.001) and in patients suffering from myocardial infarction (HR = 1.101, 95% CI: 1.075–1.127; p < 0.001) but only in trend in patients admitted to an ICU for sepsis (HR = 1.030, 95% CI: 0.998–1.062; p = 0.07). Severe hyperglycemia was associated with adverse intra-ICU mortality in the overall cohort (23% vs. 13%; p < 0.001) and patients admitted for AMI (15% vs. 5%; p < 0.001) but not for septic patients (39% vs. 40%; p = 0.48). A medical history of type 2 diabetes (n = 337; 13%) was not associated with increased intra-ICU mortality (15% vs. 15%; p = 0.93) but in patients with severe hyperglycemia and/or a known medical history of type 2 diabetes considered in combination, an increased mortality in AMI patients (intra-ICU 5% vs. 13%; p < 0.001) but not in septic patients (intra-ICU 38% vs. 41%; p = 0.53) could be evidenced. The presence of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients has differential impact within the different etiological groups. Hyperglycemia in AMI patients might identify a sicker patient
Herdman, M Trent; Maude, Richard James; Chowdhury, Md Safiqul; Kingston, Hugh W F; Jeeyapant, Atthanee; Samad, Rasheda; Karim, Rezaul; Dondorp, Arjen M; Hossain, Md Amir
Delays in seeking appropriate healthcare can increase the case fatality of acute febrile illnesses, and circuitous routes of care-seeking can have a catastrophic financial impact upon patients in low-income settings. To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for patients with acute febrile illnesses, we recruited a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 527 acutely ill adults and children aged over 6 months, with a documented fever ≥38.0 °C and symptoms of up to 14 days' duration, presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh, over the course of one year from September 2011 to September 2012. Participants were classified according to the socioeconomic status of their households, defined by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative's multidimensional poverty index (MPI). 51% of participants were classified as multidimensionally poor (MPI>0.33). Median time from onset of any symptoms to arrival at hospital was 22 hours longer for MPI poor adults compared to non-poor adults (123 vs. 101 hours) rising to a difference of 26 hours with adjustment in a multivariate regression model (95% confidence interval 7 to 46 hours; P = 0.009). There was no difference in delays for children from poor and non-poor households (97 vs. 119 hours; P = 0.394). Case fatality was 5.9% vs. 0.8% in poor and non-poor individuals respectively (P = 0.001)-5.1% vs. 0.0% for poor and non-poor adults (P = 0.010) and 6.4% vs. 1.8% for poor and non-poor children (P = 0.083). Deaths were attributed to central nervous system infection (11), malaria (3), urinary tract infection (2), gastrointestinal infection (1) and undifferentiated sepsis (1). Both poor and non-poor households relied predominantly upon the (often informal) private sector for medical advice before reaching the referral hospital, but MPI poor participants were less likely to have consulted a qualified doctor. Poor participants were more likely to attribute delays in
Herdman, M. Trent; Maude, Richard James; Chowdhury, Md. Safiqul; Kingston, Hugh W. F.; Jeeyapant, Atthanee; Samad, Rasheda; Karim, Rezaul; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Hossain, Md. Amir
Delays in seeking appropriate healthcare can increase the case fatality of acute febrile illnesses, and circuitous routes of care-seeking can have a catastrophic financial impact upon patients in low-income settings. To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for patients with acute febrile illnesses, we recruited a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 527 acutely ill adults and children aged over 6 months, with a documented fever ≥38.0°C and symptoms of up to 14 days’ duration, presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh, over the course of one year from September 2011 to September 2012. Participants were classified according to the socioeconomic status of their households, defined by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative’s multidimensional poverty index (MPI). 51% of participants were classified as multidimensionally poor (MPI>0.33). Median time from onset of any symptoms to arrival at hospital was 22 hours longer for MPI poor adults compared to non-poor adults (123 vs. 101 hours) rising to a difference of 26 hours with adjustment in a multivariate regression model (95% confidence interval 7 to 46 hours; P = 0.009). There was no difference in delays for children from poor and non-poor households (97 vs. 119 hours; P = 0.394). Case fatality was 5.9% vs. 0.8% in poor and non-poor individuals respectively (P = 0.001)—5.1% vs. 0.0% for poor and non-poor adults (P = 0.010) and 6.4% vs. 1.8% for poor and non-poor children (P = 0.083). Deaths were attributed to central nervous system infection (11), malaria (3), urinary tract infection (2), gastrointestinal infection (1) and undifferentiated sepsis (1). Both poor and non-poor households relied predominantly upon the (often informal) private sector for medical advice before reaching the referral hospital, but MPI poor participants were less likely to have consulted a qualified doctor. Poor participants were more likely to attribute delays in
Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Papiol, Elisabeth; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Diaz, Emili; Zaragoza, Rafael; Granada, Rosa María; Socias, Lorenzo; Bonastre, Juan; Valverdú, Montserrat; Pozo, Juan Carlos; Luque, Pilar; Juliá-Narvaéz, Jose Antonio; Cordero, Lourdes; Albaya, Antonio; Serón, Daniel; Rello, Jordi
Little information exists about the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients with the pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. We conducted a prospective, observational, multicenter study in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Patients with chronic renal failure were excluded. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. A total of 661 patients were analyzed. One hundred eighteen (17.7%) patients developed AKI; of these, 37 (31.4%) of the patients with AKI were classified as AKI I, 15 (12.7%) were classified as AKI II and 66 (55.9%) were classified as AKI III, among the latter of whom 50 (75.7%) required continuous renal replacement therapy. Patients with AKI had a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (19.2 ± 8.3 versus 12.6 ± 5.9; P < 0.001), a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (8.7 ± 4.2 versus 4.8 ± 2.9; P < 0.001), more need for mechanical ventilation (MV) (87.3% versus 56.2%; P < 0.01, odds ratio (OR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0 to 9.4), a greater incidence of shock (75.4% versus 38.3%; P < 0.01, OR 4.9, 95% CI, 3.1 to 7.7), a greater incidence of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (92.4% versus 54.7%; P < 0.01, OR 10.0, 95% CI, 4.9 to 20.21) and a greater incidence of coinfection (23.7% versus 14.4%; P < 0.01, OR 1.8, 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.0). In survivors, patients with AKI remained on MV longer and ICU and hospital length of stay were longer than in patients without AKI. The overall mortality was 18.8% and was significantly higher for AKI patients (44.1% versus 13.3%; P < 0.01, OR 5.1, 95% CI, 3.3 to 7.9). Logistic regression analysis was performed with AKIN criteria, and it demonstrated that among patients with AKI, only AKI III was independently associated with higher ICU mortality (P < 0.001, OR 4.81, 95% CI 2.17 to 10.62). In our cohort of patients with H1N1 virus infection, only those cases in the AKI III category were independently
Study Design of the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients (microSOAP): an International Multicenter Observational Study of Sublingual Microcirculatory Alterations in Intensive Care Patients
Vellinga, Namkje A. R.; Boerma, E. Christiaan; Koopmans, Matty; Donati, Abele; Dubin, Arnaldo; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Pearse, Rupert M.; Bakker, Jan; Ince, Can
Objective. Sublingual microcirculatory alterations are associated with an adverse prognosis in several critical illness subgroups. Up to now, single-center studies have reported on sublingual microcirculatory alterations in ICU patient subgroups, but an extensive evaluation of the prevalence of these alterations is lacking. We present the study design of an international multicenter observational study to investigate the prevalence of microcirculatory alterations in critically ill: the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (microSOAP). Methods. 36 ICU's worldwide have participated in this study aiming for inclusion of over 500 evaluable patients. To enable communication and data collection, a website, an Open Clinica 3.0 database, and image uploading software have been designed. A one-session assessment of the sublingual microcirculation using Sidestream Dark Field imaging and data collection on patient characteristics has been performed in every ICU patient >18 years, regardless of underlying disease. Statistical analysis will provide insight in the prevalence and severity of sublingual alterations, its relation to systemic hemodynamic variables, disease, therapy, and outcome. Conclusion. This study will be the largest microcirculation study ever performed. It is expected that this study will also establish a basis for future studies related to the microcirculation in critically ill. PMID:22666566
Chua, Kaw Bing; Voon, Kenny; Yu, Meng; Keniscope, Canady; Abdul Rasid, Kasri; Wang, Lin-Fa
Bats are increasingly being recognized as important reservoir hosts for a large number of viruses, some of them can be highly virulent when they infect human and livestock animals. Among the new bat zoonotic viruses discovered in recent years, several reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were found to be able to cause acute respiratory infections in humans, which included Melaka and Kampar viruses discovered in Malaysia, all of them belong to the genus Orthoreovirus, family Reoviridae. In this report, we describe the isolation of a highly related virus from an adult patient who suffered acute respiratory illness in Malaysia. Although there was no direct evidence of bat origin, epidemiological study indicated the potential exposure of the patient to bats before the onset of disease. The current study further demonstrates that spillover events of different strains of related orthoreoviruses from bats to humans are occurring on a regular basis, which calls for more intensive and systematic surveillances to fully assess the true public health impact of these newly discovered bat-borne zoonotic reoviruses. PMID:22022394
Chua, Kaw Bing; Voon, Kenny; Yu, Meng; Keniscope, Canady; Abdul Rasid, Kasri; Wang, Lin-Fa
Bats are increasingly being recognized as important reservoir hosts for a large number of viruses, some of them can be highly virulent when they infect human and livestock animals. Among the new bat zoonotic viruses discovered in recent years, several reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were found to be able to cause acute respiratory infections in humans, which included Melaka and Kampar viruses discovered in Malaysia, all of them belong to the genus Orthoreovirus, family Reoviridae. In this report, we describe the isolation of a highly related virus from an adult patient who suffered acute respiratory illness in Malaysia. Although there was no direct evidence of bat origin, epidemiological study indicated the potential exposure of the patient to bats before the onset of disease. The current study further demonstrates that spillover events of different strains of related orthoreoviruses from bats to humans are occurring on a regular basis, which calls for more intensive and systematic surveillances to fully assess the true public health impact of these newly discovered bat-borne zoonotic reoviruses.
Sabatino, Alice; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Bozzoli, Laura; Fani, Filippo; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Maggiore, Umberto; Fiaccadori, Enrico
In patients with Acute Kidney Injury there is a lack of nutritional variables that can assess nutritional status, more specifically lean body mass (LBM) and skeletal muscle mass, at the individual level. In this clinical setting, ultrasound (US)) of the quadriceps femoris could represent a widely available, non-invasive, affordable, and reliable tool to evaluate skeletal muscle. We performed a cross-sectional observational study in adult critically ill patients with KDIGO stage 3 AKI on dialysis. Quadriceps rectus femoris and vastus intermedius thickness were measured by two assessors. Intra- and interobserver reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The same US measures were obtained before and after dialysis. We enrolled 34 patients, 22 (65%) were male and the mean APACHE II score was 22.7 (±5.6). In the intraobserver reliability study, assessor 1 performed 288 paired measurements and assessor 2 performed 430 paired measurements in 34 patients, with an ICC equal to 0.99 and 1.00, respectively. There were 238 paired measurements (34 patients) in the interobserver reliability study, with an ICC = 0.92. No difference was found in the measurements obtained before and after dialysis (11.5 (4.2) vs 11.4 (4.1) mm, P = 0.2498), independently from acute body weight changes due to fluid removal. In patients with AKI, US of quadriceps femoris could represent a simple, accurate, and non-invasive method to evaluate quantitative changes in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Mamuchishvili, Nana; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Gatserelia, Lana; Makhviladze, Manana; Kanashvili, Marine; Mikautadze, Teona; Nanuashvili, Alexander; Kiknavelidze, Khatuni; Kokaia, Nora; Makharadze, Manana; Clark, Danielle V.; Bautista, Christian T.; Farrell, Margaret; Fadeel, Moustafa Abdel; Maksoud, Mohamed Abdel; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Rivard, Robert G.
Information on the infectious causes of undifferentiated acute febrile illness (AFI) in Georgia is essential for effective treatment and prevention. In May 2008, a hospital-based AFI surveillance was initiated at six hospitals in Georgia. Patients aged ≥ 4 years with fever ≥ 38°C for ≥ 48 hours were eligible for surveillance. Blood culture and serologic testing were conducted for Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., West Nile virus (WNV), Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Coxiella burnetii, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), hantavirus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), and Rickettsia typhi. Of 537 subjects enrolled, 70% were outpatients, 54% were males, and the mean age was 37 years. Patients reported having fatigue (89%), rigors (87%), sweating (83%), pain in joints (49%), and sleep disturbances (42%). Thirty-nine (7%) patients were seropositive for R. typhi, 37 (7%) for Brucella spp., 36 (7%) for TBEV, 12 (2%) for Leptospira spp., 10 (2%) for C. burnetii, and three (0.6%) for S. Typhi. None of the febrile patients tested positive for WNV antibodies. Of the patients, 73% were negative for all pathogens. Our results indicate that most of the targeted pathogens are present in Georgia, and highlight the importance of enhancing laboratory capacity for these infectious diseases. PMID:26438032
Stefanou, Christos; Karatzanos, Eleftherios; Mitsiou, Georgios; Psarra, Katerina; Angelopoulos, Epameinondas; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Gerovasili, Vasiliki; Boviatsis, Efstathios; Routsi, Christina; Nanas, Serafeim
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been suggested to constitute a restoration index of the disturbed endothelium in ICU patients. Neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES) is increasingly employed in ICU to prevent comorbidities such as ICU-acquired weakness, which is related to endothelial dysfunction. The role of NMES to mobilize EPCs has not been investigated yet. The purpose of this study was to explore the NMES-induced effects on mobilization of EPCs in septic ICU patients. Thirty-two septic mechanically ventilated patients (mean ± SD, age 58 ± 14 years) were randomized to one of the two 30-min NMES protocols of different characteristics: a high-frequency (75 Hz, 6 s on-21 s off) or a medium-frequency (45 Hz, 5 s on-12 s off) protocol both applied at maximally tolerated intensity. Blood was sampled before and immediately after the NMES sessions. Different EPCs subpopulations were quantified by cytometry markers CD34(+)/CD133(+)/CD45(-), CD34(+)/CD133(+)/CD45(-)/VEGFR2 (+) and CD34(+)/CD45(-)/VEGFR2 (+). Overall, CD34(+)/CD133(+)/CD45(-) EPCs increased from 13.5 ± 10.2 to 20.8 ± 16.9 and CD34(+)/CD133(+)/CD45(-)/VEGFR2 (+) EPCs from 3.8 ± 5.2 to 6.4 ± 8.5 cells/10(6) enucleated cells (mean ± SD, p < 0.05). CD34(+)/CD45(-)/VEGFR2 (+) EPCs also increased from 16.5 ± 14.5 to 23.8 ± 19.2 cells/10(6) enucleated cells (mean ± SD, p < 0.05). EPCs mobilization was not affected by NMES protocol and sepsis severity (p > 0.05), while it was related to corticosteroids administration (p < 0.05). NMES acutely mobilized endothelial progenitor cells, measures of the endothelial restoration potential, in septic ICU patients.
Campi, Thomas R.; George, Sharon; Villacís, Diego; Ward-Peterson, Melissa; Barengo, Noël C.; Zevallos, Juan C.
Abstract Patients with mental illness carry risk factors that predispose them to excess cardiovascular mortality from an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if patients with AMI and charted mental illness (CMI) received less reperfusion therapy following an AMI, compared to AMI patients without CMI in a recent sample population from Florida. A secondary analysis of data was conducted using the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (FL-AHCA) hospital discharge registry. Adults hospitalized with an AMI from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2015 were included for the analysis. The dependent variable was administration of reperfusion therapy (thrombolytic, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], and coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]), and the independent variable was the presence of CMI (depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, race, health insurance, and comorbidities. The database included 61,614 adults (31.3% women) hospitalized with AMI in Florida. The CMI population comprised of 1036 patients (1.7%) who were on average 5 years younger than non-CMI (60.2 ±12.8 versus 65.2 ±14.1; P < .001). Compared with patients without CMI, patients with CMI had higher proportions of women, governmental health insurance holders, and those with more comorbidities. The adjusted odds ratio indicated that patients with CMI were 30% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared with those without CMI (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6–0.8). Within the AMI population including those with and without CMI, women were 23% less likely to receive therapy than men; blacks were 26% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than whites; and those holding government health insurances were between 20% and 40% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than those with private health
Campi, Thomas R; George, Sharon; Villacís, Diego; Ward-Peterson, Melissa; Barengo, Noël C; Zevallos, Juan C
Patients with mental illness carry risk factors that predispose them to excess cardiovascular mortality from an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if patients with AMI and charted mental illness (CMI) received less reperfusion therapy following an AMI, compared to AMI patients without CMI in a recent sample population from Florida.A secondary analysis of data was conducted using the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (FL-AHCA) hospital discharge registry. Adults hospitalized with an AMI from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2015 were included for the analysis. The dependent variable was administration of reperfusion therapy (thrombolytic, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], and coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]), and the independent variable was the presence of CMI (depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, race, health insurance, and comorbidities.The database included 61,614 adults (31.3% women) hospitalized with AMI in Florida. The CMI population comprised of 1036 patients (1.7%) who were on average 5 years younger than non-CMI (60.2 ±12.8 versus 65.2 ±14.1; P < .001). Compared with patients without CMI, patients with CMI had higher proportions of women, governmental health insurance holders, and those with more comorbidities. The adjusted odds ratio indicated that patients with CMI were 30% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy compared with those without CMI (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6-0.8). Within the AMI population including those with and without CMI, women were 23% less likely to receive therapy than men; blacks were 26% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than whites; and those holding government health insurances were between 20% and 40% less likely to receive reperfusion therapy than those with private health insurance.Patients
Quinine is widely used for the common symptom of leg cramps. Quinine tablets require a prescription, but quinine and the product from which it is derived, cinchona, are also available without prescription. They are components of over-the-counter remedies for many common symptoms, of nutrition products, and of beverages such as tonic water and bitter lemon. Although quinine has been used for centuries, initially as an extract from the bark of the cinchona tree, allergic reactions to quinine can be severe and can affect multiple organs. These allergic reactions can cause thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, liver toxicity, and neurological abnormalities. Because quinine use is often intermittent, defining quinine as a cause of an acute disorder may be difficult. Moreover, since quinine use is often self-regulated, patients may not mention it in response to direct questions about medication use, adding to diagnostic difficulty. The diversity and severity of quinine-associated disorders and the difficulties of diagnosis are illustrated by the presentation of 4 case histories. Awareness of the variety of potential quinine-associated reactions is important for accurate diagnosis and critical for prevention of recurrent illness. PMID:16278718
Background Proteinuria and hematuria are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between these findings and acute kidney injury (AKI) or mortality remains unresolved in critically ill patients. Methods Proteinuria and hematuria were measured by a dipstick test and scored using a scale ranging from a negative result to 3+ in 1883 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. The odds ratios (ORs) for AKI and 3-year mortality were calculated after adjustment for multiple covariates according to the degree of proteinuria or hematuria. For evaluating the synergistic effect on mortality among proteinuria, hematuria, and AKI, the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was used. Results Proteinuria and hematuria increased the ORs for AKI: the ORs of proteinuria were 1.66 (+/−), 1.86 (1+), 2.18 (2+), and 4.74 (3+) compared with non-proteinuria; the ORs of hematuria were 1.31 (+/−), 1.58 (1+), 2.63 (2+), and 2.52 (3+) compared with non-hematuria. The correlations between the mortality risk and proteinuria or hematuria were all significant and graded (Ptrend < 0.001). There was a relative excess risk of mortality when both AKI and proteinuria or hematuria were considered together: the synergy indexes were 1.30 and 1.23 for proteinuria and hematuria, respectively. Conclusions Proteinuria and hematuria are associated with the risks of AKI and mortality in critically ill patients. Additionally, these findings had a synergistic effect with AKI on mortality. PMID:24942179
Zapatero, A; Dot, I; Diaz, Y; Gracia, M P; Pérez-Terán, P; Climent, C; Masclans, J R; Nolla, J
To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients upon admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and its prognostic implications. A single-center, prospective observational study was carried out from January to November 2015. Patients were followed-up on until death or hospital discharge. The department of Critical Care Medicine of a university hospital. All adults admitted to the ICU during the study period, without known factors capable of altering serum 25(OH)D concentration. Determination of serum 25(OH)D levels within the first 24h following admission to the ICU. Prevalence and mortality at 28 days. The study included 135 patients, of which 74% presented deficient serum 25(OH)D levels upon admission to the ICU. Non-survivors showed significantly lower levels than survivors (8.14ng/ml [6.17-11.53] vs. 12ng/ml [7.1-20.30]; P=.04], and the serum 25(OH)D levels were independently associated to mortality (OR 2.86; 95% CI 1.05-7.86; P=.04]. The area under the ROC curve was 0.61 (95% CI 0.51-0.75), and the best cut-off point for predicting mortality was 10.9ng/ml. Patients with serum 25(OH)D<10.9ng/ml also showed higher acute kidney injury rates (13 vs. 29%; P=.02). Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent upon admission to the ICU. Severe Vitamin D deficiency (25[OH]D<10.9ng/ml) upon admission to the ICU is associated to acute kidney injury and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Westbrook, Johanna I; Coiera, Enrico W; Brear, Michelle; Stapleton, Stuart; Rob, Marilyn I; Murphy, Monique; Cregan, Patrick
To evaluate whether introduction of an emergency department (ED) telemedicine system changed patient management and outcome indicators and to investigate clinicians' perceptions of the impact of the system on care provided and on their work. Before-and-after study of use of the Virtual Critical Care Unit (ViCCU), which uses an ultrabroadband connection allowing real-time audiovisual communication between clinicians at distant sites. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical and nursing staff at the end of the study. The ViCCU intervention commenced on 1 January 2004. Our study was conducted in the EDs of an 85-bed district hospital and a 420-bed metropolitan tertiary hospital. It involved all acutely ill patients requiring urgent care (defined by triage category and grouped into critical care, major trauma and moderate trauma) who were treated during the 12 months before (n=169) and 18 months after (n=181) the intervention at the district hospital. Thirty-one of 33 clinicians (doctors and nurses) participating at the two hospitals took part in interviews at the end of the study. Changes in patterns of management (disposition [admission, discharge or transfer], treatment times, number of procedures) and outcomes (rapid acute physiology scores, hours on ventilation or in intensive care, length of stay). Patient disposition remained unaltered for major trauma patients. For critical care patients, admissions fell significantly (54% to 30%), transfers increased (21% to 39%), and more procedures were performed. For moderate trauma patients, discharges increased significantly (45% to 63%), transfers decreased (48% to 25%) and treatment times were longer. No significant changes were found in outcome indicators. Clinicians reported that the ViCCU allowed greater support to remote clinicians. Specialists reported increased workloads and feelings of greater responsibility for patients at the district hospital. Nurses at the district site reported reduced stress
Jacobs, M.; Grégoire, N.; Mégarbane, B.; Gobin, P.; Balayn, D.; Marchand, S.; Mimoz, O.
Colistin is increasingly used as a last option for the treatment of severe infections due to Gram-negative bacteria in critically ill patients requiring intermittent hemodialysis (HD) for acute renal failure. Our objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of colistin and its prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) in this population and to suggest dosing regimen recommendations. Eight intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were under intermittent HD and who were treated by CMS (Colimycine) were included. Blood samples were collected between two consecutive HD sessions. CMS and colistin concentrations were measured by a specific chromatographic assay and were analyzed using a PK population approach (Monolix software). Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to predict the probability of target attainment (PTA). CMS nonrenal clearance was increased in ICU-HD patients. Compared with that of ICU patients included in the same clinical trial but with preserved renal function, colistin exposure was increased by 3-fold in ICU-HD patients. This is probably because a greater fraction of the CMS converted into colistin. To maintain colistin plasma concentrations high enough (>3 mg/liter) for high PTA values (area under the concentration-time curve for the free, unbound fraction of a drug [fAUC]/MIC of >10 and fAUC/MIC of >50 for systemic and lung infections, respectively), at least for MICs lower than 1.5 mg/liter (nonpulmonary infection) or 0.5 mg/liter (pulmonary infection), the dosing regimen of CMS should be 1.5 million international units (MIU) twice daily on non-HD days. HD should be conducted at the end of a dosing interval, and a supplemental dose of 1.5 MIU should be administered after the HD session (i.e., total of 4.5 MIU for HD days). This study has confirmed and complemented previously published data and suggests an a priori clear and easy to follow dosing strategy for CMS in ICU-HD patients. PMID:26729492
Han, Jin H.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Shintani, Ayumi; Graves, Amy J.; Schnelle, John F.; Dittus, Robert S.; Powers, James S.; Wilson, Amanda; Storrow, Alan B.; Ely, E. Wesley
Objectives Impaired arousal signifies underlying brain dysfunction, but its clinical significance outside the intensive care unit remains unclear. We sought to determine if impaired arousal at initial presentation was associated with higher 6-month mortality and if this relationship existed in the absence of delirium. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting An emergency department located within an academic, tertiary care hospital. Participants 1,084 non-comatose patients who were 65 years or older. Measurements The Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) is a 10 second arousal scale; a score of 0 indicates normal arousal. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed adjusting for patient characteristics, admission status, and psychoactive medication administration. To determine if impaired arousal in the absence of delirium was associated with 6-month mortality, Cox proportional hazard regression was performed in a subset of 406 patients who received a psychiatrist assessment; the inverse weighted propensity score method was used to minimize residual confounding. Hazard ratios (HR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were reported. Results Patients with impaired arousal were 73% more likely to die within 6-months (HR =1.73, 95%CI: 1.21 – 2.49). Even in the absence of delirium, patients with an abnormal RASS were more likely to die within 6 months (HR = 2.20, 95CI%: 1.10 – 4.41). Conclusion Impaired arousal at initial presentation is an independent predictor of death within 6-months in a diverse group of acutely ill older patients, even in the absence of delirium. Routine RASS assessment of arousal during clinical care may be warranted as it correlates with prognosis. PMID:25352356
Hellferscee, Orienka; Treurnicht, Florette K; Tempia, Stefano; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Kahn, Kathleen; Cohen, Adam L; Pretorius, Marthi; Cohen, Cheryl; Madhi, Shabir A; Venter, Marietjie
Human enteroviruses (EV) have been associated with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in South Africa. We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiology of EV serotypes among patients hospitalized with SARI during 2009-2011. Study samples from patients were tested for the presence of enterovirus using a polymerase chain reaction assay. 8.2% (842/10 260) of SARI cases tested positive for enterovirus; 16% (7/45) were species EV-A, 44% (20/45) EV-B, 18% (8/45) EV-C and 22% (10/45) EV-D. Seventeen different EV serotypes were identified within EV-A to EV-D, of which EV-D68 (22%; 10/45) and Echovirus 3 (11%; 5/45) were the most prevalent. EV-D68 should be monitored in South Africa to assess the emergence of highly pathogenic strains. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. Methods A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale - a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes - was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. Results 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05), year of the course (p = 0.09), and gender (p = 0.04) for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. Conclusion The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems. PMID:20964840
Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Molloy, Andrew; McKenna, Lisa; Molloy, Elizabeth; Lewis, Belinda
There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale--a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes--was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05), year of the course (p = 0.09), and gender (p = 0.04) for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems.
Introduction The Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) is a consensus-based classification system for diagnosing acute kidney insufficiency (AKI), based on serum creatinine (SCr) and urine output criteria (RIFLESCr+UO). The urine output criteria, however, are frequently discarded and many studies in the literature applied only the SCr criteria (RIFLESCr). We diagnosed AKI using both RIFLE methods and compared the effects on time to AKI diagnosis, AKI incidence and AKI severity. Methods This was a prospective observational cohort study during four months in adult critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for at least 48 hours. During the first week patients were scored daily for AKI according to RIFLESCr+UO and RIFLESCr. We assessed urine output hourly and fluid balance daily. The baseline SCr was estimated if a recent pre-ICU admission SCr was unknown. Based on the two RIFLE methods for each patient we determined time to AKI diagnosis (AKI-0) and maximum RIFLE grade. Results We studied 260 patients. A pre-ICU admission SCr was available in 101 (39%) patients. The two RIFLE methods resulted in statistically significantly different outcomes for incidence of AKI, diagnosis of AKI for individual patients, distribution of AKI-0 and distribution of the maximum RIFLE grade. Discarding the RIFLE urine criteria for AKI diagnosis significantly underestimated the presence and grade of AKI on admission and during the first ICU week (P < 0,001) and significantly delayed the diagnosis of AKI (P < 0.001). Based on RIFLESCr 45 patients had no AKI on admission but subsequently developed AKI. In 24 of these patients (53%) AKI would have been diagnosed at least one day earlier if the RIFLE urine criteria had been applied. Mortality rate in the AKI population was 38% based on RIFLESCr and 24% based on RIFLESCr+UO (P = 0.02). Conclusions The use of RIFLE without the urine criteria significantly underscores the incidence and grade of AKI, significantly
Koenigsmann, Michael; Koehler, Katharina; Regner, Andreas; Franke, Astrid; Frommer, Jörg
In patients with acute leukemia we investigated the illness perceptions, lay theories and coping strategies 1 week after diagnosis. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 patients. The transcribed interviews were analyzed by methods of qualitative research. Dramatic narrations of overwhelming threat in younger patients contrast to rationalization in elderly patients. Feelings of helplessness and efforts of normalization become apparent. Intense descriptions of physical injury due to invasive procedures allow verbalizing the fear of the disease. While coping strategies are complex, the overall importance of trust is recognized. Mortal fears are indirectly indicated. The results have consequences for psycho-oncological training and patient education.
de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Moura, Álvaro Vieira; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Aquim, Esperidião Elias; Reá-Neto, Álvaro; Oliveira, Mirella Cristine; da Silva Júnior, Walderi Monteiro; Santana-Filho, Valter J.; Herminia Scola, Rosana
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of physiotherapeutic respiratory maneuvers on cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics and blood gas variables. METHOD: A descriptive, longitudinal, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial that included 20 critical patients with severe craniocerebral trauma who were receiving mechanical ventilation and who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Each patient was subjected to the physiotherapeutic maneuvers of vibrocompression and increased manual expiratory flow (5 minutes on each hemithorax), along with subsequent airway suctioning with prior instillation of saline solution, hyperinflation and hyperoxygenation. Variables related to cardiovascular and cerebral hemodynamics and blood gas variables were recorded after each vibrocompression, increased manual expiratory flow and airway suctioning maneuver and 10 minutes after the end of airway suctioning. RESULTS: The hemodynamic and blood gas variables were maintained during vibrocompression and increased manual expiratory flow maneuvers; however, there were increases in mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, heart rate, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure during airway suctioning. All of the values returned to baseline 10 minutes after the end of airway suctioning. CONCLUSION: Respiratory physiotherapy can be safely performed on patients with severe craniocerebral trauma. Additional caution must be taken when performing airway suctioning because this technique alters cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics, even in sedated and paralyzed patients. PMID:24141836
Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Guralnik, Jack M.
Background Assessment of mobility in geriatric hospital units relies primarily on subjective observation or patient self-reports. We objectively examined the gait speed of hospitalized older patients. Methods Prospective study of 322 patients 65 years or older admitted from the community to a geriatric hospital unit between March 2008 and October 2009. Associations of gait speed (in meters per second) and activities of daily living with length of stay and home discharge were examined in multivariable logistic and generalized linear regression models. Results In total, 206 of 322 patients completed the gait speed walk, with a mean gait speed of 0.53 m/s. A strong association was found between faster gait speed and shorter length of stay. Patients unable to complete the walk and patients having gait speeds of less than 0.40 m/s had significantly longer lengths of stay by 1.9 and 1.4 days, respectively, compared with patients having gait speeds of at least 0.60 m/s. Similarly, patients unable to complete the walk (odds ratio, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.003–0.21) and patients having gait speeds of less than 0.40 m/s (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.001–0.63) had significantly decreased odds of home discharge compared with patients having gait speeds of at least 0.60 m/s. Activities of daily living were less robust than gait speed in discriminating the risk of length of stay or home discharge. Conclusions Gait speed is a clinically relevant indicator of functional status and is associated with important geriatric health outcomes, including length of stay and home discharge. Gait speed could be used to complement information obtained by self-reported activities of daily living. PMID:22371922
Wunsch, Hannah; Harrison, David A; Jones, Andrew; Rowan, Kathryn
Little is known about the utility of provision of high-dependency care (HDC) that is in a geographically separate location from a primary intensive care unit (ICU). To determine whether the availability of HDC in a geographically separate unit affects patient flow or mortality for critically ill patients. Admissions to ICUs in the United Kingdom, from 2009 to 2011, who received Level 3 intensive care in the first 24 hours after admission and subsequently Level 2 HDC. We compared differences in patient flow and outcomes for patients treated in hospitals providing some HDC in a geographically separate unit (dual HDC) with patients treated in hospitals providing all HDC in the same unit as intensive care (integrated HDC) using multilevel mixed effects models. In 192 adult general ICUs, 21.4% provided dual HDC. Acute hospital mortality was no different for patients cared for in ICUs with dual HDC versus those with integrated HDC (adjusted odds ratio, 0.94 [0.86-1.03]; P = 0.16). Dual HDC was associated with a decreased likelihood of a delayed discharge from the primary unit. However, total duration of critical care and the likelihood of discharge from the primary unit at night were increased with dual HDC. Availability of HDC in a geographically separate unit does not impact acute hospital mortality. The potential benefit of decreasing delays in discharge should be weighed against the increased total duration of critical care and greater likelihood of a transfer out of the primary unit at night.
Savory, Eric A; Marco, Catherine A
The challenges of end-of-life care require emergency physicians to utilize a multifaceted and dynamic skill set. Such skills include medical therapies to relieve pain and other symptoms near the end-of-life. Physicians must also demonstrate aptitude in comfort care, communication, cultural competency, and ethical principles. It is imperative that emergency physicians demonstrate a fundamental understanding of end-of-life issues in order to employ the versatile, multidisciplinary approach required to provide the highest quality end-of-life care for patients and their families. PMID:19386133
Douglas, Sara L.; Daly, Barbara J.; Kelley, Carol Genet; O’Toole, Elizabeth; Montenegro, Hugo
Background Chronically critically ill patients often have high costs of care and poor outcomes and thus might benefit from a disease management program. Objectives To evaluate how adding a disease management program to the usual care system affects outcomes after discharge from the hospital (mortality, health-related quality of life, resource use) in chronically critically ill patients. Methods In a prospective experimental design, 335 intensive care patients who received more than 3 days of mechanical ventilation at a university medical center were recruited. For 8 weeks after discharge, advanced practice nurses provided an intervention that focused on case management and interdisciplinary communication to patients in the experimental group. Results A total of 74.0% of the patients survived and completed the study. Significant predictors of death were age (P = .001), duration of mechanical ventilation (P = .001), and history of diabetes (P = .04). The disease management program did not have a significant impact on health-related quality of life; however, a greater percentage of patients in the experimental group than in the control group had “improved” physical health-related quality of life at the end of the intervention period (P = .02). The only significant effect of the intervention was a reduction in the number of days of hospital readmission and thus a reduction in charges associated with readmission. Conclusion The intervention was not associated with significant changes in any outcomes other than duration of readmission, but the supportive care coordination program could be provided without increasing overall charges. PMID:17724242
Abhilash, Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar; Jeevan, Jonathan Arul; Mitra, Shubhanker; Paul, Nirvin; Murugan, Thimiri Palani; Rangaraj, Ajay; David, Sandeep; Hansdak, Samuel George; Prakash, John Antony Jude; Abraham, Asha Mary; Ramasami, Prakash; Sathyendra, Sowmya; Sudarsanam, Thambu David; Varghese, George M
Background: Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) may have similar clinical presentation, and the etiology is varied and region specific. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in South India. All adult patients presenting with AUFI of 3–14 days duration were evaluated for etiology, and the differences in presentation and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 1258 patients. A microbiological cause was identified in 82.5% of our patients. Scrub typhus was the most common cause of AUFI (35.9%) followed by dengue (30.6%), malaria (10.4%), enteric fever (3.7%), and leptospirosis (0.6%). Both scrub typhus and dengue fever peaked during the monsoon season and the cooler months, whereas no seasonality was observed with enteric fever and malaria. The mean time to presentation was longer in enteric fever (9.9 [4.7] days) and scrub typhus (8.2 [3.2] days). Bleeding manifestations were seen in 7.7% of patients, mostly associated with dengue (14%), scrub typhus (4.2%), and malaria (4.6%). The requirement of supplemental oxygen, invasive ventilation, and inotropes was higher in scrub typhus, leptospirosis, and malaria. The overall mortality rate was 3.3% and was highest with scrub typhus (4.6%) followed by dengue fever (2.3%). Significant clinical predictors of scrub typhus were breathlessness (odds ratio [OR]: 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.38–7.3), total whole blood cell count >10,000 cells/mm3 (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.64–3.24), serum albumin <3.5 g % (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.68–3.2). Overt bleeding manifestations (OR: 2.98; 95% CI: 1.84–4.84), and a platelet count of <150,000 cells/mm3 (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.47–2.98) were independent predictors of dengue fever. Conclusion: The similarity in clinical presentation and diversity of etiological agents demonstrates the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of AUFI in South India. The etiological profile will be of use in the development
Mohananey, Divyanshu; Sethi, Jaskaran; Villablanca, Pedro A.; Ali, Muhammad S.; Kumar, Rohit; Baruah, Anushka; Bhatia, Nirmanmoh; Agrawal, Sahil; Hussain, Zeeshan; Shamoun, Fadi E.; Augoustides, John T.; Ramakrishna, Harish
Aim: Platelet function is intricately linked to the pathophysiology of critical Illness, and some studies have shown that antiplatelet therapy (APT) may decrease mortality and incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in these patients. Our objective was to understand the efficacy of APT by conducting a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis using PubMed, Central, Embase, The Cochrane Central Register, the ClinicalTrials.gov Website, and Google Scholar. Studies were included if they investigated critically ill patients receiving antiplatelet therapy and mentioned the outcomes being studied (mortality, duration of hospitalization, ARDS, and need for mechanical ventilation). Results: We found that there was a significant reduction in all-cause mortality in patients on APT compared to control (odds ratio [OR]: 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70–0.97). Both the incidence of acute lung injury/ARDS (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.57–0.78) and need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.60–0.91) were lower in the antiplatelet group. No significant difference in duration of hospitalization was observed between the two groups (standardized mean difference: −0.02; 95% CI: −0.11–0.07). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggests that critically ill patients who are on APT have an improved survival, decreased incidence of ARDS, and decreased need for mechanical ventilation. PMID:27716693
Xiong, Jiachuan; Tang, Xi; Hu, Zhangxue; Nie, Ling; Wang, Yiqin; Zhao, Jinghong
The sensitivity and accuracy of the Risk/Injury/Failure/Loss/End-stage (RIFLE) versus acute kidney injury Network (AKIN) criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients remains uncertain. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the incidence and prognostic value of the RIFLE versus AKIN criteria for AKI in critically ill patients. Literatures were identified by searching Medline, Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database. Nineteen studies with 171,889 participants were included. The pooled estimates of relative risk (RR) were analyzed. We found that the RIFLE and AKIN criteria is different for the incidence of AKI in intensive care unit (ICU) patients (P = 0.02, RR = 0.88), while not for cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.30, RR = 0.93). For AKI-related hospital mortality, the AKIN criteria did not show a better ability in predicting hospital mortality in either ICU (P = 0.19, RR = 1.01) or cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.61, RR = 0.98) compared to RIFLE criteria. Our findings supported that the AKIN criteria can identify more patients in classifying AKI compared to RIFLE criteria, but not showing a better ability in predicting hospital mortality. Moreover, both RIFLE and AKIN criteria for AKI in cardiac surgery patients had better predictive ability compared with the ICU patients.
Xiong, Jiachuan; Tang, Xi; Hu, Zhangxue; Nie, Ling; Wang, Yiqin; Zhao, Jinghong
The sensitivity and accuracy of the Risk/Injury/Failure/Loss/End-stage (RIFLE) versus acute kidney injury Network (AKIN) criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients remains uncertain. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the incidence and prognostic value of the RIFLE versus AKIN criteria for AKI in critically ill patients. Literatures were identified by searching Medline, Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database. Nineteen studies with 171,889 participants were included. The pooled estimates of relative risk (RR) were analyzed. We found that the RIFLE and AKIN criteria is different for the incidence of AKI in intensive care unit (ICU) patients (P = 0.02, RR = 0.88), while not for cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.30, RR = 0.93). For AKI-related hospital mortality, the AKIN criteria did not show a better ability in predicting hospital mortality in either ICU (P = 0.19, RR = 1.01) or cardiac surgery patients (P = 0.61, RR = 0.98) compared to RIFLE criteria. Our findings supported that the AKIN criteria can identify more patients in classifying AKI compared to RIFLE criteria, but not showing a better ability in predicting hospital mortality. Moreover, both RIFLE and AKIN criteria for AKI in cardiac surgery patients had better predictive ability compared with the ICU patients. PMID:26639440
Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando
Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.
Dalfino, Lidia; Puntillo, Filomena; Ondok, Maria Josephine Mura; Mosca, Adriana; Monno, Rosa; Coppolecchia, Sara; Spada, Maria Luigia; Bruno, Francesco; Brienza, Nicola
Critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock may need relatively high colistin daily doses for efficacy against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant gram-negative rods. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) may represent a major dose-limiting adverse effect of colistin. We sought to determine AKI occurrence and to identify factors influencing AKI risk in severely ill patients receiving colistin according to a recently proposed dosing strategy. A prospective, observational, cohort study involving patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who received colistin was performed. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Colistin administration was driven by a modified pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK/PD)-based dosing approach. Of 70 patients who received colistin at a median daily dose of 9 million IU (MIU; interquartile range, 5.87-11.1 MIU), 31 (44%) developed AKI. In univariate analysis, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), score and baseline renal impairment were significantly associated with AKI. Moreover, patients with AKI were less frequently treated with adjuvant ascorbic acid (P = .003). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of AKI were baseline renal impairment (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-9.2; P < .001) and age (1.03; 1.0-1.05; P = .028), whereas a strong independent renal-protective role emerged for ascorbic acid (0.27; .12-.57; P < .001). In severely ill patients receiving colistin according to a PK/PD-driven dosing approach, baseline renal impairment and older age strongly predict AKI occurrence, but concomitant administration of ascorbic acid markedly reduces AKI risk, allowing safer use of colistin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pschowski, R; Briegel, S; Von Haehling, S; Doehner, W; Bender, T O; Pape, U F; Hasper, D; Jörress, A; Schefold, J C
Blood loss and bleeding complications may often be observed in critically ill patients on renal replacement therapies (RRT). Here we investigate procedural (i.e. RRT-related) and non-procedural blood loss as well as transfusion requirements in regard to the chosen mode of dialysis (i.e. intermittent haemodialysis [IHD] versus continuous veno-venous haemofiltration [CVVH]). Two hundred and fifty-two patients (122 CVVH, 159 male; aged 61.5±13.9 years) with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure were analysed in a sub-analysis of the prospective randomised controlled clinical trial-CONVINT-comparing IHD and CVVH. Bleeding complications including severity of bleeding and RRT-related blood loss were assessed. We observed that 3.6% of patients died related to severe bleeding episodes (between group P=0.94). Major all-cause bleeding complications were observed in 23% IHD versus 26% of CVVH group patients (P=0.95). Under CVVH, the rate of RRT-related blood loss events (57.4% versus 30.4%, P=0.01) and mean total blood volume lost was increased (222.3±291.9 versus 112.5±222.7 ml per patient, P <0.001). Overall, transfusion rates did not differ between the study groups. In patients with sepsis, transfusion rates of all blood products were significantly higher when compared to cardiogenic shock (all P <0.01) or other conditions. In conclusion, procedural and non-procedural blood loss may often be observed in critically ill patients on RRT. In CVVH-treated patients, procedural blood loss was increased but overall transfusion rates remained unchanged. Our data show that IHD and CVVH may be regarded as equivalent approaches in critically ill patients with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure in this regard.
Kalra, Varun; Ahmad, Sohaib; Shrivastava, Vikas; Mittal, Garima
A single diagnostic test for acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFI) is elusive. This pilot study was undertaken on the premise that leucocytes, being the main cells of defence, undergo quantitative, structural and functional changes in AUFI. We evaluated the potential of volume, conductivity and scatter (VCS) parameters of leucocytes, generated with the haemogram report by the Coulter auto-analyzer, in differentiating the common etiologies of AUFI. The haematological and VCS data obtained from 800 controls and 200 cases of AUFI (50 cases each of acute malaria, dengue, scrub typhus and enteric fever) were retrieved for analysis. The cases and controls differed significantly with respect to relative numbers and the VCS parameters of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes (p<0.05). The neutrophil and lymphocyte were significantly voluminous in acute malaria and scrub typhus as compared to dengue and enteric fevers (p<0.05). Enteric fever significantly enhanced the conductivity of neutrophils as compared to other subgroups while lymphocyte conductivity significantly differed from dengue and scrub typhus. Lymphocyte and neutrophil scatter values in malaria and scrub typhus were comparable but differed significantly from that in enteric fever. Etiology-specific changes occur in leucocytes, both in numbers and their VCS properties which can be identified without additional cost. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Puthucheary, Zudin A; Rawal, Jaikitry; McPhail, Mark; Connolly, Bronwen; Ratnayake, Gamunu; Chan, Pearl; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Phadke, Rahul; Padhke, Rahul; Dew, Tracy; Sidhu, Paul S; Velloso, Cristiana; Seymour, John; Agley, Chibeza C; Selby, Anna; Limb, Marie; Edwards, Lindsay M; Smith, Kenneth; Rowlerson, Anthea; Rennie, Michael John; Moxham, John; Harridge, Stephen D R; Hart, Nicholas; Montgomery, Hugh E
Survivors of critical illness demonstrate skeletal muscle wasting with associated functional impairment. To perform a comprehensive prospective characterization of skeletal muscle wasting, defining the pathogenic roles of altered protein synthesis and breakdown. Sixty-three critically ill patients (59% male; mean age: 54.7 years [95% CI, 50.0-59.6 years]) with an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 23.5 (95% CI, 21.9-25.2) were prospectively recruited within 24 hours following intensive care unit (ICU) admission from August 2009 to April 2011 at a university teaching and a community hospital in England. Patients were recruited if older than 18 years and were anticipated to be intubated for longer than 48 hours, to spend more than 7 days in critical care, and to survive ICU stay. Muscle loss was determined through serial ultrasound measurement of the rectus femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) on days 1, 3, 7, and 10. In a subset of patients, the fiber CSA area was quantified along with the ratio of protein to DNA on days 1 and 7. Histopathological analysis was performed. In addition, muscle protein synthesis, breakdown rates, and respective signaling pathways were characterized. There were significant reductions in the rectus femoris CSA observed at day 10 (−17.7% [95% CI, −25.9% to 8.1%]; P < .001). In the 28 patients assessed by all 3 measurement methods on days 1 and 7, the rectus femoris CSA decreased by 10.3% (95% CI, 6.1% to 14.5%), the fiber CSA by 17.5% (95% CI, 5.8% to 29.3%), and the ratio of protein to DNA by 29.5% (95% CI, 13.4% to 45.6%). Decrease in the rectus femoris CSA was greater in patients who experienced multiorgan failure by day 7 (−15.7%; 95% CI, −27.7% to 11.4%) compared with single organ failure (−3.0%; 95% CI, −5.3% to 2.1%) (P < .001), even by day 3 (−8.7% [95% CI, −59.3% to 50.6%] vs −1.8% [95% CI, −12.3% to 10.5%], respectively; P = .03). Myofiber necrosis occurred in 20 of 37
Riviello, James J
Seizures during an acute illness demand immediate evaluation, as they indicate an acute central nervous system insult. There are three goals: identify and treat the precipitating cause; determine the need for antiepileptic drug therapy; and recognize nonconvulsive seizures. Management depends upon whether there is a primary or secondary central nervous system insult. Seizures may persist despite antiepileptic drugs if the precipitating cause is untreated. Seizures and epilepsy and children with neurodevelopmental disabilities comprise a significant percentage of acute care in children. A continuum exists from a single seizure and escalating seizures to status epilepticus. Seizure treatment is more successful when given earlier, and prognosis depends on the cause. Guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of status epilepticus have been produced. Continuous electroencephalographic monitoring reveals frequent nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus in the sick child. The recognition and rapid treatment of clinical and electrographic seizures is important during acute illness.
Boockvar, Kenneth; Signor, Daniel; Ramaswamy, Ravishankar; Hung, William
To ascertain the incidence of delirium during acute illness in nursing home residents, describe the timing of delirium after acute illness onset, describe risk factors for delirium, and explore the relationship between delirium and complications of acute illness. Prospective observational cohort study. Three nursing homes in metropolitan New York. Individuals who were expected to remain in the nursing home for at least 2 months, who, as part of a parent study, were receiving opioids, antidepressants, or antipsychotics on a routine basis, and who did not have an acute medical illness at the time of screening. Acute illness surveillance was performed twice weekly through communication with nursing home nursing staff and medical providers using established clinical criteria for incipient cases. We followed patients for 14 days after illness onset, and, if applicable, an additional 14 days each after hospital admission and hospital discharge. Delirium was assessed 3 times weekly using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Physical function decline was calculated using change in the Minimum Data Set Activities of Daily Living Scale (MDS-ADL) and cognitive function decline using change in the Minimum Data Set Cognitive performance scale (MDS-CPS). Falls were ascertained by record review. Among 136 nursing home patients followed for a mean of 11.7 months, 78 experienced 232 acute illnesses, of which 162 (71%) were managed in the nursing home. The most common diagnoses were urinary tract infection (20%), cellulitis (15%), and lower respiratory tract infection (9%). Subjects experienced delirium during 41 (17.7%) of 232 acute illnesses. Female sex was associated with a greater risk of delirium (odds ratio 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-6.43) but there were no other risk factors identified. Delirium was a risk factor for cognitive function decline (odds ratio 4.59; 95% CI 1.99-10.59; P = .0004), but not ADL function decline or falling. Delirium occurred frequently
Background Previous pharmacokinetic trials suggested that 40 mg subcutaneous enoxaparin once daily provided inadequate thromboprophylaxis for intensive care unit patients. Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism and yet are often excluded from these trials. We hypothesized that for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving continuous renal replacement therapy, a dose of 1 mg/kg enoxaparin subcutaneously once daily would improve thromboprophylaxis without increasing the risk of bleeding. In addition, we seek to utilize urine output prior to discontinuing dialysis, and low neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in dialysis-free intervals, as markers of renal recovery. Methods/Design In a multicenter, double-blind randomized controlled trial in progress at three intensive care units across Denmark, we randomly assign eligible critically ill adults with acute kidney injury into a treatment (1 mg/kg enoxaparin subcutaneously once daily) or control arm (40 mg enoxaparin subcutaneously once daily) upon commencement of continuous renal replacement therapy. We calculated that with 133 patients in each group, the study would have 80% power to show a 40% reduction in the relative risk of venous thromboembolism with 1 mg/kg enoxaparin, at a two-sided alpha level of 0.05. An interim analysis will be conducted after the first 67 patients have been included in each group. Enrolment began in March 2013, and will continue for two years. The primary outcome is the occurrence of venous thromboembolism. Secondary outcomes include anti-factor Xa activity, bleeding, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, filter lifespan, length of stay, ventilator free days, and mortality. We will also monitor neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and urine volume to determine whether they can be used as prognostic factors for renal recovery. Discussion Critically ill unit patients with acute kidney injury present a
Zhao, Chenyan; Xie, Tingbin; Li, Jun; Cheng, Minhua; Shi, Jialiang; Gao, Tao; Xi, Fengchan; Shen, Juanhong; Cao, Chun
Objective. To compare the differences between acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) with and without acute gut wall thickening. Methods. ACPO patients with feeding tolerance were divided into ACPO with no obvious gut wall thickening (ACPO-NT) group and ACPO with obvious acute gut wall thickening (ACPO-T) group according to computed tomography and abdominal radiographs. Patients' condition, responses to supportive measures, pharmacologic therapy, endoscopic decompression, and surgeries and outcomes were compared. Results. Patients in ACPO-T group had a significantly higher APACHE II (11.82 versus 8.25, p = 0.008) and SOFA scores (6.47 versus 3.54, p < 0.001) and a significantly higher 28-day mortality (17.78% versus 4.16%, p = 0.032) and longer intensive care unit stage (4 versus 16 d, p < 0.001). Patients in ACPO-NT group were more likely to be responsive to supportive treatment (62.50% versus 24.44%, p < 0.001), neostigmine (77.78% versus 17.64%, p < 0.001), and colonoscopic decompression (75% versus 42.86%, p = 0.318) than those in ACPO-T group. Of the patients who underwent ileostomy, 81.25% gained benefits. Conclusions. ACPO patients with gut wall thickening are more severe and are less likely to be responsive to nonsurgical treatment. Ileostomy may be a good option for ACPO patients with gut wall thickening who are irresponsive to nonsurgical treatment. PMID:28386273
Schoepp, Randal J; Rossi, Cynthia A; Khan, Sheik H; Goba, Augustine; Fair, Joseph N
Sierra Leone in West Africa is in a Lassa fever-hyperendemic region that also includes Guinea and Liberia. Each year, suspected Lassa fever cases result in submission of ≈500-700 samples to the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory in eastern Sierra Leone. Generally only 30%-40% of samples tested are positive for Lassa virus (LASV) antigen and/or LASV-specific IgM; thus, 60%-70% of these patients have acute diseases of unknown origin. To investigate what other arthropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might cause serious illness in this region and mimic Lassa fever, we tested patient serum samples that were negative for malaria parasites and LASV. Using IgM-capture ELISAs, we evaluated samples for antibodies to arthropod-borne and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Approximately 25% of LASV-negative patients had IgM to dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Ebola, and Marburg viruses but not to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Rossi, Cynthia A.; Khan, Sheik H.; Goba, Augustine; Fair, Joseph N.
Sierra Leone in West Africa is in a Lassa fever–hyperendemic region that also includes Guinea and Liberia. Each year, suspected Lassa fever cases result in submission of ≈500–700 samples to the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory in eastern Sierra Leone. Generally only 30%–40% of samples tested are positive for Lassa virus (LASV) antigen and/or LASV-specific IgM; thus, 60%–70% of these patients have acute diseases of unknown origin. To investigate what other arthropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viral diseases might cause serious illness in this region and mimic Lassa fever, we tested patient serum samples that were negative for malaria parasites and LASV. Using IgM-capture ELISAs, we evaluated samples for antibodies to arthropod-borne and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Approximately 25% of LASV-negative patients had IgM to dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya, Ebola, and Marburg viruses but not to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:24959946
Hayes, G; Mathews, K; Doig, G; Kruth, S; Boston, S; Nykamp, S; Poljak, Z; Dewey, C
Scores allowing objective stratification of illness severity are available for dogs and horses, but not cats. Validated illness severity scores facilitate the risk-adjusted analysis of results in clinical research, and also have applications in triage and therapeutic protocols. To develop and validate an accurate, user-friendly score to stratify illness severity in hospitalized cats. Six hundred cats admitted consecutively to a teaching hospital intensive care unit. This observational cohort study enrolled all cats admitted over a 32-month period. Data on interventional, physiological, and biochemical variables were collected over 24 hours after admission. Patient mortality outcome at hospital discharge was recorded. After random division, 450 cats were used for logistic regression model construction, and data from 150 cats for validation. Patient mortality was 25.8%. Five- and 8-variable scores were developed. The 8-variable score contained mentation score, temperature, mean arterial pressure (MAP), lactate, PCV, urea, chloride, and body cavity fluid score. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) on the construction cohort was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.87-0.94), and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.96) on the validation cohort. The 5-variable score contained mentation score, temperature, MAP, lactate, and PCV. AUROC on the construction cohort was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86), and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72-0.84) on the validation cohort. Two scores are presented enabling allocation of an accurate and user-friendly illness severity measure to hospitalized cats. Scores are calculated from data obtained over the 1st 24 hours after admission, and are diagnosis-independent. The 8-variable score predicts outcome significantly better than does the 5-variable score. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Elseviers, Monique M; Lins, Robert L; Van der Niepen, Patricia; Hoste, Eric; Malbrain, Manu L; Damas, Pierre; Devriendt, Jacques
Outcome studies in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) have focused on differences between modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT). The outcome of conservative treatment, however, has never been compared with RRT. Nine Belgian intensive care units (ICUs) included all adult patients consecutively admitted with serum creatinine >2 mg/dl. Included treatment options were conservative treatment and intermittent or continuous RRT. Disease severity was determined using the Stuivenberg Hospital Acute Renal Failure (SHARF) score. Outcome parameters studied were mortality, hospital length of stay and renal recovery at hospital discharge. Out of 1,303 included patients, 650 required RRT (58% intermittent, 42% continuous RRT). Overall results showed a higher mortality (43% versus 58%) as well as a longer ICU and hospital stay in RRT patients compared to conservative treatment. Using the SHARF score for adjustment of disease severity, an increased risk of death for RRT compared to conservative treatment of RR = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.3) was found. Additional correction for other severity parameters (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)), age, type of AKI and clinical conditions confirmed the higher mortality in the RRT group. The SHARF study showed that the higher mortality expected in AKI patients receiving RRT versus conservative treatment can not only be explained by a higher disease severity in the RRT group, even after multiple corrections. A more critical approach to the need for RRT in AKI patients seems to be warranted.
Hayes, G; Mathews, K; Doig, G; Kruth, S; Boston, S; Nykamp, S; Poljak, Z; Dewey, C
Objective risk stratification models are used routinely in human critical care medicine. Applications include quantitative and objective delineation of illness severity for patients enrolled in clinical research, performance benchmarking, and protocol development for triage and therapeutic management. To develop an accurate, validated, and user-friendly model to stratify illness severity by mortality risk in hospitalized dogs. Eight hundred and ten consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) admissions of dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital. Prospective census cohort study. Data on 55 management, physiological, and biochemical variables were collected within 24 hours of admission. Data were randomly divided, with 598 patient records used for logistic regression model construction and 212 for model validation. Patient mortality was 18.4%. Ten-variable and 5-variable models were developed to provide both a high-performance model and model maximizing accessibility, while maintaining good performance. The 10-variable model contained creatinine, WBC count, albumin, SpO(2) , total bilirubin, mentation score, respiratory rate, age, lactate, and presence of free fluid in a body cavity. Area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) on the construction data set was 0.93, and on the validation data set was 0.91. The 5-variable model contained glucose, albumin, mentation score, platelet count, and lactate. AUROC on the construction data set was 0.87, and on the validation data set was 0.85. Two models are presented that enable allocation of an accurate and user-friendly illness severity index for dogs admitted to an ICU. These models operate independent of primary diagnosis, and have been independently validated. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien
To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p < 0.0001). The frequency of contrast-associated acute kidney injury was similar in both groups: 52 patients (33.3%) in the saline group and 53 patients (35.1%) in the bicarbonate group (absolute risk difference, -1.8%; 95% CI [-12.3% to 8.9%]; p = 0.81). The need for renal replacement therapy (five [3.2%] and six [3.9%] patients; p = 0.77), ICU length of stay (24.7 ± 22.9 and 23 ± 23.8 d; p = 0.52), and mortality (25 [16.0%] and 24 [15.9%] patients; p > 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.
Wie, Seong-Heon; Jeong, Hye Won; Kim, Young Keun; Park, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Shin Woo; Lee, Sun Hee
Background The World Health Organization recommends the surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) to respond effectively to both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics. In Korea, the “Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity and Mortality (HIMM)” surveillance system has been operated to monitor ILI and SARI occurrences. Materials and Methods A multi-center prospective observational study was conducted. Adult patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) were enrolled during the 2011-12, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 influenza seasons at the 10 university hospitals using the HIMM surveillance system. With respect to SARI and pneumonia development, risk profiles were analyzed in patients with ARI in Korea. Results A total of 5,459 cases were eligible for this analysis. Among 5,459 cases with ARI, 2,887 cases (52.9%) were identified that they had influenza infection. Among enrolled cases, 750 cases belonged to the SARI group, while 4,709 cases belonged to the non-SARI group. With respect to pneumonia development, 317 cases were accompanied by pneumonia, and 5,142 cases were not. Multivariate analyses revealed that the following factors were associated with an increased risk of SARI: Old age (≥65 years) (odds ratio [OR] 2.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-3.32), chronic heart disease (CHD) (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.68-2.98), cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.05-2.10), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.48-3.69), asthma (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.62-3.36), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.73-3.99), chronic liver disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.81), and autoimmune diseases (OR 2.53, 1.57-4.08). Multivariate analyses revealed that the following factors were independent risk factors for pneumonia development: Old age (≥65 years) (OR 5.71, 95% CI 4.10-7.94), CHD (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.22), COPD (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.48-3.69), asthma (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.62-3.36), CKD (OR 2.62, 95
Introduction Outcome studies in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) have focused on differences between modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT). The outcome of conservative treatment, however, has never been compared with RRT. Methods Nine Belgian intensive care units (ICUs) included all adult patients consecutively admitted with serum creatinine >2 mg/dl. Included treatment options were conservative treatment and intermittent or continuous RRT. Disease severity was determined using the Stuivenberg Hospital Acute Renal Failure (SHARF) score. Outcome parameters studied were mortality, hospital length of stay and renal recovery at hospital discharge. Results Out of 1,303 included patients, 650 required RRT (58% intermittent, 42% continuous RRT). Overall results showed a higher mortality (43% versus 58%) as well as a longer ICU and hospital stay in RRT patients compared to conservative treatment. Using the SHARF score for adjustment of disease severity, an increased risk of death for RRT compared to conservative treatment of RR = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.3) was found. Additional correction for other severity parameters (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)), age, type of AKI and clinical conditions confirmed the higher mortality in the RRT group. Conclusions The SHARF study showed that the higher mortality expected in AKI patients receiving RRT versus conservative treatment can not only be explained by a higher disease severity in the RRT group, even after multiple corrections. A more critical approach to the need for RRT in AKI patients seems to be warranted. PMID:21122146
Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Kashiouris, Markos; Plataki, Maria; Kor, Daryl J.; Gajic, Ognjen; Casey, Edward T.
Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of critically ill patients. The impact of different risk factors associated with this entity in the ICU setting is unknown. Objectives. The purpose of this research was to assess the risk factors associated with the development of AKI in critically ill patients by meta-analyses of observational studies. Data Extraction. Two reviewers independently and in duplicate used a standardized form to collect data from published reports. Authors were contacted for missing data. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale assessed study quality. Data Synthesis. Data from 31 diverse studies that enrolled 504,535 critically ill individuals from a wide variety of ICUs were included. Separate random-effects meta-analyses demonstrated a significantly increased risk of AKI with older age, diabetes, hypertension, higher baseline creatinine, heart failure, sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome, use of nephrotoxic drugs, higher severity of disease scores, use of vasopressors/inotropes, high risk surgery, emergency surgery, use of intra-aortic balloon pump, and longer time in cardiopulmonary bypass pump. Conclusion. The best available evidence suggests an association of AKI with 13 different risk factors in subjects admitted to the ICU. Predictive models for identification of high risk individuals for developing AKI in all types of ICU are required. PMID:23227318
Cameron, Lynda Katherine; Lei, Katie; Smith, Samantha; Doyle, Nanci Leigh; Doyle, James F; Flynn, Kate; Purchase, Nicola; Smith, John; Chan, Kathryn; Kamara, Farida; Kidane, Nardos Ghebremedhin; Forni, Lui G; Harrington, Dominic; Hampson, Geeta; Ostermann, Marlies
Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects more than 50% of critically ill patients. The formation of calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, from the main inactive circulating form, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), occurs primarily in the proximal renal tubules. This results in a theoretical basis for reduction in levels of calcitriol over the course of an AKI. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in critically ill adults, and has been associated with increased rates of sepsis, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. The primary objective of this study is to perform serial measurements of 25(OH)D and calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D), as well as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels, in critically ill adult patients with and without AKI, and to determine whether patients with AKI have significantly lower vitamin D metabolite concentrations. The secondary objectives are to describe dynamic changes in vitamin D metabolites, PTH and FGF23 during critical illness; to compare vitamin D metabolite concentrations in patients with AKI with and without renal replacement therapy; and to investigate whether there is an association between vitamin D status and outcomes. 230 general adult intensive care patients will be recruited. The AKI arm will include 115 critically ill patients with AKI Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome stage II or stage III. The comparison group will include 115 patients who require cardiovascular or respiratory support, but who do not have AKI. Serial measurements of vitamin D metabolites and associated hormones will be taken on prespecified days. Patients will be recruited from two large teaching Trusts in England. Data will be analysed using standard statistical methods. Ethical approval was obtained. Upon completion, the study team will submit the study report for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and for conference presentation. NCT02869919; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer
Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H. )
This book discusses the papers on the diagnosis and management of immunosuppressed patient. Some of the topics are: life-threatening organ failure in immunosuppressed patients; diagnosis and therapy of respiratory disease in the immunosuppressed patient; CNS complication of immunosuppression; infections; antineoplastic therapy of immunosuppressed patient; radiation therapy-issues in critically ill patient; AIDS; and management of bone marrow transplant patients.
Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana María; Oliveros-Valenzuela, Rosa; Rodríguez-Gómez, Susana; Sánchez-Extremera, Lucrecia; Serrano-López, Francisco Andrés; Aranda-Gallardo, Marta; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Barrientos-Trigo, Sergio
The aim of this study was to establish the validity and reliability of an instrument (Inventario del NIvel de Cuidados mediante IndicAdores de clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería) used to assess the dependency level in acutely hospitalised patients. This instrument is novel, and it is based on the Nursing Outcomes Classification. Multiple existing instruments for needs assessment have been poorly validated and based predominately on interventions. Standardised Nursing Languages offer an ideal framework to develop nursing sensitive instruments. A cross-sectional validation study in two acute care hospitals in Spain. This study was implemented in two phases. First, the research team developed the instrument to be validated. In the second phase, the validation process was performed by experts, and the data analysis was conducted to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument. Seven hundred and sixty-one patient ratings performed by nurses were collected during the course of the research study. Data analysis yielded a Cronbach's alpha of 0·91. An exploratory factorial analysis identified three factors (Physiological, Instrumental and Cognitive-behavioural), which explained 74% of the variance. Inventario del NIvel de Cuidados mediante IndicAdores de clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería was demonstrated to be a valid and reliable instrument based on its use in acutely hospitalised patients to assess the level of dependency. Inventario del NIvel de Cuidados mediante IndicAdores de clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería can be used as an assessment tool in hospitalised patients during the nursing process throughout the entire hospitalisation period. It contributes information to support decisions on nursing diagnoses, interventions and outcomes. It also enables data codification in large databases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ülger, F; Pehlivanlar Küçük, M; Küçük, A O; İlkaya, N K; Murat, N; Bilgiç, B; Abanoz, H
The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of AKI development on mortality with four different classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, KDIGO) in critically ill trauma patients followed in the intensive care unit. A retrospective review of 2034 patients in our intensive care unit was conducted between July 2010 and August 2013. A total of 198 patients with primary trauma were included in the study to evaluate the development of AKI. When the presence of AKI was investigated according to the four criteria (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO), the highest incidence of AKI was found according to the KDIGO classification (74.2%), followed by AKIN (72.2%), RIFLE (69.7%), and CK (59.1%). It was observed that more AKI developed according to KDIGO in patients with multiple trauma and thoracic trauma (p = 0.031, p = 0.029). Sixty-two (31%) of the 198 trauma patients monitored in the intensive care unit died; mortality was frequently found high in AKI stage 2 and 3 patients. According to the CK classification, there was a significant increase in mortality in patients with AKI on the first day (p = 0.045). AKI classifications by RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO were independently associated with the risk of in-hospital death. In this study, the presence of AKI was found to be an independent risk factor in the development of in-hospital mortality according to all classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN, CK, and KDIGO) in critically traumatic patients followed in ICU, and the compatibility between RIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO was the highest among the classification systems.
de Góes, Cassiana R; Berbel-Bufarah, Marina N; Sanches, Ana Claudia S; Xavier, Patrícia S; Balbi, André L; Ponce, Daniela
There are multiple equations for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE), but how accurate they are in severe acute kidney injury (AKI) patients is not clear. Our aim was to determine if predictive equations for estimated REE accurately reflect the requirements of AKI patients. We included in this prospective and observational study AKI patients AKIN-3 assessed by indirect calorimetry (IC). Bland-Altman, intraclass correlation coefficient and precision (percentagem of predicted values within 10% of measured values) were performed to compare REE by equations with REE measured by IC. IC was applied in 125 AKI patients. The mean age was 62.5 ± 16.6 and 65.6% were male. Mean REE measured was 2,029.11 ± 760.4 kcal/day. There were low precision, and poor agreement between measured and predicted REE by the Harris-Benedict (HB), Mifflin, Ireton-Jones, Penn state, American College of Chest Physicians, and Faisy equations. HB without using injury factor was the least precise (18% of precision). Modified Penn state equation had the best precision, although the precision rate was only 41%. For all equations, the limits of agreement range were large leading to the potential under or overfeeding of individual patients. None of these equations accurately estimated measured REE in severe AKI patients and most of them underestimated energy needs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Suárez, J C; López, P; Mancebo, J; Zapata, L
Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a common finding in critically ill patients. It is characterized by a progressive deterioration of the relaxation and the compliance of the left ventricle. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is a cornerstone in its diagnosis. Acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertensive crisis is the most frequent presentation of diastolic dysfunction critically ill patients. Myocardial ischemia, sepsis and weaning failure from mechanical ventilation also may be associated with diastolic dysfunction. The treatment is based on the reduction of pulmonary congestion and left ventricular filling pressures. Some studies have found a prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction in some diseases such as sepsis. The present review aims to analyze thoroughly the echocardiographic diagnosis and the most frequent scenarios in critically ill patients in whom diastolic dysfunction plays a key role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Legrand, Matthieu; Dupuis, Claire; Simon, Christelle; Gayat, Etienne; Mateo, Joaquim; Lukaszewicz, Anne-Claire; Payen, Didier
The role of systemic hemodynamics in the pathogenesis of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between systemic hemodynamics and new or persistent of AKI in severe sepsis. A retrospective study between 2006 and 2010 was performed in a surgical ICU in a teaching hospital. AKI was defined as development (new AKI) or persistent AKI during the five days following admission based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. We studied the association between the following hemodynamic targets within 24 hours of admission and AKI: central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) or mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). This study included 137 ICU septic patients. Of these, 69 had new or persistent AKI. AKI patients had a higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) (57 (46 to 67) vs. 45 (33 to 52), P < 0.001) and higher mortality (38% vs. 15%, P = 0.003) than those with no AKI or improving AKI. MAP, ScvO2 and CO were not significantly different between groups. Patients with AKI had lower DAP and higher CVP (P = 0.0003). The CVP value was associated with the risk of developing new or persistent AKI even after adjustment for fluid balance and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level (OR = 1.22 (1.08 to 1.39), P = 0.002). A linear relationship between CVP and the risk of new or persistent AKI was observed. We observed no association between most systemic hemodynamic parameters and AKI in septic patients. Association between elevated CVP and AKI suggests a role of venous congestion in the development of AKI. The paradigm that targeting high CVP may reduce occurrence of AKI should probably be revised. Furthermore, DAP should be considered as a potential important hemodynamic target for the kidney.
LUNA, Leonardo Duarte Sobreira; SOARES, Douglas de Sousa; JUNIOR, Geraldo Bezerra da SILVA; CAVALCANTE, Malena Gadelha; MALVEIRA, Lara Raissa Cavalcante; MENESES, Gdayllon Cavalcante; PEREIRA, Eanes Delgado Barros; DAHER, Elizabeth De Francesco
SUMMARY Background: The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for death among patients with HIV-related acute kidney injury (AKI) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected AKI patients admitted to the ICU of an infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. All the patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV and AKI admitted from January 2004 to December 2011 were included. A comparison between survivors and non-survivors was performed. Risk factors for death were investigated. Results: Among 256 AKI patients admitted to the ICU in the study period, 73 were identified as HIV-infected, with a predominance of male patients (83.6%), and the mean age was 41.2 ± 10.4 years. Non-survivor patients presented higher APACHE II scores (61.4 ± 19 vs. 38.6 ± 18, p = 0.004), used more vasoconstrictors (70.9 vs. 37.5%, p = 0.02) and needed more mechanical ventilation - MV (81.1 vs. 35.3%, p = 0.001). There were 55 deaths (75.3%), most of them (53.4%) due to septic shock. Independent risk factors for mortality were septic shock (OR = 14.2, 95% CI = 2.0-96.9, p = 0.007) and respiratory insufficiency with need of MV (OR = 27.6, 95% CI = 5.0-153.0, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Non-survivor HIV-infected patients with AKI admitted to the ICU presented higher severity APACHE II scores, more respiratory damage and hemodynamic impairment than survivors. Septic shock and respiratory insufficiency were independently associated to death. PMID:27410912
Luna, Leonardo Duarte Sobreira; Soares, Douglas de Sousa; Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva; Cavalcante, Malena Gadelha; Malveira, Lara Raissa Cavalcante; Meneses, Gdayllon Cavalcante; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco
The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for death among patients with HIV-related acute kidney injury (AKI) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected AKI patients admitted to the ICU of an infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. All the patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV and AKI admitted from January 2004 to December 2011 were included. A comparison between survivors and non-survivors was performed. Risk factors for death were investigated. Among 256 AKI patients admitted to the ICU in the study period, 73 were identified as HIV-infected, with a predominance of male patients (83.6%), and the mean age was 41.2 ± 10.4 years. Non-survivor patients presented higher APACHE II scores (61.4 ± 19 vs. 38.6 ± 18, p = 0.004), used more vasoconstrictors (70.9 vs. 37.5%, p = 0.02) and needed more mechanical ventilation - MV (81.1 vs. 35.3%, p = 0.001). There were 55 deaths (75.3%), most of them (53.4%) due to septic shock. Independent risk factors for mortality were septic shock (OR = 14.2, 95% CI = 2.0-96.9, p = 0.007) and respiratory insufficiency with need of MV (OR = 27.6, 95% CI = 5.0-153.0, p < 0.001). Non-survivor HIV-infected patients with AKI admitted to the ICU presented higher severity APACHE II scores, more respiratory damage and hemodynamic impairment than survivors. Septic shock and respiratory insufficiency were independently associated to death.
Martin, Emily T.; Kerin, Tara; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Blume, Heidi K.; Gospe, Sidney M.; Vinje, Jan; Bowen, Michael D.; Gentsch, Jon; Zerr, Danielle M.
BACKGROUND Seizures are common in children, but the causes and recurrence risk for children with a nonfebrile first seizure remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE In a prospective longitudinal study of children who presented with a first-time seizure, we investigated the viral etiology of associated infectious illnesses and sought to determine the risk of recurrent seizures stratified by fever and type of illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS Children (aged 6 months to 6 years) were enrolled at the time of evaluation for their first seizure and followed monthly for up to 5 years. Seizure and illness data were collected through parent interviews and medical-record reviews. Stool, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid collected within 48 hours of the first seizure were evaluated for viral gastrointestinal pathogens. RESULTS Of the 117 children enrolled, 78 (67%) had febrile seizures, 34 (29%) had nonfebrile-illness seizures, and 5 (4%) had unprovoked seizures. Children with nonfebrile-illness seizures were more likely than those with febrile seizures to have acute gastroenteritis (47% and 28%, respectively; P = .05). No significant differences in seizure recurrence were found between children with or without a fever at first seizure. Children with acute gastroenteritis at first seizure, regardless of fever, had a lower risk of seizure recurrence compared with children with other acute illnesses (hazard ratio: 0.28; 95% confidence interval: 0.09–0.80). CONCLUSIONS Our results confirm the role of gastrointestinal illness as a distinguishing feature in childhood seizures. Children with this distinct presentation have a low rate of seizure recurrence and few neurologic complications. PMID:21098153
Opio, Martin Otyek; Kellett, John
Although taking a radial pulse is considered to be an essential clinical skill, there have been few reports on how well it is measured in clinical practice, and how its accuracy and precision are influenced by rate, rhythm, and blood pressure. This study is a retrospective quality audit carried out as part of a larger ongoing prospective observational trial. The radial pulse rates recorded by 2 research nurses were compared with the electrocardiogram (ECG) heart rates measured on acutely ill medical patients during their admission to a resource-poor hospital in sub-Saharan Africa. There were 619 ECGs performed on 231 patients while they were in the hospital. The median interval between measuring the vital signs and obtaining an ECG was 12.6 minutes (mean 62.3, SD 104.3 minutes). The correlation coefficient between the pulse rate recorded and ECG heart rate was 0.54. The bias between the pulse rate and the ECG heart rate was 1.34, SD 13.51 beats per minute (ie, limits of agreement 26.5 beats per minute). Bias and variance were not influenced by blood and pulse pressure. However, tachycardia increased the variance and was the only independent predictor of a pulse deficit (odds ratio 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-3.51; chi-squared 17.21; P < .0001). Practice-based evidence shows that in acutely ill patients, there is a poor correlation between the radial pulse and the ECG heart rate, and that tachycardia increases the variance and is the only independent predictor of a pulse deficit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nichols, Marshall; Burke, Thomas; Ko, Emily R.; McClain, Micah T.; Hudson, Lori L.; Mazur, Anna; Freeman, Debra H.; Veldman, Tim; Langley, Raymond J.; Quackenbush, Eugenia B.; Glickman, Seth W.; Cairns, Charles B.; Jaehne, Anja K.; Rivers, Emanuel P.; Otero, Ronny M.; Zaas, Aimee K.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Lucas, Joseph; Fowler, Vance G.; Carin, Lawrence; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Woods, Christopher W.
Acute respiratory infections caused by bacterial or viral pathogens are among the most common reasons for seeking medical care. Despite improvements in pathogen-based diagnostics, most patients receive inappropriate antibiotics. Host response biomarkers offer an alternative diagnostic approach to direct antimicrobial use. This observational, cohort study determined whether host gene expression patterns discriminate non-infectious from infectious illness, and bacterial from viral causes of acute respiratory infection in the acute care setting. Peripheral whole blood gene expression from 273 subjects with community-onset acute respiratory infection (ARI) or non-infectious illness as well as 44 healthy controls was measured using microarrays. Sparse logistic regression was used to develop classifiers for bacterial ARI (71 probes), viral ARI (33 probes), or a non-infectious cause of illness (26 probes). Overall accuracy was 87% (238/273 concordant with clinical adjudication), which was more accurate than procalcitonin (78%, p<0.03) and three published classifiers of bacterial vs. viral infection (78-83%). The classifiers developed here externally validated in five publicly available datasets (AUC 0.90-0.99). A sixth publically available dataset included twenty-five patients with co-identification of bacterial and viral pathogens. Applying the ARI classifiers defined four distinct groups: a host response to bacterial ARI; viral ARI; co-infection; and neither a bacterial nor viral response. These findings create an opportunity to develop and utilize host gene expression classifiers as diagnostic platforms to combat inappropriate antibiotic use and emerging antibiotic resistance. PMID:26791949
Lacave, Guillaume; Caille, Vincent; Bruneel, Fabrice; Palette, Catherine; Legriel, Stéphane; Grimaldi, David; Eurin, Mathilde; Bedos, Jean-Pierre
For vancomycin therapy of severe infections, the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends high vancomycin trough levels, whose potential for inducing nephrotoxicity is controversial. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients given continuous intravenous vancomycin with target serum vancomycin levels of 20 to 30 mg/L.We retrospectively studied 107 continuous intravenous vancomycin treatments of ≥48 hours' duration with at least 2 serum vancomycin levels ≥20 mg/L in critically ill patients. Nephrotoxicity was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guideline for AKI (ie, serum creatinine elevation by ≥26.5 μmoL/L or to ≥1.5 times baseline). Risk factors for AKI were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses.AKI developed in 31 (29%) courses. Higher serum vancomycin levels were associated with AKI (P < 0.01). Factors independently associated with AKI were highest serum vancomycin ≥40 mg/L (odds ratio [OR], 3.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-10.37; P < 0.01), higher cumulative number of organ failures (OR, 2.63 95%CI, 1.42-5.31; P < 0.01), and cirrhosis of the liver (OR, 5.58; 95%CI, 1.08-31.59; P = 0.04).In this study, 29% of critically ill patients had AKI develop during continuous intravenous vancomycin therapy targeting serum levels of 20 to 30 mg/L. Serum vancomycin level ≥40 mg/L was independently associated with AKI.
Nielsen, Lindsey K; Bracker, Kiko; Price, Lori Lyn
To describe the clinical features and outcomes of critically ill dogs and cats with acute kidney injury (AKI) receiving fenoldopam infusions compared to patients with AKI that did not receive fenoldopam. Retrospective clinical study from May 1, 2008 until June 1, 2012. Private emergency and specialty referral hospital. Client-owned dogs (28) and cats (34) with AKI that received fenoldopam compared with similar patients with AKI (30 dogs and 30 cats) that did not. None. The medical records of 62 critically ill dogs and cats with AKI that received fenoldopam were reviewed. Presenting clinical signs, physical examination findings, and primary and secondary disease processes were identified in all patients. The mean number of days on fenoldopam was 1.5 days (range 0.3-4.0 days) for dogs and 1.9 days (range 1.0-4.0 days) for cats. Eleven of 28 (39%) dogs survived to discharge and 13 of 34 (38%) of the cats survived to discharge. Of the animals in the group receiving fenoldopam that died, the majority (84%) were euthanized. Potential adverse reactions were evaluated, with hypotension being the most commonly encountered adverse effect (7% of fenoldopam group [FG] dogs and 23% of FG cats). When compared with patients with AKI that did not receive fenoldopam, no significant differences were found between the groups with regards to survival, length of hospital stay, adverse effects, or changes in creatinine, BUN, or sodium concentrations except that patients receiving fenoldopam were significantly more likely to have received other renally active medications. In this study of patients with AKI, fenoldopam administration at 0.8 μg/kg/min in dogs and 0.5 μg/kg/min in cats appeared relatively safe but was not associated with improvement in survival to discharge, length of hospital stay, or improvement in renal biochemical parameters when compared to patients with AKI not receiving fenoldopam. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.
Shelef, Assaf; Mazeh, Doron; Berger, Uri; Baruch, Yehuda; Barak, Yoram
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Maintenance ECT (M-ECT) is required for many elderly patients experiencing severe recurrent forms of mood disorders, whereas M-ECT for schizophrenia patients is a poorly studied treatment. We report on the outcomes in aged patients with SMI: schizophrenia and severe affective disorders treated by M-ECT of varying duration to prevent relapse after a successful course of acute ECT. The study measured the effectiveness of M-ECT in preventing hospital readmissions and reducing admission days. A retrospective chart review of 42 consecutive patients comparing the number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after the start of M-ECT was used. We analyzed diagnoses, previous ECT treatments, number of ECT treatments, and number and length of psychiatric admissions before and after M-ECT. Mean age in our sample was 71.5 (6.9) years. Twenty-two (52%) patients experienced severe affective disorders and 20 (48%) experienced schizophrenia. Patients were administered 92.8 (85.9) M-ECT treatments. Average duration of the M-ECT course was 34 (29.8) months. There were on average 1.88 admissions before M-ECT and only 0.38 admissions in the M-ECT period (P < 0.001). Duration of mean hospitalization stay decreased from 215.9 to 12.4 days during the M-ECT (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that acute ECT followed by M-ECT is highly effective in selected elderly patients with SMIs.
Girard, Timothy D
Critically ill patients frequently experience acute brain dysfunction in the form of coma or delirium, both of which are common during acute and chronic critical illness (CCI). These manifestations of brain dysfunction are associated with numerous adverse outcomes during acute critical illness, including prolonged hospitalization, increased healthcare costs, and increased mortality. The prognosis of CCI patients with coma or delirium has not yet been thoroughly studied, but preliminary studies suggest this population is at high risk for detrimental outcomes associated with acute brain dysfunction. Additionally, a high percentage of patients who survive acute or CCI suffer from long-term brain dysfunction, which manifests primarily as memory deficits and executive dysfunction and is predicted by brain dysfunction in the ICU. Interventions directed at reducing the burden of brain dysfunction during critical illness have shown promise in studies of patients with acute critical illness, but these therapies have yet to be studied during CCI. Thus, multicenter randomized trials are needed to determine which interventions are most effective for such patients. Until these data are available, management strategies that have been proven beneficial during acute critical illness-such as reduction of sedative exposure, especially to benzodiazepines, and early use of physical and occupational therapy-should be employed during the treatment of patients with CCI. 2012 Daedalus Enterprises
www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 20, No. 7, July 2014 Author affiliations: US Army Medical Research Institute of Infec- tious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA...SUBTITLE Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d... Hantavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae. Virology. 1994;198:196– 204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/viro.1994.1022 17. Duermeyer W, Wielaard F, van der Veen J
Asigau, Viola; Lavu, Evelyn K; McBride, William J H; Biloh, Eric; Naroi, Francis; Koana, Egi; Ferguson, John K; Laman, Moses
Because the prevalence of dengue fever in urban settings in Papua New Guinea is unknown, we investigated the presence of dengue using the NS1 antigen test in an outpatient-based prospective observational study at Port Moresby General Hospital. Of 140 patients with acute febrile illnesses, dengue fever was diagnosed in 14.9% (20 of 134; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 9.6-22.4). Malaria (2 of 137; 1.5%; 95% CI = 0.3-5.7), chikungunya (3 of 140; 2.1%; 95% CI = 0.6-6.6), and bacterial bloodstream infections (0 of 80; 0%; 95% CI = 0-5.7) were uncommon. Dengue fever should no longer be considered rare in Papua New Guinea.
Egal, Mohamud; de Geus, Hilde R.H.; Groeneveld, A.B. Johan
Background Oliguria occurs frequently in critically ill patients, challenging clinicians to distinguish functional adaptation from serum-creatinine-defined acute kidney injury (AKIsCr). We investigated neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)'s ability to differentiate between these 2 conditions. Methods This is a post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort of adult critically ill patients. Patients without oliguria within the first 6 h of admission were excluded. Plasma and urinary NGAL were measured at 4 h after admission. AKIsCr was defined using the AKI network criteria with pre-admission serum creatinine or lowest serum creatinine value during the admission as the baseline value. Hazard ratios for AKIsCr occurrence within 72 h were calculated using Cox regression and adjusted for risk factors such as sepsis, pre-admission serum creatinine, and urinary output. Positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for the optimal cutoffs for NGAL. Results Oliguria occurred in 176 patients, and 61 (35%) patients developed AKIsCr. NGAL was a predictor for AKIsCr in univariate and multivariate analysis. When NGAL was added to a multivariate model including sepsis, pre-admission serum creatinine and lowest hourly urine output, it outperformed the latter model (plasma p = 0.001; urinary p = 0.048). Cutoff values for AKIsCr were 280 ng/ml for plasma (PPV 80%; NPV 79%), and 250 ng/ml for urinary NGAL (PPV 58%; NPV 78%). Conclusions NGAL can be used to distinguish oliguria due to the functional adaptation from AKIsCr, directing resources to patients more likely to develop AKIsCr. PMID:27505067
Scheuermeyer, Frank X; Pourvali, Reza; Rowe, Brian H; Grafstein, Eric; Heslop, Claire; MacPhee, Jan; McGrath, Lorraine; Ward, John; Heilbron, Brett; Christenson, Jim
Although the management and outcomes of emergency department (ED) patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter have been explored, such studies have typically excluded patients with acute underlying medical illnesses. We seek to describe the ED treatment and outcomes of these complex patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter. This retrospective descriptive cohort study used an ECG database from 2 urban EDs to identify consecutive ED patients with an ECG demonstrating atrial fibrillation or flutter from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2009. We categorized patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter as "complex" according to prespecified criteria and then grouped them as being managed with rate or rhythm control attempts, or not. The primary outcome was safety of rate or rhythm control, measured by whether patients had a predefined adverse event or not. The secondary outcome was the success of rate or rhythm control, defined as rate control decreasing the pulse rate by 20 beats/min and successful rhythm control, both within 4 hours of treatment initiation. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the 2 groups. Four hundred sixteen complex patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter were identified. Patients managed with rate or rhythm control were similar in all baseline characteristics and illness distribution to patients who were not managed in this manner. The 135 patients with attempted rate control (105) or rhythm control (30) had 55 adverse events (40.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 32.5% to 49.5%), whereas the 281 patients not managed with rate or rhythm control had 20 adverse events (7.1%; 95% CI 4.5% to 10.9%), for a risk difference of 33.6% (95% CI 24.3% to 42.5%) and a relative risk of 5.7 (95% CI 3.6 to 9.1). Twenty of 105 patients (19.1%; 95% CI 12.3% to 28.1%) were successfully rate controlled, whereas 4 of 30 (13.3%; 95% CI 4.4% to 31.6%) were successfully rhythm controlled. In ED patients with complex atrial fibrillation or flutter, attempts
Prospective cohort study comparing sequential organ failure assessment and acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation III scoring systems for hospital mortality prediction in critically ill cirrhotic patients.
Chen, Y-C; Tian, Y-C; Liu, N-J; Ho, Y-P; Yang, C; Chu, Y-Y; Chen, P-C; Fang, J-T; Hsu, C-W; Yang, C-W; Tsai, M-H
The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation III (APACHE III) scoring systems obtained on the first day of intensive care unit (ICU) admission in predicting hospital mortality in critically ill cirrhotic patients. The study enrolled 102 cirrhotic patients consecutively admitted to ICU during a 1-year period. Twenty-five demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were analysed as predicators of survival. Information considered necessary to calculate the Child-Pugh, SOFA and APACHE III scores on the first day of ICU admission was also gathered. Overall hospital mortality was 68.6%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that mean arterial pressure, SOFA and APACHE III scores were significantly related to prognosis. Goodness-of-fit was good for the SOFA and APACHE III models. Both predictive models displayed a similar degree of the best Youden index (0.68) and overall correctness (84%) of prediction. The SOFA and APACHE III models displayed good areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (0.917 +/- 0.028 and 0.912 +/- 0.029, respectively). Finally, a strong and significant positive correlation exists between SOFA and APACHE III scores for individual patients (r(2) = 0.628, p < 0.001). This investigation confirms the grave prognosis for cirrhotic patients admitted to ICU. Both SOFA and APACHE III scores are excellent tools to predict the hospital mortality in critically ill cirrhotic patients. The overall predictive accuracy of SOFA and APACHE III is superior to that of Child-Pugh system. The role of these scoring systems in describing the dynamic aspects of clinical courses and allocating ICU resources needs to be clarified.
Background Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are frequent in children and complications can occur in patients with chronic diseases. We evaluated the frequency and impact of ARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) episodes on disease activity, and the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccine in a cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods Surveillance of respiratory viruses was conducted in JIA patients during ARI season (March to August) in two consecutive years: 2007 (61 patients) and 2008 (63 patients). Patients with ARI or ILI had respiratory samples collected for virus detection by real time PCR. In 2008, 44 patients were immunized with influenza vaccine. JIA activity index (ACRPed30) was assessed during both surveillance periods. Influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were measured before and 30-40 days after vaccination. Results During the study period 105 ARI episodes were reported and 26.6% of them were ILI. Of 33 samples collected, 60% were positive for at least one virus. Influenza and rhinovirus were the most frequently detected, in 30% of the samples. Of the 50 JIA flares observed, 20% were temporally associated to ARI. Influenza seroprotection rates were higher than 70% (91-100%) for all strains, and seroconversion rates exceeded 40% (74-93%). In general, response to influenza vaccine was not influenced by therapy or disease activity, but patients using anti-TNF alpha drugs presented lower seroconversion to H1N1 strain. No significant differences were found in ACRPed30 after vaccination and no patient reported ILI for 6 months after vaccination. Conclusion ARI episodes are relatively frequent in JIA patients and may have a role triggering JIA flares. Trivalent split influenza vaccine seems to be immunogenic and safe in JIA patients. PMID:23510667
Bolton, C F; Gilbert, J J; Hahn, A F; Sibbald, W J
Five patients developed a severe motor and sensory polyneuropathy at the peak of critical illness (sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction complicating a variety of primary illnesses). Difficulties in weaning from the ventilator as the critical illness subsided and the development of flaccid and areflexic limbs were early clinical signs. However, electrophysiological studies, especially needle electrode examination of skeletal muscle, provided the definite evidence of polyneuropathy. The cause is uncertain, but the electrophysiological and morphological features indicate a primary axonal polyneuropathy with sparing of the central nervous system. Nutritional factors may have played a role, since the polyneuropathy improved in all five patients after total parenteral nutrition had been started, including the three patients who later died of unrelated causes. The features allow diagnosis during life, and encourage continued intensive management since recovery from the polyneuropathy may occur. Images PMID:6094735
This article proposes a focused, novel sub-set of the cognitive behavioral therapy approach to hypnotherapy for physically ill patients, based upon the illness/non-illness psychotherapeutic model for physically ill patients. The model is based on three logical rules used in differentiating illness from non-illness: duality, contradiction, and complementarity. The article discusses the use of hypnotic interventions to help physically ill and/or disabled patients distinguish between illness and non-illness in their psychotherapeutic themes and attitudes. Two case studies illustrate that patients in this special population group can be taught to learn the language of change and to use this language to overcome difficult situations. The model suggests a new clinical mode of treatment in which individuals who are physically ill and/or disabled are helped in coping with actual motifs and thoughts related to non-illness or non-disability.
Stillman, A E; Braitman, L E; Grant, R J
Our goal was to determine whether critically ill older patients are treated differently than middle-aged patients. If so, what factors besides age contribute to that difference? Internal medicine residents (n = 46) and practicing internists (n = 41) received 8 clinical vignettes of 4 critically ill 85-year-old patients and 4 critically ill 50-year-old patients. Each patient had a distinct premorbid mental and physical state. Each respondent selected from 4 levels of therapeutic aggressiveness for each patient. The main outcome measure was the proportion of physicians who intended to treat the older of each matched pair of patients less aggressively than the younger one (that is, downgraded for age). Eight physicians (9%) treated a previously unimpaired 85-year-old patient less aggressively than a comparable 50-year-old patient. When the matched patients were either premorbidly mentally or physically impaired (but not both), about 20% of physicians downgraded for age. Most downgraded for age in matched patients who were premorbidly both mentally and physically impaired. We conclude that age alone does not engender much therapeutic bias against older patients as long as they are physically and mentally intact before the onset of their acute illness. As premorbid disabilities multiply, older patients may be treated less aggressively than younger ones with similar impairments and clinical presentations. PMID:9771155
Koehler, Katharina; Dogan, Elif; Koehler, Michael; Heine, Viktoria; Frommer, Jörg
Studies concentrating on the temporal dependence of subjective concepts during oncological treatment are underrepresented. Subjective interpretation contexts develop in the course of illness. The study focuses on the ideal-typical gestalt of these contents. In a follow-up study on coping, 12 patients with acute leukaemia (AL) were interviewed using a semistructured interview at the end of initial inpatient treatment. Using qualitative methodology, we inductively developed categories and assigned them to formal main categories. The following categories were developed: causal uncertainty as burden; discrepancy between subjective and objective assessment of degree of threat; knowledge of disease: conflict between information-seeking and information-avoiding behavior; dominance of medical approach to treatment; pursuit of normality; defense of emotions; orientation to workflows on the ward; adjustment as a coping strategy; positive attitude as a resource; life between hope and fear; limited future; latent fear of death. Themes of coping with the disease become visible. Some of these contents are tacit and latent, although of high subjective relevance to the patient. Their consideration could improve the patient-physician relationship.
Koedijk, Joost B; Valk-Swinkels, Corinne G H; Rijpstra, Tom A; Touw, Daan J; Mulder, Paul G H; van der Voort, Peter H J; van 't Veer, Nils E; van der Meer, Nardo J M
The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime (CTX) in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) when treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU). This single-center prospective observational pilot study was performed among ICU-patients with AKI receiving ≥48 h concomitant CRRT and CTX. CTX was administered intravenously 1,000 mg (bolus) every 6 h for 4 days. CRRT was performed as continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). Plasma concentrations of CTX and its active metabolite desacetylcefotaxime (DAC) were measured during CVVH treatment. CTX plasma levels and patient data were used to construct concentration-time curves. By using this data, the duration of plasma levels above 4 mg/liter (four times the MIC) was calculated and analyzed. Twenty-seven patients were included. The median CTX peak level was 55 mg/liter (range, 19 to 98 mg/liter), the median CTX trough level was 12 mg/liter (range, 0.8 to 37 mg/liter), and the median DAC plasma level was 15 mg/liter (range, 1.5 to 48 mg/liter). Five patients (19%) had CTX plasma levels below 4 mg/liter at certain time points during treatment. In at least 83% of the time any patient was treated with CTX, the CTX plasma level stayed above 4 mg/liter. A dosing regimen of 1,000 mg of CTX given four times daily is likely to achieve adequate plasma levels in patients with AKI treated with CVVH. Dose reduction might be a risk for suboptimal treatment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Bar-Or, David; Bar-Or, Raphael; Rael, Leonard T.; Brody, Edward N.
The overall redox potential of a cell is primarily determined by oxidizable/reducible chemical pairs, including glutathione–glutathione disulfide, reduced thioredoxin–oxidized thioredoxin, and NAD+–NADH (and NADP–NADPH). Current methods for evaluating oxidative stress rely on detecting levels of individual byproducts of oxidative damage or by determining the total levels or activity of individual antioxidant enzymes. Oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), on the other hand, is an integrated, comprehensive measure of the balance between total (known and unknown) pro-oxidant and antioxidant components in a biological system. Much emphasis has been placed on the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. The role of oxidative stress in acute diseases often seen in the emergency room and intensive care unit is considerable. New tools for the rapid, inexpensive measurement of both redox potential and total redox capacity should aid in introducing a new body of literature on the role of oxidative stress in acute illness and how to screen and monitor for potentially beneficial pharmacologic agents. PMID:25644686
Does how the patient feels matter? A prospective observational study of the outcome of acutely ill medical patients who feel their condition has improved on their first re-assessment after admission to hospital.
Opio, M O; Mutiibwa, G; Kellett, J; Brabrand, M
Although asking how a patient feels is the first enquiry most clinicians make the value of the answer has never been examined in acutely ill patients. Prospective observational study that compared the predictive value of how well acutely ill medical patients felt after admission to a resource poor sub-Saharan hospital with their mental alertness, mobility and vital signs. In total, 403 patients were studied. Patients who felt better when re-assessed 18.0 SD 9.1 h after admission to hospital were less likely to die in hospital (OR 0.18 95% CI 0.08-0.43, P = 0.00001) and more likely to be independent of others at discharge (OR 5.64 95% CI 3.04-10.47, P = 0.00001). Feeling better was an independent predictor of in-hospital death along with vital sign changes and gait stability, and an independent predictor of independence at discharge along with vital sign changes, gait stability and female gender. In this patient cohort a subjective feeling of improvement at the first re-assessment after admission to hospital is a powerful independent predictor of reduced in-hospital mortality.
Abend, Nicholas S.; Monk, Heather M.; Licht, Daniel J.; Dlugos, Dennis J.
Objective Intravenous (IV) levetiracetam (LEV) is approved for use in patients older than 16 years and may be useful in critically ill children, although there is little data available regarding pharmacokinetics. We aim to investigate the safety, an appropriate dosing, and efficacy of IV LEV in critically ill children. Design We describe a cohort of critically ill children who received IV LEV for status epilepticus, including refractory or nonconvulsive status, or acute repetitive seizures. Results There were no acute adverse effects noted. Children had temporary cessation of ongoing refractory status epilepticus, termination of ongoing nonconvulsive status epilepticus, cessation of acute repetitive seizures, or reduction in epileptiform discharges with clinical correlate. Conclusions IV LEV was effective in terminating status epilepticus or acute repetitive seizures and well tolerated in critically ill children. Further study is needed to elucidate the role of IV LEV in critically ill children. PMID:19325512
Steiner, Johann; Westphal, Sabine; Schroeter, Matthias L; Schiltz, Kolja; Jordan, Wolfgang; Müller, Ulf J; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Jacobs, Roland
Several studies have provided evidence for increased S100B serum concentrations in schizophrenia. The pathophysiological significance of this finding is still uncertain because S100B is involved in many cellular mechanisms and is not astrocyte-specific as was previously assumed. S100B is also expressed by subsets of CD3+ CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and may therefore be linked to the immune hypothesis of schizophrenia. We have quantified S100B+ CD3+ CD8+ T cells and NK cells by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 26 acutely ill schizophrenia cases and 32 matched controls. In parallel, S100B concentrations and the free cortisol index (FCI), a surrogate marker for stress axis activity, were determined in serum samples from the same blood draw. Psychopathology was monitored using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The patient group had increased S100B+ NK cell counts (P=0.045), which correlated with the FCI (r=0.299, P=0.026) but not with the PANSS or the elevated (P=0.021) S100B serum concentrations. S100B+ CD3+ CD8+ T cell counts were not significantly changed in the patient group and did neither correlate with the FCI and PANSS, nor with S100B serum concentrations. In conclusion, despite the observation of an increase in S100B+ NK cells in schizophrenia patients, the lack of a correlation with serum S100B concentrations suggests that these cells are probably not a major source of S100B in the blood of schizophrenia patients. Notably, elevated S100B+ NK cell counts may be linked with stress axis activation.
Kellett, John; Woodworth, Simon; Wang, Fei; Huang, Wendy
The best performing early warning score is Vitalpac™ Early Warning Score (ViEWS). However, it is not known how often, to what extent and over what time frame any early warning scores change, and what the implications of these changes are. Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Center, Ontario, Canada. The changes in the first three complete sets of the six variables required to retrospectively calculate the abbreviated version of ViEWS (that did not include mental status) after admission to hospital of 18,853 acutely ill medical patients, and their relationship to subsequent in-hospital mortality were examined. In the 10.4 SD 20.1 (median 5.0) hours between admission and the second recording the score changed in only 5.9% of patients and these changes were of no prognostic value. By the time of the third recording 34.9 SD 21.7 (median 30.0) hours after admission a change in score was clearly associated with a corresponding change in in-hospital mortality (e.g. for patients with an initial score of 5 an increase between the first and third recording of ≥4 points was associated with an increased mortality (OR 6.5 95% CI 2.3-15.9, p<0.00001), whereas a reduction of ≤-4 points was associated with a reduced mortality (OR 0.4 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p 0.03)). After a median interval of 30 h both the initial abbreviated ViEWS recording and subsequent changes in it both predict clinical outcome. It remains to be determined what interventions during this time frame will improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Straetemans, Masja; Alba, Sandra; Goeijenbier, Marco; van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Boer, Kimberly R.; Wagenaar, Jiri F. P.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.
Background Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease. Although important for the assessment of the burden of leptospirosis, data on the duration of the illness and the occurrence of post-leptospirosis complaints are not well documented. Hence the main objective of this study was to estimate the occurrence of persistent complaints and duration of hospital stay in laboratory confirmed leptospirosis patients in the Netherlands during 1985 to 2010. Additionally, several risk factors potentially impacting on the occurrence of post-leptospirosis complaints were investigated. Methods/Principal Findings The duration of the acute phase of leptospirosis was 16 days (IQR 12–23); 10 days (IQR 7–16) were spent hospitalized. Eighteen fatal cases were excluded from this analysis. Complaints of leptospirosis patients by passive case investigations (CPC) derived from files on ambulant consultations occurring one month after hospital discharge, revealed persistent complaints in 108 of 236 (45.8%) laboratory confirmed cases. Data on persistent complaints after acute leptospirosis (PCAC), assessed in 225 laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases collected through questionnaires during 1985-1993, indicated 68 (30.2%) PCAC cases. Frequently reported complaints included (extreme) fatigue, myalgia, malaise, headache, and a weak physical condition. These complaints prolonged in 21.1% of the cases beyond 24 months after onset of disease. There was no association between post-leptospirosis complaints and hospitalization. However, individuals admitted at the intensive care unit (ICU) were twice as likely to have continuing complaints after discharge adjusting for age and dialysis (OR 2.0 95% CI 0.8-4.8). No significant association could be found between prolongation of complaints and infecting serogroup, although subgroup analysis suggest that infection with serogroups Sejroe (OR 4.8, 95%CI 0.9-27.0) and icterohaemorrhagiae (OR 2.0, 95%CI 0.9-4.3 CI) are more likely to result in CPC than
Lindner, Gregor; Funk, Georg-Christian
Hypernatremia is common in intensive care units. It has detrimental effects on various physiologic functions and was shown to be an independent risk factor for increased mortality in critically ill patients. Mechanisms of hypernatremia include sodium gain and/or loss of free water and can be discriminated by clinical assessment and urine electrolyte analysis. Because many critically ill patients have impaired levels of consciousness, their water balance can no longer be regulated by thirst and water uptake but is managed by the physician. Therefore, the intensivists should be very careful to provide the adequate sodium and water balance for them. Hypernatremia is treated by the administration of free water and/or diuretics, which promote renal excretion of sodium. The rate of correction is critical and must be adjusted to the rapidity of the development of hypernatremia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Cvetkovska, Emilija; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Jankulovski, Nikola; Shosholcheva, Mirjana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Spirovska, Tatjana
Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of injury of skeletal muscles associated with myoglobinuria, muscle weakness, electrolyte imbalance and often, acute kidney injury as severe complication. The aim: of this study is to detect the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), and to raise awareness of this medical condition and its treatment among the clinicians. Material and methods: A retrospective review of all surgical and trauma patients admitted to surgical ICU of the University Surgical Clinic “Mother Teresa” in Skopje, Macedonia, from January 1st till December 31st 2015 was performed. Patients medical records were screened for available serum creatine kinase (CK) with levels > 200 U/l, presence of myoglobin in the serum in levels > 80 ng/ml, or if they had a clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis by an attending doctor. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data. Results: Out of totally 1084 patients hospitalized in the ICU, 93 were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis during the course of one year. 82(88%) patients were trauma patients, while 11(12%) were surgical non trauma patients. 7(7.5%) patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that required dialysis. Average values of serum myoglobin levels were 230 ng/ml, with highest values of > 5000 ng/ml. Patients who developed AKI had serum myoglobin levels above 2000 ng/ml. Average values of serum CK levels were 400 U/l, with highest value of 21600 U/l. Patients who developed AKI had serum CK levels above 3000 U/l. Conclusion: Regular monitoring and early detection of elevated serum CK and myoglobin levels in critically ill surgical and trauma patients is recommended in order to recognize and treat rhabdomyolysis in timely manner and thus prevent development of AKI. PMID:27703296
Lorenzi, Olga D.; Andújar-Pérez, Doris A.; Torres-Velásquez, Brenda C.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge Luis; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Gonzalez-Zeno, Gladys E.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Glass Elrod, Mindy; Mathis, Demetrius L.; Oberste, M. Steven; Nix, W. Allan; Henderson, Elizabeth; McQuiston, Jennifer; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia; García Gubern, Carlos; Santiago-Rivera, William; Cruz-Correa, Jesús; Muns-Sosa, Robert; Ortiz-Rivera, Juan D.; Jiménez, Gerson; Galarza, Ivonne E.; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Margolis, Harold S.; Alvarado, Luisa I.
Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Patients with fever ≤7 days were offered enrollment, and clinical data and specimens were collected at enrollment and upon discharge or follow-up. Blood and oro-nasopharyngeal specimens were tested by RT-PCR and immunodiagnostic methods for infection with dengue viruses (DENV) 1–4, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), influenza A and B viruses (FLU A/B), 12 other respiratory viruses (ORV), enterovirus, Leptospira spp., and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings of participants infected with DENV were compared to those infected with CHIKV, FLU A/B, and ORV. Clinical predictors of laboratory-positive dengue compared to all other AFI etiologies were determined by age and day post-illness onset (DPO) at presentation. Of 8,996 participants enrolled from May 7, 2012 through May 6, 2015, more than half (54.8%, 4,930) had a pathogen detected. Pathogens most frequently detected were CHIKV (1,635, 18.2%), FLU A/B (1,074, 11.9%), DENV 1–4 (970, 10.8%), and ORV (904, 10.3%). Participants with DENV infection presented later and a higher proportion were hospitalized than those with other diagnoses (46.7% versus 27.3% with ORV, 18.8% with FLU A/B, and 11.2% with CHIKV). Predictors of dengue in participants presenting <3 DPO included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, headache, eye pain, nausea, and dizziness, while negative predictors were irritability and rhinorrhea. Predictors of dengue in participants presenting 3–5 DPO were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, facial/neck erythema, nausea, eye pain, signs of poor circulation, and diarrhea; presence of
Tomashek, Kay M; Lorenzi, Olga D; Andújar-Pérez, Doris A; Torres-Velásquez, Brenda C; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge Luis; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Gonzalez-Zeno, Gladys E; Sharp, Tyler M; Galloway, Renee L; Glass Elrod, Mindy; Mathis, Demetrius L; Oberste, M Steven; Nix, W Allan; Henderson, Elizabeth; McQuiston, Jennifer; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia; García Gubern, Carlos; Santiago-Rivera, William; Cruz-Correa, Jesús; Muns-Sosa, Robert; Ortiz-Rivera, Juan D; Jiménez, Gerson; Galarza, Ivonne E; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Margolis, Harold S; Alvarado, Luisa I
Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Patients with fever ≤7 days were offered enrollment, and clinical data and specimens were collected at enrollment and upon discharge or follow-up. Blood and oro-nasopharyngeal specimens were tested by RT-PCR and immunodiagnostic methods for infection with dengue viruses (DENV) 1-4, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), influenza A and B viruses (FLU A/B), 12 other respiratory viruses (ORV), enterovirus, Leptospira spp., and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings of participants infected with DENV were compared to those infected with CHIKV, FLU A/B, and ORV. Clinical predictors of laboratory-positive dengue compared to all other AFI etiologies were determined by age and day post-illness onset (DPO) at presentation. Of 8,996 participants enrolled from May 7, 2012 through May 6, 2015, more than half (54.8%, 4,930) had a pathogen detected. Pathogens most frequently detected were CHIKV (1,635, 18.2%), FLU A/B (1,074, 11.9%), DENV 1-4 (970, 10.8%), and ORV (904, 10.3%). Participants with DENV infection presented later and a higher proportion were hospitalized than those with other diagnoses (46.7% versus 27.3% with ORV, 18.8% with FLU A/B, and 11.2% with CHIKV). Predictors of dengue in participants presenting <3 DPO included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, headache, eye pain, nausea, and dizziness, while negative predictors were irritability and rhinorrhea. Predictors of dengue in participants presenting 3-5 DPO were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, facial/neck erythema, nausea, eye pain, signs of poor circulation, and diarrhea; presence of rhinorrhea
Slooter, A J C; Van De Leur, R R; Zaal, I J
Delirium is common in critically ill patients and associated with increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and long-term cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of delirium has been explained by neuroinflammation, an aberrant stress response, neurotransmitter imbalances, and neuronal network alterations. Delirium develops mostly in vulnerable patients (e.g., elderly and cognitively impaired) in the throes of a critical illness. Delirium is by definition due to an underlying condition and can be identified at ICU admission using prediction models. Treatment of delirium can be improved with frequent monitoring, as early detection and subsequent treatment of the underlying condition can improve outcome. Cautious use or avoidance of benzodiazepines may reduce the likelihood of developing delirium. Nonpharmacologic strategies with early mobilization, reducing causes for sleep deprivation, and reorientation measures may be effective in the prevention of delirium. Antipsychotics are effective in treating hallucinations and agitation, but do not reduce the duration of delirium. Combined pain, agitation, and delirium protocols seem to improve the outcome of critically ill patients and may reduce delirium incidence. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acute high-altitude illness is an encompassing term for the range of pathology that the unacclimatised individual can develop at increased altitude. This includes acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral oedema and high-altitude pulmonary oedema. These conditions represent an increasing clinical problem as more individuals are exposed to the hypobaric hypoxic environment of high altitude for both work and leisure. In this review of acute high-altitude illness, the epidemiology, risk factors and pathophysiology are explored, before their prevention and treatment are discussed. Appropriate ascent rate remains the most effective acute high-altitude illness prevention, with pharmacological prophylaxis indicated in selected individuals. Descent is the definitive treatment for acute high-altitude illness, with the adjuncts of oxygen and specific drug therapies. PMID:26516505
Fried, M J; Bruce, J; Colquhoun, R; Smith, G
The transfer of acutely ill adults who were transported between hospitals by the Scottish Ambulance Service was audited in order to determine the number of transfers and to quantify the incidence of adverse events. Patients over 16 years of age requiring intervention/vital signs monitoring during transfer or a nursing/medical escort from the outset were defined as acutely ill adults. Three thousand and forty-eight audit forms were received, of which 2396 were suitable for inclusion in the audit. Transfers primarily occurred for specialist management (1580; 66%) or specialist investigation (550; 23%). Clinicians escorted 825 (34%) patients and were away from their hospital a median (IQR [range]) of 2 h (01:24-3:30 [00:05-17:33]) h:min Clinical intervention was required in 84 transfers (4%). The median (IQR [range]) time for 248 transfers (10.3%) requiring assisted ventilation was 28 min (00:17-00:50 [00:04-02:55]). The incidence of unsecured medical equipment (in escorted transfers only) was significantly lower in dedicated transport teams (2/205, 1%) vs non-dedicated (113/620, 18%; p = 0.004). Medical equipment failures were less common in the transfer of patients requiring assisted ventilation (1/156, 0.6% vs 9/97, 9%; p = 0.001).
Introduction Estimation of kidney function in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), is important for appropriate dosing of drugs and adjustment of therapeutic strategies, but challenging due to fluctuations in kidney function, creatinine metabolism and fluid balance. Data on the agreement between estimating and gold standard methods to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in early AKI are lacking. We evaluated the agreement of urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) and three commonly used estimating equations, the Cockcroft Gault (CG), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations, in comparison to GFR measured by the infusion clearance of chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA), in critically ill patients with early AKI after complicated cardiac surgery. Methods Thirty patients with early AKI were studied in the intensive care unit, 2 to 12 days after complicated cardiac surgery. The infusion clearance for 51Cr-EDTA obtained as a measure of GFR (GFR51Cr-EDTA) was calculated from the formula: GFR (mL/min/1.73m2) = (51Cr-EDTA infusion rate × 1.73)/(arterial 51Cr-EDTA × body surface area) and compared with the urinary CrCl and the estimated GFR (eGFR) from the three estimating equations. Urine was collected in two 30-minute periods to measure urine flow and urine creatinine. Urinary CrCl was calculated from the formula: CrCl (mL/min/1.73m2) = (urine volume × urine creatinine × 1.73)/(serum creatinine × 30 min × body surface area). Results The within-group error was lower for GFR51Cr-EDTA than the urinary CrCl method, 7.2% versus 55.0%. The between-method bias was 2.6, 11.6, 11.1 and 7.39 ml/min for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. The error was 103%, 68.7%, 67.7% and 68.0% for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. Conclusions The study
Fliers, Eric; Bianco, Antonio C; Langouche, Lies; Boelen, Anita
Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) typically present with decreased concentrations of plasma tri-iodothyronine, low thyroxine, and normal range or slightly decreased concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone. This ensemble of changes is collectively known as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The extent of NTIS is associated with prognosis, but no proof exists for causality of this association. Initially, NTIS is a consequence of the acute phase response to systemic illness and macronutrient restriction, which might be beneficial. Pathogenesis of NTIS in long-term critical illness is more complex and includes suppression of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, accounting for persistently reduced secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone despite low plasma thyroid hormone. In some cases distinguishing between NTIS and severe hypothyroidism, which is a rare primary cause for admission to the ICU, can be difficult. Infusion of hypothalamic-releasing factors can reactivate the thyroid axis in patients with NTIS, inducing an anabolic response. Whether this approach has a clinical benefit in terms of outcome is unknown. In this Series paper, we discuss diagnostic aspects, pathogenesis, and implications of NTIS as well as its distinction from severe, primary thyroid disorders in patients in the ICU.
Roy, Pierre-Marie; Rachas, Antoine; Meyer, Guy; Le Gal, Grégoire; Durieux, Pierre; El Kouri, Dominique; Honnart, Didier; Schmidt, Jeannot; Legall, Catherine; Hausfater, Pierre; Chrétien, Jean-Marie; Mottier, Dominique
Background Misuse of thromboprophylaxis may increase preventable complications for hospitalized medical patients. Objectives To assess the net clinical benefit of a multifaceted intervention in emergency wards (educational lectures, posters, pocket cards, computerized clinical decision support systems and, where feasible, electronic reminders) for the prevention of venous thromboembolism. Patients/Methods Prospective cluster-randomized trial in 27 hospitals. After a pre-intervention period, centers were randomized as either intervention (n = 13) or control (n = 14). All patients over 40 years old, admitted to the emergency room, and hospitalized in a medical ward were included, totaling 1,402 (712 intervention and 690 control) and 15,351 (8,359 intervention and 6,992 control) in the pre-intervention and intervention periods, respectively. Results Symptomatic venous thromboembolism or major bleeding (primary outcome) occurred at 3 months in 3.1% and 3.2% of patients in the intervention and control groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio: 1.02 [95% confidence interval: 0.78–1.34]). The rates of thromboembolism (1.9% vs. 1.9%), major bleedings (1.2% vs. 1.3%), and mortality (11.3% vs. 11.1%) did not differ between the groups. Between the pre-intervention and intervention periods, the proportion of patients who received prophylactic anticoagulant treatment more steeply increased in the intervention group (from 35.0% to 48.2%: +13.2%) than the control (40.7% to 44.1%: +3.4%), while the rate of adequate thromboprophylaxis remained stable in both groups (52.4% to 50.9%: -1.5%; 49.1% to 48.8%: -0.3%). Conclusions Our intervention neither improved adequate prophylaxis nor reduced the rates of clinical events. New strategies are required to improve thromboembolism prevention for hospitalized medical patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01212393 PMID:27227406
Mirski, Marek A; Lewin, John J; Ledroux, Shannon; Thompson, Carol; Murakami, Peter; Zink, Elizabeth K; Griswold, Michael
Most anxiolytics and sedative regimens in the intensive care unit (ICU) impair intellectual function, reducing patient autonomy, and often add to patient morbidity. Using an ICU-validated cognitive assessment tool Adapted Cognitive Exam (ACE), we performed a comparison between dexmedetomidine (DEX) and propofol (PRO) to evaluate which sedative regimen offered the least decrement in intellectual capacity. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study of 30 awake and intubated brain-injured (BI, n = 18) and non-BI (12) ICU patients. Each patient received fentanyl/PRO and fentanyl/DEX titrated to a calm, awake state using a crossover design. Cognitive testing was performed at each study period using the validated 100-point Hopkins ACE cognitive battery. Sedation with PRO diminished adjusted ACE scores (100-point exam) by a mean of -12.4 (95% CI -8.3 to -16.5, p < 0.001) while DEX, in contrast, improved ACE scores (6.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.4, p < 0.018). The difference in the change of ACE score between DEX versus PRO, our primary endpoint, was 19.2 (95% CI 12.3-26.1 p < 0.001) in favor of an improved ACE score on DEX. Patients with BI required less sedative, but effects of PRO and DEX on cognition were not changed. No serious adverse events occurred. Modest bradycardia was noted post hoc with DEX (-7.7 bpm, p < 0.01). ICU patients may be offered sedation without necessarily compromising arousal or cognition. Alleviation of anxiety and agitation can singly and effectively improve mental engagement and performance if overt forebrain dysfunction is avoided. Higher ACE scores with DEX may be a consequence of the intellect-sparing yet calming effect of this drug.
Keil, Margaret F; Bosmans, Charlotte; Van Ryzin, Carol; Merke, Deborah P
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of genetic, autosomal recessive conditions, where there is a block in cortisol biosynthesis. Approximately 95 percent of cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is discussed in this article. Patients with the severe or classic form of CAH have epinephrine deficiency in addition to cortisol deficiency. Both epinephrine and cortisol are important counterregulatory hormones and help prevent hypoglycemia during physical stress. This is the first prospective study to evaluate the incidence of hypoglycemia during acute illness in children with classic CAH. Our objective was to examine blood glucose levels and symptoms of these children during the physical stressor of a typical acute illness managed at home. Twenty patients, ages 3 to 10 years with classic CAH participated. Parents were instructed regarding management of illnesses, home blood glucose monitoring and questionnaire completion. Over 29 months, 20 patients completed questionnaires and 6 patients performed home blood glucose monitoring. A blood glucose of <60 mg/dL was documented in 3 out of 8 monitored acute illness episodes, and in 2 out of 6 of monitored children. The acute illness episodes with documented blood glucose <60 mg/dL were not associated with vomiting. Our data suggest that children with classic CAH may experience lowering of blood glucose during illnesses, and patient education regarding the management of common childhood illness should include glucose supplementation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Habeb, Abdelhadi M; Hughes, Claire R; Al-Arabi, Rida; Al-Muhamadi, Ali; Clark, Adrian J L; Metherell, L A
Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a heterogeneous condition of isolated glucocorticoid deficiency due to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) resistance. Patients have adrenal failure with normal electrolytes. We report two Arab children with different forms of FGD, in whom the diagnosis was initially masked by their acute illness and discuss the reasons for the delay in the diagnosis of FGD in both patients. Patient 1 presented at 12 days with Serratia sepsis. She received hydrocortisone for septic shock and needed dexamethasone courses to wean her off ventilation. At 13 weeks, she had normal electrolytes, low cortisol and high ACTH in keeping with FGD. A homozygous missense mutation (T159) in MC2R confirmed the diagnosis of FGD type 1. Patient 2 was admitted at 4.5 years, with an acute exacerbation of chronic asthma. At presentation, he had hypotension, hypoglycaemia and normal electrolytes. He was given IV hydrocortisone to treat his severe asthma, and his lip hyperpigmentation was thought to be central cyanosis. Two weeks later, his lips remained dark, and cortisol was low, with markedly elevated ACTH. Family history revealed a sister aged 22 years with cerebral palsy and a healthy 15-year-old brother, who were both severely pigmented with high ACTH levels. The diagnosis of FGD type 2 was confirmed by identifying a homozygous missense mutation (p.Y59D) in MRAP in the three siblings. FGD can be easily overlooked during acute illness. In a sick child, paired measurement of serum cortisol with ACTH prior to starting steroid therapy would be useful in making the diagnosis of FGD.
Grant, Mary Jo C; Schneider, James B; Asaro, Lisa A; Dodson, Brenda L; Hall, Brent A; Simone, Shari L; Cowl, Allison S; Munkwitz, Michele M; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q
Care of critically ill children includes sedation but current therapies are suboptimal. To describe dexmedetomidine use in children supported on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Secondary analysis of data from the Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure clinical trial. Thirty-one PICUs. Data from 2,449 children; 2 weeks to 17 years old. Sedation practices were unrestrained in the usual care arm. Patients were categorized as receiving dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative, secondary sedative, periextubation agent, or never prescribed. Dexmedetomidine exposure and sedation and clinical profiles are described. Of 1,224 usual care patients, 596 (49%) received dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative patients (n = 138; 11%) were less critically ill (Pediatric Risk of Mortality III-12 score median, 6 [interquartile range, 3-11]) and when compared with all other cohorts, experienced more episodic agitation. In the intervention group, time in sedation target improved from 28% to 50% within 1 day of initiating dexmedetomidine as a primary sedative. Dexmedetomidine as a secondary sedative usual care patients (n = 280; 23%) included more children with severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome or organ failure. Dexmedetomidine as a secondary sedative patients experienced more inadequate pain (22% vs 11%) and sedation (31% vs 16%) events. Dexmedetomidine as a periextubation agent patients (n = 178; 15%) were those known to not tolerate an awake, intubated state and experienced a shorter ventilator weaning process (2.1 vs 2.3 d). Our data support the use of dexmedetomidine as a primary agent in low criticality patients offering the benefit of rapid achievement of targeted sedation levels. Dexmedetomidine as a secondary agent does not appear to add benefit. The use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate extubation in children intolerant of an awake, intubated state may abbreviate ventilator weaning. These data
Liew, Aaron Y L; Piran, Siavash; Eikelboom, John W; Douketis, James D
Extended-duration pharmacological thromboprophylaxis, for at least 28 days, is effective for the prevention of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in high-risk surgical patients but is of uncertain benefit in hospitalized medical patients. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-duration thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients. We conducted a systematic PubMed, Medline and EMBASE literature search until June 2016 and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials which compared extended-duration with short-duration thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients. Four randomized controlled trials comparing extended-duration prophylaxis (24-47 days) with short-duration prophylaxis (6-14 days) in a total of 34,068 acutely ill hospitalized medical patients were included. When compared with short-duration prophylaxis, extended-duration prophylaxis was associated with a decrease in symptomatic proximal or distal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) [relative risk (RR) = 0.52; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.35-0.77: p = 0.001; absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 0.32%, number needed to treat (NNT) = 313], and symptomatic non-fatal pulmonary embolism (RR = 0.61; 95% Cl 0.38-0.99: p = 0.04; ARR = 0.16%; NNT = 625), an increase in major bleeding (RR = 2.08; 95% Cl 1.50-2.90: p < 0.0001, absolute risk increase = 0.41%, number needed to harm = 244), and no significant reduction in VTE-related mortality (RR = 0.69; 95% Cl 0.45-1.06: p = 0.09) or all-cause mortality (RR = 1.00; 95% CI 0.89-1.12; p = 0.95). There was heterogeneity for major bleeding due to results from the APEX trial (no difference between betrixaban and enoxaparin). Compared with short-duration thromboprophylaxis, extended-duration treatment reduces the risk for symptomatic DVT and non-fatal pulmonary embolism. Extended treatment with apixaban, enoxaparin and rivaroxaban but not betrixaban increases the risk for major
Dunn, Wendy J; Shimizu, Tomoko; Santamaria, Nick; Underwood, Rhonda J; Woods, Tanya L
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urinary and arterial blood pH and the progression of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients with sepsis or SIRS and oliguria. A prospective observational study was performed on critically ill adults in a tertiary intensive care unit in Melbourne, Australia. Urinary and arterial blood pH were measured at 12 hourly intervals for 60h for patients with sepsis or SIRS, oliguria and who were at high risk of acute kidney injury. Patient RIFLE class at baseline and 60h were assessed for an association to urinary and arterial blood pH. Secondarily, change in peak serum creatinine from baseline over 5 days was assessed for an association to mean urinary and arterial blood pH in the first 48h of the study. Finally, relevant patient demographic and physiological variables were assessed for an association to change in peak serum creatinine from baseline over 5 days. 44 patients were included in the study; 13 did not survive to hospital discharge. Baseline arterial blood pH was associated with baseline RIFLE class but not RIFLE class at 60h. Urinary pH was not associated with RIFLE class at baseline or 60h. There was no association between mean urinary or arterial blood pH in the first 48h and change in peak serum creatinine from baseline over 5 days. None of the patient and demographic and physiological variables showed an association to change in peak serum creatinine from baseline in the 5-day study period. Urinary and arterial blood pH were not associated with the progression of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients with sepsis or SIRS and at risk of acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lednicky, John; De Rochars, Valery Madsen Beau; Elbadry, Maha; Loeb, Julia; Telisma, Taina; Chavannes, Sonese; Anilis, Gina; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massinno; Okech, Bernard; Salemi, Marco
Mayaro virus has been associated with small outbreaks in northern South America. We isolated this virus from a child with acute febrile illness in rural Haiti, confirming its role as a cause of mosquitoborne illness in the Caribbean region. The clinical presentation can mimic that of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika virus infections. PMID:27767924
Lednicky, John; De Rochars, Valery Madsen Beau; Elbadry, Maha; Loeb, Julia; Telisma, Taina; Chavannes, Sonese; Anilis, Gina; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massinno; Okech, Bernard; Salemi, Marco; Morris, J Glenn
Mayaro virus has been associated with small outbreaks in northern South America. We isolated this virus from a child with acute febrile illness in rural Haiti, confirming its role as a cause of mosquitoborne illness in the Caribbean region. The clinical presentation can mimic that of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika virus infections.
Carrier, Paul; Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Girard, Murielle; Jacques, Jérémie; Nubukpo, Philippe; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique
Patients with psychiatric disorders are usually more exposed to multiple somatic illnesses, including liver diseases. Specific links are established between psychiatric disorders and alcohol hepatitis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in the population as a whole, and specifically in drug abusers. Metabolic syndrome criteria, and associated steatosis or non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) are frequent in patients with chronic psychiatric disorders under psychotropic drugs, and should be screened. Some psychiatric medications, such as neuroleptics, mood stabilizers, and a few antidepressants, are often associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In patients with advanced chronic liver diseases, the prescription of some specific psychiatric treatments should be avoided. Psychiatric disorders can be a limiting factor in the decision-making and following up for liver transplantation. PMID:28123443
Hu, Bangchuan; Sun, Renhua; Wu, Aiping; Ni, Yin; Liu, Jingquan; Guo, Feng; Ying, Lijun; Ge, Guoping; Ding, Aijun; Shi, Yunchao; Liu, Changwen; Xu, Lei; Jiang, Ronglin; Lu, Jun; Lin, Ronghai; Zhu, Yannan; Wu, Weidong; Xie, Bo
In 2012, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine proposed a definition for acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) based on current medical evidence and expert opinion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the current AGI grading system and to investigate the association between AGI severity grades with clinical outcome in critically ill patients. Adult patients at 14 general intensive care units (ICUs) with an expected ICU stay ≥24 h were prospectively studied. The AGI grade was assessed daily on the basis of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, intra-abdominal pressures, and feeding intolerance (FI) in the first week of admission to the ICU. Among the 550 patients enrolled, 456 patients (82.9%) received mechanical ventilation, and 470 patients were identified for AGI. The distribution of the global AGI grade was 24.5% with grade I, 49.4% with grade II, 20.6% with grade III, and 5.5% with grade IV. AGI grading was positively correlated with 28- and 60-day mortality (P < 0.0001). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that age, sepsis, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, the use of vasoactive drugs, serum creatinine and lactate levels, mechanical ventilation, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and the global AGI grade were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) associated with 60-day mortality. In a multivariate analysis including these variables, diabetes mellitus (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03-1.87; P = 0.05), the use of vasoactive drugs (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.12-2.11; P = 0.01), serum lactate (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.24; P = 0.03), global AGI grade (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.28-2.12; P = 0.008), and APACHE II score (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06; P < 0.001) were independently associated with 60-day mortality. In a subgroup analysis of 402 patients with 7-day survival, in addition to clinical predictors and the AGI grade on the first day of ICU stay, FI within the first week of ICU stay had an
Bello, G; Paliani, G; Annetta, M G; Pontecorvi, A; Antonelli, M
The nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is a clinical condition of abnormal thyroid function tests observed in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine, with normal or low levels of thyroxine and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. It is still a matter of controversy whether the NTIS represents a protective adaptation of the organism to a stressful event or a maladaptive response to illness that needs correction. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in certain clinical situations, such as caloric restriction, cardiac disease, acute renal failure, brain-dead potential donors, and burn patients. Treating patients with NTIS seems not to be harmful, but there is no persuasive evidence that it is beneficial. The administration of hypothalamic releasing factors in patients with NTIS appears to be safe and effective in improving metabolism and restoring the anterior pituitary pulsatile secretion in the chronic phase of critical illness. However, also this promising strategy needs to be explored further. Anyhow, an extremely prudent approach is needed if treatment is given. Much of the data appearing in the literature on the treatment of NTIS encourage further randomized controlled trials on large number of patients. At present, however, we believe that there is no indication for treating thyroid hormone abnormalities in critically ill patients until convincing proof of efficacy and safety is provided.
Aerts, Jean-Marie; Haddad, Wassim M.; An, Gary; Vodovotz, Yoram
The complexity of the physiologic and inflammatory response in acute critical illness has stymied the accurate diagnosis and development of therapies. The Society for Complex Acute Illness was formed a decade ago with the goal of leveraging multiple complex systems approaches in order to address this unmet need. Two main paths of development have characterized the Society’s approach: i) data pattern analysis, either defining the diagnostic/prognostic utility of complexity metrics of physiological signals or multivariate analyses of molecular and genetic data, and ii) mechanistic mathematical and computational modeling, all being performed with an explicit translational goal. Here, we summarize the progress to date on each of these approaches, along with pitfalls inherent in the use of each approach alone. We suggest that the next decade holds the potential to merge these approaches, connecting patient diagnosis to treatment via mechanism-based dynamical system modeling and feedback control, and allowing extrapolation from physiologic signals to biomarkers to novel drug candidates. As a predicate example, we focus on the role of data-driven and mechanistic models in neuroscience, and the impact that merging these modeling approaches can have on general anesthesia. PMID:24768566
Abar, Beau; Bock, Beth; Chapman, Gretchen; Boudreaux, Edwin D.
The Sentinel Event Theory provides a stepwise approach for building models to understand how negative events can spark health behavior change. This study tested a preliminary model using the Sentinel Events Method in a sample (N = 300) of smokers who sought care for acute cardiac symptoms. Patients completed measures on: smoking-related causal attribution, perceived severity of the acute illness event, illness-related fear, and intentions to quit smoking. Patients were followed up one week after the health event and a 7 day time line follow back (TLFB) was completed to determine abstinence from tobacco. Structural equation models were performed using average predictor scale scores at baseline, as well as three different time anchors for ratings of illness severity and illness-related fear. Quit intentions, actual illness severity, and age were consistent, positive, independent predictors of 7 day point prevalence abstinence. Additional research on the influences of perceptions and emotional reactions is warranted. PMID:25563437
O'Hea, Erin; Abar, Beau; Bock, Beth; Chapman, Gretchen; Boudreaux, Edwin D
The sentinel event theory provides a stepwise approach for building models to understand how negative events can spark health behaviour change. This study tested a preliminary model using the sentinel events method in a sample (N = 300) of smokers who sought care for acute cardiac symptoms. Patients completed measures on: smoking-related causal attribution, perceived severity of the acute illness event, illness-related fear and intentions to quit smoking. Patients were followed up one week after the health event and a seven-day timeline follow back was completed to determine abstinence from tobacco. Structural equation models were performed using average predictor scale scores at baseline, as well as three different time anchors for ratings of illness severity and illness-related fear. Quit intentions, actual illness severity and age were the consistent, positive and independent predictors of seven-day point prevalence abstinence. Additional research on the influences of perceptions and emotional reactions is warranted.
Kuladee, Sanchai; Prachason, Thanavadee
Background The English version of the 4 ‘A’s Test (4AT) is a rapid screening tool for delirium with a high sensitivity and specificity among hospitalized elderly patients. Objective To develop the Thai version of the 4AT (4AT-T) and assess its validity. Subjects and setting A total of 97 elderly patients aged 60 years or above who were admitted to the general medical wards were included. Methods Both authors independently translated the English version of the 4AT into Thai and thereafter developed a single reconciled forward translation by consensus. Back translation was performed by a bilingual native English speaker and it was then reviewed to ensure its agreement with the original one. After 24 hours of admission, subjects were enrolled and clinical data collected. Definite diagnosis of delirium was made by a psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text-Revision criteria and the 6-item Thai Delirium Rating Scale; the 4AT was then administered to participants by nurses within 30 minutes. A 4AT score ≥4 was considered positive for delirium screening. The optimal cut-off point of the 4AT-T was identified by Youden’s index. Results In all, 24 out of 97 participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text-Revision criteria for delirium. At a cut-off score of 4 or greater, the 4AT-T exhibited satisfactory diagnostic performance with a sensitivity of 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62.6%–95.3%) and specificity of 86.3% (95% CI: 76.3%–93.2%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92. The specified score provided maximal Youden’s index, suggesting an optimal criterion value for delirium screening. Conclusion The 4AT-T is a valid delirium-screening instrument for hospitalized elderly patients with acute medical illnesses. PMID:26966365
Princip, Mary; Scholz, Marco; Meister-Langraf, Rebecca E.; Barth, Jürgen; Schnyder, Ulrich; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Thayer, Julian F.; von Känel, Roland
Objective: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported to be a predictor of mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). Patients' beliefs and perceptions concerning their illness may play a role in decreased HRV. This study investigated if illness perceptions predict HRV at 3 months following acute MI. Methods: 130 patients referred to a tertiary cardiology center, were examined within 48 h and 3 months following acute MI. At admission, patients' cognitive representations of their MI were assessed using the German version of the self-rated Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ). At admission and after 3 months (follow-up), frequency and time domain measures of HRV were obtained from 5-min electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during stable supine resting. Results: Linear hierarchical regression showed that the Brief IPQ dimensions timeline (β coefficient = 0.29; p = 0.044), personal control (β = 0.47; p = 0.008) and illness understanding (β = 0.43; p = 0.014) were significant predictors of HRV, adjusted for age, gender, baseline HRV, diabetes, beta-blockers, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), attendance of cardiac rehabilitation, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: As patients' negative perceptions of their illness are associated with lower HRV following acute MI, a brief illness perception questionnaire may help to identify patients who might benefit from a specific illness perceptions intervention. PMID:27917140
Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza
The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) refers to changes in serum thyroid hormone levels observed in critically ill patients in the absence of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid primary dysfunction. Affected individuals have low T3, elevated rT3, and inappropriately normal TSH levels. The pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood but the acute and chronic changes in pituitary-thyroid function are probably the consequence of the action of multiple factors. The early phase seems to reflect changes occurring primarily in the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism, best seen in humans since 80-90% of the circulating T3 are derived from the pro-hormone T4. The conversion of T4 to T3 is catalyzed by type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) deiodinases via outer-ring deiodination. In contrast, type 3 deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inactivation of both T4 and T3. Over the last decades, several studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the changes on circulating thyroid hormones in NTIS. Increased inflammatory cytokines, which occurs in response to virtually any illness, has long been speculated to play a role in derangements of deiodinase expression. On the other hand, oxidative stress due to augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is characteristic of many diseases that are associated with NTIS. Changes in the intracellular redox state may disrupt deiodinase function by independent mechanisms, which might include depletion of the as yet unidentified endogenous thiol cofactor. Here we aim to present an updated picture of the advances in understanding the mechanisms that result in the fall of thyroid hormone levels in the acute phase of NTIS.
Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza
The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) refers to changes in serum thyroid hormone levels observed in critically ill patients in the absence of hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid primary dysfunction. Affected individuals have low T3, elevated rT3, and inappropriately normal TSH levels. The pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood but the acute and chronic changes in pituitary–thyroid function are probably the consequence of the action of multiple factors. The early phase seems to reflect changes occurring primarily in the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism, best seen in humans since 80–90% of the circulating T3 are derived from the pro-hormone T4. The conversion of T4 to T3 is catalyzed by type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) deiodinases via outer-ring deiodination. In contrast, type 3 deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inactivation of both T4 and T3. Over the last decades, several studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the changes on circulating thyroid hormones in NTIS. Increased inflammatory cytokines, which occurs in response to virtually any illness, has long been speculated to play a role in derangements of deiodinase expression. On the other hand, oxidative stress due to augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is characteristic of many diseases that are associated with NTIS. Changes in the intracellular redox state may disrupt deiodinase function by independent mechanisms, which might include depletion of the as yet unidentified endogenous thiol cofactor. Here we aim to present an updated picture of the advances in understanding the mechanisms that result in the fall of thyroid hormone levels in the acute phase of NTIS. PMID:22654851
Serra Cabañas, N; Barros Freiría, X; Garro Martínez, J; Blasco Pelícano, M; Maduell Canals, F; Torras Rabasa, A; Poch López de Briñas, E
Measurement of dialysis dose by methods based on urea kinetics (Kt/VUREA) are hardly applicable to critical ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF). However, it is the base of the ADQI consensus recommendation for the target minimum dose. To evaluate the usefulness of the real-time measurement of delivered dialysis dose (Kt) by means of the ionic dialysance (KtID) in the critically ill patient and to compare adequacy of dialysis dose between KtID and traditional Kt/V(UREA). Prospective observational study in 17 critically ill patients with ARF requiring acute hemodialysis with a predefined prescription for the study (51 measures). The mean delivered Kt/V(UREA) was 1.19 +/- 0.14, with 59% of the sessions with values equal or above the ADQI recommendation. On the contrary, the mean KtID values obtained was 37.6 +/- 1 l, with only 29.4% of the sessions being equal or greater than the recommended values. Dialysis dose monitoring by means of KtID reveals a lower degree of adequacy as compared to the traditional Kt/V(UREA) method. The dynamic character of KtID monitoring can allow the adaptation of each dialysis session ("K" and/or "t") in order to achieve the recommended dose.
Martin, Emily T; Kerin, Tara; Christakis, Dimitri A; Blume, Heidi K; Gospe, Sidney M; Vinje, Jan; Bowen, Michael D; Gentsch, Jon; Zerr, Danielle M
Seizures are common in children, but the causes and recurrence risk for children with a nonfebrile first seizure remain poorly understood. In a prospective longitudinal study of children who presented with a first-time seizure, we investigated the viral etiology of associated infectious illnesses and sought to determine the risk of recurrent seizures stratified by fever and type of illness. Children (aged 6 months to 6 years) were enrolled at the time of evaluation for their first seizure and followed monthly for up to 5 years. Seizure and illness data were collected through parent interviews and medical-record reviews. Stool, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid collected within 48 hours of the first seizure were evaluated for viral gastrointestinal pathogens. Of the 117 children enrolled, 78 (67%) had febrile seizures, 34 (29%) had nonfebrile-illness seizures, and 5 (4%) had unprovoked seizures. Children with nonfebrile-illness seizures were more likely than those with febrile seizures to have acute gastroenteritis (47% and 28%, respectively; P = .05). No significant differences in seizure recurrence were found between children with or without a fever at first seizure. Children with acute gastroenteritis at first seizure, regardless of fever, had a lower risk of seizure recurrence compared with children with other acute illnesses (hazard ratio: 0.28; 95% confidence interval: 0.09-0.80). Our results confirm the role of gastrointestinal illness as a distinguishing feature in childhood seizures. Children with this distinct presentation have a low rate of seizure recurrence and few neurologic complications.
Moliner Velázquez, S; Rubio Haro, R; De Andrés Serrano, C; De Andrés Ibáñez, J
Regional analgesia intrinsically, based on its physiological effects, is routinely used for the perioperative treatment of pain associated with surgical procedures. However, in other areas such as the non-surgical treatment of acute pain for patients in a critical condition, it has not been subjected to specific prospective studies. If we confine ourselves to the physiological effects of the nerve block, in a situation of stress, the indications for regional anaesthesia in this group of patients extend to the management of a wide variety of medical as well as postsurgical conditions, of trauma patients and of other painful procedures performed in the patient's bed. The critical patient certainly must be analyzed individually as their own primary conditions is of vital importance, as well as any associated conditions they have developed that can potentially increase the risk of systemic toxicity or morbidity, such as, coagulopathies, infection, immunosuppressive states, sedation and problems associated with mechanical ventilation. This review aims to assess the role of regional analgesia in critically ill patients, placing it within the algorithm decision tree of the professional responsible for patients in critical care units, all based on the evidence of potential benefits according to the published literature.
Bhat, Ajay; Prabhu, Mangalore Venkatraya
Introduction Tropical Acute Febrile Illness (TAFI) is one of the most common causes of morbidity within the community. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) due to infective and non infective causes is a major complication. Presence of AKI is a major cause of mortality among patients with TAFI. Aim To study the spectrum of tropical acute febrile illness; the proportion, spectrum and staging of acute kidney injury; Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) initiation and in-hospital mortality. Materials and Methods A total of 600 TAFI patients were prospectively studied at a tertiary care centre in coastal Karnataka between September 2012 and September 2014 for the aetiology of TAFI; the development and staging of AKI based on Kidney disease: Improving global outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines; the initiation of RRT and in-hospital mortality. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0 with statistical significance calculated using chi-square and Fisher’s exact t-test for which p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results The spectrum of TAFI, in decreasing order, was vivax malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever, falciparum malaria, mixed malaria, enteric fever, scrub typhus and the most common aetiology was malaria. The proportion of AKI was 54%. The most common cause of AKI, its stages 2 and 3, RRT initiation and in-hospital mortality was leptospirosis; and AKI stage 1 was dengue fever. KDIGO AKI stage 1, 2 and 3 was seen in 46.9%, 31.2% and 21.9% of AKI patients, respectively. RRT initiation was required in 10.2% of AKI patients and in-hospital mortality was 3% among all patients. AKI, RRT initiationand in-hospital mortality were significantly associated with older age, fever duration and other presenting complaints, examination findings, renal function and other parameters, leptospirosis, dengue fever, falciparum malaria. Conclusion The aetiology in about half of TAFI patients in coastal Karnataka was malaria. More than 50% develop AKI with greater than one
Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Uršič, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav
We present an infant with acute fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia, coming from an endemic region for tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and hantavirus infection. The primary human herpesvirus 6 infection was diagnosed by seroconversion of specific IgM and IgG and by identification of viral DNA in the acute patient's serum. The patient did not show skin rash suggestive of exanthema subitum during the course of illness. PMID:27980872
Neuromuscular complications of critical illness are common, and can be severe and persistent, with substantial impairment in physical function and long-term quality of life. While the etiology of ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is multifactorial, both direct (ie, critical illness neuromyopathy) and indirect (ie, immobility/disuse atrophy) complications of critical illness contribute to it. ICUAW is often difficult to diagnose clinically during the acute phase of critical illness, due to the frequent use of deep sedation, encephalopathy, and delirium, which impair physical examination for patient strength. Despite its limitations, physical examination is the starting point for identification of ICUAW in the cooperative patient. Given the relative cost, invasiveness, and need for expertise, electrophysiological testing and/or muscle biopsy may be reserved for weak patients with slower than expected improvement on serial clinical examination. Currently there are limited interventions to prevent or treat ICUAW, with tight glycemic control having the greatest supporting evidence. There is a paucity of clinical trials evaluating the specific role of early rehabilitation in the chronic critically ill. However, a number of studies support the benefit of intensive rehabilitation in patients receiving chronic mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, emerging data demonstrate the safety, feasibility, and potential benefit of early mobility in critically ill patients, with the need for multicenter randomized trials to evaluate potential short- and long-term benefits of early mobility, including the potential to prevent the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation and/or the development of chronic critical illness, and other novel treatments on patients' muscle strength, physical function, quality of life, and resource utilization. Finally, the barriers, feasibility, and efficacy of early mobility in both medical and other ICUs (eg, surgical, neurological, pediatric), as well as in
Seitz, Jochen; Bühren, Katharina; von Polier, Georg G; Heussen, Nicole; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin
Acute anorexia nervosa (AN) leads to reduced gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume in the brain, which however improves again upon restoration of weight. Yet little is known about the extent and clinical correlates of these brain changes, nor do we know much about the time-course and completeness of their recovery. We conducted a meta-analysis and a qualitative review of all magnetic resonance imaging studies involving volume analyses of the brain in both acute and recovered AN. We identified structural neuroimaging studies with a total of 214 acute AN patients and 177 weight-recovered AN patients. In acute AN, GM was reduced by 5.6% and WM by 3.8% compared to healthy controls (HC). Short-term weight recovery 2-5 months after admission resulted in restitution of about half of the GM aberrations and almost full WM recovery. After 2-8 years of remission GM and WM were nearly normalized, and differences to HC (GM: -1.0%, WM: -0.7%) were no longer significant, although small residual changes could not be ruled out. In the qualitative review some studies found GM volume loss to be associated with cognitive deficits and clinical prognosis. GM and WM were strongly reduced in acute AN. The completeness of brain volume rehabilitation remained equivocal.
Föcker, M; Timmesfeld, N; Scherag, S; Knoll, N; Singmann, P; Wang-Sattler, R; Bühren, K; Schwarte, R; Egberts, K; Fleischhaker, C; Adamski, J; Illig, T; Suhre, K; Albayrak, O; Hinney, A; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Hebebrand, J
Starvation represents an extreme physiological state and entails numerous endocrine and metabolic adaptations. The large-scale application of metabolomics to patients with acute anorexia nervosa (AN) should lead to the identification of state markers characteristic of starvation in general and of the starvation specifically associated with this eating disorder. Novel metabolomics technology has not yet been applied to this disorder. Using a targeted metabolomics approach, we analysed 163 metabolite concentrations in 29 patients with AN in the acute stage of starvation (T0) and after short-term weight recovery (T1). Of the 163 metabolites of the respective kit, 112 metabolites were quantified within restrictive quality control limits. We hypothesized that concentrations are different in patients in the acute stage of starvation (T0) and after weight gain (T1). Furthermore, we compared all 112 metabolite concentrations of patients at the two time points (T0, T1) with those of 16 age and gender matched healthy controls. Thirty-three of the metabolite serum levels were found significantly different between T0 and T1. At the acute stage of starvation (T0) serum concentrations of 90 metabolites differed significantly from those of healthy controls. Concentrations of controls mostly differed even more strongly from those of AN patients after short-term weight recovery than at the acute stage of starvation. We conclude that AN entails profound and longer lasting alterations of a large number of serum metabolites. Further studies are warranted to distinguish between state and trait related alterations and to establish diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the thus altered metabolites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Darmon, Michael; Vincent, François; Canet, Emmanuel; Mokart, Djamel; Pène, Frédéric; Kouatchet, Achille; Mayaux, Julien; Nyunga, Martine; Bruneel, Fabrice; Rabbat, Antoine; Lebert, Christine; Perez, Pierre; Renault, Anne; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Benoit, Dominique; Hamidfar, Rebecca; Jourdain, Mercé; Schlemmer, Benoit; Chevret, Sylvie; Lemiale, Virginie; Azoulay, Elie
Background Cancer patients are at high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We sought to appraise the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of AKI in a large multicentre cohort study of critically ill patients with haematological malignancies. Methods We used a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. The study was carried out in 17 university or university-affiliated centres in France and Belgium between 2010 and 2012. AKI was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) definition. Results Of the 1011 patients admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU) during the study period, 1009 were included in this study. According to the AKIN definition, 671 patients (66.5%) developed an AKI during their ICU stay, of which 258 patients (38.4%) were AKI stage 1, 75 patients (11.2%) AKI stage 2 and 338 patients (50.4%) AKI stage 3. After adjustment for confounders, main adverse risk factors of AKI were older age, severity [non-renal Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)], history of hypertension, tumour lysis syndrome, exposure to nephrotoxic agents and myeloma. Hospital mortality was 44.3% in patients with AKI and 25.4% in patients without AKI (P < 0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, AKI was independently associated with hospital mortality [OR 1.65 (95% CI 1.19–2.29)]. Overall, 271 patients required renal replacement therapy (RRT), of whom 57.2% died during their hospital stay as compared with 31.2% (P < 0.0001) in those not requiring RRT. Conclusion Two-thirds of critically ill patients with haematological malignancies developed AKI. Hospital mortality in this population of patients developing AKI or requiring RRT is close to that in general ICU population. PMID:26597921
Viana, Marina Verçoza; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Fabbrin, Amanda Rodrigues; Santos, Manoella Freitas; Gerchman, Fernando
Hyperglycemia is a commonly encountered issue in critically ill patients in the intensive care setting. The presence of hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, regardless of the reason for admission (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, status post-cardiovascular surgery, stroke, sepsis). However, the pathophysiology and, in particular, the treatment of hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient remain controversial. In clinical practice, several aspects must be taken into account in the management of these patients, including blood glucose targets, history of diabetes mellitus, the route of nutrition (enteral or parenteral), and available monitoring equipment, which substantially increases the workload of providers involved in the patients' care. This review describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and monitoring of hyperglycemia in the critically ill adult patient. PMID:24770692
Bärtsch, Peter; Swenson, Erik R
A 45-year-old healthy man wishes to climb Mount Kilimanjaro (5895 m) in a 5-day period, starting at 1800 m. The results of a recent exercise stress test were normal; he runs 10 km 4 or 5 times per week and finished a marathon in less than 4 hours last year. He wants to know how he can prevent becoming ill at high altitude and whether training or sleeping under normobaric hypoxic conditions in the weeks before the ascent would be helpful. What would you advise?
Gariballa, Salah; Forster, Sarah
Undernutrition in hospitalised patients is likely to be contributed to by the dual action of the underlying disease and acute catabolism associated with it. The aim of this study was to measure the association between underlying disease and nutritional status in acutely ill older patients. Four hundred and forty-five randomly selected patients had their nutritional status assessed from anthropometric, haematological and biochemical data within 72h of admission, at 6 weeks and at 6 months. Data were also collected on age, disability, chronic illness, medications, smoking and acute-phase response. Patients admitted with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure and falls had significantly lower anthropometric measurements compared with all study populations than for example those admitted with ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chest infections and for elective hip surgery. Nutritional status has deteriorated between admission and 6 weeks among those with COPD, heart failure and falls compared with all study populations. Over 6-months 33 (52%) COPD patients and 14 (39%) heart failure patients were readmitted to hospital compared with 137 (35%) patients of all study populations. Nutritional supplements lead to a limited but significant benefit in transferrin and red cell folate among patients with heart failure and IHD. In older patients, underlying diseases have variable contributions to the poor nutritional status associated with acute illness.
Loss, Sergio Henrique; Nunes, Diego Silva Leite; Franzosi, Oellen Stuani; Salazar, Gabriela Soranço; Teixeira, Cassiano; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios
The technological advancements that allow support for organ dysfunction have led to an increase in survival rates for the most critically ill patients. Some of these patients survive the initial acute critical condition but continue to suffer from organ dysfunction and remain in an inflammatory state for long periods of time. This group of critically ill patients has been described since the 1980s and has had different diagnostic criteria over the years. These patients are known to have lengthy hospital stays, undergo significant alterations in muscle and bone metabolism, show immunodeficiency, consume substantial health resources, have reduced functional and cognitive capacity after discharge, create a sizable workload for caregivers, and present high long-term mortality rates. The aim of this review is to report on the most current evidence in terms of the definition, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of persistent critical illness. PMID:28444077
This review addresses the use of corticosteroid replacement in critically ill patients. Low-dose corticosteroid replacement for critically ill patients with septic shock has been shown to reduce the duration of vasopressor-dependent shock, to shorten ICU length of stay, and, in recent trials, to reduce mortality. Numerous questions remain to be fully answered about patient selection, corticotropin-stimulation testing methods, and interpretation of results.
Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Ye Na; Shin, Ho Sik; Jung, Yeonsoon; Rim, Hark
Background The purpose of this study was to assess the role of hypophosphatemia in major clinical outcomes of patients treated with low- or high-intensity continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of data collected from 492 patients. We divided patients into two CRRT groups based on treatment intensity (greater than or equal to or less than 40 mL/kg/hour of effluent generation) and measured serum phosphate level daily during CRRT. Results We obtained a total of 1,440 phosphate measurements on days 0, 1, and 2 and identified 39 patients (7.9%), 74 patients (15.0%), and 114 patients (23.1%) with hypophosphatemia on each of these respective days. In patients treated with low-intensity CRRT, there were 23 episodes of hypophosphatemia/1,000 patient days, compared with 83 episodes/1,000 patient days in patients who received high-intensity CRRT (P < 0.01). Multiple Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score, utilization of vasoactive drugs, and arterial pH on the second day of CRRT were significant predictors of mortality, while serum phosphate level was not a significant contributor to mortality. Conclusion APACHE score, use of vasoactive drugs, and arterial pH on the second CRRT day were identified as significant predictors of mortality. Hypophosphatemia might not be a major risk factor of increased mortality in patients treated with CRRT. PMID:28904875
Serological evidence of rift valley fever virus among acute febrile patients in Southern Mozambique during and after the 2013 heavy rainfall and flooding: implication for the management of febrile illness.
Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Pinto, Gabriela; Weyer, Jacqueline; le Roux, Chantel; Mandlaze, Arcildo; José, Américo Feriano; Muianga, Argentina; Paweska, Janusz Tadeusz
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) remains heavily neglected in humans in Mozambique, even though recent outbreaks were reported in neighboring countries in humans and several cases of RVFV in cattle were reported in several districts in Mozambique. We conducted a cross sectional study during and after severe flooding that occurred in 2013 in Mozambique. Paired acute and convalescent serum samples were tested from febrile patients attending a primary health care unit in a suburban area of Maputo city for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seroconversion of IgG anti-RVFV was observed in 5 % (10/200) of convalescent patients and specific IgM anti-RVFV was detected in one acute patient (0.5 %; 1/200). All sera from acute patient tested negative by real time PCR. In conclusion, our results suggest that RVF represent an important but neglected cause of febrile illness following periods of flooding in southern Mozambique.
Vassalo, Juliana; Spector, Nelson; de Meis, Ernesto; Soares, Márcio; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira
Antiphospholipid antibodies are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis and severe catastrophic cases account for a large morbidly/mortality. Through the connection between the immune, inflammatory and hemostatic systems, it is possible that these antibodies may contribute to the development of organ dysfunction and are associated with poor short and long-term prognoses in critically ill patients. We performed a search of the PubMed/MedLine database for articles written during the period from January 2000 to February 2013 to evaluate the frequency of antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients and their impact on the outcomes of these patients. Only eight original studies involving critically ill patients were found. However, the development of antiphospholipid antibodies in critically ill patients seems to be frequent, but more studies are necessary to clarify their pathogenic role and implications for clinical practice. PMID:25028953
Rosso, Fernando; Vanegas, Sara; Rodríguez, Sarita; Pacheco, Robinson
Little is known about the prevalence and clinical course of dengue infection in elderly patients living in endemic areas; it is presumed that there is a lower prevalence but higher severity, complications and mortality. To describe the prevalence and clinical course of dengue infection in elderly patients who were admitted to a referral care center for infectious diseases in an endemic region. We conducted an observational and descriptive study between 2011 and 2014, using a cohort of elderly patients with serological diagnosis of dengue. A total of 235 febrile elderly patients were assessed, of which 43 patients (18.3%) were found to have dengue. The median age was 71 years; 48.7% were female, and 89% of patients had at least one comorbid condition. According to the serological tests, 51.4% of cases were positive for NS1 Ag, 27% for IgM and 54.1% for IgG, while 64.8% were secondary infections. Dengue was diagnosed in 13 patients (35%), dengue with warning signs in 16 cases (43%), and severe dengue in 8 cases (22%). Nearly 56.7% of patients were admitted to hospital and 21.6%, to the intensive care unit. None died. We found dengue infection to be more frequent than expected in this sample of elderly patients, due to acute febrile syndrome. Elderly patients also required higher rate of hospitalization and had more complications, however there were no deaths due to good management.
Aguiar Prieto, Pablo; Finley, Rita L; Muchaal, P K; Guerin, Michele T; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Coutín Marie, Gisele; Perez, Enrique
Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005-January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7-61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness.
Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique
Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750
Sarada, Pooja Prathapan; Sundararajan, Krishnaswamy
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy, usually evoked by antecedent infection. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem chronic granulomatous disorder with neurological involvement occurring in a minority. We present a case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man who presented with acute ascending polyradiculoneuropathy with a recent diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. The absence of acute flaccid paralysis excluded a clinical diagnosis of GBS in the first instance. Subsequently, a rapid onset of proximal weakness with multi-organ failure led to the diagnosis of GBS, which necessitated intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis to which the patient responded adequately, and he was subsequently discharged home. Neurosarcoidosis often masquerades as other disorders, leading to a diagnostic dilemma; also, the occurrence of a GBS-like clinical phenotype secondary to neurosarcoidosis may make diagnosing coexisting GBS a therapeutic challenge. This article not only serves to exemplify the rare association of neurosarcoidosis with GBS but also highlights the need for a high index of clinical suspicion for GBS and accurate history taking in any patient who may present with rapidly progressing weakness to an Intensive Care Unit. PMID:27303139
Aitken, Leanne M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Schuetz, Michael; Joyce, Christopher; Macfarlane, Bonnie
To describe the recovery of trauma intensive care patients up to six months posthospital discharge. Injury is a leading cause of preventable mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 10% of hospitalised trauma patients being admitted to intensive care. Intensive care patients experience significant ongoing physical and psychological burden after discharge; however, the patterns of recovery and the subgroups of intensive care patients who experience the greatest burden are not described. This prospective cohort study was conducted in one tertiary referral hospital in south-east Queensland, Australia. Following ethics approval, injured patients who required admission to intensive care provided consent. Participants completed questionnaires prior to hospital discharge (n = 123) and one (n = 93) and six months (n = 88) later. Data included demographic and socioeconomic details, pre-injury health, injury characteristics, acute care factors, postacute factors [self-efficacy, illness perception, perceived social support and psychological status as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the PTSD Civilian Checklist] and health status (SF-36). All participants required ongoing support from healthcare providers in the six months after discharge from hospital, and approximately half required support services such as accommodation and home modifications. Approximately 20% of participants reported post-traumatic stress symptoms, while approximately half the participants reported psychological distress. Average quality of life scores were significantly below the Australian norms both one and six months postdischarge. Trauma intensive care patients rely on ongoing healthcare professional and social support services. Compromised health-related quality of life and psychological health persists at six months. Effective discharge planning and communication across the care continuum is essential to facilitate access to healthcare providers and other
The paper describes a clinical controlled trial of an armchair with integral pressure-reducing cushion, which took place on two elderly acute medical wards in a district general hospital. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the armchair would have an impact on reducing the occurrence of pressure sores. All patients were provided with a mattress or overlay in accordance with the hospital policy on mattress provision following a Waterlow risk assessment. Patients on ward A were provided with an armchair with integral pressure-reducing cushion, whilst patients on ward B continued to use their existing bedside armchair. Nominal data were collected on all pressure sores in patients who were not bedridden. Ward A had a significantly lower incidence of hospital-acquired pressure sores compared to ward B, and non-hospital-acquired pressure sores on this ward showed more improvement than those on ward B.
Pappa, Theodora A; Vagenakis, Apostolos G; Alevizaki, Maria
The nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is a very common clinical entity among hospitalized patients and has been reported in practically every severe illness and acute or chronic stressful event. There is a large body of data associating the presence of NTIS with the severity of the underlying disease. Most of these studies concern intensive care unit (ICU) patients, whereas the non-critically ill patients outside the ICU setting are less well studied. We provide a review of the existing literature focusing on studies examining NTIS in non-critically ill patients and attempt to summarize the pathophysiological pathways underlying the syndrome, its prognostic role, as well as the current intervention studies mainly from a clinical standpoint. The aetiology of the NTIS is multifactorial and varies among different groups of patients. Experimental and clinical findings suggest that inflammatory cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, whereas recent evidence re-evaluate the role of deiodinases in thyroid hormone metabolism not only in the periphery but also in the hypothalamus and the pituitary and thus in the alterations accompanying NTIS. Clinical data examining the effectiveness of thyroid hormone supplementation in NTIS remain controversial. As long as there is no clear evidence of benefit from thyroid hormone replacement and until well-designed studies confirm its efficacy, thyroxine supplementation should not be recommended for the treatment of NTIS. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
van Loenhout, Joris A F; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Vercoulen, Jan H; Akkermans, Reinier P; Wijkmans, Clementine J; van der Velden, Koos; Paget, W John
During the largest Q-fever outbreak ever reported, a cohort study was established to assess the health status of Q-fever patients over a 24-month period and to identify factors associated with health status. Laboratory-confirmed Q-fever patients participated at six time points after onset of illness. Scores on twelve subdomains from two health status instruments were calculated for each time point to determine progression and compare to reference groups. The study included 336 Q-fever patients. There is a significant linear improvement over time in nine of the twelve health status subdomains. For example, the proportion of patients with severe fatigue improved from 73.0% at three months to 60.0% at twelve months and 37.0% at twenty-four months, but this was still high compared to a healthy reference group (2.5%). For the three most severely affected subdomains -'Fatigue', 'General Quality of Life' and 'Role Physical'- the baseline characteristics significantly associated with a long-term reduced health status were being female, being a young adult and having pre-existing health problems. Despite a significant linear improvement over time in nine of the twelve health status subdomains, more than one out of three patients still suffered from a reduced health status at 24 months. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M
% confidence interval (CI) -67.33 to -31.18; P value < 0.00001). Despite a lower mean PaO2 for bad lung down, hypoxaemia (mean PaO2 < 60 mmHg) was not consistently reported. Furthermore, pooled data had methodological shortcomings with unclear risk of bias. We had similar doubts regarding internal validity for other studies included in the review. Review authors could provide no clinical practice recommendations based on the findings of included studies. Available research could not eliminate the uncertainty surrounding benefits and/or risks associated with lateral positioning of critically ill adult patients. Research gaps include the effectiveness of lateral positioning compared with semi recumbent positioning for mechanically ventilated patients, lateral positioning compared with prone positioning for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and less frequent changes in body position. We recommend that future research be undertaken to address whether the routine practice of repositioning patients on their side benefits all, some or few critically ill patients.
Wilson, A. D.; Downham, M. A. P. S.; Forster, D. P.
The character and frequency of acute illness in infants presenting to a general practice over a 16-week period was studied. Symptoms were classified as 'major' or 'minor' in accordance with the definitions used in a multicentre study in infant mortality. Of the 126 consultations reviewed, 106 (84 per cent) included at least one major symptom. None of the illnesses resulted in hospital admission or had a fatal outcome. It was concluded that this classification of symptoms into `major' and `minor' categories is not sufficiently discriminating to use in general practice. More specific definitions are required. PMID:6708005
Ostermann, Marlies; Hall, Anna; Crichton, Siobhan
The aim was to investigate whether mean perfusion pressure (MPP) calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and central venous pressure (CVP) was associated with risk of progression from AKI I to AKI III in critically ill patients. Retrospective analysis of adult patients admitted to a multi-disciplinary adult intensive care unit (ICU) between July 2007 and June 2009 who developed AKI I and in whom advanced haemodynamic monitoring was initiated within 12 h of diagnosis of AKI I. We compared patients with a MPP above and below the median value in the first 12 h of diagnosis of AKI. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for progression to AKI III, to explore the impact of MAP and CVP separately, and to investigate the impact of MPP in pre-defined sub-groups. Among 2118 ICU patients, 790 patients (37%) developed AKI I of whom 205 underwent advanced haemodynamic monitoring within 12 h of AKI stage I. Their median MPP was 59 mmHg. AKI I patients with a MPP ≤59 mmHg had a significantly higher risk of progressing to AKI stage III (48.6% versus 34%, respectively; p = 0.0034). This association was stronger in patients with ischemic heart disease, congestive cardiac failure or without pre-existing hypertension and in patients with a MAP <65 mmHg for >1 h. As individual components, a raised CVP was independently associated with progression to AKI stage III but MAP alone was not an independent risk factor for AKI progression. MPP <60 mmHg was independently associated with AKI progression. CVP was the key component of MPP.
Choong, Karen; Foster, Gary; Fraser, Douglas D; Hutchison, James S; Joffe, Ari R; Jouvet, Philippe A; Menon, Kusum; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Ward, Roxanne E
To evaluate acute rehabilitation practices in pediatric critical care units across Canada. Retrospective cohort study. Six Canadian, tertiary care pediatric critical care units. Six hundred children aged under 17 years admitted to pediatric critical care unit during a winter and summer month of 2011 with a greater than 24-hour length of stay. None. The primary outcome of interest was the nature and timing of pediatric critical care unit rehabilitation practices.Rehabilitation was classified according to mobility and nonmobility interventions. Predictors of mobilization and the time to mobilization were evaluated through regression and time-dependent survival analyses, respectively. The most common form of rehabilitation provided in pediatric critical care unit was physical therapy (45.5% patients) followed by occupational therapy (4.5%) and speech and language therapy (1.5%). Interventions were primarily nonmobility in nature (69.7% of sessions), most frequently in the form of chest physiotherapy (42.7% of sessions). The median time to mobilization was 2 days (interquartile range, 1-6) as compared with 1 day for nonmobility interventions (interquartile range, 1-3). Only 57 patients (9.5%) received early mobilization. Regression analyses revealed that increasing age, admission during winter, neuromuscular blockade, and sedative infusions were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving mobility therapy. Increasing age was a predictor of early mobilization, while neuromuscular blockade was associated with delayed mobilization. No significant differences in adverse events were found between nonmobility and mobility interventions. Only half of the children receive rehabilitation while in the pediatric critical care unit, and when it occurs, therapy is primarily focused on respiratory function. Mobilization appears to be reserved for at-risk children who were muscle relaxed and sedated; however, its implementation in these patients is delayed. Future pediatric
Danziger, John; Chen, Ken; Lee, Joon; Feng, Mengling; Mark, Roger G.; Celi, Leo Anthony; Mukamal, Kenneth J.
Background Although obesity is associated with risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and improved survival, less is known about the associations of obesity with risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and post-AKI mortality. Methods In a single-center inception cohort of almost 15,000 critically ill patients, we evaluated the association of obesity with AKI and AKI severity, as well as in-hospital and one-year survival. AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative criteria. Results The AKI incidence rates for normal, overweight, Class I, II, and III Obesity were 18.6, 20.6, 22.5, 24.3 and 24.0 percent respectively, and the adjusted odds ratios of AKI were 1.18 [95% CI 1.06–1.31], 1.35 [1.19–1.53], 1.47 [1.25–1.73], 1.59 [1.31–1.87], compared to normal weight, respectively. Each 5 kg/m2 increase in body mass index (BMI) was associated with a 10% risk [95% CI 1.06–1.24; p<0.001] of more severe AKI. Within-hospital and one-year survival rates associated with the AKI episodes were similar across BMI categories. In conclusion, obesity is a risk factor for AKI injury, which is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality. PMID:26496453
Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Balasubramani, G. K.; Schaffer, Mallory; Lieberman, Rhett H.; Eng, Heather; Kyle, Shakala; Wisniewski, Stephen; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Middleton, Donald B.
Objective To determine the effects of symptoms and presence of confirmed influenza on intention to receive an influenza vaccine, specifically in patients recovering from a medically-attended acute (≤ 7 days’ duration) respiratory illness (ARI). Methods During the 2013–2014 influenza season, individuals seeking outpatient care for an ARI that included cough were tested for influenza using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR) and completed surveys. Children (6 months–18 years) and adults (≥ 18 years) were grouped by their combined current season’s influenza vaccination status (vaccinated/not vaccinated) and their vaccination intentions for next season (intend/do not intend). Results Forty-one percent (323/786) were unvaccinated at enrollment, of whom nearly half (151/323) intended to be vaccinated next season. When adjusting for demographic, health and other factors, unvaccinated individuals who intended to be vaccinated next season were approximately 1.5 times more likely to have PCR-confirmed influenza compared with vaccinated individuals who intended to be vaccinated next season. Conclusion The combined experience of not being vaccinated against influenza and seeking medical attention for an ARI seemed to influence approximately one-half of unvaccinated participants to consider influenza vaccination for next season. PMID:26018106
López-Rodríguez, L; Hidalgo-Alquicira, F G; Mimenza-Alvarado, A J
To describe the pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical manifestations of the neurological complications that critically ill patients often develop in intensive care units, and to discuss their treatment and prognosis, in the light of the most significant contemporary literature. The most frequent complication suffered by critically ill patients is sepsis, with encephalopathy as the main manifestation, and this has a direct effect on their prognosis. Polyneuropathy of the critically ill patient is linked to sepsis, as the main precipitating factor, as well as to the presence of high levels of glucose, which plays an important role in deciding whether mechanical ventilation can be withdrawn or not. Myopathy of the critically ill patient is related to the use of fluorinated steroids and neuromuscular blockers, which are frequently administered to these patients. All these entities represent a significant diagnostic challenge for the physician and are accompanied by important sequelae that continue after the patient's discharge from hospital, as well as myopathies and neuropathies associated to the use of drugs that are commonly administered to critically ill patients. It is therefore necessary to be familiar with the pathophysiology of the damage and with the associated factors, if a suitable diagnostic approach is to be employed. The incidence of these pathologies and their complications makes them important conditions that require a swift, accurate diagnosis so that treatment can be established early on and a prognosis can also be determined.
Longley, Alison J; Doyle, Patricia E
Virtually every oral health care practice includes patients with mental illness. This continuing education (CE) course gives a practical overview of common psychiatric disorders, their effects on oral and dental health, and conditions associated with mental illness that affect oral health treatment. Following a brief description of mental illnesses, information on conducting a mental health interview and making a psychiatric referral are provided. Oral health problems associated with mental illness and factors affecting treatment delivery are discussed, as well as ideas for avoiding potentially dangerous medication interactions and working with fearful, suspicious, or cognitively impaired patients. Ways in which dental hygienists can work with case managers to provide much needed oral health care to patients whose illness is severe or chronic are covered. Examples are given of work with clients illustrating principles described in the text. The purpose of this course is to provide oral health personnel the information they need to knowledgeably care for patients who have mental illness. Successful completion will be assessed with a post-test to be completed after reading the article in its entirety, including figures and case-reports. Two continuing education course credit hours will be awarded following successful completion of the post-test.
Lopez-Martin, C; Aquerreta, I; Faus, V; Idoate, A
Medicines reconciliation plays a key role in patient safety. However, there is limited data available on how this process affects critically ill patients. In this study, we evaluate a program of reconciliation in critically ill patients conducted by the Intensive Care Unit's (ICU) pharmacist. Prospective study about reconciliation medication errors observed in 50 patients. All ICU patients, excluding patients without regular treatment. Reconciliation process was carried out in the first 24h after ICU admission. Discrepancies were clarified with the doctor in charge of the patient. We analyzed the incidence of reconciliation errors, their characteristics and gravity, the interventions made by the pharmacist and their acceptance by physicians. A total of 48% of patients showed at least one reconciliation error. Omission of drugs accounted for 74% of the reconciliation errors, mainly involving antihypertensive drugs (33%). An amount of 58% of reconciliation errors detected corresponded to severity category D. Pharmacist made interventions in the 98% of patients with discrepancies. A total of 81% of interventions were accepted. The incidence and characteristics of reconciliation errors in ICU are similar to those published in non-critically ill patients, and they affect drugs with high clinical significance. Our data support the importance of the stablishment of medication reconciliation proceedings in critically ill patients. The ICU's pharmacist could carry out this procedure adequately. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
In-hospital mortality of acutely ill medical patients admitted to a resource poor hospital in sub-Saharan Africa and to a Canadian regional hospital compared using the abbreviated VitalPAC Early Warning Score.
Opio, Martin Otyek; Nansubuga, Gertrude; Kellett, John
the development of validated early warning scores that only require the measurement of vital signs at the bedside has provided for the first time a practical and affordable method of comparing the outcomes of similar patients admitted to hospital in the developed and developing world. we compared the outcomes of patients with the same abbreviated version of the VitalPAC early warning score at the time of hospital admission in a Canadian and Ugandan hospital. 844 acutely ill medical patients admitted to Kitovu Hospital, Masaka, Uganda and 48,696 patients admitted to the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre (TBRHSC), Ontario, Canada were examined. apart from those patients with an abbreviated ViEWS value of 10 there was no statistically significant difference in the in-hospital mortality of Kitvou and TBRHSC patients with the same score on admission. Using arbitrary ranges of the abbreviated ViEWS the 30day Kaplan-Meier survival curves of Kitovu patients were either the same or better than those of TBRHSC patients. the in-hospital mortality of patients with the same abbreviated ViEWS on hospital admission is similar in TBRHSC and Kitovu Hospital. © 2013.
Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Honeder, Maria C.; Lenz, Max; Maurer, Gerald; Wojta, Johann; Heinz, Gottfried; Huber, Kurt; Speidl, Walter S.
Background Critically ill patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit exhibit a high mortality rate irrespective of the cause of admission. Besides its role in fluid and electrolyte balance, vasopressin has been described as a stress hormone. Copeptin, the C-terminal portion of provasopressin mirrors vasopressin levels and has been described as a reliable biomarker for the individual’s stress level and was associated with outcome in various disease entities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether circulating levels of copeptin at ICU admission are associated with 30-day mortality. Methods In this single-center prospective observational study including 225 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary medical ICU at a university hospital, blood was taken at ICU admission and copeptin levels were measured using a commercially available automated sandwich immunofluorescent assay. Results Median acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 20 and 30-day mortality was 25%. Median copeptin admission levels were significantly higher in non-survivors as compared with survivors (77.6 IQR 30.7–179.3 pmol/L versus 45.6 IQR 19.6–109.6 pmol/L; p = 0.025). Patients with serum levels of copeptin in the third tertile at admission had a 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.2–4.6; p = 0.01) increased mortality risk as compared to patients in the first tertile. When analyzing patients according to cause of admission, copeptin was only predictive of 30-day mortality in patients admitted due to medical causes as opposed to those admitted after cardiac surgery, as medical patients with levels of copeptin in the highest tertile had a 3.3-fold (95% CI 1.66.8, p = 0.002) risk of dying independent from APACHE II score, primary diagnosis, vasopressor use and need for mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Circulating levels of copeptin at ICU admission independently predict 30-day mortality in patients admitted to a medical ICU. PMID:28118414
Casaroto, Eduardo; Mohovic, Tatiana; Pinto, Lilian Moreira; de Lara, Tais Rodrigues
ABSTRACT The echocardiography has become a vital tool in the diagnosis of critically ill patients. The use of echocardiography by intensivists has been increasing since the 1990’s. This tool has become a common procedure for the cardiovascular assessment of critically ill patients, especially because it is non-invasive and can be applied in fast and guided manner at the bedside. Physicians with basic training in echocardiography, both from intensive care unit or emergency department, can assess the left ventricle function properly with good accuracy compared with assessment made by cardiologists. The change of treatment approach based on echocardiographic findings is commonly seen after examination of unstable patient. This brief review focuses on growing importance of echocardiography as an useful tool for management of critically ill patients in the intensive care setting along with the cardiac output assessment using this resource. PMID:26761560
Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; Hernández-Garay, Marisol; García-Guillén, Francisco J; Correa-García, Paulina; Herrera Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo
Severe metabolic alterations frequently occur in critically ill cancer patients; hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, tumor lysis syndrome, metabolic complications of renal failure and lactic acidosis. Cancer patients with metabolic emergencies should be treated in a medical oncology department or an intensive care unit. Most metabolic emergencies can be treated properly when they are identified early. The clinician should consider that the prognosis of critically ill cancer patients depends on their primary disease, comorbidities and organ failure. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is a common finding in critically ill patients. Mg deficiency results primarily from gastrointestinal or urinary Mg losses, but malnutrition and decreased dietary Mg intake may hasten the development of Mg depletion. In our medical intensive-care unit, we have found hypomagnesemia in 65% of patients with normal serum creatinine concentrations. The prevalence of normomagnesemic Mg deficiency in critically ill patients may be even higher and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypocalcemia, cardiac arrhythmias and other symptoms of Mg deficiency.
Jones, Drew G.; Sessler, Curtis N.; Zilberberg, Marya D.; Weaver, Michael F.
Alcohol abuse and dependence, referred to as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), affect 76.3 million people worldwide and account for 1.8 million deaths per year. AUDs affect 18.3 million Americans (7.3% of the population), and up to 40% of hospitalized patients have AUDs. This review discusses the development and progression of critical illness in patients with AUDs. In contrast to acute intoxication, AUDs have been linked to increased severity of illness in a number of studies. In particular, surgical patients with AUDs experience higher rates of postoperative hemorrhage, cardiac complications, sepsis, and need for repeat surgery. Outcomes from trauma are worse for patients with chronic alcohol abuse, whereas burn patients who are acutely intoxicated may not have worse outcomes. AUDs are linked to not only a higher likelihood of community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis but also a higher severity of illness and higher rates of nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis. The management of sedation in patients with AUDs may be particularly challenging because of the increased need for sedatives and opioids and the difficulty in diagnosing withdrawal syndrome. The health-care provider also must be watchful for the development of dangerous agitation and violence, as these problems are not uncommonly seen in hospital ICUs. Despite studies showing that up to 40% of hospitalized patients have AUDs, relatively few guidelines exist on the specific management of the critically ill patient with AUDs. AUDs are underdiagnosed, and a first step to improving patient outcomes may lie in systematically and accurately identifying AUDs. PMID:20923804
Griggs, Kathryn A.; Prabhu, Gita; Gomes, Manuel; Lecky, Fiona E.; Hutchinson, Peter J. A.; Menon, David K.; Rowan, Kathryn M.
Abstract This study validates risk prediction models for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) in critical care units in the United Kingdom and recalibrates the models to this population. The Risk Adjustment In Neurocritical care (RAIN) Study was a prospective, observational cohort study in 67 adult critical care units. Adult patients admitted to critical care following acute TBI with a last pre-sedation Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15 were recruited. The primary outcomes were mortality and unfavorable outcome (death or severe disability, assessed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale) at six months following TBI. Of 3626 critical care unit admissions, 2975 were analyzed. Following imputation of missing outcomes, mortality at six months was 25.7% and unfavorable outcome 57.4%. Ten risk prediction models were validated from Hukkelhoven and colleagues, the Medical Research Council (MRC) Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) Trial Collaborators, and the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) group. The model with the best discrimination was the IMPACT “Lab” model (C index, 0.779 for mortality and 0.713 for unfavorable outcome). This model was well calibrated for mortality at six months but substantially under-predicted the risk of unfavorable outcome. Recalibration of the models resulted in small improvements in discrimination and excellent calibration for all models. The risk prediction models demonstrated sufficient statistical performance to support their use in research and audit but fell below the level required to guide individual patient decision-making. The published models for unfavorable outcome at six months had poor calibration in the UK critical care setting and the models recalibrated to this setting should be used in future research. PMID:25898072
Harrison, David A; Griggs, Kathryn A; Prabhu, Gita; Gomes, Manuel; Lecky, Fiona E; Hutchinson, Peter J A; Menon, David K; Rowan, Kathryn M
This study validates risk prediction models for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) in critical care units in the United Kingdom and recalibrates the models to this population. The Risk Adjustment In Neurocritical care (RAIN) Study was a prospective, observational cohort study in 67 adult critical care units. Adult patients admitted to critical care following acute TBI with a last pre-sedation Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15 were recruited. The primary outcomes were mortality and unfavorable outcome (death or severe disability, assessed using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale) at six months following TBI. Of 3626 critical care unit admissions, 2975 were analyzed. Following imputation of missing outcomes, mortality at six months was 25.7% and unfavorable outcome 57.4%. Ten risk prediction models were validated from Hukkelhoven and colleagues, the Medical Research Council (MRC) Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) Trial Collaborators, and the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) group. The model with the best discrimination was the IMPACT "Lab" model (C index, 0.779 for mortality and 0.713 for unfavorable outcome). This model was well calibrated for mortality at six months but substantially under-predicted the risk of unfavorable outcome. Recalibration of the models resulted in small improvements in discrimination and excellent calibration for all models. The risk prediction models demonstrated sufficient statistical performance to support their use in research and audit but fell below the level required to guide individual patient decision-making. The published models for unfavorable outcome at six months had poor calibration in the UK critical care setting and the models recalibrated to this setting should be used in future research.
Ronis, Sarah D; McConnochie, Kenneth M; Wang, Hongyue; Wood, Nancy E
Children with care for acute illness available through the Health-e-Access telemedicine model at childcare and schools were previously found to have 22% less emergency department (ED) use than counterparts without this service, but they also had 24% greater acute care use overall. We assessed the hypothesis that increased utilization reflected improved access among impoverished inner-city children to a level experienced by more affluent suburban children. This observational study compared utilization among children without and with telemedicine access, beginning in 1993, ending in 2007, and based on 84,287 child-months of billing claims-based observation. Health-e-Access Telemedicine was initiated in stepwise manner over 187 study-months among 74 access sites (childcare, schools, community centers), beginning in month 105. Children dwelled in inner city, rest-of-city Rochester, NY, or in surrounding suburbs. Rate of total acute care visits (office, ED, telemedicine) was measured as visits per 100 child-years. Observed utilization rates were adjusted in multivariate analysis for age, sex, insurance type, and season of year. When both suburban and inner-city children lacked telemedicine access, overall acute illness visits were 75% greater among suburban than inner-city children (suburban:inner-city rate ratio 1.75, p < 0.0001). After telemedicine became available to inner-city children, their overall acute visits approximated those of suburban children (suburban:inner-city rate ratio 0.80, p = 0.07), whereas acute visits among suburban children remained at least (worst-case comparison) 56% greater than inner-city children without telemedicine (rate ratio 1.56, p < 0.0001). At baseline, overall acute illness utilization of suburban children exceeded that of inner-city children. Overall utilization for inner-city children increased with telemedicine to that of suburban children at baseline. Without telemedicine, however, inner-city use remained
Russell, Louise Harding
Discusses the philosophy of the rehabilitation services department at McLean Hospital on patient education for the mentally ill, noting patient library collection and recommended resources on marital problems, sex education, drug manuals, and diagnostic and research findings. A list of magazines subscribed to, color code classification, and 23…
Miller, D; Madge, N; Diamond, J; Wadsworth, J; Ross, E
OBJECTIVE--To determine long term outcome in children who had a severe acute neurological illness in early childhood associated with pertussis immunisation. DESIGN--Follow up study of cases and matched controls. SETTING--Assessment of children at home and at school throughout Britain. SUBJECTS--Children recruited into the national childhood encephalopathy study in 1976-9 were followed up, with one of their two original matched controls, in 1986-9. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Performance in educational attainment tests; behaviour problems reported by teachers and parents; continuing convulsions; evidence of other neurological or physical dysfunction. RESULTS--Over 80% of cases and controls were traced. Case children were significantly more likely than controls to have died or to have some form of educational, behavioural, neurological, or physical dysfunction a decade after their illness. The prevalence of one or more of these adverse outcomes in case children who had been immunised with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine within seven days before onset of their original illness was similar to that in case children who had not been immunised recently. The relative risk for recent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunisation in children who had died or had any dysfunction in comparison with controls was 5.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 23.7). However, the number of cases associated with vaccine (12) was extremely small and statistically vulnerable, and other possible agents or predisposing factors could not be excluded. CONCLUSIONS--Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine may on rare occasions be associated with the development of severe acute neurological illnesses that can have serious sequelae. Some cases may occur by chance or have other causes. The role of pertussis vaccine as a prime or concomitant factor in the aetiology of these illnesses cannot be determined in any individual case. The balance of possible risk against known benefits from pertussis
Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos
Magnesium (Mg), also known as "the forgotten electrolyte", is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis.
Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos
Magnesium (Mg), also known as “the forgotten electrolyte”, is the fourth most abundant cation overall and the second most abundant intracellular cation in the body. Mg deficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases. This article is a review of the literature regarding Mg abnormalities with emphasis on the implications of hypomagnesemia in critical illness and on treatment options for hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill patients, and there is strong, consistent clinical evidence, largely from observational studies, showing that hypomagnesemia is significantly associated with increased need for mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay and increased mortality. Although the mechanism linking hypomagnesemia with poor clinical outcomes is not known, experimental data suggest mechanisms contributing to such outcomes. However, at the present time, there is no clear evidence that magnesium supplementation improves outcomes in critically ill patients with hypomagnesemia. Large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the role of magnesium therapy for improving outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. PMID:26566403
Silva-Perez, Livier Josefina; Benitez-Lopez, Mario Alberto; Varon, Joseph; Surani, Salim
Disorders of glucose homeostasis, such as stress-induced hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, are common complications in patients in the intensive care unit. Patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to hyperglycemia, as well as a higher risk from glucose overcorrection, that may results in severe hypoglycemia. In critically ill patients with DM, it is recommended to maintain a blood glucose range between 140-180 mg/dL. In neurological patients and surgical patients, tighter glycemic control (i.e., 110-140 mg/d) is recommended if hypoglycemia can be properly avoided. There is limited evidence that shows that critically ill diabetic patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin levels above 7% may benefit from looser glycemic control, in order to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and significant glycemic variability. PMID:28344751
Park, Kyung Hee; Park, Joohee
.6%-27.3% over the 2-week data collection period; P = .001). The maximum IP was significantly lower on the VEFO with standard hospital mattress than on the standard hospital mattress (paired t = 8.87, P < .001). Patients managed with a VEFO had a significantly lower incidence of PI than those managed with a standard hospital mattress. Additional research is needed to further characterize the efficacy of the VEFO, its effect on PI healing, and its effect of PI prevention in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients.
Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interactions among behavior, neural, and endocrine functions and the immune system. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the evidence concerning interactions among behavior, the neuroendocrine system, and the immune system, and to show how this evidence relates to critical care patients. It has been shown that the immune function of many patients in the intensive care unit is suppressed as a result of trauma, sepsis, or profound physiologic and psychological stress. Three of the most common stressors among patients in the intensive care unit are pain, sleep deprivation, and fear or anxiety. Findings have shown each of these stressors to be associated with decreased immune functioning. Nurses have an important responsibility to protect their patients from infection and promote their ability to heal. Several actions are suggested that can help the nurse achieve these goals. It is hoped that nurses would keep these interactions in mind while caring for their patients in the intensive care unit.
Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Reinhart, Konrad; Sprung, Charles L; Gerlach, Herwig; Ranieri, V Marco
Introduction Albumin administration in the critically ill has been the subject of some controversy. We investigated the use of albumin solutions in European intensive care units (ICUs) and its relationship to outcome. Methods In a cohort, multicenter, observational study, all patients admitted to one of the participating ICUs between 1 May and 15 May 2002 were followed up until death, hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified according to whether or not they received albumin at any time during their ICU stay. Results Of 3,147 admitted patients, 354 (11.2%) received albumin and 2,793 (88.8%) did not. Patients who received albumin were more likely to have cancer or liver cirrhosis, to be surgical admissions, and to have sepsis. They had a longer length of ICU stay and a higher mortality rate, but were also more severely ill, as manifested by higher simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than the other patients. A Cox proportional hazard model indicated that albumin administration was significantly associated with decreased 30-day survival. Moreover, in 339 pairs matched according to a propensity score, ICU and hospital mortality rates were higher in the patients who had received albumin than in those who had not (34.8 versus 20.9% and 41.3 versus 27.7%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Conclusion Albumin administration was associated with decreased survival in this population of acutely ill patients. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of albumin administration in sub-groups of acutely ill patients. PMID:16356223
Daubin, Delphine; Cristol, Jean Paul; Dupuy, Anne Marie; Kuster, Nils; Besnard, Noémie; Platon, Laura; Buzançais, Aurèle; Brunot, Vincent; Garnier, Fanny; Jonquet, Olivier; Klouche, Kada
Objective The capability of urinary TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase) and IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein)—NephroCheck Test (NC) = ([TIMP-2] x [IGFBP7]) / 1000)—to predict renal recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI) has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of measurements of ([TIMP-2] x [IGFBP7]) / 1000) over 24 hours to differentiate transient from persistent AKI. Methods Of 460 consecutive adult patients admitted to the ICU, 101 were prospectively studied: 56 men, 62 (52–71) years old. A fresh urine sample was collected at H0, H4, H12 and H24 to determine ([TIMP-2] x [IGFBP7]) / 1000) levels. Areas under the curves of Delta NC H4-Ho and H12-H4 and serum creatinine (sCr) for detection of AKI recovery were compared. Results Forty-one (40.6%) patient were diagnosed with AKI: 27 transient and 14 persistent AKI. At admission (H0), AKI patients had a significantly higher NC score than patients without AKI (0.43 [0.07–2.06] vs 0.15 [0.07–0.35], p = 0.027). In AKI groups, transient AKI have a higher NC, at H0 and H4, than persistent AKI (0.87 [0.09–2.82] vs 0.13 [0.05–0.66] p = 0.035 and 0.13 [0.07–0.61] vs 0.05 [0.02–0.13] p = 0.013). Thereafter, NC level decreased in both AKI groups with a Delta NC score H4-H0 and H12-H4 significantly more important in transient AKI. Roc curves showed however that delta NC scores did not discriminate between transient and persistent AKI. Conclusion In our population, absolute urinary levels of NC score were higher at early hours after ICU admission (H0 and H4) in transient AKI as compared to persistent AKI patients. NC variations (Delta NC scores) over the first 12 hours may indicate the AKI’s evolving nature with a more significant decrease in case of transient AKI but were not able to differentiate transient from persistent AKI. PMID:28085896
Daubin, Delphine; Cristol, Jean Paul; Dupuy, Anne Marie; Kuster, Nils; Besnard, Noémie; Platon, Laura; Buzançais, Aurèle; Brunot, Vincent; Garnier, Fanny; Jonquet, Olivier; Klouche, Kada
The capability of urinary TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase) and IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein)-NephroCheck Test (NC) = ([TIMP-2] x [IGFBP7]) / 1000)-to predict renal recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI) has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of measurements of ([TIMP-2] x [IGFBP7]) / 1000) over 24 hours to differentiate transient from persistent AKI. Of 460 consecutive adult patients admitted to the ICU, 101 were prospectively studied: 56 men, 62 (52-71) years old. A fresh urine sample was collected at H0, H4, H12 and H24 to determine ([TIMP-2] x [IGFBP7]) / 1000) levels. Areas under the curves of Delta NC H4-Ho and H12-H4 and serum creatinine (sCr) for detection of AKI recovery were compared. Forty-one (40.6%) patient were diagnosed with AKI: 27 transient and 14 persistent AKI. At admission (H0), AKI patients had a significantly higher NC score than patients without AKI (0.43 [0.07-2.06] vs 0.15 [0.07-0.35], p = 0.027). In AKI groups, transient AKI have a higher NC, at H0 and H4, than persistent AKI (0.87 [0.09-2.82] vs 0.13 [0.05-0.66] p = 0.035 and 0.13 [0.07-0.61] vs 0.05 [0.02-0.13] p = 0.013). Thereafter, NC level decreased in both AKI groups with a Delta NC score H4-H0 and H12-H4 significantly more important in transient AKI. Roc curves showed however that delta NC scores did not discriminate between transient and persistent AKI. In our population, absolute urinary levels of NC score were higher at early hours after ICU admission (H0 and H4) in transient AKI as compared to persistent AKI patients. NC variations (Delta NC scores) over the first 12 hours may indicate the AKI's evolving nature with a more significant decrease in case of transient AKI but were not able to differentiate transient from persistent AKI.
Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
Summary Objectives We undertook multi-purpose surveys of doctors who qualified in the United Kingdom between 1993 and 2012. Doctors were asked specific questions about their careers and were asked to comment about any aspect of their training or work. We report doctors’ comments about working whilst acutely ill. Design Self-completed questionnaire surveys. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Nine cohorts of doctors, comprising all United Kingdom medical qualifiers of 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2012. Main outcome measures Comments made by doctors about working when ill, in surveys one, five and 10 years after graduation. Results The response rate, overall, was 57.4% (38,613/67,224 doctors). Free-text comments were provided by 30.7% (11,859/38,613). Three-hundred and twenty one doctors (2.7% of those who wrote comments) wrote about working when feeling acutely ill. Working with Exhaustion/fatigue was the most frequent topic raised (195 doctors), followed by problems with Taking time off for illness (112), and general comments on Physical/mental health problems (66). Other topics raised included Support from others, Leaving or adapting/coping with the situation, Bullying, the Doctor’s ability to care for patients and Death/bereavement. Arrangements for cover due to illness were regarded as insufficient by some respondents; some wrote that doctors were expected to work harder and longer to cover for colleagues absent because of illness. Conclusions We recommend that employers ensure that it is not unduly difficult for doctors to take time off work when ill, and that employers review their strategies for covering ill doctors who are off work. PMID:27066264
Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W
We undertook multi-purpose surveys of doctors who qualified in the United Kingdom between 1993 and 2012. Doctors were asked specific questions about their careers and were asked to comment about any aspect of their training or work. We report doctors' comments about working whilst acutely ill. Self-completed questionnaire surveys. United Kingdom. Nine cohorts of doctors, comprising all United Kingdom medical qualifiers of 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2012. Comments made by doctors about working when ill, in surveys one, five and 10 years after graduation. The response rate, overall, was 57.4% (38,613/67,224 doctors). Free-text comments were provided by 30.7% (11,859/38,613). Three-hundred and twenty one doctors (2.7% of those who wrote comments) wrote about working when feeling acutely ill. Working with Exhaustion/fatigue was the most frequent topic raised (195 doctors), followed by problems with Taking time off for illness (112), and general comments on Physical/mental health problems (66). Other topics raised included Support from others, Leaving or adapting/coping with the situation, Bullying, the Doctor's ability to care for patients and Death/bereavement. Arrangements for cover due to illness were regarded as insufficient by some respondents; some wrote that doctors were expected to work harder and longer to cover for colleagues absent because of illness. We recommend that employers ensure that it is not unduly difficult for doctors to take time off work when ill, and that employers review their strategies for covering ill doctors who are off work.
Dexheimer Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth; Teixeira, Cassiano; Beltrami, Flávia Gabe
The evaluation of critically ill patients using lung ultrasound, even if performed by nonspecialists, has recently garnered greater interest. Because lung ultrasound is based on the fact that every acute illness reduces lung aeration, it can provide information that complements the physical examination and clinical impression, the main advantage being that it is a bedside tool. The objective of this review was to evaluate the clinical applications of lung ultrasound by searching the PubMed and the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health databases. We used the following search terms (in Portuguese and English): ultrasound; lung; and critical care. In addition to the most relevant articles, we also reviewed specialized textbooks. The data show that lung ultrasound is useful in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates, having good accuracy in identifying consolidations and interstitial syndrome. In addition, lung ultrasound has been widely used in the evaluation and treatment of pleural effusions, as well as in the identification of pneumothorax. This technique can also be useful in the immediate evaluation of patients with dyspnea or acute respiratory failure. Other described applications include monitoring treatment response and increasing the safety of invasive procedures. Although specific criteria regarding training and certification are still lacking, lung ultrasound is a fast, inexpensive, and widely available tool. This technique should progressively come to be more widely incorporated into the care of critically ill patients.
Huang, Chun-Ta; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Ku, Shih-Chi; Lee, Pei-Lin; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Huang, Chun-Kai; Yang, Ching-Yao; Chien, Ying-Chun; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Yu, Chong-Jen
Performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) is influenced by preanalytical, laboratory and host factors. The data regarding how critical illnesses influence IGRA results are limited. This study aimed to investigate IGRA performance among critically ill patients. Patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) were prospectively enrolled, and underwent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube testing on admission and discharge. The associations between patient factors and IGRA results were explored. In total, 118 patients were included. IGRA results on admission were positive, negative and indeterminate for 10 (9%), 36 (31%) and 72 (61%) patients. All indeterminate results were due to a low mitogen response. Indeterminate results were associated with higher disease severity and lower serum albumin levels. Ninety (76%) patients survived to ICU discharge and had repeat IGRA testing 13.3 ± 10.1 days after first ones. Of those, 43 (48%) had indeterminate results, and no IGRA conversion or reversion was observed. The majority (35/51, 69%) of ICU survivors with initial indeterminate results still had indeterminates on follow-up testing. Acute critical illnesses exert a significant impact on IGRA performance and a high proportion of indeterminate results was seen in ICU patients. This study highlights limitation of IGRAs in the critically ill and judicious selection of patients to be tested should be considered.
Kaddourah, Ahmad; Basu, Rajit K; Bagshaw, Sean M; Goldstein, Stuart L
The epidemiologic characteristics of children and young adults with acute kidney injury have been described in single-center and retrospective studies. We conducted a multinational, prospective study involving patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units to define the incremental risk of death and complications associated with severe acute kidney injury. We used the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria to define acute kidney injury. Severe acute kidney injury was defined as stage 2 or 3 acute kidney injury (plasma creatinine level ≥2 times the baseline level or urine output <0.5 ml per kilogram of body weight per hour for ≥12 hours) and was assessed for the first 7 days of intensive care. All patients 3 months to 25 years of age who were admitted to 1 of 32 participating units were screened during 3 consecutive months. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. A total of 4683 patients were evaluated; acute kidney injury developed in 1261 patients (26.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 25.6 to 28.2), and severe acute kidney injury developed in 543 patients (11.6%; 95% CI, 10.7 to 12.5). Severe acute kidney injury conferred an increased risk of death by day 28 after adjustment for 16 covariates (adjusted odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.68); death occurred in 60 of the 543 patients (11.0%) with severe acute kidney injury versus 105 of the 4140 patients (2.5%) without severe acute kidney injury (P<0.001). Severe acute kidney injury was associated with increased use of mechanical ventilation and renal-replacement therapy. A stepwise increase in 28-day mortality was associated with worsening severity of acute kidney injury (P<0.001 by log-rank test). Assessment of acute kidney injury according to the plasma creatinine level alone failed to identify acute kidney injury in 67.2% of the patients with low urine output. Acute kidney injury is common and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, among critically ill children
Kaddourah, Ahmad; Basu, Rajit K.; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Goldstein, Stuart L.
Background The epidemiologic characteristics of children and young adults with acute kidney injury have been described in single-center and retrospective studies. We conducted a multinational, prospective study involving patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units to define the incremental risk of death and complications associated with severe acute kidney injury. Methods We used the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria to define acute kidney injury. Severe acute kidney injury was defined as stage 2 or 3 acute kidney injury (plasma creatinine level ≥2 times the baseline level or urine output <0.5 ml per kilogram of body weight per hour for ≥12 hours) and was assessed for the first 7 days of intensive care. All patients 3 months to 25 years of age who were admitted to 1 of 32 participating units were screened during 3 consecutive months. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Results A total of 4683 patients were evaluated; acute kidney injury developed in 1261 patients (26.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 25.6 to 28.2), and severe acute kidney injury developed in 543 patients (11.6%; 95% CI, 10.7 to 12.5). Severe acute kidney injury conferred an increased risk of death by day 28 after adjustment for 16 covariates (adjusted odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.68); death occurred in 60 of the 543 patients (11.0%) with severe acute kidney injury versus 105 of the 4140 patients (2.5%) without severe acute kidney injury (P<0.001). Severe acute kidney injury was associated with increased use of mechanical ventilation and renal-replacement therapy. A stepwise increase in 28-day mortality was associated with worsening severity of acute kidney injury (P<0.001 by log-rank test). Assessment of acute kidney injury according to the plasma creatinine level alone failed to identify acute kidney injury in 67.2% of the patients with low urine output. Conclusions Acute kidney injury is common and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased
Gentilello, L M; Cortes, V; Castro, M; Byers, P M
Early enteral nutrition is an important adjunct in the care of critically ill patients. A double-lumen gastrostomy tube with a duodenal extension has been reported to enable early enteral feeding with simultaneous gastroduodenal decompression. We tested the ability of this device to achieve these goals in critically ill patients. Noncomparative, descriptive case series. Surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital. Fifteen consecutive critically ill patients, who, at the time of laparotomy, were assessed likely to need long-term nutritional support and gastric decompression, underwent tube placement. Mean age was 47 +/- 21 yrs. Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) and Therapeutic Intervention Scores were 15 +/- 7.3 (SD) and 29 +/- 10.2, respectively, and the mean Injury Severity Score of 11 trauma patients in the group was 27 +/- 7.4. Correct tube positioning was verified by radiograph or endoscopy. Caloric and protein requirements, nutritional parameters, and problems encountered with the device were recorded. The correlation between the volume of feeding port input and suction port output was noted, and this correlation was considered significant if r2 was > or = .5. Only three (20%) of 15 patients reached full enteral nutritional support via the enteral route. None of these patients achieved this level of nutritional support within the first postoperative week. In 67% of the patients, large quantities of enteral feeding solution appeared in the gastroduodenal suction port effluent. When feeding port input was plotted against effluent volume, a correlation coefficient of > .71 (r2 = > or = .5) was found in 40% of the patients. Other complications included: a) excessive gastroduodenal drainage requiring fluid/electrolyte replacement in eight (53.3%) patients; and b) skin ulceration at the tube entrance site in seven (46.7%) patients. These data do not support the use of this device for early enteral feeding and simultaneous
Davies, Gareth R; Mills, Gavin M; Lawrence, Matthew; Battle, Ceri; Morris, Keith; Hawkins, Karl; Williams, Phylip Rhodri; Davidson, Simon; Thomas, Dafydd; Evans, Phillip Adrian
To assess the prognostic and diagnostic value of whole blood impedance aggregometry in patients with sepsis and SIRS and to compare with whole blood parameters (platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count). We performed an observational, prospective study in the acute setting. Platelet function was determined using whole blood impedance aggregometry (multiplate) on admission to the Emergency Department or Intensive Care Unit and at 6 and 24 hours post admission. Platelet count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white cell count were also determined. 106 adult patients that met SIRS and sepsis criteria were included. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock when compared to SIRS/uncomplicated sepsis (ADP: 90.7±37.6 vs 61.4±40.6; p<0.001, Arachadonic Acid 99.9±48.3 vs 66.3±50.2; p = 0.001, Collagen 102.6±33.0 vs 79.1±38.8; p = 0.001; SD ± mean)). Furthermore platelet aggregation was significantly reduced in the 28 day mortality group when compared with the survival group (Arachadonic Acid 58.8±47.7 vs 91.1±50.9; p<0.05, Collagen 36.6±36.6 vs 98.0±35.1; p = 0.001; SD ± mean)). However haemoglobin, haematocrit and platelet count were more effective at distinguishing between subgroups and were equally effective indicators of prognosis. Significant positive correlations were observed between whole blood impedance aggregometry and platelet count (ADP 0.588 p<0.0001, Arachadonic Acid 0.611 p<0.0001, Collagen 0.599 p<0.0001 (Pearson correlation)). Reduced platelet aggregometry responses were not only significantly associated with morbidity and mortality in sepsis and SIRS patients, but also correlated with the different pathological groups. Whole blood aggregometry significantly correlated with platelet count, however, when we adjust for the different groups we investigated, the effect of platelet count appears to be non-significant.
Lake, R J; Adlam, S B; Perera, S; Campbell, D M; Baker, M G
The disease pyramid of under-ascertainment for surveillance of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in New Zealand has been estimated using 2005-2007 data on notifiable diseases, a community telephone survey, and a survey of diagnostic laboratories. For each notified case of AGI there were an estimated 222 cases in the community, about 49 of which visited a general practitioner. Faecal samples were requested from about 15 of these cases, and 13 samples were provided. Of the faecal samples, pathogens were detected in about three cases. These ratios are similar to those reported in other developed countries, and provide baseline measurements of the AGI burden in the New Zealand community.
Kizilarslanoglu, Muhammet C; Kuyumcu, Mehmet E; Yesil, Yusuf; Halil, Meltem
Sarcopenia occurring as a primary consequence of aging and secondary due to certain medical problems including chronic disease, malnutrition and inactivity is a progressive generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with aging (approximately 5-13 % in the sixth and seventh decades). However, data showing the prevalence and clinical outcomes of sarcopenia in intensive care units (ICUs) are limited. A similar condition to sarcopenia in the ICU, called ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW), has been reported more frequently. Here, we aim to examine the importance of sarcopenia, especially ICU-AW, in ICU patients via related articles in Medline.
Kim, Ki Up; Kim, Jin Kyeung; Won, Jong Ho; Hong, Dae Sik; Park, Hee Sook; Park, Kyeung Kyu
The decision to operate for abdominal pain in patients with leukopenia can be exceedingly difficult. Surgical exploration may be the only effective way to differentiate acute appendicitis from other causes, but it involves considerable risk of infectious complications due to immunesuppression. Leukemic patients, who presented significant RLQ pain, had been indicated for operation, despite having advanced disease or having had received chemotherapy or steroids. Four adult leukemia patients, complicated by acute appendictis, were reviewed. Two patients were in induction chemotherapy, one receiving salvage chemotheapy due to relapse and the other was in conservative treatment. Two patients were acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), one had acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and the other had aleukemic leukemia. All patients underwent appendectomy and recovered without complication. Our experience supports the theory that the surgical management of appendicitis in acute leukemia is the most effective way, in spite of leukopenia. PMID:8268146
Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Escudero Álvarez, Elena; García Almeida, Jose Manuel; García de Lorenzo, Abelardo; García Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gil Hernández, Angel; Matos Adames, Alfredo; Molina Soria, Juan Bautista; Montejo González, Juan Carlos; Sánchez Alvarez, Carmen; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio
"Pharmaconutrient" is a term applicable to those compounds which. in addition to their nutritional function, play a role as aids in the treatment of patients with severe pathologies, including sepsis, trauma, burns and major surgery, In general, enrichment of enteral an parenteral formulas with pharmaconutrients contribute to positively modulate the inflammatory response, infection and controlling the internal milieu, which in turn can be evaluated through lower mortality, hospital and intensive care units stay, days of mechanical ventilation and other parameters allowing to asses their effects. Arginine, glutamine, nucleotides, omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant micronutrients, make up the nucleus of pharmaconutrients used with that aim, usually as mixtures of them. In the present review current evidence about the effects, indications, limitations, doses, potential adverse risks and even counter-indications is analysed.
The plasma level and biomarker value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury are not affected by continuous venovenous hemofiltration and anticoagulation applied
Introduction Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI), and levels reflect severity of disease in critically ill patients. However, continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) may affect plasma levels by clearance or release of NGAL by activated neutrophils in the filter, dependent on the anticoagulation regimen applied. We therefore studied handling of NGAL by CVVH in patients with AKI. Methods Immediately before initiation of CVVH, prefilter blood was drawn. After 10, 60, 180, and 720 minutes of CVVH, samples were collected from pre- and postfilter (in- and outlet) blood and ultrafiltrate. CVVH with the following anticoagulation regimens was studied: no anticoagulation in case of a high bleeding tendency (n = 13), unfractionated heparin (n = 8), or trisodium citrate (n = 21). NGAL levels were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Concentrations of NGAL at inlet and outlet were similar, and concentrations did not change over time in any of the anticoagulation groups; thus no net removal or production of NGAL occurred. Concentrations of NGAL at inlet correlated with disease severity at initiation of CVVH and at the end of a CVVH run. Concentrations of NGAL in the ultrafiltrate were lower with citrate-based CVVH (P = 0.03) and decreased over time, irrespective of anticoagulation administered (P < 0.001). The sieving coefficient and clearance of NGAL were low and decreased over time (P < 0.001). Conclusions The plasma level and biomarker value of NGAL in critically ill patients with AKI are not affected by CVVH, because clearance by the filter was low. Furthermore, no evidence exists for intrafilter release of NGAL by neutrophils, irrespective of the anticoagulation method applied. PMID:24755339
van Vliet, Liesbeth M; Lindenberger, Elizabeth; van Weert, Julia C M
This article describes effective communication strategies in caring for older, seriously ill patients and their surrogates/caregivers. Specific skills in three core functions are highlighted: (i) empathic communication (ii) information provision and (iii) enabling decision making. Empathy skills include using 'NURSE' statements and assuring a continuous relationship. Tailored information and empathic communication can be used to facilitate information processing and overcome age-related communication barriers. Eliciting patients' goals of care is critical in decision making. Surrogates need assistance when making decisions for patients and often themselves have support and information needs. Suggestions are made to ensure patients' and caregivers' needs are met. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reller, Megan E.; Wunder, Elsio A.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Flom, Judith E.; Mayorga, Orlando; Woods, Christopher W.; Ko, Albert I.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Matute, Armando J.
Background Epidemic severe leptospirosis was recognized in Nicaragua in 1995, but unrecognized epidemic and endemic disease remains unstudied. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the burden of and risk factors associated with symptomatic leptospirosis in Nicaragua, we prospectively studied patients presenting with fever at a large teaching hospital. Epidemiologic and clinical features were systematically recorded, and paired sera tested by IgM-ELISA to identify patients with probable and possible acute leptospirosis. Microscopic Agglutination Test and PCR were used to confirm acute leptospirosis. Among 704 patients with paired sera tested by MAT, 44 had acute leptospirosis. Patients with acute leptospirosis were more likely to present during rainy months and to report rural residence and fresh water exposure. The sensitivity of clinical impression and acute-phase IgM detected by ELISA were poor. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis is a common (6.3%) but unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in Nicaragua. Rapid point-of-care tests to support early diagnosis and treatment as well as tests to support population-based studies to delineate the epidemiology, incidence, and clinical spectrum of leptospirosis, both ideally pathogen-based, are needed. PMID:25058149
Fernández, Javier; Aracil, Carles; Solà, Elsa; Soriano, Germán; Cinta Cardona, Maria; Coll, Susanna; Genescà, Joan; Hombrados, Manoli; Morillas, Rosa; Martín-Llahí, Marta; Pardo, Albert; Sánchez, Jordi; Vargas, Victor; Xiol, Xavier; Ginès, Pere
Cirrhotic patients often develop severe complications requiring ICU admission. Grade III-IV hepatic encephalopathy, septic shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure and variceal bleeding are clinical decompensations that need a specific therapeutic approach in cirrhosis. The increased effectiveness of the treatments currently used in this setting and the spread of liver transplantation programs have substantially improved the prognosis of critically ill cirrhotic patients, which has facilitated their admission to critical care units. However, gastroenterologists and intensivists have limited knowledge of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of these complications and of the prognostic evaluation of critically ill cirrhotic patients. Cirrhotic patients present alterations in systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics, coagulation and immune dysfunction what further increase the complexity of the treatment, the risk of developing new complications and mortality in comparison with the general population. These differential characteristics have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications that must be known by general intensivists. In this context, the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology requested a group of experts to draft a position paper on the assessment and treatment of critically ill cirrhotic patients. This article describes the recommendations agreed upon at the consensus meetings and their main conclusions.
Background Acute respiratory illness is the leading cause of asthma exacerbations yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. To address the deficiencies in our understanding of the molecular events characterizing acute respiratory illness-induced asthma exacerbations, we undertook a transcriptional profiling study of the nasal mucosa over the course of acute respiratory illness amongst individuals with a history of asthma, allergic rhinitis and no underlying respiratory disease. Methods Transcriptional profiling experiments were performed using the Agilent Whole Human Genome 4X44K array platform. Time point-based microarray and principal component analyses were conducted to identify and distinguish acute respiratory illness-associated transcriptional profiles over the course of our study. Gene enrichment analysis was conducted to identify biological processes over-represented within each acute respiratory illness-associated profile, and gene expression was subsequently confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results We found that acute respiratory illness is characterized by dynamic, time-specific transcriptional profiles whose magnitudes of expression are influenced by underlying respiratory disease and the mucosal repair signature evoked during acute respiratory illness. Most strikingly, we report that people with asthma who experience acute respiratory illness-induced exacerbations are characterized by a reduced but prolonged inflammatory immune response, inadequate activation of mucosal repair, and the expression of a newly described exacerbation-specific transcriptional signature. Conclusion Findings from our study represent a significant contribution towards clarifying the complex molecular interactions that typify acute respiratory illness-induced asthma exacerbations. PMID:24433494
Li, Yanhong; Wang, Jian; Bai, Zhenjiang; Chen, Jiao; Wang, Xueqin; Pan, Jian; Li, Xiaozhong; Feng, Xing
Fluid overload (FO) has been associated with an increased risk for adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Information on the impact of FO on mortality in a general population of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is limited. We aimed to determine the association of early FO with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality during PICU stay and evaluate whether early FO predicts mortality, even after adjustment for illness severity assessed by pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) III. This prospective study enrolled 370 critically ill children. The early FO was calculated based on the first 24-h total of fluid intake and output after admission and defined as cumulative fluid accumulation ≥5% of admission body weight. Of the patients, 64 (17.3 %) developed early FO during the first 24 h after admission. The PICU mortality rate of the whole cohort was 18 of 370 (4.9%). The independent factors significantly associated with early FO were PRISM III, age, AKI, and blood bicarbonate level. The early FO was associated with AKI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, p < 0.001) and mortality (OR = 1.36, p < 0.001). The association of early FO with mortality remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders including AKI and illness severity. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of early FO for predicting mortality was 0.78 (p < 0.001). This result, however, was not better than PRISM III (AUC = 0.85, p < 0.001). Early FO was associated with increased risk for AKI and mortality in critically ill children. Fluid overload is associated with an increased risk for adverse outcomes in specific clinical settings of pediatric population. What is New: Early fluid overload during the first 24 h after PICU admission is independently associated with increased risk for acute kidney injury and mortality in critically ill children.
Galusova, Andrea; Pauliny, Matus; Majek, Milan; Mackova, Jaroslava; Meskova, Milada; Vlcek, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Penesova, Adela
Acute multiple-trauma induces activation of neuroendocrine system. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is considered to be associated with adverse outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This study was aimed to assess dynamic changes of neuroendocrine hormones in patients with polytrauma and their association with the polytrauma score (PTS). Blood samples from 24 critically ill patients with polytrauma were obtained on 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 7th day after admission to ICU for analysis of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (T3); free triiodothyronine (fT3), total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (fT4), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and procalcitonin levels. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 16±5 points on average at the admission to ICU. All patients had normal baseline TSH, T4, fT4, but low T3, and fT3 levels were found in 20% and 33% ICU patients, respectively. On the 7th day after admission to ICU TSH had tendency to increase (p=0.07) and fT4 significantly decreased (p=0.03). The PRL level significantly increased on the 3rd day after admission as compared to 1st day (p=0.04). PTS positively correlated with fT3 (r=0.582, p=0.004) and negatively with fT4 (r=-0.422, p=0.04) at the 1st day in ICU. Critical illness in patients with polytrauma leaded to trauma severity-dependent alterations of the thyroid axis response early after injury. Our findings suggest that detection of dynamic hormonal response is more appropriate than single measurement. However supplemental therapy for NTIS should be used after more detailed studies are completed.
Neill, Sarah J
Acute childhood illness is a universal experience for children and families. This paper presents the central process of a Glaserian grounded theory study which explored family management of acute childhood illness at home. Twenty-nine interviews were conducted with 15 families of children 0-9 years of age. Constant comparative analysis generated the substantive grounded theory 'Containing acute childhood illness within family life'. This informal social rule was identified from families' persistent desire to do the right thing, for their child and in the eyes of others in social life. Families perceived that they were expected to contain illnesses which are defined as minor and to seek medical help for 'real' illnesses. Considerable uncertainty was evident around defining the illness and the legitimacy of seeking medical help. Their concern with the latter indicates doctors' role as moral agents for parents' behaviour, directing the containment of acute childhood illness.
Siew, Edward D; Fissell, William H; Tripp, Christina M; Blume, Jeffrey D; Wilson, Matthew D; Clark, Amanda J; Vincz, Andrew J; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Girard, Timothy D
Acute kidney injury may contribute to distant organ dysfunction. Few studies have examined kidney injury as a risk factor for delirium and coma. To examine whether acute kidney injury is associated with delirium and coma in critically ill adults. In a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients with respiratory failure and/or shock, we examined the association between acute kidney injury and daily mental status using multinomial transition models adjusting for demographics, nonrenal organ failure, sepsis, prior mental status, and sedative exposure. Acute kidney injury was characterized daily using the difference between baseline and peak serum creatinine and staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Mental status (normal vs. delirium vs. coma) was assessed daily with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Among 466 patients, stage 2 acute kidney injury was a risk factor for delirium (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.26) and coma (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.25-3.34) as was stage 3 injury (OR for delirium, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.57-4.16) (OR for coma, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.85-6.03). Daily peak serum creatinine (adjusted for baseline) values were also associated with delirium (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.55) and coma (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20-1.74). Renal replacement therapy modified the association between stage 3 acute kidney injury and daily peak serum creatinine and both delirium and coma. Acute kidney injury is a risk factor for delirium and coma during critical illness.
Predictive Performance of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Acutely Ill Intensive Care Patients: Post-Hoc Analyses of the SUP-ICU Inception Cohort Study
Møller, Morten Hylander; Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl
Purpose Severity scores including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used in intensive care units (ICUs) to assess disease severity, predict mortality and in research. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of SAPS II and the initial SOFA score for in-hospital and 90-day mortality in a contemporary international cohort. Methods This was a post-hoc study of the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit (SUP-ICU) inception cohort study, which included acutely ill adults from ICUs across 11 countries (n = 1034). We compared the discrimination of SAPS II and initial SOFA scores, compared the discrimination of SAPS II in our cohort with the original cohort, assessed the calibration of SAPS II customised to our cohort, and compared the discrimination for 90-day mortality vs. in-hospital mortality for both scores. Discrimination was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC). Calibration was evaluated using Hosmer-Lemeshow’s goodness-of-fit Ĉ-statistic. Results AUROC for in-hospital mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–0.83) for SAPS II and 0.73 (95% CI 0.69–0.76) for initial SOFA score (P<0.001 for the comparison). Calibration of the customised SAPS II for predicting in-hospital mortality was adequate (P = 0.60). Discrimination of SAPS II was reduced compared with the original SAPS II validation sample (AUROC 0.80 vs. 0.86; P = 0.001). AUROC for 90-day mortality was 0.79 (95% CI 0.76–0.82; P = 0.74 for comparison with in-hospital mortality) for SAPS II and 0.71 (95% CI 0.68–0.75; P = 0.66 for comparison with in-hospital mortality) for the initial SOFA score. Conclusions The predictive performance of SAPS II was similar for in-hospital and 90-day mortality and superior to that of the initial SOFA score, but SAPS II’s performance has decreased over time. Use of a contemporary severity score with improved predictive
Posluszny, Joseph A; Conrad, Peggie; Halerz, Marcia; Shankar, Ravi; Gamelli, Richard L
Critically ill patients require transfusions because of acute blood loss and the anemia of critical illness. In critically ill burn patients, typically, no distinction is made between transfusions related to acute surgical blood loss and those related to the anemia of critical illness. We sought to identify the percentage of blood transfusions due to the anemia of critical illness and the clinical characteristics associated with these transfusions in severely burned patients. Sixty adult patients with ≥20% total body surface area (TBSA) burn who were transfused at least 1 unit of packed red blood cells during their hospitalization were studied. Clinical variables including age, %TBSA burn, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, number of ventilator days, inhalation injury, and number of operative events were correlated with the total number of packed red blood cell units and percentage of nonsurgical transfusions in these patients. Nonsurgical transfusions were defined as transfusions occurring after postoperative day 1 for each distinct operative event and were classified as being caused by the anemia of critical illness. Patients were transfused an average of 16.6 units ± 21.2 units. Nonsurgical transfusions accounted for 52% of these transfusions. APACHE II score, %TBSA burn, number of ventilator days, and number of operative events, all correlated with total transfusions. However, nonsurgical transfusions correlated with only APACHE II score (p = 0.01) and number of ventilator days (p = 0.03). There was no correlation between nonsurgical transfusions and other clinical variables. The anemia of critical illness is responsible for >50% of all transfusions in severely burned patients. The initial severity of critical illness (APACHE II score) and duration of the critical illness (number of ventilator days) correlated with transfusions related to anemia of critical illness. Further investigation into the specific risk factors for these
Posluszny, Joseph A.; Conrad, Peggie; Halerz, Marcia; Shankar, Ravi; Gamelli, Richard L.
Background Critically ill patients require transfusions because of acute blood loss and the anemia of critical illness. In critically ill burn patients, typically, no distinction is made between transfusions related to acute surgical blood loss and those related to the anemia of critical illness. We sought to identify the percentage of blood transfusions due to the anemia of critical illness and the clinical characteristics associated with these transfusions in severely burned patients. Methods Sixty adult patients with ≥20% total body surface area (TBSA) burn who were transfused at least 1 unit of packed red blood cells during their hospitalization were studied. Clinical variables including age, %TBSA burn, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, number of ventilator days, inhalation injury, and number of operative events were correlated with the total number of packed red blood cell units and percentage of nonsurgical transfusions in these patients. Nonsurgical transfusions were defined as transfusions occurring after postoperative day 1 for each distinct operative event and were classified as being caused by the anemia of critical illness. Results Patients were transfused an average of 16.6 units ± 21.2 units. Nonsurgical transfusions accounted for 52% of these transfusions. APACHE II score, %TBSA burn, number of ventilator days, and number of operative events, all correlated with total transfusions. However, nonsurgical transfusions correlated with only APACHE II score (p = 0.01) and number of ventilator days (p = 0.03). There was no correlation between nonsurgical transfusions and other clinical variables. Conclusion The anemia of critical illness is responsible for >50% of all transfusions in severely burned patients. The initial severity of critical illness (APACHE II score) and duration of the critical illness (number of ventilator days) correlated with transfusions related to anemia of critical illness. Further investigation
Rossi Ferrario, Silvia; Giorgi, Ines; Baiardi, Paola; Giuntoli, Laura; Balestroni, Gianluigi; Cerutti, Paola; Manera, Marina; Gabanelli, Paola; Solara, Valentina; Fornara, Roberta; Luisetti, Michela; Omarini, Pierangela; Omarini, Giovanna; Vidotto, Giulio
Purpose Interest in assessing denial is still present, despite the criticisms concerning its definition and measurement. We tried to develop a questionnaire (Illness Denial Questionnaire, IDQ) assessing patients’ and caregivers’ denial in relation to their illness/disturbance. Patients and methods After a preliminary study, a final version of 24 dichotomous items (true/false) was selected. We hypothesized a theoretical model with three dimensions: denial of negative emotions, resistance to change, and conscious avoidance, the first two composing the actual Denial and the last representing an independent component of the illness denial behavior. The IDQ was administered to 400 subjects (219 patients and 181 caregivers) together with the Anxiety–Depression Questionnaire – Reduced form (AD-R), in order to assess concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α and McDonald’s ω), and test–retest analysis were performed. Results CFA and internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α: 0.87–0.96) indicated a clear and meaningful three-factor structure of IDQ, for both patients and caregivers. Further analyses showed good concurrent validity, with Denial and its subscale negatively associated with anxiety and depression and avoidance positively associated with anxiety and depression. The IDQ also showed a good stability (r from 0.71 to 0.87). Conclusion The IDQ demonstrated good psychometric properties. Denial of negative emotions and resistance to change seem to contribute to a real expression of denial, and conscious avoidance seems to constitute a further step in the process of cognitive–affective elaboration of the illness. PMID:28356745
Campbell, G Adam; Hu, Daniel; Okusa, Mark D
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and significant complication of cancer and cancer therapy. Cancer patients frequently encounter risk factors for AKI including older age, CKD, prerenal conditions, sepsis, exposure to nephrotoxins, and obstructive physiology. AKI can also be secondary to paraneoplastic conditions, including glomerulonephritis and microangiopathic processes. This complication can have significant consequences, including effects on patients' ability to continue to receive therapy for their malignancy. This review will serve to summarize potential etiologies of AKI that present in patients with cancer as well as to highlight specific patient populations, such as the critically ill cancer patient.
Fliers, Eric; Bianco, Antonio C; Langouche, Lies; Boelen, Anita
Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) typically present with decreased concentrations of plasma tri-iodothyronine, low thyroxine, and normal range or slightly decreased concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone. This ensemble of changes is collectively known as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The extent of NTIS is associated with prognosis, but no proof exists for causality of this association. Initially, NTIS is a consequence of the acute phase response to systemic illness and macronutrient restriction, which might be beneficial. Pathogenesis of NTIS in long-term critical illness is more complex and includes suppression of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, accounting for persistently reduced secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone despite low plasma thyroid hormone. In some cases distinguishing between NTIS and severe hypothyroidism, which is a rare primary cause for admission to the ICU, can be difficult. Infusion of hypothalamic-releasing factors can reactivate the thyroid axis in patients with NTIS, inducing an anabolic response. Whether this approach has a clinical benefit in terms of outcome is unknown. In this Series paper, we discuss diagnostic aspects, pathogenesis, and implications of NTIS as well as its distinction from severe, primary thyroid disorders in patients in the ICU. PMID:26071885
Schomacker, Henrick; Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Collins, Peter L; Schmidt, Alexander C
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a common cause of acute respiratory illness throughout life. Infants, children, and the immunocompromised are the most likely to develop severe disease. HPIV1 and HPIV2 are best known to cause croup while HPIV3 is a common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HPIVs replicate productively in respiratory epithelial cells and do not spread systemically unless the host is severely immunocompromised. Molecular studies have delineated how HPIVs evade and block cellular innate immune responses to permit efficient replication, local spread, and host-to-host transmission. Studies using ex vivo human airway epithelium have focused on virus tropism, cellular pathology and the epithelial inflammatory response, elucidating how events early in infection shape the adaptive immune response and disease outcome.
Andresen H, Max; Regueira H, Tomás; Leighton, Federico
Among critically ill patients, several physio-pathological processes such as global and local hypo-perfusion, hypoxia, endothelial injury and acidosis have been associated with the production and release of large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a non regulated fashion. Although in physiologic conditions ROS influence intracellular processes and participate in the defense against infectious organism, in critically ill conditions they are associated with potential oxidative damage over cellular structures and with persistent activation of the inflammatory response. Mechanisms associated with oxidative damage are activation of the macrophage-monocyte system and neutrophils, ischemia-reperfusion events and intracellular ROS production. Endogenous compounds, mainly enzymes, and dietary components act as antioxidant. Several studies show that in critically ill patients increase levels of ROS or reduction of antioxidant levels are related to disease severity. In animal models of critical diseases, antioxidant therapy has shown to reduce mortality. Nevertheless, there are few studies in humans that only show improvements in hemodynamic variables, reduction in inflammatory mediators levels, decreases in oxidized compounds and that suggest a lower incidence of multiple organ failure.
Glasgow, Lindonne M.; Antoine, Samuel C.; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa
This is the first study conducted in Grenada, with a population of approximately 108,000, to quantify the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A retrospective population survey was conducted in October 2008 and April 2009 and a laboratory survey from October 2008 to September 2009. The estimated monthly prevalence of AGE was 10.7% (95% CI 9.0-12.6; 1.4 episodes/person-year), with a median of 3 days of illness. Of those who reported AGE, 31% sought medical care (stool samples were requested from 12.5%); 10% took antibiotics; 45% took non-prescribed medication; and 81% reported restricted activity. Prevalence of AGE was significantly higher among children aged <5 years (23.5%, p<0.001). Of the AGE stool samples submitted to the laboratory for analysis, 12.1% were positive for a foodborne pathogen. Salmonella enteritidis was the most common foodborne pathogen associated with AGE-related illness. The estimated percentage of underreporting of syndromic AGE to the Ministry of Health was 69%. In addition, for every laboratory-confirmed foodborne/AGE pathogen, it was estimated that there were 316 additional cases occurring in the population. The minimum estimated cost associated with treatment for AGE was US$ 703,950 each year, showing that AGE has a potentially significant economic impact in Grenada.
Glasgow, Lindonne M; Forde, Martin S; Antoine, Samuel C; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa
This is the first study conducted in Grenada, with a population of approximately 108,000, to quantify the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A retrospective population survey was conducted in October 2008 and April 2009 and a laboratory survey from October 2008 to September 2009. The estimated monthly prevalence of AGE was 10.7% (95% CI 9.0-12.6; 1.4 episodes/ person-year), with a median of 3 days of illness. Of those who reported AGE, 31% sought medical care (stool samples were requested from 12.5%); 10% took antibiotics; 45% took non-prescribed medication; and 81% reported restricted activity. Prevalence of AGE was significantly higher among children aged <5 years (23.5%, p < 0.001). Of the AGE stool samples submitted to the laboratory for analysis, 12.1% were positive for a foodborne pathogen. Salmonella enteritidis was the most common foodborne pathogen associated with AGE-related illness. The estimated percentage of underreporting of syndromic AGE to the Ministry of Health was 69%. In addition, for every laboratory-confirmed foodborne/AGE pathogen, it was estimated that there were 316 additional cases occurring in the population. The minimum estimated cost associated with treatment for AGE was US$ 703,950 each year, showing that AGE has a potentially significant economic impact in Grenada.
Popovic, Nada; Djordjevic, Dragan
Immunoinflammatory response in critically ill patients is very complex. This review explores some of the new elements of immunoinflammatory response in severe sepsis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha in severe acute pancreatitis as a clinical example of immune response in sepsis, immune response in severe trauma with or without secondary sepsis, and genetic aspects of host immuno-inflammatory response to various insults in critically ill patients. PMID:24371374
Segers, Johan; Hermans, Greet; Bruyninckx, Frans; Meyfroidt, Geert; Langer, Daniel; Gosselink, Rik
Critically ill patients often develop intensive care unit-acquired weakness. Reduction in muscle mass and muscle strength occurs early after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Although early active muscle training could attenuate this intensive care unit-acquired weakness, in the early phase of critical illness, a large proportion of patients are unable to participate in any active mobilization. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) could be an alternative strategy for muscle training. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of NMES in critically ill patients. This is an observational study. The setting is in the medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary referral university hospital. Fifty patients with a prognosticated prolonged stay of at least 6 days were included on day 3 to 5 of their ICU stay. Patients with preexisting neuromuscular disorders and patients with musculoskeletal conditions limiting quadriceps contraction were excluded. Twenty-five minutes of simultaneous bilateral NMES of the quadriceps femoris muscle. This intervention was performed 5 days per week (Monday-Friday). Effective muscle stimulation was defined as a palpable and visible contraction (partial or full muscle bulk). The following parameters, potentially affecting contraction upon NMES, were assessed: functional status before admission to the ICU (Barthel index), type and severity of illness (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II score and sepsis), treatments possibly influencing the muscle contraction (corticosteroids, vasopressors, inotropes, aminoglycosides, and neuromuscular blocking agents), level of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale, score on 5 standardized questions evaluating awakening, and sedation agitation scale), characteristics of stimulation (intensity of the NMES, number of sessions per patient, and edema), and neuromuscular electrophysiologic characteristics. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation
Boucher, Nathan A; Siddiqui, Ejaz A; Koenig, Harold G
Religion is an important part of many patients' cultural perspectives and value systems that influence them during advanced illness and toward the end of life when they directly face mortality. Worldwide violence perpetrated by people identifying as Muslim has been a growing fear for people living in the US and elsewhere. This fear has further increased by the tense rhetoric heard from the recent US presidential campaign and the new presidential administration. For many, this includes fear of all Muslims, the second-largest religious group in the world with 1.6 billion adherents and approximately 3.5 million in the US alone. Patient-centered care requires health professionals to look past news headlines and unchecked social media so they can deliver high-quality care to all patients. This article explores areas of importance in the context of advanced illness for practitioners of Islam. These include the conditions needed for prayer, the roles of medical treatment and religious authority, the importance of modesty, the religious concordance of clinicians, the role of family in medical decision making, advance care planning, and pain and symptom management. Initial recommendations to optimize care for Muslim patients and their families, informed by the described tenets of Muslim faith, are provided for clinicians and health systems administrators. These include Islamic cultural awareness training for staff, assessment of patients and families to determine needs, health education and decision-making outreach, and community health partnerships with local Islamic institutions.
Sumino, Kaharu C.; Walter, Michael J.; Mikols, Cassandra L.; Thompson, Samantha A.; Gaudreault-Keener, Monique; Arens, Max. Q.; Agapov, Eugene; Hormozdi, David; Gaynor, Anne M.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Storch, Gregory A.
Background A specific diagnosis of a lower respiratory viral infection is often difficult despite frequent clinical suspicion. This low diagnostic yield may be improved by use of sensitive detection methods and biomarkers. Methods We investigated the prevalence, clinical predictors and inflammatory mediator profile of respiratory viral infection in serious acute respiratory illness. Sequential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from all patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness over 12 months (n=283) were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR assay and for newly-discovered respiratory viruses (bocavirus, WU and KI polyomaviruses) by single-target PCR. BAL samples also underwent conventional testing (direct immunoflorescence and viral culture) for respiratory virus at the clinician’s discretion. 27 inflammatory mediators were measured in subset of the patients (n=64) using a multiplex immunoassay. Results We detected 39 respiratory viruses in 37 (13.1% of total) patients by molecular testing, including rhinovirus (n=13), influenza virus (n=8), respiratory syncytial virus (n=6), human metapneumovirus (n=3), coronavirus NL63 (n=2), parainfluenza virus (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and newly-discovered viruses (n=4). Molecular methods were 3.8-fold more sensitive than conventional methods. Clinical characteristics alone were insufficient to separate patients with and without respiratory virus. The presence of respiratory virus was associated with increased levels of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP -10)(p<0.001) and eotaxin-1 (p=0.017) in BAL. Conclusions Respiratory viruses can be found in patients with serious acute respiratory illness by use of PCR assays more frequently than previously appreciated. IP-10 may be a useful biomarker for respiratory viral infection. PMID:20627924
Reller, Megan E.; de Silva, Aravinda M.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Broadwater, Anne; Walker, Katie; Woods, Christopher; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando
Background Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua’s heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not. Methodology/Principal Findings To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness) from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening) of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740) aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5%) were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) in 38 (5.1%) patients. Only 8.1% (3/37) of confirmed cases were suspected clinically. Conclusions/Significance Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America. PMID:27792777
Reller, Megan E; de Silva, Aravinda M; Miles, Jeremy J; Jadi, Ramesh S; Broadwater, Anne; Walker, Katie; Woods, Christopher; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando
Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua's heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not. To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness) from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening) of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740) aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5%) were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) in 38 (5.1%) patients. Only 8.1% (3/37) of confirmed cases were suspected clinically. Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America.
Double, D; MacPherson, R; Wong, T
A random sample of those admitted to acute psychiatric wards in Sheffield in 1985 was traced to establish whether or not the patients were homeless 5 years later. Contrary to expectations none were found to be homeless. Although the proportion of mentally ill amongst the homeless may be significantly high, the number discharged from psychiatric hospital, at least in Sheffield, living consistently 'on the streets' or staying regularly in night shelters seems small as a proportion of all discharges.
Double, D; MacPherson, R; Wong, T
A random sample of those admitted to acute psychiatric wards in Sheffield in 1985 was traced to establish whether or not the patients were homeless 5 years later. Contrary to expectations none were found to be homeless. Although the proportion of mentally ill amongst the homeless may be significantly high, the number discharged from psychiatric hospital, at least in Sheffield, living consistently 'on the streets' or staying regularly in night shelters seems small as a proportion of all discharges. PMID:8410893
Sanford, Kimberly W; Balogun, Rasheed A
Therapeutic apheresis procedures in critically ill patients comprises of therapeutic plasma exchange in most cases but also less commonly, erythrocytapheresis (red cell exchange), thrombocytapheresis, or leukocytapheresis. These procedures present a number of challenges to the apheresis healthcare team, and there are myriad beneficial and adverse effects for patients. In this patient population, one has to weigh the risks against the benefits and especially in those situations where apheresis is requested as a treatment when other alternative therapies have failed. Therapeutic plasma exchange is capable of removing toxins, pathologic auto- and allo-antibodies but will also remove beneficial medications, clotting factors and cations which are chelated by citrate anticoagulant. Herein, we review clinically significant issues that are commonly encountered in patients that are in the intensive care unit and have conditions that require therapeutic apheresis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Boucher, Nathan A; Siddiqui, Ejaz A; Koenig, Harold G
Religion is an important part of many patients’ cultural perspectives and value systems that influence them during advanced illness and toward the end of life when they directly face mortality. Worldwide violence perpetrated by people identifying as Muslim has been a growing fear for people living in the US and elsewhere. This fear has further increased by the tense rhetoric heard from the recent US presidential campaign and the new presidential administration. For many, this includes fear of all Muslims, the second-largest religious group in the world with 1.6 billion adherents and approximately 3.5 million in the US alone. Patient-centered care requires health professionals to look past news headlines and unchecked social media so they can deliver high-quality care to all patients. This article explores areas of importance in the context of advanced illness for practitioners of Islam. These include the conditions needed for prayer, the roles of medical treatment and religious authority, the importance of modesty, the religious concordance of clinicians, the role of family in medical decision making, advance care planning, and pain and symptom management. Initial recommendations to optimize care for Muslim patients and their families, informed by the described tenets of Muslim faith, are provided for clinicians and health systems administrators. These include Islamic cultural awareness training for staff, assessment of patients and families to determine needs, health education and decision-making outreach, and community health partnerships with local Islamic institutions. PMID:28609264
Srinivasan, Ashok; Wang, Winfred C.; Gaur, Aditya; Smith, Teresa; Gu, Zhengming; Kang, Guolian; Leung, Wing; Hayden, Randall T.
Background Human rhinovirus (HRV), human coronavirus (hCoV), human bocavirus (hBoV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections in children with sickle cell disease have not been well studied. Procedure Nasopharyngeal wash specimens were prospectively collected from 60 children with sickle cell disease and acute respiratory illness, over a 1-year period. Samples were tested with multiplexed-PCR, using an automated system for nine respiratory viruses, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Clinical characteristics and distribution of respiratory viruses in patients with and without acute chest syndrome (ACS) were evaluated. Results A respiratory virus was detected in 47 (78%) patients. Nine (15%) patients had ACS; a respiratory virus was detected in all of them. The demographic characteristics of patients with and without ACS were similar. HRV was the most common virus, detected in 29 of 47 (62%) patients. Logistic regression showed no association between ACS and detection of HRV, hCoV, hBoV, hMPV, and other respiratory pathogens. Co-infection with at least one additional respiratory virus was seen in 14 (30%) infected patients, and was not significantly higher in patients with ACS (P=0.10). Co-infections with more than two respiratory viruses were seen in seven patients, all in patients without ACS. Bacterial pathogens were not detected. Conclusion HRV was the most common virus detected in children with sickle cell disease and acute respiratory illness, and was not associated with increased morbidity. Larger prospective studies with asymptomatic controls are needed to study the association of these emerging respiratory viruses with ACS in children with sickle cell disease. PMID:24123899
Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Ross-Degnan, Dennis
OBJECTIVE To analyze the main predictors of access to medicines for persons who experienced acute health conditions. METHODS This was a cross-sectional analytic study, based on data from household surveys. We examined the predictors of: (1) seeking care for acute illness in the formal health care system and (2) obtaining all medicines sought for the acute condition. RESULTS The significant predictors of seeking health care for acute illnesses were urban geographic location, head of household with secondary school education or above, age under 15, severity of illness perceived by the respondent, and having health insurance. The most important predictor of obtaining full access to medicines was seeking care in the formal health care system. People who sought care in the formal system were three times more likely to receive all the medicines sought (OR 3.0, 95%CI 2.3;4.0). For those who sought care in the formal health system, the strongest predictors of full access to medicines were seeking care in the private sector, having secondary school education or above, and positive perceptions of quality of health care and medicines in public sector health facilities. For patients who did not seek care in the formal health system, full access to medicines was more likely in Honduras or Nicaragua than in Guatemala. Urban geographic location, higher economic status, and male gender were also significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS A substantial part of the population in these three countries sought and obtained medicines outside of the formal health care system, which may compromise quality of care and pose a risk to patients. Determinants of full access to medicines inside and outside the formal health care system differ, and thus may require different strategies to improve access to medicines. PMID:24626545
Jivanji, Chirag J; Asrani, Varsha M; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S
Hyperglycemia is commonly observed during acute and critical illness. Recent studies have investigated the risk of developing diabetes after acute and critical illness, but the relationship between degree of in-hospital hyperglycemia and new-onset diabetes has not been investigated. This study examines the evidence for the relationship between in-hospital hyperglycemia and prevalence of new-onset diabetes after acute and critical illness. A literature search was performed of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases for relevant studies published from January 1, 2000, through August 4, 2016. Patients with no history of diabetes before hospital discharge were included in the systematic review. In-hospital glucose concentration was classified as normoglycemia, mild hyperglycemia, or severe hyperglycemia for the meta-analysis. Twenty-three studies were included in the systematic review, and 18 of these (111,078 patients) met the eligibility criteria for the meta-analysis. The prevalence of new-onset diabetes was significantly related to in-hospital glucose concentration and was 4% (95% CI, 2%-7%), 12% (95% CI, 9%-15%), and 28% (95% CI, 18%-39%) for patients with normoglycemia, mild hyperglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia, respectively. The prevalence of new-onset diabetes was not influenced by disease setting, follow-up duration, or study design. In summary, this study found stepwise growth in the prevalence of new-onset diabetes with increasing in-hospital glucose concentration. Patients with severe hyperglycemia are at the highest risk, with 28% developing diabetes after hospital discharge.
Gattas, David J; Dan, Arina; Myburgh, John; Billot, Laurent; Lo, Serigne; Finfer, Simon
To determine whether fluid resuscitation of acutely ill adults with 6 % hydroxyethyl starch (6 % HES 130) with a molecular weight of 130 kD and a molar substitution ratio of approximately 0.4 (6 % HES 130) compared with other resuscitation fluids results in a difference in the relative risk of death or treatment with renal replacement therapy (RRT). Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing intravascular fluids for resuscitation of hospitalised adults that reported mortality or treatment with RRT. The risk of bias was assessed independently by two reviewers and meta-analysis was performed using random effects. Thirty-five trials enrolling 10,391 participants were included. The three largest trials had the lowest risk of bias, were published (or completed) in 2012, and together enrolled 77 % of all participants. Death occurred in 928 of 4,691 patients (19.8 %) in the 6 % HES 130 group versus 871 of 4,720 (18.5 %) in the control fluid groups relative risk (RR) in the 6 % HES 130 group 1.08, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 1.17, I (2) = 0 %). Treatment with RRT occurred in 378 of 4,236 patients (8.9 %) in the 6 % HES 130 group versus 306 of 4,260 (7.2 %) in the control fluid group (RR in the 6 % HES 130 group 1.25, 95 % CI 1.08 to 1.44, I (2) = 0 %). The quality and quantity of data evaluating 6 % hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4 and 130/0.42) as a resuscitation fluid has increased in the last 12 months. Patients randomly assigned to resuscitation with 6 %HES 130 are at significantly increased risk of being treated with RRT.
Pastula, Daniel M; Aliabadi, Negar; Haynes, Amber K; Messacar, Kevin; Schreiner, Teri; Maloney, John; Dominguez, Samuel R; Davizon, Emily Spence; Leshem, Eyal; Fischer, Marc; Nix, W Allan; Oberste, M Steven; Seward, Jane; Feikin, Daniel; Miller, Lisa
On September 12, 2014, CDC was notified by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment of a cluster of nine children evaluated at Children's Hospital Colorado with acute neurologic illness characterized by extremity weakness, cranial nerve dysfunction (e.g., diplopia, facial droop, dysphagia, or dysarthria), or both. Neurologic illness onsets occurred during August 8-September 15, 2014. The median age of the children was 8 years (range = 1-18 years). Other than neck, back, or extremity pain in some patients, all had normal sensation. All had a preceding febrile illness, most with upper respiratory symptoms, occurring 3-16 days (median = 7 days) before onset of neurologic illness. Seven of eight patients with magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord had nonenhancing lesions of the gray matter of the spinal cord spanning multiple levels, and seven of nine with magnetic resonance imaging of the brain had nonenhancing brainstem lesions (most commonly the dorsal pons). Two of five with magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral region had gadolinium enhancement of the ventral nerve roots of the cauda equina. Eight children were up to date on polio vaccination. Eight have not yet fully recovered neurologically.
Vitrat, Virginie; Hautefeuille, Serge; Janssen, Cécile; Bougon, David; Sirodot, Michel; Pagani, Leonardo
Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobial treatment. Diagnostic techniques have clearly improved in the last years and allow earlier identification of bacterial strains in some cases, but these techniques are still quite expensive and not readily available in all institutions. Moreover, the ever increasing rates of resistance to antimicrobials, especially in Gram-negative pathogens, are threatening the outcome for such patients because of the lack of effective medical treatment; ICU physicians are therefore resorting to combination therapies to overcome resistance, with the direct consequence of promoting further resistance. A more appropriate use of available antimicrobials in the ICU should be pursued, and adjustments in doses and dosing through pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have recently shown promising results in improving outcomes and reducing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship programs is to improve antimicrobial prescription, and in this review we analyze the available experiences of such programs carried out in ICUs, with emphasis on results, challenges, and pitfalls. Any effective intervention aimed at improving antibiotic usage in ICUs must be brought about at the present time; otherwise, we will face the challenge of intractable infections in critically ill patients in the near future. PMID:25349478
Cotta, M O; Roberts, J A; Lipman, J
The judicious use of existing antibiotics is essential for preserving their activity against infections. In the era of multi-drug resistance, this is of particular importance in clinical areas characterized by high antibiotic use, such as the ICU. Antibiotic dose optimization in critically ill patients requires sound knowledge not only of the altered physiology in serious infections - including severe sepsis, septic shock and ventilator-associated pneumonia - but also of the pathogen-drug exposure relationship (i.e. pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic index). An important consideration is the fact that extreme shifts in organ function, such as those seen in hyperdynamic patients or those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, can have an impact upon drug exposure, and constant vigilance is required when reviewing antibiotic dosing regimens in the critically ill. The use of continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remain important interventions in these patients; however, both of these treatments can have a profound effect on antibiotic exposure. We suggest placing emphasis on the use of therapeutic drug monitoring and dose individualization when optimizing therapy in these settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Gehrt, Tine B; Wisbech Carstensen, Tina Birgitte; Ørnbøl, Eva; Fink, Per K; Kasch, Helge; Frostholm, Lisbeth
To examine (1) whether the patients' perceptions of their symptoms immediately after the accident and at 3-month follow-up predict working ability and neck pain at 12-month follow-up and (2) the possible changes in patients' illness perceptions during the follow-up period. A total of 740 consecutive patients exposed to acute whiplash trauma consulting emergency units and general practitioners in 4 Danish counties from 2001 to 2003. The patients completed questionnaires at baseline, 3-, and 12-month follow-up. Illness perceptions were measured using a condensed version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire and a 1-item question concerning return to work expectation. Neck pain was measured using an 11-point box scale, and working ability was measured by self-report at 12-month follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied controlling for possible confounders. Patients with pessimistic illness perceptions at baseline and 3-month follow-up were more likely to experience neck pain and affected working ability at 12 months compared with patients with optimistic illness perceptions. Negative return-to-work expectation predicted affected working ability at 12 months. Furthermore, patients with high neck pain intensity or affected working ability report more changes in their illness perceptions during follow-up than patients with low neck pain intensity or unaffected working ability. The findings are in line with the common-sense model of illness and previous research demonstrating that patient's expectations for recovery and illness perceptions might influence the course after whiplash injury. Illness perceptions and expectations may provide a useful starting point for future interventions and be targeted in the prevention of chronicity.
Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz
The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lee, Joon; Mark, Roger G; Celi, Leo Anthony; Danziger, John
Recent epidemiologic data linking proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use to acute and chronic kidney dysfunction is yet to be validated in other populations, and mechanisms have not been explored. Using a large, well phenotyped inception cohort of 15 063 critically ill patients, we examined the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), as defined by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria guidelines, according to prior use of a PPI, histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2 RA), or neither. A total of 3725 (24.7%) patients reported PPI use prior to admission, while 905 (6.0%) patients reported H2 RA use. AKI occurred in 747 (20.0%) and 163 (18.0%) of PPI and H2 RA users respectively, compared to 1712 (16.2%) of those not taking acid suppressive medications. In unadjusted analysis, PPI and H2 RA users had a 28% (95%CI 1.17-1.41, P < .001) and 10% (95%CI 0.91-1.30, P = .31) higher risk of AKI compared to those taking neither class of medication. However, in sequential models that included adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular comorbidities, indications for PPI use, and severity of illness, the effect of PPI on the risk of AKI was attenuated, and in the adjusted analysis, PPI was not associated with AKI (OR 1.02; 95%CI 0.91-1.13, P = .73). The presence of sterile pyuria and hypomagnesemia did not modify the association between PPI use and AKI. In summary, after adjustment for demographics, illness severity, and the indication for PPI use, PPI use prior to admission is not associated with critical illness AKI. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Dickerson, Roland N
Critically ill older patients with sarcopenia experience greater morbidity and mortality than younger patients. It is anticipated that unabated protein catabolism would be detrimental for the critically ill older patient. Healthy older subjects experience a diminished response to protein supplementation when compared to their younger counterparts, but this anabolic resistance can be overcome by increasing protein intake. Preliminary evidence suggests that older patients may respond differently to protein intake than younger patients during critical illness as well. If sufficient protein intake is given, older patients can achieve a similar nitrogen accretion response as younger patients even during critical illness. However, there is concern among some clinicians that increasing protein intake in older patients during critical illness may lead to azotemia due to decreased renal functional reserve which may augment the propensity towards worsened renal function and worsened clinical outcomes. Current evidence regarding protein requirements, nitrogen balance, ureagenesis, and clinical outcomes during nutritional therapy for critically ill older patients is reviewed.
Dickerson, Roland N.
Critically ill older patients with sarcopenia experience greater morbidity and mortality than younger patients. It is anticipated that unabated protein catabolism would be detrimental for the critically ill older patient. Healthy older subjects experience a diminished response to protein supplementation when compared to their younger counterparts, but this anabolic resistance can be overcome by increasing protein intake. Preliminary evidence suggests that older patients may respond differently to protein intake than younger patients during critical illness as well. If sufficient protein intake is given, older patients can achieve a similar nitrogen accretion response as younger patients even during critical illness. However, there is concern among some clinicians that increasing protein intake in older patients during critical illness may lead to azotemia due to decreased renal functional reserve which may augment the propensity towards worsened renal function and worsened clinical outcomes. Current evidence regarding protein requirements, nitrogen balance, ureagenesis, and clinical outcomes during nutritional therapy for critically ill older patients is reviewed. PMID:27096868
Hejazi, Najmeh; Mazloom, Zohreh; Zand, Farid; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Amini, Afshin
Background: Malnutrition is an important factor in the survival of critically ill patients. The purpose of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) on the days of admission and discharge via a detailed nutritional assessment. Methods: Totally, 125 patients were followed up from admission to discharge at 8ICUs in Shiraz, Iran. The patients’ nutritional status was assessed using subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements, biochemical indices, and body composition indicators. Diet prescription and intake was also evaluated. Results: Malnutrition prevalence significantly increased on the day of discharge (58.62%) compared to the day of admission (28.8%) according to SGA (P<0.001). The patients’ weight, mid-upper-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and calf circumference decreased significantly as well (P<0.001). Lean mass weight and body cell mass also decreased significantly (P<0.001). Biochemical indices showed no notable changes except for magnesium, which decreased significantly (P=0.013). A negative significant correlation was observed between malnutrition on discharge day and anthropometric measurements. Positive and significant correlations were observed between the number of days without enteral feeding, days delayed from ICU admission to the commencement of enteral feeding, and the length of ICU stay and malnutrition on discharge day. Energy and protein intakes were significantly less than the prescribed diet (26.26% and 26.48%, respectively). Conclusion: Malnutrition on discharge day increased in the patients in the ICU according to SGA. Anthropometric measurements were better predictors of the nutritional outcome of our critically ill patients than were biochemical tests. PMID:27217600
Grant, J P
OBJECTIVE: The author reviews the newer nutritional substrates in use or under investigation for enteral and parenteral nutrition. Management of the critically ill patient remains a significant challenge to clinicians, and it is hoped that dietary manipulations, such as those outlined, may augment host barriers and immune function and improve survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The role of nutrition in patient well-being has long been recognized, but until the past 25 years, the technology to artificially provide nutrients when patients could not eat was not developed. With current, new methods for enteral and vascular access, patients can be fed nonvolitionally with little difficulty. Continued efforts have been directed toward identifying optimal feeding formulations, which have resulted in a multitude of commercially available products. In the past several years, attention has been turned to evaluation of four specialized nutrients and the use of other substrates as pharmacologic agents. METHODS: Pertinent laboratory and clinical data were reviewed to present the pros and cons for each nutritive substrate. CONCLUSIONS: Medium-chain fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, and glutamine have been shown to be of clinical benefit and should be in common use in the near future. Short-chain fatty acids still are under investigation. Albumin, vitamins E and C, arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids show great promise as pharmacologic agents to manipulate the stress response. Nucleotides remain investigational. CONTENTS SUMMARY: The application of some new nutritional substrates for use in critically ill patients, both as caloric sources and as pharmacologic agents, are reviewed. PMID:7979608
Cohen, S Tziporah; Block, Susan
Psychotherapy with the terminally ill poses special challenges for clinicians and in return offers unique rewards. As a time limited therapy, acceptance, rather than change is a primary goal; yet, patients can be strongly motivated to change. Patients may need to struggle with how to disengage while also maintaining connection. Unique transference and countertransference issues arise. The psychological tasks of dying include grieving, saying goodbye, constructing a meaningful context to one's life, and letting go. The therapist can serve as a companion and guide to the dying person as she or he negotiates these tasks. Through the use of a case example, these issues are explored from the perspectives of patient and therapist. The therapist must address the following issues: attending to physical suffering, differentiating between grieving and depression, addressing fears, facilitating the life review, and assisting in decision making. A dying patient's need to leave a legacy, complete relationships, grapple with spiritual and religious issues, and attend to his or her family, are often important themes. Therapists must work productively with denial, maintain flexible yet appropriate boundaries, grapple with their own anxiety about death, and grieve the loss of their patients. Psychotherapy with dying patients can help reduce their psychological pain, relieving psychosocial distress and providing opportunities for personal growth in the last stage of life. Such work is often draining yet immensely rewarding for the patient and therapist alike.
OFLAZ, Serap; YÜKSEL, Şahika; ŞEN, Fatma; ÖZDEMİROĞLU, Filiz; KURT, Ramazan; OFLAZ, Hüseyin; KAŞIKCIOĞLU, Erdem
Introduction Myocardial infarction (MI) as a life-threatening event, carrying high risk of recurrence and chronic disabling complications, increases the risk of developing acute stress disorder (ASD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or both. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between illness perceptions and having ASD, PTSD, or both in patients after MI. Method Seventy-six patients diagnosed with acute MI were enrolled into our prospective study. We evaluated patients during the first week and six months after MI. Patients were assessed by using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), and a semi-structured interview for socio-demographic characteristics during both the first and second evaluations. Results Acute stress disorder (ASD) developed in 9.2% of patients and PTSD developed in 11.9% of patients with MI. Illness perception factors of ‘consequences, identity and concern’ predicted the occurrence of both ASD and PTSD, whereas ‘emotion’ predicted only PTSD. Conclusion The factors of illness perceptions predicted the induction of ASD and PTSD in patients who had acute MI.
Matok, Ilan; Elizur, Arnon; Perlman, Amichai; Ganor, Shani; Levine, Hagai; Kozer, Eran
Many infants and children receive acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen during febrile illness. Previously, some studies have linked acetaminophen and ibuprofen use to wheezing and exacerbation of asthma symptoms in infants and children. To assess whether acetaminophen or ibuprofen use are associated with wheezing in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with febrile illness. This was a cross-sectional study of children who presented with fever to the pediatric ED between 2009 and 2013. The data were collected from questionnaires and from the children's medical files. Patients with wheezing in the ED were compared with nonwheezing patients. Associations between medication use and wheezing were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounding variables (ie, age, atopic dermatitis, allergies, smoking, antibiotics use, etc) via propensity scores. During the study period, 534 children admitted to the ED met our inclusion criteria, of whom 347 (65%) were included in the study. The use of acetaminophen was similar in children diagnosed with wheezing compared with those without wheezing (n = 39, 81.3%, vs n = 229, 82.7%, respectively). Ibuprofen use was significantly lower in children diagnosed with wheezing (n = 22, 52.4%, vs n = 168, 69.4%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, acetaminophen was not associated with a higher rate of wheezing during acute febrile illness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.24- 2.39), whereas ibuprofen was associated with a lower risk of wheezing (adjusted OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13-0.96). Our study suggests that acetaminophen and ibuprofen are not associated with increased risk for wheezing during acute febrile illness.
Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P
Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations.
Holliday, R L; Doris, P J
Critically ill surgical patients account for approximately half the patients in an active multidisciplinary critical care unit. Hypovolemia and sepsis are common in such patients and affect a number of organ systems. Monitoring these systems provides therapeutically relevant information that may decrease morbidity and improve patient survival. Circulatory hemodynamics may be assessed by direct measurement of the arterial blood pressure, central venous and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring and cardiac output determination; the data thus obtained are valuable in guiding fluid replacement in the hypovolemic individual. The respiratory status may be assessed by bedside spirometry and measurement of arterial blood gas tensions to gauge pulmonary function and the need for assisted ventilation. Renal dysfunction is common in such patients; careful analysis of both urine and blood may identify prerenal as opposed to renal and postrenal factors. Monitoring of the gastrointestinal tract, especially for hemorrhage, is important. Finally, careful attention to nutritional status and provision of adequate protein and energy intake by mouth or by vein is a vital component of the optimal care of these patients. PMID:115566
Gandjour, Afschin; Ku-Goto, Meei-Hsiang; Ho, Vivian
The aim of the study is to assess the validity of three measures of illness severity (prior year's hospital expenditures, Charlson and Elixhauser indices), by analysing the effect of introducing report cards on hospitals treating patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Medicare claims data were obtained for 1992-1997 for AMI patients aged 65+. We used differences-in-differences regression analysis to assess the impact of report cards introduced in New Jersey and Pennsylvania on the illness severity of AMI patients with and without coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (relative to states without report cards). The analysis was conducted at the hospital level. For validation we used raw mortality and re-admission trends for AMI patients. While prior hospital expenditures suggest a considerable change in the illness severity of AMI patients in Pennsylvania relative to other states, raw mortality and re-admission trends in Pennsylvania are relatively consistent with the trend in the rest of the USA. In line with raw mortality and re-admission data, the Charlson and Elixhauser indices do not imply a considerable change in the severity of AMI patients in Pennsylvania. For CABG patients, illness severity - as measured by all three severity measurement methods - decreased after introduction of report cards, particularly in Pennsylvania. In conclusion, for AMI patients the Charlson and Elixhauser indices are a more valid measure of illness severity than prior year's hospital expenditures. After report cards were introduced, healthier AMI patients were more likely to receive CABG surgery, while sicker patients were avoided.
Warrick, Catherine; Patel, Poonam; Hyer, Warren; Neale, Graham; Sevdalis, Nick; Inwald, David
To determine incidence and aetiology of diagnostic errors in children presenting with acute medical illness to a community hospital. A three-stage study was conducted. Stage 1: retrospective case note review, comparing admission to discharge diagnoses of children admitted to hospital, to determine incidence of diagnostic error. Stage 2: cases of suspected misdiagnosis were examined in detail by two reviewers. Stage 3: structured interviews were conducted with clinicians involved in these cases to identify contributory factors. UK community (District General) hospital. All medical patients admitted to the paediatric ward and patients transferred from the Emergency Department to a different facility over a 90-day period were included. Incidence of diagnostic error, type of diagnostic error and content analysis of the structured interviews to determine frequency of emerging themes. Incidence of misdiagnosis in children presenting with acute illness was 5.0% (19/378, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-7.2%). Diagnostic errors were multi-factorial in origin, commonly involving cognitive factors. Reviewers 1 and 2 identified a median of three and four errors per case, respectively. In 14 cases, structured interviews were possible; clinicians believed system-related errors (organizational flaws, e.g. inadequate policies, staffing or equipment) contributed more commonly to misdiagnoses, whereas reviewers found cognitive factors contributed more commonly to diagnostic error. Misdiagnoses occurred in 5% of children presenting with acute illness and were multi-factorial in aetiology. Multi-site longitudinal studies further exploring aetiology of errors and effect of educational interventions are required to generalize these findings and determine strategies for mitigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Costilla-Esquivel, A; Corona-Villavicencio, F; Velasco-Castañón, J G; Medina-DE LA Garza, C E; Martínez-Villarreal, R T; Cortes-Hernández, D E; Ramírez-López, L E; González-Farías, G
Weekly data from 7 years (2004-2010) of primary-care counts of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) and local weather readings were used to adjust a multivariate time-series vector error correction model with covariates (VECMX). Weather variables were included through a partial least squares index that consisted of weekly minimum temperature (coefficient = - 0·26), weekly median of relative humidity (coefficient = 0·22) and weekly accumulated rainfall (coefficient = 0·5). The VECMX long-term test reported significance for trend (0·01, P = 0·00) and weather index (1·69, P = 0·00). Short-term relationship was influenced by seasonality. The model accounted for 76% of the variability in the series (adj. R 2 = 0·76), and the co-integration diagnostics confirmed its appropriateness. The procedure is easily reproducible by researchers in all climates, can be used to identify relevant weather fluctuations affecting the incidence of ARIs, and could help clarify the influence of contact rates on the spread of these diseases.
Harper, S L; Edge, V L; Ford, J; Thomas, M K; Pearl, D L; Shirley, J; McEwen, S A
Food- and waterborne disease is thought to be high in some Canadian Indigenous communities; however, the burden of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) is not well understood due to limited availability and quality of surveillance data. This study estimated the burden of community-level self-reported AGI in the Inuit communities of Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, and Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Cross-sectional retrospective surveys captured information on AGI and potential environmental risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression models identified potential AGI risk factors. The annual incidence of AGI ranged from 2·9-3·9 cases/person per year in Rigolet and Iqaluit. In Rigolet, increased spending on obtaining country foods, a homeless person in the house, not visiting a cabin recently, exposure to puppies, and alternative sources of drinking water were associated with increased odds of AGI. In Iqaluit, eating country fish often, exposure to cats, employment status of the person responsible for food preparation, not washing the countertop with soap after preparing meat, a homeless person in the house, and overcrowding were associated with increased odds of AGI. The results highlight the need for systematic data collection to better understand and support previously anecdotal indications of high AGI incidence, as well as insights into unique AGI environmental risk factors in Indigenous populations.
Briassoulis, George; Venkataraman, Shekhar; Thompson, Ann
It is not known if cytokines, which are cell-derived mediators released during the host immune response to stress, affect metabolic response to stress during critical illness. The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether the metabolic response to stress is related to the inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6), 10 (IL-10), and other stress mediators' responses and to assess their relationships with different feeding patterns, nutritional markers, the severity of illness as assessed by the Multiple Organ System Failure (MOSF), the Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score (PRISM), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and mortality in critically ill children. Patients were classified as hypermetabolic, normometabolic, and hypometabolic when the measured resting energy expenditures (REE) were >110%, 90–110% and, <90% of the predicted basal metabolic rate, respectively. The initial predominance of the hypometabolic pattern (48.6%) declined within 1 week of acute stress (20%), and the hypermetabolic patterns dominated only after 2 weeks (60%). Only oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) (P < .0001) but none of the cytokines and nutritional markers, were independently associated with a hypometabolic pattern. REE correlated with the IL-10 but not PRISM. In the presence of SIRS or sepsis, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index (NI), and triglycerides—but not glucose, VO2, or VCO2 increased significantly. High IL-10 levels (P = .0000) and low measured REE (P = .0000) were independently associated with mortality (11.7%), which was higher in the hypometabolic compared to other metabolic patterns (P < .005). Our results showed that only VO2 and VCO2, but not IL-6 or IL-10, were associated with a hypometabolic pattern which predominated the acute phase of stress, and was associated with increased mortality. Although in SIRS or sepsis, the cytokine response was reliably reflected by increases in NI and
Sievert, Jennifer S; Morrissey, Barbara F; Calvert, Geoffrey M
Acute severe pesticide-related illness among farm worker children is rarely reported. The authors report a toddler with acute onset of apnea, cyanosis, somnolence, hypotonia, tachycardia, and miosis who required hospitalization. Health care providers suspected pesticide poisoning, but were unable to determine the causal agent. Investigation by a public health program documented four pesticide exposures that occurred within one-half hour of acute illness. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough environmental/occupational exposure history and obtaining biological samples. It also documents the need to strengthen the Worker Protection Standard for agricultural workers and the importance of reporting and investigating pesticide-related illness.
Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini
Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three
Baldessarini, Ross J; Tondo, Leonardo; Visioli, Caterina; Vázquez, Gustavo H
There is suggestive evidence that prior illness history may have little association with response to long-term treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) or recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD), but relationships of illness-history to treatment-response in acute episodes of depression require further testing. We tested for associations of selected measures of illness history with remission during treatment of an acute index episode of major depression in 515 mood-disorder patients (327 MDD, 188 BD), using bivariate and multivariate methods. Remission of depression was more likely with lesser initial symptom-severity and bipolar diagnosis, but not related to years since illness-onset, previous depressions or episodes (based on counts, yearly rates, or %-of months ill), or other indices of illness-severity (hospitalization, co-morbidity, suicide attempt). Likelihood of response to standard treatments for acute major depressive episodes in MDD or BD appeared to be largely independent of prior illness-history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Silva, Renata Matos da; Timenetsky, Karina Tavares; Neves, Renata Cristina Miranda; Shigemichi, Liane Hirano; Kanda, Sandra Sayuri; Maekawa, Carla; Silva, Eliezer; Eid, Raquel Afonso Caserta
To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV) masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%). Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%), followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively). Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.
da Silva, Renata Matos; Timenetsky, Karina Tavares; Neves, Renata Cristina Miranda; Shigemichi, Liane Hirano; Kanda, Sandra Sayuri; Maekawa, Carla; Silva, Eliezer; Eid, Raquel Afonso Caserta
OBJECTIVE: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV) masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. RESULTS: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%). Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%), followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively). Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed. PMID:24068269
Aguilar, Gerardo; Azanza, José Ramón; Carbonell, José A; Ferrando, Carlos; Badenes, Rafael; Parra, María Asunción; Sadaba, Belén; Navarro, David; Puig, Jaume; Miñana, Amanda; Garcia-Marquez, Carlos; Gencheva, Gergana; Gutierrez, Andrea; Marti, Francisco J; Belda, F Javier
Anidulafungin is indicated as a first-line treatment for invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. In the intensive care unit, sepsis is the main cause of acute renal failure, and treatment with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has increased in recent years. Antimicrobial pharmacokinetics is affected by CRRT, but few studies have addressed the optimal dosage for anidulafungin during CRRT. We included 12 critically ill patients who received continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration to treat acute renal failure. Anidulafungin was infused on 3 consecutive days, starting with a loading dose (200 mg) on Day 1, and doses of 100 mg on Days 2 and 3. Blood and ultradiafiltrate samples were collected on Day 3 (during steady-state) before, and at regular intervals after, the infusion had started. Anidulafungin concentrations were determined with HPLC. On Day 3, peak plasma concentrations with the 100 mg dose were 6.2 ± 1.7 mg/L and 7.1 ± 1.9 mg/L in the arterial and venous samples, respectively. The mean, pre-filter trough concentration was 3.0 ± 0.6 mg/L. The mean AUC0-24 values for plasma anidulafungin were 93.9 ± 19.4 and 104.1 ± 20.3mg·h/L in the arterial and venous samples, respectively. There was no adsorption to synthetic surfaces, and the anidulafungin concentration in the ultradiafiltrate was below the limit of detection. The influence of CRRT on anidulafungin elimination appeared to be negligible. Therefore, we recommend no adjustments to the anidulafungin dose for patients receiving CRRT. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tiemensma, Jitske; Kaptein, Adrian A; Pereira, Alberto M; Smit, Johannes W A; Romijn, Johannes A; Biermasz, Nienke R
Illness perceptions pertain to the pattern of beliefs patients develop about their illness. Illness perceptions are determinants of quality of life (QoL). Factors contributing to persisting impaired QoL after Cushing's syndrome (CS) remain largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore illness perceptions, as potentially modifiable psychological factors, in relation to QoL in patients with long-term remission of CS. Cross-sectional study. We included patients with long-term remission of CS (n=52). Illness perceptions were evaluated using the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ)-Revised, and QoL was measured using the physical symptom checklist, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), and the CushingQoL. Reference data were derived from recent studies and included patients with vestibular schwannoma (n=80), acute (n=35) or chronic (n=63) pain, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=171). Illness perceptions showed a strong correlation with QoL. Patients with CS scored distinctively more negative on the IPQ compared with patients with vestibular schwannoma and patients with acute pain, and also reported more illness-related complaints (all P<0.01). There were also some differences in illness perceptions between patients with CS and patients with chronic pain and patients with COPD, but there was no distinct pattern. Patients after long-term remission of CS report more negative illness perceptions compared with patients with other acute or chronic conditions. Further research is needed to assess whether QoL in CS can be improved by addressing these illness perceptions, for example, by a self-management intervention program.
Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Leizorovicz, Alain; Kakkar, Ajay K; Haas, Sylvia K; Merli, Geno; Knabb, Robert M; Weitz, Jeffrey I
The efficacy and safety of prolonging prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in medically ill patients beyond hospital discharge remain uncertain. We hypothesized that extended prophylaxis with apixaban would be safe and more effective than short-term prophylaxis with enoxaparin. In this double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned acutely ill patients who had congestive heart failure or respiratory failure or other medical disorders and at least one additional risk factor for venous thromboembolism and who were hospitalized with an expected stay of at least 3 days to receive apixaban, administered orally at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily for 30 days, or enoxaparin, administered subcutaneously at a dose of 40 mg once daily for 6 to 14 days. The primary efficacy outcome was the 30-day composite of death related to venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, or asymptomatic proximal-leg deep-vein thrombosis, as detected with the use of systematic bilateral compression ultrasonography on day 30. The primary safety outcome was bleeding. All efficacy and safety outcomes were independently adjudicated. A total of 6528 subjects underwent randomization, 4495 of whom could be evaluated for the primary efficacy outcome--2211 in the apixaban group and 2284 in the enoxaparin group. Among the patients who could be evaluated, 2.71% in the apixaban group (60 patients) and 3.06% in the enoxaparin group (70 patients) met the criteria for the primary efficacy outcome (relative risk with apixaban, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.23; P=0.44). By day 30, major bleeding had occurred in 0.47% of the patients in the apixaban group (15 of 3184 patients) and in 0.19% of the patients in the enoxaparin group (6 of 3217 patients) (relative risk, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.02 to 7.24; P=0.04). In medically ill patients, an extended course of thromboprophylaxis with apixaban was not superior to a shorter course with enoxaparin
Purpose of the review Acute kidney injury (AKI) has replaced the term acute renal failure and new definitions have been proposed to allow earlier detection. Recent epidemiology data show that the etiology of pediatric AKI has changed and the indications for initiation of renal replacement therapy have evolved. This review will highlight recent studies on the diagnosis of AKI, review the differential diagnosis, highlight the importance of cumulative fluid overload and provide key management strategies for the pediatric patient with AKI. Recent findings Over the last decade serum creatinine based categorical definitions of AKI have been accepted and improve our ability to detect AKI early in the disease process. Evidence based modifications of these definitions have occurred. Higher degree of fluid overload portends poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Significant improvements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of glomerular/vascular causes of AKI have occurred. Summary Categorical definitions of AKI have shown that higher that AKI portends poor outcomes even when adjustment of severity of illness and other confounders. As higher degrees of fluid overload are independently associated with poor outcomes, strategies to prevent and/or treat fluid overload are likely to improve outcomes. PMID:21191296
Plank, L D
Critical illness is characterised by catabolism of the skeletal muscle that releases amino acids for protein synthesis to support tissue repair, immune defence and inflammatory and acute-phase responses. Protein requirements for these patients have generally been based on levels that result in the lowest catabolic rates or most favourable nitrogen balance. The definition of these levels, in particular, in relation to indexing to a measure of patient weight or lean body mass, is controversial. Furthermore, optimal nitrogen balance may not necessarily equate to best clinical outcome. There is some evidence that administration of specific amino acids may be advantageous at least during the early or most catabolic phases of illness, in order to support the specific amino acid requirements of the metabolic pathways activated by the injury or infection. Current widely used guidelines differ in the protein prescription they recommend and in the timing of administration in relation to intensive care admission. A pressing need exists for well-designed randomised trials that compare differing levels of protein or amino acid provision, and the timing of this provision, for their effects on clinical endpoints.
Adams Wilson, Jessica R.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Boomershine, Chad S.; Shintani, Ayumi K.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.
Objectives Plasma tryptophan levels are associated with delirium in critically ill patients. Although tryptophan has been linked to the pathogenesis of other neurocognitive diseases through metabolism to neurotoxins via the kynurenine pathway, a role for kynurenine pathway activity in intensive care unit brain dysfunction (delirium and coma) remains unknown. This study examined the association between kynurenine pathway activity as determined by plasma kynurenine concentrations and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and presence or absence of acute brain dysfunction (defined as delirium/coma-free days) in intensive care unit patients. Design, Setting, and Patients This was a prospective cohort study that utilized patient data and blood samples from the Maximizing Efficacy of Targeted Sedation and Reducing Neurologic Dysfunction trial, which compared sedation with dexmedetomidine vs. lorazepam in mechanically ventilated patients. Measurements and Main Results Baseline plasma kynurenine and tryptophan concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with or without tandem mass spectrometry. Delirium was assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit. Linear regression examined associations between kynurenine pathway activity and delirium/coma-free days after adjusting for sedative exposure, age, and severity of illness. Among 84 patients studied, median age was 60 yrs and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 28.5. Elevated plasma kynurenine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were both independently associated with significantly fewer delirium/coma-free days (i.e., fewer days without acute brain dysfunction). Specifically, patients with plasma kynurenine or kynurenine/tryptophan ratios at the 75th percentile of our population had an average of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.6–3.1) and 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.0–3.2) fewer delirium/coma-free days than those patients with values at the 25
Lagunes, Leonel; Morales-Codina, Marc
Sepsis and septic shock remain a major cause of mortality among critically ill patient. This is particularly relevant among cancer patients as highlighted by different series showing that up to one in five patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) with sepsis have cancer, and also, sepsis is a leading reason for ICU admission in patients with cancer. The classic predictors of mortality among these patients (such as cancer lineage, neutropenia degree, or bone marrow transplantation history) have changed during the last decades, and they should no longer be used to rule out ICU admission. Instead, a newer approach to these patients should be performed taking into account organ failure assessment and prior performance status. When a doubt exists about the criteria for ICU admission, not only a trial of ICU management should be proposed to assert that no patients are withhold of the opportunity for recovering from the acute condition, but also an early admission, to prevent more derangement, and thus impact on mortality. PMID:27713885
Koekkoek, Bauke; van Tilburg, Willem
This case report offers a different perspective on a patient with a long-term non-psychotic psychiatric disorder that was difficult to specify. The patient, a man in his 50s, was unable to profit from outpatient treatment and became increasingly dependent on mental healthcare - which could not be understood based on his history and psychiatric symptoms alone. By separating symptoms from illness behaviour, the negative course of this patient's treatment is analysed. Focusing on ineffective chronic illness behaviour by the patient, and mutual ineffective treatment behaviour by the clinicians, it becomes clear that basic requirements of effective treatment were unmet. By making a proper diagnosis, clarifying expectations and offering a suitable therapy, ineffective illness behaviour was diminished and this 'difficult' case became much easier for both patient and clinicians. The illness behaviour framework offers a useful, systematic tool to analyse difficulties between patients and clinicians beyond psychiatric symptoms or explanations.
Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William; Brescia, Robert
Context Anxiety in terminal cancer is linked to diminished quality of life, yet overall it is poorly understood with regard to prevalence and relationship to other aspects of psychological distress. Objectives This study examines anxiety in terminally ill cancer patients, including the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, the relationship between anxiety and depression, differences in anxiety between participants receiving inpatient palliative care and those receiving outpatient care, and characteristics that distinguish highly anxious from less anxious patients. Methods Participants were 194 patients with terminal cancer. Approximately half (n = 103) were receiving inpatient care in a palliative care facility and half (n = 91) were receiving outpatient care in a tertiary care cancer center. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression, and was administered along with measures of hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and social support. Results Moderately elevated anxiety symptoms were found in 18.6% of participants (n = 36) and 12.4% (n = 24) had clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Level of anxiety did not differ between the two treatment settings. However, participants receiving palliative care reported significantly higher levels of depression and desire for hastened death. A multivariate prediction model indicated that belief in an afterlife, social support, and anxiolytic and antidepressant use were unique, significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusion Severity of anxiety symptoms did not differ between the study sites, suggesting that anxiety may differ from depression and desire for hastened death in the course that it takes over the duration of terminal cancer. PMID:21565460
Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...
Laudański, Krzysztof; Nowak, Zbigniew; Wańkowicz, Zofia
The aim of the paper was to evaluate the mood and attitude to the illness-related stress and correlations between them among patients treated with haemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The following psychological questionnaires were used: the Cognitive Stress Appreciation Questionnaire (CSAQ), the Social Appreciation Questionnaire and the Profile of Mood States. The total of 26 HD (17M, 9F) and 28 CAPD (17M, 11F) patients were studied. The control group (CONTR) consisted of 48 (26M, 22F) healthy volunteers who filled the questionnaires as if they had a "bad cold". The dispositional attitude to the stress was similar in the studied groups. The dialysed patients evaluated their disease-related stress mainly as a threat as compared to the healthy volunteers (p < 0.01). Additionally, HD patients evaluated their disease as a loss as compared to the CAPD group and CONTR group (p < 0.05). In HD and CAPD patients Confusion-Bewilderment had significantly higher values in comparison to the healthy group (p < 0.01), whereas only HD group had higher values of Fatigue-Inertia as compared to CAPD and control groups (p < 0.01). Additionally our results showed a significant correlation between evaluation of renal disease as a loss and Fatigue--Inertia emotion in the HD group (r = 0.89; p < 0.01). From the psychological point of view CAPD seems to be better than HD, since the patients treated by this method evaluated better their mood and illness-related stress, similarly as the healthy volunteers suffering from acute infectious disease.
Hundt, Natalie E; Bensadon, Benjamin A; Stanley, Melinda A; Petersen, Nancy J; Kunik, Mark E; Kauth, Michael R; Cully, Jeffrey A
Reducing perceptions of illness intrusiveness may improve quality of life and mental health among patients with cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand relationships between coping style, locus of control, perceived illness intrusiveness, and disease severity, we analyzed data from 227 older Veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or congestive heart failure. Regressions revealed illness intrusiveness to be associated with younger age and greater disease severity, less internal locus of control, and avoidant/emotion-focused coping. Avoidant/emotion-focused coping but not active coping mediated the relationship between illness severity and illness intrusiveness. Findings suggest that supportive psychological interventions may reduce illness intrusiveness by targeting an avoidant/emotion-focused coping style and associated behaviors. © The Author(s) 2013.
Liddy, Clare; Dusseault, Joanne J.; Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Lemelin, Jacques; Humber, Jennie
OBJECTIVE To examine the feasibility and efficacy of integrating home health monitoring into a primary care setting. DESIGN A mixed method was used for this pilot study. It included in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. SETTING A semirural family health network in eastern Ontario comprising 8 physicians and 5 nurses caring for approximately 10 000 patients. PARTICIPANTS Purposeful sample of 22 patients chosen from the experimental group of 120 patients 50 years old or older in a larger randomized controlled trial (N = 240). These patients had chronic illnesses and were identified as being at risk based on objective criteria and physician assessment. INTERVENTIONS Between November 2004 and March 2006, 3 nurse practitioners and a pharmacist installed telehomecare units with 1 or more peripheral devices (eg, blood-pressure monitor, weight scale, glucometer) in patients’ homes. The nurse practitioners incorporated individualized instructions for using the unit into each patient’s care plan. Patients used the units every morning for collecting data, entering values into the system either manually or directly through supplied peripherals. The information was transferred to a secure server and was then uploaded to a secure Web-based application that allowed care providers to access and review it from any location with Internet access. The devices were monitored in the office on weekdays by the nurse practitioners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Acceptance and use of the units, patients’ and care providers’ satisfaction with the system, and patients’ demographic and health characteristics. RESULTS All 22 patients, 12 men and 10 women with an average age of 73 years (range 60 to 88 years), agreed to participate. Most were retired, and a few were receiving community services. Common diagnoses included hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All patients had blood pressure monitors installed, 11 had wired weight
Adrián-Arrieta, Leyre; Casas Fernández de Tejerina, Juan Manuel
The aim of this study is to assess the care received by chronic patients from their point of view and objectify the factors related with a better assessment of care. Cross-sectional descriptive study realized between September 2014 and April 2015. Nine Health Centers of Navarra (6 urban and 3 rural), Spain. Sampling opportunity of 196 patients aged over 65years presenting at least one chronic disease. Outcome variable: Evaluation of the care received through the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) test (score 1 to 5, higher values indicate better perception about quality of care). Explanatory variables: quality of life employing the EQ5D instrument, Katz index and Gijón's socio-family evaluation scale. Other variables studied were: sex, age, education, Charlson index and number of chronic diseases. The association between the PACIC numerical value with the rest of the variables was calculated. The assessment of the care received according to the PACIC was higher with more chronic diseases (rho: 0.196; p=0.006), with less autonomy (mild or no disability: mean 2.9; SD: 0.6 vs. moderate or severe disability: mean 3.3; SD: 0.2; P=.003), in those with worse quality of life (EQ5D5L Index value rho: -0.227; P=.001. EQ VAS rho: -0.145; P=.043), and in those with a more favorable social situation (rho: -0.167; P=.022). The perception of chronic patients about the received care is better with an increased number of chronic diseases and with less autonomy and quality of life. The social environment influences the care perception of the patient, being this worse in environments with higher social risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kilickaya, Oguz; Gajic, Ognjen
The lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy has been standard practice for management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for more than a decade. Observational data, small randomized studies and two recent systematic reviews suggest that lung protective ventilation is both safe and potentially beneficial in patients who do not have ARDS at the onset of mechanical ventilation. Principles of lung-protective ventilation include: a) prevention of volutrauma (tidal volume 4 to 8 ml/kg predicted body weight with plateau pressure<30 cmH2O); b) prevention of atelectasis (positive end-expiratory pressure≥5 cmH2O, as needed recruitment maneuvers); c) adequate ventilation (respiratory rate 20 to 35 breaths per minute); and d) prevention of hyperoxia (titrate inspired oxygen concentration to peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels of 88 to 95%). Most patients tolerate lung protective mechanical ventilation well without the need for excessive sedation. Patients with a stiff chest wall may tolerate higher plateau pressure targets (approximately 35 cmH2O) while those with severe ARDS and ventilator asynchrony may require a short-term neuromuscular blockade. Given the difficulty in timely identification of patients with or at risk of ARDS and both the safety and potential benefit in patients without ARDS, lung-protective mechanical ventilation is recommended as an initial approach to mechanical ventilation in both perioperative and critical care settings.
Manock, Stephen R; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; de Bravo, Narcisa Brito; Russell, Kevin L; Negrete, Monica; Olson, James G; Sanchez, José L; Blair, Patrick J; Smalligan, Roger D; Quist, Brad K; Espín, Juan Freire; Espinoza, Willan R; MacCormick, Fiona; Fleming, Lila C; Kochel, Tadeusz
We conducted a longitudinal observational study of 533 patients presenting to two hospitals in the Ecuadorean Amazon basin with acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) from 2001 through 2004. Viral isolation, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), IgM seroconversion, and malaria smears identified pathogens responsible for fever in 122 (40.1%) of 304 patients who provided both acute and convalescent blood samples. Leptospirosis was found in 40 (13.2%), malaria in 38 (12.5%), rickettsioses in 18 (5.9%), dengue fever in 16 (5.3%), Q fever in 15 (4.9%), brucellosis in 4 (1.3%), Ilhéus infection in 3 (1.0%), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), Oropouche, and St. Louis encephalitis virus infections in less than 1% of these patients. Viral isolation and RT-PCR on another 229 participants who provided only acute samples identified 3 cases of dengue fever, 2 of VEE, and 1 of Ilhéus. None of these pathogens, except for malaria, had previously been detected in the study area.
Kames, L D; Naliboff, B D; Heinrich, R L; Schag, C C
Two studies are presented which describe the development of a problem-oriented psychosocial screening instrument for use in health care settings. Reliability and validity data are presented on the Chronic Illness Problem Inventory (CIPI) which demonstrate its ability to document accurately patient's specific problems in areas of physical limitations, psychosocial functioning, health care behaviors and marital adjustment. A study is also presented which compares the problems of patients with three distinct chronic illnesses: pain, obesity, and respiratory ailments. Results indicate a significantly greater severity of problems for pain patients and especially patients with multiple pain complaints. Problem areas common to all three illness groups are discussed in the context of providing better comprehensive treatment for chronically ill patients.
Mediannikov, Oleg; Socolovschi, Cristina; Bassene, Hubert; Diatta, Georges; Ratmanov, Pavel; Fenollar, Florence; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier
As malaria cases in Africa decline, other causes of acute febrile illness are being explored. To determine incidence of Borrelia crocidurae infection during June 2010-October 2011, we collected 1,566 blood specimens from febrile patients in Senegal. Incidence was high (7.3%). New treatment strategies, possibly doxycycline, might be indicated for febrile patients.
Sevransky, Jonathan E; Checkley, William; Herrera, Phabiola; Pickering, Brian W; Barr, Juliana; Brown, Samuel M; Chang, Steven Y; Chong, David; Kaufman, David; Fremont, Richard D; Girard, Timothy D; Hoag, Jeffrey; Johnson, Steven B; Kerlin, Mehta P; Liebler, Janice; O'Brien, James; O'Keefe, Terence; Park, Pauline K; Pastores, Stephen M; Patil, Namrata; Pietropaoli, Anthony P; Putman, Maryann; Rice, Todd W; Rotello, Leo; Siner, Jonathan; Sajid, Sahul; Murphy, David J; Martin, Greg S
Clinical protocols may decrease unnecessary variation in care and improve compliance with desirable therapies. We evaluated whether highly protocolized ICUs have superior patient outcomes compared with less highly protocolized ICUs. Observational study in which participating ICUs completed a general assessment and enrolled new patients 1 day each week. A total of 6,179 critically ill patients. Fifty-nine ICUs in the United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group Critical Illness Outcomes Study. None. The primary exposure was the number of ICU protocols; the primary outcome was hospital mortality. A total of 5,809 participants were followed prospectively, and 5,454 patients in 57 ICUs had complete outcome data. The median number of protocols per ICU was 19 (interquartile range, 15-21.5). In single-variable analyses, there were no differences in ICU and hospital mortality, length of stay, use of mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or continuous sedation among individuals in ICUs with a high versus low number of protocols. The lack of association was confirmed in adjusted multivariable analysis (p = 0.70). Protocol compliance with two ventilator management protocols was moderate and did not differ between ICUs with high versus low numbers of protocols for lung protective ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (47% vs 52%; p = 0.28) and for spontaneous breathing trials (55% vs 51%; p = 0.27). Clinical protocols are highly prevalent in U.S. ICUs. The presence of a greater number of protocols was not associated with protocol compliance or patient mortality.
Miu, Timothy; Joffe, Aaron M; Yanez, N David; Khandelwal, Nita; Dagal, Armagan Hc; Deem, Steven; Treggiari, Miriam M
Assessment of a patient's readiness for removal of the endotracheal tube in the ICU is based on respiratory, airway, and neurological measures. However, nearly 20% of patients require reintubation. We created a prediction model for the need for reintubation, which incorporates variables importantly contributing to extubation failure. This was a cohort study of 2,007 endotracheally intubated subjects who required ICU admission at a tertiary care center. Data collection included demographic, hemodynamic, respiratory, and neurological variables preceding extubation. Data were compared between subjects extubated successfully and those who required reintubation, using bivariate logistic regression models, with the binary outcome reintubation and the baseline characteristics as predictors. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with robust variance was used to build the prediction model. Of the 2,007 subjects analyzed, 376 (19%) required reintubation. In the bivariate analysis, admission Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, oxygenation, number of prior SBTs, rapid shallow breathing index, airway-secretions suctioning frequency and quantity, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure differed significantly between the extubation success and failure groups. In the multivariable analysis, higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and suctioning frequency were associated with failed extubation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.68 for failure at any time, and 0.71 for failure within 24 hours. However, prior failed SBT, minute ventilation, and diastolic blood pressure were additional independent predictors of failure at any time, whereas oxygenation predicted extubation failure within 24 hours. A small number of independent variables explains a substantial portion of the variability of extubation failure, and can help identify patients at high risk of needing reintubation. These characteristics
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in human blood: effects of extended haemodialysis in the critically ill patient with acute kidney injury, protein binding to human serum albumin and proteolysis by thermolysin.
Sitar, Mustafa Erinc; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Beckmann, Bibiana; Kielstein, Jan T; Tsikas, Dimitrios
Free, non-protein bound asymmetrically guanidine-dimethylated arginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Human erythrocytic membrane comprises considerable amounts of large (>50 kDa) ADMA-containing proteins. Location in the erythrocyte membrane and identity and physiological functions of ADMA-containing proteins are unrevealed. In healthy subjects, the concentration of free ADMA in heparinised plasma is almost identical to that of serum. We hypothesised that the robustness of free ADMA concentration in human blood is due to a remarkable resistance of erythrocytic ADMA-containing proteins against proteases. In vivo, we investigated the course of the concentration of ADMA in serum and EDTA plasma of a critically ill patient with acute kidney injury during extended haemodialysis. In vitro, we studied the effects of thermolysin, a useful experimental proteolytic enzyme of erythrocyte membrane proteins, on erythrocytic ADMA. The protein binding (PB) of ADMA to human serum albumin (HSA) was also determined. In these studies, ADMA was measured by a previously reported, fully validated GC-MS/MS method. We measured almost identical ADMA concentrations in plasma and serum samples of the patient. During dialysis, the circulating ADMA concentration decreased slowly and moderately indicating removal of this substance, which was however much less than expected from its low molecular weight (202 Da) and high water solubility. After dialysis, circulating ADMA concentration increased again, a phenomenon called rebound, and ADMA reached higher levels compared to the baseline. The PB value of ADMA to HSA was about 30 %. This surprisingly high PB value of ADMA to HSA may be an explanation for the rather poor dialysance of ADMA. Washed human erythrocytes suspended in phosphate-buffered physiological saline were found not to release appreciable amounts of free and ADMA-containing proteins. The lack of effect of coagulation or anticoagulation on the
Hull, Russell D
Recent or continued immobility is a significant risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acutely ill medical patients. Patients may benefit from thromboprophylaxis; however, its optimal duration remains unclear. The Extended Clinical Prophylaxis in Acutely Ill Medical Patients (EXCLAIM) study was the first trial to systematically investigate how the degree of immobilization relates to the risk of developing VTE. EXCLAIM offers insights into the duration of VTE risk associated with reduced mobility and helps identify which patients would benefit most from extended-duration thromboprophylaxis. Further recent studies suggest that extended-duration thromboprophylaxis may be in order in certain high-risk patients to protect the patients from the risk of VTE events occurring, particularly in the posthospitalization period. Baseline d-dimer data and level of mobility could be included in risk assessment. Physicians are recommended to consider the use of extended-duration thromboprophylaxis based on individual risk assessment management (RAM) and balance of benefit and harm.
Cerri, Anna Paola; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Mazzone, Andrea; Pittella, Francesca; Landi, Francesco; Zambon, Antonella; Annoni, Giorgio
Data about the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients is lacking and it is unclear whether the diagnostic criteria commonly used in community-dwellers is applicable in acutely ill subjects. The aims of this report are: (i) to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients; (ii) to assess whether the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria are applicable in an acute care setting; and (iii) to assess the mortality rate at 3 months. 103 patients admitted to the Acute Geriatric Clinic were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥65 years and malnutrition or risk of malnutrition, according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form. Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the EWGSOP criteria by means of bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength and gait speed, within 72 h of admission. Information on deaths was obtained by telephone interview at 3 months following discharge. Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 22 patients (21.4%). Twenty-three patients (22.3%) were not able to perform the gait speed and/or the handgrip strength because bedridden or requiring intensive treatments. In this group, a definite diagnosis of sarcopenia was not possible, lacking at least one EWGSOP criteria. Eleven (10.7%) patients died within the 3 months post-discharge period. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that sarcopenic patients died significantly more frequently than others (log-rank p ≤ 0.001). In a population of hospitalized elderly malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia is highly prevalent and associated with an increased risk to die in the short-term. Furthermore, the EWGSOP criteria cannot be satisfactorily applied in a relevant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Rivera, Aidsa; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Rivera, Irma; Sanabria, Dario; Blau, Dianna M.; Galloway, Renee; Torres, Jose; Rodriguez, Rosa; Serrano, Javier; Chávez, Carlos; Dávila, Francisco; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Ellis, Esther M.; Caballero, Gladys; Wright, Laura; Zaki, Sherif R.; Deseda, Carmen; Rodriguez, Edda; Margolis, Harold S.
Background Dengue is a leading cause of morbidity throughout the tropics; however, accurate population-based estimates of mortality rates are not available. Methods/Principal Findings We established the Enhanced Fatal Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance System (EFASS) to estimate dengue mortality rates in Puerto Rico. Healthcare professionals submitted serum and tissue specimens from patients who died from a dengue-like acute febrile illness, and death certificates were reviewed to identify additional cases. Specimens were tested for markers of dengue virus (DENV) infection by molecular, immunologic, and immunohistochemical methods, and were also tested for West Nile virus, Leptospira spp., and other pathogens based on histopathologic findings. Medical records were reviewed and clinical data abstracted. A total of 311 deaths were identified, of which 58 (19%) were DENV laboratory-positive. Dengue mortality rates were 1.05 per 100,000 population in 2010, 0.16 in 2011 and 0.36 in 2012. Dengue mortality was highest among adults 19–64 years and seniors ≥65 years (1.17 and 1.66 deaths per 100,000, respectively). Other pathogens identified included 34 Leptospira spp. cases and one case of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Neisseria meningitidis. Conclusions/Significance EFASS showed that dengue mortality rates among adults were higher than reported for influenza, and identified a leptospirosis outbreak and index cases of melioidosis and meningitis. PMID:27727271
Best, Kaitlin M; Asaro, Lisa A; Franck, Linda S; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q
To characterize sedation weaning patterns in typical practice settings among children recovering from critical illness. A descriptive secondary analysis of data that were prospectively collected during the prerandomization phase (January to July 2009) of a clinical trial of sedation management. Twenty-two PICUs across the United States. The sample included 145 patients, aged 2 weeks to 17 years, mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure who received at least five consecutive days of opioid exposure. None. Group comparisons were made between patients with an intermittent weaning pattern, defined as a 20% or greater increase in daily opioid dose after the start of weaning, and the remaining patients defined as having a steady weaning pattern. Demographic and clinical characteristics, tolerance to sedatives, and iatrogenic withdrawal symptoms were evaluated. Sixty-six patients (46%) were intermittently weaned; 79 patients were steadily weaned. Prior to weaning, intermittently weaned patients received higher peak and cumulative doses and longer exposures to opioids and benzodiazepines, demonstrated more sedative tolerance (58% vs 41%), and received more chloral hydrate and barbiturates compared with steadily weaned patients. During weaning, intermittently weaned patients assessed for withdrawal had a higher incidence of Withdrawal Assessment Tool-version 1 scores of greater than or equal to 3 (85% vs 46%) and received more sedative classes compared with steadily weaned patients. This study characterizes sedative administration practices for pediatric patients prior to and during weaning from sedation after critical illness. It provides a novel methodology for describing weaning in an at-risk pediatric population that may be helpful in future research on weaning strategies to prevent iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome.
Osuna, E; Pérez-Cárceles, M D; Esteban, M A; Luna, A
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the attitudes of medical personnel towards terminally ill patients and their right to be fully informed. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire composed of 56 closed questions. SETTING: Three general hospitals and eleven health centres in Granada (Spain). The sample comprised 168 doctors and 207 nurses. RESULTS: A high percentage of medical personnel (24.1%) do not think that informing the terminally ill would help them face their illness with greater serenity. Eighty-four per cent think the patient's own home is the best place to die: 8.9% of the subjects questioned state that the would not like to be informed of an incurable illness. CONCLUSION: In our opinion any information given should depend on the patient's personality, the stage of the illness and family circumstances. Our study confirms that a hospital is not the ideal environment for attending to the needs of the terminally ill and their families. PMID:9602997
Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William; Brescia, Robert
Anxiety in terminal cancer is linked to diminished quality of life, yet overall it is poorly understood with regard to prevalence and relationship to other aspects of psychological distress. This study examines anxiety in terminally ill cancer patients, including the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, the relationship between anxiety and depression, differences in anxiety between participants receiving inpatient palliative care and those receiving outpatient care, and characteristics that distinguish highly anxious from less anxious patients. Participants were 194 patients with terminal cancer. Approximately half (n=103) were receiving inpatient care in a palliative care facility and half (n=91) were receiving outpatient care in a tertiary care cancer center. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression, and was administered along with measures of hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and social support. Moderately elevated anxiety symptoms were found in 18.6% of participants (n=36) and 12.4% (n=24) had clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Level of anxiety did not differ between the two treatment settings. However, participants receiving palliative care reported significantly higher levels of depression and desire for hastened death. A multivariate prediction model indicated that belief in an afterlife, social support, and anxiolytic and antidepressant use were unique, significant predictors of anxiety. Severity of anxiety symptoms did not differ between the study sites, suggesting that anxiety may differ from depression and desire for hastened death in the course that it takes over the duration of terminal cancer. Copyright Â© 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Gun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung Min; Suh, Sang-Il; Ki, Chang-Seok; Eun, Baik-Lin
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1) is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with X-linked transmission. Common clinical manifestations of CMTX1 disease, as in other forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, are distal muscle wasting and weakness, hyporeflexia, distal sensory disturbance, and foot deformities. Mutations in the connexin-32 gene (gap junction protein β1 [GJB1]) are responsible for CMTX1 disease. In this report, we describe a patient with CMTX1 disease presenting with recurrent attacks of transient and episodic acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms without previous signs of lower extremity weakness or foot deformities; the patient, as well as his asymptomatic mother, exhibited a novel GJB1 mutation (p.Met1Ile). Differential diagnosis of recurrent and transient ADEM-like illness, if unexplained, should include the possibility of CMTX1 disease.
Erstad, Brian L; Patanwala, Asad E
The purpose of this narrative review is to provide practical and useful guidance for clinicians considering the use of intravenous ketamine for its analgosedative properties in adult, critically ill patients. MEDLINE was searched from inception until January 2016. Articles related to the pharmacological properties of ketamine were retrieved. Information pertaining to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, dosing regimens, adverse effects, and outcomes was obtained from relevant studies. Although the primary mechanism for ketamine's pharmacological effects is N-methyl-d-aspartate blockade, there are several potential mechanisms of action. It has a very large volume of distribution due to its lipophilicity, which can lead to drug accumulation with sustained infusions. Ketamine has several advantages compared with conventional sedatives such as preserving pharyngeal and laryngeal protective reflexes, lowering airway resistance, increasing lung compliance, and being less likely to produce respiratory depression. It causes sympathetic stimulation, which is also unlike other sedatives and analgesics. There are psychotomimetic effects, which are a concern in terms of delirium. Dosing and monitoring recommendations are provided. Ketamine has a unique pharmacological profile compared with more traditional agents such as opioids, which makes it an appealing alternative agent for analgosedation in the intensive care unit setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A
The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses.
Secombe, Paul; Harley, Simon; Chapman, Marianne; Aromataris, Edoardo
The objective of this review is to identify effective enteral nutritional regimens targeting protein and calorie delivery for the critically ill obese patient on morbidity and mortality.More specifically, the review question is:In the critically ill obese patient, what is the optimal enteral protein and calorie target that improves mortality and morbidity? The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health, or, empirically, as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m. Twenty-eight percent of the Australian population is obese with the prevalence rising to 44% in rural areas, and there is evidence that rates of obesity are increasing. The prevalence of obese patients in intensive care largely mirrors that of the general population. There is concern, however, that this may also be rising. A recently published multi-center nutritional study of critically ill patients reported a mean BMI of 29 in their sample, suggesting that just under 50% of their intensive care population is obese. It is inevitable, therefore, that the intensivist will care for the critically ill obese patient.Managing the critically ill obese patient is challenging, not least due to the co-morbid diseases frequently associated with obesity, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, sleep disordered breathing and respiratory insufficiency, hepatic steatohepatitis, chronic kidney disease and hypertension. There is also evidence that metabolic processes differ in the obese patient, particularly those with underlying insulin resistance, itself a marker of the metabolic syndrome, which may predispose to futile cycling, altered fuel utilization and protein catabolism. These issues are compounded by altered drug pharmacokinetics, and the additional logistical issues associated with prophylactic, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions.It is entirely plausible that the altered metabolic processes observed in the obese
Vukoja, Marija; Kashyap, Rahul; Gavrilovic, Srdjan; Dong, Yue; Kilickaya, Oguz; Gajic, Ognjen
Processes to ensure world-wide best-practice for critical care delivery are likely to minimize preventable death, disability and costly complications for any healthcare system's sickest patients, but no large-scale efforts have so far been undertaken towards these goals. The advances in medical informatics and human factors engineering have provided possibility for novel and user-friendly clinical decision support tools that can be applied in a complex and busy hospital setting. To facilitate timely and accurate best-practice delivery in critically ill patients international group of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and researchers developed a simple decision support tool: Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN). The tool has been refined and tested in high fidelity simulated clinical environment and has been shown to improve performance of clinical providers faced with simulated emergencies. The aim of this international educational intervention is to implement CERTAIN into clinical practice in hospital settings with variable resources (included those in low income countries) and evaluate the impact of the tool on the care processes and patient outcomes. To accomplish our aims, CERTAIN will be uniformly available on either mobile or fixed computing devices (as well as a backup paper version) and applied in a standardized manner in the ICUs of diverse hospitals. To ensure the effectiveness of the proposed intervention, access to CERTAIN is coupled with structured training of bedside ICU providers.
Vukoja, Marija; Kashyap, Rahul; Gavrilovic, Srdjan; Dong, Yue; Kilickaya, Oguz; Gajic, Ognjen
Processes to ensure world-wide best-practice for critical care delivery are likely to minimize preventable death, disability and costly complications for any healthcare system’s sickest patients, but no large-scale efforts have so far been undertaken towards these goals. The advances in medical informatics and human factors engineering have provided possibility for novel and user-friendly clinical decision support tools that can be applied in a complex and busy hospital setting. To facilitate timely and accurate best-practice delivery in critically ill patients international group of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and researchers developed a simple decision support tool: Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN). The tool has been refined and tested in high fidelity simulated clinical environment and has been shown to improve performance of clinical providers faced with simulated emergencies. The aim of this international educational intervention is to implement CERTAIN into clinical practice in hospital settings with variable resources (included those in low income countries) and evaluate the impact of the tool on the care processes and patient outcomes. To accomplish our aims, CERTAIN will be uniformly available on either mobile or fixed computing devices (as well as a backup paper version) and applied in a standardized manner in the ICUs of diverse hospitals. To ensure the effectiveness of the proposed intervention, access to CERTAIN is coupled with structured training of bedside ICU providers. PMID:25685723
Wedel, Kenneth R.
Patients suffering from factitious illness present complex problems for themselves and hospital personnel. This article describes a multidisciplinary intervention through confrontation approach that has proved to be successful with such patients. (Author)
Brevard, Theresa A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Blondell, Jerome M; Mehler, Louise N
Working youths face many safety and health risks. Among these risks are those posed by disinfectant exposures. In this study we describe acute occupational disinfectant-related illness among youth. Data on U.S. children younger than 18 years with acute occupational disinfectant-related illnesses between 1993 and 1998 were collected from the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System and from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. We analyzed data from persons with exposures who met the case definition for acute occupational disinfectant-related illness. The case definition required onset of new adverse health effects that were both temporally related to a disinfectant exposure and consistent with the known toxicology of the disinfectant. We calculated incidence rates of acute occupational disinfectant-related illness among youths 15-17 years old and incidence rate ratios to compare these rates with those of adults 25-44 years old. We found 307 children with disinfectant-related illnesses. The average annual incidence rate was 16.8/billion hours worked with a relative risk compared with adults of 4.14 (95% confidence interval, 3.66-4.68). Most illnesses were of mild severity (78%). There were no fatalities. Hypochlorites (e.g., bleach) were responsible for 45% of the illnesses. Among the 206 cases where the responsible disinfectant's U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity category was known, 80% were in category I (highest toxicity level). These findings suggest the need for greater efforts to prevent adolescent acute occupational disinfectant-related illness. This may require strengthening regulations and enforcement as well as increased educational efforts directed at employers, youths, parents, school officials, and physicians. Better mechanisms for reporting and tracking chemical illnesses among working adolescents are also needed. PMID:14527846
Clark, Tristan W; Medina, Marie-jo; Batham, Sally; Curran, Martin D; Parmar, Surendra; Nicholson, Karl G
Many adult patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness have viruses detected but the overall importance of viral infection compared to bacterial infection is unclear. Patients were recruited from two acute hospital sites in Leicester (UK) over 3 successive winters. Samples were taken for viral and bacterial testing. Of the 780 patients hospitalised with acute respiratory illness 345 (44%) had a respiratory virus detected. Picornaviruses were the most commonly isolated viruses (detected in 23% of all patients). Virus detection rates exceeded 50% in patients with exacerbation of asthma (58%), acute bronchitis and Influenza-like-illness (64%), and ranged from 30 to 50% in patients with an exacerbation of COPD (38%), community acquired pneumonia (36%) and congestive cardiac failure (31%). Bacterial detection was relatively frequent in patients with exacerbation of COPD and pneumonia (25% and 33% respectively) but was uncommon in all other groups. Antibiotic use was high across all clinical groups (76% overall) and only 21% of all antibiotic use occurred in patients with detectable bacteria. Respiratory viruses are the predominant detectable aetiological agents in most hospitalised adults with acute respiratory illness. Antibiotic usage in hospital remains excessive including in clinical conditions associated with low rates of bacterial detection. Efforts at reducing excess antibiotic use should focus on these groups as a priority. Registered International Standard Controlled Trial Number: 21521552. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silva, Marco Antonio; da Graça Freitas dos Santos, Saionara; Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; da Luz, Gabrielle; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques; Pizzol, Felipe Dal; Ritter, Cristiane
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between enteral nutrition discontinuation and outcome in general critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients admitted to a mixed intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital from May-August 2009 were screened for an indication for enteral nutrition. Patients were followed up until leaving the intensive care unit or a maximum of 28 days. The gastrointestinal failure score was calculated daily by adding values of 0 if the enteral nutrition received was identical to the nutrition prescribed, 1 if the enteral nutrition received was at least 75% of that prescribed, 2 if the enteral nutrition received was between 50-75% of that prescribed, 3 if the enteral nutrition received was between 50-25% of that prescribed, and 4 if the enteral nutrition received was less than 25% of that prescribed. RESULTS: The mean, worst, and categorical gastrointestinal failure scores were associated with lower survival in these patients. Age, categorical gastrointestinal failure score, type of admission, need for mechanical ventilation, sequential organ failure assessment, and Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were selected for analysis with binary regression. In both models, the categorical gastrointestinal failure score was related to mortality. CONCLUSION: The determination of the difference between prescribed and received enteral nutrition seemed to be a useful prognostic marker and is feasible to be incorporated into a gastrointestinal failure score. PMID:23525312
Arabi, Yaseen M; Arifi, Ahmed A; Balkhy, Hanan H; Najm, Hani; Aldawood, Abdulaziz S; Ghabashi, Alaa; Hawa, Hassan; Alothman, Adel; Khaldi, Abdulaziz; Al Raiy, Basel
Since September 2012, 170 confirmed infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been reported to the World Health Organization, including 72 deaths. Data on critically ill patients with MERS-CoV infection are limited. To describe the critical illness associated with MERS-CoV. Case series. 3 intensive care units (ICUs) at 2 tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia. 12 patients with confirmed or probable MERS-CoV infection. Presenting symptoms, comorbid conditions, pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, measures of severity of illness and organ failure, ICU course, and outcome are described, as are the results of surveillance of health care workers (HCWs) and patients with potential exposure. Between December 2012 and August 2013, 114 patients were tested for suspected MERS-CoV; of these, 11 ICU patients (10%) met the definition of confirmed or probable cases. Three of these patients were part of a health care-associated cluster that also included 3 HCWs. One HCW became critically ill and was the 12th patient in this case series. Median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 28 (range, 16 to 36). All 12 patients had underlying comorbid conditions and presented with acute severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. Most patients (92%) had extrapulmonary manifestations, including shock, acute kidney injury, and thrombocytopenia. Five (42%) were alive at day 90. Of the 520 exposed HCWs, only 4 (1%) were positive. The sample size was small. MERS-CoV causes severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and considerable extrapulmonary organ dysfunction and is associated with high mortality. Community-acquired and health care-associated MERS-CoV infection occurs in patients with chronic comorbid conditions. The health care-associated cluster suggests that human-to-human transmission does occur with unprotected exposure. None.
Arabi, Yaseen M; Al-Omari, Awad; Mandourah, Yasser; Al-Hameed, Fahad; Sindi, Anees A; Alraddadi, Basem; Shalhoub, Sarah; Almotairi, Abdullah; Al Khatib, Kasim; Abdulmomen, Ahmed; Qushmaq, Ismael; Mady, Ahmed; Solaiman, Othman; Al-Aithan, Abdulsalam M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Ragab, Ahmed; Al Mekhlafi, Ghaleb A; Al Harthy, Abdulrahman; Kharaba, Ayman; Ahmadi, Mashael Al; Sadat, Musharaf; Mutairi, Hanan Al; Qasim, Eman Al; Jose, Jesna; Nasim, Maliha; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz; Merson, Laura; Fowler, Robert; Hayden, Frederick G; Balkhy, Hanan H
To describe patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, disease course including viral replication patterns, and outcomes of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory infection from the Middle East respiratory syndrome and to compare these features with patients with severe acute respiratory infection due to other etiologies. Retrospective cohort study. Patients admitted to ICUs in 14 Saudi Arabian hospitals. Critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection (n = 330) admitted between September 2012 and October 2015 were compared to consecutive critically ill patients with community-acquired severe acute respiratory infection of non-Middle East respiratory syndrome etiology (non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection) (n = 222). None. Although Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection patients were younger than those with non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection (median [quartile 1, quartile 3] 58 yr [44, 69] vs 70 [52, 78]; p < 0.001), clinical presentations and comorbidities overlapped substantially. Patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection had more severe hypoxemic respiratory failure (PaO2/FIO2: 106 [66, 160] vs 176 [104, 252]; p < 0.001) and more frequent nonrespiratory organ failure (nonrespiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score: 6 [4, 9] vs 5 [3, 7]; p = 0.002), thus required more frequently invasive mechanical ventilation (85.2% vs 73.0%; p < 0.001), oxygen rescue therapies (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 5.8% vs 0.9%; p = 0.003), vasopressor support (79.4% vs 55.0%; p < 0.001), and renal replacement therapy (48.8% vs 22.1%; p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, Middle East respiratory syndrome was independently associated with death compared to non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory
Barman, Bhupen; Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Lynrah, Kryshan G; Ete, Tony; Issar, Neel Kanth
Malaria is one of the most common protozoan diseases, especially in tropical countries. The clinical manifestation of malaria, especially falciparum malaria varies from mild acute febrile illness to life threatening severe systemic complications involving one or more organ systems. We would like to report a case of complicated falciparum malaria involving cerebral, renal, hepatic system along with acute pancreatitis. The patient was successfully treated with anti malarial and other supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge there are very few reports of acute pancreatitis due to malaria. Falciparum malaria therefore should be added to the list of infectious agents causing acute pancreatitis especially in areas where malaria is endemic.
Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Lynrah, Kryshan G; Ete, Tony; Issar, Neel Kanth
Malaria is one of the most common protozoan diseases, especially in tropical countries. The clinical manifestation of malaria, especially falciparum malaria varies from mild acute febrile illness to life threatening severe systemic complications involving one or more organ systems. We would like to report a case of complicated falciparum malaria involving cerebral, renal, hepatic system along with acute pancreatitis. The patient was successfully treated with anti malarial and other supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge there are very few reports of acute pancreatitis due to malaria. Falciparum malaria therefore should be added to the list of infectious agents causing acute pancreatitis especially in areas where malaria is endemic. PMID:26894117
Esposito, D H; Freedman, D O; Neumayr, A; Parola, P
As of 4 November, 2012, 100 patients with an acute muscular Sarcocystis-like illness associated with travel to Tioman Island, Malaysia, have been identified. Thirty-five travelled there mostly during July and August 2011 and 65 mostly during July and August 2012, suggesting an ongoing outbreak. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing. Public health agencies and practicing clinicians should be aware of this rarely-reported disease in humans and consider it as differential diagnosis in travellers returning from Tioman Island.
Van Matre, Edward T; Cook, Aaron M
Valproic acid (VPA) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug used for a variety of neurologic disorders. The relatively short half-life seen with intermittent intravenous bolus doing may lead to serum concentration variability. Continuous infusion VPA therapy is an approach to mitigate these effects. The objective of this study is to characterize the pharmacokinetics of continuous infusion of VPA in acutely ill patients and to determine dosing regimens that most frequently obtain goal steady-state serum concentrations. This is a retrospective pharmacokinetics study in adult patients receiving continuous infusion VPA per institutional protocol for seizure or status migrainosus. Pharmacokinetic parameters were reviewed for 234 patients (25 critically ill) and compared between the two groups (non-critically ill vs. critically ill). Intermittent and continuous infusion dosing strategies were modeled utilizing Monte Carlo simulations for both cohorts. Frequencies of serum concentration attainment were reported. The percent target attainment for the non-critically ill group and critically ill group were 69.4 and 58.3% (p = 0.282) post-loading dose and 69.7 and 37.5% (p = 0.004) steady state, respectively. The volume of distribution was significantly different between the two groups (0.35 vs. 0.68 L/kg, p = < 0.0001). Highest frequency of target attainment (50-100 mcg/ml) occurred in the continuous infusion 2 mg/kg/h simulation for both critically ill (45.19%) and acutely ill (48.16%) groups. Critically ill patients have an increased volume of distribution. Increasing the volume of distribution requires higher loading doses of VPA to obtain desired therapeutic concentrations. Continuous infusion VPA provides more consistent serum steady-state concentrations while mitigating pharmacokinetic variability.
Rasilainen, Suvi Kaarina; Juhani, Mentula Panu; Kalevi, Leppäniemi Ari
This study was designed to describe the time-course and microbiology of colonization of open abdomen in critically ill surgical patients and to study its association with morbidity, mortality and specific complications of open abdomen. A retrospective cohort analysis was done. One hundred eleven consecutive patients undergoing vacuum-assisted closure with mesh as temporary abdominal closure method for open abdomen were analyzed. Microbiological samples from the open abdomen were collected. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Mann-Whitney U test was used when comparing number of temporary abdominal closure changes between colonized and sterile patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to calculate cumulative estimates for colonization. Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze risk factors for colonization. Microbiological samples were obtained from 97 patients. Of these 76 (78 %) were positive. Sixty-one (80 %) patients were colonized with multiple micro-organisms and 27 (36 %) were cultured positive for candida species. The duration of open abdomen treatment adversely affected the colonization rate. Thirty-three (34 %) patients were colonized at the time of laparostomy. After one week of open abdomen treatment 69, and after two weeks 76 patients were colonized with cumulative colonization estimates of 74 % and 89 %, respectively. Primary fascial closure rate was 80 % (61/76) and 86 % (18/21) for the colonized and sterile patients, respectively. The rate of wound complications did not significantly differ between these groups. Microbial colonization of open abdomen is associated with the duration of open abdomen treatment. Wound complications are common after open abdomen, but colonization does not seem to have significant effect on these. The high colonization rate described herein should be taken into account when primarily sterile conditions like acute pancreatitis and aortic aneurysmal rupture
Cohen, Alexander T; Harrington, Robert; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Gibson, C Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kitt, Michael M; Lorenz, Todd J
Randomized clinical trials have identified a population of acute medically ill patients who remain at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond the standard duration of therapy and hospital discharge. The aim of the APEX study is to determine whether extended administration of oral betrixaban (35-42 days) is superior to a standard short course of prophylaxis with subcutaneous enoxaparin (10 ± 4 days followed by placebo) in patients with known risk factors for post-discharge VTE. Patients initially are randomized to receive either betrixaban or enoxaparin (and matching placebo) in a double dummy design. Following a standard duration period of enoxaparin treatment (with placebo tablets) or betrixaban (with placebo injections), patients receive only betrixaban (or alternative matching placebo). Patients are considered for enrollment if they are older than 40 years, have a specified medical illness, and restricted mobility. They must also meet the APEX criteria for increased VTE risk (aged ≥75 years, baseline D-Dimer ≥2× upper the limit of "normal", or 2 additional ancillary risk factors for VTE). The primary efficacy end point is the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, non-fatal (pulmonary embolus) pulmonary embolism, or VTE-related death through day 35. The primary safety outcome is the occurrence of major bleeding. We hypothesize that extended duration betrixaban VTE prophylaxis will be safe and more effective than standard short duration enoxaparin in preventing VTE in acute medically ill patients with known risk factors for post hospital discharge VTE.
Mehta, Jyotsna; Walsh, Edward E; Mahadevia, Parthiv J; Falsey, Ann R
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), although not typically considered an important pathogen in adults, may cause acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unclear which COPD patients are at highest risk for developing serious RSV illness. Our objective was to identify risk factors for RSV illness among adult patients with COPD. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from COPD patients in 2 previously published longitudinal studies that examined RSV infection in high risk adults for ≤ 2 RSV seasons. Risk factors for RSV illness studied included age, sex, race, smoking status, exposure to children, home oxygen use, inhaled or oral steroid use, instrumental activities of daily living scores, and co-morbid conditions. Outcomes studied included symptomatic and medically attended RSV illness. Logistic regression was used to identify significant risk factors for RSV illness among older adults with COPD. Among 379 patients with COPD, the rate of symptomatic RSV illness was 11.1% (42/379); almost half (20/42) of whom required medical attention. In multivariable analyses, congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR] = 4.18; 95% CI: 1.38, 12.69) and exposure to children (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.03, 5.51) were risk factors for symptomatic RSV illness. Congestive heart failure (OR = 4.16; 95% CI: 1.02, 17.01) was the only significant risk factor for developing medically attended RSV illness. Exposure to children and congestive heart failure are risk factors for RSV illness among adult patients with COPD. Future prospective, well-designed studies are needed to corroborate these findings and examine other risk factors, including history of exacerbations.
Vaara, Suvi T.; Lakkisto, Päivi; Immonen, Katariina; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Pettilä, Ville
Background Apoptosis is a key mechanism involved in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI), but its role in septic AKI is controversial. Biomarkers indicative of apoptosis could potentially detect developing AKI prior to its clinical diagnosis. Methods As a part of the multicenter, observational FINNAKI study, we performed a pilot study among critically ill patients who developed AKI (n = 30) matched to critically ill patients without AKI (n = 30). We explored the urine and plasma levels of cytokeratin-18 neoepitope M30 (CK-18 M30), cell-free DNA, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) at intensive care unit (ICU) admission and 24h thereafter, before the clinical diagnosis of AKI defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes -creatinine and urine output criteria. Furthermore, we performed a validation study in 197 consecutive patients in the FINNAKI cohort and analyzed the urine sample at ICU admission for CK-18 M30 levels. Results In the pilot study, the urine or plasma levels of measured biomarkers at ICU admission, at 24h, or their maximum value did not differ significantly between AKI and non-AKI patients. Among 20 AKI patients without severe sepsis, the urine CK-18 M30 levels were significantly higher at 24h (median 116.0, IQR [32.3–233.0] U/L) than among those 20 patients who did not develop AKI (46.0 [0.0–54.0] U/L), P = 0.020. Neither urine cell-free DNA nor HSP70 levels significantly differed between AKI and non-AKI patients regardless of the presence of severe sepsis. In the validation study, urine CK-18 M30 level at ICU admission was not significantly higher among patients developing AKI compared to non-AKI patients regardless of the presence of severe sepsis or CKD. Conclusions Our findings do not support that apoptosis detected with CK-18 M30 level would be useful in assessing the development of AKI in the critically ill. Urine HSP or cell-free DNA levels did not differ between AKI and non-AKI patients. PMID:26918334
Lim, Phin Phin; Chong, Chee Ping; Aziz, Noorizan Abdul
Cefepime-induced thrombocytopenia is a rare adverse event (incidence <1.0%), based on data from clinical trials. However, there is limited post-marketing surveillance documentation on thrombocytopenia associated with cefepime. We describe a 45-year-old male who was admitted to the intensive care unit after allegedly being hit by a large metal bar in the right upper chest and shoulder. Rhabdomyolysis secondary to the trauma, pneumothorax, acute renal failure, and nosocomial sepsis were subsequently diagnosed. Four days after intravenous cefepime initiation, the patient developed thrombocytopenia with platelet count dropping from 102 × 10(3)/μL to 15 × 10(3)/μL. Cefepime was discontinued and the platelet count normalized to 140 × 10(3)/μL after 6 days. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a possible relationship between the patient's thrombocytopenia and cefepime therapy. Although cefepime-induced thrombocytopenia is rare, clinicians should be alert to this potential adverse effect among critically ill patients.
Coulehan, J L; Eberhard, S; Kapner, L; Taylor, F; Rogers, K; Garry, P
To evaluate earlier observations, including our own, showing usefulness of vitamin C for managing the common cold, we performed a double-blind trial of vitamin C versus placebo in 868 children. There was no difference in number becoming ill (133 versus 129), number of episodes (166 versus 159) or mean illness duration (5.5 versus 5.8 days) between the groups. Children receiving vitamin C had fewer throat cultures yielding beta-hemolytic streptococcus (six versus 13, P less than 0.10), but no difference in overall complicated illness rate (24 versus 25). Plasma ascorbic acid levels were higher in the vitamin group 24 to 26 hours after supplementation (1.28 versus 1.04 mg per 100 ml, P less than 0.01). Children with high plasma ascorbic acid concentrations had longer mean illness (6.8 versus 4.0 days, P less than 0.05) than those with low levels. Vitamin C does not seem to be an effective prophylactic or therapeutic agent for upper respiratory illness.
Tom, Dina M; Aquino, Christian; Arredondo, Anthony R; Foster, Byron A
The goal of this study was to examine preferences for shared decision-making (SDM) in parents of acutely ill versus chronically ill children in the inpatient setting. Additionally, we explored the effect of parental perception of illness severity and uncertainty in illness on decision-making preference. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed parents of children admitted to pediatric inpatient units at an academic, tertiary-care hospital. Surveys were administered in person and used validated tools to assess SDM preferences and uncertainty in illness. Descriptive statistics evaluated associations stratified by acute versus chronic illness, and multivariable analyses were performed. Of the 200 parents who participated, the majority were women (78%), Hispanic (81.5%), English speaking (73%), between 30 and 39 years old (37.5%), and had an education achievement of less than a college degree (77%). The mean age of hospitalized children was 8.1 years, and half reported a chronic illness. Most parents preferred an active (43%) or collaborative (40%) role in SDM. There was no association with SDM preference by demographics, number of previous hospitalizations, perception of illness severity, or uncertainty. However, parents of chronically ill children significantly preferred a passive role in SDM when they perceived a high level of uncertainty in illness. Most parents of hospitalized children prefer to take an active or collaborative role in SDM. However, parents of chronically ill children who perceive high levels of uncertainty surrounding their children's illness prefer a passive role, thus illustrating the complexity in decision-making among this parent population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Benson, Alexander B; Moss, Marc; Silliman, Christopher C
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality world-wide. Although first described in 1983, it took two decades to develop consensus definitions, which remain controversial. The pathogenesis of TRALI is related to the infusion of donor antibodies that recognize leucocyte antigens in the transfused host or the infusion of lipids and other biological response modifiers that accumulate during the storage or processing of blood components. TRALI appears to be the result of at least two sequential events and treatment is supportive. This review demonstrates that critically ill patients are more susceptible to TRALI and require special attention by critical care specialists, haematologists and transfusion medicine experts. Further research is required into TRALI and its pathogenesis so that transfusions are safer and administered appropriately. Avoidance including male-only transfusion practises, the use of leucoreduced components, fresher blood/blood components and solvent detergent plasma are also discussed.
McCarthy, P; Freudigman, K; Cicchetti, D; Mayes, L; Benitez, J L; Salloum, S; Baron, M; Fink, H; Anderson, R; LaCamera, R
For acutely ill children living in less than optimal environments, mothers and pediatricians may have a heightened perception of illness severity, a lower specificity of clinical judgments, and a tendency to over-utilize resources. We examined the mother-child interaction in order to understand the relation of less optimal environments to clinical judgment and resource use. At the 2-week and 6-, 15-, and 24-month well child visits of 316 children, the mother-well child interaction was assessed by using the Biringen's Emotional Availability Scales (EAS). Data were gathered regarding maternal depression and sense of competence, infant temperament, maternal social support, life events, the home environment, and demographics. At ill visits, the mother-ill child interaction was assessed by using the EAS, and mothers and pediatricians independently assessed illness severity using the Acute Illness Observation Scales. Resource use during the illness was evaluated. One thousand nine hundred eight-three acute illnesses were assessed. A less optimal mother-child interaction was significantly (P <.05 for all comparisons) associated with poorer reliability of mothers' judgments, lower specificity of mothers' judgments (71% vs 85%) and pediatricians' judgments (92% vs 97%), and greater use of resources (eg, for hospitalizations, 2.6% of visits vs 0.7%). Adverse maternal, infant, and demographic characteristics were associated with a less optimal mother-well child (r = 0.68) and mother-ill child (r = 0.80) interaction, a heightened perception of illness severity, and greater resource use. Less optimal environments adversely affect the mother-child interaction; a poor mother-child interaction is correlated with low specificity of clinical judgment and over-utilization of resources.
Griveas, I; Germanidis, G; Visvardis, G; Morice, Y; Perelson, A S; Pawlotsky, J M; Papadopoulou, D
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequent in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by chronic dialysis, with a prevalence varying from 10-65% according to the geographical data. The prevalence is significantly associated with the duration of dialysis and the number of transfused blood products[1,2] and has dramatically declined with efficient blood screening. We studied patients with acute HCV infection in a dialysis unit. The diagnosis was based on both anti-HCV detection and HCV-RNA detection. Other virological tools including HCV genotype determination was also used to tailor treatment to the individual patient and determine its efficacy for a one-year follow-up period. Seventeen patients (7 male and 10 female, mean age: 63.7 +/- 11.6 SD) with acute hepatitis C were enrolled to our study. All of them were followed up for a period of one year after the diagnosis was established. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two separate HCV subtypes 1b, which were both responsible for this acute infection (see Figure 1). These types did not differ in their behavior on the clinical situation of our patients, as confirmed by the fact that in both groups of patients, there was only one patient who presented with acute illness. Six patients of our study group, three months after the acute infection, received pegylated interferon (Peg-IFNa2a) 135 mug for a six-month period. Four of them responded very well to therapy and at the first determination HCV RNA was below the cutoff point. One of our patients with very high HCV levels (HCV RNA > 50,000,000 IU/mL), despite receiving the same therapy, did not respond well and developed cirrhosis. In conclusion, it is clear from our experience that better information is needed about the current incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for HCV infection in dialysis patients. Algorithms for the diagnosis and management of hepatitis C should be developed by academic societies. Routine screening for hepatitis C also would allow
Christova, Iva; Younan, Rasha; Taseva, Evgenia; Gladnishka, Teodora; Trifonova, Iva; Ivanova, Vladislava; Spik, Kristin; Schmaljohn, Connie; Mohareb, Emad
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) are the 2 widespread viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Europe. HFRS is distributed throughout Europe, and CCHF has been reported mainly on the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. Both hemorrhagic fevers are endemic in Bulgaria. We investigated to what extent acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria could be due to hantaviruses or to CCHF virus. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we tested serum samples from 527 patients with acute febrile illness for antibodies against hantaviruses and CCHF virus. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against hantaviruses were detected in 15 (2.8%) of the patients. Of the 15 hantavirus-positive patients, 8 (1.5%) were positive for Dobrava virus (DOBV), 5 (0.9%) were positive for Puumala virus (PUUV), and the remaining 2 were positive for both hantaviruses. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) confirmed 4 of the 10 DOBV-positive samples. PRNT was negative for all PUUV-positive samples. Serologic evidence of recent CCHF virus infection was found in 13 (2.5%) of the patients. Interestingly, HFRS and CCHF were not only detected in well-known endemic areas of Bulgaria but also in nonendemic regions. Our results suggested that in endemic countries, CCHF and/or HFRS might appear as a nonspecific febrile illness in a certain proportion of patients. Physicians must be aware of possible viral hemorrhagic fever cases, even if hemorrhages or renal impairment are not manifested.
Holmes, W F; Macfarlane, J T; Macfarlane, R M; Lewis, S
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are prescribed to the majority of patients consulting their general practitioner (GP) for lower respiratory tract illness (LRTi). A common reason for prescription is the belief that antibiotics reduce re-attendance; a motive supported by the high reconsultation rates for this largely self-limiting illness. Information about reconsultation following treatment of LRTi, and the factors that influence it, is scarce. AIM: To explore factors associated with reconsultation after initial management of LRTi. METHOD: Analysis of data collected prospectively during presentation of acute LRTi in primary care. RESULTS: Seventy-six per cent of 518 patients were prescribed antibiotics, and 30% reconsulted for similar symptoms within the next 28 days (29% of those who were given antibiotics and 33% of those who were not). Forty-one per cent of patients who had seen their GP 15 or more times in the previous two years reconsulted, compared with 13% of those who had made fewer than five visits. Reconsultation was more common in patients with a history of underlying disease (38.6% versus 24.3%) and in patients who reported dyspnoea (41.5% versus 24.3%). CONCLUSION: Reconsultation is common in acute LRTi and is associated with a heightened consulting habit prior to the index consultation, the presence of previous ill health, and dyspnoea. It appears not to be influenced by prescribing antibiotics. PMID:9463983
During September 7-11, 2000, CDC was notified by the Idaho Department of Health, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, and the GeoSentinel Global Surveillance Network of at least 20 cases of acute febrile illness in three countries; all ill patients had participated in the Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000 multisport expedition race in Borneo, Malaysia, during August 21-September 3, 2000. Participants included athletes from 29 U.S. states and 26 countries. This report updates the ongoing investigation of this outbreak through December 2, which suggests that Leptospira were the cause of illness and that water from the Segama River was the primary source of infection. Participants in adventure sports and exotic tourism should be aware of potential exposure to unusual and emerging infectious agents.
Sinks, T.; Kerndt, P.R.; Wallingford, K.M.
Following an explosion in a machine shop and temporary plant closure, on the day the plant returned to full operations a degreaser malfunctioned. Workers in the assembly room were exposed to trichloroethylene levels later estimated to have exceeded 220 ppm (OSHA PEL 100 ppm). The plant was evacuated and the degreaser taken out of operation. Blood testing for carbon monoxide (CO) on five employees found carboxyhemoglobin levels in excess of normal. The plant reopened the following morning. Over the next two weeks, 15 employees were seen by the plant nurses for similar complaints; although all returned to work, their carboxyhemoglobin levels, later found to be inaccurate, were reported by a local medical clinic to range from 13.7 to 20.0 percent. At the end of the second week, another outbreak of illness occurred, but carboxyhemoglobin, trichloroethylene, fluorocarbons, and methylene chloride were not elevated in all 17 persons tested; plant-wide monitoring for CO found no elevated levels. During the first outbreak of illness, cases were 2.26 times as likely to have entered the assembly room as noncases. During the second outbreak, cases were no more likely than noncases to have entered the assembly room. We believe the explosion, earlier toxic exposures and illness, and the misleading blood test results led to plant-wide anxiety which culminated in a collective stress reaction and the second outbreak. An open meeting with all employees, informing them of our findings, provided reassurance and no further episodes of illness occurred in this workforce.
Elbers, Paul; Rodrigus, Tim; Nossent, Esther; Malbrain, Manu L N G; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton
As right heart function can affect outcome in the critically ill patient, a thorough understanding of factors determining right heart performance in health and disease is pivotal for the critical care physician. This review focuses on fluid therapy, which remains controversial in the setting of impending or overt right heart failure. In this context, we will attempt to elucidate which patients are likely to benefit from fluid administration and for which patients fluid therapy would likely be harmful. Following a general discussion of right heart function and failure, we specifically focus on important causes of right heart failure in the critically ill, i.e. sepsis induced myocardial dysfunction, the acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute pulmonary embolism and the effects of positive pressure ventilation. It is argued that fluid therapy should always be cautiously administered with the right heart in mind, which calls for close multimodal monitoring.
Tsai, Hsing-Chen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Lu, Chun-Yi; Shao, Pei-Lan; Fan, Tsui-Yen; Cheng, Ai-Ling; Hu, Jen-Jan; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Chang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Li-Min
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a disease of unknown cause and the causative agent is most likely to be infectious in nature. To investigate the household transmission pattern of infectious illness and etiology, we thus initiated a prospective case and household study. We enrolled KD cases and their household members from February 2004 to September 2008. The KD cases and their household members accepted questionnaire-based interviews of the contact history, signs of infection, and symptoms to check whether clusters of infectious illness occurred. A total of 142 KD cases and 561 household members were enrolled. Among the 142 KD cases, 136 cases (96%) were typical KD, and six (4%) were atypical KD. Of the 561 household members, 17% were siblings, 46% were parents, 18% were grandparents, and the others were cousins or babysitters. Prior to the onset of their KD illness, 66% (94/142) KD cases had contact with ill household members. On the same day of the onset of KD cases' illness, 4% (6/142) KD cases had household members with illness. After KD cases' disease onset, 70% (100/142) KD cases had at least one other family member with illness. Overall, 61% (343/561) of all the household members had acute infectious illness during KD cases' acute stage, and 92% (130/142) of the families had clusters of infectious illness. A total of 66% KD cases had positive contact with ill household members prior to their disease onset and 92% of families had clusters of infectious illness, so KD is strongly associated with infections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Brauzzi, Marco; Andreozzi, Fabio; De Fina, Laura; Tanasi, Paolo; Falini, Stefano
Decompression illness (DCI) is a syndrome with diverse clinical manifestations but in which cardiac symptoms are rare. In the presence of cardiac symptoms, the necessity to rule out an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) which requires prompt treatment may result in delay to appropriate recompression treatment. We describe three cases with cardiologic symptoms referred to our centre by the Emergency Department (ED) of our facility. The first was a 48-year-old woman who lost consciousness during a dive and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The final diagnosis was acute myocardial infarction and the patient did not undergo recompression treatment. The second case was that of a 27-year-old man who complained of tachycardia, dyspnoea and vertigo soon after a dive. He was referred by helicopter ambulance and in the ED was diagnosed with new-onset atrial fibrillation. Recompression resulted in disappearance of his vertigo, and sinus rhythm was restored pharmacologically. The third case was a 43-year-old man, with a history of coronary artery disease, who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting three years previously. After a repetitive dive without adequate decompression, he complained of crushing retrosternal pain and numbness in the upper left arm. All cardiovascular examinations were negative and the patient was recompressed, with resolution of his symptoms. Features to consider in arriving at the correct differential diagnosis in divers presenting with cardiac symptoms are discussed in the light of these three illustrative cases.
Although body temperature is a classic primary vital sign, its value has received little attention compared with the others (blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate). This may result from the fact that unlike the other primary vital signs, aging and diseases rarely affect the thermoregulatory system. Despite this, when humans are exposed to various anesthetics and analgesics and acute etiologies of non-infectious and infectious diseases in perioperative and intensive care settings, abnormalities may occur that shift body temperature up and down. A recent upsurge in clinical evidence in the perioperative and critical care field resulted in many clinical trials in temperature management. The results of these clinical trials suggest that aggressive body temperature modifications in comatose survivors after resuscitation from shockable rhythm, and permissive fever in critically ill patients, are carried out in critical care settings to improve patient outcomes; however, its efficacy remains to be elucidated. A recent, large multicenter randomized controlled trial demonstrated contradictory results, which may disrupt the trends in clinical practice. Thus, updated information concerning thermoregulatory interventions is essential for anesthesiologists and intensivists. Here, recent controversies in therapeutic hypothermia and fever management are summarized, and their relevance to the physiology of human thermoregulation is discussed.
Gainnier, Marc; Forel, Jean-Marie
Use of helium-oxygen (He/O2) mixtures in critically ill patients is supported by a reliable and well understood theoretical rationale and by numerous experimental observations. Breathing He/O2 can benefit critically ill patients with severe respiratory compromise mainly by reducing airway resistance in obstructive syndromes such as acute asthma and decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the benefit from He/O2 in terms of respiratory mechanics diminishes rapidly with increasing oxygen concentration in the gaseous mixture. Safe use of He/O2 in the intensive care unit requires specific equipment and supervision by adequately experienced personnel. The available clinical data on inhaled He/O2 mixtures are insufficient to prove that this therapy has benefit with respect to outcome variables. For these reasons, He/O2 is not currently a standard of care in critically ill patients with acute obstructive syndromes, apart from in some, well defined situations. Its role in critically ill patients must be more precisely defined if we are to identify those patients who could benefit from this therapeutic approach. PMID:17210068
Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Lewis, Charles; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Sachs, Emily; Amakawa, Lia; Kolva, Elissa; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William
Hopelessness has become an increasingly important construct in palliative care research, yet concerns exist regarding the utility of existing measures when applied to patients with a terminal illness. This article describes a series of studies focused on the exploration, development, and analysis of a measure of hopelessness specifically intended for use with terminally ill cancer patients. The 1st stage of measure development involved interviews with 13 palliative care experts and 30 terminally ill patients. Qualitative analysis of the patient interviews culminated in the development of a set of potential questionnaire items. In the 2nd study phase, we evaluated these preliminary items with a sample of 314 participants, using item response theory and classical test theory to identify optimal items and response format. These analyses generated an 8-item measure that we tested in a final study phase, using a 3rd sample (n = 228) to assess reliability and concurrent validity. These analyses demonstrated strong support for the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire providing greater explanatory power than existing measures of hopelessness and found little evidence that this assessment was confounded by illness-related variables (e.g., prognosis). In summary, these 3 studies suggest that this brief measure of hopelessness is particularly useful for palliative care settings. Further research is needed to assess the applicability of the measure to other populations and contexts. PMID:21443366
Boereboom, F T; Ververs, F F; Blankestijn, P J; Savelkoul, T J; van Dijk, A
To study the pharmacokinetics of vancoymcin in critically ill patients with acute renal failure treated with continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVHF). Open-label study. Hospital pharmacy centre and medical intensive care unit of the University Medical Centre Utrecht. In a laboratory setting, the sieving coefficient (s) of vancomycin by polyacrilonitrile (PAN) haemofilters of different surface areas was studied. In one patient, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin were studied following a single dose of vancomycin. Another patient was treated with a vancomycin dosing regimen based on data from the literature, but high trough concentrations made dose reduction necessary after 24 h of withholding therapy. After two doses of 250 mg, serum and ultrafiltrate samples were collected for pharmacokinetic evaluation. INTERVENTIONS++: CVVHF with the following operational characteristics: blood flow 200 ml/min, ultrafiltrate flow 25 ml/min, postdilution, PAN 06 hollow fibre haemofilter. The average sieving coefficient in vitro was 0.73 +/- 0.06, 0.86 +/- 0.11, and 0.80 +/- 0.06 for the PAN 03, 06, and 10 haemofilters, respectively. Changes in the sieving coefficient by increasing the ultrafiltration rate were not clinically significant. The first patient was given a single dose of vancomycin, 1000 mg by intravenous infusion. The following pharmacokinetic data were obtained: apparent volume of distribution (Vd) 55.8 l, terminal half-life time (t(1/2 term)) 15.4 h, total clearance (Cl(tot)) 2.5 l/h, CVVHF clearance (CL(CVVHF, form 1)) 1.4 l/h, and body clearance (Cl(body)) 1.1 l/h. The average sieving coefficient during the study period was 0.89 +/- 0.03. In the second patient, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin were studied following dose reduction: Vd 41.7 l, (1/2 term) 20.3 h, Cl(tot) 1.4 l/h, Cl(CVVHF, form 1) 1.4 l/h, and Cl(body) < 0.1 l/h. The average sieving coefficient during the study period was 0.88 +/- 0. 03. The cumulative amount of vancomycin removed by means of
Chernow, B. )
This book contains papers addressing the pharmacologic approach to the critically ill patient. Chapter topics include: Radiation injury; Red cell substitutes: a current appraisal; and Psychopharmacology in the ICU.
Casino, Francesco Gaetano
Acute kidney injury affects about 35% of intensive care unit patients. Renal replacement therapy is required in about 5% of such patients and is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50% to 80%. The latter is likely more related to the failure of extrarenal organs than to an insufficient dialysis dose. This could explain, at least in part, the findings of 2 recent trials (VA/ NIH and RENAL) where the expected dose-outcome relationship was not confirmed. These results cannot be taken to infer that assessing the dialysis dose is no longer required. The contrary is true, in that the common finding of large differences between prescribed and delivered doses calls for accurate dose assessment, at least to avoid underdialysis. The minimum adequate levels are now a Kt/V urea of 1.2 to 1.4 three times a week (3x/wk) on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), and an effluent of 20 mL/kg/h for 85% of the time on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRTT). Both these parameters can be easily measured but are far from ideal indices because they account neither for residual renal function nor for irregular dose delivery. The equivalent renal urea clearance (EKRjc), by expressing the averaged renal+dialytic urea clearance over the whole treatment period, is able to account for the above factors. Although assessing EKRjc is quite complex, for regular 3x/wk IHD one could use the formula EKRjc=10 Kt/V+1 to compute that a Kt/V of 1.2 and 1.4 corresponds to an EKRjc of 13 and 15 mL/min, respectively. On the other hand, the hourly effluent per kg is numerically similar to EKRjc. On this basis it can be calculated that in non-prediluted really continuous treatment, the recommended CRRT dose (EKRjc=20 mL/min) is 33% higher than the EKRjc of 15 mL/min, corresponding to the recommended Kt/V of 1.4 on 3x/wk IHD.
Brieger, David B; Redfern, Julie
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS; myocardial infarction and unstable angina) is the leading cause of mortality in Australia, and those who survive one ACS event are at significant risk of experiencing another. Access to evidence-based and optimal ACS management in both the acute and long-term periods is of great importance. Management of ACS should include appropriate timely revascularisation, medical therapy and ongoing secondary prevention. A key consideration in selecting acute antithrombotic therapies is a careful determination of the risk of bleeding versus risk of recurrent ischaemia. Although there is a strong evidence base for the urgency of delivery and the quality of acute care, knowledge translation is suboptimal. There remains a need for ongoing research and policy development aimed at improving ease and equity of access to evidence-based care. Despite universal guideline recommendations for ongoing secondary prevention strategies, research indicates suboptimal use of evidence-based medications, poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations, and low levels of participation in traditional cardiac rehabilitation. Contemporary secondary prevention programs are evolving into flexible, multifaceted interventions to provide maximal clinical benefits to a majority of patients.
Holsen, Maya R; Meaney, Calvin J; Hassinger, Amanda B; Fusco, Nicholas M
Compare the rates of acute kidney injury in critically ill children treated with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam versus vancomycin and ceftriaxone. Retrospective cohort study. A large tertiary care children's hospital in an urban setting. Children greater than or equal to 2 months old admitted to the PICU who received greater than or equal to 48 consecutive hours of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam or vancomycin and ceftriaxone. None. Acute kidney injury was defined as a minimum 50% increase in serum creatinine, adjusted for total fluid balance, from baseline over a 48-hour period. Bivariate analysis compared treatment groups and acute kidney injury groups. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit for acute kidney injury including covariable analysis. The study included 93 children. There were no differences between treatment groups in terms of age, severity of illness, baseline renal function, vancomycin dosing, or vancomycin trough concentrations. Children who received vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam had a higher cumulative frequency of acute kidney injury than those who received vancomycin and ceftriaxone 915/58 [25.9%] vs 3/35 [8.6%]; p = 0.041). After controlling for vancomycin trough concentration, age, concurrent nephrotoxin exposure, and use of vasopressors, exposure to piperacillin-tazobactam significantly increased the risk of acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio, 4.55; 95% CI [1.11-18.7]; p = 0.035) compared with ceftriaxone. Use of vasopressors (adjusted odds ratio, 3.73 [95% CI, 1.14-12.3]) and a vancomycin trough greater than or equal to 15 mg/dL (adjusted odds ratio, 4.12 [95% CI, 1.12-15.2)] was also associated with acute kidney injury. Length of stay was longer in children with acute kidney injury (median, 18.0 days; interquartile range, 7.76-29.7) compared with those without acute kidney injury (median, 6.21 days; interquartile range, 2.92-15.6; p = 0.017). In critically ill children, acute kidney injury occurred