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Sample records for acutely infected pigs

  1. Dose Determination for Acute Salmonella Infection in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Loynachan, A. T.; Harris, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Pigs were exposed to various levels of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium by either intranasal inoculation or by subjecting them to a contaminated environment. More than 103 salmonellae were required to induce acute Salmonella infection. These results indicate that intervention against acute Salmonella infection in lairage may be more readily achieved than previously thought. PMID:15870368

  2. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings.

  3. Comparative study of Helicobacter pylori infection in guinea pigs and mice - elevation of acute-phase protein C3 in infected guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sjunnesson, H; Sturegård, E; Grubb, A; Willén, R; Wadström, T

    2001-03-01

    Eighteen Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs and 50 NMRI mice were inoculated with Helicobacter pylori and the infection followed by culture, histopathology, antibody response, and plasma levels of the acute-phase proteins albumin, C3, and transferrin for up to 7 weeks. The immune response to H. pylori surface proteins was studied by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western immunoblot and the plasma levels of albumin, C3, and transferrin were analyzed by single radial immunodiffusion. Guinea pigs had a more severe gastritis and a higher EIA immune response than NMRI mice. Serum C3 levels were elevated in infected guinea pigs after 3 and 7 weeks indicating a systemic inflammatory response and a possible link between H. pylori infection and extragastric manifestations such as vasculitis associated with atherosclerosis. Serum cholesterol levels were analyzed in guinea pigs at 7 weeks and indicated a higher level in H. pylori-infected than in control animals, but this difference was not statistically significant.

  4. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Pig-Major acute phase protein profiles of pigs infected experimentally by different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Saco, Y; Martínez-Lobo, F; Cortey, M; Pato, R; Peña, R; Segalés, J; Prieto, C; Bassols, A

    2016-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, one of the most important diseases in swine worldwide. In the present work, the effects of different PRRSV strains were tested on a piglet experimental model to study the induced acute phase response. For this purpose, pigs (n=15 for each group) were intranasally inoculated with one of five PRRSV strains (isolates EU10, 12, 17, 18 from genotype 1 and isolate JA-142 from genotype 2). The acute phase response was monitored by measuring acute phase proteins (APPs). Specifically, the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Pig-Major Acute Protein (Pig-MAP) was determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days p.i. Clinical signs and growth performance were also monitored during the experiment. All animals became viremic after inoculation during the study period. The APP response was heterogeneous and dependent on the strain, being strains EU10, EU 18 and JA-142 those that induced the highest response and the strongest clinical signs. In general, Hp was the most sensitive biomarker for PRRSV infection, CRP behaved as moderate and Pig-MAP was the less responsive during the course of PRRSV experimental infection. Hp and CRP were significantly discriminatory between infected and control pigs, but not Pig-MAP.

  5. Immune and acute phase response in pigs experimentally infected with H1N2 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) and immune responses in pigs after experimental infection with H1N2 swine influenza virus (SwH1N2) were studied. Eight piglets were infected intranasally with SwH1N2. Four served as controls. Antibodies against swine influenza virus (SIV)s were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay. The proliferation assay was used to measure influenza-specific cell-mediated response. Hematological parameters were measured on a hematology analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major APP (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. Antibodies against SwH1N2 in the serum of infected pigs were detected from 7 dpi. SwH1N2-specific T-cell response was observed from 5 dpi. A significant drop in lymphocyte numbers and an increase in medium-sized cell (MID) counts with no accompanying leukopenia was observed in all infected pigs from 3 to 7 dpi. In infected pigs, concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA increased significantly when the greatest amounts of virus were shed (from 1 to 3 dpi). The level of Pig-MAP remained unchanged during study. The significant positive correlation found between maximum concentrations of SAA in serum and lung scores, makes SAA a potentially useful indicator in experimental infection studies (e.g. vaccine efficiency investigations) or as a marker for disease severity, but to confirm this hypothesis more studies are needed.

  6. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  7. Platelet activation and platelet-monocyte aggregate formation contribute to decreased platelet count during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection in pig-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Lyons, Claire E; Dorsey, Jamie L; Shirk, Erin N; Queen, Suzanne E; Adams, Robert J; Gama, Lucio; Morrell, Craig N; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2013-09-01

    Platelets are key participants in innate immune responses to pathogens. As a decrease in circulating platelet count is one of the initial hematologic indicators of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we sought to determine whether decline in platelet number during acute infection results from decreased production, increased antibody-mediated destruction, or increased platelet activation in a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model. During acute SIV infection, circulating platelets were activated with increased surface expression of P-selection, CD40L and major histocompatibility complex class I. Platelet production was maintained and platelet autoantibodies were not detected during acute infection. Concurrent with a decrease in platelet numbers and an increase in circulating monocytes, platelets were found sequestered in platelet-monocyte aggregates, thereby contributing to the decline in platelet counts. Because the majority of circulating CD16(+) monocytes formed complexes with platelets during acute SIV infection, a decreased platelet count may represent platelet participation in the innate immune response to HIV.

  8. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  9. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott A; Gramer, Marie R; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection.

  10. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott; Gramer, Marie; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. PMID:23164957

  11. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott A; Gramer, Marie R; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. PMID:23164957

  12. Pathway analysis in blood cells of pigs infected with classical swine fever virus: comparison of pigs that develop a chronic form of infection or recover.

    PubMed

    Hulst, Marcel; Loeffen, Willie; Weesendorp, Eefke

    2013-02-01

    Infection of pigs with CSFV can lead to either acute disease, resulting in death or recovery, or chronic disease. The mechanisms by which CSFV manipulates the pig's first line of defence to establish a chronic infection are poorly understood. Therefore, pigs were infected with moderately virulent CSFV, and whole blood was collected on a regular basis during a period of 18 days. Using whole-genome microarrays, time-dependent changes in gene expression were recorded in blood cells of chronically diseased pigs and pigs that recovered. Bioinformatics analysis of regulated genes indicated that different immunological pathways were regulated in chronically diseased pigs compared to recovered pigs. In recovered pigs, antiviral defence mechanisms were rapidly activated, whereas in chronically diseased pigs, several genes with the potential to inhibit NF-κB- and IRF3/7-mediated transcription of type I interferons were up-regulated. Compared to recovered pigs, chronically diseased pigs failed to activate NK or cytotoxic T-cell pathways, and they showed decreased gene activity in antigen-presenting monocytes/macrophages. Remarkably, in chronically diseased pigs, genes related to the human autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were up-regulated during the whole period of 18 days. CSFV pathology in kidney and skin resembles that of SLE. Furthermore, enzymes involved in the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and of tryptophan to kynurenines were expressed at different levels in chronically diseased and recovered pigs. Both of these chemical processes may affect the functions of T helper/regulatory cells that are crucial for tempering the inflammatory response after a viral infection.

  13. Chlamydial infection of subcutaneous conjunctival transplants in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pham, R T; Sung, M; Dawson, C R; Schachter, J

    1990-07-01

    The development and testing of candidate vaccines for trachoma are constrained because only humans and nonhuman primates are susceptible to conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC), an analogous disease of guinea pigs, provides a useful, less expensive model to study ocular chlamydial infections. GPIC is caused by a Chlamydia psittaci strain whose external constituents are very similar to those of C. trachomatis. To develop a better model for studying GPIC immunity, conjunctival pockets were established under the abdominal skin of guinea pigs by subcutaneous implantation. Up to six implants could be produced in each animal. The success rate of implantation was 79.0% (n = 148). These pockets were then infected with GPIC. The organism was recovered from the autografts indicating local replication, and tests for serum antibody by microimmunofluorescence showed production of GPIC-specific antibody of IgG and IgM classes after infection. There was minimal antibody response after moderate inoculating doses to the implants, and the titers increased more slowly than after eye infection with GPIC; with higher concentration of the inoculum, however, the antibody response increased to the same levels as with the ocular challenge but more slowly. Inoculation of pockets with GPIC also produced acute inflammatory changes in infected autografts (n = 101). Histologic examination of infected grafts showed chlamydial inclusions in epithelial cells and significant infiltration with lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Subcutaneous autografts may provide a useful model for chronologic studies of chlamydial infection. The delayed immunologic response, however, suggests that these pockets of implanted epithelium do not have full access to the immune system.

  14. Acute upper airway infections.

    PubMed

    West, J V

    2002-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are common and important. Although rarely fatal, they are a source of significant morbidity and carry a considerable economic burden. Numerous therapies for the common cold have no effect on symptoms or outcome. Complications such as cough are not improved by over-the-counter preparations, while labelling cough alone as a symptom of asthma may result in unnecessary use of inhaled steroid treatment. Clinical presentation of sore throat does not accurately predict whether the infection is viral or bacterial, while throat culture and rapid antigen tests do not significantly change prescribing practice. Antibiotics have only a limited place in the management of recurrent sore throat due to group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. Routine use of antibiotics in upper respiratory infection enhances parent belief in their effectiveness and increases the likelihood of future consultation in primary care for minor self-limiting illness. Respiratory viruses play a major role in the aetiology of acute otitis media (AOM); prevention includes the use of influenza or RSV vaccination, in addition to reducing other risk factors such as early exposure to respiratory viruses in day-care settings and to environmental tobacco smoke. The use of ventilation tubes (grommets) in secretory otitis media (SOM) remains controversial with conflicting data on developmental outcome and quality of life in young children. New conjugate pneumococcal vaccines appear safe in young children and prevent 6-7% of clinically diagnosed AOM.

  15. Experimental Helicobacter pylori gastric infection in miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Sato, K; Takahashi, K; Kikuchi; Miura, T; Takenouchi, T; Narita, T; Iwata, M

    2002-03-01

    An experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in miniature pigs was developed and investigated. Eighteen miniature pigs were inoculated with an H. pylori strain that has high virulence in mice at c. 5 x 10(10) cfu. H. pylori infection in miniature pigs was achieved by the administration of agar 1% in brucella broth with fetal bovine serum 10% just before inoculation. The bacterial colonisation and distribution were analysed by mapping of viable cell counts in the stomach in pigs of three different ages. The mapping assay was achieved on post-infection day 3 for the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, and between days 41 and 43 for 3-month-old pigs. The highest cell counts were observed in 5-day-old pigs, which averaged 4.9 x 10(6) cfu/g of mucosa (n = 4). The bacteria were colonised mainly in the cardiac and fundus gland region in the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, whereas the colonisation sites did not depend on the region in the 3-month-old pigs. Biopsy assay of the antral mucosa of a 3-month-old pig after H. pylori infection showed that this infection persisted for >22 months. Serum antibody against H. pylori was detected in the infected pigs but not in the uninfected animal. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the epithelial surface of the infected pigs. A microscopic finding common to all the infected pigs, focal gastritis with infiltration of lymphocytes detected on the lesser curvature of the stomach, resembled the microscopic appearance in H. pylori-infected human patients. These results suggest that miniature pigs might be a suitable model for studying H. pylori infection.

  16. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    CMV mononucleosis; Cytomegalovirus (CMV) ... Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is very common. The infection is spread by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact ...

  17. Dynamics and persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Fano, Eduardo; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the dynamics (shedding and transmission) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection within a population of swine and to determine the duration of the infection (persistence) through the identification of the agent in bronchial samples. Sixty-three 2-month-old pigs were used in this study. The pigs (n = 28) were experimentally infected by the intratracheal route with M. hyopneumoniae and considered as seeder pigs. The remaining pigs (n = 32) were not inoculated and randomly allocated to 2 different groups: direct contact exposure pigs (n = 12) and indirect contact exposure pigs (n = 20). Blood samples and nasal swabs were collected throughout the study on days 0, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 91, and 119 postinfection. To assess the duration of M. hyopneumoniae infection, 9 seeder and 6 contact exposure pigs were slaughtered at days 155 (group 1), 170 (group 2), and 185 (group 3) postinfection. Direct contact pigs showed evidence of infection on day 28 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and on day 35 by serology. The indirect contact exposure pigs presented a very delayed and slow seroconversion pattern; they did not present evidence of transmission until 42 d after the infection of seeder pigs. Identification of M. hyopneumoniae in bronchial swabs was confirmed by nested-PCR from days 155 to 185 postinfection. At the last slaughter date, 77.7% and 100% of the seeders and contact exposure pigs, respectively, tested positive. The results of this study reconfirmed direct infection of M. hyopneumoniae and suggest that indirect transmission can occur in a population. Finally, duration of the infection in this study was longer than previously described. PMID:16187553

  18. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. PMID:26432777

  19. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread.

  20. Enterobacter cloacae inhibits human norovirus infectivity in gnotobiotic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaohua; Samuel, Helen; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Yang, Xingdong; Jiang, Xi; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Study of HuNoV biology has been hampered by the lack of an efficient cell culture system. Recently, enteric commensal bacteria Enterobacter cloacae has been recognized as a helper in HuNoV infection of B cells in vitro. To test the influences of E. cloacae on HuNoV infectivity and to determine whether HuNoV infects B cells in vivo, we colonized gnotobiotic pigs with E. cloacae and inoculated pigs with 2.74 × 104 genome copies of HuNoV. Compared to control pigs, reduced HuNoV shedding was observed in E. cloacae colonized pigs, characterized by significantly shorter duration of shedding in post-inoculation day 10 subgroup and lower cumulative shedding and peak shedding in individual pigs. Colonization of E. cloacae also reduced HuNoV titers in intestinal tissues and in blood. In both control and E. cloacae colonized pigs, HuNoV infection of enterocytes was confirmed, however infection of B cells was not observed in ileum, and the entire lamina propria in sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were HuNoV-negative. In summary, E. cloacae inhibited HuNoV infectivity, and B cells were not a target cell type for HuNoV in gnotobiotic pigs, with or without E. cloacae colonization. PMID:27113278

  1. Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-10-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.

  2. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    PubMed

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  3. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  4. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe. PMID:26344041

  5. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-12-01

    It has been considered that drinking oxygenated water improves oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improve immune functions. The present study evaluated the effects of oxygenated drinking water on immune function in pigs. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, interleukin-1β expression level and the CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio in pigs. During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, total leukocytes and relative cytokines expression levels were significantly increased in pigs consuming oxygenated water compared with pigs consuming tap water. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during S. Typhimurium Infection.

  6. Characterisation of acid-base abnormalities in pigs experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Petra; Hartmann, Helmut; Constable, Peter D

    2010-05-01

    This study characterises the acid-base abnormalities in pigs experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis (Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and Constable's simplified strong ion equation). Eight pigs were challenged with the respiratory pathogen C. suis and four pigs served as non-infected controls. Pigs were monitored from 7 days before challenge to 8 days post-inoculation. Clinical examination was performed twice daily and venous blood samples were collected every two days. Blood-gas analysis, haemoxymetry, serum biochemical analysis and electrophoresis were performed in order to characterise the acid-base derangement. Aerosol challenge with C. suis resulted in severe acid-base disturbance characterised by acute respiratory acidosis and strong ion (metabolic) acidosis secondary to anaerobic metabolism and hyper L-lactataemia. Maximal changes were seen at day 3 post-inoculation when severe clinical signs of respiratory dysfunction were evident. The results of the study provide new information regarding the pathophysiology of respiratory infection caused by C. suis and the applicability and diagnostic utility of different approaches for assessing acid-base status in pigs.

  7. Senecavirus A: An Emerging Vesicular Infection in Brazilian Pig Herds.

    PubMed

    Leme, R A; Zotti, E; Alcântara, B K; Oliveira, M V; Freitas, L A; Alfieri, A F; Alfieri, A A

    2015-12-01

    Vesicular diseases are clinically and economically important infections that affect farm animals. North American studies have suggested that Senecavirus A infection might be associated with a vesicular disease in pigs known as porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). In the beginning of 2015, outbreaks of porcine vesicular disease have occurred in six Brazilian states from three geographical regions. Official diagnostic tests were performed with negative results for classical vesicular diseases of compulsory reporting. This study investigated Senecavirus A infection in PIVD outbreaks in which other aetiological agents were ruled out. A primer set was designed to amplify a 542-bp product size of VP3/VP1 region of Senecavirus A genome in RT-PCR assay. Primer specificity was analysed in silico and in porcine biological specimens. For this, clinical specimens were collected from eight pig herds affected with PIVD, including vesicular fluid (n = 4) and swabs (n = 7) and scrapings of ruptured vesicles and ulcerative lesions (n = 5) from weaned and adult pigs. Clinically healthy animals (n = 52) of PIVD-affected and non-affected pig herds also were evaluated for Senecavirus A infection. The 16 samples from PIVD-affected animals were positive for Senecavirus A in the RT-PCR assay, while none of the clinically healthy pigs were detected with the virus. Sequencing analysis revealed high nucleotide (87.6-98.5%) and amino acid (95-99.4%) similarities to SVV-01 prototype and other Senecavirus A strains from North American pigs. Primer set presented herein was suitable for molecular characterization of Senecavirus A. The results suggest that Senecavirus A was the aetiological agent of the vesicular disease outbreaks in the evaluated pig herds. This is the first study to report the Senecavirus A infection in clinically affected pigs outside of North America. Senecavirus A was considered a novel emerging pathogen associated with an important vesicular disease in Brazil

  8. Trichinella spiralis infection in pigs in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Bjorland, J; Brown, D; Gamble, H R; McAuley, J B

    1993-05-01

    Trichinella spiralis infection has been reported sporadically in several areas in Central and South America. However, several countries, including Bolivia, have not reported trichinellosis in animals or humans. A small survey of pigs slaughtered in an abattoir in Bolivia was undertaken during September 1991, to determine the presence of Trichinella spiralis. In a group of 100 pigs slaughtered consecutively on a single day and tested using the pooled digestion method, two of eight pools (25%) were positive. Twenty-one of 188 pigs (11.2%) from ten communities slaughtered consecutively on a second day tested positive for the presence of antibodies to Trichinella spiralis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was concluded that trichinellosis is present in pigs in Bolivia and the rate of infection may be quite high.

  9. Ear necrosis syndrome in weaning pigs associated with PCV2 infection: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Papatsiros, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Porcine necrotic ear syndrome (PNES) in pigs has been reported as an increasing health problem in many countries with intensive pig farming. The etiology of this disease is complex and the presumed triggering factors can be divided into infectious and non-infectious agents. The present report describes a case of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2), infection associated with lesions of PNES at the weaning stage of a farrow-to-finish pig farm. Approximately 35% of weaners (1-3 weeks after weaning) presented clinical symptoms similar to Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS). About 2-3 weeks after weaning the first lesions of PNES occurred in approximately 20% of pigs, resulting in a significant health problem characterized by poor growth or severe wasting and finally mortality up to 15% in some batches. Moreover, approximately 5% of survived weaners, during growing / finishing stage, presented poor growth and secondary co-infections that lead to death. The present study based on the clinical signs, serological and pathological examinations, indicates that weaners suffered by sub-acute PCV2 infection resulting in PMWS associated with PNES. The lesions of PNES were initially observed at the same period (4-8 weeks of age) with the higher seroprevalence of PCV2 infection. Metaphylaxis of this case included intramuscular injection of florfenicol for the treatment and control of skin lesions and respiratory signs. Moreover, piglets were vaccinated against PCV2. In conclusion, sub-acute PCV2 infection could be included in triggering factors PNES in weaners. The mass vaccination against PCV2 of infected piglets might be effective in reduction of clinical signs and losses of PNES in cases of PCV2 infection associated with PNES. PMID:25610573

  10. Experimental infection of pigs with 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis'.

    PubMed

    Hellemans, A; Chiers, K; Decostere, A; De Bock, M; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R

    2007-05-01

    'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' is a spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the stomach of more than 60% of slaughter pigs. The role of 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' in gastric disease of pigs is still unclear. Experimental studies in pigs are lacking because this bacterium is unculturable until now. An inoculation protocol using 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' infected mouse stomach homogenate was used to reproduce the infection in pigs. Control animals were inoculated using negative mouse stomach homogenate. Pigs were inoculated three times with one-week intervals and euthanized 6 weeks post inoculation. Tissue samples were taken from different mucosal stomach regions to detect 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' by PCR and urease test. Mucosal inflammation was evaluated on formalin-fixed tissue samples. Lesions in the pars oesophagea were scored macroscopically. Infection was successful in all challenged animals, with the antrum and the fundus being predominantly positive. Infection was associated with infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the antral mucosa, evolving to follicular gastritis. No apparent inflammation of the fundic stomach region was detected in the infected animals. A clear link between 'Candidatus Helicobacter suis' and pars oesophageal lesions could not be found.

  11. Occurrence of Bordetella Infection in Pigs in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Bhoj R.; Bhardwaj, Monika; Singh, Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infection causing atrophic rhinitis in pigs is reported from almost all countries. In the present study, occurrence of Bordetella infection in apparently healthy pigs was determined in 392 pigs sampled to collect 358 serum samples and 316 nasal swabs from Northern India by conventional bacterioscopy, detection of antigen with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and detection of antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT) and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Bordetella bronchiseptica could be isolated from six (1.92%) nasal swabs. Although isolates varied significantly in their antimicrobial sensitivity, they had similar plasmid profile. The genus specific and species specific amplicons were detected from 8.2% and 4.4% nasal swabs using mPCR with alc gene (genus specific) and fla gene and fim2 gene (species specific) primers, respectively. Observations revealed that there may be other bordetellae infecting pigs because about 50% of the samples positive using mPCR for genus specific amplicons failed to confirm presence of B. bronchiseptica. Of the pig sera tested with MAT and ELISA for Bordetella antibodies, 67.6% and 86.3% samples, respectively, were positive. For antigen detection mPCR was more sensitive than conventional bacterioscopy while for detection of antibodies neither of the two tests (MAT and ELISA) had specificity in relation to antigen detection. Study indicated high prevalence of infection in swine herds in Northern India. PMID:24688547

  12. Occurrence of Bordetella infection in pigs in northern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Bhoj R; Bhardwaj, Monika; Singh, Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infection causing atrophic rhinitis in pigs is reported from almost all countries. In the present study, occurrence of Bordetella infection in apparently healthy pigs was determined in 392 pigs sampled to collect 358 serum samples and 316 nasal swabs from Northern India by conventional bacterioscopy, detection of antigen with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and detection of antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT) and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Bordetella bronchiseptica could be isolated from six (1.92%) nasal swabs. Although isolates varied significantly in their antimicrobial sensitivity, they had similar plasmid profile. The genus specific and species specific amplicons were detected from 8.2% and 4.4% nasal swabs using mPCR with alc gene (genus specific) and fla gene and fim2 gene (species specific) primers, respectively. Observations revealed that there may be other bordetellae infecting pigs because about 50% of the samples positive using mPCR for genus specific amplicons failed to confirm presence of B. bronchiseptica. Of the pig sera tested with MAT and ELISA for Bordetella antibodies, 67.6% and 86.3% samples, respectively, were positive. For antigen detection mPCR was more sensitive than conventional bacterioscopy while for detection of antibodies neither of the two tests (MAT and ELISA) had specificity in relation to antigen detection. Study indicated high prevalence of infection in swine herds in Northern India. PMID:24688547

  13. Severe gastritis in guinea-pigs infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Sturegård, E; Sjunnesson, H; Ho, B; Willén, R; Aleljung, P; Ng, H C; Wadström, T

    1998-12-01

    An appropriate animal model is essential to study Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if H. pylori can colonise the guinea-pig stomach and whether the infection causes gastritis and a serological response similar to that observed in man. Guinea-pigs were infected either with fresh H. pylori isolates from human gastric biopsies or with a guinea-pig passaged strain. When the animals were killed, 3 and 7 weeks after inoculation, samples were taken for culture, histopathology and serology. H. pylori was cultured from 22 of 29 challenged animals. All culture-positive animals exhibited a specific immune response against H. pylori antigens in Western blotting and gastritis in histopathological examination. Antibody titres in enzyme immunoassay were elevated among animals challenged with H. pylori. The inflammatory response was graded as severe in most animals and consisted of both polymorphonuclear leucocytes and lymphocytes. Erosion of the gastric epithelium was found in infected animals. These results suggest that the guinea-pig is suitable for studying H. pylori-associated diseases. Moreover, guinea-pigs are probably more similar to man than any other small laboratory animal as regards gastric anatomy and physiology.

  14. Elevated fat skatole levels in immunocastrated, surgically castrated and entire male pigs with acute dysentery.

    PubMed

    Skrlep, Martin; Batorek, Nina; Bonneau, Michel; Fazarinc, Gregor; Segula, Blaž; Candek-Potokar, Marjeta

    2012-12-01

    Boar taint is due to androstenone and skatole (3-methyl-indole) accumulation in fat tissues. During a study to investigate the effect of immunocastration on fattening pigs, an outbreak of acute dysentery occurred caused by Lawsonia intracellularis and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and resulted in cachexia and high mortality. Low androstenone levels in the immunocastrates (0.25 ± 0.04 μg/g liquid fat) suggested that the immunocastration had been effective, but unusually high skatole concentrations in fat tissues were found not only in entire males, but also in surgical castrates and immunocastrates (0.22 ± 0.15, 0.14 ± 0.08 and 0.18 ± 0.14 μg/g liquid fat, respectively). The findings suggest that boar taint can arise in cases of intestinal infections, even in castrated pigs.

  15. Absence of progesterone effects on chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.

  16. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Korani, M; Rezayat, S M; Gilani, K; Arbabi Bidgoli, S; Adeli, S

    2011-01-01

    Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 μg/mL) in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 μg/mL) in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater tissue abnormalities than the subjects of acute tests. It seems that colloidal nanosilver has the potential to provide target organ toxicities in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  17. [Survival of Aujeszky's disease virus in infected pig slurry].

    PubMed

    Smíd, B; Valícek, L; Rodák, L; Jurák, E; Herzig, I; Dvorácek, L

    1985-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that after experimental infection of pig slurry from the space under the slatted floor (infection dose of 10(6)PFU per ml), the Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) survived for 72 hours at the temperature of 15 degrees C and at pH 6.5, but was inactivated after 96 hours. When technologically treated pig slurry from the storage tanks was saturated with water and infected with ADV at the dose of 10(5)PFU per ml, the virus survived for 23 days when kept at 15 degrees C and 4 degrees C and at pH 6.8, but was inactivated under the same conditions after 30 days. When the infective ADV dose in the technologically treated pig slurry in the storage tanks was reduced to 10(4)PFU per ml, the virus survived 16 days at +4 degrees C and pH 7.0 and 8.0 but was inactivated within 23 days after infection.

  18. Five month persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sjunnesson, Hakan; Sturegard, Erik; Hynes, Sean; Willen, Roger; Feinstein, Ricardo; Wadstrom, Torkel

    2003-06-01

    Seven Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were infected with the Sydney strain of H. pylori (SS1). Gastric histopathology was evaluated and serum antibody response to H. pylori cell-surface proteins was analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoblot. Tissue and faecal samples from five control animals were analysed for the presence of naturally occurring Helicobacter spp. infection by culture and Helicobacter genus-specific PCR. The H. pylori infection persisted for 5 months, in most animals accompanied by a histologically severe antral gastritis, exhibiting focal degeneration and necrosis of gastric crypt epithelium. Increased numbers of mitotic figures were observed in the gastric epithelium, indicating a regenerative process. Infected animals displayed specific antibodies towards H. pylori cell-surface proteins in immunoblot, whereas EIA was of dubious value creating false-positive results. Serum complement C3 and cholesterol levels appeared to be elevated in infected animals. Helicobacter spp. infection was not detected in the control animals. The persistent infection, accompanied by severe gastritis and a prominent serum antibody response, and the apparent absence of a natural Helicobacter spp. infection makes the guinea pig model useful in H. pylori research.

  19. Impact of test sensitivity and specificity on pig producer incentives to control Mycobacterium avium infections in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects.

  20. Epidemiological studies on Japanese encephalitis in Kyoto City area, Japan. IV. Natural infection in sentinel pigs.

    PubMed

    Maeda, O; Takenokuma, K; Karoji, Y; Kuroda, A; Sasaki, O; Karaki, T; Ishii, T

    1978-08-01

    Natural infection with Japanese encephalitis virus in three sentinel pigs held in separate experimental huts was examined daily by virus recovery from blood samples of the pigs and from mosquitoes after incubation for about 7 days from their blood feeding and by HI antibody titration of the blood samples. After a period of low infection rates, below 6%, for about two weeks in engorged Culex tritaeniorhynchus summorosus, high mosquito infections of over 30% from each viremic pig occurred for two to three days. The pigs may be probably have been bitten by many infected but not infective mosquitoes in a period of about 10 days before infection.

  1. Cytokine Expression in the Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Infection of the respiratory tract by PRV, involves mononuclear cells in draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN)...

  2. Evaluation of hemostaseological status of pigs experimentally infected with African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Karalova, Elena; Voskanyan, Henrik; Ter-Pogossyan, Zarine; Nersisyan, Narek; Hakobyan, Astghik; Saroyan, David; Karalyan, Zaven

    2014-11-01

    African swine fever is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Hemorrhages are the most frequently reported lesions in acute and subacute forms of ASF. Hemorrhagic lesions are accompanied by impaired hemostasis, which includes thrombocytopenia and changes in the coagulation system. In the present study, experimental infection was conducted to elucidate whether a highly virulent ASFV genotype II circulating in the Trans-Caucasus and Eastern Europe affects the hemostasis of infected pigs. Platelet count changes and platelet size, as well as coagulation parameters were evaluated upon experimental infection. In contrast to other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II showed a significant decrease in the number of platelets from 3rd dpi onwards. Furthermore, a decrease in platelet size was observed throughout the entire period of experiment. A significant increase in the number of platelet aggregates was observed from the beginning of infection. Unlike other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II induced a slight shortening of an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) throughout the experiment. Thrombin time (TT) was prolonged from day 5 onwards, whereas no changes in prothrombin time (PT) were found upon infection. The level of d-dimers was permanently higher than in control with a peak on day 3 post-infection. ASFV induced a significant decrease in the level of fibrinogen from day 5 till the end of experiment. Thus, it can be concluded that ASFV genotype II isolated in Armenia affects the hemostasis of infected pigs and causes changes that differ from that of other ASFV strains described previously.

  3. Behavioral, endocrine, immune, and performance measures for pigs exposed to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Hicks, T A; McGlone, J J; Whisnant, C S; Kattesh, H G; Norman, R L

    1998-02-01

    Weanling pigs (n = 132) were used to investigate the effects of three common stressors (and a control) and differing social status on behavior, immunity, plasma cortisol, blood chemical, and performance measures. Eleven blocks of 12 pigs each were evaluated. Each pen contained three pigs of dominant (DOM), intermediate (INT), or submissive (SUB) social status. Two weeks later, random pens of pigs experienced either a control treatment (CON) or they were stressed for 4 h by shipping (SHIP), heat-stressed (HEAT) with overhead heat lamps in their home pens, or cold-stressed (COLD) by direct application of water and an air current. Treatments did not influence body weights; however, percentage weight loss during SHIP was greater than for other treatments. Body weights were heavier for DOM pigs than for INT and SUB pigs. Social status had large effects on plasma cortisol, globulin, acute-phase proteins, body weight, and weight changes. Only acute shipping stress resulted in weight loss. Many immune and blood measures were not changed among acutely stressed pigs; however, the relationship between social status and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell cytotoxicity was disrupted during acute stress. Pig behavior was significantly changed by each stress treatment in a unique manner. During acute stress, behavioral changes seem to be the most consistent and reliable indicators.

  4. Stress and acute respiratory infection

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.M.; Douglas, R.M.; Ryan, P.

    1986-09-01

    To examine the relationship between stress and upper respiratory tract infection, 235 adults aged 14-57 years, from 94 families affiliated with three suburban family physicians in Adelaide, South Australia, participated in a six-month prospective study. High and low stress groups were identified by median splits of data collected from the Life Events Inventory, the Daily Hassles Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire, which were administered both before and during the six months of respiratory diary data collection. Using intra-study stress data, the high stress group experienced significantly more episodes (mean of 2.71 vs. 1.56, p less than 0.0005) and symptom days (mean of 29.43 vs. 15.42, p = 0.005) of respiratory illness. The two groups were almost identical with respect to age, sex, occupational status, smoking, passive smoking, exposure to air pollution, family size, and proneness to acute respiratory infection in childhood. In a multivariate model with total respiratory episodes as the dependent variable, 21% of the variance was explained, and two stress variables accounted for 9% of the explained variance. Significant, but less strong relationships were also identified between intra-study stress variables and clinically definite episodes and symptom days in both clinically definite and total respiratory episodes. Pre-study measures of stress emphasized chronic stresses and were less strongly related to measures of respiratory illness than those collected during the study. However, significantly more episodes (mean of 2.50 vs. 1.75, p less than 0.02) and symptom days (mean of 28.00 vs. 17.06, p less than 0.03) were experienced in the high stress group. In the multivariate analyses, pre-study stress remained significantly associated with total respiratory episodes nd symptom days in total and ''definite'' respiratory episodes.

  5. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p = 0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high

  6. Current Therapy in Acute Mouth Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, George; Burnstein, Irwin L.

    1970-01-01

    Until a dental department is added to a college health service, a physician or nurse can give treatment for acute oral infections. Treatment excludes the use of caustic, escharotic chemicals in favor of more benign agents. (Author)

  7. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 182...

  8. Mycoplasma suis antigens recognized during humoral immune response in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoelzle, L E; Hoelzle, K; Ritzmann, M; Heinritzi, K; Wittenbrink, M M

    2006-01-01

    Today, serodiagnostic tests for Mycoplasma suis infections in pigs have low accuracies. The development of novel serodiagnostic strategies requires a detailed analysis of the humoral immune response elicited by M. suis and, in particular, the identification of antigenic proteins of the agent. For this study, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analyses were performed using pre- and sequential postinoculation sera from M. suis-infected and mock-infected control pigs. M. suis purified from porcine blood served as the antigen. Eight M. suis-specific antigens (p33, p40, p45, p57, p61, p70, p73, and p83) were identified as targets of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response during experimental infection, with p40, p45, and p70 being the preferentially recognized M. suis antigens. Besides the M. suis-specific antigens, porcine immunoglobulins were identified in blood-derived M. suis preparations. By immunoglobulin depletion, the specificity of the M. suis antigen for use in indirect ELISA was significantly improved. M. suis-specific Western blot and ELISA reactions were observed in all infected pigs by 14 days postinfection at the latest and until week 14, the end of the experiments. During acute clinical attacks of eperythrozoonosis, a derailment of the antibody response, determined by decreases in both the M. suis net ELISA values and the numbers of M. suis-specific immunoblot bands, was accompanied by peaking levels of autoreactive IgG antibodies. In conclusion, the M. suis-specific antigens found to stimulate specific IgG antibodies are potentially useful for the development of novel serodiagnostic tests.

  9. Case report: Helicobacter suis infection in a pig veterinarian.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Myrthe; Flahou, Bram; Meyns, Tom; Smet, Annemieke; Arts, Joris; De Cooman, Lien; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2013-10-01

    This study describes a non-Helicobacter (H.) pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) infection in a pig veterinarian. The patient suffered from reflux esophagitis and general dyspeptic symptoms and was referred to the hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histologic examination of corpus and antrum biopsies revealed a chronic gastritis. Large spiral-shaped non-H. pylori helicobacters could be visualized and were identified as H. suis by PCR. The patient was treated with a triple therapy, consisting of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and pantoprazole for 10 days. Successful eradication was confirmed after a follow-up gastrointestinal endoscopy and PCR 10 weeks after treatment. A mild chronic gastritis was, however, still observed at this point in time. This case report associates porcine H. suis strains with gastric disease in humans, thus emphasizing the zoonotic importance of H. suis bacteria from pigs.

  10. Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission.

    PubMed

    Guinat, Claire; Reis, Ana Luisa; Netherton, Christopher L; Goatley, Lynnette; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2014-09-26

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly virulent swine pathogen that has spread across Eastern Europe since 2007 and for which there is no effective vaccine or treatment available. The dynamics of shedding and excretion is not well known for this currently circulating ASFV strain. Therefore, susceptible pigs were exposed to pigs intramuscularly infected with the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain to measure those dynamics through within- and between-pen transmission scenarios. Blood, oral, nasal and rectal fluid samples were tested for the presence of ASFV by virus titration (VT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum was tested for the presence of ASFV-specific antibodies. Both intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission resulted in development of acute disease in all pigs although the experiments indicated that the pathogenesis of the disease might be different, depending on the route of infection. Infectious ASFV was first isolated in blood among the inoculated pigs by day 3, and then chronologically among the direct and indirect contact pigs, by day 10 and 13, respectively. Close to the onset of clinical signs, higher ASFV titres were found in blood compared with nasal and rectal fluid samples among all pigs. No infectious ASFV was isolated in oral fluid samples although ASFV genome copies were detected. Only one animal developed antibodies starting after 12 days post-inoculation. The results provide quantitative data on shedding and excretion of the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain among domestic pigs and suggest a limited potential of this isolate to cause persistent infection.

  11. Guinea pig-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered receptor recognition can productively infect a natural host.

    PubMed

    Núñez, José I; Molina, Nicolas; Baranowski, Eric; Domingo, Esteban; Clark, Stuart; Burman, Alison; Berryman, Stephen; Jackson, Terry; Sobrino, Francisco

    2007-08-01

    We report that adaptation to infect the guinea pig did not modify the capacity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to kill suckling mice and to cause an acute and transmissible disease in the pig, an important natural host for this pathogen. Adaptive amino acid replacements (I(248)-->T in 2C, Q(44)-->R in 3A, and L(147)-->P in VP1), selected upon serial passages of a type C FMDV isolated from swine (biological clone C-S8c1) in the guinea pig, were maintained after virus multiplication in swine and suckling mice. However, the adaptive replacement L(147)-->P, next to the integrin-binding RGD motif at the GH loop in VP1, abolished growth of the virus in different established cell lines and modified its antigenicity. In contrast, primary bovine thyroid cell cultures could be productively infected by viruses with replacement L(147)-->P, and this infection was inhibited by antibodies to alphavbeta6 and by an FMDV-derived RGD-containing peptide, suggesting that integrin alphavbeta6 may be used as a receptor for these mutants in the animal (porcine, guinea pig, and suckling mice) host. Substitution T(248)-->N in 2C was not detectable in C-S8c1 but was present in a low proportion of the guinea pig-adapted virus. This substitution became rapidly dominant in the viral population after the reintroduction of the guinea pig-adapted virus into pigs. These observations illustrate how the appearance of minority variant viruses in an unnatural host can result in the dominance of these viruses on reinfection of the original host species. PMID:17522230

  12. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  13. Glutamine supplementation maintains intramuscular glutamine concentrations and normalizes lymphocyte function in infected early weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S S; Field, C J; McBurney, M I

    1997-11-01

    Numerous studies in humans and rats have shown that glutamine supplementation during stressful conditions has favorable outcomes. However, the requirements for glutamine during weaning are unknown. Thus, the effects of glutamine supplementation in healthy and infected weaned pigs were investigated. At 21 d of age, pigs were weaned to an elemental diet supplemented with glutamine (+Gln) or an isonitrogenous diet containing nonessential amino acids (-Gln). At 26 d of age, pigs were intraperitoneally injected with Escherichia coli (+Ecoli) or buffered saline (-Ecoli) and killed at 28 d of age. Infection decreased (P < 0.05) plasma and intramuscular glutamine concentrations, but infected pigs that received +Gln diets had higher intramuscular glutamine levels than those that received -Gln diets. Infected pigs had elevated (P < 0.05) total leukocyte counts, and blood lymphocyte responses ([3H]-thymidine incorporation) to a mixture of phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin were reduced. White blood cell counts were greater (P < 0.05) in +Gln than -Gln pigs. The peak responses to concanavalin A (Con A) by lymphocytes of +Ecoli+Gln pigs were greater (P < 0.05) than those of +Ecoli-Gln pigs and not different than those of noninfected pigs. Hence, glutamine supplementation maintained muscular glutamine concentrations and normalized lymphocyte function in infected pigs. PMID:9349855

  14. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  15. A Golden Hamster Model for Human Acute Nipah Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K. Thong; Grosjean, Isabelle; Brisson, Christine; Blanquier, Barissa; Fevre-Montange, Michelle; Bernard, Arlette; Loth, Philippe; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Chevallier, Michelle; Akaoka, Hideo; Marianneau, Philippe; Lam, Sai Kit; Wild, T. Fabian; Deubel, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    A predominantly pig-to-human zoonotic infection caused by the novel Nipah virus emerged recently to cause severe morbidity and mortality in both animals and man. Human autopsy studies showed the pathogenesis to be related to systemic vasculitis that led to widespread thrombotic occlusion and microinfarction in most major organs especially in the central nervous system. There was also evidence of extravascular parenchymal infection, particularly near damaged vessels (Wong KT, Shieh WJ, Kumar S, Norain K, Abdullah W, Guarner J, Goldsmith CS, Chua KB, Lam SK, Tan CT, Goh KJ, Chong HT, Jusoh R, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Zaki SR, Nipah Virus Pathology Working Group: Nipah virus infection: Pathology and pathogenesis of an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Am J Pathol 2002, 161:2153–2167). We describe here a golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model that appears to reproduce the pathology and pathogenesis of acute human Nipah infection. Hamsters infected by intranasal or intraperitoneal routes died within 9 to 29 days or 5 to 9 days, respectively. Pathological lesions were most severe and extensive in the hamster brain. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and more rarely, multinucleated endothelial syncytia, were found in blood vessels of multiple organs. Viral antigen and RNA were localized in both vascular and extravascular tissues including neurons, lung, kidney, and spleen, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. Paramyxoviral-type nucleocapsids were identified in neurons and in vessel walls. At the terminal stage of infection, virus and/or viral RNA could be recovered from most solid organs and urine, but not from serum. The golden hamster is proposed as a suitable model for further studies including pathogenesis studies, anti-viral drug testing, and vaccine development against acute Nipah infection. PMID:14578210

  16. Interleukin-18 expression in pig salivary glands and salivary content changes during acute immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Y; Minagawa, Y; Nakane, T; Shibahara, T; Yoshikawa, T; Omata, Y

    2011-09-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has recently been considered a promising marker of stress responses. In this study, to evaluate IL-18 as a noninvasive stress marker in pigs, we investigated the expression of IL-18 in porcine salivary glands and its presence in saliva, and its dynamics during acute immobilization stress in pigs. IL-18 mRNA was detected robustly in the pig salivary glands by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining of IL-18 protein expression revealed that the expression patterns differed among the three types of salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual gland). IL-18 was also detected in pig saliva by ELISA, and a diurnal rhythm with a peak in the afternoon was observed. The IL-18 concentration in saliva was significantly increased during a 60-min acute immobilization stress in thirteen 5-month-old pigs. These results are the first evidence of a stress-related change of IL-18 in pig saliva. Salivary IL-18 may thus become a useful noninvasive marker for the evaluation of acute stress in pigs.

  17. Infection of Guinea Pigs with Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interpretive Biting midges,Culicoides sonorensis were shown to be capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) to guinea pigs. Despite seroconversion for VSNJV, none of the guinea pigs developed clinical signs when infected in the abdomen by either infected insects or by nee...

  18. Cytokine Protein Expression Levels in Tracheobronchial Lymph Node Homogenates of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Following primary infection of the respiratory tract, PRV can develop into a systemic infection with dispersion of t...

  19. Infectivity of PRRS virus in pig manure at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Daniel C L; Torremorell, Montserrat; Joo, Han Soo; Morrison, Robert B

    2012-11-01

    PRRSv is an economically important swine pathogen which can be disseminated from infected pig herds via movement of contaminated manure. The process of manure handling and inadequate cleaning of transport vehicles are commonly implicated as sources of PRRSv transmission. Stability of PRRSv in pig manure at different temperatures is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine PRRSv-infectivity half-life in manure and in a cell culture medium at 4, 20, 60 and 80°C. To assure sample consistency across the study, all samples were prepared from common homogenized solutions (MEM and manure) and frozen at -20°C. Samples were thawed, transferred to a water bath set at a specific temperature, inoculated with 100 μl of PRRSv at designated time points and then tested for virus infectivity. Regression models were created to estimate PRRSv half-life based on incubation temperature. There was an exponential decrease in PRRSv infectivity with increasing temperature. At every temperature tested, PRRSv had shorter half-life when incubated in manure compared to MEM. PRRSv half-life in MEM and manure was estimated at 112.6 and 120.5 h at 4°C, 14.6 and 24.5 h at 20°C, 1.6 and 1.7 h at 40°C, 2.9 and 8.5 min at 60°C, and 0.36-0.59 min at 80°C, respectively. Results of this study can be used as basis for developing strategies to inactivate PRRSv present in manure-contaminated environments using heating treatments. For example, these data suggest that submitting transport trailers to temperature of 50°C for 8h would decrease PRRSv from 10(6) TCID(50)/ml to less than 10(1) TCID(50)/ml.

  20. Prior infection of pigs with swine influenza viruses is a barrier to infection with avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2010-12-15

    Although pigs are susceptible to avian influenza viruses (AIV) of different subtypes, the incidence of AIV infections in the field appears to be low. Swine H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza viruses (SIV) are enzootic worldwide and most pigs have antibodies to 1 or more SIV subtypes. This study aimed to examine whether infection-immunity to H1N1 or H3N2 SIV may (1) protect pigs against subsequent infections with AIV of various haemagglutinin and/or neuraminidase subtypes and/or (2) interfere with the serological diagnosis of AIV infection by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) or virus neutralization (VN) tests. Pigs were inoculated intranasally with an H1N1 or H3N2 SIV or left uninoculated. Four or 6 weeks later all pigs were challenged intranasally with 1 of 3 AIV subtypes (H4N6, H5N2 or H7N1). Fifteen out of 17 challenge control pigs shed the respective AIV for 4-6 days post-inoculation and 16 developed HI and VN antibodies. In contrast, 28 of the 29 SIV-immune pigs did not have detectable AIV shedding. Only 12 SIV-immune pigs developed HI antibodies to the AIV used for challenge and 14 had VN antibodies. Antibody titres to the AIV were low in both control and SIV-immune pigs. Our data show that prior infection of pigs with SIV is a barrier to infection with AIV of unrelated subtypes. Serological screening in regions where SIV is enzootic is only useful when the AIV strain for which the pigs need to be tested is known.

  1. Comparison of sesion severity, distribution, and colonic mucin expression in pigs with acute swine dysentery following oral inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii" or Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Wilberts, B L; Arruda, P H; Kinyon, J M; Madson, D M; Frana, T S; Burrough, E R

    2014-11-01

    Swine dysentery is classically associated with infection by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the only current officially recognized Brachyspira sp. that consistently imparts strong beta-hemolysis on blood agar. Recently, several strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira have been isolated from swine with clinical dysentery that are not identified as B. hyodysenteriae by PCR including the recently proposed species "Brachyspira hampsonii." In this study, 6-week-old pigs were inoculated with either a clinical isolate of "B. hampsonii" (EB107; n = 10) clade II or a classic strain of B. hyodysenteriae (B204; n = 10) to compare gross and microscopic lesions and alterations in colonic mucin expression in pigs with clinical disease versus controls (n = 6). Gross lesions were similar between infected groups. No histologic difference was observed between infected groups with regard to neutrophilic inflammation, colonic crypt depth, mucosal ulceration, or hemorrhage. Histochemical and immunohistochemical evaluation of the apex of the spiral colon revealed decreased expression of sulphated mucins, decreased expression of MUC4, and increased expression of MUC5AC in diseased pigs compared to controls. No difference was observed between diseased pigs in inoculated groups. This study reveals significant alterations in colonic mucin expression in pigs with acute swine dysentery and further reveals that these and other microscopic changes are similar following infection with "B. hampsonii" clade II or B. hyodysenteriae.

  2. Swine influenza H1N1 virus induces acute inflammatory immune responses in pig lungs: a potential animal model for human H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Mahesh; Dwivedi, Varun; Krakowka, Steven; Manickam, Cordelia; Ali, Ahmed; Wang, Leyi; Qin, Zhuoming; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Lee, Chang-Won

    2010-11-01

    Pigs are capable of generating reassortant influenza viruses of pandemic potential, as both the avian and mammalian influenza viruses can infect pig epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. The source of the current influenza pandemic is H1N1 influenza A virus, possibly of swine origin. This study was conducted to understand better the pathogenesis of H1N1 influenza virus and associated host mucosal immune responses during acute infection in humans. Therefore, we chose a H1N1 swine influenza virus, Sw/OH/24366/07 (SwIV), which has a history of transmission to humans. Clinically, inoculated pigs had nasal discharge and fever and shed virus through nasal secretions. Like pandemic H1N1, SwIV also replicated extensively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and lung lesions were typical of H1N1 infection. We detected innate, proinflammatory, Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, as well as SwIV-specific IgA antibody in lungs of the virus-inoculated pigs. Production of IFN-γ by lymphocytes of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes was also detected. Higher frequencies of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, γδ T cells, dendritic cells, activated T cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected in SwIV-infected pig lungs. Concomitantly, higher frequencies of the immunosuppressive T regulatory cells were also detected in the virus-infected pig lungs. The findings of this study have relevance to pathogenesis of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in humans; thus, pigs may serve as a useful animal model to design and test effective mucosal vaccines and therapeutics against influenza virus.

  3. Mechanisms of tympanic membrane and incus mobility loss in acute otitis media model of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiying; Gan, Rong Z

    2013-06-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a rapid infection of middle ear due to bacterial or viral invasion. The infection commonly leads to negative pressure and purulent effusion in the middle ear. To identify how these changes affect tympanic membrane (TM) mobility or sound transmission through the middle ear, we hypothesize that pressure, effusion, and structural changes of the middle ear are the main mechanisms of conductive hearing loss in AOM. To test the hypothesis, a guinea pig AOM model was created by injection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three days post inoculation, vibration of the TM at umbo in response to input sound in the ear canal was measured at three experimental stages: intact, pressure-released, and effusion-drained AOM ears. The vibration of the incus tip was also measured after the effusion was removed. Results demonstrate that displacement of the TM increased mainly at low frequencies when pressure was released. As the effusion was removed, the TM mobility increased further but did not reach the level of the normal ear at low frequencies. This was caused by middle ear structural changes or adhesions on ossicles in AOM. The structural changes also affected movement of the incus at low and high frequencies. The results provide new evidence for understanding the mechanism of conductive hearing loss in AOM. PMID:23483330

  4. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  5. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection.

  6. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  7. Protection of pigs with cysticercosis from further infections after treatment with oxfendazole.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A E; Gavidia, C; Falcon, N; Bernal, T; Verastegui, M; Garcia, H H; Gilman, R H; Tsang, V C

    2001-07-01

    Cysticercosis, the infection by the larvae of Taenia solium, is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in the world; it also causes significant economic loss because of contaminated pork. This disease is endemic in most developing countries and no control strategy has yet been proven efficient and sustainable. To further evaluate the full potential of single-dose oxfendazole treatment for pigs as a control measure, 20 pigs with cysticercosis were treated with oxfendazole and later matched with 41 naive pigs and exposed to a natural challenge in a hyperendemic area. New infections were found by serologic testing in 15 of the 32 controls (47%), and by the presence of cysts at necropsy in 12 of them (37%). Only minute residual scars were detected in the carcasses of oxfendazole-treated pigs. Pigs with cysticercosis, once treated with oxfendazole, are protected from new infections for at least three months.

  8. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  9. Do immune genes influence which pigs will have persistent Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study, a part of the "Big Pig" project, was aimed at highlighting differences in immune responses between control pigs and pigs with PRRSV infections, from early times post inoculation (pi), 14 dpi, to long term persistent infections (as evidenced by viral RNA in tissues). Our goal is to identi...

  10. Association of tightly spiraled bacterial infection and gastritis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Lee, B J; Lee, Y S; Park, J H

    2000-07-01

    Tightly spiral bacteria were observed only in the pyloric mucosa of 4 (8.0%) of 50 swine stomachs, mainly in the surface of epithelia, the gastric pits and the lumen of gastric glands. The presence of the spiral bacteria was significantly associated with chronic pyloric gastritis (p<0.05). Mean gastritis score of the bacteria-positive pyloric mucosa was 3.25 +/- 0.25, whereas that of the bacteria-negative pyloric mucosa was 2.37 +/- 0.12. Parakeratosis and hyperkeratosis were spontaneously seen in the mucosa layer of pars oesophagea, regardless of the bacterial infection. Marked infiltration of mononuclear cells and granulocytes were seen in the cardiac mucosa, regardless of the bacterial infection. Mean gastritis score of the bacteria-positive cardiac mucosa was 3.27 +/- 0.32, whereas that of the bacteria-negative cardiac mucosa was 2.84 +/- 0.13. There was no significant difference between the bacteria-positive and negative cardiac mucosa (p>0.05). Inflammatory response in the fundic mucosa was rare (gastritis score=0.75 +/- 0.08). The tightly spiraled bactera were not cultured with various culture media. These results suggest that the presence of tightly spiraled bacteria is associated with only the pyloric gastritis in pigs.

  11. Peritoneal infection in acute intermittent peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Amit; Gulati, Sanjeev

    2003-11-01

    A prospective study was done to evaluate the incidence and microbiological trend of peritoneal infection in patients undergoing acute intermittent peritoneal dialysis (PD). Complete sterile procedure was ensured and at the completion of the procedure PD fluid was sent for bacteriological culture, sensitivity, and total and differential cell count. During the period September 2000 to February 2001 a total of 100 patients were evaluated. Male female ratio was 72:28. Mean age was 43.17 +/- 17.2 years. In 26 patients cyclers were used. Bacterial culture was positive in total of 30 cases (30%). Gram positive, Gram negative and mixed infection was found in 10%, 15%, and 5% respectively. Number of exchanges (31.61 +/- 7.7 vs. 31.3 +/- 6, p = 0.8) were similar and number of repositioning was significantly more in the infected group (23.3% vs. 11.4%, p < 0.01). Total cell count was significantly higher in infected group (274.3 +/- 502 vs. 31.25 +/- 79.34, p < 0.01). Among Gram +ve organisms Staphylococcus was found in 7, Enterococcus faecalis in 4 and Coryne bacterium sps. in 2 cases. Among Gram -ve organisms, E. coli was found in 4, Enterobacter in 3, Klebsiella 1, Pseudomonas 1, Acinetobacter arinatus 5, Acinetobacter baumani 3, and Citrobacter freundii 3. Mixed flora comprised of Enterococcus faecalis 3, Enterobacter 1, Staphlococcus 1, E. coli 3, Citrobacter 1, Acinobacter baumani 1. Although with the cyclers using collapsible bags, staphylococcus was not isolated, the total incidence of infection (11/26 cases) was not decreased with the use of cyclers. We conclude that in acute intermittent peritoneal dialysis the incidence of bacterial infection is 30% with preponderance of Gram -ve over Gram +ve organisms and organism of fecal origin being commoner than those of skin origin. Use of cycler-assisted over manual PD do not improve the incidence of infection. Repositioning of the stiff catheter significantly increases the incidence of infection.

  12. Intestinal parasite infections in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Jeon, Hyung-Kyu; Yu, Yong-Man; Do, Changhee; Lee, Young-Ha

    2010-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings. PMID:21234241

  13. Intestinal Parasite Infections in Pigs and Beef Cattle in Rural Areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Jeon, Hyung-Kyu; Yu, Yong-Man; Do, Changhee

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings. PMID:21234241

  14. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  15. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy.

  16. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  17. Large-scale screening and characterization of enteroviruses and kobuviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Dung, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Hien, Vo Be; Sharp, C; Rabaa, M; Berto, A; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Woolhouse, Mark E; Bryant, Juliet E; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-02-01

    A recent survey of pigs in Dong Thap province, Vietnam identified a high frequency of enterovirus species G (EV-G) infection (144/198; 72.7%). Amongst these was a plethora of EV-G types (EV-G1, EV-G6 and four new types EV-G8-EV-G11). To better characterize the genetic diversity of EV-G and investigate the possible existence of further circulating types, we performed a larger-scale study on 484 pig and 45 farm-bred boar faecal samples collected in 2012 and 2014, respectively. All samples from the previous and current studies were also screened for kobuviruses. The overall EV infection frequency remained extremely high (395/484; 81.6%), but with comparable detection rates and viral loads between healthy and diarrhoeic pigs; this contrasted with less frequent detection of EV-G in boars (4/45; 8.9%). EV was most frequently detected in pigs ≤ 14 weeks old (∼ 95%) and declined in older pigs. Infections with EV-G1 and EV-G6 were most frequent, whilst less commonly detected types included EV-G3, EV-G4 and EV-G8-EV-G11, and five new types (EV-G12-EV-G16). In contrast, kobuvirus infection frequency was significantly higher in diarrhoeic pigs (40.9 versus 27.6%; P = 0.01). Kobuviruses also showed contrasting epizootiologies and age associations; a higher prevalence was found in boars (42%) compared with domestic pigs (29%), with the highest infection frequency amongst pigs >52 weeks old. Although genetically diverse, all kobuviruses identified belonged to the species Aichivirus C. In summary, this study confirms infection with EV-G was endemic in Vietnamese domestic pigs and exhibits high genetic diversity and extensive inter-type recombination.

  18. Natural infection of guinea pigs exposed to patients with highly drug-resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Van Der Walt, Martie L.; Weyer, Karin; Mphahlele, Matsie; Venter, Kobus; Jensen, Paul A.; First, Melvin W.; Parsons, Sydney; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    A natural TB infection model using guinea pigs may provide useful information for investigating differences in transmission efficiency and establishment of active disease by clinical TB strains in a highly susceptible host under controlled environmental conditions. We sought to examine the capacity of naturally transmitted multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis to establish infection and produce active disease in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were continuously exposed for 4 months to the exhaust air of a 6-bed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis inpatient hospital ward in South Africa. Serial tuberculin skin test reactions were measured to determine infection. All animals were subsequently evaluated for histologic disease progression at necropsy. Although 75% of the 362 exposed guinea pigs had positive skin test reactions [≥6mm], only 12% had histopathologic evidence of active disease. Reversions (≥ 6 mm change) in skin test reactivity were seen in 22% of animals, exclusively among those with reactions of 6 to 13 mm. Only two of 86 guinea pigs with reversion had histological evidence of disease compared to 47% (31/66) of guinea pigs with large, non-reverting reactions. Immunosuppression of half the guinea pigs across all skin test categories did not significantly accelerate disease progression. In guinea pigs that reverted a skin test, a second positive reaction in 27 (33%) of them strongly suggested re-infection due to ongoing exposure. These results show that a large majority of guinea pigs naturally exposed to human-source strains of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis became infected, but that many resolved their infection and a large majority failed to progress to detectable disease. PMID:21478054

  19. Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera.

    PubMed

    Taira, K; Saeed, I; Permin, A; Kapel, C M O

    2004-05-01

    The potential zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infections from consumption of swine or poultry viscera containing larvae was assessed using a pig model. Two groups of six pigs were fed either fresh swine viscera (group FS) or poultry viscera (FP) containing around 3500 Toxocara larvae. Another two groups of six pigs were fed swine viscera (PS) or poultry viscera (PP) preserved at 4 degrees C for 1 week. All pigs were necropsied 14 days after the exposure. Liver white spots were counted and T. canis specific IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Larval burdens were assessed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs, brain, tongue, and eyes. All recipient pigs exhibited several white spots on the liver surface and detectable antibody levels. Larvae were recovered predominantly from the lungs, but also from the mesenteric lymph nodes and the liver, a few larvae were found in the brain and tongue of the pigs. Two larvae were found in the eyes of two pigs in group FS. Mean percentages of total larval recoveries in groups FS, FP, PS, and PP were 75.3, 63.6, 42.6, and 18.8%, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of larvae were recovered from pigs given swine viscera than pigs given poultry viscera. The preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week caused a significant reduction in the larval infectivity overall, nevertheless, the recoveries remained substantial. The fact that larvae migrating in swine or poultry organs and tissues have high infectivity in pigs even after preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week, suggests that human infection with T. canis might easily occur following consumption of raw or undercooked dishes, either fresh or refrigerated, prepared from swine or poultry organs and tissues harbouring T. canis larvae. PMID:15110409

  20. Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3-infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Josephine; Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Dremsek, Paul; Lange, Elke; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection in European wild boar and their role in HEV transmission to domestic pigs. To investigate the transmissibility and pathogenesis of wild boar-derived HEVgt3, we inoculated four wild boar and four miniature pigs intravenously. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR viral RNA was detected in serum, faeces and in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The antibody response evolved after fourteen days post inoculation. Histopathological findings included mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis which was more prominent in wild boar than in miniature pigs. By immunohistochemical methods, viral antigens were detected mainly in Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, partially associated with hepatic lesions, but also in spleen and lymph nodes. While clinical symptoms were subtle and gross pathology was inconspicuous, increased liver enzyme levels in serum indicated hepatocellular injury. As the faecal-oral route is supposed to be the most likely transmission route, we included four contact animals to prove horizontal transmission. Interestingly, HEVgt3-infection was also detected in wild boar and miniature pigs kept in contact to intravenously inoculated wild boar. Given the high virus loads and long duration of viral shedding, wild boar has to be considered as an important HEV reservoir and transmission host in Europe. PMID:25421429

  1. Detection of acute toxoplasmosis in pigs using loop-mediated isothermal amplification and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Delin; Yin, Hong; Wang, Meng

    2013-10-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay allows rapid diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection. In the present study, the LAMP assay was evaluated using blood from both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was compared with that of Q-PCR. Both assays detected T. gondii in the blood of experimentally infected pigs, with 100% agreement. In infected blood samples, the parasite was detected as early as 2 days post-infection and reached a peak in 3-5 days. In 216 field serum samples, the detection rates of LAMP and Q-PCR assays were 6.9% and 7.8%, respectively. This result indicates that the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was slightly lower than that of the Q-PCR assay. However, the LAMP may be an attractive diagnostic method in conditions where sophisticated and expensive equipment is unavailable. This assay could be a powerful supplement to current diagnostic methods.

  2. Acute focal infections of dental origin.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses or phlegmon they can reach facial spaces that communicate with each other and then spread downwards to the mediastinum or upwards to the brain. In such cases dental infections can become, if not properly treated, life-threatening. It seems that early diagnosis and treatment are imperative, and potentially infectious foci should be traced and eliminated. Dental hygiene and prophylaxis to prevent dental biofilm formation are important measures to reduce the risk of these calamities. The more compromised the host defense is, the more importance should be put on these measures. Although commensal bacteria are often involved in these infections, attention should also be paid to specific periodontal pathogens, and a proper microbial diagnosis, obtained using molecular methods plus bacterial sensitivity testing, can provide the patient with optimal care. Drainage of pus must be established where possible so that the optimal effect of antibiotics can be achieved. Penicillin is still the drug of first choice in settings where suspicion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is low.

  3. Acute focal infections of dental origin.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses or phlegmon they can reach facial spaces that communicate with each other and then spread downwards to the mediastinum or upwards to the brain. In such cases dental infections can become, if not properly treated, life-threatening. It seems that early diagnosis and treatment are imperative, and potentially infectious foci should be traced and eliminated. Dental hygiene and prophylaxis to prevent dental biofilm formation are important measures to reduce the risk of these calamities. The more compromised the host defense is, the more importance should be put on these measures. Although commensal bacteria are often involved in these infections, attention should also be paid to specific periodontal pathogens, and a proper microbial diagnosis, obtained using molecular methods plus bacterial sensitivity testing, can provide the patient with optimal care. Drainage of pus must be established where possible so that the optimal effect of antibiotics can be achieved. Penicillin is still the drug of first choice in settings where suspicion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is low. PMID:24738592

  4. Infectivity and Transmissibility of Avian H9N2 Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Maocai; Hong, Wenshan; Fan, Xiaohui; Chen, Rirong; Zheng, Zuoyi; Zeng, Yu; Huang, Ren; Zhang, Yu; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Smith, David K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The H9N2 influenza viruses that are enzootic in terrestrial poultry in China pose a persistent pandemic threat to humans. To investigate whether the continuous circulation and adaptation of these viruses in terrestrial poultry increased their infectivity to pigs, we conducted a serological survey in pig herds with H9N2 viruses selected from the aquatic avian gene pool (Y439 lineage) and the enzootic terrestrial poultry viruses (G1 and Y280 lineages). We also compared the infectivity and transmissibility of these viruses in pigs. It was found that more than 15% of the pigs sampled from 2010 to 2012 in southern China were seropositive to either G1 or Y280 lineage viruses, but none of the sera were positive to the H9 viruses from the Y439 lineage. Viruses of the G1 and Y280 lineages were able to infect experimental pigs, with detectable nasal shedding of the viruses and seroconversion, whereas viruses of the Y439 lineage did not cause a productive infection in pigs. Thus, adaptation and prevalence in terrestrial poultry could lead to interspecies transmission of H9N2 viruses from birds to pigs. Although H9N2 viruses do not appear to be continuously transmissible among pigs, repeated introductions of H9 viruses to pigs naturally increase the risk of generating mammalian-adapted or reassorted variants that are potentially infectious to humans. This study highlights the importance of monitoring the activity of H9N2 viruses in terrestrial poultry and pigs. IMPORTANCE H9N2 subtype of influenza viruses has repeatedly been introduced into mammalian hosts, including humans and pigs, so awareness of their activity and evolution is important for influenza pandemic preparedness. However, since H9N2 viruses usually cause mild or even asymptomatic infections in mammalian hosts, they may be overlooked in influenza surveillance. Here, we found that the H9N2 viruses established in terrestrial poultry had higher infectivity in pigs than those from aquatic birds, which

  5. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV.

  6. Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-02-26

    This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine

  7. Animal model studies of genital chlamydial infections. Immunity to re-infection with guinea-pig inclusion conjunctivitis agent in the urethra and eye of male guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Howard, L V; O'Leary, M P; Nichols, R L

    1976-08-01

    A previous report demonstrated that male guinea-pigs could be infected in the urethra with guinea-pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) agent and that the infection was transmitted during mating from infected males to females. In the experiments reported here, inoculation of male guinea-pigs in the urethra with GPIC organisms resulted in infection which subsided spontaneously in about 2 weeks. Males were demonstrated to be completely resistant to urethral challenge with 10(3)ID50 when tested 6 weeks after urethral infection. These guinea-pigs, immune to re-infection of the urethra, remained susceptible to infection of the eye, but this ocular infection was shorter in duration than that in previously uninfected control animals. Infection in the eye resulted in immunity to both ocular and urethral infection when animals were challenged 6 weeks after the ocular infection.

  8. Production impact of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection on fattening pigs in Norway.

    PubMed

    Er, Chiek; Skjerve, Eystein; Brun, Edgar; Hofmo, Peer Ola; Framstad, Tore; Lium, Bjørn

    2016-02-01

    Newly emerged influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian pigs, although often observed in a subclinical form, can lower the pig's growth performance by reducing feed efficiency in terms of a poorer feed conversion ratio. Infected pigs would consume more feed and require protracted production time to reach market weight. In our observational longitudinal study, growth performance data from 728 control pigs and 193 infected pigs with known viral shedding time points were analyzed using mixed linear regression models to give estimates of the marginal effects of infection. Gaussian curves describing the variability of the estimates at the individual pig level formed the fundamental inputs to our stochastic models. The models were constructed to simulate the summed negative effects of the infection at the batch level of 150 fattening pigs growing from 33 to 100 kg. Other inputs of variability and uncertainty were 1) batch transmission points, 2) pig infection points to reflect the disease transmission dynamics of the virus, and 3) final prevalence of infected pigs in the batch. Monte Carlo random sampling gave 5,000 estimates on the outputs of the marginal effects for each pig. These results were summed up to provide estimates for a batch size of 150 pigs. This figure was adjusted by our final prevalence distribution function, which was also derived from the longitudinal study with 12 cohorts of infected pigs. For a 150-fattening-pig herd randomly selected from the population, the marginal effects of the infection were 1) 835 kg (fifth percentile) to 1,350 kg (95th percentile) increased feed intake and 2) 194 (fifth percentile) to 334 (95th percentile) pig days in excess of expected figures for an uninfected batch. A batch infected during growth phase 3 (81 to 100 kg BW) gave the worst results since the longitudinal study showed that a pig infected during growth phase 3 required more feed and a greater protracted production time compared to younger infected

  9. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-07-09

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs.

  10. Cystitis associated with chlamydial infection of the genital tract in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; White, H J; Soloff, B L; Barron, A L

    1981-01-01

    Male guinea pigs were infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) by intraurethral injection of chlamydiae or by placement of a drop of chlamydial suspension on the meatus of the extruded penis. Transient urethritis and cystitis were observed in animals infected by either method. The production of cystitis by the drop-on technique indicated that chlamydiae are able to ascend the urethra and that the bladder may be a target organ of chlamydial infection. When infected animals were immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide, the number of guinea pigs with cystitis was increased, and chlamydiae could be detected in the bladder for as long as 50 days after infection. In contrast, GPIC was not detected in the bladders of untreated animals after day 18.

  11. Immunity to vaginal reinfection in female guinea pigs infected sexually with Chlamydia of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lamont, H C; Semine, D Z; Leveille, C; Nichols, R L

    1978-03-01

    Guinea pig boars were inoculated intraurethrally with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). At the heights of their urethral infections, they were caged with sows in estrus. Whereas some of the sows had not been previously exposed to GPIC agent, others had received an intravaginal inoculation 5 to 8 weeks earlier. Those sows for which infected boars provided the first exposure were challenged by intravaginal inoculation 5 to 8 weeks later. Vaginal and conjunctival scrapings were taken regularly and stained for chlamydial inclusions. Titers of serum anti-GPIC antibodies and of vaginal secretory IgA anti-GPIC antibodies were determined by immunofluorescence. Our results show for the first time that a sexually acquired vaginal GPIC infection induces immunity to manual reinfection of the vagina. Because of the high incidence of secondary conjunctival infections among the vaginally infected sows, we could not provide a sound statistical basis for our tentative conclusion that manual infection of the vagina induces immunity to sexual reinfection. The results of our antibody titrations confirm previous work showing that vaginal GPIC infection induces formation of both serum antibody and vaginal secretory immunoglobulin A antibody.

  12. Rapid cooling after acute hyperthermia alters intestinal tissue morphology and increases the systemic inflammatory response in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute hyperthermia can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of heatstroke recovery methods on the physiological response in pigs. In four repetitions, 36 male pigs (88.7 ± 1.6 kg BW) were exposed to thermoneutral conditions (T...

  13. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  14. Progression of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection in three pig herds. Development of tonsillar carrier state, arthritis and antibodies in serum and synovial fluid in pigs from birth to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn-Olsen, T; Nielsen, N C; Friis, N F; Nielsen, J

    1999-11-01

    In this investigation, natural infection with Mycoplasma hyosynoviae was followed in groups of individual pigs in three different herds with regard to occurrence of tonsillar carrier state, clinical arthritis and development of antibodies in serum and in synovial fluid. Antibodies were detected by a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed for experimental use. The infection with M. hyosynoviae progressed very differently in the three herds investigated. In one herd, the infection was apparently limited to adult pigs. In a second herd, all pigs became tonsillar carriers of M. hyosynoviae, but no mycoplasma-related arthritis nor any serological response was demonstrated within the growing-finishing period. In the third herd investigated, tonsillar infection was detected in all pigs, clinical cases of M. hyosynoviae arthritis followed and a moderate serological response was observed in some, but not all, pigs. In all three herds, M. hyosynoviae infection was carried in the tonsils of the adult pigs, but it was only occasionally transmitted from sows to piglets. Maternal antibodies were transferred to the piglets and persisted for approximately 8-12 weeks. After weaning, some pigs became infected before 20 weeks of age, while others did not. In the majority of cases, the tonsillar infection was established from 11 weeks of age or older. A latent tonsillar infection was present for a period of several weeks within the group of investigated pigs before cases of generalized infection and arthritis were seen. In some cases, generalization of M. hyosynoviae infection in the blood and in joints was observed in spite of the detection of an active serological response a few weeks earlier. The present work suggests that generalization of the infection and development of arthritis may depend on age, immunity, virulence factors and/or infection pressure; in some herds maybe combined with certain triggering mechanisms such as stress and lowered general

  15. Transgenic shRNA pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengwei; Qiao, Jun; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Chuangfu; Ni, Wei; Wujiafu, Sai; Ma, Shiwei; Zhang, Hui; Sheng, Jingliang; Wang, Pengyan; Wang, Dawei; Huang, Jiong; Cao, Lijuan; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an economically devastating viral disease leading to a substantial loss to the swine industry worldwide. A novel alternative strategy is to develop pigs that are genetically resistant to infection. Here, we produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed FMDV-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). In vitro challenge of TG fibroblasts showed the shRNA suppressed viral growth. TG and non-TG pigs were challenged by intramuscular injection with 100 LD50 of FMDV. High fever, severe clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease and typical histopathological changes were observed in all of the non-TG pigs but in none of the high-siRNA pigs. Our results show that TG shRNA can provide a viable tool for producing animals with enhanced resistance to FMDV. PMID:26090904

  16. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  17. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Veselenak, Ronald L.; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Chambers, James P.; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G.; Pyles, Richard B.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:25502875

  18. Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Shany; Eytan, Ori

    2014-01-01

    Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection has been reported many times in the literature since the mid 1980s – mainly in case reports and in small case series, but also in four controlled studies. Still, many physicians are unaware of this association although acute cytomegalovirus infection diagnosis in a thrombosis patient may warrant antiviral therapy and may affect anticoagulation therapy duration. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics of patients with thrombosis and acute cytomegalovirus infection are reviewed, and the current knowledge concerning this unique association is presented herein. We believe it is time to add acute cytomegalovirus infection to the list of thrombosis triggers. PMID:25624857

  19. Tail biting induces a strong acute phase response and tail-end inflammation in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Mari; Orro, Toomas; Kokkonen, Teija; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Peltoniemi, Olli; Valros, Anna

    2010-06-01

    The extent of inflammation associated with tail biting in finishing pigs was evaluated. Tail histopathology, carcass condemnation and the concentration of three acute phase proteins (APPs), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid-A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), were examined in 12 tail-bitten and 13 control pigs. The median concentrations of APPs were higher (P<0.01) in bitten (CRP 617.5mg/L, range 80.5-969.9; SAA 128.0mg/L, 6.2-774.4; Hp 2.8g/L, 1.6-3.5) than in control pigs (CRP 65.7mg/L, 28.4-180.4; SAA 6.2mg/L, 6.2-21.4; Hp 1.2g/L, 0.9-1.5). There was a tendency for APP concentrations to rise with the histopathological score but the differences were only statistically significant between some of the scores. Five (42%) bitten cases and one (8%) control pig had partial carcass condemnations owing to abscesses (P=0.07). The results show that tail biting induces an inflammatory response in the tail end leading to an acute phase response and formation of carcass abscesses. PMID:19398209

  20. Human mesenchymal stem cells attenuate early damage in a ventilated pig model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Yuben; Sturm, Marian; Shaw, Kathryn; Shimbori, Chiko; Tan, Dino B A; Kolb, Martin; Graham, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have shown promise in treating inflammatory lung conditions. We hypothesised that human MSC (hMSC) can improve ALI/ARDS through their anti-inflammatory actions. We subjected pigs (n=6) to intravenous oleic acid (OA) injury, ventilation and hMSC infusion, while the controls (n=5) had intravenous OA, ventilation and an infusion vehicle control. hMSC were infused 1h after the administration of OA. The animals were monitored for additional 4h. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a transcription factor that mediates several inflammatory pathways was reduced in hMSC treated pigs compared to controls (p=0.04). There was no significant difference in lung injury, assessed by histological scoring in hMSC treated pigs versus controls (p=0.063). There was no difference in neutrophil counts between hMSC-treated pigs and controls. Within 4h, there was no difference in the levels of IL-10 and IL-8 pre- and post-treatment with hMSC. In addition, there was no difference in hemodynamics, lung mechanics or arterial blood gases between hMSC treated animals and controls. Subsequent studies are required to determine if the observed decrease in inflammatory transcription factors will translate into improvement in inflammation and in physiological parameters over the long term.

  1. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  2. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    DOE PAGES

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. Here we report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  3. Transcript Expression Analysis in Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pseudorabies Virus Infected Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study addresses the critical relationship between Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and its host at a transcriptional level during the course of an infection. RNA isolated from draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) specimens from 5-week old pigs clinically infected with a feral isolate of PRV (FS...

  4. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  5. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  6. Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks.

    PubMed

    Mejer, H; Roepstorff, A

    2006-09-01

    Transmission of Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis was studied in outdoor reared pigs. Six farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated in May to mid-June 2001 by experimentally infected seeder pigs. In early July 1 sow farrowed on each paddock and starting at week 3 post-partum (p.p.) the offspring was slaughtered serially every 2 weeks for parasite recovery. Faeces were collected regularly for parasite egg counts and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) content as an indicator of geophagy. Weaning took place at week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated in mid-June (O. dentatum) and late November (O. dentatum and T. suis) using helminth-naïve tracer pigs. Soil and vegetation samples were collected regularly. Despite a high initial contamination by the seeder pigs, O. dentatum paddock infectivity was negligible to low throughout the raising of the experimental piglets, which had a slow accumulation of nodular worms ending with a mean of 422 worms/pig at week 19 p.p. As only few eggs developed to infectivity overall T. suis transmission was minimal. The first T. suis were recovered at week 11 p.p. and the highest mean burden of 21 worms/pig was recorded at week 19 p.p. The experimental pigs initially had a high faecal level of AIA although it decreased over time. The results are discussed in relation to the biological characteristics of the 2 parasites and their occurrence in organic pig production. PMID:16740181

  7. Pathogenesis of aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus infection in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chad J; Reed, Douglas S; Wilhelmsen, Catherine L; Hartings, Justin; Norris, Sarah; Steele, Keith E

    2009-01-01

    Mice and guinea pigs were experimentally exposed to aerosols containing regionally-distinct strains (NJ1959 or ArgM) of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) at two exclusive particle size distributions. Mice were more susceptible to either strain of aerosolized EEEV than were guinea pigs; however, clinical signs indicating encephalitis were more readily observed in the guinea pigs. Lower lethality was observed in both species when EEEV was presented at the larger aerosol distribution (> 6 μm), although the differences in the median lethal dose (LD50) were not significant. Virus isolation and immunohistochemistry indicated that virus invaded the brains of guinea pigs within one day postexposure, regardless of viral strain or particle size distribution. Immunohistochemistry further demonstrated that neuroinvasion occurred through the olfactory system, followed by transneuronal spread to all regions of the brain. Olfactory bipolar neurons and neurons throughout the brain were the key viral targets. The main microscopic lesions in infected guinea pigs were neuronal necrosis, inflammation of the meninges and neuropil of the brain, and vasculitis in the brain. These results indicate that guinea pigs experimentally infected by aerosolized EEEV recapitulate several key features of fatal human infection and thus should serve as a suitable animal model for aerosol exposure to EEEV. PMID:19852817

  8. Viral strain dependent differences in experimental Argentine hemorrhagic fever (Junin virus) infection of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, R H; Green, D E; Maiztegui, J I; Peters, C J

    1988-01-01

    Guinea pigs infected with low-passage Junin virus of human origin showed viral strain dependent differences in mortality, LD50, time to death, and in viral spread and distribution. Different Junin strains appeared to cause at least two broad patterns of Argentine hemorrhagic fever in guinea pigs. A number of strains of Junin virus caused a viscerotropic type of illness in which virus replicated predominantly in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. With the most severe visceral forms of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, the guinea pigs became viremic, developed necrosis of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, showed gastric hemorrhages, and all animals died within 13-15 days. Other Junin strains induced a neurological type of illness with transient viral replication in and lymphocyte depletion of spleen and lymph nodes, with no detectable viremia or viral replication in bone marrow. Subsequently, virus was found in the brain with varying severities of polioencephalitis, and the guinea pigs frequently showed rear leg paralysis before death occurred 28-34 days after inoculation. Not all animals infected with a neurotropic strain developed all these signs. One viral strain induced some signs characteristic of both patterns of illness. Although the disease forms in the guinea pig model did not strictly correlate with those observed in the humans from which these strains were obtained, the different strains of Junin virus consistently caused very different patterns of illness in infected guinea pigs.

  9. Induction of protective immunity by aerosol or oral application of candidate vaccines in a dose-controlled pig aerosol infection model.

    PubMed

    Hensel, A; van Leengoed, L A; Szostak, M; Windt, H; Weissenböck, H; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Katinger, A; Stadler, M; Ganter, M; Bunka, S; Pabst, R; Lubitz, W

    1996-01-26

    In order to outline basic concepts for the design of a bacterial aerosol infection model, the development of a pig model with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is described. First, reproducibility of aerosol parameters should be maintained by optimizing generating and sampling conditions. Survival rates of the chosen strain must be predictable. Secondly, inhalation conditions for the recipients have to be standardized to enable the determination of deposition sites and the dose administered. Subsequently, dose-response relationship should be evaluated to find a suitable challenge dose. Furthermore, it seems necessary to establish methods to obtain local specimens for determination of the local immune responses. The present study demonstrates that after aerosol challenge pigs were completely protected after inhalation and partially protected after oral application of A. pleuropneumoniae vaccines and describes techniques to administer bacteria in a dose-dependent, viable way. Using the infection model several stages of the disease from acute pleuropneumonia to chronic infection can be induced for research purposes.

  10. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    Hira, Harmanjit Singh; Kaur, Amandeep; Shukla, Anuj

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2nd to 4th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients. PMID:22346188

  11. Pathogenesis of endometritis and salpingitis in a guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rank, R. G.; Sanders, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    The development of tubal obstruction and subsequent infertility is a major sequelum of upper genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis; however, little is known about the pathogenesis of the infection. In this investigation, the authors present a detailed study of the progression of ascending chlamydial infection in female guinea pigs resulting from intravaginal inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Isolation of chlamydiae from different tissues of the genital tract revealed definitive evidence for ascending infection that was not dose-related. By 7 days after infection, GPIC was isolated from the endometrium and oviducts of 78% of the animals. Pathologic changes analogous to those seen in human chlamydial disease, including polymorphonuclear, mononuclear, and plasma cell infiltration, were seen in the endometrium and oviducts, although not all isolation positive animals developed overt tubal disease. Long-term fibrosis, often in combination with hydrosalpinx, was noted in the mesosalpingeal tissue in 20% of the animals. Thus, the guinea pig:GPIC system represents a model for ascending chlamydial infection resulting from vaginal inoculation of normal guinea pigs that closely approximates the disease as seen in humans and can be used to study the pathogenesis of chlamydial genital infection. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1562052

  12. Pathogenesis of endometritis and salpingitis in a guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; Sanders, M M

    1992-04-01

    The development of tubal obstruction and subsequent infertility is a major sequelum of upper genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis; however, little is known about the pathogenesis of the infection. In this investigation, the authors present a detailed study of the progression of ascending chlamydial infection in female guinea pigs resulting from intravaginal inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Isolation of chlamydiae from different tissues of the genital tract revealed definitive evidence for ascending infection that was not dose-related. By 7 days after infection, GPIC was isolated from the endometrium and oviducts of 78% of the animals. Pathologic changes analogous to those seen in human chlamydial disease, including polymorphonuclear, mononuclear, and plasma cell infiltration, were seen in the endometrium and oviducts, although not all isolation positive animals developed overt tubal disease. Long-term fibrosis, often in combination with hydrosalpinx, was noted in the mesosalpingeal tissue in 20% of the animals. Thus, the guinea pig:GPIC system represents a model for ascending chlamydial infection resulting from vaginal inoculation of normal guinea pigs that closely approximates the disease as seen in humans and can be used to study the pathogenesis of chlamydial genital infection.

  13. Programmatic Implications of Acute and Early HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben M; Kato, Masaya; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Montaner, Julio S G; Williams, Brian G

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes acute, early, chronic, and late stages. Acute HIV infection lasts approximately 3 weeks and early HIV infection, which includes acute HIV infection, lasts approximately 7 weeks. Many testing and blood screening algorithms detect HIV antibodies about 3 weeks after HIV infection. Incidence estimates are based on results of modeling, cohort studies, surveillance, and/or assays. Viral load is the key modifiable risk factor for HIV transmission and peaks during acute and early HIV infection. Empirical evidence characterizing the impact of acute and early HIV infection on the spread of the HIV epidemic are limited. Time trends of HIV prevalence collected from concentrated and generalized epidemics suggest that acute and early HIV infection may have a limited role in population HIV transmission. Collectively, these data suggest that acute and early HIV infection is relatively short and does not currently require fundamentally different programmatic approaches to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic in most settings. Research and surveillance will inform which epidemic contexts and phases may require tailored strategies for these stages of HIV infection.

  14. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Pigs at the Time of Slaughter, United Kingdom, 2013.

    PubMed

    Grierson, Sylvia; Heaney, Judith; Cheney, Tanya; Morgan, Dilys; Wyllie, Stephen; Powell, Laura; Smith, Donald; Ijaz, Samreen; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Tedder, Richard S

    2015-08-01

    Since 2010, reports of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) have increased in England and Wales. Despite mounting evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of porcine HEV, there are limited data on its prevalence in pigs in the United Kingdom. We investigated antibody prevalence, active infection, and virus variation in serum and cecal content samples from 629 pigs at slaughter. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 92.8% (584/629), and HEV RNA was detected in 15% of cecal contents (93/629), 3% of plasma samples (22/629), and 2% of both (14/629). However, although HEV is prevalent in pigs in the United Kingdom and viremic pigs are entering the food chain, most (22/23) viral sequences clustered separately from the dominant type seen in humans. Thus, pigs raised in the United Kingdom are unlikely to be the main source of human HEV infections in the United Kingdom. Further research is needed to identify the source of these infections.

  15. Echinococcosis in pigs and intestinal infection with Echinococcus spp. in dogs in southwestern Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Bruzinskaite, R; Sarkūnas, M; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Deplazes, P

    2009-03-23

    Cystic echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in many Eastern European and Asian countries. Post slaughter examinations of 684 pig livers in Lithuania revealed significantly higher numbers of Echinococcus granulosus infections in animals from family farms (13.2%; 95% CI 10.7-16.2) as compared with those from industrial farms (4.1%; 95% CI 0.8-11.5). The prevalence was also significantly higher in pigs older than 1 year than in younger ones. In addition, in 0.5% of the pigs from the family farms, infertile and calcified E. multilocularis lesions were identified by PCR. Faecal samples from rural dogs (n=240) originating from 177 family farms in 12 villages were investigated for taeniid eggs with two methods. Significantly more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the flotation/sieving method (n=34) as compared to the modified McMaster method (n=12). Multiplex PCR performed with DNA from taeniid eggs isolated from faeces of 34 dogs revealed 26 infections with Taenia spp., 9 with E. granulosus and 2 with E. multilocularis (4 cases with concurrent Taenia spp. and E. granulosus or E. multilocularis infections). Genotyping of E. granulosus cyst tissues from 7 pigs, 1 head of cattle and from E. granulosus eggs from 8 dog faeces revealed the genotype G6/7 ('pig/camel strain') in all cases. The high infection pressure with Echinococcus spp. in family farms necessitates initiating control programs. PMID:19111990

  16. A neonatal gnotobiotic pig model of human enterovirus 71 infection and associated immune responses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Kocher, Jacob; Jortner, Bernard S; Vonck, Marlice; Pelzer, Kevin; Deng, Jie; Zhu, Runan; Li, Yuyun; Qian, Yuan; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-05-01

    Vaccine development and pathogenesis studies for human enterovirus 71 are limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the development of a novel neonatal gnotobiotic pig model using the non-pig-adapted neurovirulent human enterovirus 71 strain BJ110, which has a C4 genotype. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural cells were infected in vitro. Oral and combined oral-nasal infection of 5-day-old neonatal gnotobiotic pigs with 5×10(8) fluorescence forming units (FFU) resulted in shedding up to 18 days post-infection, with viral titers in rectal swab samples peaking at 2.22×10(8) viral RNA copies/mL. Viral capsid proteins were detected in enterocytes within the small intestines on post-infection days (PIDs) 7 and 14. Additionally, viral RNA was detected in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues, including the central nervous system, the lung and cardiac muscle. The infected neonatal gnotobiotic pigs developed fever, forelimb weakness, rapid breathing and some hand, foot and mouth disease symptoms. Flow cytometry analysis revealed increased frequencies of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) IFN-γ-producing T cells in the brain and the blood on PID 14, but reduced frequencies were observed in the lung. Furthermore, high titers of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies were generated in both orally and combined oral-nasally infected pigs on PIDs 7, 14, 21 and 28. Together, these results demonstrate that neonatal gnotobiotic pigs represent a novel animal model for evaluating vaccines for human enterovirus 71 and for understanding the pathogenesis of this virus and the associated immune responses. PMID:26038741

  17. Ascaris suum infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks.

    PubMed

    Mejer, H; Roepstorff, A

    2006-09-01

    The transmission of Ascaris suum was studied in outdoor reared pigs. From May to June 2001, 6 farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated with A. suum using experimentally infected seeder pigs. Early July, 1 sow farrowed on each paddock. One piglet per litter was slaughtered every second week starting at week 3 post-partum (p.p.) for registration of liver white spots and recovery of A. suum from the lungs and the small intestine. The last pigs were slaughtered at week 19 p.p. Faeces was examined for parasite eggs and blood was analysed for A. suum-specific antibodies. Weaning took place at week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated by regular examination of soil samples and in late June and late November using parasite naïve tracer pigs. Paddock contamination was high but eggs developed slowly resulting in a low initial transmission to the experimental pigs. By week 5 p.p. transmission had increased and the numbers of infective eggs in the soil increased during the study. The results indicate a continuous uptake of infective eggs, but visceral larval migration was reduced with time, probably due to the development of a pre-hepatic barrier. Nevertheless, a rather large population of adult worms remained in the pigs throughout the study, and it may primarily have been eggs ingested in the early infection phase that gave rise to the patent infections. It is suggested that neonatal exposure may result in increased persistence and size of adult worm burden and that the higher 'life-time worm burden' may be of significant economic importance. PMID:16740179

  18. Experimental infection of pigs with Border disease virus isolated from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Sibila, Marina; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi; Segalés, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    Between 2001 and 2007, several outbreaks of disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection were reported in the central Pyrenees (northeast Spain) and were associated with a major reduction in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations. At the same time, wild boars (Sus scrofa) from the same area were found to be seropositive to this pestivirus, without showing clinical signs. The present study examines the susceptibility of domestic swine and the course of the infection with a BDV strain isolated from naturally infected chamois. Twenty pigs were inoculated with 1 x 10(7) TCID(50) (50% tissue culture infective dose) by oronasal route, and 16 control pigs received Eagles sterile Minimal Essential Medium. Serologic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization test) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on serum samples obtained at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 31 days postinoculation (dpi). All infected pigs were viremic from 3 to 14 dpi. After 14 dpi, all infected animals developed an antibody response against the homologous virus. Clinical signs or histologic lesions were not observed in inoculated pigs. The present work demonstrates the susceptibility of domestic swine to a BDV strain of chamois origin.

  19. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  20. Evaluation of hepatitis E virus infection between different production systems of pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lana, Marconni Victor; Gardinali, Noemi Rovaris; da Cruz, Raquel Aparecida Sales; Lopes, Letícya Lerner; Silva, Gustavo Sousa; Caramori Júnior, João Garcia; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; de Almeida Souza, Marcos; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Pescador, Caroline Argenta

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in pigs from large-scale and family-scale farms, (2) genetically characterize the strains isolated, and (3) study the pathogenesis of swine HEV infection via immunohistochemistry. A total of 50 pigs from 10 farms in Mato Grosso State, Brazil were divided according to type of production system into either large-scale farms (n = 5) or family-scale farms (n = 5). Samples of liver, gallbladder, small and large intestines, bile, and feces from the pigs were analyzed by nested PCR with primers targeting the ORF2 region of HEV and by immunohistochemistry. Of the eight HEV-positive samples from pigs of family-scale farms, phylogenetic analysis revealed that seven of the swine HEV isolates clustered with subtype 3b of genotype 3 and one isolate was categorized with subtype 3 f. The HEV antigen was detected mainly in the small intestine samples from family-scale farms, suggesting an early stage HEV infection. HEV was not detected in the samples of pigs from large-scale farms, reinforcing the need for additional studies to evaluate the risk of transmission of HEV to humans from pigs from family-scale farms in Mato Grosso State.

  1. Experimental infection of pigs with Oesophagostomum dentatum: pathogenesis and parasitology of repeated mass infection.

    PubMed

    Poelvoorde, J; Berghen, P

    1981-07-01

    Pigs receiving a limited ration of 1 kg commercial feed per day were infected daily with 50,000 Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae. The animals exhibited serious diarrhoea and anorexia. Although there was neither anaemia nor hypoproteinaemia, there was a significant decrease in plasma sodium and an increase in blood urea nitrogen at the end of the experiment. Large numbers of third and fourth stage larvae were found in the ileal, caecal and colonic mucosae. Only fourth stage larvae, never adults, were observed in the lumen. A continual expulsion of large quantities of third and fourth stage larvae were demonstrated in the faeces beginning with the appearance of diarrhoea. Neither Vibrio coli, Salmonella spp nor Balantidium coli contributed to the course of the enteritis. PMID:7313309

  2. Experimental infection of conventional pigs with a 'Brachyspira hampsonii' isolate recovered from a migrating waterfowl in Spain.

    PubMed

    Aller-Morán, Luis Miguel; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; Rubio, Pedro; Carvajal, Ana

    2016-08-01

    'Brachyspira hampsonii' is a recently proposed new species within the Brachyspira genus, which produces a dysentery-like disease in pigs. This study aims at investigating whether a 'B. hampsonii' isolate recovered from a migrating waterfowl was capable of colonizing pig intestines, inducing clinical signs of dysentery and being transmitted among pigs. Eleven 7-week-old pigs were randomly assigned into two separate groups which were orally administered an avian isolate of 'B. hampsonii' (inoculated group, n = 5) or BHI broth (control group, n = 6). After inoculation, three pigs from the control group were placed in the inoculated pen and served as sentinel pigs. Our results show the capacity of this avian 'B. hampsonii' isolate to colonize the large intestine of pigs and to be transmitted among pigs. According to this, migrating birds could play a role in the epidemiology of 'B. hampsonii' as a possible source of infection in swine populations. PMID:27387719

  3. Coincidental detection of genomes of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 infecting pigs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saekhow, Prayuth; Kishizuka, Shingo; Sano, Natsuha; Mitsui, Hiroko; Akasaki, Hajime; Mawatari, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    The infection status of 15 viruses in 120 pigs aged about 6 months was investigated based on tonsil specimens collected from a slaughterhouse. Only 5 species of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected at high frequencies; 67% for porcine parvovirus (PPV) (PPV-Kr or -NADL2 as the new abbreviation), 58% for PPV2 (CnP-PARV4), 39% for PPV3 (P-PARV4), 33% for PPV4 (PPV4), 55% for PBo-likeV (PBoV7) and 80% for PCV2. A phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 suggested that Japanese PPV3s showed a slight variation, and possibly, there were farms harboring homogeneous or heterogeneous PPV3s. Statistical analyses indicated that the detection of PCV2 was significantly coincidental with each detection of PPV, PPV2 and PPV3, and PPV and PPV4 were also coincidentally detected. The concurrent infection with PCV2 and porcine parvoviruses in the subclinically infected pigs may resemble the infection status of pigs with the clinical manifestations of porcine circovirus associated disease which occurs in 3-5 months old pigs and is thought to be primarily caused by the PCV2 infection. PMID:26166811

  4. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  5. Persistence, Immune Response, and Antigenic Variation of Mycoplasma genitalium in an Experimentally Infected Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina)

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Iverson-Cabral, Stefanie L.; Patton, Dorothy L.; Cummings, Peter K.; Cosgrove Sweeney, Yvonne T.

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted pathogen associated with several acute and chronic reproductive tract disease syndromes in men and women. To evaluate the suitability of a pig-tailed macaque model of M. genitalium infection, we inoculated a pilot animal with M. genitalium strain G37 in the uterine cervix and in salpingeal pockets generated by transplanting autologous Fallopian tube tissue subcutaneously. Viable organisms were recovered throughout the 8-week experiment in cervicovaginal specimens and up to 2 weeks postinfection in salpingeal pockets. Humoral and cervicovaginal antibodies reacting to MgpB were induced postinoculation and persisted throughout the infection. The immunodominance of the MgpB adhesin and the accumulation of mgpB sequence diversity previously observed in persistent human infections prompted us to evaluate sequence variation in this animal model. We found that after 8 weeks of infection, sequences within mgpB variable region B were replaced by novel sequences generated by reciprocal recombination with an archived variant sequence located elsewhere on the chromosome. In contrast, mgpB region B of the same inoculum propagated for 8 weeks in vitro remained unchanged. Notably, serum IgG reacted strongly with a recombinant protein spanning MgpB region B of the inoculum, while reactivity to a recombinant protein representing the week 8 variant was reduced, suggesting that antibodies were involved in the clearance of bacteria expressing the original infecting sequence. Together these results suggest that the pig-tailed macaque is a suitable model to study M. genitalium pathogenesis, antibody-mediated selection of antigenic variants in vivo, and immune escape. PMID:23732170

  6. Worm recovery and precipitin antibody response in guinea pigs and rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Su, K E; Wang, F Y; Chi, P Y

    1998-12-01

    Guinea pigs (Hartley strain) and rats (Wistar strain) were each fed 200 and 100 Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae, respectively. Five animals from each species were sacrificed weekly between 1-8 weeks postinfection (WPI) and then at 12, 16, 20 and 30 WPI for collection of worms, bile and sera. The overall worm recovery rates for guinea pigs and rats were 18.7% and 12.4%, respectively. Only one of the five rats examined at 20 WPI still harbored one worm, while all were worm-free at 30 WPI. By a double diffusion test, no antibodies were detected against C. sinensis adult antigens in the bile juice. Serum antibodies were detected in at least 95% of the infected guinea pigs between 4-30 WPI and rats between 3-16 WPI. Precipitin antibodies seemed to be correlated with the presence of live worms in rats that had been infected for more than 12 weeks.

  7. Epidemiology of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs: a survey of Ontario Pork Producers, 1981.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S; Mitchell, W R

    1983-01-01

    Information about factors associated with the spread and the effect of pleuropneumonia was obtained from 418 pork producers in Ontario, who returned a mailed questionnaire. The overall herd prevalence of pleuropneumonia was 23.2%. The prevalence among herds with feeder pigs only was 34.3% and 16% among sow herds. The chance of pleuropneumonia breaking out in a herd was increased with increased traffic of pigs into the herd. The source of supplementary stock had an important effect on the chance of pleuropneumonia occurring. The highest risk resulted from introducing stock from salesbarns and the lowest from stock of health status known to the purchaser and supplied by one breeder only. Mortality, primarily among feeder pigs, and unthriftiness were the major effects of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection. Stress, such as crowding or inclement climatic conditions, was associated with outbreaks of pleuropneumonia. This would suggest that the infection with H. pleuropneumoniae can be subclinical until stress precipitates the disease. PMID:6831302

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Karolin; Schott, Franziska; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Wanninger, Sabrina; Sidler, Xaver; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants. PMID:26619187

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Karolin; Schott, Franziska; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Wanninger, Sabrina; Sidler, Xaver; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants. PMID:26619187

  10. Oral therapy using nanoparticle-encapsulated antituberculosis drugs in guinea pigs infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christine M; Pandey, Rajesh; Sharma, Sadhna; Khuller, G K; Basaraba, Randall J; Orme, Ian M; Lenaerts, Anne J

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of nanoparticle-encapsulated antituberculosis drugs administered every 10 days versus that of daily nonencapsulated drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol infection in guinea pigs. Both treatments significantly reduced the bacterial count and lung histopathology, suggesting that the nanoparticle drug delivery system has potential in intermitted treatment of tuberculosis.

  11. Genital herpes in guinea pigs: pathogenesis of the primary infection and description of recurrent disease.

    PubMed

    Stanberry, L R; Kern, E R; Richards, J T; Abbott, T M; Overall, J C

    1982-09-01

    Guinea pigs inoculated intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) developed a self-limiting infection characterized by vesiculo-ulcerative lesions on the external genital skin, urinary retention, and hindlimb paralysis. Infection rarely resulted in death. Virologic, histologic, and immunoperoxidase data suggested the following scheme for viral pathogenesis: initial replication in the introitus, vagina, and bladder; spread via sensory nerves to the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, and transmission via peripheral nerves to the external genital skin to produce the characteristic lesions. After recovery from primary infection, animals developed recurrent vesicular lesions, shed virus from genital sites in the absence of lesions, and harbored latent HSV-2 in dorsal root ganglia. Genital infection in the guinea pig shares many features with genital herpes in humans and provides a model to explore mechanisms of latency and reactivation and to evaluate several methods for control of recurrent disease.

  12. Pasture is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Camilla; Frössling, Jenny; Dórea, Fernanda C; Uggla, Arvid; Vågsholm, Ivar; Lundén, Anna

    2016-07-15

    As consumer awareness of animal welfare increases throughout Europe, housing of pigs in more animal-friendly systems is becoming more common. There is concern that these free-range and organic management systems increase the prevalence of zoonotic meat-borne pathogens, such as Toxoplasma gondii. In this study we compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii between commercial fattening pigs raised on conventional and on organic farms in Sweden. Furthermore, potential associations between presence of T. gondii antibodies and type of production, access to pasture, and geographical region were analysed. A significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence was found between conventional (1%) and organic pigs (8%). The higher odds of seropositivity in organic production was attributed to pasture access specifically (OR=1.8 for a one-month increase in length of pasture exposure). This study shows that the prevalence of T. gondii in Swedish conventional pigs is low. However, as pigs with access to pasture are at higher risk of infection and because the demand for animal-friendly production systems is increasing, there is an obvious need to practically manage the higher T. gondii presence in products from pigs raised in organic systems with outdoor access. PMID:27270386

  13. Tail docking in pigs: acute physiological and behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Bryer, P J; Krebs, N; McGlone, J J

    2008-02-01

    Tail docking of piglets is a routine procedure on farms to control tail-biting behaviour; however, docking can cause an acute stress response. The objectives of this research were to determine the stress responses to tail docking in piglets and to compare two methods of tail docking; cautery iron (CAUT) and the more commonly used blunt trauma cutters (BT). At approximately 6 days of age, piglets were tail docked using CAUT (n = 20), BT (n = 20) or sham tail docked with their tails remaining intact (CON; n = 40). Blood samples were taken prior to tail docking and at 30, 60 and 90 min after tail docking to evaluate the effect of tail docking on white blood cell (WBC) measures and cortisol concentrations. The above experiment was repeated to observe behaviour without the periodic blood sampling, so as not to confound the effects of blood sampling on piglet behaviour. Piglet behaviour was recorded in the farrowing crate using 1 min scan-samples via live observations for 60 min prior to and 90 min after tail docking. Total WBC counts were reduced (P > 0.05) among BT and CAUT compared with CON piglets 30 min after tail docking. Cortisol concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) among BT compared with CON and CAUT piglets 60 min after tail docking. Cautery and BT-docked piglets spent more (P < 0.05) time posterior scooting compared with CON piglets between 0 and 15 min, and 31 and 45 min after tail docking. Piglets tail docked using CAUT and BT tended to spend more (P < 0.07) time sitting than CON piglets between 0 and 15 min post tail docking. Elevated blood cortisol can be reduced by the use of the CAUT rather than the BT method of tail docking. Although the tail docking-induced rise in cortisol was prevented by using CAUT, the behavioural response to BT and CAUT docking methods was similar. PMID:22445023

  14. Detection of airborne influenza a virus in experimentally infected pigs with maternally derived antibodies.

    PubMed

    Corzo, C A; Allerson, M; Gramer, M; Morrison, R B; Torremorell, M

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed whether recently weaned piglets with maternally derived antibodies were able to generate infectious influenza aerosols. Three groups of piglets were assembled based on the vaccination status of the dam. Sows were either non-vaccinated (CTRL) or vaccinated with the same (VAC-HOM) strain or a different (VAC-HET) strain to the one used for challenge. Piglets acquired the maternally derived antibodies by directly suckling colostrum from their respective dams. At weaning, pigs were challenged with influenza virus by direct contact with an infected pig (seeder pig) and clinical signs evaluated. Air samples, collected using a liquid cyclonic air collector, and individual nasal swabs were collected daily for 10 days from each group and tested by matrix real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) assay. Virus isolation and titration were attempted for air samples on Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. All individual pigs from both VAC-HET and CTRL groups tested positive during the study but only one pig in the VAC-HOM group was positive by nasal swab RRT-PCR. Influenza virus could not be detected or isolated from air samples from the VAC-HOM group. Influenza A virus was isolated from 3.2% and 6.4% air samples from both the VAC-HET and CTRL groups, respectively. Positive RRT-PCR air samples were only detected in VAC-HET and CTRL groups on day 7 post-exposure. Overall, this study provides evidence that recently weaned pigs with maternally derived immunity without obvious clinical signs of influenza infection can generate influenza infectious aerosols which is relevant to the transmission and the ecology of influenza virus in pigs.

  15. Detection of airborne influenza a virus in experimentally infected pigs with maternally derived antibodies.

    PubMed

    Corzo, C A; Allerson, M; Gramer, M; Morrison, R B; Torremorell, M

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed whether recently weaned piglets with maternally derived antibodies were able to generate infectious influenza aerosols. Three groups of piglets were assembled based on the vaccination status of the dam. Sows were either non-vaccinated (CTRL) or vaccinated with the same (VAC-HOM) strain or a different (VAC-HET) strain to the one used for challenge. Piglets acquired the maternally derived antibodies by directly suckling colostrum from their respective dams. At weaning, pigs were challenged with influenza virus by direct contact with an infected pig (seeder pig) and clinical signs evaluated. Air samples, collected using a liquid cyclonic air collector, and individual nasal swabs were collected daily for 10 days from each group and tested by matrix real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) assay. Virus isolation and titration were attempted for air samples on Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. All individual pigs from both VAC-HET and CTRL groups tested positive during the study but only one pig in the VAC-HOM group was positive by nasal swab RRT-PCR. Influenza virus could not be detected or isolated from air samples from the VAC-HOM group. Influenza A virus was isolated from 3.2% and 6.4% air samples from both the VAC-HET and CTRL groups, respectively. Positive RRT-PCR air samples were only detected in VAC-HET and CTRL groups on day 7 post-exposure. Overall, this study provides evidence that recently weaned pigs with maternally derived immunity without obvious clinical signs of influenza infection can generate influenza infectious aerosols which is relevant to the transmission and the ecology of influenza virus in pigs. PMID:22827737

  16. Vaccination of pigs reduces Torque teno sus virus viremia during natural infection.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Melsió, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Fernando; Darji, Ayub; Segalés, Joaquim; Cornelissen-Keijsers, Vivian; van den Born, Erwin; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2015-07-01

    Anelloviruses are a group of single-stranded circular DNA viruses infecting several vertebrate species. Four species have been found to infect swine, namely Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) 1a and 1b (TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b; genus Iotatorquevirus), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b (genus Kappatorquevirus). TTSuV infection in pigs is distributed worldwide, and is characterized by a persistent viremia. However, the real impact, if any, on the pig health is still under debate. In the present study, the impact of pig immunization on TTSuVk2a loads was evaluated. For this, three-week old conventional pigs were primed with DNA vaccines encoding the ORF2 gene and the ORF1-A, ORF1-B, and ORF1-C splicing variants and boosted with purified ORF1-A and ORF2 Escherichia coli proteins, while another group served as unvaccinated control animals, and the viral load dynamics during natural infection was observed. Immunization led to delayed onset of TTSuVk2a infection and at the end of the study when the animals were 15 weeks of age, a number of animals in the immunized group had cleared the TTSuVk2a viremia, which was not the case in the control group. This study demonstrated for the first time that TTSuV viremia can be controlled by a combined DNA and protein immunization, especially apparent two weeks after the first DNA immunization before seroconversion was observed. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms behind this and its impact for pig producers.

  17. Genome plasticity of triple-reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus during infection of vaccinated pigs

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Andres; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Romagosa, Anna; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nelson, Martha; Culhane, Marie

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) during infection of vaccinated pigs, we experimentally infected a 3-week-old naive pig with a triple-reassortant H1N1 IAV and placed the seeder pig in direct contact with a group of age-matched vaccinated pigs (n = 10). We indexed the genetic diversity and evolution of the virus at an intra-host level by deep sequencing the entire genome directly from nasal swabs collected at two separate samplings during infection. We obtained 13 IAV metagenomes from 13 samples, which included the virus inoculum and two samples from each of the six pigs that tested positive for IAV during the study. The infection produced a population of heterogeneous alleles (sequence variants) that was dynamic over time. Overall, 794 polymorphisms were identified amongst all samples, which yielded 327 alleles, 214 of which were unique sequences. A total of 43 distinct haemagglutinin proteins were translated, two of which were observed in multiple pigs, whereas the neuraminidase (NA) was conserved and only one dominant NA was found throughout the study. The genetic diversity of IAVs changed dynamically within and between pigs. However, most of the substitutions observed in the internal gene segments were synonymous. Our results demonstrated remarkable IAV diversity, and the complex, rapid and dynamic evolution of IAV during infection of vaccinated pigs that can only be appreciated with repeated sampling of individual animals and deep sequence analysis. PMID:26251306

  18. Genome plasticity of triple-reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus during infection of vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Andres; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Romagosa, Anna; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nelson, Martha; Culhane, Marie; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2015-10-01

    To gain insight into the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) during infection of vaccinated pigs, we experimentally infected a 3-week-old naive pig with a triple-reassortant H1N1 IAV and placed the seeder pig in direct contact with a group of age-matched vaccinated pigs (n = 10). We indexed the genetic diversity and evolution of the virus at an intra-host level by deep sequencing the entire genome directly from nasal swabs collected at two separate samplings during infection. We obtained 13 IAV metagenomes from 13 samples, which included the virus inoculum and two samples from each of the six pigs that tested positive for IAV during the study. The infection produced a population of heterogeneous alleles (sequence variants) that was dynamic over time. Overall, 794 polymorphisms were identified amongst all samples, which yielded 327 alleles, 214 of which were unique sequences. A total of 43 distinct haemagglutinin proteins were translated, two of which were observed in multiple pigs, whereas the neuraminidase (NA) was conserved and only one dominant NA was found throughout the study. The genetic diversity of IAVs changed dynamically within and between pigs. However, most of the substitutions observed in the internal gene segments were synonymous. Our results demonstrated remarkable IAV diversity, and the complex, rapid and dynamic evolution of IAV during infection of vaccinated pigs that can only be appreciated with repeated sampling of individual animals and deep sequence analysis. PMID:26251306

  19. Topical alpha-selective p38 MAP kinase inhibition reduces acute skin inflammation in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Medicherla, Satyanarayana; Ma, Jing Ying; Reddy, Mamtha; Esikova, Irina; Kerr, Irene; Movius, Fabiola; Higgins, Linda S; Protter, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Certain skin pathologies, including psoriasis, are thought to be immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Available literature clearly indicates the involvement of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, T cells, and macrophages), their cytokines, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Neutrophils play an important role in the formation of acute inflammatory changes in psoriasis. Acute inflammation or acute flares in psoriasis remain poorly addressed in clinical medicine. In this communication, we first establish a simple and reproducible model for studying neutrophil-mediated acute skin inflammation. Using the hairless guinea pig, due to the similarity of skin architecture to that of human, acute inflammation was induced with an intradermal injection of 50 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 50 μL solution. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured by MPO-positive neutrophils and shown to increase for 24-hours post-injection. Simultaneously, the level of phosphorylated p38 MAPK was documented for 48-hours post-LPS injection in the skin. Next, we used this model to examine the therapeutic potential of an α-selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469. A comparison of topical application of SCIO-469 at 5 mg/mL or 15 mg/mL to vehicle revealed that SCIO-469 dose-dependently reduces acute skin inflammation and that this effect is statistically significant at the higher dose. Further examination of tissues that received this dose also revealed statistically significant reduction of MPO activity, phosphorylated p38 MAPK, interleukin-6, and cyclooxygenase-2. These data suggest that the α-selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469, acts as a topical anti-inflammatory agent via the p38 MAPK pathway to reduce neutrophil induced acute inflammation in the skin. These observations suggest that α-selective p38 MAPK inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy to manage acute skin inflammation PMID:22096353

  20. Limited survey of genital infection by guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis agent.

    PubMed

    Reed, C; Campbell, L H; Soave, O A

    1977-09-01

    Cervical or urethral scrapings were collected from 245 guinea pigs that had clinical signs of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) or were parents of newborn young having clinical signs of GPIC. Giemsa-stained smears were examined for cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, and samples were passaged in 6-day-old embryonating eggs. Complement-fixation tests were performed on 44 samples passaged through eggs in an effort to detect the presence of GPIC antigen. Unequivocal evidence of chlamydial infection of the genital tract was not found.

  1. Transgenic pigs produced using in vitro matured oocytes infected with a retroviral vector.

    PubMed

    Cabot, R A; Kühholzer, B; Chan, A W; Lai, L; Park, K W; Chong, K Y; Schatten, G; Murphy, C N; Abeydeera, L R; Day, B N; Prather, R S

    2001-11-01

    Here we report the production of transgenic pigs that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). Porcine oocytes were matured in vitro in a serum-free, chemically defined maturation medium, subsequently infected with a replication deficient pseudotyped retrovirus, fertilized and cultured in vitro before being transferred to a recipient female. Two litters were born from these embryo transfers; one pig from each litter was identified as transgenic and both expressed eGFP. From a tool in basic research to direct applications in production agriculture, domestic livestock capable of expressing foreign genes have many scientific applications. PMID:11808636

  2. Acute tubular nephropathy in a patient with acute HIV infection: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Datta, Anandita A; Fletcher, James Lk; Townamchai, Natavudh; Chomchey, Nitiya; Kroon, Eugene; Sereti, Irini; Valcour, Victor; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    We report a 57-year old man with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented with acute HIV infection. Routine blood tests showed an elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular nephropathy, which has not been reported to occur during acute HIV infection, in the absence of rhabdomyolysis or multiple organ system failure. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated. His renal failure gradually resolved without further intervention. At one year of follow-up his HIV RNA was undetectable, and his renal function was normal. The case illustrates a rare manifestation of acute HIV infection - acute renal failure - in an older man with diabetes and hypertension. In this setting acute kidney injury might mistakenly have been attributed to his chronic comorbidities, and this case supports early HIV-1 testing in the setting of a high index of suspicion.

  3. Uptake and Accumulation of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Gopinath S.; Kirk, Natalie M.; Ackart, David F.; Obregón-Henao, Andrés; Shanley, Crystal A.; Orme, Ian M.; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    The typical host response to infection of humans and some animals by M. tuberculosis is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species generating inflammatory cells into discrete granulomas, which frequently develop central caseous necrosis. In previous studies we showed that infection of immunologically naïve guinea pigs with M. tuberculosis leads to localized and systemic oxidative stress that results in a significant depletion of serum total antioxidant capacity and the accumulation of malondialdehyde, a bi-product of lipid peroxidation. Here we show that in addition, the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species in vivo resulted in the accumulation of oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL) in pulmonary and extrapulmonary granulomas, serum and lung macrophages collected by bronchoalveolar lavage. Macrophages from immunologically naïve guinea pigs infected with M. tuberculosis also had increased surface expression of the type 1 scavenger receptors CD36 and LOX1, which facilitate the uptake of oxidized host macromolecules including OxLDL. Vaccination of guinea pigs with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) prior to aerosol challenge reduced the bacterial burden as well as the intracellular accumulation of OxLDL and the expression of macrophage CD36 and LOX1. In vitro loading of guinea pig lung macrophages with OxLDL resulted in enhanced replication of bacilli compared to macrophages loaded with non-oxidized LDL. Overall, this study provides additional evidence of oxidative stress in M. tuberculosis infected guinea pigs and the potential role OxLDL laden macrophages have in supporting intracellular bacilli survival and persistence. PMID:22493658

  4. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-07-09

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae.

  5. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  6. Enhancement of Immunohistochemical Detection of Salmonella in Tissues of Experimentally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, J.; Janczyk, P.; Hünigen, H.; Plendl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1×1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni’s fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  7. Effects of acute ozone exposure on the electrophysiological properties of guinea pig trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Croxton, T.L.; Takahashi, Masahiko; Kokia, Ira

    1994-12-31

    Acute ozone (O{sub 3}) exposures produce an increase in the apparent permeability of the tracheal epithelium, but the mechanism of this response is poorly understood. Comparison of previous studies suggests that qualitative differences may exist between measurements made in vivo or in vitro. To test this possibility we used both in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological techniques to investigate the effects of O{sub 3} exposure on guinea pig tracheal epithelium. Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to either 1 or 2 ppm O{sub 3} or to filtered air for 3 h and were studied 0, 6, or 24 h after exposure. Air-exposed animals had in vitro mean tracheal potential (V{sub T}) -32.0 {+-} 1.5 mV, conductance (G{sub T}{sup L}) 2.18 {+-} 0.22 mS/cm, short-circuit current (I{sub SC}{sup L}) 62.6 {+-} 3.7 {mu}A/cm, and diameter (D) 2.44 {+-} 0.10 mm. In vitro properties after 1 ppm O{sub 3} exposure did not differ at any time point from control. Two parts per million O{sub 3} increased I{sub SC}{sup L}, but only at 6 h postexposure. The effect of O{sub 3} on I{sub SC}{sup L} was abolished by amiloride. There were no significant changes in V{sub T}, G{sub T}{sup L}, or D. In vivo tracheal potential under pentobarbital anesthesia was -19.7 {+-} 1.7 mV. At 6 h postexposure to 2 ppm O{sub 3}, but not at 0 or 24 h, in vivo V{sub I} was increased. Thus, acute exposure of guinea pigs to a high concentration of O{sub 3} caused a delayed increase in Na{sup +} absorption by the trachea with no change in conductance. This indicates that paracellular permeability of guinea pig tracheal epithelium was not substantially increased by acute O{sub 3} and suggests that enhanced macromolecular uptake in this species probably occurs transcellularly. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  9. Rapamycin protects against gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury via autophagy in mini-pig models.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Sun, Xuefeng; Cai, Guangyan; Hong, Quan; Ding, Rui; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-01-01

    Gentamicin may cause acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity is unclear. Autophagy is a highly conserved physiological process involved in removing damaged or aged biological macromolecules and organelles from the cytoplasm. The role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity is unclear. The miniature pigs are more similar to humans than are those of rodents, and thus they are more suitable as human disease models. Here we established the first gentamicin nephrotoxicity model in miniature pigs, investigated the role of autophagy in gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury, and determined the prevention potential of rapamycin against gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction. At 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after gentamicin administration, changes in autophagy, oxidative damage, apoptosis and inflammation were assessed in the model group. Compared to the 0-day group, gentamicin administration caused marked nephrotoxicity in the 10-day group. In the kidneys of the 10-day group, the level of autophagy decreased, and oxidative damage and apoptosis were aggravated. After rapamycin intervention, autophagy activity was activated, renal damage in proximal tubules was markedly alleviated, and interstitium infiltration of inflammatory cells was decreased. These results suggest that rapamycin may ameliorate gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing autophagy. PMID:26052900

  10. Rapamycin protects against gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury via autophagy in mini-pig models

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jing; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Sun, Xuefeng; Cai, Guangyan; Hong, Quan; Ding, Rui; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-01-01

    Gentamicin may cause acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity is unclear. Autophagy is a highly conserved physiological process involved in removing damaged or aged biological macromolecules and organelles from the cytoplasm. The role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity is unclear. The miniature pigs are more similar to humans than are those of rodents, and thus they are more suitable as human disease models. Here we established the first gentamicin nephrotoxicity model in miniature pigs, investigated the role of autophagy in gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury, and determined the prevention potential of rapamycin against gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction. At 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after gentamicin administration, changes in autophagy, oxidative damage, apoptosis and inflammation were assessed in the model group. Compared to the 0-day group, gentamicin administration caused marked nephrotoxicity in the 10-day group. In the kidneys of the 10-day group, the level of autophagy decreased, and oxidative damage and apoptosis were aggravated. After rapamycin intervention, autophagy activity was activated, renal damage in proximal tubules was markedly alleviated, and interstitium infiltration of inflammatory cells was decreased. These results suggest that rapamycin may ameliorate gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing autophagy. PMID:26052900

  11. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  12. Whole blood microarray analysis of pigs showing extreme phenotypes after a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Observed variability in pig response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection, and recently demonstrated genetic control of such responses, suggest that it may be possible to reduce the economic impact of this disease by selecting more disease-resistant pig...

  13. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur state, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive ...

  14. Lack of effect of feeding citrus by-products in reducing Salmonella in experimentally infected weanling pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current research was to determine if feeding citrus by-products D’Limonene (DL) and citrus molasses (MOL) would reduce the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty crossbred weanling pigs (avg. BW = ...

  15. Identification of microRNAs in PCV2 subclinically infected pigs by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Hernández, Fernando; Pérez, Lester J; Muñoz, Marta; Vera, Gonzalo; Tomás, Anna; Egea, Raquel; Córdoba, Sarai; Segalés, Joaquim; Sánchez, Armand; Núñez, José I

    2015-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the essential etiological infectious agent of PCV2-systemic disease and has been associated with other swine diseases, all of them collectively known as porcine circovirus diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. miRNAs play an increasing role in many biological processes. The study of miRNA-mediated host-pathogen interactions has emerged in the last decade due to the important role that miRNAs play in antiviral defense. The objective of this study was to identify the miRNA expression pattern in PCV2 subclinically infected and non-infected pigs. For this purpose an experimental PCV2 infection was carried out and small-RNA libraries were constructed from tonsil and mediastinal lymph node (MLN) of infected and non-infected pigs. High throughput sequencing determined differences in miRNA expression in MLN between infected and non-infected while, in tonsil, a very conserved pattern was observed. In MLN, miRNA 126-3p, miRNA 126-5p, let-7d-3p, mir-129a and mir-let-7b-3p were up-regulated whereas mir-193a-5p, mir-574-5p and mir-34a down-regulated. Prediction of functional analysis showed that these miRNAs can be involved in pathways related to immune system and in processes related to the pathogenesis of PCV2, although functional assays are needed to support these predictions. This is the first study on miRNA gene expression in pigs infected with PCV2 using a high throughput sequencing approach in which several host miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to PCV2 infection. PMID:25879589

  16. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-10-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total of 61 pigs with T. solium cysticercosis (38 males and 23 females) as identified by tongue palpation with age ranging from 3 to 24 months were recruited. The pigs were stratified based on sex, age and number of cysts on the tongue and randomly allocated to IVM, OFZ and control groups. Three days before treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group were slaughtered at week four and the remaining half at week twelve post treatment. The IVM treatment group had no significant effect (p=0.224) on T. solium cysts viability in comparison to the control group. Significant effect on cysts viability was observed in the OFZ treated group (p<0.001) compared to IVM and control groups in all muscle tissues. Regarding to brain cysts, neither of the drugs was efficacious. Ivermectin and OFZ treatments significantly reduced (p<0.001) the faecal egg count of Ascaris suum, strongyles and Trichuris suis two weeks after treatment. At slaughter, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascarops strongylina and Physocephalus sexalatus were recovered from pigs in the IVM treated and in the control groups. Ivermectin was 100% effective in control of

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella infections in free-range pigs.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Hernández, Manuela; Creus, Eva; Echeita, Aurora; Otal, Julio; Herrera-León, Silvia; Astorga, Rafael J

    2011-10-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection was determined in 67 free-range pig herds in southern Spain. Microbiological assessment was performed on ileocolic lymph nodes collected at slaughter according to ISO 6579:2002 procedures. Overall, 33% of herds were infected and the prevalence of infection was 5.3%. Salmonella spp. serovars most frequently isolated were Anatum and Typhimurium, although uncommon serovars such as Hessarek and Mikawasima were also detected. Isolates were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents and exhibited resistance to streptomycin (46%), tetracycline (30%), sulphonamides (25%) and ampicillin (23%) by the break-point method. Multi-drug resistance, defined as resistance to ≥ 4 antimicrobials, was 36%.

  18. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2012-12-21

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependent. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were examined 1, 4 and 8 weeks after oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment. As controls, half of the pigs received no treatment. Lesions were graded 0-V according to their inflammatory response, based on viability of the parasite, the degree and type of cellular response as well as deposition of collagen. Comparison of the degree of inflammatory response was made between treated and un-treated groups showing a significant difference in the mean grade of inflammatory response between 1 and 8 weeks after OFZ treatment. The OFZ treated pigs were further divided into 4 cyst intensity groups. The group with the highest cyst intensity had the lowest mean grade of inflammatory response and the group with the lowest cyst intensity had the highest mean grade of inflammatory response. Thus the present study supports the hypothesis that the time needed for the body to clear the cysts depends on the cyst intensity of individual pigs at the time of treatment.

  19. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on young pigs experimentally infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Meyer, R.C.; Simon, J.; Norton, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Effects of atmospheric ammonia on performance and respiratory tract health of young pigs experimentally infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica were studied. Treatments were: (1) control, (2) Bordetella inoculation (approx 10(9) bacteria/naris) alone, (3) Bordetella inoculation plus exposure to atmospheric ammonia at 34.7 mg/m3 (50 ppm), and (4) Bordetella inoculation plus exposure to atmospheric ammonia at 69.4 mg/m3 (100 ppm). Pigs weighted 8.01 kg (av) at start of treatment. Body weight and feed disappearance were measured weekly. After 4 weeks, all pigs were killed and examined grossly, and appropriate specimens were obtained for histopathologic examination. Regression models were fitted to growth, feed disappearance, and gain-to-feed data. The growth model indicated that Bordetella-inoculated pigs gained 26% less body weight than did controls, regardless of atmospheric ammonia concentration. Bordetella inoculation, regardless of ammonia exposure, reduced feed disappearance 12% below the control rate. Treatment difference was not noted in gain/feed data. Shrunken turbinates were observed in Bordetella-inoculated pigs. Shrinkage also appeared to be related directly to ammonia concentration. Rhinitis was confirmed histopathologically, and its severity was related with atmospheric ammonia concentration, but no difference was seen in the osseous core of the turbinates.

  20. Acute hemiplegia with lacunar infarct after varicella infection in childhood.

    PubMed

    Eda, I; Takashima, S; Takeshita, K

    1983-01-01

    We report 4 cases of acute hemiplegia and a small low-density lesion on computerized tomography (CT) after varicella infection. In 3 of them, CT in the acute hemiplegic stage, and later, reveals the development of lacunar infarct around the internal capsule. Focal low density may be caused by occlusive vascular lesions of the penetrating arteries. Varicella infection may play an important role as one of the causes of acute hemiplegia in childhood producing lacunar infarct, as well as delayed hemiplegia, reported previously in herpes zoster ophthalmicus. PMID:6660422

  1. Dynamics of virus excretion via different routes in pigs experimentally infected with classical swine fever virus strains of high, moderate or low virulence.

    PubMed

    Weesendorp, Eefke; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie

    2009-01-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is transmitted via secretions and excretions of infected pigs. The efficiency and speed of the transmission depends on a multitude of parameters, like quantities of virus excreted by infected pigs. This study provides quantitative data on excretion of CSFV over time from pigs infected with a highly, moderately or low virulent strain. For each strain, five individually housed pigs were infected. Virus excretion was quantified in oropharyngeal fluid, saliva, nasal fluid, lacrimal fluid, faeces, urine and skin scraping by virus titration and quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRRT-PCR). Infectious virus was excreted in all secretions and excretions of pigs infected with the highly and moderately virulent strain, while excretion from pigs infected with the low virulent strain was mostly restricted to the oronasal route. Pigs infected with the highly virulent strain excreted significantly more virus in all their secretions and excretions over the entire infectious period than pigs infected with the moderately or low virulent strains. An exception were the pigs that developed the chronic form of infection after inoculation with the moderately virulent strain. During the entire infectious period, they excreted the largest amounts of virus via most secretions and excretions, as they excreted virus continuously and for a long duration. This study highlights the crucial role chronically infected pigs may play in the transmission of CSFV. Furthermore, it demonstrates the importance of discriminating between strains and the clinical appearance of infection when using excretion data for modelling.

  2. Immunization of mice and guinea-pigs against Salmonella dublin infection with live and inactivated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cameron, C M; Fuls, W J

    1975-06-01

    The immunogenicity of a number of avirulent rough Salmonella dublin mutants was compared in mice and guinea-pigs. Live vaccine prepared from Strain HB 1/17 at doses of 5 X 10(7) per mouse usually gave an immunity of between 70 and 80% but in certain experiments the results were more variable and always poorer. This strain gave a cross protection of 28,5% to S. typhimurium in mice. In guinea-pigs it evoked an average protection of approximately 46% to homologous challenge and approximately 26% to challenge with S. tryphimurium. Strain 5765 protected up to 80% of mice against S. dublin infection and was generally superior to Strain HB 1/17 in this respect. It was, however, less effective in protecting mice against S. tryphimurium (20%). In guinea-pigs it was also less effective than Strain HB 1/17, giving 34% protection against homologous and 20% against heterologous challenge. Other strains also produced immunity in mice but they were not studied in detail. Formalin-inactivated alum-precipitated vaccine prepared from avirulent smooth strain and containing 0,5% packed cells proved to be extremely effective in protecting mice against S. dublin infection. It produced an average immunity of 75% and was often 100% effective. It also protected 60% of mice against challenge with S. tryphimurium. In guinea-pigs it was, however, totally ineffective against challenge with both S. dublin and S. tryphimurium.

  3. An Ex vivo culture model for placental cytomegalovirus infection using slices of Guinea pig placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Souichi; Katano, Harutaka; Sato, Yuko; Fukuchi, Saki; Hashimoto, Kaede; Inoue, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Congenital infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) through the placenta is one of the major causes of birth and developmental abnormalities. Guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) causes in utero infection, which makes its animal models useful for studies on congenital diseases. Here, we established an ex vivo culture method for tissue slices prepared from guinea pig placentas and demonstrated that viral spread in the model resembles those in the placenta of GPCMV-infected animals and that the infection is independent of the pentameric glycoprotein complex for endothelial/epithelial cell tropism. Thus, this model affords a useful tool for pathobiological studies on CMV placental infection.

  4. Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Bacterial Infection; Diarrhea; Fungal Infection; Musculoskeletal Complications; Neutropenia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  5. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001–2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children. PMID:27088268

  6. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Oliveira, Fábio Conceição de; Melo, João Cardoso de; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de; Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de; Souza, Wanderley de; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  7. Non-diabetic hyperglycemia exacerbates disease severity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Podell, Brendan K; Ackart, David F; Kirk, Natalie M; Eck, Sarah P; Bell, Christopher; Basaraba, Randall J

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, the diagnostic feature of diabetes also occurs in non-diabetics associated with chronic inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. Since the increased risk of active TB in diabetics has been linked to the severity and duration of hyperglycemia, we investigated what effect diet-induced hyperglycemia had on the severity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in non-diabetic guinea pigs. Post-prandial hyperglycemia was induced in guinea pigs on normal chow by feeding a 40% sucrose solution daily or water as a carrier control. Sucrose feeding was initiated on the day of aerosol exposure to the H37Rv strain of Mtb and continued for 30 or 60 days of infection. Despite more severe hyperglycemia in sucrose-fed animals on day 30, there was no significant difference in lung bacterial or lesion burden until day 60. However the higher spleen and lymph node bacterial and lesion burden at day 30 indicated earlier and more severe extrapulmonary TB in sucrose-fed animals. In both sucrose- and water-fed animals, serum free fatty acids, important mediators of insulin resistance, were increased by day 30 and remained elevated until day 60 of infection. Hyperglycemia mediated by Mtb infection resulted in accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in lung granulomas, which was exacerbated by sucrose feeding. However, tissue and serum AGEs were elevated in both sucrose and water-fed guinea pigs by day 60. These data indicate that Mtb infection alone induces insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia, which is exacerbated by sucrose feeding. Moreover, Mtb infection alone resulted in the accumulation tissue and serum AGEs, which are also central to the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic complications. The exacerbation of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia by Mtb infection alone may explain why TB is more severe in diabetics with poorly controlled hyperglycemia compared to non-diabetics and patients with properly controlled blood glucose levels.

  8. Protein A suppresses immune responses during Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection in guinea pigs

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Thomer, Lena; Missiakas, Dominique M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2015-01-06

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fcγ and cross-links VH3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High VH3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host Bmore » cell responses. Immunization with SpAKKAA, which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity.« less

  9. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheresiz, S. V.; Semenova, E. A.; Chepurnov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV) variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups. PMID:26989413

  10. Pig, donkey and buffalo meat as a source of some coccidian parasites infecting dogs.

    PubMed

    Zayed, A A; El-Ghaysh, A

    1998-08-14

    Experimental infection of dogs with meat samples (oesophagus, heart and diaphragm) from each of 105 pigs, 11 donkeys and 17 Egyptian water buffaloes indicated that they contained the infective stages of some coccidian parasites of dogs. The dogs which were fed pig meat shed in their faeces Isospora ohioensis, I. canis oocysts and Sarcocystis miescheriana sporocysts after prepatent periods of 3-5, 4-7 and 9-10 days, respectively. The dogs which were fed donkey meat excreted only I. ohioensis oocysts and Sarcocystis bertrami sporocysts after prepatent periods of 3 and 11 days, respectively. However, the dogs which were fed buffalo meat shed in their faeces I. ohioensis, I. canis and Hammondia heydorni oocysts with prepatent periods of 1, 1 and 7 days, respectively.

  11. Parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Okeke, O C; Ubachukwu, P O; Okafor, F C; Shoyinka, S V O

    2012-12-01

    The parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium were studied. A total of 16 guinea-pigs were divided into four groups (four per group): non-immunosuppressed, non-infected group (NN); immunosuppressed, non-infected group (IN); immunosuppressed, infected group (II); non-immunosuppressed, infected group (NI). The IN and II groups were immunosuppressed with 5 mg/kg prednisolone while the II and NI animals were infected with 200-300 S. haematobium cercariae. Excretion of eggs in urine/faeces, worm burden and histopathology of some vital organs of the guinea-pigs were studied. Eggs of S. haematobium were observed in the urine of the NI and II groups from 9 weeks post-infection and in faeces from 10 and 13 weeks post-infection for the NI and II groups, respectively. However, II animals excreted more viable eggs in urine and faeces than those of the NI group. Worm recovery at 14 weeks post-infection showed that NI and II guinea-pigs had more female worms than male worms and a greater proportion of worm recovery for NI animals was of immature worms. Significant differences (P < 0.05) existed between female, male and immature worm burden of the two groups but not in their total worm burden (P>0.05). Histological changes, which were notably reactions to adult S. haematobium worms, were observed in the organs of the NI and II groups but these changes were seen more in the organs of the immunosuppressed, infected (II) than in the non-immunosuppressed, infected (NI) guinea-pigs. The results suggest that immunosuppression before infection increased worm survival and had a moderate effect on liver and bladder histology of S. haematobium infected guinea-pigs.

  12. Analysis of the humoral immune response to chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Batteiger, B E; Rank, R G

    1987-08-01

    Studies using the guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection with the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) have shown that serum and local antibodies play a role both in the resolution of infection and in protection against reinfection. Thus, this model is suited for further exploration of immune mechanisms and for vaccine studies with chlamydial macromolecules. We have further characterized the model by assessing the antigen-specific antibody response to experimental genital infection by using immunoblotting to assay both genital secretions and serum. The GPIC agent was characterized by analysis of outer membrane proteins, which indicated that the GPIC agent possessed a major outer membrane protein (MOMP), with a molecular mass of 39 kilodaltons (kDa), and a 61-kDa protein, analogous to cysteine-rich 60-kDa proteins or doublets of Chlamydia trachomatis strains. As indicated by immunoblotting, most infected animals produced serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to MOMP, the 61-kDa proteins, an 84-kDa outer membrane protein, and lipopolysaccharide. Such serum antibodies persisted for at least 813 days after primary genital infection. Immunoglobulin A antibodies against the 61-kDa proteins, lipopolysaccharide, and MOMP, but not the 84-kDa protein, were detected in secretions. Animals challenged with GPIC 825 days after primary infection became infected again despite the presence of serum antibodies, but the period of chlamydial shedding was significantly shorter and less intense than in primary infections. Although the specific mechanism is not known, these data suggest that a long-lasting immune effect is capable of altering the course of infection late after primary infection. Correlation of the antigen-specific antibody response and other immune parameters with the duration and degree of protective immunity induced by infection or vaccination may be helpful in further understanding the nature of such protective immunity.

  13. Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

  14. Clinical role of respiratory virus infection in acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Arola, M; Ruuskanen, O; Ziegler, T; Mertsola, J; Näntö-Salonen, K; Putto-Laurila, A; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1990-12-01

    The clinical characteristics of acute otitis media in relation to coexisting respiratory virus infection were studied in a 1-year prospective study of 363 children with acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were detected using virus isolation and virus antigen detection in nasopharyngeal specimens of 42% of the patients at the time of diagnosis. Rhinovirus (24%) and respiratory syncytial virus (13%) were the two most common viruses detected. Adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, and coronavirus OC43 were found less frequently. The mean duration of preceding symptoms was 5.9 days before the diagnosis of acute otitis media. Ninety-four percent of the children had symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. Fever was reported in 55% and earache in 47% of cases. Patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection had fever, cough, and vomiting significantly more often than patients with rhinovirus infection or virus-negative patients. No significant differences were found in the appearance of the tympanic membrane and outcome of illness between virus-negative and virus-positive patients with acute otitis. Most patients respond well to antimicrobial therapy despite the coexisting viral infection. If the symptoms of infection persist, they can be due to the underlying viral infection, and viral diagnostics preferably with rapid methods may be clinically useful in these patients.

  15. Influence of immunomodulation on the development of Listeria monocytogenes infection in aged guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hoan-Jen E; Lo, Chih-Yu; Matthews, Karl R

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the impact of immunomodulation on the development of listeriosis within an aged population of guinea pigs after an intragastric challenge with Listeria monocytogenes. Supplementation with vitamin E for 35 days significantly increased the level of cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)), while treatment with cyclosporin A resulted in a 25% decrease of CD8(+) T cells. In the animals receiving the low dose (10(2) CFU) of L. monocytogenes, 50% of the control-group animals became infected. Only 22% of animals receiving the orthomolecular dose of vitamin E became infected, whereas animals that were immunosuppressed had an infection rate of 89%. In the immunosuppressed group three animals (16%) developed listerial infection with a quantifiable bacterial level of 0.3-3 log CFU g(-1) of organ in the spleen and liver. In the high-dose study, the population of L. monocytogenes was consistently 1 log CFU g(-1) lower in the spleen or liver of the vitamin E-supplemented group, compared with the control and cyclosporin A-treated animals. At day 4, a significant increase in the levels of CD8(+) during listerial infection occurred in vitamin E-supplemented animals, suggesting an increased ability to produce CD8(+) T cells. The results suggest that immunomodulation of the host can influence listerial infection within an aged population of guinea pigs. PMID:17378902

  16. Acute toxoplasmosis in pigs in Brazil caused by Toxoplasma gondii genotype Chinese 1.

    PubMed

    Olinda, Roberio G; Pena, Hilda F J; Frade, Maria T S; Ferreira, Jefferson S; Maia, Lisanka Â; Gennari, Solange M; Oliveira, Solange; Dantas, Antônio F M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings from two cases of systemic toxoplasmosis in pigs showing apathy and dyspnea. In the post-mortem examination, severe diffuse necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia with numerous intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii was observed. The lungs had not collapsed but were diffusely reddened, and the parenchyma showed friable whitish subpleural nodules with multifocal to coalescent distribution and diameters of 0.5-1.0 cm. The histopathological findings comprised mononuclear inflammation and multifocal areas of necrosis in alveolar septa (cases 1 and 2). In addition, esophagitis and ulcerations in the mucosa of the stomach and the small and large intestines were observed (case 1). Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-T. gondii antibodies on lung tissue in both cases revealed strong immunolabeling of free tachyzoites and tachyzoites in the cytoplasm of histiocytes and in cysts. Nested PCR targeting a 155-bp fragment of the B1 gene of T. gondii was positive for the DNA extracted from lung fragments from the two pigs. Genotyping of the samples by means of PCR-RFLP (10 markers) and by means of microsatellites (15 of them) revealed that these animals were infected with T. gondii that was molecularly characterized as the non-archetypal genotype Chinese 1. This presents worldwide circulation, but it had not previously been described in Brazil. The microsatellite analysis showed that the animals were infected with the same T. gondii isolate circulating in the environment. PMID:27150968

  17. Acute respiratory toxicity following inhalation exposure to soman in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Michael W.; Pierre, Zdenka; Rezk, Peter; Sabnekar, Praveena; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.

    2010-06-01

    Respiratory toxicity and lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent soman was examined in guinea pigs without therapeutics to improve survival. A microinstillation inhalation exposure technique that aerosolizes the agent in the trachea was used to administer soman to anesthetized age and weight matched male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 280, 561, 841, and 1121 mg/m{sup 3} concentrations of soman for 4 min. Survival data showed that all saline controls and animals exposed to 280 and 561 mg/m{sup 3} soman survived, while animals exposed to 841, and 1121 mg/m{sup 3} resulted in 38% and 13% survival, respectively. The microinstillation inhalation exposure LCt{sub 50} for soman determined by probit analysis was 827.2 mg/m{sup 3}. A majority of the animals that died at 1121 mg/m{sup 3} developed seizures and died within 15-30 min post-exposure. There was a dose-dependent decrease in pulse rate and blood oxygen saturation of animals exposed to soman at 5-6.5 min post-exposure. Body weight loss increased with the dose of soman exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and blood acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity was inhibited dose-dependently in soman treated groups at 24 h. BAL cells showed a dose-dependent increase in cell death and total cell counts following soman exposure. Edema by wet/dry weight ratio of the accessory lung lobe and trachea was increased slightly in soman exposed animals. An increase in total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein was observed in soman exposed animals at all doses. Differential cell counts of BAL and blood showed an increase in total lymphocyte counts and percentage of neutrophils. These results indicate that microinstillation inhalation exposure to soman causes respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury in guinea pigs.

  18. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Host Factors Modulated during Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection in the Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rogée, Sophie; Le Gall, Morgane; Chafey, Philippe; Bouquet, Jérôme; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Frederici, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute enterically transmitted hepatitis. In industrialized countries, it is a zoonotic disease, with swine being the major reservoir of human HEV contamination. The occurrence and severity of the disease are variable, with clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute hepatitis, chronic infection, or fulminant hepatitis. In the absence of a robust cell culture system or small-animal models, the HEV life cycle and pathological process remain unclear. To characterize HEV pathogenesis and virulence mechanisms, a quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify cellular factors and pathways modulated during acute infection of swine. Three groups of pigs were inoculated with three different strains of swine HEV to evaluate the possible role of viral determinants in pathogenesis. Liver samples were analyzed by a differential proteomic approach, two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis, and 61 modulated proteins were identified by mass spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the three HEV strains replicate similarly in swine and that they modulate several cellular pathways, suggesting that HEV impairs several cellular processes, which can account for the various types of disease expression. Several proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, apolipoprotein E, and prohibitin, known to be involved in other viral life cycles, were upregulated in HEV-infected livers. Some differences were observed between the three strains, suggesting that HEV's genetic variability may induce variations in pathogenesis. This comparative analysis of the liver proteome modulated during infection with three different strains of HEV genotype 3 provides an important basis for further investigations on the factors involved in HEV replication and the mechanism of HEV pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for acute hepatitis, with clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic

  19. Viral antibodies in the CSF after acute CNS infections.

    PubMed

    Cappel, R; Thiry, L; Clinet, G

    1975-09-01

    Viral antibodies were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from 25 patients having acute viral central nervous system (CNS) infections, and from 39 control patients. The results, collected two weeks after the clinical onset, revealed the presence of antibodies in nine of 13 (69%) CSF specimens from patients suffering from encephalitis of myelitis, and in only one of nine (11%) of the CSF samples of those presenting a viral meningitis infection. This difference was statistically significant and suggests that the titration of viral antibodies in the CSF can be helpful in establishing the diagnosis of viral CNS infection. Our data also suggest that localized production of antibodies occurs during the course of acute CNS infections, and that the respiratory syncytial virus can be associated with CNS infections in man.

  20. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  1. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  2. Role of dystrophin in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Malvestio, Lygia M; Celes, Mara R N; Milanezi, Cristiane; Silva, João S; Jelicks, Linda A; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Rossi, Marcos A; Prado, Cibele M

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated loss/reduction of dystrophin in cardiomyocytes in both acute and chronic stages of experimental Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection in mice. The mechanisms responsible for dystrophin disruption in the hearts of mice acutely infected with T. cruzi are not completely understood. The present in vivo and in vitro studies were undertaken to evaluate the role of inflammation in dystrophin disruption and its correlation with the high mortality rate during acute infection. C57BL/6 mice were infected with T. cruzi and killed 14, 20 and 26 days post infection (dpi). The intensity of inflammation, cardiac expression of dystrophin, calpain-1, NF-κB, TNF-α, and sarcolemmal permeability were evaluated. Cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocytes were incubated with serum, collected at the peak of cytokine production and free of parasites, from T. cruzi-infected mice and dystrophin, calpain-1, and NF-κB expression analyzed. Dystrophin disruption occurs at the peak of mortality and inflammation and is associated with increased expression of calpain-1, TNF-α, NF-κB, and increased sarcolemmal permeability in the heart of T. cruzi-infected mice at 20 dpi confirmed by in vitro studies. The peak of mortality occurred only when significant loss of dystrophin in the hearts of infected animals occurred, highlighting the correlation between inflammation, dystrophin loss and mortality.

  3. Studies on porcine pancreatic elastase activity. II. Immunoreactive elastase level during acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Y; Matsuno, S; Noto, N; Saitoh, Y; Sato, T

    1980-06-01

    Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis was produced in pig to study serum concentration of elastase and its physiological role. Pancreatitis was induced in two groups of young pigs by the injection of autologous bile. One group was injected with autologous bile (0.5 ml/kg) at high pressure, and the second group was injected as low pressure (100 cm H2O). Then femoral blood, portal blood and thoracic lymph were sampled at scheduled time intervals. The control level of immunoreactive elastase was around 90 ng/ml in each site, which significantly increased beginning 15 min after bile injection; the level of immunoreactive elastase was higher in the thoracic lymph duct than in the femoral and portal vein. The total and free elastase of both groups in pancreatic tissue were significantly decreased in pancreatitis, and an abundance of immunoreactive elastase was found in the ascites. The increasing pattern of immunoreactive elastase and amylase after bile injection was very similar. Therefore, the level of immunoreactive elastase was considered to be inadequate to determine the grade of severity of pancreatitis as well as the level of amylase which is already known.

  4. Acute toxicity of T2 mycotoxin to the guinea-pig by inhalation and subcutaneous routes.

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, T. C.; Edginton, J. A.; Price, P. N.; Upshall, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The acute inhalation and subcutaneous toxicity of T2 mycotoxin has been investigated in guinea-pigs. The toxicity by the two routes was quantitatively and qualitatively similar. The LCt50 was 5749 mg min m-3 and the subcutaneous LD50 1-2 mg kg-1. Histological changes in the decedents which were similar by both routes of administration were most marked in the lymphoreticular system but also occurred in the gut. Lymphocytolysis and phagocytosis occurred in both the cortex of the thymus and of the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes were more severely affected in the decedents among the animals dosed with T2 by the subcutaneous route. The small intestine exhibited dead and dying cells throughout the lamina propria after T2 by either route. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3707855

  5. 13C-urea breath test for diagnosis of experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in barrier born pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Rosberg, K; Gustavsson, S

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies with Helicobacter pylori infected barrier born pigs indicate that the infection has a patchy distribution, resulting in false negative culture results on endoscopic biopsy specimens. This study aimed to adapt the 13C-urea breath test as used in humans to diagnose H pylori infection in barrier born pigs. The breath test was also performed after bismuth as a single treatment and after triple therapy (bismuth, ampicillin, metronidazole). In control pigs the median excess of 13CO2 in expired air was 2.2 (range 0-12 n = 22) ppm. The infected pigs (n = 4) showed consistently high values (median 23 range 14-43) when examined on four occasions (n = 16) four to 10 weeks after inoculation. Biopsy specimens for culture had lower sensitivity than the breath test. No reduction in excess 13CO2 was seen after three days' single bismuth treatment, but after two weeks' triple therapy the breath test results had returned to normal. This suppression was temporary only, however, as the breath test was positive again four weeks after stopping treatment. In conclusion, the 13C-urea breath test is a simple and reliable test for determining H pylori infection and monitoring treatment effects in barrier born pigs. Because the test can be performed in awake pigs anaesthesia and gastroscopy are unnecessary. Images Figure 1 PMID:8504957

  6. Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Howey, Erin B; O'Donnell, Vivian; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Borca, Manuel V; Arzt, Jonathan

    2013-12-26

    To investigate the pathogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV), domestic pigs (n=18) were challenged with a range (10(2)-10(6) 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)) of the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain by inoculation via the intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), or intramuscular (IM) routes. A subsequent contact challenge experiment was performed in which six IOP-inoculated donor pigs were allowed to have direct contact (DC) with six naïve pigs for exposure times that varied from 24 to 72 h. All challenge routes resulted in clinical progression and postmortem lesions similar to those previously described in experimental and natural infection. The onset of clinical signs occurred between 1 and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) and included pyrexia with variable progression to obtundation, hematochezia, melena, moribundity and death with a duration of 4-11 days. Viremia was first detected between 4 and 5 dpi in all inoculation groups whereas ASFV shedding from the nasal cavity and tonsil was first detected at 3-9 dpi. IM and DC were the most consistent modes of infection, with 12/12 (100%) of pigs challenged by these routes becoming infected. Several clinical and virological parameters were significantly different between IM and DC groups indicating dissimilarity between these modes of infection. Amongst the simulated natural routes, INP inoculation resulted in the most consistent progression of disease across the widest range of doses whilst preserving simulation of natural exposure and therefore may provide a superior system for pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy investigation.

  7. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed.

  8. Screening for acute HIV infection in South Africa: finding acute and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Reddy, Shabashini; Bishop, Karen; Lu, Zhigang; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The yield of screening for acute HIV infection among general medical patients in resource-scarce settings remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a strategy of pooled HIV plasma RNA to diagnose acute HIV infection in patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests in Durban, South Africa. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests from a routine HIV screening program in an outpatient department in Durban with an HIV prevalence of 48%. Study participants underwent venipuncture for pooled qualitative HIV RNA, and if positive, quantitative RNA, enzyme immunoassay and Western Blot (WB). Patients with negative or indeterminate WB and positive quantitative HIV RNA were considered acutely infected. Those with chronic infection (positive RNA and WB) despite negative or discordant rapid HIV tests were considered false negative rapid antibody tests. Results Nine hundred ninety-four participants were enrolled with either negative (N=976) or discordant (N=18) rapid test results. Eleven (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0%) had acute HIV infection. Of the 994 patients, an additional 20 (2.0%, 95% CI: 1.3–.3.1%) had chronic HIV infection (false negative rapid test). Conclusions One percent of outpatients with negative or discordant rapid HIV tests in Durban, South Africa had acute HIV infection readily detectable through pooled serum HIV RNA screening. Pooled RNA testing also identified an additional 2% of patients with chronic HIV infection. HIV RNA screening has the potential to identify both acute and chronic HIV infections that are otherwise missed by standard HIV testing algorithms. PMID:20553336

  9. Changes in cochlear function during acute endolymphatic hydrops development in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel J; Chihara, Yasuhiro; Curthoys, Ian S; Wang, Yuan; Bos, Marieke

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have injected artificial endolymph into scala media in anaesthetized guinea pigs as an acute model of endolymphatic hydrops. Here, we have injected artificial endolymph into scala media in guinea pigs at rates of 40-80 nl/min, whilst monitoring Compound Action Potential (CAP) thresholds, the Summating Potential (SP)/CAP ratio, Cochlear Microphonic (CM) distortion, low-frequency modulated Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs), and the Endocochlear Potential (EP). We found that abrupt recovery of CAP thresholds, SP/CAP ratio, and CM and DPOAE asymmetric distortion could occur several times during a single injection of less than 3 μl, suggesting that endolymph pressure could periodically decrease while the injection was ongoing. Larger volumes are thought to produce a rupture of the membranous labyrinth, however, our results suggest that multiple injections, each larger than 3 μl and within 40 min of each other, cause multiple pressure-related changes, which are difficult to be explained on the basis of a simple labyrinth rupture. We have also examined the morphological changes of the temporal bones ex vivo using X-ray micro-tomography. Both the functional changes and the micro-CT images suggest ruptures of the membranous labyrinth may not always be responsible for abrupt changes in inner ear function. Our results provide a new insight into the changes in cochlear function occurring during acute hydrops development, which compares well to the clinical findings observed in Ménière's Disease. We suggest that hydrops development may be a continual process, yet cause discontinuous functional changes due to mechanisms other than a simple rupture of the membranous labyrinth. PMID:23270618

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase and elastase activities in LPS-induced acute lung injury in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    D'Ortho, M P; Jarreau, P H; Delacourt, C; Macquin-Mavier, I; Levame, M; Pezet, S; Harf, A; Lafuma, C

    1994-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and elastase are proteolytic enzymes specifically directed against extracellular matrix (ECM) components. They are secreted by inflammatory cells and may consequently contribute to the lesions of the ECM observed during acute pulmonary edema. We therefore evaluated the MMP and elastase activities, which are secreted by cultured alveolar macrophages (AMACs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and present in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in a guinea pig model of acute lung injury induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The control group was given 0.9% NaCl. 24 h after instillation, a BAL was performed, the BAL fluid was separated from the cells by centrifugation, and AMACs and PMNs were separately cultured for 24 h. In BAL fluid from LPS-treated guinea pigs, we found 1) an increase in free gelatinase activity, tested on [3H]gelatin (0.7 +/- 0.2 micrograms.200 microliters BAL fluid-1.48 h-1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 in controls, P < 0.05), and 2) increased total gelatinase activities, as assessed by zymography. The molecular masses of the major gelatinase species found in BAL fluid by zymography were 92 and 68 kDa. The 92-kDa gelatinase was secreted by both AMACs and PMNs, as demonstrated by zymography of their respective culture media. When tested on [3H]elastin, the elastase activity of BAL fluid of LPS-treated animals exhibited no increase, but when tested on a synthetic peptidic substrate [N-succinyl-(L-alanine)3-p-nitro anilide (SLAPN)], increased elastase-like activity was observed (from 17 +/- 4 nmol of SLAPN.200 microliters BAL fluid-1.24 h-1 in control group to 34 +/- 8 in LPS group, P < 0.05). This increase was attributable to the activity of a metalloendopeptidase that was inhibited by the metal chelator EDTA but not by the specific tissue inhibitor of MMPs.

  11. Imaging in acute renal infection in children

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Starshak, R.J.; Schroeder, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    Infection is the most common disease of the urinary tract in children, and various imaging techniques have been used to verify its presence and location. On retrospective analysis, 50 consecutive children with documented upper urinary tract infection had abnormal findings on renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. The infection involved the renal poles only in 38 and the poles plus other renal cortical areas in eight. Four had abnormalities that spared the poles. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 32 of 50 children. Excretory urograms were abnormal in six of 23 children in whom they were obtained. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 34 of 40 children in whom voiding cystourethrography was performed. These data show the high sensitivity of renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in documenting upper urinary tract infection. The location of the abnormalities detected suggests that renal infections spread via an ascending mode and implies that intrarenal reflux is a major contributing factor.

  12. [Immune Protection against H9N2 Provided by H1N1 Pre-infection in Pigs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Maocai; Hong, Wenshan; Zheng, Zuoyi; Chen, Rirong

    2015-07-01

    To explore the impact of the history of infection by the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 on secondary infection by the influenza A virus subtype H9N2, pigs non-infected and pre-infected with H1N1 were inoculated with H9N2 in parallel to compare nasal shedding and seroconversion patterns. Unlike pigs without a background of H1N1 infection, nasal shedding was not detected in pigs pre-infected with H1N1. Both groups generated antibodies against H9N2. However, levels of H1N1 antibodies in pigs pre-infected with H1N1 increased quickly and dramatically after challenge with H9N2. Cross-reaction was not observed between H1N1 antibodies and H9N2 viruses. These findings suggest that circulation of the H1N1 virus might be a barrier to the introduction and transmission of the avian H9N2 virus, thereby delaying its adaptation in pigs.

  13. Pathophysiology of Clinical Symptoms in Acute Viral Respiratory Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Kuchar, E; Miśkiewicz, K; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Szenborn, L

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the pathophysiology of common symptoms of acute viral respiratory infections (e.g., sneezing, nasal discharge, sore throat, cough, muscle pains, malaise, and mood changes). Since clinical symptoms are not sufficient to determine the etiology of viral respiratory tract infections, we believe that the host defense mechanisms are critical for the symptomatology. Consequently, this review of literature is focused on the pathophysiology of respiratory symptoms regardless of their etiology. We assume that despite a high prevalence of symptoms of respiratory infection, their pathogenesis is not widely known. A better understanding of the symptoms' pathogenesis could improve the quality of care for patients with respiratory tract infections.

  14. Lectin histochemistry of the gastric mucosa in normal and Helicobacter pylori infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Lueth, M; Sturegård, E; Sjunnesson, H; Wadström, T; Schumacher, U

    2005-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori attaches via lectins, carbohydrate binding proteins, to the carbohydrate residues of gastric mucins. Guinea-pigs are a suitable model for a H. pylori infection and thus the carbohydrate composition of normal and H. pylori infected gastric mucosa was investigated by lectin histochemistry. The stomach of all infected animals showed signs of an active chronic gastritis in their mucosa, whereas no inflammation was present in the control animals. The corpus-fundus regions of the controls showed heterogeneous WGA, SNA-I, UEA-I and HPA binding in almost all parts of the gastric glands. While these lectins labelled the superficial mucous cells and chief cells heterogeneously, the staining of the parietal cells was limited to WGA and PHA-L. Mucous neck cells reacted heterogeneously with UEA-I, HPA, WGA and PHA-L. In the antrum, the superficial mucous cells and glands were stained by WGA, UEA-I, HPA, SNA-I or PHA-L. WGA, UEA-I, SNA-I and HPA labelled the surface lining cells strongly. The mucoid glands reacted heterogeneously with WGA, UEA-I, HPA, SNA-I and PHA-L. In both regions, the H. pylori infected animals showed similar lectin binding pattern as the controls. No significant differences in the lectin binding pattern and thus in the carbohydrate composition between normal and H. pylori infected mucosa could be detected, hence H. pylori does not induce any changes in the glycosylation of the mucosa of the guinea-pig. This unaltered glycosylation is of particular relevance for the sialic acid binding lectin SNA-I as H. pylori uses sialic acid binding adhesin for its attachment to the mucosa. As sialic acid binding sites are already expressed in the normal mucosa H. pylori can immediately attach via its sialic acid binding adhesin to the mucosa making the guinea-pig particularly useful as a model organism.

  15. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    PubMed Central

    Flieger, Robert Rainer; Mankertz, Annette; Yilmaz, Kadir; Roepke, Torsten Kai

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  16. Predominant involvement of the cerebellum in guinea pigs infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Furuoka, H; Horiuchi, M; Yamakawa, Y; Sata, T

    2011-05-01

    This study reports the experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to guinea pigs and describes the cerebellar lesions in these animals. Guinea pigs were inoculated intracerebrally with 10% brain homogenates from BSE-affected cattle. These animals were designated as the first passage. Second and third passages were subsequently performed. All guinea pigs developed infection at each passage. The mean incubation period of the first passage was 370 days post-infection (dpi) and this decreased to 307 dpi and 309 dpi for the second and third passages, respectively. Mild to severe spongiform degeneration and gliosis were observed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. In addition, the affected animals had marked pathological changes in the cerebellum characterized by severe cortical atrophy associated with Bergmann radial gliosis of the molecular layer and reduction in the width of the granular cell layer. Immunohistochemically, intense PrP(Sc) deposition and scattered plaque-like deposits were observed in the molecular and granular cell layers. Cerebellar lesions associated with severe atrophy of the cortex have not been reported in animal prion diseases, including in the experimental transmission of PrP(Sc) to small rodents. These lesions were similar to the lesions of human kuru or the VV2 variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although typical kuru plaques or florid plaques were not observed in the affected animals.

  17. Experimental infection with Toxocara cati in pigs: migratory pattern and pathological response in early phase.

    PubMed

    Sommerfelt, Irma Estela; Duchene, Adriana; Daprato, Betina; Lopez, Clara María; Cardillo, Natalia; Franco, Aníbal Juan

    2014-01-01

    Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  18. Characterization of chlamydial genital infection resulting from sexual transmission from male to female guinea pigs and determination of infectious dose.

    PubMed

    Rank, Roger G; Bowlin, Anne K; Reed, Ronald L; Darville, Toni

    2003-11-01

    A major problem in the study of chlamydial genital infections in animal models has been the use of varied doses of chlamydiae for infection in different laboratories. It is clearly desirable to use a dose which approximates that of natural sexual infection, but that dose to date has not been determined because of the inability of researchers to quantify chlamydiae in semen. Fortunately, sexual transmission of chlamydiae has been described for the guinea pig model of infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). In this study, we undertook to determine the approximate infection dose in actual sexual transmission by comparing the kinetics of infection in female guinea pigs acquired via sexual contact to those of genital infections induced artificially with known quantities of chlamydiae. Groups of guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with 10(4), 10(3), 10(2), and 10(1) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of GPIC, and the kinetics of the infection were determined. Infection with 10(2) IFU produced infections with lower peak levels than those in animals receiving 10(4) or 10(3) IFU. Seventy percent of animals receiving 10(2) IFU became infected, while 100 and 79% of animals receiving 10(4) and 10(3) IFU, respectively, became infected. Animals receiving 10(2) IFU also had a longer incubation period. Of 19 animals that mated with infected males, 63.2% became infected, with an infection course which was not significantly different than that of the 10(2)-IFU-infected group. The data suggest that female guinea pigs received approximately 10(2) IFU by sexual transmission. Of interest was the observation that the guinea pigs infected by sexual transmission shed organisms for a significantly shorter time period than that of any group that was artificially infected. This result suggests that there may be factors associated with semen which passively transfer antimicrobial activity to the female or enhance the innate host response in the female

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

  20. Scanning electron microscopy of experimental Trichophyton mentagrophytes infections in guinea pig skin.

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, R D; Kerbs, S; Yee, K

    1978-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes invasion of guinea pig skin was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Biopsies were obtained daily for 12 days from experimental infection sites. Dermatophyte invasion, examined in detail by scanning electron microscopy of cross-sectioned, prefixed skin was evidenced by: the appearance of hyphae within the stratum corneum; follicular invasion by hyphae, which remained initially within the follicle wall; emergence of the hyphae from the wall into the follicular canal; proliferation of the fungus down the follicle, with furrowing of the follicle wall and hair shaft cuticle; penetration of hyphae into the hair shaft by subcuticular and transcuticular routes; and massive peripilar hyphal proliferation with arthrosporogenesis. A three-dimensional perception of the invasion sequence of a dermatophyte in guinea pig skin was obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:711318

  1. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-10-18

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and immunohistochemistry using caspase-3 antibodies. Histopathological evaluation revealed lesions of stage I which was characterized by presence of viable parasite surrounded with minimal to moderate inflammatory cells and stage III characterized by the presence of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts.

  2. Pulmonary effects of acute and chronic antigen exposure of immunized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Paré, P D; Michoud, M C; Boucher, R C; Hogg, J C

    1979-02-01

    Subdivisions of lung volume and pressure-volume (PV) curves of the lung and chest wall were measured in guinea pigs immunized to ovalbumin before and after acute (group 1) and chronic (group 2) antigen exposure. The histopathology produced in chronically exposed animals was also assessed. Animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and studied in a pressure-sensitive body plethysmograph, using a fluid-filled esophageal catheter to measure transpulmonary pressure (PL). Functional residual capacity (FRC) was determined by the Boyle's law technique; total lung capacity (TLC) was defined as the lung volume at a PL of 30 cmH20, and residual volume (RV) was defined as the lung volume at a transrespiratory pressure of -50 cmH2O. Acute antigen challenge of group 1 animals resulted in a decrease in TLC (22%), and increases in FRC (20%) and RV (110%), suggesting combined bronchoconstriction and alveolar duct constriction. Chronic antigen exposure of group 2 animals resulted in minimal changes in subdivisions of lung volume and PV curves, and produced a histological lesion resembling allergic alveolitis rather than asthma. PMID:422452

  3. Role of tachykinins in ozone-induced acute lung injury in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Tepper, J.S.; Costa, D.L.; Fitzgerald, S.; Doerfler, D.L.; Bromberg, P.A. )

    1993-09-01

    To examine the hypothesis that the acute reversible changes caused by ozone (O3) exposure are mediated by tachykinin release, guinea pigs were depleted of tachykinins by use of repeated capsaicin (CAP) injections before O3 exposure in an attempt to prevent O3-induced functional changes. Unexpectedly, CAP pretreatment caused divergent results in the functional responses to O3. Ventilatory measurements obtained from CAP-pretreated O3-exposed (CAP-O3) animals were exacerbated rather than diminished compared with the effects of O3 alone. Similarly, lavage fluid protein accumulation was enhanced in the CAP-O3 group compared with the O3-exposed group. In better agreement with our initial hypothesis, the CAP-O3 group was less responsive than the O3-exposed animals to histamine aerosol challenge. Additionally, Evans blue dye accumulation, a hallmark of tachykinin release, was increased in O3-exposed animals and was partially blocked in the CAP-O3 group. These data suggest that tachykinin-containing sensory fibers are unlikely to mediate the acute effects of O3 exposure on tidal breathing and lavage fluid protein accumulation but may play a role in causing post-O3 airway hyperreactivity and protein extravasation into the trachea.

  4. Characterization of acute rat parvovirus infection by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, D J; Jacoby, R O; Johnson, E A; Paturzo, F X; Smith, A L; Brandsma, J L

    1993-04-01

    In situ hybridization and virus titration were used to characterize early stages of rat virus (RV) infection of rat pups after oronasal inoculation. Results suggest that virus enters through the lung and that early viremia leads rapidly to pantropic infection. Cells derived from all three germ layers were infected with RV, but those of endodermal and mesodermal origin were the predominant targets. Infection of vascular endothelium was widespread and was associated with hemorrhage and infarction in the brain. Convalescence from acute infection was accompanied by mononuclear cell infiltrates at sites containing RV DNA. Viral DNA was also detected in endothelium, fibroblasts and smooth muscle myofibers four weeks after inoculation. Further examination of these cells as potential sites of persistent infection is warranted.

  5. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs infected ocularly with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Senyk, G; Kerlan, R; Stites, D P; Schanzlin, D J; Ostler, H B; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E

    1981-04-01

    Cell-mediated immune response and humoral response to chlamydial antigens were investigated in guinea pigs infected with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Pronounced cell-mediated immune response to the homologous antigen, as well as to two other chlamydial antigens, 6BC (Chlamydia psittaci) and LB-1 (C. trachomatis), occurred in all infected animals. Cell-mediated immune response to GPIC, and to a lesser extent to 6BC and LB-1 as well, was enhanced with time after infection even without the re-inoculation of the infectious agent. Extensive cross-reactions among the three chlamydial antigens during the cell-mediated immune response appeared to be due to shared species-specific and group-reactive antigens. Serum antibody response was pronounced and uniform to GPIC; it was less marked to 6BC and LB-1, with fewer cross-reactions than seen in tests for cell-mediated immunity.

  6. [Acute poisoning of pigs with hydrogen sulfide as a result of acidification of slurry on a pig farm].

    PubMed

    Borst, G H

    2001-02-15

    On a fattening pig farm all 582 animals died of peracute intoxication with hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The accident took place after 6000 litres of lactic acid (41.5 mass %) was dumped in the slurry pit. The volume of released gas was about 575 m3. This resulted in sudden spreading by high pressure of a lethal concentration of hydrogen sulphide to all compartments of the pig house. Analysis of the situation indicated that the level of hydrogen sulphide was 7870 ppm. PMID:11233504

  7. Experimental Helicobacter pylori infection induces antral gastritis and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shomer, N H; Dangler, C A; Whary, M T; Fox, J G

    1998-06-01

    Humans infected with Helicobacter pylori have abnormally low levels of the antioxidant vitamin C, which protects against the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines, in gastric juice. Guinea pigs, like humans and nonhuman primates, have a dietary requirement for vitamin C. As such, these species have gastrointestinal vitamin C transport systems not found in other animals. We have developed and characterized a guinea pig model of chronic gastric H. pylori infection with the rodent-adapted Sydney strain of H. pylori. At 4 weeks postinfection, five of six animals of the infected group and zero of two animals of the control group were positive for H. pylori as determined by culture or PCR. At 15 weeks, six of six animals of the infected group and zero of two animals of the control group were positive. H. pylori-specific seroconversion was observed among infected animals. There were no histologic abnormalities in the gastric antra or fundi of control guinea pigs. In contrast, there was multifocal, mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic antral gastritis and formation of antral lymphoid follicles in H. pylori-infected animals. The lesion distribution in the gastric antra paralleled that observed in H. pylori-infected humans. The H. pylori-infected guinea pig should prove useful in modeling the interaction of helicobacter and vitamin C in gastric carcinogenesis.

  8. Emergency Department Management Of Acute Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Steven G; Pfaff, James A; Cuenca, Peter John

    2014-11-01

    Infective endocarditis has a high rate of mortality, and most patients suspected of having the disease will require hospital admission. This review examines the literature as it pertains specifically to emergency clinicians who must maintain vigilance for risk factors and obtain a thorough history, including use of intravenous drugs, in order to guide the workup and treatment. Properly obtained cultures are critical during the evaluation, as they direct the course of antibiotic therapy. Although transthoracic echocardiography is widely available in United States emergency departments, it is not sensitive or specific enough to rule out a diagnosis of infective endocarditis. In high-risk patients, transesophageal echocardiography should be considered.

  9. Increased and prolonged human norovirus infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient gnotobiotic pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaohua; Ryu, Junghyun; Wen, Ke; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Samuel, Helen; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Jiang, Xi; Lee, Kiho; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Application of genetically engineered (GE) large animals carrying multi-allelic modifications has been hampered by low efficiency in production and extended gestation period compared to rodents. Here, we rapidly generated RAG2/IL2RG double knockout pigs using direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 system into developing embryos. RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs were immunodeficient, characterized by depletion of lymphocytes and either absence of or structurally abnormal immune organs. Pigs were maintained in gnotobiotic facility and evaluated for human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. HuNoV shedding lasted for 16 days in wild type pigs, compared to 27 days (until the end of trials) in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs. Additionally, higher HuNoV titers were detected in intestinal tissues and contents and in blood, indicating increased and prolonged HuNoV infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs and the importance of lymphocytes in HuNoV clearance. These results suggest that GE immunodeficient gnotobiotic pigs serve as a novel model for biomedical research and will facilitate HuNoV studies. PMID:27118081

  10. Main risk factors for Salmonella-infections in pigs in north-western Germany.

    PubMed

    Gotter, V; Klein, G; Koesters, S; Kreienbrock, L; Blaha, T; Campe, A

    2012-10-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major zoonotic, food-borne diseases, among others, caused by pig derived food products. As infected pigs are one of the main sources of the introduction of the bacterium into the food chain, scientific research in the last years has focussed on identifying risk factors for infection as well as developing mitigation strategies on this level of production. In order to update the knowledge of the German situation by incorporating recent changes in the German pig industry, a case-control study was set up to identify the key contributing risk factors for farms located in the western part of Lower Saxony, the region with the highest pig density in Germany. Based on an extensive and systematic literature search, a comprehensive questionnaire with 302 questions concerning such topics as personnel hygiene, animal management, biosecurity, feeding management as well as cleaning and disinfection routines was utilized in a face-to-face interview on 104 case and 67 control farms. Within a stepwise forward selection process the preliminary identified factors were grouped contextually, associations between variables were calculated and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted. Identified risk factors were: the moving of individual animals during the fattening period (OR 5.3, CI 95% 1.35-20.35), not having a separate transporter for different age groups (OR 11.4, CI 95% 1.94-66.18) and pigs having contact to other animals (OR 4.3, CI 95% 1.39-12.96). The following factors were identified as being protective: not cleaning the transporter (OR 0.2, CI 95% 0.05-0.72) and not having clean boots available (OR 0.2, CI 95% 0.07-0.64). While this study was able to identify some factors which influence the Salmonella-infection of a herd, overall the process of analysis showed that the control of Salmonella on farm is due to a series of individual factors and therefore remains extremely complex.

  11. Predicting development of infected necrosis in acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dambrauskas, Zilvinas; Pundzius, Juozas; Barauskas, Giedrius

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of severe acute pancreatitis is about 30 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and it carries an overall mortality rate of 10-15%. Infection of pancreatic necrosis occurs in 20-30% of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and triples the mortality rate. Therefore, early prediction and diagnosis of infection in necrotizing pancreatitis are extremely important. The aim of the studies included in this review was to investigate the potential of specific prognostic factors to predict the development of secondary pancreatic infection in severe acute pancreatitis. This is seen as an important tool allowing to perform a computed tomography- or ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for bacteriological sampling at the right moment, to confirm the diagnosis, and, finally, to select the subgroup of patients who would benefit from the antibiotic prophylaxis. Precise patients' selection could possibly result in more rational use of antibiotics in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis and reduction of multi-resistant bacteria. Recent studies show that C-reactive protein is an important prognostic marker of pancreatic necrosis with the highest sensitivity and negative prognostic value in this respect. Procalcitonin alone or in combination with interleukin-6 best identifies patients not at risk for infection. However, a review of the clinical studies suggests that we still do not have an optimal model, thus there is a need for new more reliable biochemical and/or clinical predictive systems.

  12. Acute Borrelia infection inducing an APMPPE-like picture.

    PubMed

    Al Mousa, Munjid; Koch, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. Although several etiological factors have been suggested, none has been confirmed. We report a case of APMPPE associated with acute infection of Borreliosis. A 30-year-old man presented with a decrease in vision in the right eye of about 1-week duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was 6/36. Fundus exam revealed the presence of multiple placoid creamy retinal/subretinal lesions in the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography supported the diagnosis of APMPPE. Blood tests revealed the presence of concomitant acute Borreliosis infection, as confirmed by IgM. The patient received oral prednisone therapy and amoxicillin. Six weeks later, the visual acuity returned to 6/6, and the patient was symptom free. Borreliosis can have several manifestations in the eye. One of the less common presentations is an APMPPE-like picture. The clinician should suspect acute Borreliosis infection in patients presenting with APMPPE, especially when there is a history of a tick bite, when the patient has systemic symptoms, or when living in/visiting endemic areas. This may help in the prompt management of APMPPE, avoiding complications due to the condition itself, or systemic involvement secondary to the Borreliosis infection. PMID:27294731

  13. Immunochromatography-based Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection in Acute Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Thacker, Sandeep; Namjoshi, Gajanan Sudhir

    2016-07-01

    Documentation of rotavirus diarrhea in a rural, resource-poor setting is a difficult task. We analyzed stool samples of 103 children admitted for acute diarrhea in a pediatric hospital in Bijnor, UP, India, using a simple bedside immunochromatography kit. Rotavirus infection was detected in 47 out of total of 103 children (45.6%). PMID:27508549

  14. Acute effect of glucan-spiked office dust on nasal and pulmonary inflammation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Straszek, S P; Adamcakova-Dodd, A; Metwali, N; Pedersen, O F; Sigsgaard, T; Thorne, P S

    2007-11-01

    The acute effects of pure inhaled glucan on respiratory inflammation remain inconclusive and not sufficiently examined with regards to the simultaneous interaction of glucan, endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), and house dust in airway inflammation. This study aims at determining effects of simultaneous exposure to office dust and glucan on nasal and pulmonary inflammation. This is relevant for humans with occupational exposure in waste handling and farming and buildings with mold problems. Office dust collected from Danish offices was spiked with 1% (1-3)-beta-glucan (curdlan). Guinea pig nasal cavity volume was measured by acoustic rhinometry (AR) and animals were exposed by inhalation for 4 h to curdlan-spiked dust, unspiked dust, purified air (negative controls), or LPS (positive controls). After exposure (+5 h) or the following day (+18 h), measurements were repeated by AR and followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Total and differential cell counts, interleukin (IL)-8 in BAL fluid, and change in nasal volume were compared between groups. A 5-10% increase in nasal volume was seen for all groups including clean air except for a significant 5% decrease for spiked-dust inhalation (+18 h). No marked differences were observed in BAL cells or IL-8 except in LPS-exposed controls. The delayed decrease of nasal cavity volume after exposure to glucan spiked dust suggests a slow effect on the upper airways for curdlan and office dust together, though no pulmonary response or direct signs of inflammation were observed. Glucan-spiked office dust exposures produced a delayed nasal subacute congestion in guinea pigs compared to office dust alone, but extrapolated to nasal congestion in humans, paralleling the nasal congestion seen in human volunteers exposed to the same dust, this may not have clinical importance. PMID:17966063

  15. Favipiravir (T-705) Inhibits Junín Virus Infection and Reduces Mortality in a Guinea Pig Model of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Brian B.; Juelich, Terry L.; Sefing, Eric J.; Brasel, Trevor; Smith, Jennifer K.; Zhang, Lihong; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Hill, Terence E.; Yun, Tatyana; Pietzsch, Colette; Furuta, Yousuke; Freiberg, Alexander N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Junín virus (JUNV), the etiologic agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), is classified by the NIAID and CDC as a Category A priority pathogen. Presently, antiviral therapy for AHF is limited to immune plasma, which is readily available only in the endemic regions of Argentina. T-705 (favipiravir) is a broadly active small molecule RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. We have previously reported on the in vitro activity of favipiravir against several strains of JUNV and other pathogenic New World arenaviruses. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the efficacy of favipiravir in vivo, guinea pigs were challenged with the pathogenic Romero strain of JUNV, and then treated twice daily for two weeks with oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day) starting 1–2 days post-infection. Although only 20% of animals treated orally with favipiravir survived the lethal challenge dose, those that succumbed survived considerably longer than guinea pigs treated with placebo. Consistent with pharmacokinetic analysis that showed greater plasma levels of favipiravir in animals dosed by i.p. injection, i.p. treatment resulted in a substantially higher level of protection (78% survival). Survival in guinea pigs treated with ribavirin was in the range of 33–40%. Favipiravir treatment resulted in undetectable levels of serum and tissue viral titers and prevented the prominent thrombocytopenia and leucopenia observed in placebo-treated animals during the acute phase of infection. Conclusions/Significance The remarkable protection afforded by i.p. favipiravir intervention beginning 2 days after challenge is the highest ever reported for a small molecule antiviral in the difficult to treat guinea pig JUNV challenge model. These findings support the continued development of favipiravir as a promising antiviral against JUNV and other related arenaviruses. PMID:24386500

  16. The use of acute phase proteins for monitoring animal health and welfare in the pig production chain: the validation of an immunochromatographic method for the detection of elevated levels of pig-MAP.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Matilde; Morales, Joaquín; Vizcaíno, Elena; Murillo, José Alberto; Klauke, Thorsten; Petersen, Brigitte; Piñeiro, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    The serum concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) increases in the presence of disease or stress, which makes APPs notable parameters for the global assessment of animal health and welfare. A rapid, immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of elevated levels of pig Major Acute-phase Protein (pig-MAP), one of the main APPs in pigs, was evaluated in more than 1400 pig serum samples obtained from commercial farms. The ICT showed a good performance with a relative sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of 94 and 97%, respectively, for a threshold of 1.5mg/mL (comparison with ELISA). Differences in the pig-MAP levels and the number of positive samples with the ICT were observed within the season of sampling, farms, and age groups at one farm, according to the presence of disease or lesions. The ICT was also evaluated in blood samples obtained at slaughter in association with the carcase inspection. The results from this study indicate that the ICT may be used for the evaluation of groups of pigs, after analysing one sub-sample of these pigs, and might be a useful tool in routine health and welfare monitoring programmes aimed to improve the quality of pig production.

  17. Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Haixue; Qian, Ping; Xu, Jinfang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks. PMID:27374903

  18. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection and immune responses in the pig-tailed macaque testis.

    PubMed

    Winnall, Wendy R; Lloyd, Sarah B; De Rose, Robert; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Hedger, Mark P; Girling, Jane E; Kent, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    The testis is a site of immune privilege in rodents, and there is evidence that T cell responses are also suppressed in the primate testis. Local immunosuppression is a potential mechanism for HIV persistence in tissue reservoirs that few studies have examined. The response of the pig-tailed macaque testis to SIVmac239 infection was characterized to test this possibility. Testes were surgically removed during early-chronic (10 wk) and late-chronic (24-30 wk) SIV infection in 4 animals and compared with those from 7 uninfected animals. SIV infection caused only minor disruption to the seminiferous epithelium without marked evidence of inflammation or consistent changes in total intratesticular leukocyte numbers. Infection also led to an increase in the relative proportion of testicular effector memory CD8(+) T cell numbers and a corresponding reduction in central memory CD4(+) T cells. A decrease in the relative proportion of resident-type CD163(+) macrophages and DCs was also observed. SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were detectable in the testis, 10-11 wk after infection by staining with SIV Gag-specific or Tat-specific MHC-I tetramers. However, testicular CD8(+) T cells from the infected animals had suppressed cytokine responses to mitogen activation. These results support the possibility that local immunosuppression in the testis may be restricting the ability of T cells to respond to SIV or HIV infection. Local immunosuppression in the testis may be an underexplored mechanism allowing HIV persistence.

  19. High frequency of porcine norovirus infection in finisher units of Brazilian pig-production systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia F N; Alfieri, Alice F; Barry, Aline F; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Gardinali, Noemi R; van der Poel, Wim H M; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is considered an emerging human enteric pathogen. NoVs are detected in farm animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Porcine NoV (PoNoV) is widespread worldwide, but frequency of infection is often low. This study aimed to investigate the natural PoNoV infection from adult animals of an important Brazilian pig-production region. Faecal samples (n = 112) of asymptomatic pigs aged 9 to 24 weeks old were collected from 16 grower-to-finish herds located in Paraná state, Brazilian Southern region, and evaluated for PoNoV presence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed using specific primers that target a conserved region of the virus capsid gene (VP1). PoNoV was detected in 58 (51.8%) of the 112 faecal samples and in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 herds evaluated. Six of the obtained amplicons were submitted to phylogenetic genotyping analysis. The higher nucleotide (86.5-97.4%) and amino acid (100%) similarities of the sequences in this study were with the representative strains of the porcine NoV genogroup II genotype 11 (PoNoV GII-11). These results reveal that PoNoV infection is endemic in one of the most important pork production areas of Brazil and that the PoNoV GII-11 is prevalent in this region.

  20. Polyphasic innate immune responses to acute and chronic LCMV infection

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Brian A.; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Price, Aryn A.; Grakoui, Arash; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-01-01

    Summary Resolution of acute and chronic viral infections requires activation of innate cells to initiate and maintain adaptive immune responses. Here we report that infection with acute Armstrong (ARM) or chronic Clone 13 (C13) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) led to two distinct phases of innate immune response. During the first 72hr of infection, dendritic cells upregulated activation markers, and stimulated anti-viral CD8+ T cells, independent of viral strain. Seven days after infection, there was an increase in Ly6Chi monocytic and Gr-1hi neutrophilic cells in lymphoid organs and blood. This expansion in cell numbers was enhanced and sustained in C13 infection, whereas it occurred only transiently with ARM infection. These cells resembled myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and potently suppressed T cell proliferation. The reduction of monocytic cells in Ccr2−/− mice or after Gr-1 antibody depletion enhanced anti-viral T cell function. Thus, innate cells have an important immunomodulatory role throughout chronic infection. PMID:23438822

  1. Effects of various doses of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection in ovariectomized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various doses of estradiol on genital tract infection by the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) was investigated in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Prolongation of infection, as determined by chlamydial inclusion counts of cells in Giemsa-stained smears of vaginal scrapings, was observed in animals receiving daily doses of 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, or 1000 micrograms of estradiol. In contrast to controls, ascending infection resulting in endometritis was found in animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram of estradiol per day. Response to estradiol treatment was reflected in an increase in cervical-uterine wet weight and uterine wall thickness. No differences were observed in time of appearance of antibody titers to GPIC in serum, but a delay in appearance of IgA antibody to GPIC in genital secretions was found in estradiol-treated animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram per day.

  2. Increased Foxp3 expression in guinea pigs infected with W-Beijing strains of M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shaobin; Harton, Marisa; Tamayo, Marcela Henao; Shanley, Crystal; Palanisamy, Gopinath S.; Caraway, Megan; Chan, Edward D.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Orme, Ian M.; Ordway, Diane J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY There is increasing evidence that clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that belong to the W-Beijing genotype of newly emerging strains are often of very high virulence when tested in small animal models, including the mouse and guinea pig. In this report we provide further evidence to support this contention, and show that two W-Beijing strains are of very high virulence when introduced by low dose aerosol into out-bred guinea pigs. In addition to severe lung pathology, each of these infections was associated with large influxes of activated CD4 and CD8 T cells into the lungs. Large influxes of macrophages were also observed, but the fraction of these showing evidence of activation by Class-II expression was relatively low. A progressive increase in neutrophils was also seen, with highest levels accumulating in the lungs of the W-Beijing infected animals. In the case of these two infections mRNA levels for TH1 cytokines was elevated early, but these then declined, and were replaced by increasing levels of message encoding for Foxp3, IL-10, and TGFβ. These observations support the hypothesis that W-Beijing strains are potent inducers of regulatory T cells, and that this event may enhance survival and transmission of these bacilli. PMID:21737349

  3. Influenza A Virus Infection in Pigs Attracts Multifunctional and Cross-Reactive T Cells to the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Talker, Stephanie C.; Stadler, Maria; Koinig, Hanna C.; Mair, Kerstin H.; Rodríguez-Gómez, Irene M.; Graage, Robert; Zell, Roland; Dürrwald, Ralf; Starick, Elke; Harder, Timm; Weissenböck, Herbert; Lamp, Benjamin; Hammer, Sabine E.; Ladinig, Andrea; Saalmüller, Armin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pigs are natural hosts for influenza A viruses and play a critical role in influenza epidemiology. However, little is known about their influenza-evoked T-cell response. We performed a thorough analysis of both the local and systemic T-cell response in influenza virus-infected pigs, addressing kinetics and phenotype as well as multifunctionality (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin-2 [IL-2]) and cross-reactivity. A total of 31 pigs were intratracheally infected with an H1N2 swine influenza A virus (FLUAVsw) and consecutively euthanized. Lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and blood were sampled during the first 15 days postinfection (p.i.) and at 6 weeks p.i. Ex vivo flow cytometry of lung lymphocytes revealed an increase in proliferating (Ki-67+) CD8+ T cells with an early effector phenotype (perforin+ CD27+) at day 6 p.i. Low frequencies of influenza virus-specific IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells could be detected in the lung as early as 4 days p.i. On consecutive days, influenza virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells produced mainly IFN-γ and/or TNF-α, reaching peak frequencies around day 9 p.i., which were up to 30-fold higher in the lung than in tracheobronchial lymph nodes or blood. At 6 weeks p.i., CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells had accumulated in lung tissue. These cells showed diverse cytokine profiles and in vitro reactivity against heterologous influenza virus strains, all of which supports their potential to combat heterologous influenza virus infections in pigs. IMPORTANCE Pigs not only are a suitable large-animal model for human influenza virus infection and vaccine development but also play a central role in the emergence of new pandemic strains. Although promising candidate universal vaccines are tested in pigs and local T cells are the major correlate of heterologous control, detailed and targeted analyses of T-cell responses at the site of infection are scarce. With the present study, we

  4. Sentinel Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance, Acute Infection and Recent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Hong-Ha M.; Kellogg, Timothy A.; McFarland, Willi; Louie, Brian; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Philip, Susan S.; Grant, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection. Methodology/Principal Findings A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868) were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA). HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36). Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%). Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001), unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001), sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02), and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03). Conclusions New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first

  5. Human bocavirus infection in young children with acute respiratory tract infection in Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-shu; Yuan, Xin-hui; Xie, Zhi-ping; Jin, Yu; Gao, Han-chun; Song, Jing-rong; Zhang, Rong-fang; Xu, Zi-qian; Hou, Yun-de; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2010-02-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a recognized human parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infection. However, HBoV has yet to be established as a causative agent of respiratory disease. In this study, the epidemiological and virological characteristics of HBoV infection were studied in children with acute respiratory tract infection in China. In total, 406 children younger than 14 years of age with acute respiratory tract infection were included in this prospective 1-year study. HBoV was detected in 29 (7.1%) of the 406 children. No clear seasonal fluctuation was observed in infection rates of HBoV. Of the 29 children infected with HBoV, 16 (55.2%) were coinfected with other respiratory viruses, most commonly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Viral coinfection with HBoV did not affect the severity of the respiratory disease (P = 0.291). The number of HBoV genome copies ranged from 5.80 x 10(2) to 9.72 x 10(8) copies/ml in nasopharyngeal aspirates among HBoV-positive specimens by real-time PCR, and neither coinfection nor the severity of disease correlated with the viral load (P = 0.148, P = 0.354, respectively). The most common clinical features were cough and acute upper respiratory infection, and acute bronchopneumonia. Additionally, the NP-1 gene of HBoV showed minimal sequence variation. These data suggest that HBoV is frequent in young children with acute respiratory tract infection in Lanzhou, China, and RSV is the most common coinfecting virus. There was no apparent association between the viral load of HBoV and coinfection or disease severity. The NP-1 gene was highly conserved in HBoV. PMID:20029808

  6. A cross-sectional study of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs in different-sized farms in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hinjoy, Soawapak; Nelson, Kenrad E; Gibbons, Robert V; Jarman, Richard G; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Fernandez, Stefan; Tablerk, Penporn; Labrique, Alain B; Patchanee, Prapas

    2013-08-01

    Pigs are an important reservoir of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in many countries throughout the world. We evaluated the association between farm size and presence of serum antibodies against HEV, as well as other risk factors for infection in pigs raised in Nan Province, Thailand in a cross-sectional study. The sampling frame was a total-population census of all pig herds, stratified into three classes of the farm size according to criteria developed by the Nan provincial livestock health office. One-eighth of all pigs in each farm were sampled randomly. All pig-farm owners were interviewed to elicit information on general characteristics of their farms, biosecurity and hygienic procedures, and farm management. We obtained sera and fecal samples from 879 pigs to test for antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk factors for HEV seroprevalence were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies was 9.9%. Pigs studied from medium-sized farms had a higher HEV seroprevalence than those from larger farms (adjusted OR 4.95, 95% CI: 1.79, 13.70). Factors associated with HEV seropositivity included feeding pigs with agro-industrial byproducts, having veterinarians on farms, and presence of other pig farms within 100 m. Twenty-five (2.9%) of 875 sampled pig stools were positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates clustered to HEV genotype 3. PMID:23789726

  7. Drug Treatment Combined with BCG Vaccination Reduces Disease Reactivation in Guinea Pigs Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shaobin; Shanley, Crystal A.; Caraway, Megan L.; Orme, Eileen A.; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Hascall-Dove, Laurel; Ackart, David; Orme, Ian M.; Ordway, Diane J.; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only human tuberculosis vaccine, primes a partially protective immune response against M. tuberculosis infection in humans and animals. In guinea pigs, BCG vaccination slows the progression of disease and reduces the severity of necrotic granulomas, which harbor a population of drug-tolerant bacilli. The objective of this study was to determine if reducing disease severity by BCG vaccination of guinea pigs prior to M. tuberculosis challenge enhanced the efficacy of combination drug therapy. At 20 days of infection, treatment of vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals with rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrizinamide (RHZ) was initiated for 4 or 8 weeks. On days 50, 80 and 190 of infection (10 weeks after drug were withdrawn), treatment efficacy was evaluated by quantifying clinical condition, bacterial loads, lesion severity, and dynamic changes in peripheral blood and lung leukocyte numbers by flow cytometry. In a separate, long-term survival study, treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining disease reactivation frequency post-mortem. BCG vaccination alone delayed pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease progression, but failed to prevent dissemination of bacilli and the formation of necrotic granulomas. Drug therapy either alone or in combination with BCG, was more effective at lessening clinical disease and lesion severity compared to control animals or those receiving BCG alone. Fewer residual lesions in BCG vaccinated and drug treated animals, equated to a reduced frequency of reactivation disease and improvement in survival even out to 500 days of infection. The combining of BCG vaccination and drug therapy was more effective at resolving granulomas such that fewer animals had evidence of residual infection and thus less reactivation disease. PMID:22244979

  8. Nematode infection: A rare mimic of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hotchen, Andrew; Chin, Kian; Raja, Mahzar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis is a common condition seen in all surgical units. One rare condition that can mimic acute appendicitis is a nematode infection of the bowel. There have been few reported cases of nematode infection within the appendix and none that have been accompanied by intra-operative pictures. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 16-year-old female presented with a 12 h history of right iliac fossa pain and mild pyrexia. Bloods showed a neutrophilia and normal C-reactive protein. Laparoscopy was performed which revealed a non-inflamed appendix. The appendix was dissected and a live nematode was visualised exiting the base of the appendix. Anti-helminthics were given and the infection resolved. DISCUSSION Nematode infection is most commonly seen in Africa, Asia and South America. When seen within the United Kingdom (UK), it is seen most commonly within high-risk populations. Testing for these infections is not routine within the UK and when they are performed, the results take a considerable amount of time to return. These tests should be considered within high-risk populations so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of considering rare causes of right iliac fossa pain including nematode infection in a young patient. The case highlights this by giving intra-operative pictures of live nematodes upon dissection of the appendix. PMID:25024022

  9. A study of lymphoid organs and serum proinflammatory cytokines in pigs infected with African swine fever virus genotype II.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Cholakyans, Victorya; Simonyan, Lusine; Misakyan, Alla; Karalova, Elena; Chavushyan, Andranik; Karalyan, Zaven

    2015-06-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of one of the most important viral diseases of domestic pigs for which no vaccine is available, causes immune system disorders in infected animals. In this study, the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the histological and cellular constitution of lymphoid organs of pigs infected with ASFV genotype II were investigated. The results showed a high degree of lymphocyte depletion in the lymphoid organs, particularly in the spleen and lymph nodes, where ASFV infection led to a twofold decrease in the number of lymphocytes on the final day of infection. Additionally, ASFV-infected pigs had atypical forms of lymphocytes found in all lymphoid organs. In contrast to lymphocytes, the number of immature immune cells, particularly myelocytes, increased dramatically and reached a maximum on day 7 postinfection. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were evaluated. Proinflammatory cytokines showed increased levels after ASFV infection, with peak values at 7 days postinfection, and this highlights their role in the pathogenesis of ASFV. In conclusion, this study showed that ASFV genotype II, like other highly virulent strains, causes severe pathological changes in the immune system of pigs.

  10. Acute respiratory effects of endotoxin-contaminated machining fluid aerosols in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gordon, T

    1992-07-01

    Exposure to machining fluid aerosols in the automotive industry is associated with a variety of respiratory symptoms including cross-shift changes in pulmonary function, cough, asthma, and phlegm. Lubricating and cooling fluids used in machining operations are predominantly water and thus are susceptible to microbial growth. In the present study, the role of endotoxin in the acute pulmonary injury produced by machining fluid aerosols was examined in guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to nebulized water, unused machining fluid, or used machining fluid. At the end of a 3-hr exposure, specific airway conductance (SGaw) was not affected by exposure to the vehicle water, but was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by exposure to aerosols of the used machining fluid. SGaw decreased from preexposure baseline values by 0, 7, and 40% in animals exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/m3 used machining fluid, respectively. These exposure levels also produced acute lung injury as evidenced by changes in cellular and biochemical indices in lavage fluid. These adverse respiratory effects may have been due to microbial contamination of the used machining fluid as the aerosol exposures were associated with airborne endotoxin concentrations of 0.3, 1.9, and 5.3 micrograms/m3, respectively. Animals exposed to aerosols of the endotoxin-free unused machining fluid had no statistically significant adverse functional, cellular, or biochemical effects except for a fourfold increase in neutrophils at 100 mg/m3. These results suggest that contamination of machining fluid during use or storage may lead to the adverse respiratory effects of aerosolized machining fluids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Latent porcine circovirus type 2-infected domestic pigs: A potential infection model for the effective development of vaccines against latent or chronic virus induced diseases.

    PubMed

    Sydler, Titus; Brägger, Stefanie; Handke, Martin; Hartnack, Sonja; Lewis, Fraser I; Sidler, Xaver; Brugnera, Enrico

    2016-02-17

    Until recently, knowledge of the pathogenicity of Circoviridae and Anelloviridae family members was limited. Our previous discoveries provided clues toward resolving this issue based on studies of the latent nature of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genotype group members. We developed a conventional pig infection model that indicated that weaners already harbored latent PCV2 infection in the thymus, which enabled the viruses to specifically modulate the maturation of T-helper cells. This finding raised the possibility that the thymi of normal fetuses were already infected with PCV2. The present findings further substantiate our hypothesis that PCV2 masquerades as the host by infecting fetuses before they acquire immune-competence. We provide the first demonstration that all domestic pig fetuses preferentially harbor latent PCV2-infected cells in their thymi. These PCV2-infected cells are different from thymocytes and are located in the medulla of the fetal thymus. These latent PCV2-infected cells in fetuses are found at the same location and share characteristics with the infected cells observed in adolescent pigs. Moreover, fetuses also harbor these infected cells in other lymph system organs. We provide the first demonstration that the fetal thymus virus pools are minimally affected by sow vaccination, highlighting the immune-privileged character of this organ. Furthermore, we found a striking reduction in virus-infected cells in the fetal spleen and an increase in PCV2-infected cells in the fetal intestine of anti-PCV2-vaccinated mothers. These data indicate that specific immune response interactions occur between mothers and their progeny that are not dependent on the humoral immunity of the mother and cannot be attributed to the rudimentary humoral responses of the fetuses because these pig fetuses do not have any PCV2-specific antibodies. These shifts in our understanding of the PCV2-infected cell pool will lead to different avenues in the search for

  12. An experimental Helicobacter suis infection causes gastritis and reduced daily weight gain in pigs.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Meyns, Tom; Kumar, Smitha; Vermoote, Miet; Pasmans, Frank; Millet, Sam; Dewulf, Jeroen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Helicobacter suis is a zoonotically important bacterium, that has been associated with gastritis and ulcerative lesions of the pars oesophagea of the stomach in pigs. Its exact role in these pathologies, however, still remains controversial. Therefore, a total of 29 medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated intragastrically or orally, with a total of 2 × 10(9) viable H. suis bacteria and the effect on gastric pathology and weight gain was determined. Twenty-three medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated with a sterile culture medium and used as sham-inoculated controls. The animals were euthanized between 28 and 42 days after inoculation. Infected animals showed a more severe gastritis compared to the control group. There was also a significant reduction of approximately 60 g per day (10%) in weight gain in H. suis inoculated animals compared to the sham-inoculated control animals. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that a pure in vitro culture of H. suis not only causes gastritis but also a marked decrease of the daily weight gain in experimentally infected pigs.

  13. Course and transmission characteristics of oral low-dose infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar with a Caucasian African swine fever virus isolate.

    PubMed

    Pietschmann, Jana; Guinat, Claire; Beer, Martin; Pronin, Valery; Tauscher, Kerstin; Petrov, Anja; Keil, Günther; Blome, Sandra

    2015-07-01

    In 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Transcaucasian countries and Russia. Since then, it has spread alarmingly and reached the European Union. ASFV strains are highly virulent and lead to almost 100% mortality under experimental conditions. However, the possibility of dose-dependent disease courses has been discussed. For this reason, a study was undertaken to assess the risk of chronic disease and the establishment of carriers upon low-dose oronasal infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar. It was demonstrated that very low doses of ASFV are sufficient to infect especially weak or runted animals by the oronasal route. Some of these animals did not show clinical signs indicative of ASF, and they developed almost no fever. However, no changes were observed in individual animal regarding the onset, course and outcome of infection as assessed by diagnostic tests. After amplification of ASFV by these animals, pen- and stablemates became infected and developed acute lethal disease with similar characteristics in all animals. Thus, we found no indication of prolonged or chronic individual courses upon low-dose infection in either species. The scattered onset of clinical signs and pathogen detection within and among groups confirms moderate contagiosity that is strongly linked with blood contact. In conclusion, the prolonged course at the "herd level" together with the exceptionally low dose that proved to be sufficient to infect a runted wild boar could be important for disease dynamics in wild-boar populations and in backyard settings.

  14. Pathogenesis of a genotype C strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Cai, Hong; Ma, Lei; Wang, Shu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-08-01

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important of the known viral respiratory tract agents of both young and adult cattle and widespread among cattle around the world. Up to present, three genotypes A, B and C of BPIV3 have been described on the basis of genetic and phylogenetic analysis and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been performed. The report about experimental infections of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 in laboratory animals and calves was scant. Therefore, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with the Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 of the genotype C was performed. Sixteen guinea pigs were intranasally inoculated with the suspension of SD0835, while eight control guinea pigs were also intranasally inoculated with the same volume of supernatant from uninfected MDBK cells. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed a few observable clinical signs that were related to the respiratory tract disease and two of the sixteen experimentally infected guinea pigs died at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (PI), respectively, and apparent gross pneumonic lesions were observed at necropsy. The gross pneumonic lesions in guinea pigs inoculated with SD0835 consisted of dark red, slightly depressed, irregular areas of consolidation in the lung lobes from the second to 9th day of infection at necropsy, and almost complete consolidation and atelectasis of the lung lobes were seen at 7 days PI. Histopathological changes including alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were also observed in the lungs of guinea pigs experimentally infected with SD0835. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the respiratory tissues of guinea pigs as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation with SD0835. The results of virus isolation and titration showed that guinea pigs were permissive for

  15. Whole genome response in guinea pigs infected with the high virulence strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis TT372

    PubMed Central

    Aiyaz, Mohamed; Bipin, Chand; Pantulwar, Vinay; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Shanley, Crystal A.; Ordway, Diane J; Orme, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study we conducted a microarray-based whole genomic analysis of gene expression in the lungs after exposure of guinea pigs to a low dose aerosol of the Atypical Beijing Western Cape TT372 strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, after harvesting lung tissues three weeks after infection at a time that effector immunity is starting to peak. The infection resulted in a very large up-regulation of multiple genes at this time, particularly in the context of a “chemokine storm” in the lungs. Overall gene expression was considerably reduced in animals that had been vaccinated with BCG two months earlier, but in both cases strong signatures featuring gamma interferon [IFNγ] and tumor necrosis factor [TNFα] were observed indicating the potent TH1 response in these animals. Even though their effects are not seen until later in the infection, even at this early time point gene expression patterns associated with the potential emergence of regulatory T cells were observed. Genes involving lung repair, response to oxidative stress, and cell trafficking were strongly expressed, but interesting these gene patterns differed substantially between the infected and vaccinated/infected groups of animals. Given the importance of this species as a relevant and cost-effective small animal model of tuberculosis, this approach has the potential to provide new information regarding the effects of vaccination on control of the disease process. PMID:25621360

  16. Whole genome response in guinea pigs infected with the high virulence strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis TT372.

    PubMed

    Aiyaz, Mohamed; Bipin, Chand; Pantulwar, Vinay; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Shanley, Crystal A; Ordway, Diane J; Orme, Ian M

    2014-12-01

    In this study we conducted a microarray-based whole genomic analysis of gene expression in the lungs after exposure of guinea pigs to a low dose aerosol of the Atypical Beijing Western Cape TT372 strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, after harvesting lung tissues three weeks after infection at a time that effector immunity is starting to peak. The infection resulted in a very large up-regulation of multiple genes at this time, particularly in the context of a "chemokine storm" in the lungs. Overall gene expression was considerably reduced in animals that had been vaccinated with BCG two months earlier, but in both cases strong signatures featuring gamma interferon [IFNγ] and tumor necrosis factor [TNFα] were observed indicating the potent TH1 response in these animals. Even though their effects are not seen until later in the infection, even at this early time point gene expression patterns associated with the potential emergence of regulatory T cells were observed. Genes involving lung repair, response to oxidative stress, and cell trafficking were strongly expressed, but interesting these gene patterns differed substantially between the infected and vaccinated/infected groups of animals. Given the importance of this species as a relevant and cost-effective small animal model of tuberculosis, this approach has the potential to provide new information regarding the effects of vaccination on control of the disease process.

  17. Modeling inoculum dose dependent patterns of acute virus infections.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Handel, Andreas

    2014-04-21

    Inoculum dose, i.e. the number of pathogens at the beginning of an infection, often affects key aspects of pathogen and immune response dynamics. These in turn determine clinically relevant outcomes, such as morbidity and mortality. Despite the general recognition that inoculum dose is an important component of infection outcomes, we currently do not understand its impact in much detail. This study is intended to start filling this knowledge gap by analyzing inoculum dependent patterns of viral load dynamics in acute infections. Using experimental data for adenovirus and infectious bronchitis virus infections as examples, we demonstrate inoculum dose dependent patterns of virus dynamics. We analyze the data with the help of mathematical models to investigate what mechanisms can reproduce the patterns observed in experimental data. We find that models including components of both the innate and adaptive immune response are needed to reproduce the patterns found in the data. We further analyze which types of innate or adaptive immune response models agree with observed data. One interesting finding is that only models for the adaptive immune response that contain growth terms partially independent of viral load can properly reproduce observed patterns. This agrees with the idea that an antigen-independent, programmed response is part of the adaptive response. Our analysis provides useful insights into the types of model structures that are required to properly reproduce observed virus dynamics for varying inoculum doses. We suggest that such models should be taken as basis for future models of acute viral infections.

  18. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.

  19. Helicobacter spp. infection induces changes in epithelial proliferation and E-cadherin expression in the gastric mucosa of pigs.

    PubMed

    Bracarense, A P F R L; Yamasaki, L; Silva, E O; Oliveira, R L; Alfieri, A A

    2013-11-01

    Gastric disease is common in finishing pigs. Helicobacter spp. infection has been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric neoplasia in man and animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Helicobacter spp. infection on gastric morphology in pigs, with emphasis on glandular cell proliferation and E-cadherin expression. Samples of fundus and antrum from 67 finishing pigs were examined microscopically and by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mucosal changes were evaluated and epithelial proliferation was determined by evaluation of the morphometry of nucleolar organizer regions and counting proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and mitotic figures. Intercellular adhesion was evaluated by E-cadherin expression. In 47 (70%) pigs, Helicobacter spp. infection was confirmed by PCR. Histological findings associated with the infection included mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria and glandular degeneration. There was a significant association between infection and epithelial proliferation in both regions as well as a decrease in the expression of E-cadherin in the antrum.

  20. Detection of Acute HIV-1 Infection by RT-LAMP.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Donna L; Sullivan, Vickie; Owen, S Michele; Curtis, Kelly A

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost-effective diagnostic test for the detection of acute HIV-1 infection is highly desired. Isothermal amplification techniques, such as reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), exhibit characteristics that are ideal for the development of a rapid nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) because they are quick, easy to perform and do not require complex, dedicated equipment and laboratory space. In this study, we assessed the ability of the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay to detect acute HIV infection as compared to a representative rapid antibody test and several FDA-approved laboratory-based assays. The HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay detected seroconverting individuals one to three weeks earlier than a rapid HIV antibody test and up to two weeks earlier than a lab-based antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combo enzyme immunoassay (EIA). RT-LAMP was not as sensitive as a lab-based qualitative RNA assay, which could be attributed to the significantly smaller nucleic acid input volume. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of detecting acute HIV infection using the RT-LAMP assay. The availability of a rapid NAAT, such as the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay, at the point of care (POC) or in laboratories that do not have access to large platform NAAT could increase the percentage of individuals who receive an acute HIV infection status or confirmation of their HIV status, while immediately linking them to counseling and medical care. In addition, early knowledge of HIV status could lead to reduced high-risk behavior at a time when individuals are at a higher risk for transmitting the virus. PMID:25993381

  1. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation.

  2. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  3. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection of Tree Shrews Differs from That of Mice in the Severity of Acute Infection and Viral Transcription in the Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihong; Li, Zhuoran; Wang, Erlin; Yang, Rui; Xiao, Yu; Han, Hongbo; Lang, Fengchao; Li, Xin; Xia, Yujie; Gao, Feng; Li, Qihan; Fraser, Nigel W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of humans are limited by the use of rodent models such as mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) are small mammals indigenous to southwest Asia. At behavioral, anatomical, genomic, and evolutionary levels, tree shrews are much closer to primates than rodents are, and tree shrews are susceptible to HSV infection. Thus, we have studied herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in the tree shrew trigeminal ganglion (TG) following ocular inoculation. In situ hybridization, PCR, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses confirm that HSV-1 latently infects neurons of the TG. When explant cocultivation of trigeminal ganglia was performed, the virus was recovered after 5 days of cocultivation with high efficiency. Swabbing the corneas of latently infected tree shrews revealed that tree shrews shed virus spontaneously at low frequencies. However, tree shrews differ significantly from mice in the expression of key HSV-1 genes, including ICP0, ICP4, and latency-associated transcript (LAT). In acutely infected tree shrew TGs, no level of ICP4 was observed, suggesting the absence of infection or a very weak, acute infection compared to that of the mouse. Immunofluorescence staining with ICP4 monoclonal antibody, and immunohistochemistry detection by HSV-1 polyclonal antibodies, showed a lack of viral proteins in tree shrew TGs during both acute and latent phases of infection. Cultivation of supernatant from homogenized, acutely infected TGs with RS1 cells also exhibited an absence of infectious HSV-1 from tree shrew TGs. We conclude that the tree shrew has an undetectable, or a much weaker, acute infection in the TGs. Interestingly, compared to mice, tree shrew TGs express high levels of ICP0 transcript in addition to LAT during latency. However, the ICP0 transcript remained nuclear, and no ICP0 protein could be seen during the course of mouse and tree shrew TG

  5. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes.

  6. Infection in acute leukemia patients receiving oral nonabsorable antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D M; Schimpff, S C; Fortner, C L; Smyth, A C; Young, V M; Wiernik, P H

    1978-06-01

    During a 20-month period all acute nonlymphocytic patients (87 patient trials) receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy were placed on an oral nonabsorbable antibiotic regimen consisting of gentamicin, vancomycin, and nystatin in addition to an intensive program of infection prevention aimed at reducing exogenously acquired and body-surface potential pathogens. Although side effects of anorexia, diarrhea, and nausea were common, gentamicin-vancomycin-nystatin was ingested 80% of the study time. Microbial growth in gingival and rectal cultures was substantially reduced. The incidence of bacteremias and other serious infections was low. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, other gram-negative bacilli, and Candida species caused few infections along the alimentary canal, whereas infections of the skin (especially Staphylococcus aureus) were not reduced compared with those occurring in former years. A total of the 104 acquired gram-negative bacilli were gentamicin resistant; 5 subsequently caused infection. Thus, despite certain definite drawbacks, the use of oral nonabsorbable antibiotics to suppress alimentary tract microbial flora in combination with other infection prevention techniques in granulocytopenic cancer patients has proven feasible and tolerable and has been associated with a low order of life-threatening infections. PMID:98107

  7. [Electron microscopy of Aujeszky's disease virus in explants of Gasser's ganglion from pigs with a latent infection].

    PubMed

    Valícek, L; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Jurák, E

    1986-08-01

    Different developmental stages of the Aujeszky's disease virus were demonstrated by electron microscopy in the ultra-thin slices by the cultivated fragments of the Gasserian ganglion (G. g.) of two pigs latently infected with the Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). In a pig vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine against the disease, the virus was detected in the G. g. cells 186 days after virus challenge, the reactivation of latency being obtained after immunosuppression with dexamethasone. In the non-vaccinated pig the virus was detected in G. g. cells after three months from experimental infection. In the ultra-thin slices the largest amount of virus was located in the nuclei and cytoplasm of satellite and Schwann's cells, in the connective-tissue cells and in the extracellular space. In the ganglion cells the virus was present in the cytoplasm and sporadically in the myelinized axons.

  8. The antigenic specificity of the humoral immune response to primary and repeated ocular infections of the guinea pig with the GPIC agent (Chlamydia psittaci).

    PubMed

    Treharne, J D; Shallal, A

    1991-01-01

    The antigenic specificity of the humoral immune response in guinea pigs to primary and repeated ocular infections with the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) chlamydial agent was analysed using microbiological, serological and Western blotting techniques. The results indicate that although there was a response to many minor polypeptide antigens, there was a marked lack of reactivity to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), particularly following reinfection of guinea pigs. It is suggested that, lack of a good antibody response to the MOMP, may be one of the reasons why guinea pigs are susceptible to repeated ocular infections with this chlamydial agent.

  9. Experimental Infection of the Pig with Mycobacterium ulcerans: A Novel Model for Studying the Pathogenesis of Buruli Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Miriam; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Ricklin, Meret E.; Zimmer, Gert; Pluschke, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a slowly progressing, necrotising disease of the skin caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. Non-ulcerative manifestations are nodules, plaques and oedema, which may progress to ulceration of large parts of the skin. Histopathologically, BU is characterized by coagulative necrosis, fat cell ghosts, epidermal hyperplasia, clusters of extracellular acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the subcutaneous tissue and lack of major inflammatory infiltration. The mode of transmission of BU is not clear and there is only limited information on the early pathogenesis of the disease available. Methodology/Principal Findings For evaluating the potential of the pig as experimental infection model for BU, we infected pigs subcutaneously with different doses of M. ulcerans. The infected skin sites were excised 2.5 or 6.5 weeks after infection and processed for histopathological analysis. With doses of 2×107 and 2×106 colony forming units (CFU) we observed the development of nodular lesions that subsequently progressed to ulcerative or plaque-like lesions. At lower inoculation doses signs of infection found after 2.5 weeks had spontaneously resolved at 6.5 weeks. The observed macroscopic and histopathological changes closely resembled those found in M. ulcerans disease in humans. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that the pig can be infected with M. ulcerans. Productive infection leads to the development of lesions that closely resemble human BU lesions. The pig infection model therefore has great potential for studying the early pathogenesis of BU and for the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. PMID:25010421

  10. Cell-free and cell-associated viremia in pigs after oronasal infection with Aujeszky's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Nawynck, H J; Pensaert, M B

    1995-03-01

    Nine pigs were examined for the presence of viremia during the first week after oronasal inoculation of 10(8.0) TCID50 Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Blood was taken at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days post inoculation (PI) and the presence of cell-free ADV in plasma and of ADV-infected mononuclear cells was examined by titration and by cocultivation with permissive cells, respectively. The mononuclear cells of 6 of the 9 pigs, collected at 3 and 5 days PI were further separated into subpopulations of enriched monocytes and enriched lymphocytes. Both subpopulations were cocultivated. Nasal secretions were collected from 4 of the 9 pigs for the determination of virus titers and interferon concentrations. Both infected mononuclear cells and cell-free ADV were demonstrated in 5 pigs, infected mononuclear cells only were found in 2 pigs, and neither cell-associated or cell-free ADV were detected in 2 pigs. Two of the 7 viremic animals were positive on one single day, 3 on 2 days, 1 on 3 days and 1 on 4 days. The number of infected cells was approximately 5 times higher in monocytes than in lymphocytes. The highest virus titers were present in those nasal fluids with the lowest alpha-interferon concentration. A correlation between the titer of locally produced ADV in the nose and the presence of a viremia was not found. In conclusion, we can state that a viremia regularly occurs under both cell-free and cell-associated form after an oronasal inoculation of ADV and that monocytes are the most susceptible mononuclear cells.

  11. INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION AND HYPERSENSITIVITY PARAMETERS UNDER GUINEA PIG MODEL OF ACUTE ASTHMA WITH MULTIPLE CHALLENGES.

    PubMed

    Parilova, O O; Shandrenko, S G

    2015-01-01

    An immunoregulatory role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of adaptive immune responses associated with allergic diseases is very important. The present study extended these observations by the examination of the reciprocal changes in characteristic immunologic parameters of the disease and NO level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges. Development of guinea pig Th2 mediated asthma was accompanied by increasing the level of allergic markers: ovalbumin (OVA) specific IgG and IL-4. We demonstrated that the infiltrate of airway cells contributes to NO synthesis in the respiratory tract during allergic inflammation. The level of intracellular NO formation significantly correlated with plasma allergen specific IgG value in OVA-induced asthma. The presented data evidence that the elevated intracellular NO level in BAL fluid may reflect a nitrosative stress in respiratory tract in general, when allergic asthma exacerbation is present.

  12. Antiviral effect of dietary germanium biotite supplementation in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2013-01-01

    Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that would promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease.

  13. Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with swine respiratory disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura C; Jiang, Zhihua; Sang, Yongming; Harhay, Gregory P; Lager, Kelly M

    2014-06-15

    Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus. The gene family has 5 and 7 members in humans and mice, respectively. Here, we confirm the current annotation of pig IFITM1, IFITM2, IFITM3, IFITM5, IFITM1L1 and IFITM1L4, manually annotated IFITM1L2, IFITM1L3, IFITM5L, IFITM3L1 and IFITM3L2, and provide expressed sequence tag (EST) and/or mRNA evidence, not contained with the NCBI Reference Sequence database (RefSeq), for the existence of IFITM6, IFITM7 and a new IFITM1-like (IFITM1LN) gene in pigs. Phylogenic analyses showed seven porcine IFITM genes with highly conserved human/mouse orthologs known to have anti-viral activity. Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling (DGETP) of swine tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) of pigs infected with swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus or porcine circovirus type 2 over 14 days post-inoculation (dpi) showed that gene expression abundance differs dramatically among pig IFITM family members, ranging from 0 to over 3000 tags per million. In particular, SIV up-regulated IFITM1 by 5.9 fold at 3 dpi. Bayesian framework further identified pig IFITM1 and IFITM3 as differentially expressed genes in the overall transcriptome analysis. In addition to being a component of protein complexes involved in homotypic adhesion, the IFITM1 is also associated with pathways related to regulation of cell proliferation and IFITM3 is involved in immune responses.

  14. Acute haematogenous infection of a closed vertebral fracture.

    PubMed

    Marshman, Laurence A G; Allison, Dale; Molloy, Cynthia J

    2009-12-01

    Acute haematogenous infection of a closed fractures is rare. A 68-year-old diabetic male sustained a burst fracture of a lumbar vertebra (L2) after a fall onto his back. After 5 days of conservative management, he developed a chest infection and amoxicillin was commenced empirically. However, after 6 days his previously moderate focal L2 back pain had become more severe. Pyrexia and systemic inflammatory markers continued to rise despite administration of antibiotics. Blood cultures and a CT-guided biopsy of L2 both revealed Staphylococcus aureus which was sensitive to flucloxacillin. The patient's symptoms and signs gradually normalised following administration of flucloxacillin for 6 weeks, and the use of a cast brace. We conclude that haematogenous infection can be successfully managed non-operatively.

  15. Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.

    PubMed

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-10-18

    Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis.

  16. Telaprevir in the Treatment of Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Fierer, Daniel S.; Dieterich, Douglas T.; Mullen, Michael P.; Branch, Andrea D.; Uriel, Alison J.; Carriero, Damaris C.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Hijdra, Rosanne M.; Cassagnol, David G.; Akil, Bisher; Bailey, Juan; Bellman, Paul; Bowers, Daniel; Bungay, Krisczar; Burger, Susanne; Carpenter, Ward; Chavez, Robert; Chow, Rita; Cohen, Robert; Dalton, Patrick; Dellosso, John; Demidont, Adrian; Dillon, Stephen; Donlon, Eileen; Farrow, Terry; Gardenier, Donald; Guadron, Rodolfo; Haber, Stuart; Higgins, Lawrence; Hitzeman, Lawrence; Hsu, Ricky; Huprikar, Shirish; Inada, Victor; Jacob, Sneha; Johnson, Livette; Johnston, Barbara; Kaminsky, Donald; Klein, Oscar; Kwong, Jeffrey; Lares-Guia, Jose; Leach, Eric; Levine, Randy; Linetskaya, Irina; Litvinova, Larisa; Malhotra, Amisha; Mandell, William; Markowitz, Martin; Mayer, Gal; Meraz, Eddie; Mortensen, Erik; Ng, Michel; Olivieri, Joseph; Paolino, Charles; Photangtham, Punyadech; Psevdos, George; Radix, Anita; Rapaport, Steven; Rodriguez-Caprio, Gabriela; Shay, William; Somasundaram, Nirupama; Sorra, Lembitu; Stivala, Alicia; Tran, Richie; Urbina, Antonio; Vail, Rona; Wallach, Francis; Wang, Wen; Weiss, Susan; Wiener, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background. There is an international epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men. Sustained virologic response (SVR) rates with pegylated interferon and ribavirin treatment are higher in these men during acute HCV than during chronic HCV, but treatment is still lengthy and SVR rates are suboptimal. Methods. We performed a pilot study of combination therapy with telaprevir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin in acute genotype 1 HCV infection in HIV-infected men. Men who were treated prior to the availability of, or ineligible for, telaprevir were the comparator group. The primary endpoint was SVR12, defined as an HCV viral load <5 IU/mL at least 12 weeks after completing treatment. Results. In the telaprevir group, 84% (16/19) of men achieved SVR12 vs 63% (30/48) in the comparator group. Among men with SVR, median time to undetectable viral load was week 2 in the telaprevir group vs week 4 in the comparator group, and 94% vs 53% had undetectable viral loads at week 4. Most patients (81%) who achieved SVR in the telaprevir group received ≤12 weeks of treatment and there were no relapses after treatment. The overall safety profile was similar to that known for telaprevir-based regimens. Conclusions. Incorporating telaprevir into treatment of acute genotype 1 HCV in HIV-infected men halved the treatment duration and increased the SVR rate. Larger studies should be done to confirm these findings. Clinicians should be alert to detect acute HCV infection of HIV-infected men to take advantage of this effective therapy and decrease further transmission in this epidemic. PMID:24336914

  17. ACUTE HEPATIC NECROSIS INDUCED BY BRUCELLA INFECTION IN HYPERTHYROID MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G. Mary; Spink, Wesley W.

    1959-01-01

    When small numbers of Brucella melitensis were inoculated into ABC mice, occasional hepatic granulomas without necrosis were demonstrated. The greatest multiplication of brucellae was detected in the spleens. Because it had been previously observed that ACTH or cortisone markedly accelerated the multiplication of brucellae in the livers of infected mice with destruction of liver cells, it was considered that triiodothyronine might likewise exaggerate a brucella infection by stimulating endogenous adrenal secretion. Although adrenal hypertrophy was produced, infection of mice treated with triiodothyronine resulted in severe hepatic necrosis or infarcts without the multiplication of brucellae in either the livers or spleens. The lesions were not encountered in untreated infected mice or in control mice treated with triiodothyronine. The necrosis was associated with minimal inflammatory reaction. The necrosis was not induced in mice treated with triiodothyronine and given brucella endotoxin. The precise genesis of the acute hepatic necrosis cited in these experiments remains undefined. Triiodothyronine did not cause deaths in mice infected with Br. melitensis. The infection was neither enhanced nor suppressed. PMID:13803714

  18. Analysis of serum and whole blood values in relation to helminth and ectoparasite infections of feral pigs in Texas.

    PubMed

    Shender, Lisa A; Botzler, Richard G; George, T Luke

    2002-04-01

    In the summers of 1996 and 1997, 60 wild pigs (Sus scrofa) were necropsied from three sites in south Texas (USA) to test the hypothesis that serum and whole blood parameters vary significantly (P < or = 0.05) with the prevalence and intensity of parasites infecting wild pigs. We found ten parasite species: five nematodes (Metastrongylus salmi, Metastrongylus pudentotectus, Stephanurus dentatus, Oesophagostomum dentatum, and Physocephalus sexalatus); four ixodid ticks (Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma maculatum, Amblyomma americanum, and Dermacentor variabilis); and one trematode (Fascioloides magna). Among juvenile pigs, the intensity of the four species of ticks, collectively, was negatively correlated (P < or = 0.05) with whole blood principal component number one (PC-1); this factor was positively associated with lymphocytes and eosinophils. Lungworm intensity (Metastrongylus spp.) among adult pigs was negatively correlated (P < or = 0.05) with whole blood PC-2; this factor was negatively associated with segmented neutrophils and monocytes. There were no significant correlations found between parasite prevalences and either serum or whole blood principal component factors. The correlations observed between parasite intensities and serum and whole blood parameters generally were weak. Thus, we found no strong evidence that serum and whole blood parameters provided good predictive information on parasite infections in wild pigs for most practical management decisions.

  19. Local Cellular Immune Responses and Pathogenesis of Buruli Ulcer Lesions in the Experimental Mycobacterium Ulcerans Pig Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Miriam; Ruggli, Nicolas; Borel, Nicole; Pluschke, Gerd; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease of the skin that is caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. We recently established an experimental pig (Sus scrofa) infection model for Buruli ulcer to investigate host-pathogen interactions, the efficacy of candidate vaccines and of new treatment options. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have used the model to study pathogenesis and early host-pathogen interactions in the affected porcine skin upon infection with mycolactone-producing and non-producing M. ulcerans strains. Histopathological analyses of nodular lesions in the porcine skin revealed that six weeks after infection with wild-type M. ulcerans bacteria extracellular acid fast bacilli were surrounded by distinct layers of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. Upon ulceration, the necrotic tissue containing the major bacterial burden was sloughing off, leading to the loss of most of the mycobacteria. Compared to wild-type M. ulcerans bacteria, toxin-deficient mutants caused an increased granulomatous cellular infiltration without massive tissue necrosis, and only smaller clusters of acid fast bacilli. Conclusions/Significance In summary, the present study shows that the pathogenesis and early immune response to M. ulcerans infection in the pig is very well reflecting BU disease in humans, making the pig infection model an excellent tool for the profiling of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. PMID:27128097

  20. Age at vaccination and timing of infection do not alter vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in influenza A virus infected pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used in the swine industry to reduce clinical disease against homologous influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In pigs experimentally challenged with antigenically distinct heterologous IAV of the same hemagglutinin subtype, WIV vaccinates have been sho...

  1. Effects of griseoviridin and viridogrisein against swine dysentery in experimental infection by using mice and pigs.

    PubMed

    Asano, Toshihiko; Adachi, Yoshikazu

    2006-06-01

    Griseoviridin, a known antibiotic produced by Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi, was found to be active against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae--the bacterium causing swine dysentery. An in vitro synergism is observed when it is used in combination with viridogrisein--a simultaneously produced antibiotic. In mouse experiments, the effect of griseoviridin alone was less than that of lincomycin--a commercially available swine dysentery medication. However, a 1:1 mixture of griseoviridin and viridogrisein revealed a noticeable synergistic effect. In an evaluation using pigs artificially infected with B. hyodysenteriae, a large difference was not observed between the effect of griseoviridin alone and that in combination with viridogrisein. Nevertheless, griseoviridin alone exhibited a therapeutic effect superior to that of lincomycin.

  2. Morphological characterization of Cysticercus cellulosae in naturally infected pigs in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Chawhan, Pradeep; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Sharma, Rajnish; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-06-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is an important medical and veterinary concern in the developing world. The present study was carried out to determine the morphological characteristics of Cysticercus cellulosae, so as to differentiate the C. viscerotropica (larval form of T. asiatica) which is having only rudimentary hooks on their rostellum. Morphological analysis was conducted on 22 Cysticercus positive samples. Measurements for number of hooks (large and small), the total length and blade length of large and small hooks per rostellum were carried out as per previous studies. Microscopic examination of all the cysts showed typical characteristic of T. solium i.e. presence of hooks in all the cysts. The results indicated absence of T. asiatica from naturally infected pigs in Punjab (India). PMID:27413285

  3. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thi Hoa; Tran, Thi Bich Chieu; Tran, Thi Thu Nga; Nguyen, Van Dung; Campbell, James; Pham, Hong Anh; Huynh, Huu Tho; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; Bryant, Juliet E; Tran, Tinh Hien; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-03-28

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542) of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542) carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%). 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged.

  4. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains.

  5. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis. PMID:27044164

  6. Comparison of experimental models for Streptococcus suis infection of conventional pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pallarés, Francisco J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Schmitt, Cameron S.; Roth, James A.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Thomas, Peter J.; Kinyon, Joann M.; Murphy, Dee; Frank, Dagmar E.; Hoffman, Lorraine J.

    2003-01-01

    Four different experimental models for Streptococcus suis-induced disease were compared to find a model that closely mimics naturally occurring disease in conventional pigs. Fourteen, 2-week old pigs free of S. suis type 2 were used in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, 3 pigs were inoculated intravenously (IV) and 3 pigs intranasally (IN) with S. suis. Two out of 3 of the IV-inoculated pigs exhibited signs of severe central nervous system disease (CNS) and were euthanized. Streptococcus suis type 2 was isolated from whole blood, joints, and serosal surfaces of both pigs. No clinical signs and no growth of S. suis were detected in the IN-inoculated pigs. In experiment 2, 4 pigs were inoculated IV and another 4 were inoculated IN with the same isolate as in experiment 1. One hour before inoculation the IN-inoculated pigs were given 5 mL of 1% acetic acid intranasally (IN-AA). All the IV-inoculated pigs showed CNS disease and lameness, and 2 of the pigs became severely affected and were euthanized. All the IN-AA inoculated pigs exhibited roughened hair coats and 2 pigs developed severe CNS disease and were euthanized. Streptococcus suis was isolated from the joints and blood of 3 pigs in the IV-inoculated group. Streptococcus suis was isolated from blood of 2 pigs, meninges of 3 pigs, and joints of 1 pig in the IN-AA inoculated group. Natural exposure to S. suis most likely occurs by the intranasal route. The IN-AA model should serve as a good model for S. suis-induced disease, because the natural route of exposure is intranasal and the IN-AA model was effective in inducing disease that mimics what is observed in the field. PMID:12889730

  7. Factors affecting the infectivity of tissues from pigs with classical swine fever: thermal inactivation rates and oral infectious dose.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Lucie; Haines, Felicity J; Everett, Helen E; Crudgington, Bentley; Johns, Helen L; Clifford, Derek; Drew, Trevor W; Crooke, Helen R

    2015-03-23

    Outbreaks of classical swine fever are often associated with ingestion of pig meat or products derived from infected pigs. Assessment of the disease risks associated with material of porcine origin requires knowledge on the likely amount of virus in the original material, how long the virus may remain viable within the resulting product and how much of that product would need to be ingested to result in infection. Using material from pigs infected with CSFV, we determined the viable virus concentrations in tissues that comprise the majority of pork products. Decimal reduction values (D values), the time required to reduce the viable virus load by 90% (or 1 log10), were determined at temperatures of relevance for chilling, cooking, composting and ambient storage. The rate of CSFV inactivation varied in different tissues. At lower temperatures, virus remained viable for substantially longer in muscle and serum compared to lymphoid and fat tissues. To enable estimation of the temperature dependence of inactivation, the temperature change required to change the D values by 90% (Z values) were determined as 13 °C, 14 °C, 12 °C and 10 °C for lymph node, fat, muscle and serum, respectively. The amount of virus required to infect 50% of pigs by ingestion was determined by feeding groups of animals with moderately and highly virulent CSFV. Interestingly, the virulent virus did not initiate infection at a lower dose than the moderately virulent strain. Although higher than for intranasal inoculation, the amount of virus required for infection via ingestion is present in only a few grams of tissue from infected animals.

  8. Isolation and purification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from H37Rv infected guinea pig lungs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Libin; Ryan, Gavin J; Bhamidi, Suresh; Troudt, JoLynn; Amin, Anita; Izzo, Angelo; Lenaerts, Anne J; McNeil, Michael R; Belisle, John T; Crick, Dean C; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that Mycobacterium tuberculosis grown in vivo may have a different phenotypic structure from its in vitro counterpart. In order to study the differences between in vivo and in vitro grown bacilli, it is important to establish a reliable method for isolating and purifying M. tuberculosis from infected tissue. In this study, we developed an optimal method to isolate bacilli from the lungs of infected guinea pigs, which was also shown to be applicable to the interferon-γ gene knockout mouse model. Briefly, 1) the infected lungs were thoroughly homogenized; 2) a four step enzymatic digestion was utilized to reduce the bulk of the host tissue using collagenase, DNase I and pronase E; 3) residual contamination by the host tissue debris was successfully reduced using percoll density gradient centrifugation. These steps resulted in a protocol such that relatively clean, viable bacilli can be isolated from the digested host tissue homogenate in about 50% yield. These bacilli can further be used for analytical studies of the more stable cellular components such as lipid, peptidoglycan and mycolic acid.

  9. Human Bocavirus: Passenger or Pathogen in Acute Respiratory Tract Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Schildgen, Oliver; Müller, Andreas; Allander, Tobias; Mackay, Ian M.; Völz, Sebastian; Kupfer, Bernd; Simon, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly identified virus tentatively assigned to the family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae, genus Bocavirus. HBoV was first described in 2005 and has since been detected in respiratory tract secretions worldwide. Herein we review the literature on HBoV and discuss the biology and potential clinical impact of this virus. Most studies have been PCR based and performed on patients with acute respiratory symptoms, from whom HBoV was detected in 2 to 19% of the samples. HBoV-positive samples have been derived mainly from infants and young children. HBoV DNA has also been detected in the blood of patients with respiratory tract infection and in fecal samples of patients with diarrhea with or without concomitant respiratory symptoms. A characteristic feature of HBoV studies is the high frequency of coinciding detections, or codetections, with other viruses. Available data nevertheless indicate a statistical association between HBoV and acute respiratory tract disease. We present a model incorporating these somewhat contradictory findings and suggest that primary HBoV infection causes respiratory tract symptoms which can be followed by prolonged low-level virus shedding in the respiratory tract. Detection of the virus in this phase will be facilitated by other infections, either simply via increased sample cell count or via reactivation of HBoV, leading to an increased detection frequency of HBoV during other virus infections. We conclude that the majority of available HBoV studies are limited by the sole use of PCR diagnostics on respiratory tract secretions, addressing virus prevalence but not disease association. The ability to detect primary infection through the development of improved diagnostic methods will be of great importance for future studies seeking to assign a role for HBoV in causing respiratory illnesses. PMID:18400798

  10. Actinomyces infection causing acute right iliac fossa pain

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajah, Narendranath; Hameed, Waseem; Middleton, Simon; Booth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of a 75-year-old man being admitted to the on-call surgical department with acute abdominal pain. On arrival he was clinically dehydrated and shocked with localised pain over McBurney's point and examination findings were suggestive of appendiceal or other colonic pathology. Full blood testing revealed a white cell count of 38×109/L and a C reactive protein (CRP) of 278 mg/L. A CT scan revealed a gallbladder empyema that extended into the right iliac fossa. This case highlights the potential for a hyperdistended gallbladder empyema to present as acute right iliac fossa pain with blood tests suggestive of complicated disease. Further analysis confirmed Actinomyces infection as the underlying aetiology prior to a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. This case serves to remind clinicians of this as a rare potential cause of atypical gallbladder pathology. PMID:24872493

  11. The Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102

  12. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  13. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27003162

  14. Immunological tolerance to pig-serum partially inhibits the formation of septal fibrosis of the liver in Capillaria hepatica-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rodrigo Guimarães; Gotardo, Bruna Magalhães; Assis, Bárbara Cristina A; Mengel, José; Andrade, Zilton A

    2004-11-01

    Systhematized septal fibrosis of the liver can be induced in rats either by repeated intraperitoneal injections of pig-serum or by Capillaria hepatica infection. The relationship between these two etiological factors, as far as hepatic fibrosis is concerned, is not known, and present investigation attempts to investigate it. C. hepatica-induced septal fibrosis of the liver was considerably inhibited in rats previously rendered tolerant to pig-serum. Pig-serum-tolerant rats developed antibodies against pig-serum when infected with C. hepatica, but this did not happen when the infection occurred in normal rats. On the other hand, anti-C. hepatica antibodies failed to recognize any epitope in pig-serum, by Western blot. However, no evidence of an immunological cross reactivity was found, at least at the humoral level. Alternatively, cell-mediated mechanisms may be involved, and further investigations are warranted.

  15. Use of enteric vaccines in protection against chlamydial infections of the genital tract and the eye of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nichols, R L; Murray, E S; Nisson, P E

    1978-12-01

    Guinea pigs in a test group were fed living guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) organisms classified as Chlamydia psittaci in 60% yolk-sac suspensions as enteric vaccines, while animals in a control group received uninfected yolk sac. Seven test animals and 14 control animals were challenged 11 or 22 days later with 1,000 50% infectious doses of GPIC organisms in either the conjunctiva or the vagina. Evidence of protection from mucosal infection in both sites was noted in test animals. Clinically, the disease was less severe, and microbiologically, lower percentages of mucosal cells were infected. The results suggest that enteric vaccination against mucosal infections of the eye and the genital tract with chlamydial agents is possible.

  16. The effect of cyclophosphamide on the recovery from a local chlamydial infection. Guinea-pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC).

    PubMed

    Modabber, F; Bear, S E; Cerny, J

    1976-06-01

    The immune mechanism involved in the recovery from and resistance to guinea-pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) was studied. Guinea-pigs were injected with a dose of cyclophosphamide (CY) (300 mg/kg wt) that inhibits antibody synthesis. Such treatment was shown to produce a cellular depletion in the B-cell area without producing an appreciable change in the T-cell area of the spleen and lymph nodes. CY treatment markedly delayed the appearance of secretory immunoglobulin A antibody to GPIC in the tears, and other classes of antibodies to GPIC and sheep erythrocyte in the serum. Furthermore, recovery from infection was impaired and a subsequent injection of CY prolonged the duration of infection. The results indicate that B cells may play an important role in the control of this infection.

  17. A Homolog Pentameric Complex Dictates Viral Epithelial Tropism, Pathogenicity and Congenital Infection Rate in Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), tropism to epithelial and endothelial cells is dependent upon a pentameric complex (PC). Given the structure of the placenta, the PC is potentially an important neutralizing antibody target antigen against congenital infection. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital CMV. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) potentially encodes a UL128-131 HCMV PC homolog locus (GP128-GP133). In transient expression studies, GPCMV gH and gL glycoproteins interacted with UL128, UL130 and UL131 homolog proteins (designated GP129 and GP131 and GP133 respectively) to form PC or subcomplexes which were determined by immunoprecipitation reactions directed to gH or gL. A natural GP129 C-terminal deletion mutant (aa 107–179) and a chimeric HCMV UL128 C-terminal domain swap GP129 mutant failed to form PC with other components. GPCMV infection of a newly established guinea pig epithelial cell line required a complete PC and a GP129 mutant virus lacked epithelial tropism and was attenuated in the guinea pig for pathogenicity and had a low congenital transmission rate. Individual knockout of GP131 or 133 genes resulted in loss of viral epithelial tropism. A GP128 mutant virus retained epithelial tropism and GP128 was determined not to be a PC component. A series of GPCMV mutants demonstrated that gO was not strictly essential for epithelial infection whereas gB and the PC were essential. Ectopic expression of a GP129 cDNA in a GP129 mutant virus restored epithelial tropism, pathogenicity and congenital infection. Overall, GPCMV forms a PC similar to HCMV which enables evaluation of PC based vaccine strategies in the guinea pig model. PMID:27387220

  18. A Homolog Pentameric Complex Dictates Viral Epithelial Tropism, Pathogenicity and Congenital Infection Rate in Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Stewart; Choi, K Yeon; Root, Matthew; McGregor, Alistair

    2016-07-01

    In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), tropism to epithelial and endothelial cells is dependent upon a pentameric complex (PC). Given the structure of the placenta, the PC is potentially an important neutralizing antibody target antigen against congenital infection. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital CMV. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) potentially encodes a UL128-131 HCMV PC homolog locus (GP128-GP133). In transient expression studies, GPCMV gH and gL glycoproteins interacted with UL128, UL130 and UL131 homolog proteins (designated GP129 and GP131 and GP133 respectively) to form PC or subcomplexes which were determined by immunoprecipitation reactions directed to gH or gL. A natural GP129 C-terminal deletion mutant (aa 107-179) and a chimeric HCMV UL128 C-terminal domain swap GP129 mutant failed to form PC with other components. GPCMV infection of a newly established guinea pig epithelial cell line required a complete PC and a GP129 mutant virus lacked epithelial tropism and was attenuated in the guinea pig for pathogenicity and had a low congenital transmission rate. Individual knockout of GP131 or 133 genes resulted in loss of viral epithelial tropism. A GP128 mutant virus retained epithelial tropism and GP128 was determined not to be a PC component. A series of GPCMV mutants demonstrated that gO was not strictly essential for epithelial infection whereas gB and the PC were essential. Ectopic expression of a GP129 cDNA in a GP129 mutant virus restored epithelial tropism, pathogenicity and congenital infection. Overall, GPCMV forms a PC similar to HCMV which enables evaluation of PC based vaccine strategies in the guinea pig model.

  19. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Silvia; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg) were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM) or with quercetin (GBMQ). In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW) in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW) animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying. PMID:24847478

  20. Myocardial protection of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gang-jie; Sun, Li-na; Li, Xing-hai; Wang, Ning-fu; Wu, Hong-hai; Yuan, Chen-xing; Li, Qiao-qiao; Xu, Peng; Ren, Ya-qi; Mao, Bao-gen

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore myocardial protection of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in pigs. 24 male pigs (34.6 ± 1.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups-control group, drug therapy group, and ECMO group. Myocardial infarction model was created in drug therapy group and ECMO group by ligating coronary artery. When cardiogenic shock occurred, drugs were given in drug therapy group and ECMO began to work in ECMO group. The pigs were killed 24 h after cardiogenic shock. Compared with in drug therapy group, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in ECMO group decreased significantly 6 h after ligation (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiments, LV - dp/dt among three groups was significantly different, drug therapy group < ECMO group < control group. There was no difference in LV + dp/dt between drug therapy group and ECMO group. Compared with drug group, myocardial infarct size of ECMO group did not reduce significantly, but myocardial enzyme and troponin-I decreased significantly. Compared with drug therapy, ECMO improves left ventricular diastolic function, and may improve systolic function. ECMO cannot reduce myocardial infarct size without revascularization, but may have positive effects on ischemic areas by avoiding further injuring.

  1. Serum amyloid A protein in acute viral infections.

    PubMed Central

    Miwata, H; Yamada, T; Okada, M; Kudo, T; Kimura, H; Morishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) were measured in 254 children with viral diseases, including measles, varicella, rubella, mumps, echo-30 meningitis, chronic hepatitis B and C, and in eight with Kawasaki disease. Latex agglutination nephelometric immunoassay was used for assaying SAA. In 191 out of 195 patients (98%), SAA concentrations became markedly raised in the acute phase of the viral disease: measles (97%), varicella (100%), mumps (95%), and echo-30 meningitis (99%) with mean titres of 82.4, 80.5, 60.2, 75.2, and 101.1 micrograms/ml respectively. This increase in SAA was followed by a rapid return to normal concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml) during convalescence. Remarkably higher concentrations of SAA (mean 1630 micrograms/ml) were detected in the acute phase of patients with Kawasaki disease, but in most of the children with chronic hepatitis B or C, the titres of SAA remained normal. There was no close correlation between SAA and serum concentrations for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, beta 2-microglobulin, transferrin, and IgG. There was a clear correlation between SAA and C reactive protein concentrations, although SAA showed a greater incremental change than C reactive protein in the acute phase. In the acute phase of these viral diseases, 56% of the patients had raised SAA concentrations (> or = 5 micrograms/ml) with normal C reactive protein concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml). These results indicate that SAA could be useful as an inflammatory marker in children with acute viral infections. PMID:8481043

  2. Increase in chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2 in blood from pigs infected with high compared to low virulence African swine fever virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Fishbourne, Emma; Hutet, Evelyne; Abrams, Charles; Cariolet, Roland; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Takamatsu, Haru-H; Dixon, Linda K

    2013-10-01

    Modulation of the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in whole blood was compared following infection of pigs with high and low virulence isolates of African swine fever virus. Levels of mRNAs for CCL2, CCL3L1, CCL4, CXCL10, CCR1 and CCR5 were significantly increased in at least one time point following infection in two experiments and CCL5, CCR9 and CXCR4 mRNA were significantly increased in one of the experiments. The results showed that greatest fold increases in mRNAs for CXCL10 and CCL2 were observed following infection of pigs. CXCL10 mRNA was increased by up to 15 fold in infected compared to uninfected pigs. CXCL10 protein was also detected in serum from pigs infected with the high virulence Benin 97/1 isolate. Levels of CCL2 mRNA were increased in pigs infected with high virulence Benin 97/1 isolate compared to low virulence OURT88/3 isolate and this correlated with an increase of greater than 30 fold in levels of CCL2 protein detected in serum from pigs infected with this isolate. An increase in overall chemotaxis active compounds in defibrinated plasma samples from Benin 97/1 infected pigs was observed at 3 days post-infection (dpi) and a decrease by 7 dpi as measured by chemotaxis assay using normal pig leucocytes in vitro. Increased levels of CXCL10 may either contribute to the activation of lymphocyte priming toward the Th1 phenotype or induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis. Increased levels of CCL2, a chemoattractant for macrophages, may result in increased recruitment of monocytes from bone marrow thus increasing the pool of cells susceptible to infection.

  3. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs following deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to one...

  4. No Evidence of Gouléako and Herbert Virus Infections in Pigs, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Marklewitz, Marco; Zirkel, Florian; Wollny, Robert; Meyer, Benjamin; Heidemann, Hanna; Metzger, Sonja; Annan, Augustina; Dei, Dickson; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A recent report suggested that 2 novel bunyaviruses discovered in insects in Côte d’Ivoire caused lethal disease in swine in South Korea. We conducted cell culture studies and tested serum from pigs exposed to mosquitoes in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana and found no evidence for infection in pigs. PMID:26583956

  5. Central venous catheter infection in adults in acute hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Clare A

    As well as the human cost, central venous catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infections significantly inflate hospital costs, mainly through increased length of stay in hospital, particularly in intensive care. This literature review appraises recent research on measures used to minimize CVC-related infection and compares it with current best practice. Randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews published on the subject between 2000 and 2005 were reviewed, concentrating on non-tunnelled, short-term CVCs in the acute hospital setting. The new evidence mainly backs up current best practice. However, skin disinfection could be improved by using alcoholic chlorhexidine followed by aqueous povidone-iodine before CVC insertion. Also, alcoholic chlorhexidine is the preferred solution for cleaning the hubs/connectors before accessing the CVC. Good hand hygiene and quality control and education programmes are vital to improve patient care. More research is needed to clarify the effectiveness of certain interventions and technologies, such as antimicrobial CVCs.

  6. Antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Zoorob, Roger; Sidani, Mohamad A; Fremont, Richard D; Kihlberg, Courtney

    2012-11-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections account for millions of visits to family physicians each year in the United States. Although warranted in some cases, antibiotics are greatly overused. This article outlines the guidelines and indications for appropriate antibiotic use for common upper respiratory infections. Early antibiotic treatment may be indicated in patients with acute otitis media, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, epiglottitis, or bronchitis caused by pertussis. Persistent cases of rhinosinusitis may necessitate the use of antibiotics if symptoms persist beyond a period of observation. Antibiotics should not be considered in patients with the common cold or laryngitis. Judicious, evidence-based use of antibiotics will help contain costs and prevent adverse effects and drug resistance.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii detection and viability assays in ham legs and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Samblas, M; Vilchez, S; Racero, J C; Fuentes, M V; Osuna, A

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies of toxoplasmosis show that infection in humans is mainly caused by the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. Cured "Serrano" ham is a typical pork product from the Mediterranean area, highly valued for its flavour. The "Serrano" ham is prepared from pork meat and undergoes a process known as curing and a subsequent fermentation without thermal or smoking treatments. The viability of Toxoplasma gondii in hams and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs that have been subject to different curing processes has been studied in order to evaluate the best method to completely eliminate the viable protozoa. The different treatments include, i) freezing the legs and shoulders below -20 °C for 3 days before salting with marine salt, ii) salting the meat with marine salt and nitrites, iii) salting only with marine salt (traditional process) and iv) salting with marine salt and then freezing at -20 °C for 3 days after the curing period. The ham leg samples were cured for 7 months and the shoulder samples for 5 months. The presence of T. gondii in the different treatments was studied by a "magnetic-capture" method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and a quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the T. gondii burden in the ham legs and shoulders. The infectivity capacity of T. gondii in positive samples was assayed by bioassays in mice and some physicochemical parameters, such as pH, water activity (aw) and salt content, were evaluated at the end of the curing time. In all the cases where the samples were frozen the T. gondii infectivity was eliminated. In samples in which the meat was salted in marine salt plus nitrites, the parasite viability remained for longer than in the traditional salting process. The methods described here could be useful for producers to guarantee the safety of their products. PMID:27217366

  8. Toxoplasma gondii detection and viability assays in ham legs and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Samblas, M; Vilchez, S; Racero, J C; Fuentes, M V; Osuna, A

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies of toxoplasmosis show that infection in humans is mainly caused by the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. Cured "Serrano" ham is a typical pork product from the Mediterranean area, highly valued for its flavour. The "Serrano" ham is prepared from pork meat and undergoes a process known as curing and a subsequent fermentation without thermal or smoking treatments. The viability of Toxoplasma gondii in hams and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs that have been subject to different curing processes has been studied in order to evaluate the best method to completely eliminate the viable protozoa. The different treatments include, i) freezing the legs and shoulders below -20 °C for 3 days before salting with marine salt, ii) salting the meat with marine salt and nitrites, iii) salting only with marine salt (traditional process) and iv) salting with marine salt and then freezing at -20 °C for 3 days after the curing period. The ham leg samples were cured for 7 months and the shoulder samples for 5 months. The presence of T. gondii in the different treatments was studied by a "magnetic-capture" method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and a quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the T. gondii burden in the ham legs and shoulders. The infectivity capacity of T. gondii in positive samples was assayed by bioassays in mice and some physicochemical parameters, such as pH, water activity (aw) and salt content, were evaluated at the end of the curing time. In all the cases where the samples were frozen the T. gondii infectivity was eliminated. In samples in which the meat was salted in marine salt plus nitrites, the parasite viability remained for longer than in the traditional salting process. The methods described here could be useful for producers to guarantee the safety of their products.

  9. Nutritional Predictors of Acute Respiratory Infections Among Children Born to HIV-Infected Women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Duggan, Christopher; Msamanga, Gernard; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively determined the association between undernutrition and incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) among 711 children born to HIV-infected women. Overall, underweight was associated with a 58% increased risk of ARI. Similarly, wasting (54%), very low birth weight (88%) and child HIV infection (62%) were significantly associated with increased risk of ARI during the first 2 years. Breastfeeding was associated with 52% reduction in risk of ARI only during the first 12 months of life. Among HIV-exposed, but uninfected, children, underweight, wasting and stunting were associated with 73%, 61% and 33% increased risk of ARI, respectively. Very low birthweight and advanced maternal disease stage were also associated with increased risk of ARI. Similar results were observed among HIV-infected children, except for stunting and very low birth weight. Prevention of child undernutrition could have major impact in reducing child ARI morbidity in settings of high HIV prevalence. PMID:23400399

  10. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment.

  11. Development of in-situ hybridization for the detection of Mycoplasma haemosuis (Eperythrozoon suis) in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues from experimentally infected splenectomized pigs.

    PubMed

    Ha, S-K; Jung, K; Choi, C; Ha, Y; Song, H-C; Lim, J-H; Kim, S-H; Chae, C

    2005-11-01

    Mycoplasma haemosuis DNA was detected in experimentally infected splenectomized pigs by in-situ hybridization (ISH) with a nonradioactive digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe. An 839 base pair DNA probe targeting a 16S rRNA gene was generated by the polymerase chain reaction. Eight 6-week-old pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with 6 ml of M. haemosuis-infected pig blood and eight negative control pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with 6 ml of M. haemosuis-free blood. Two pigs from each group were killed for examination at 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post-inoculation (dpi). Red blood cells infected with M. haemosuis were first detected by light microscopy at 3 to 7 dpi. No M. haemosuis was observed in negative control pigs. Hybridization signals were evident in blood from the infected pigs at 3 dpi. The ISH method developed in this study was useful for the detection of M. haemosuis DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues and may be valuable for studying the pathogenesis of M. haemosuis infection.

  12. Experimental infection of conventional nursing pigs and their dams with Porcine deltacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah; Loy, John Dustin; Brodersen, Bruce; Kelling, Clayton; Doster, Alan; Topliff, Christina; Nelson, Eric; Bai, Jianfa; Schirtzinger, Erin; Poulsen, Elizabeth; Meadors, Barbara; Anderson, Joseph; Hause, Benjamin; Anderson, Gary; Hesse, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly identified virus that has been detected in swine herds of North America associated with enteric disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the pathogenicity, course of infection, virus kinetics, and aerosol transmission of PDCoV using 87 conventional piglets and their 9 dams, including aerosol and contact controls to emulate field conditions. Piglets 2-4 days of age and their dams were administered an oronasal PDCoV inoculum with a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR quantification cycle (Cq) value of 22 that was generated from a field sample having 100% nucleotide identity to USA/Illinois121/2014 determined by metagenomic sequencing and testing negative for other enteric disease agents using standard assays. Serial samples of blood, serum, oral fluids, nasal and fecal swabs, and tissues from sequential autopsy, conducted daily on days 1-8 and regular intervals thereafter, were collected throughout the 42-day study for qRT-PCR, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Diarrhea developed in all inoculated and contact control pigs, including dams, by 2 days post-inoculation (dpi) and in aerosol control pigs and dams by 3-4 dpi, with resolution occurring by 12 dpi. Mild to severe atrophic enteritis with PDCoV antigen staining was observed in the small intestine of affected piglets from 2 to 8 dpi. Mesenteric lymph node and small intestine were the primary sites of antigen detection by immunohistochemistry, and virus RNA was detected in these tissues to the end of the study. Virus RNA was detectable in piglet fecal swabs to 21 dpi, and dams to 14-35 dpi. PMID:27578872

  13. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    PubMed

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe.

  14. Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity. PMID:22110381

  15. Protein and antigen diversity in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity.

  16. Characterization of autonomic nerve markers and lymphocyte subsets in the ileal Peyer's patch of pigs infected experimentally with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Kaleczyc, J; Podlasz, P; Winnicka, A; Wasowicz, W; Sienkiewicz, W; Zmudzki, J; Lakomy, M

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate potential interrelationships between immune and neural elements of Peyer's patches in normal pigs (n=8) and in pigs infected experimentally with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and suffering from swine dysentery (n=8). Assessment of tissue concentration of neuropeptides by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay revealed increased levels of galanin (GAL) and substance P (SP) in samples from the infected animals. In contrast, concentrations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and somatostatin (SOM) were similar in both groups. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated reactivity of nerve fibres with antibodies specific for dopamine β hydroxylase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, SOM, GAL, VIP and SP in the interfollicular region and peripheral areas of the Peyer's patch lymphoid follicles. In the dysenteric pigs, the GAL-positive nerve fibres were more numerous and more intensely labelled than those in the normal animals. Flow cytometry revealed a decreased percentage of CD21(+) lymphocytes and lymphocytes expressing T-cell receptor (TCR)-γ, with or without CD8 (TCR-γ(+)CD8(-) and TCR-γ(+)CD8(+)), in the dysenteric pigs as compared with the normal animals. Percentages of other lymphocyte subsets (CD2(+), CD4(+), CD5(+), CD8(+), CD5(-)CD8(+)) were comparable between the groups. Immunohistochemical investigations generally correlated with results obtained by flow cytometry related to lymphocyte subpopulations. Swine dysentery can therefore affect neuroimmunomodulatory processes in the ileal Peyer's patch, in addition to the large intestine. GAL and SP may play a specific role in this neuroimmune cross-talk. PMID:20605161

  17. Antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation as a marker of immune response in guinea pigs with sustained Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Miszczyk, Eliza; Walencka, Maria; Rudnicka, Karolina; Matusiak, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Wiesława; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria are human pathogens causing symptomatic gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Little is known about the kinetics of immune responses in H. pylori infected patients because the initial moment of infection has not been identified. Various animal models are used to investigate the immune processes related to H. pylori infection. In this study we checked whether H. pylori infection in guinea pigs, mimicking natural H. pylori infection in humans, resulted in the development of specific immune responses to H. pylori antigens by measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes localized in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and peripheral blood. The maturity of macrophages and cytokines, delivered by monocyte-macrophage lineage or lymphocytes, were considered as mediators, which might influence the lymphocyte blastogenic response. The obtained results showed the activation of T cells localized in mesenteric lymph nodes by H. pylori antigens in H. pylori infected guinea pigs four weeks postinfection. The blastogenic activity of lymphocytes was shaped by their interaction with antigen presenting cells, which were present in the cell cultures during the whole culture period. Moreover, the balance between cytokines derived from adherent leukocytes including interleukin 8--IL-8 as well as interferon gamma--IFN-γ, and transforming growth factor beta--TGF-β delivered by lymphocytes, was probably important for the successful proliferation of lymphocytes. The H. pylori specific lymphocytes were not propagated in peripheral blood and spleen of H. pylori infected animals. The modulation of immunocompetent cells by H. pylori antigens or their different distribution cannot be excluded.

  18. A cross-sectional study of hepatitis E virus infection in healthy people directly exposed and unexposed to pigs in a rural community in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hinjoy, S; Nelson, K E; Gibbons, R V; Jarman, R G; Mongkolsirichaikul, D; Smithsuwan, P; Fernandez, S; Labrique, A B; Patchanee, P

    2013-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of the association between occupational pig exposure and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in adult pig farmers and the general population who were not directly exposed to pigs was conducted in Nan Province, Thailand, from November 2010 to April 2011. All participants were interviewed to provide information on their job history, eating habits and other potential confounders. The prevalence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies (IgG) among 513 subjects was 23.0%. Hand washing with water and soap was associated with a lower seroprevalence of HEV infection, whereas living in an area with frequent flooding (OR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.00-2.68) and consuming internal pig organs more than twice per week (OR 3.23, 95%CI: 1.15-9.01) were both associated with a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG. There was no association between HEV seroprevalence and frequent, direct occupational pig contact.

  19. Comparison of three molecular detection methods for detection of Trichinella in infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhibing; Cao, Jie; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Yongzhi; Deng, Mingjun; Li, Guoqing; Zhou, Jinlin

    2013-05-01

    Different molecular detection methods require diverse molecular platforms, but there is no uniform standard for people to reference in the detection of Trichinella. In this study, real-time PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and conventional PCR were developed for the detection of Trichinella by targeting mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal DNA (mt-lsrDNA). We compared the performance of the three newly developed assays. The results revealed that the detection limits of the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays were 10 and 100 fg/μL and 1 pg/μL of Trichinella spiralis genomic DNA, respectively. The assays were used in the detection of Trichinella in the field. A total of 192 samples were obtained from pigs: 75 samples from free range farming and 117 from intensive feeding factory. The infection rate was 8/192 (4.2 %), 7/192 (3.6 %), and 1/192 (1.0 %) through the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays, respectively. These data indicate that Taqman real-time PCR was a rapid, specific, and sensitive tool as a preferred option for investigation of valuable samples, but that LAMP assay was closed tube, highly sensitive, cost-effective, rapid, easy-to-perform, and was the optimal choice for detection of Trichinella in the field. The results of a model of experimental infection in mice indicated that spleen can be used as sampling site for the detection of early T. spiralis infection. However, the diaphragm and myocardium were the most suitable sampling sites for the detection of T. spiralis. PMID:23334692

  20. Comparison of three molecular detection methods for detection of Trichinella in infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhibing; Cao, Jie; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Yongzhi; Deng, Mingjun; Li, Guoqing; Zhou, Jinlin

    2013-05-01

    Different molecular detection methods require diverse molecular platforms, but there is no uniform standard for people to reference in the detection of Trichinella. In this study, real-time PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and conventional PCR were developed for the detection of Trichinella by targeting mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal DNA (mt-lsrDNA). We compared the performance of the three newly developed assays. The results revealed that the detection limits of the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays were 10 and 100 fg/μL and 1 pg/μL of Trichinella spiralis genomic DNA, respectively. The assays were used in the detection of Trichinella in the field. A total of 192 samples were obtained from pigs: 75 samples from free range farming and 117 from intensive feeding factory. The infection rate was 8/192 (4.2 %), 7/192 (3.6 %), and 1/192 (1.0 %) through the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays, respectively. These data indicate that Taqman real-time PCR was a rapid, specific, and sensitive tool as a preferred option for investigation of valuable samples, but that LAMP assay was closed tube, highly sensitive, cost-effective, rapid, easy-to-perform, and was the optimal choice for detection of Trichinella in the field. The results of a model of experimental infection in mice indicated that spleen can be used as sampling site for the detection of early T. spiralis infection. However, the diaphragm and myocardium were the most suitable sampling sites for the detection of T. spiralis.

  1. Protein A suppresses immune responses during Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Thomer, Lena; Missiakas, Dominique M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2015-01-06

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fcγ and cross-links VH3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High VH3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host B cell responses. Immunization with SpAKKAA, which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity.

  2. Imaging of acute myocardial infarction in pigs with Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin scintigraphy and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    ten Kate, C.I.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Schipperheyn, J.J.; Doornbos, J.; Hoedemaeker, P.J.; Maes, A.; v.d. Nat, K.H.; Camps, J.A.; Huysmans, H.A.; Pauwels, E.K. )

    1990-07-01

    Indium-111 antimyosin F(ab')2 was used in a series of scintigraphic studies on experimentally induced myocardial infarctions in pigs. Antimyosin distribution recorded by planar images of in vivo pigs and by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of excised hearts delineated areas of myocardial necrosis if infarct volume exceeded 3.3 cm3. Scintigraphic images were compared with magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from excised hearts and with photographs of slices of the hearts. Infarct size and localization determined with antimyosin were compared. The MR images, with or without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA), of the in vivo pigs were all false-negative; some myocardial wall thinning and high bloodpool signals were visible. Results show that both the antimyosin and the MR technique are specific methods for the visualization of induced myocardial necrosis in this animal model. However, the use of antimyosin is limited to a period ranging from 24 to 72 hours after infarction.

  3. Restricted Infectivity of a Human-Lineage H3N2 Influenza A Virus in Pigs Is Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Gene Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Gabriele A.; Karasin, Alexander I.; Schutten, Melissa M.; Olsen, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause pandemics at sporadic intervals. Pandemic viruses can potentially be introduced into the human population through in toto transfer of an avian influenza virus or through reassortment between avian and human strains. Pigs are believed to play a central role in the creation of pandemic viruses through reassortment because of their susceptibility to infection with both avian and human influenza viruses. However, we recently found that a human-lineage H3N2 influenza virus was highly restricted in its ability to infect pigs after intranasal inoculation. We hypothesized that this restricted infectivity phenotype was controlled by the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). To test this, we infected pigs with reverse genetics-created HA plus NA reassortant viruses. Specifically, introduction of the HA and NA genes of a contemporary H3N2 swine virus into the genetic background of the wholly human virus resulted in a significant increase in virus shedding and pathogenicity. These data indicate that the HA/NA can play important roles in controlling human influenza virus infectivity in pigs. The results further support the premise that a barrier exists to human influenza virus infection in pigs, which may limit the role of pigs in pandemic virus creation through reassortment of human and avian influenza viruses. PMID:16455873

  4. Risk factors for farm-level African swine fever infection in major pig-producing areas in Nigeria, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Fasina, F O; Agbaje, M; Ajani, F L; Talabi, O A; Lazarus, D D; Gallardo, C; Thompson, P N; Bastos, A D S

    2012-11-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an economically devastating disease for the pig industry, especially in Africa. Identifying what supports infection on pig farms in this region remains the key component in developing a risk-based approach to understanding the epidemiology of ASF and controlling the disease. Nigeria was used for this matched case-control study, because there is perpetual infection in some areas, while contiguous areas are intermittently infected. Risk factors and biosecurity practices in pig farms were evaluated in association with ASF infection. Subsets of farms located in high-density pig population areas and high-risk areas for ASF infection were randomly selected for analysis. Most plausible risk factor variables from the univariable analysis included in the multivariable analysis include: owner of farm had regular contact with infected farms and other farmers, untested pigs were routinely purchased into the farm in the course of outbreaks, there was an infected neighbourhood, other livestock were kept alongside pigs, there was a presence of an abattoir/slaughter slab in pig communities, wild birds had free access to pig pens, tools and implements were routinely shared by pig farmers, there was free access to feed stores by rats, and feed was purchased from a commercial source. Only the presence of an abattoir in a pig farming community (OR=8.20; CI(95%)=2.73, 24.63; P<0.001) and the presence of an infected pig farm in the neighbourhood (OR=3.26; CI(95%)=1.20, 8.83; P=0.02) were significant. There was a marginally significant negative association (protective) between risk of ASF infection and sharing farm tools and equipment (OR=0.35; CI(95%)=0.12, 1.01; P=0.05). Of the 28 biosecurity measures evaluated, food and water control (OR=0.14; CI(95%)=0.04, 0.46; P<0.001), separation/isolation of sick pigs (OR=0.14; CI(95%)=0.04, 0.53; P=0.004) and washing and disinfection of farm equipment and tools (OR=0.27; CI(95%)=0.10, 0.78; P=0.02) were negatively

  5. Risk factors for farm-level African swine fever infection in major pig-producing areas in Nigeria, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Fasina, F O; Agbaje, M; Ajani, F L; Talabi, O A; Lazarus, D D; Gallardo, C; Thompson, P N; Bastos, A D S

    2012-11-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an economically devastating disease for the pig industry, especially in Africa. Identifying what supports infection on pig farms in this region remains the key component in developing a risk-based approach to understanding the epidemiology of ASF and controlling the disease. Nigeria was used for this matched case-control study, because there is perpetual infection in some areas, while contiguous areas are intermittently infected. Risk factors and biosecurity practices in pig farms were evaluated in association with ASF infection. Subsets of farms located in high-density pig population areas and high-risk areas for ASF infection were randomly selected for analysis. Most plausible risk factor variables from the univariable analysis included in the multivariable analysis include: owner of farm had regular contact with infected farms and other farmers, untested pigs were routinely purchased into the farm in the course of outbreaks, there was an infected neighbourhood, other livestock were kept alongside pigs, there was a presence of an abattoir/slaughter slab in pig communities, wild birds had free access to pig pens, tools and implements were routinely shared by pig farmers, there was free access to feed stores by rats, and feed was purchased from a commercial source. Only the presence of an abattoir in a pig farming community (OR=8.20; CI(95%)=2.73, 24.63; P<0.001) and the presence of an infected pig farm in the neighbourhood (OR=3.26; CI(95%)=1.20, 8.83; P=0.02) were significant. There was a marginally significant negative association (protective) between risk of ASF infection and sharing farm tools and equipment (OR=0.35; CI(95%)=0.12, 1.01; P=0.05). Of the 28 biosecurity measures evaluated, food and water control (OR=0.14; CI(95%)=0.04, 0.46; P<0.001), separation/isolation of sick pigs (OR=0.14; CI(95%)=0.04, 0.53; P=0.004) and washing and disinfection of farm equipment and tools (OR=0.27; CI(95%)=0.10, 0.78; P=0.02) were negatively

  6. Acute Arboviral Infections in Guinea, West Africa, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Jentes, Emily S.; Robinson, Jaimie; Johnson, Barbara W.; Conde, Ibrahima; Sakouvougui, Yosse; Iverson, Jennifer; Beecher, Shanna; Bah, M. Alpha; Diakite, Fousseny; Coulibaly, Mamadi; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Acute febrile illnesses comprise the majority of the human disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that arboviruses comprised a considerable proportion of undiagnosed febrile illnesses in Guinea and sought to determine the frequency of arboviral disease in two hospitals there. Using a standard case definition, 47 suspected cases were detected in approximately 4 months. Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and plaque-reduction neutralization assays revealed that 63% (30/47) of patients were infected with arboviruses, including 11 West Nile, 2 yellow fever, 1 dengue, 8 chikungunya, and 5 Tahyna infections. Except for yellow fever, these are the first reported cases of human disease from these viruses in Guinea and the first reported cases of symptomatic Tahyna infection in Africa. These results strongly suggest that arboviruses circulate and are common causes of disease in Guinea. Improving surveillance and laboratory capacity for arbovirus diagnoses will be integral to understanding the burden posed by these agents in the region. PMID:20682888

  7. Acute arboviral infections in Guinea, West Africa, 2006.

    PubMed

    Jentes, Emily S; Robinson, Jaimie; Johnson, Barbara W; Conde, Ibrahima; Sakouvougui, Yosse; Iverson, Jennifer; Beecher, Shanna; Bah, M Alpha; Diakite, Fousseny; Coulibaly, Mamadi; Bausch, Daniel G; Bryan, Juliet

    2010-08-01

    Acute febrile illnesses comprise the majority of the human disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that arboviruses comprised a considerable proportion of undiagnosed febrile illnesses in Guinea and sought to determine the frequency of arboviral disease in two hospitals there. Using a standard case definition, 47 suspected cases were detected in approximately 4 months. Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and plaque-reduction neutralization assays revealed that 63% (30/47) of patients were infected with arboviruses, including 11 West Nile, 2 yellow fever, 1 dengue, 8 chikungunya, and 5 Tahyna infections. Except for yellow fever, these are the first reported cases of human disease from these viruses in Guinea and the first reported cases of symptomatic Tahyna infection in Africa. These results strongly suggest that arboviruses circulate and are common causes of disease in Guinea. Improving surveillance and laboratory capacity for arbovirus diagnoses will be integral to understanding the burden posed by these agents in the region.

  8. Metabolomic signatures in guinea pigs infected with epidemic-associated W-Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Somashekar, Bagganahalli S; Amin, Anita G; Tripathi, Pratima; MacKinnon, Neil; Rithner, Christopher D; Shanley, Crystal A; Basaraba, Randall; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Orme, Ian M; Ordway, Diane J; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2012-10-01

    With the understanding that the laboratory propagated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv is of modest virulence and is drug susceptible, in the present study, we performed a nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic analysis of lung tissues and serum obtained from guinea pigs infected by low dose aerosol exposure to clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR coupled with multivariate statistical analysis of 159 lung tissues obtained from multiple locations of age-matched naïve and 30 and 60 days of infected guinea pig lungs revealed a wide dispersal of metabolic patterns, but within these, distinct clusters of signatures could be seen that differentiated between naive control and infected animals. Several metabolites were identified that changed in concert with the progression of each infection. Major metabolites that could be interpreted as indicating host glutaminolysis were consistent with activated host immune cells encountering increasingly hypoxic conditions in the necrotic lung lesions. Moreover, glutathione levels were constantly elevated, probably in response to oxygen radical production in these lesions. Additional distinct signatures were also seen in infected serum, with altered levels of several metabolites. Multivariate statistical analysis clearly differentiated the infected from the uninfected sera; in addition, Receiver Operator Characteristic curve generated with principal component 1 scores showed an area under the curve of 0.908. These data raise optimism that discrete metabolomic signatures can be defined that can predict the progression of the tuberculosis disease process, and form the basis of an innovative and rapid diagnostic process.

  9. Pseudorabies virus infections in pigs. Role of viral proteins in virulence, pathogenesis and transmission.

    PubMed

    Mulder, W A; Pol, J M; Gruys, E; Jacobs, L; De Jong, M C; Peeters, B P; Kimman, T G

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews new findings on the biological functions of pseudorabies virus (PRV) proteins. It focuses on the role of PRV proteins in the pathogenicity, immunogenicity and transmission of PRV vaccine strains in pigs. Furthermore, it evaluates potential risks that are connected with the use of PRV vector strains. Special emphasis is placed upon the spread of genetically engineered vaccine strains within pigs or between pigs. PMID:9172836

  10. Study on the role of gastric Helicobacter infection in gross pathological and histological lesions of the stomach in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, L; Palkovics, G; Solymosi, N; Tekes, L; Méhesfalvi, J

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of gastric Helicobacter infection in finishing pigs and the influence of this infection on gastric lesions was studied. Stomachs of 89 finishing pigs from 27 randomly selected herds were sampled at the slaughterhouse. Forty cases (Group A) were selected based upon the presence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea, and further 49 cases were obtained at random (Group B). Three samples of gastric tissue (junction of pars oesophagea and pars cardiaca, fundic area, and pyloric area) were collected from each stomach for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Helicobacter antigen was detected in 76 cases (85.4%). No association was found between the presence of Helicobacter in the stomach and the occurrence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea or gastritis detected on histological examination. However, a significant association was found between the occurrence of Helicobacter in the pyloric area and the presence of erosions/ulcers in the pars oesophagea (OR: 7.01, p = 0.022) in Group B. A significant association was also evident between the presence of Helicobacter and glandular lesions (dilatation of the glands + glandular abscess + degeneration of glandular epithelial cells). In conclusion, Helicobacter infection seems to be a contributing factor to pathological changes in the stomach of finishing pigs.

  11. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Kureljušić, Branislav; Nedorost, Nora; Matula, Bettina; Schießl, Wolfgang; Stixenberger, Daniela; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2)) and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b.), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h.), and Pasteurella multocida (P. m.)) co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases. PMID:27428002

  12. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Kureljušić, Branislav; Nedorost, Nora; Matula, Bettina; Schießl, Wolfgang; Stixenberger, Daniela; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2)) and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b.), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h.), and Pasteurella multocida (P. m.)) co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases. PMID:27428002

  13. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  14. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in BALF cells isolated from pigs single infected or co-infected with swine influenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Kwit, Krzysztof; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Rachubik, Jarosław; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2014-06-01

    Pigs serve as a valuable animal experimental model for several respiratory pathogens, including Swine Influenza Virus (SIV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bbr). To investigate the effect of SIV and Bbr coinfection on cytokine and viral RNA expression, we performed a study in which pigs were inoculated with SIV, Bbr or both pathogens (SIV/Bbr). Our results indicate that Bbr infection alters SIV clearance. Pulmonary lesions in the SIV/Bbr group were more severe when compared to SIV or Bbr groups and Bbr did not cause significant lesions. Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was examined for inflammatory mediators by qPCR. Interferon (IFN)-α, interleukin IL-8, IL-1 peaked in BALF at 2 DPI, while the virus titres and severity of clinical signs were maximal at the same time. Despite its increased expression in co-infected pigs, interferon-α did not enhance SIV clearance, since the viral replication was detected at the same day as the highest IFN levels. The mRNA levels for IFN-α, IL-1β and IL-8 were significantly higher in BALF of co-infected pigs and correlated with enhanced viral RNA titers in lungs, trachea and nasal swabs. Transcription of mRNA for IL-1β was stable in SIV and SIV/Bbr groups throughout all the study. In Bbr group, the levels of mRNAs for IL-1β were significantly higher at 2, 4 and 9 DPI. The mean levels of mRNAs for TNF-α were lower than the levels of other chemokines and cytokines in all infected groups. Transcript levels of IL-10 and IL-4 did not increase at each time points. Overall, SIV replication was increased by Bbr presence and the enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators could contribute to the exacerbated pulmonary lesions. PMID:24629899

  15. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in BALF cells isolated from pigs single infected or co-infected with swine influenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Kwit, Krzysztof; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Rachubik, Jarosław; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2014-06-01

    Pigs serve as a valuable animal experimental model for several respiratory pathogens, including Swine Influenza Virus (SIV) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bbr). To investigate the effect of SIV and Bbr coinfection on cytokine and viral RNA expression, we performed a study in which pigs were inoculated with SIV, Bbr or both pathogens (SIV/Bbr). Our results indicate that Bbr infection alters SIV clearance. Pulmonary lesions in the SIV/Bbr group were more severe when compared to SIV or Bbr groups and Bbr did not cause significant lesions. Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was examined for inflammatory mediators by qPCR. Interferon (IFN)-α, interleukin IL-8, IL-1 peaked in BALF at 2 DPI, while the virus titres and severity of clinical signs were maximal at the same time. Despite its increased expression in co-infected pigs, interferon-α did not enhance SIV clearance, since the viral replication was detected at the same day as the highest IFN levels. The mRNA levels for IFN-α, IL-1β and IL-8 were significantly higher in BALF of co-infected pigs and correlated with enhanced viral RNA titers in lungs, trachea and nasal swabs. Transcription of mRNA for IL-1β was stable in SIV and SIV/Bbr groups throughout all the study. In Bbr group, the levels of mRNAs for IL-1β were significantly higher at 2, 4 and 9 DPI. The mean levels of mRNAs for TNF-α were lower than the levels of other chemokines and cytokines in all infected groups. Transcript levels of IL-10 and IL-4 did not increase at each time points. Overall, SIV replication was increased by Bbr presence and the enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators could contribute to the exacerbated pulmonary lesions.

  16. Evaluation of an Erns-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to distinguish Classical swine fever virus-infected pigs from pigs vaccinated with CP7_E2alf.

    PubMed

    Pannhorst, Katrin; Fröhlich, Andreas; Staubach, Christoph; Meyer, Denise; Blome, Sandra; Becher, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Infections with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are a major economic threat to pig production. To combat CSF outbreaks and to maintain trade, new marker vaccines were developed that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). The chimeric pestivirus CP7_E2alf was shown to be safe and efficacious. Its DIVA strategy is based on the detection of CSFV E(rns)-specific antibodies that are only developed on infection. However, for the new marker vaccine to be considered a valuable control tool, a validated discriminatory assay is needed. One promising candidate is the already commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA (Prionics BV, Lelystad, The Netherlands). Four laboratories of different European Union member states tested 530 serum samples and country-specific field sera from domestic pigs and wild boar. The ELISA displayed a good robustness. However, based on its reproducibility and repeatability, ranges rather than single values for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were defined. The ELISA displayed a sensitivity of 90-98% with sera from CSFV-infected domestic pigs. A specificity of 89-96% was calculated with sera from domestic pigs vaccinated once with CP7_E2alf. The ELISA detected CSFV infections in vaccinated domestic pigs with a sensitivity of 82-94%. The sensitivity was lower with sera taken ≤21 days post-challenge indicating that the stage of CSFV infection had a considerable influence on testing. Taken together, the PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA can be used for detection of CSFV infections in CP7_E2alf-vaccinated and nonvaccinated domestic pig populations, but should only be applied on a herd basis by testing a defined number of animals.

  17. Evaluation of an Erns-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to distinguish Classical swine fever virus-infected pigs from pigs vaccinated with CP7_E2alf.

    PubMed

    Pannhorst, Katrin; Fröhlich, Andreas; Staubach, Christoph; Meyer, Denise; Blome, Sandra; Becher, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Infections with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are a major economic threat to pig production. To combat CSF outbreaks and to maintain trade, new marker vaccines were developed that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). The chimeric pestivirus CP7_E2alf was shown to be safe and efficacious. Its DIVA strategy is based on the detection of CSFV E(rns)-specific antibodies that are only developed on infection. However, for the new marker vaccine to be considered a valuable control tool, a validated discriminatory assay is needed. One promising candidate is the already commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA (Prionics BV, Lelystad, The Netherlands). Four laboratories of different European Union member states tested 530 serum samples and country-specific field sera from domestic pigs and wild boar. The ELISA displayed a good robustness. However, based on its reproducibility and repeatability, ranges rather than single values for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were defined. The ELISA displayed a sensitivity of 90-98% with sera from CSFV-infected domestic pigs. A specificity of 89-96% was calculated with sera from domestic pigs vaccinated once with CP7_E2alf. The ELISA detected CSFV infections in vaccinated domestic pigs with a sensitivity of 82-94%. The sensitivity was lower with sera taken ≤21 days post-challenge indicating that the stage of CSFV infection had a considerable influence on testing. Taken together, the PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA can be used for detection of CSFV infections in CP7_E2alf-vaccinated and nonvaccinated domestic pig populations, but should only be applied on a herd basis by testing a defined number of animals. PMID:26179095

  18. Airway microbiota and acute respiratory infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Acute respiratory infection (ARI), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, is the leading cause of hospitalization for U.S. infants. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) that appear to influence development of local and systemic immune response. We propose a “risk and resilience” model in which airway microbiota are associated with an increased (risk microbiota) or decreased (resilience microbiota) incidence and severity of ARI in children. We also propose that modulating airway microbiota (e.g., from risk to resilience microbiota) during early childhood will optimize airway immunity, and thereby decrease ARI incidence and severity in children. PMID:25961472

  19. Vaccination with viral protein-mimicking peptides postpones mortality in domestic pigs infected by African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Vadim; Efremov, Evgeniy E; Novikov, Boris V; Balyshev, Vladimir M; Tsibanov, Sodnom Zh; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Kolbasov, Denis V; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection around the world threaten local populations of domestic pigs with lethal disease and provide grounds for pandemic spread. Effective vaccination may bring this threat under control. We investigated the effectiveness of select peptides mimicking viral proteins in establishing a protective immune response. Forty-six synthetic peptides based on the analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of ASFV were tested for immunogenicity in mice. The 17 best immune response-inducing peptide candidates were selected for further investigation. Twenty-four domestic pigs, 3-4 months old and weighing 20-25 kg, were divided into six groups (n = 4) and immunized by subcutaneous injection using a standard three-round injection protocol with one of four peptide combinations prepared from the 17 peptides (Groups 1-4) or with carrier only (Group 5). Group 6, the control, was not vaccinated. Animal body temperature and behavior were monitored during and post immunization for health assessment. Two weeks after the last round of immunizations, the pigs were infected with live ASFV (Espania 70) at 6.0 Ig GAE50/cm3, and the survival rate was monitored. Blood samples were collected for analysis the day before infection and on days 3, 7 and 10 post-infection, or from deceased animals. The serum titers of specific immunoglobulins against synthetic peptides and whole inactivated ASFV were determined by enzyme immunoassay before and after infection. The presence of viral DNA in blood serum samples was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Viral infection activity in blood sera was determined by heme absorption in cultured porcine bone marrow and porcine leukocyte cells. Repeating the injection of synthetic peptides in both the mice and pigs produced an immune response specific to individual peptides, which differed widely in the intensity scale. Specific anti-whole virus immunoglobulin binding activity in the swine serum samples

  20. Exposure to cold and acute upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R; Wilkinson, J E

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of acute upper respiratory tract viral infections (URTI) is directly correlated to air temperature with most URTI occurring seasonally in cold weather. This review looks at four types of cold exposure and examines the evidence and possible mechanisms for any relationship to URTI. The effects of cold are discussed as: 1) Chilling of the nose and upper respiratory tract by breathing cold air, 2) Chilling of the mouth and upper digestive tract by ingestion of cold drinks and food, 3) Acute chilling of the body surface, and, 4) Chilling of the body as a whole with a fall in body temperature, hypothermia. Some studies were found to support a relationship between breathing cold air and chilling the body surface with the development of URTI, although this area is controversial. No evidence was found in the literature to support any relationship between ingestion of cold drinks and food and URTI, and similarly no evidence was found to link hypothermia and URTI. PMID:26030031

  1. Endometrial gene expression of acute phase extracellular matrix components following estrogen disruption of pregnancy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Morgan D; Ross, Jason W; Stein, Daniel; White, Frank; Geisert, Rodney D

    2010-12-01

    In pigs, administration of estrogen to gilts on Days 9 and 10 of pregnancy causes conceptus fragmentation and death between Days 15 and 18 of gestation. Conceptus degeneration is associated with breakdown of the microvilli surface glycocalyx on the lumenal epithelium (LE). We previously identified endometrial expression of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) and hyaluronic acid (HA), which are key components of extracellular matrix (ECM), during the period of conceptus attachment to the uterine surface in the pig. Tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible protein-6 (TNFAIP6) serves as a linker for ECM expansion and is stimulated by prostaglandin E (PGE). We hypothesized that early estrogen administration alters the normal ECM components forming glycocalyx on the LE. Bred gilts (4 gilts/trt/day) were treated with either 5mg estradiol cypionate (E) or corn oil (CO) on Days 9 and 10 of gestation. The uterus was surgically removed on either Days 10, 12, 13, 15 and 17 of gestation and endometrial tissue snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Endometrial tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), TNFAIP6, interleukin 6 (IL6), and inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chains (ITIH) were detected during early pregnancy thereby indicating all components for maintenance of the extracellular glycocalyx are present in the endometrium of pigs. However, only gene expression of ITIH2 was suppressed by E-treatment. TNFAIP6 protein was detected across all days of gestation but was not affected by E-treatment. The present study demonstrates that while the pig endometrium expresses key components of ECM only ITIH2 gene expression was altered by E-treatment. A decrease in ITIH2 could lead to the possible loss of the uterine glycocalyx leading to conceptus degeneration; however, other factors may be involved with the loss of glycocalyx during implantation in the pig following E-treatment.

  2. Efficacy of tilmicosin phosphate (Pulmotil premix) in feed for the treatment of a clinical outbreak of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoflack, G; Maes, D; Mateusen, B; Verdonck, M; de Kruif, A

    2001-11-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out to investigate the efficacy of tilmicosin (Pulmotil premix) for the treatment of a clinical outbreak of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in growing-finishing pigs. The effects of tilmicosin administration in the feed at 400 mg/kg and an injection therapy of clinically diseased pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline (Terramycine LA) at 20 mg/kg bodyweight were compared. Both groups, totalling 147 pigs, were compared during a medication period of 15 days and a post-medication period of 11 days by means of different clinical and performance parameters. During the medication period, the tilmicosin group showed a significant advantage with respect to the number of new disease cases (P < 0.01), and a non-significant advantage regarding the number of removed pigs (P = 0.16), the number of sick pigs that recovered (P = 0.27) and the time to recovery (P = 0.42). During the post-medication period, the pigs of the tilmicosin group showed numerical non-significant benefits (P > 0.05) with respect to the clinical parameters. During the overall study period (26 days), the average daily gain and the feed conversion ratio were both significantly (P < 0.01) better in pigs from the tilmicosin group compared with pigs from the oxytetracycline group. This study demonstrated that in-feed medication of tilmicosin at a dosage of 400 mg/kg is efficacious for the treatment of a clinical respiratory disease outbreak of A. pleuropneumoniae infection in growing-finishing pigs. Compared with oxytetracycline injection of clinically diseased pigs, the tilmicosin treatment is particularly beneficial in the prevention of new disease cases while increasing or maintaining the performance of the pigs.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi Entrance through Systemic or Mucosal Infection Sites Differentially Modulates Regional Immune Response Following Acute Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Meis, Juliana; Barreto de Albuquerque, Juliana; Silva dos Santos, Danielle; Farias-de-Oliveira, Désio Aurélio; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Savino, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Acute Chagas disease is characterized by a systemic infection that leads to the strong activation of the adaptive immune response. Outbreaks of oral contamination by the infective protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi are frequent in Brazil and other Latin American countries, and an increased severity of clinical manifestations and mortality is observed in infected patients. These findings have elicited questions about the specific responses triggered after T. cruzi entry via mucosal sites, possibly modulating local immune mechanisms, and further impacting regional and systemic immunity. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of differential lymphoid organ responses in experimental models of acute T. cruzi infection. PMID:23898334

  4. Viral Infection in Adults with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Remolina, Yuly Andrea; Ulloa, María Mercedes; Vargas, Hernán; Díaz, Liliana; Gómez, Sandra Liliana; Saavedra, Alfredo; Sánchez, Edgar; Cortés, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the viral aetiology in adult patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to sentinel surveillance institutions in Bogotá in 2012. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in which microarray molecular techniques for viral identification were used on nasopharyngeal samples of adult patients submitted to the surveillance system, and further descriptions of clinical features and relevant clinical outcomes, such as mortality, need for critical care, use of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay, were obtained. Setting Respiratory infections requiring hospital admission in surveillance centres in Bogotá, Colombia. Participants Ninety-one adult patients with acute respiratory infection (55% were female). Measurements Viral identification, intensive care unit admission, hospital stay, and mortality. Results Viral identification was achieved for 63 patients (69.2%). Comorbidity was frequently identified and mainly involved chronic pulmonary disease or pregnancy. Influenza, Bocavirus and Adenovirus were identified in 30.8%, 28.6% and 18.7% of the cases, respectively. Admission to the intensive care unit occurred in 42.9% of the cases, while mechanical ventilation was required for 36.3%. The average hospital stay was 9.9 days, and mortality was 15.4%. Antibiotics were empirically used in 90.1% of patients. Conclusions The prevalence of viral aetiology of SARI in this study was high, with adverse clinical outcomes, intensive care requirements and high mortality. PMID:26576054

  5. Lavage-induced Surfactant Depletion in Pigs As a Model of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).

    PubMed

    Russ, Martin; Kronfeldt, Sebastian; Boemke, Willehad; Busch, Thilo; Francis, Roland C E; Pickerodt, Philipp A

    2016-01-01

    Various animal models of lung injury exist to study the complex pathomechanisms of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and evaluate future therapies. Severe lung injury with a reproducible deterioration of pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics can be induced in anesthetized pigs using repeated lung lavages with warmed 0.9% saline (50 ml/kg body weight). Including standard respiratory and hemodynamic monitoring with clinically applied devices in this model allows the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies (drugs, modern ventilators, extracorporeal membrane oxygenators, ECMO), and bridges the gap between bench and bedside. Furthermore, induction of lung injury with lung lavages does not require the injection of pathogens/endotoxins that impact on measurements of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A disadvantage of the model is the high recruitability of atelectatic lung tissue. Standardization of the model helps to avoid pitfalls, to ensure comparability between experiments, and to reduce the number of animals needed. PMID:27684585

  6. Primary Epstein-Barr-virus infections in acute neurologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Grose, C; Henle, W; Henle, G; Feorino, P M

    1975-02-20

    Infectious mononucleosis has been associated with Guillain--Barré syndrome, Bell's palsy, meningoencephalitis and transverse myelitis. Since it is not known that many children with infectious mononucleosis do not develop heterophil antibodies, we looked for evidence of current or recent Epstein-Barr virus infection in young patients with these neurologic diseases by using serodiagnostic procedures for detection and titration of antibodies to various antigens related to Epstein-Barr virus. Seven of 24 cases with Guillain-Barre syndrome and three of 16 with facial palsy were definitely associated with primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus as were two cases each of the other two neurologic diseases. Only one of these patients had obvious clinical infectious mononucleosis, and only a few demonstrated heterophil agglutinins. It is evident that the virus must be considered in the diagnosis of various acute neurologic diseases affecting children and young adults, even in the absence of heterophil-antibody response or other signs of infectious mononucleosis.

  7. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Verani, Jennifer R; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to

  8. Surveillance for Hospitalized Acute Respiratory Infection in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Verani, Jennifer R.; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J.; Lindblade, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to

  9. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO{sub 2} therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. {yields} Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO{sub 2} infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. {yields} These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. {yields} NaNO{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO{sub 2} with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO{sub 2} on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO{sub 2}, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  10. Recombinant bivalent vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O/A infection in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Ming-Qiu; Zhu, Cai-Zhu; Zhang, Qiang; Sheng, Zu-Tian; Du, Qing-Yun; Yan, Wei-Yao; Zheng, Zhao-Xin

    2004-09-01

    In this study, two DNA fragments encoding amino acid (141-160)-(21-140)-(141-160) of the VP1 of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) serotype O and (138-160)-(21-40)-(138-160) of the serotype A FMDV were chemically synthesized. These two tandem-repeat fragments were ligated and transfected into prokaryotic expression vector pTrcHis A to construct pTH-O-A. The other vector called pTH-O-scIgG-A was constructed similarly only that the two tandem-repeat DNA fragments were linked by the bovine-IgG heavy chain coding sequence. Guinea pigs immunized with the two bivalent vaccines pTH-O-A and pTH-O-scIgG-A showed both specific antibody activity and T cell proliferation responses. FMDV challenge tests showed that 85% and 70% of guinea pigs vaccinated twice with 200 mg of the fusion protein of pTH-O-A were protected from FMDV serotype O and serotype A infection respectively. 70% and 57% of the guinea pigs immunized with the fusion protein of pTH-O-scIgG-A were protected from FMDV serotype O and serotype A infection respectively. PMID:15346195

  11. Recombinant fusion protein and DNA vaccines against foot and mouth disease virus infection in guinea pig and swine.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Yang, Z; Xu, Q; Sheng, Z; Xie, Y; Yan, W; You, Y; Sun, L; Zheng, Z

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we provide evidence that a recombinant fusion protein containing beta-galactosidase and a tandem repeat peptide of immunogenic dominant epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein elicits high levels of neutralizing antibody and protects both guinea pigs and swine against infection. Vaccination with this fusion protein induced a FMDV-specific proliferative T-cell response and a neutralizing antibody response. The immunized guinea pigs and swine were protected against FMD type O virus infection. Two DNA plasmids expressing genes of foot-and-mouth disease were constructed. Both plasmids pBO1 and pCO1 contain a signal sequence of the swine immunoglobulin G (IgG) gene and fusion protein gene of pXZ84. The signal sequence and fusion protein gene were under the control of a metallothionein promoter in the case of the pBO1 plasmid and under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter in the case of pCO1 plasmid. When pBO1 and pCO1 were inoculated intramuscularly into guinea pigs, both plasmids elicited a neutralizing antibody response and spleen cell proliferation increased following stimulation with FMDV antigen, but animals were not protected from viral challenge. PMID:10333237

  12. Reflex-mediated desquamation of bronchiolar epithelium in guinea pigs exposed acutely to sulfuric acid aerosol.

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Terminal conducting airways are known to be vulnerable to direct injury by a variety of noxious aerosols. Sulfuric acid aerosol, a by-product of fossil fuel combustion, produces desquamation of terminal bronchiolar epithelium in guinea pigs that is believed to result from direct deep lung irritation, an effect separable from reflex airway constriction induced by sulfuric acid. To characterize desquamation of bronchiolar epithelium, 20 guinea pigs were exposed to 32.6 mg/cu m sulfuric acid aerosol with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.0 micron for 4 hours. The guinea pigs were killed upon termination of the exposure, or 24 hours later, and airway alterations were evaluated by light and transmission electron microscopy. To test whether the development of bronchiolar epithelial desquamation is independent of reflex airway constriction, 24 guinea pigs were exposed to an identical aerosol for 4 hours after pretreating half with 5 mg/kg atropine sulfate intraperitoneally to inhibit airway constriction. Sulfuric acid produced diffuse pulmonary hyperinflation with areas of consolidation and atelectasis. Epithelial desquamation occurred in airways supplying regions of developing atelectasis and was most extensive in terminal bronchioles. Parasympathetic effector blockade with atropine eliminated epithelial desquamation. These results indicate that sulfuric acid-produced desquamation of terminal bronchiolar epithelium is not separable from reflex airway constriction and that terminal conducting airways are vulnerable not only to direct injury by noxious aerosols but also to indirect, reflex-mediated injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:7361847

  13. Impact of acute water and feed deprivation events on growth performance, intestinal characteristics, and serum stress markers in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Horn, N; Ruch, F; Miller, G; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2014-10-01

    The impact of acute stressors (24-h feed or water deprivation) on growth performance, intestinal characteristics, and serum stress markers in weaned pigs was evaluated. Pigs (6.21 ± 0.29 kg) were allotted in a randomized complete block design to 4 treatments on the basis of BW at the time of weaning. There were 8 mixed-sex pigs in each of 12 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial and consisted of a feed or water stressor that included a 0- or 24-h deprivation period postweaning, and pigs were subsequently allowed access to feed and water. Growth performance was measured 1, 7, 14, and 28 d postweaning. Serum and intestinal samples were taken 1 and 7 d postweaning. Serum was analyzed for cortisol and corticotrophin-releasing factor, and villus height, crypt depth, and mast cell density were measured in the jejunum and the ileum. Expression of mucin (MUC2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), claudin 1 (CL-1), occludin (OC), and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) genes were measured on d 1 and 7 postweaning in the jejunum and ileum by real-time PCR. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in ADG with the water stressor 1 d postweaning, although subsequently, there were improvements (P < 0.05) in ADG and feed efficiency. Furthermore, the water stressor reduced ADFI during the last 14 d of the trial and cumulatively (P < 0.05). Seven days postweaning there was an increase (P < 0.05) in jejunal villous height to depth ratio due to the feed stressor and a decrease (P < 0.05) in the ileal villous height to depth ratio due to the water stressor. There was an increase (P < 0.05) in serum cortisol levels due to the water stressor both 1 and 7 d postweaning. Furthermore, there was an increase in serum corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 d but not 7 d postweaning due to the water stressor (P < 0.05). The feed stressor reduced (P < 0.05) TNF-α gene expression, and the water stressor reduced (P < 0.05) OC gene expression in the jejunum 1 d

  14. Ultrastructural alterations in the atrial myocardium of pigs with acute monensin toxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monensin, A Na+-selective carboxylic ionophore, produces left atrial damage in pigs given toxic doses. Eight weanling pigs were given mycelial monensin orally (40 mg/kg body weight) and were killed on days 1, 2, 4, and 16 (two animals at each time interval) for ultrastructural study of the left atrial lesions. On days 1-4, extensive necrosis with contraction bands was present. Rapid macrophagic invasion and phagocytosis of sarcoplasmic debris was seen on days 2 and 4. Missing necrotic myocytes were outlined by persistent "tubes" of external laminas. In some surviving myocytes, sublethal injury was evident on day 1 by mitochondria with condensed conformation and on days 2, 4, and 16 by moderate to marked myofibrillar lysis and sarcoplasmic vacuolation. Monensin cardiotoxicity in pigs constitutes a unique example of selective injury to atrial myocardium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6696048

  15. Acute Heat Stress and Reduced Nutrient Intake Alter Intestinal Proteomic Profile and Gene Expression in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Lonergan, Steven M.; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress and reduced feed intake negatively affect intestinal integrity and barrier function. Our objective was to compare ileum protein profiles of pigs subjected to 12 hours of HS, thermal neutral ad libitum feed intake, or pair-fed to heat stress feed intake under thermal neutral conditions (pair-fed thermal neutral). 2D-Differential In Gel Electrophoresis and gene expression were performed. Relative abundance of 281 and 138 spots differed due to heat stress, compared to thermal neutral and pair-fed thermal neutral pigs, respectively. However, only 20 proteins were different due to feed intake (thermal neutral versus pair-fed thermal neutral). Heat stress increased mRNA expression of heat shock proteins and protein abundance of heat shock proteins 27, 70, 90-α and β were also increased. Heat stress reduced ileum abundance of several metabolic enzymes, many of which are involved in the glycolytic or TCA pathways, indicating a change in metabolic priorities. Stress response enzymes peroxiredoxin-1 and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A were decreased in pair-fed thermal neutral and thermal neutral pigs compared to heat stress. Heat stress increased mRNA abundance markers of ileum hypoxia. Altogether, these data show that heat stress directly alters intestinal protein and mRNA profiles largely independent of reduced feed intake. These changes may be related to the reduced intestinal integrity associated with heat stress. PMID:26575181

  16. Temporal and spatial association of Streptococcus suis infection in humans and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome outbreaks in pigs in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, V T L; Thanh, L V; Phu, V D; Trinh, D T; Inui, K; Tung, N; Oanh, N T K; Trung, N V; Hoa, N T; Bryant, J E; Horby, P W; Kinh, N V; Wertheim, H F L

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in pigs are associated with increased susceptibility of pigs to secondary bacterial infections, including Streptococcus suis - an important zoonotic pathogen causing bacterial meningitis in humans. This case-control study examined the association between human S. suis infection and PRRS outbreaks in pigs in northern Vietnam. We included 90 S. suis case-patients and 183 non-S. suis sepsis controls from a referral hospital in Hanoi in 2010, a period of major PRRS epizootics in Vietnam. PRRS exposure was determined using data from the National Centre of Veterinary Diagnosis. By univariate analysis, significantly more S. suis patients were reported residing in or adjacent to a PRRS district compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 2·82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·35-5·89 and OR 3·15, 95% CI 1·62-6·15, respectively]. Only residency in adjacent districts remained significantly associated with risk of S. suis infection after adjusting for sex, occupation, and eating practices. SaTScan analysis showed a possible cluster of S. suis infection in humans around PRRS confirmed locations during the March-August period. The findings indicate an epidemiological association between PRRS in pigs and S. suis infections in humans. Effective strategies to strengthen control of PRRS in pigs may help reduce transmission of S. suis infection to humans.

  17. Macrophage-activating T-cell factor(s) produced in an early phase of Legionella pneumophila infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Y; Yoshida, S; Goto, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Kuroiwa, A

    1989-01-01

    Protective immunity of guinea pigs against Legionella pneumophila was studied by infecting the animals with a sublethal dose (about 2 x 10(4) CFU) of the organism. The bacteria multiplied in the liver, spleen, and lungs up to day 4 after the intraperitoneal infection. The live bacteria in these organs decreased quickly thereafter and were eliminated by day 7. A delayed-type skin reaction and lymphoproliferation of spleen cells to Formalin-killed L. pneumophila were detected from days 5 and 6, respectively, after infection. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from guinea pigs infected 6 days previously inhibited the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Antigen-stimulated spleen cell factor prepared from infected guinea pigs inhibited the intracellular growth of the organism in macrophages obtained from uninfected animals. Antigen-stimulated spleen cell factor prepared from spleen cells treated with anti-guinea pig T-cell monoclonal antibody did not inhibit growth. The activity of antigen-stimulated spleen cell factor was labile to pH 2 treatment, and the factor could not be absorbed by L. pneumophila antigen, suggesting that it contains gamma interferon. Our data show that T-cell-mediated immunity begins to work from an early period of infection with L. pneumophila in guinea pigs. PMID:2807531

  18. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  19. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H; González, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety into of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected to 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood-brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis.

  20. In vitro inactivation of complement by a serum factor present in Junin-virus infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Rimoldi, M T; de Bracco, M M

    1980-01-01

    A serum factor(s) of guinea-pigs infected with Junin virus, the etiological agent of Argentine haemorrhagic fever, is endowed with a potent anticomplementary activity. It is resistant to heat (56 degrees, 30 min) and elutes from a Sephadex G-200 column between albumin and haemoglobin. It is ineffective in the presence of EDTA or EGTA and does not sediment at 82,000 g. It has no direct effect on C4 unless functional Cl is present. However, it induces Cl activation that consumes C4 haemolytic activity in normal human and guinea-pig sera. The evidence presented in this report demonstrates that the complement activation observed in experimental Argentine haemorrhagic fever is at least in part due to a direct effect of this serum factor on the classical complement pathway. PMID:6247264

  1. Prevention of acute otitis media by prophylaxis and treatment of influenza virus infections.

    PubMed

    Glezen, W P

    2000-12-01

    Human experimental challenge studies with influenza virus infection and controlled intervention trials have demonstrated beyond doubt the role of influenza virus infection in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media. Influenza virus infections not only disrupt eustachian tube function, but also impair recovery from infection and facilitate attachment of bacterial pathogens to respiratory epithelial cells. Immunization of young children with either inactivated or live, attenuated influenza vaccine will significantly reduce the incidence of acute otitis media. Early treatment of influenza with antiviral medication will reduce eustachian tube dysfunction that results from influenza virus infection. Influenza produces high morbidity in children that could be averted by universal immunization with attenuated nasal spray vaccine.

  2. Kinetics of the immune response profile in guinea pigs after vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Grover, Ajay; Taylor, Jennifer; Troudt, JoLynn; Keyser, Andrew; Arnett, Kimberly; Izzo, Linda; Rholl, Drew; Izzo, Angelo

    2009-11-01

    The guinea pig model of tuberculosis is used extensively in assessing novel vaccines, since Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination effectively prolongs survival after low-dose aerosol infection with virulent M. tuberculosis. To better understand how BCG extends time to death after pulmonary infection with M. tuberculosis, we examined cytokine responses postvaccination and recruitment of activated T cells and cytokine response postinfection. At 10 weeks postvaccination, splenic gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was significantly elevated compared to the levels at 5 weeks in ex vivo stimulation assays. At 15, 40, 60, and 120 days postinfection, T-cell activation (CD4+ CD62Llow and CD8+ CD62Llow) and mRNA expression of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-10, IL-12, and eomesodermin were assessed. Our data show that at day 40, BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs had significantly increased levels of IFN-gamma mRNA expression but decreased TNF-alpha mRNA expression in their lungs compared to the levels in nonvaccinated animals. At day 120, a time when nonvaccinated guinea pigs succumbed to infection, low levels of IFN-gamma mRNA were observed even though there were increasing levels of IL-1, IL-12, and IL-10, and the numbers of activated T cells did not differ from those in BCG-vaccinated animals. BCG vaccination conferred the advantage of recruiting greater numbers of CD4+ CD62Llow T cells at day 40, although the numbers of CD8+ CD62Llow T cells were not elevated compared to the numbers in nonvaccinated animals. Our data suggest that day 40 postinfection may be a pivotal time point in determining vaccine efficacy and prolonged survival and that BCG promotes the capacity of T cells in the lungs to respond to infection.

  3. Vaccination of dams increases antibody titer and improves growth parameters in finisher pigs subclinically infected with porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Kurmann, J; Sydler, T; Brugnera, E; Buergi, E; Haessig, M; Suter, M; Sidler, X

    2011-10-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the obligate infectious agent in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) of pigs. To control PMWS, we vaccinated dams at 4 and 2 weeks before pregnancy and again in the 12th week of gestation with an inactivated PCV2 vaccine (Circovac). Two producer farms run under the control of Swiss Swine Health Organization were selected for the experiment. Previously, in one farm PMWS was diagnosed on pigs after weaning, whereas in the other farm, pigs wasted during the fattening period. For the experiments 113 dams were randomly vaccinated, and 111 dams were sham injected. Vaccination increased serum antibodies in dams 3- to 9-fold, accompanied by serum antibody titer increases in their offspring. In the sixth week of life, progeny from vaccinated dams had about the same IgG antibody titers as progeny of unvaccinated dams at the third day of life. In sera of vaccinated dams only low concentrations of PCV2 DNA were detected, and no progeny developed PMWS. Interestingly, at day 56 four progeny of unvaccinated dams tested positive for anti-PCV2 IgM antibodies, indicating a primary infection with PCV2. Of economic importance is the observation that progeny of vaccinated dams had a significantly higher daily weight gain in the fattening period (farm X, +51 g/day; farm Y, +30 g/day) and thus a shortened fattening period of about 6 days compared to progeny of controls. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of subclinical circovirus infection and its effects on growth performance of fattening pigs by vaccination of dams.

  4. Experimental infection of weaned piglets with Campylobacter coli--excretion and translocation in a pig colonisation trial.

    PubMed

    Bratz, Katharina; Bücker, Roland; Gölz, Greta; Zakrzewski, Silke S; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Alter, Thomas

    2013-02-22

    Campylobacter (C.) is one of the most common food-borne pathogen causing bacterial enteric infections in humans. Consumption of meat and meat products that have been contaminated with Campylobacter are the major source of infection. Pigs are a natural reservoir of Campylobacter spp. with C. coli as the dominant species. Even though some studies focussed on transmission of C. coli in pig herds and the excretion in faeces, little is known about the colonisation and excretion dynamics of C. coli in a complex gut microbiota present in weaned piglets and the translocation to different tissues. Therefore, an experimental trial was conducted to evaluate the colonisation and translocation ability of the porcine strain C. coli 5981 in weaned pigs. Thus, ten 35 days old piglets were intragastrically inoculated with strain C. coli 5981 (7 × 10(7)CFU/animal) encoding resistances against erythromycin and neomycin. Faecal samples were taken and C. coli levels were enumerated over 28 days. All piglets were naturally colonised with C. coli before experimental inoculation, and excretion levels ranged from 10(4) to 10(7)CFU/g faeces. However, no strain showed resistances against the additional antimicrobials used. Excretion of C. coli 5981 was seen for all piglets seven days after inoculation and highest counts were detectable ten days after inoculation with 10(6)CFU/g faeces. Post-mortem, translocation and subsequent invasion of luminal C. coli was observed for gut tissues of the small intestine and for the gut associated lymphatic tissues, such as jejunal mesenteric lymph nodes and tonsils as well as for spleen and gall bladder. In conclusion, this pig colonisation trial offers the opportunity to study C. coli colonisation in weaned piglets using the porcine strain C. coli 5981 without the need for gnotobiotic or specific pathogen-free animals.

  5. Enterovirus D68 Infection in Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Colorado, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M.; Robinson, Christine C.; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J.; Nix, W. Allan; Oberste, M. Steven; Feikin, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    During August 8, 2014–October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case–control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non–EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186

  6. Enterovirus D68 Infection in Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Colorado, USA, 2014.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Negar; Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M; Robinson, Christine C; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J; Nix, W Allan; Oberste, M Steven; Feikin, Daniel R; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2016-08-01

    During August 8, 2014-October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case-control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non-EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186

  7. Acute middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wernery, Ulrich; Corman, Victor M; Wong, Emily Y M; Tsang, Alan K L; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K P; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Drosten, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother-calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.

  8. Should teeth be extracted immediately in the presence of acute infection?

    PubMed

    Johri, Ankur; Piecuch, Joseph F

    2011-11-01

    Immediate extraction of teeth in the setting of an acute infection has shown to be beneficial for many reasons. It results in faster resolution of the infection, decreased pain, and earlier return of function and oral intake. The risk of seeding the infection into deeper spaces by performing immediate extraction is low.

  9. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  10. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks. PMID:27630820

  11. Local and systemic immune response in pigs during subclinical and clinical swine influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Kwit, K; Markowska-Daniel, I; Kowalski, C; Pejsak, Z

    2014-10-01

    Local and systemic immune responses in pigs intranasally (IN) and intratracheally (IT) inoculated with swine influenza virus (SIV) were studied. No clinical signs were observed in IN-inoculated pigs, while IT-inoculated pigs developed typical signs of influenza. Significantly higher titres of specific antibodies and changes of haematological parameters were found only in IT-inoculated pigs. Because positive correlations between viral titre, local cytokine concentration, and lung pathology have been observed, we hypothesise that both viral load and the local secretion of cytokines play a role in the induction of lung lesions. It could be that a higher replication of SIV stimulates immune cells to secrete higher amounts of cytokines. The results of the present study indicate that pathogenesis of SIV is dependent on both, the damage caused to the lung parenchyma directly by virus, and the effects on the cells of the host's immune system.

  12. Serological and Molecular Investigation of Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs Raised in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Nicola; Sarno, Eleonora; Peretti, Vincenzo; Ciambrone, Lucia; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Santoro, Adriano

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common acute hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In developed countries, the virus has a zoonotic potential, and domestic pigs and wild boars are considered main reservoirs. To assess the prevalence of HEV-positive animals in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on a serological and molecular level, a total of 216 autochthonous healthy pigs (Apulo-Calabrese breed) were sampled. Both sera and feces were collected. Pigs were grouped based on age: 117 pigs <6 months and 99 pigs >6 months. By using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, a total of 173 (80%) of the 216 pigs tested seropositive. In all sampled farms (n = 8), pigs with antibodies (immunoglobulin G) against HEV were detected at a level higher than 60%, with a significant difference among age groups (P < 0.0001). Moreover, 16 fattening pigs were found to be nested reverse transcription PCR positive and thus to shed viral genomes in their feces. These positive findings resulted in a prevalence of 48.4% on the farm level (16 of 35 pigs) and an overall prevalence of 7.4% at the animal level (16 of 216 pigs). Based on the present study, HEV seems to circulate among the autochthonous domestic pig population of southern Italy with a low sharing rate. Further studies exploring the origin of infection are needed to minimize the risk of human exposure and to reduce consequences for public health.

  13. Prior infection of pigs with a genotype 3 swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) protects against subsequent challenges with homologous and heterologous genotypes 3 and 4 human HEV.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Brenton J; Dryman, Barbara A; Huang, Yao-Wei; Feagins, Alicia R; Leroith, Tanya; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. At least four recognized and two putative genotypes of mammalian HEV have been reported: genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic. The current experimental vaccines are all based on a single strain of HEV, even though multiple genotypes of HEV are co-circulating in some countries and thus an individual may be exposed to more than one genotype. Genotypes 3 and 4 swine HEV is widespread in pigs and known to infect humans. Therefore, it is important to know if prior infection with a genotype 3 swine HEV will confer protective immunity against subsequent exposure to genotypes 3 and 4 human and swine HEV. In this study, specific-pathogen-free pigs were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. Pigs in the three treatment groups were each inoculated with a genotype 3 swine HEV, and 12 weeks later, challenged with the same genotype 3 swine HEV, a genotype 3 human HEV, and a genotype 4 human HEV, respectively. The control group was inoculated and challenged with PBS buffer. Weekly sera from all pigs were tested for HEV RNA and IgG anti-HEV, and weekly fecal samples were also tested for HEV RNA. The pigs inoculated with swine HEV became infected as evidenced by fecal virus shedding and viremia, and the majority of pigs also developed IgG anti-HEV prior to challenge at 12 weeks post-inoculation. After challenge, viremia was not detected and only two pigs challenged with swine HEV had 1-week fecal virus shedding, suggesting that prior infection with a genotype 3 swine HEV prevented pigs from developing viremia and fecal virus shedding after challenges with homologous and heterologous genotypes 3 and 4 HEV. The results from this study have important implications for future development of an effective HEV vaccine.

  14. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  15. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support.

  17. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. PMID:26525738

  18. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus.

  19. Caspofungin Acetate or Fluconazole in Preventing Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-23

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  20. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed.

  1. Acute respiratory infections in Pakistan: have we made any progress?

    PubMed

    Khan, Tauseef Ahmad; Madni, Syed Ali; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2004-07-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of death in young children in Pakistan, responsible for 20-30% of all child deaths under age 5 years. This paper summarizes the research and technical development efforts over the last 15 years which have contributed to improving the effectiveness of the case management strategy to reduce mortality from pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Community intervention is viable, effective and practical. Rising antimicrobial resistance among commonly used and low-cost oral agents is of significant concern. Appropriate monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the ARI control programme is lacking. Lack of funding for programmatic activities, lack of coordination with other child survival programs, inadequate training for community health workers and general practitioners in the private sector, lack of public awareness about seeking timely and appropriate care, and insufficient planning and support for ARI programmatic activities at provincial and district levels are major hindrances in decreasing the burden of ARI in the country. The recent introduction of the community-based Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme and WHO and UNICEF-sponsored integrated management of childhood illness initiative present ideal opportunities for re-emphasizing early case detection and appropriate case management of ARI. Ultimately, focusing on preventive strategies such as improving nutrition, reducing indoor pollution, improving mass vaccination, as well as introduction of new vaccines effective against important respiratory pathogens will likely have the most impact on reducing severe ARI and deaths from severe disease. PMID:15279753

  2. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    PubMed

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors.

  3. Treatment of Lassa virus infection in outbred guinea pigs with first-in-class human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Cross, Robert W; Mire, Chad E; Branco, Luis M; Geisbert, Joan B; Rowland, Megan M; Heinrich, Megan L; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Grant, Donald S; Fullah, Mohamed; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Robinson, James E; Geisbert, Thomas W; Garry, Robert F

    2016-09-01

    Lassa fever is a significant health threat to West African human populations with hundreds of thousands of annual cases. There are no approved medical countermeasures currently available. Compassionate use of the antiviral drug ribavirin or transfusion of convalescent serum has resulted in mixed success depending on when administered or the donor source, respectively. We previously identified several recombinant human monoclonal antibodies targeting the glycoprotein of Lassa virus with strong neutralization profiles in vitro. Here, we demonstrate remarkable therapeutic efficacy using first-in-class human antibodies in a guinea pig model of Lassa infection thereby presenting a promising treatment alternative. PMID:27531367

  4. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D. E.; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as “disease susceptibility”, in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to

  5. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    PubMed

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co-infection

  6. Behçet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Clay; Kinney, Rebecca; Gilles, Ryan; Blue, Sky

    2015-05-01

    Behçet's disease is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that can occur after exposure to infectious agents. Behçet's disease also has been associated with HIV infection, including de novo development of this condition during chronic HIV infection and resolution of Behçet's disease symptoms following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Behçet's disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity.

  7. Effect of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infectious Doses on Infection Outcomes in Naïve Conventional Neonatal and Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joseph T.; Chen, Qi; Gauger, Phillip C.; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G.; Sinha, Avanti; Harmon, Karen M.; Madson, Darin M.; Burrough, Eric R.; Magstadt, Drew R.; Salzbrenner, Holly M.; Welch, Michael W.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was identified in the United States (U.S.) swine population for the first time in April 2013 and rapidly spread nationwide. However, no information has been published regarding the minimum infectious dose (MID) of PEDV in different pig models. The main objective of this study was to determine the oral minimum infectious dose of PEDV in naïve conventional neonatal piglets and weaned pigs. A U.S. virulent PEDV prototype isolate (USA/IN19338/2013) with known infectious titer was serially ten-fold diluted in virus-negative cell culture medium. Dilutions with theoretical infectious titers from 560 to 0.0056 TCID50/ml together with a medium control were orogastrically inoculated (10ml/pig) into 7 groups of 5-day-old neonatal pigs (n = 4 per group) and 7 groups of 21-day-old weaned pigs (n = 6 per group). In 5-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum having titers 560–0.056 TCID50/ml, corresponding to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values 24.2–37.6, resulted in 100% infection in each group; 10ml of inoculum with titer 0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct>45) caused infection in 25% of the inoculated pigs. In 21-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum with titers 560–5.6 TCID50/ml (Ct 24.2–31.4) resulted in 100% infection in each group while 10ml of inoculum with titers 0.56–0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct values 35.3 –>45) did not establish infection in any pigs under study conditions as determined by clinical signs, PCR, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and antibody response. These data reveal that PEDV infectious dose is age-dependent with a significantly lower MID for neonatal pigs compared to weaned pigs. This information should be taken into consideration when interpreting clinical relevance of PEDV PCR results and when designing a PEDV bioassay model. The observation of such a low MID in neonates also emphasizes the importance of strict biosecurity and thorough cleaning/disinfection on sow farms. PMID:26441071

  8. Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aram; Kang, Ben; Choi, So Yoon; Cho, Joong Bum; Kim, Yae-Jean; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Choe, Yon Ho

    2015-09-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is responsible for approximately 20% to 30% of community-acquired pneumonia, and is well known for its diverse extrapulmonary manifestations. However, acute necrotizing pancreatits is an extremely rare extrapulmonary manifestation of M. pneumoniae infection. A 6-year-old girl was admitted due to abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, and confused mentality. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was diagnosed according to symptoms, laboratory test results, and abdominal computed tomography scans. M. pneumoniae infection was diagnosed by a 4-fold increase in antibodies to M. pneumoniae between acute and convalescent sera by particle agglutination antibody assay. No other etiologic factors or pathogens were detected. Despite the occurrence of a large infected pseudocyst during the course, the patient was able to discharge without morbidity by early aggressive supportive care. This is the first case in Korea of a child with acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with M. pneumoniae infection. PMID:26473143

  9. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 μmol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] μmol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 μmol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs

  10. Sequence adaptations during growth of rescued classical swine fever viruses in cell culture and within infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Friis, Martin B; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Nielsen, Jens; Belsham, Graham J; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2016-08-30

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important disease of swine. Four different viruses were rescued from full-length cloned cDNAs derived from the Paderborn strain of CSFV. Three of these viruses had been modified by mutagenesis (with 7 or 8 nt changes) within stem 2 of the subdomain IIIf of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that directs the initiation of protein synthesis. Rescued viruses were inoculated into pigs. The rescued vPader10 virus, without modifications in the IRES, induced clinical disease in pigs that was very similar to that observed previously with the parental field strain and transmission to in-contact pigs occurred. Two sequence reversions, in the NS2 and NS5B coding regions, became dominant within the virus populations in these infected pigs. Rescued viruses, with mutant IRES elements, did not induce disease and only very limited circulation of viral RNA could be detected. However, the animals inoculated with these mutant viruses seroconverted against CSFV. Thus, these mutant viruses were highly attenuated in vivo. All 4 rescued viruses were also passaged up to 20 times in cell culture. Using full genome sequencing, the same two adaptations within each of four independent virus populations were observed that restored the coding sequence to that of the parental field strain. These adaptations occurred with different kinetics. The combination of reverse genetics and in depth, full genome sequencing provides a powerful approach to analyse virus adaptation and to identify key determinants of viral replication efficiency in cells and within host animals. PMID:27527774

  11. Enhancing the detection and management of acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Marianne; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-10-01

    Acute HCV infection refers to the 6-month period following infection acquisition, although this definition is somewhat arbitrary. While spontaneous clearance occurs in approximately 25%, the majority will develop chronic HCV infection with the potential for development of cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Detection of acute HCV infection has been hampered by its asymptomatic or non-specific presentation, lack of specific diagnostic tests and the inherent difficulties in identifying and following individuals at highest risk of transmitting and acquiring HCV infection, such as people who inject drugs (PWID). However, recognition of those with acute infection may have individual and population level benefits and could represent an ideal opportunity for intervention. Despite demonstration that HCV treatment is feasible and successful in PWID, treatment uptake remains low with multiple barriers to care at an individual and systems level. Given the burden of HCV-related disease among PWID, strategies to enhance HCV assessment, treatment and prevention in this group are urgently needed. As the therapeutic landscape of chronic HCV management is revolutionised by the advent of simple, highly effective directly-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, similar opportunities may exist in acute infection. This review will discuss issues surrounding improving the detection and management of acute HCV infection, particularly in PWID. PMID:26254495

  12. Genome-wide identification of allele-specific expression in response to Streptococcus suis 2 infection in two differentially susceptible pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huayu; Gaur, Uma; Mekchay, Supamit; Peng, Xianwen; Li, Lianghua; Sun, Hua; Song, Zhongxu; Dong, Binke; Li, Mingbo; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Li, Kui; Mei, Shuqi; Liu, Guisheng

    2015-11-01

    Although allele expression imbalance has been recognized in many species, and strongly linked to diseases, no whole transcriptome allele imbalance has been detected in pigs during pathogen infections. The pathogen Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) causes serious zoonotic disease. Different pig breeds show differential susceptibility/resistance to pathogen infection, but the biological insight is little known. Here we analyzed allele-specific expression (ASE) using the spleen transcriptome of four pigs belonging to two phenotypically different breeds after SS2 infection. The comparative analysis of allele specific SNPs between control and infected animals revealed 882 and 1096 statistically significant differentially expressed allele SNPs (criteria: ratio ≧ 2 or ≦ 0.5) in Landrace and Enshi black pig, respectively. Twenty nine allelically imbalanced SNPs were further verified by Sanger sequencing, and later six SNPs were quantified by pyrosequencing assay. The pyrosequencing results are in agreement with the RNA-seq results, except two SNPs. Looking at the role of ASE in predisposition to diseases, the discovery of causative variants by ASE analysis might help the pig industry in long term to design breeding programs for improving SS2 resistance.

  13. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  14. Acute respiratory infections: the forgotten pandemic. Communiqué from the International Conference on Acute Respiratory Infections, held in Canberra, Australia, 7-10 July 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections kill 4 million children every year in developing countries, and most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia. This huge loss of life goes virtually unnoticed, despite the fact that we have two very effective ways of preventing many of the deaths from pneumonia: Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and standardised antibiotic treatment regimens. Although H. influenzae type b vaccine has virtually eliminated diseases caused by this organism in children in developed countries, failure to appreciate the importance of this organism and the high cost of the vaccine has meant that it has not been used in developing countries; urgent steps need to be taken to ensure that children in developing countries receive H. influenzae vaccine. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of fatal pneumonia in developing countries. Controlled trials are needed to define the role of unconjugated 23-valent S. pneumoniae vaccine, and the new conjugate vaccine must be made available to children in developing countries soon after it is licensed. The World Health Organization has developed simple and effective guidelines for the treatment of pneumonia which have been incorporated into its Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy, and this programme should be strongly supported. In developed countries, acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity. The cost of these infections is enormous, because of lost earnings and the cost of treatment. There is an urgent need for systematic evaluation of existing knowledge about acute respiratory infections in developed countries, so that this knowledge can be applied to prevention and treatment. Approximately 75% of antibiotics are prescribed for acute respiratory infections, and many of these prescriptions are unnecessary. Unnecessary use of antibiotics is very expensive, and it has contributed to the rapid increase in resistance which has already made some bacteria resistant to all antibiotics

  15. Disseminated fungal infection complicated with pulmonary haemorrhage in a case of acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Thulkar, S; Sharma, S; Das, P; Kumar, L

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary haemorrhage is a common necropsy finding in acute leukaemia, however, it is rarely diagnosed during life. A man with acute myeloid leukaemia is reported who presented with disseminated fungal infection, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and subconjuctival and petechial haemorrhages. During the course of the patient's illness, the chest infection was complicated with bilateral pulmonary haemorrhage. The diagnosis of pulmonary haemorrhage was based on characteristic clinical and radiological findings. The patient improved on treatment.


Keywords: leukaemia; pulmonary infiltrate; haemorrhage PMID:11060145

  16. Lipschütz acute vulval ulcers associated with primary cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Martín, José M; Godoy, Rosa; Calduch, Luis; Villalon, Guillermo; Jordá, Esperanza

    2008-01-01

    A previously healthy 16-year-old girl presented with painful acute genital ulcers that appeared in the context of a primary cytomegalovirus infection. Complementary examinations ruled out both venereal disease and other usual causes of genital ulcerations, and the lesions resolved in < 2 weeks with no sequelae or later recurrences. Cytomegalovirus disease should be considered in the screening of acute vulval ulcers.

  17. Chlamydial pneumonitis induced in newborn guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Jacobs, R F; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    One- to three-day-old guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Physical signs of infection included a marked increase in respiration rate on days 5 to 10 of infection and radiographic evidence of pneumonia on day 6. When animals were killed at various times after infection and lung tissue was examined by histopathology, evidence of pneumonia was found beginning on day 4 and lasting as long as day 12, with maximal pathological changes on days 6 to 8. The pneumonia was generally unilateral and consisted of an acute inflammatory component in the bronchioles with granulocytes in both the lumen and the wall of the bronchioles and an interstitial and intra-alveolar mononuclear infiltrate in the parenchyma of the lung. Chlamydial antigen was detected in the bronchial epithelial cells by immunoperoxidase staining, and the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis organism was isolated from lung tissue on days 6 to 9. No other significant bacteria were isolated from lung tissue or seen on gram stains of lung sections. Both immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G serum antibodies to the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis agent were detected as early as day 8 and reached peak levels on day 12. The infection was apparently self-limiting. This model presents the opportunity to investigate pathophysiological and immunological aspects of chlamydial respiratory infections in a neonatal animal. Images PMID:3980080

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Methods Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient’s condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Results Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. Discussion In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Conclusion Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission. PMID:24180319

  19. Effect of Feed Restriction on Performance and Postprandial Nutrient Metabolism in Pigs Co-Infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cariolet, Roland; Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V.; Merlot, Elodie; Simon, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed. PMID:25101681

  20. Effect of feed restriction on performance and postprandial nutrient metabolism in pigs co-infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Le Floc'h, Nathalie; Deblanc, Céline; Cariolet, Roland; Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Merlot, Elodie; Simon, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed.

  1. Age distribution of porcine sapovirus asymptomatic infection and molecular evidence of genogroups GIII and GIX? circulation in distinct Brazilian pig production systems.

    PubMed

    Valente, Cecília Souza; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Barry, Aline Fernandes; Leme, Raquel Arruda; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the natural infection by SaV in pigs of different categories of production cycle in an important Brazilian pig-producing region. Faecal samples (n = 169) of suckling, post-weaning, finisher and breeder pig categories were analysed. Animals were from five farrow-to-weaning and nine grower-to-finish commercial pig farms. The RT-PCR assay was performed targeting the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of porcine SaV genome. The virus was detected in 23.7% (40/169) of faecal samples and in 10/14 (5/5 farrow-to-weaning; 5/9 grower-to-finish) of pig farms evaluated. Porcine SaV was most frequently (p < 0.05) detected in pigs at post-weaning than in grower-to-finish and breeder categories. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the porcine SaV strains belong to the GIII and GIX? genogroups. This study showed that the porcine SaV GIII genogroup has spread in the pig herds and provides the first evidence of GIX? genogroup circulation in South America. PMID:26385461

  2. A qualitative study of patients' perceptions of acute infective conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Everitt, Hazel; Kumar, Satinder; Little, Paul

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute infective conjunctivitis is a self-limiting condition that commonly presents to primary care. Patients' understanding of conjunctivitis, their reasons for attendance, and their responses to different management strategies, are unknown. AIM: To explore patients' understanding of conjunctivitis and its management. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study using semi-structured one-to-one interviews. SETTING: Three general practices in Hampshire and Wiltshire. METHOD: Twenty-five patients presenting with conjunctivitis at their general practices were interviewed. Main outcome measures were patients' perceptions of conjunctivities, their experience and knowledge of the disease, beliefs regarding treatment, and their responses to different management strategies and a patient information leaflet. RESULTS: Patients regarded conjunctivitis as a minor illness, although some considered it might become more serious if not treated. Nearly all were confident at recognising conjunctivitis. They stated a preference for not taking medication, but believed that conjunctivitis would not clear up without treatment. However, they were open to alternative management approaches; for example, the delayed prescription approach, because they trusted their general practitioners' (GPs') judgement. Once they were aware of the self-limiting nature of conjunctivitis, patients felt they would prefer to wait a few days to see if the condition improved before seeking medical advice, even if this resulted in a few more days of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Patients who attend their general practices with conjunctivitis present for treatment because they are not aware of its self-limiting nature. Providing patients with this information may enable patients, enhance self-management, and reduce the use of topical antibiotics and the demand for urgent general practice appointments. PMID:12564275

  3. Survival of classical swine fever virus at various temperatures in faeces and urine derived from experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Weesendorp, Eefke; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A

    2008-12-10

    Indirect transmission of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) can occur through contact with mechanical vectors, like clothing and footwear or transport vehicles, contaminated with the secretions or excretions of infected pigs. A prerequisite for indirect transmission is survival of the virus on the mechanical vector. Consequently, to obtain more insight into these transmission routes, it is important to know how long the virus remains viable outside the host. In this study we examined the survival of classical swine fever virus in faeces and urine derived from pigs intranasally inoculated with a highly or moderately virulent CSFV strain. Faeces and urine were collected between days 5 and 36 post-inoculation, and stored at 5, 12, 20, and 30 degrees C. Next, the virus titres were determined in the samples by virus titration, and a random selection of these samples was also analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) to determine the viral RNA decay. Survival curves were generated, and it was shown that the inactivation rate was inversely related to the storage temperature. Average half-life values were between 2 and 4 days at 5 degrees C, and between 1 and 3h at 30 degrees C. Significant differences were observed in survival between virus strains in faeces, however, not in urine. The reduction in viral RNA during the entire study period was limited. This study provided detailed information on survival of CSFV in excretions of infected pigs, which can be used to improve control measures or risk-analysis models.

  4. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection - Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kottanattu, Lisa; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Helbling, Rossana; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis have been occasionally reported in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. We completed a review of the literature and retained 48 scientific reports published between 1966 and 2016 for the final analysis. Acute pancreatitis was recognized in 14 and acalculous cholecystitis in 37 patients with primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. In all patients, the features of acute pancreatitis or acalculous cholecystitis concurrently developed with those of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis resolved following a hospital stay of 25days or less. Acalculous cholecystitis was associated with Gilbert-Meulengracht syndrome in two cases. In conclusion, this thorough analysis indicates that acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis are unusual but plausible complications of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis deserve consideration in cases with severe abdominal pain. These complications are usually rather mild and resolve spontaneously without sequelae. PMID:27434148

  5. Isolation of Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus from pigs affected with exudative epidermitis and experimental infection of piglets with isolates.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Tanabe, T; Nakanowatari, M; Oyama, J; Yamazaki, N; Yoshikawa, H; Yoshikawa, T; Koyama, H; Saito, H

    1990-09-01

    Five strains of Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus were isolated: three strains (P-1, P-2 and P-3) from the crust on the body surface of 6-month-old pigs on a farm in Aomori prefecture, and two (P-5 and P-6) from both the crust on the body surface and the joint of a 1-month-old piglet with exudative epidermitis (EE) on another farm. The characterization of the isolates and the experimental infection of the piglets with strain P-1 were carried out. Subcutaneous inoculation with the bacterial suspension (10(10) CFU) produced EE to all nine piglets. Eight of them had exudation and exfoliation within 24 hr of infection. Histopathologically, disappearance of stratum corneum and necrosis with vacuolar degeneration of prickle cells were remarkable in the epidermis. Infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes were observed in the dermis. The results clearly indicate that S. hyicus is responsible for incrustation of the body surface of weanling pigs and exudative epidermitis in young piglets. PMID:2096257

  6. Cessation of clinical disease and spirochete shedding after tiamulin treatment in pigs experimentally infected with "Brachyspira hampsonii".

    PubMed

    Wilberts, B L; Arruda, P H; Warneke, H L; Erlandson, K R; Hammer, J M; Burrough, E R

    2014-10-01

    With the emergence of "Brachyspira hampsonii" associated with swine dysentery in North America, identification of effective treatments and interventions is a pressing need. Denagard® (tiamulin hydrogen fumarate) Liquid Concentrate 12.5% is approved in the United States for treatment of dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae at 0.006% in the water. In this study, the effectiveness of tiamulin in resolving clinical disease, eliminating viable spirochete shedding, and reducing neutrophilic colitis following infection with either "B. hampsonii" or B. hyodysenteriae was evaluated. Seventy-eight 7-week-old crossbred pigs were divided into three groups [sham-inoculated (n = 18), "B. hampsonii"-inoculated (n = 30), and B. hyodysenteriae-inoculated (n = 30)]. Each inoculum group was divided into three subgroups which received either 0.006% tiamulin, 0.018% tiamulin, or no medication. Both levels of tiamulin resolved clinical disease within 24 h of treatment initiation, eliminated spirochete shedding within 72 h of treatment initiation, and resolved and/or prevented histologic lesions in pigs infected with either Brachyspira spp.

  7. Cryptosporidiosis in rhesus macaques challenged during acute and chronic phases of SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderpal; Carville, Angela; Tzipori, Saul

    2011-09-01

    The intestinal immune dysfunction due to loss of mucosal and peripheral CD4(+) T cells in individuals with HIV/AIDS is presumably responsible for the establishment of persistent cryptosporidiosis. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques were used to investigate the phase/timing in SIV infection, which permits a self-limiting Cryptosporidium parvum infection to become persistent in immunodeficient hosts because of significant mucosal immune defects. Two groups of SIV-infected macaques were challenged with C. parvum; one was challenged during the acute SIV infection phase (2 weeks post-SIV infection) and the second was challenged during the chronic SIV phase (CD4 counts 200-500 cells/μl of blood). Samples (fecal, blood, biopsy, and necropsy) were collected at different time points after infection to correlate the progression of disease with the immune status of the animals. All seven SIV-infected macaques challenged during the acute phase of SIV infection became persistently infected and excreted oocysts for 1-4 months. However, four of the six in the chronic SIV phase became infected with cryptosporidiosis, of which one survived 2 weeks and one became naturally infected. Sequential analysis of CD4(+) in blood and intestines of coinfected macaques exhibited pronounced losses of CD4 T cells during the first 2 weeks after SIV infection, followed by transient rebound of CD4 T cells in the gut after C. parvum infection, and then a gradual loss over subsequent months. Persistent cryptosporidiosis was more consistently induced during the acute SIV phase indicating that profound viral damage to gut lymphoid tissue during the acute phase was more conducive, compared with the chronic phase, to establishing persistent cryptosporidiosis than low circulating CD4 T cells.

  8. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... drugs to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This guidance finalizes...

  9. Genetic variability in swine leukocyte antigen class II and Toll-like receptors affects immune responses to vaccination for bacterial infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, H; Arakawa, A; Tanaka-Matsuda, M; Ide-Okumura, H; Terada, K; Chikyu, M; Kawarasaki, T; Ando, A; Uenishi, H

    2012-12-01

    The genes encoding swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) are highly polymorphic in pig populations, and likely have influences on infection and the effects of vaccination. We explored the associations of different genotypes of SLA class II and of the genes TLR1, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR6 with antibody responses after vaccination against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) serotypes 1, 2, and 5 in 191 Duroc pigs maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. We demonstrated close relationships between SLA class II and ER antibody response and between TLR genes other than TLR4 and APP antibody responses. Pigs with specific haplotypes in SLA class II or TLR5 showed decreased antibody response to ER vaccination or increased responses to APP2 and APP5 vaccination, respectively. It might be possible to breed for responsiveness to vaccination and to implement new vaccine development strategies unaffected by genetic backgrounds of pigs.

  10. Inhibition of Bacterial Growth and Intramniotic Infection in a Guinea Pig Model of Chorioamnionitis Using PAMAM Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Navath, Raghavendra S.; Menjoge, Anupa R.; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Bellair, Robert; Dai, Hui; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2010-01-01

    Dendrimers have emerged as topical microbicides to treat vaginal infections. This study explores the in-vitro, in-vivo antimicrobial activity of PAMAM dendrimers, and the associated mechanism. Interestingly, topical cervical application of 500 µg of generation-4 neutral dendrimer (G4-PAMAM-OH) showed potential to treat the Escherichia coli induced ascending uterine infection in guinea pig model of chorioamnionitis. Amniotic fluid collected from different gestational sacs of infected guinea pigs post treatment showed absence of E. coli growth in the cultures plated with it. The cytokine level [tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interleukin (IL-6 and IL-1β)] in placenta of the G4-PAMAM-OH treated animals were comparable to those in healthy animals while these were notably high in infected animals. Since, antibacterial activity of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers is known, the activity of hydroxyl and carboxylic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimers was compared with it. Though the G4-PAMAM-NH2 shows superior antibacterial activity, it was found to be cytotoxic to human cervical epithelial cell line above 10µg / mL, while the G4-PAMAM-OH was non cytotoxic upto 1mg / mL concentration. Cell integrity, outer (OM) and inner (IM) membrane permeabilization assays showed that G4-PAMAM-OH dendrimer efficiently changed the OM permeability, while G4-PAMAM-NH2 and G3.5-PAMAM-COOH damaged both OM and IM causing the bacterial lysis. The possible antibacterial mechanism are; G4-PAMAM-NH2 acts as polycation binding to the polyanionic lipopolysaccharide in E. coli, the G4-PAMAM-OH forms hydrogen bonds with the hydrophilic O-antigens in E. coli membrane and the G3.5-PAMAM-COOH acts as a polyanion, chelating the divalent ions in outer cell membrane of E. coli. This is the first study which shows that G4-PAMAM-OH dendrimer acts as an antibacterial agent. PMID:20580797

  11. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Taraphdar, D; Roy, B K; Chatterjee, S

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS) due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  12. The broad-spectrum antiviral favipiravir protects guinea pigs from lethal Lassa virus infection post-disease onset.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Rosenke, Kyle; Westover, Jonna B; Martellaro, Cynthia; Okumura, Atsushi; Furuta, Yousuke; Geisbert, Joan; Saturday, Greg; Komeno, Takashi; Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz; Gowen, Brian B

    2015-01-01

    With up to 500,000 infections annually, Lassa virus (LASV), the cause of Lassa fever, is one of the most prevalent etiological agents of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. LASV is endemic in several West African countries with sporadic cases and prolonged outbreaks observed most commonly in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. Additionally several cases of Lassa fever have been imported into North America, Europe and Asia making LASV a global threat to public health. Despite this, currently no approved therapeutic or vaccine exists to treat or prevent LASV infections. Here, using a passaged strain of LASV that is uniformly lethal in Hartley guinea pigs, we demonstrate that favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent and leading treatment option for influenza, has potent activity against LASV infection. In this model, once daily treatment with favipiravir significantly reduced viral titers in tissue samples and reduced mortality rates when compared with animals receiving vehicle-only or ribavirin, the current standard of care for Lassa fever. Favipiravir remained highly effective against lethal LASV infection when treatments were initiated nine days post-infection, a time when animals were demonstrating advanced signs of disease. These results support the further preclinical evaluation of favipiravir for Lassa fever and other VHFs.

  13. The broad-spectrum antiviral favipiravir protects guinea pigs from lethal Lassa virus infection post-disease onset.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Rosenke, Kyle; Westover, Jonna B; Martellaro, Cynthia; Okumura, Atsushi; Furuta, Yousuke; Geisbert, Joan; Saturday, Greg; Komeno, Takashi; Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz; Gowen, Brian B

    2015-01-01

    With up to 500,000 infections annually, Lassa virus (LASV), the cause of Lassa fever, is one of the most prevalent etiological agents of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. LASV is endemic in several West African countries with sporadic cases and prolonged outbreaks observed most commonly in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. Additionally several cases of Lassa fever have been imported into North America, Europe and Asia making LASV a global threat to public health. Despite this, currently no approved therapeutic or vaccine exists to treat or prevent LASV infections. Here, using a passaged strain of LASV that is uniformly lethal in Hartley guinea pigs, we demonstrate that favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent and leading treatment option for influenza, has potent activity against LASV infection. In this model, once daily treatment with favipiravir significantly reduced viral titers in tissue samples and reduced mortality rates when compared with animals receiving vehicle-only or ribavirin, the current standard of care for Lassa fever. Favipiravir remained highly effective against lethal LASV infection when treatments were initiated nine days post-infection, a time when animals were demonstrating advanced signs of disease. These results support the further preclinical evaluation of favipiravir for Lassa fever and other VHFs. PMID:26456301

  14. The broad-spectrum antiviral favipiravir protects guinea pigs from lethal Lassa virus infection post-disease onset

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Rosenke, Kyle; Westover, Jonna B.; Martellaro, Cynthia; Okumura, Atsushi; Furuta, Yousuke; Geisbert, Joan; Saturday, Greg; Komeno, Takashi; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz; Gowen, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    With up to 500,000 infections annually, Lassa virus (LASV), the cause of Lassa fever, is one of the most prevalent etiological agents of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. LASV is endemic in several West African countries with sporadic cases and prolonged outbreaks observed most commonly in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. Additionally several cases of Lassa fever have been imported into North America, Europe and Asia making LASV a global threat to public health. Despite this, currently no approved therapeutic or vaccine exists to treat or prevent LASV infections. Here, using a passaged strain of LASV that is uniformly lethal in Hartley guinea pigs, we demonstrate that favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent and leading treatment option for influenza, has potent activity against LASV infection. In this model, once daily treatment with favipiravir significantly reduced viral titers in tissue samples and reduced mortality rates when compared with animals receiving vehicle-only or ribavirin, the current standard of care for Lassa fever. Favipiravir remained highly effective against lethal LASV infection when treatments were initiated nine days post-infection, a time when animals were demonstrating advanced signs of disease. These results support the further preclinical evaluation of favipiravir for Lassa fever and other VHFs. PMID:26456301

  15. The insulinotropic effect of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 is not affected by acute vagotomy in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Veedfald, Simon; Hansen, Marie; Christensen, Louise Wulff; Larsen, Sara Agnete Hjort; Hjøllund, Karina Rahr; Plamboeck, Astrid; Hartmann, Bolette; Deacon, Carolyn Fiona; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated whether intestinal vagal afferents are necessary for the insulinotropic effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) infused into a mesenteric artery or a peripheral vein before and after acute truncal vagotomy. What is the main finding and its importance? We found no effect of truncal vagotomy on the insulinotropic effect of exogenous GLP-1 and speculate that high circulating concentrations of GLP-1 after i.v. and i.a. infusion might have overshadowed any neural signalling component. We propose that further investigations into the possible vagal afferent signalling of GLP-1 would best be pursued using enteral stimuli to provide high subepithelial levels of endogenous GLP-1. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted from the gut in response to luminal stimuli and stimulates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. As a result of rapid enzymatic degradation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase-4, a signalling pathway involving activation of intestinal vagal afferents has been proposed. We conducted two series of experiments in α-chloralose-anaesthetized pigs. In protocol I, pigs (n = 14) were allocated for either i.v. or i.a. (mesenteric) GLP-1 infusions (1 and 2 pmol kg(-1)  min(-1) , 30 min) while maintaining permissive glucose concentrations at 6 mmol l(-1) by i.v. glucose infusion. The GLP-1 infusions were repeated after acute truncal vagotomy. In protocol II, pigs (n = 27) were allocated into six groups. Glucagon-like peptide 1 was infused i.v. or i.a. (mesenteric) for 1 h at 3 or 30 pmol kg(-1)  min(-1) . During the steady state (21 min into the GLP-1 infusion), glucose (0.2 g kg(-1) , i.v.) was administered over 9 min to stimulate β-cell secretion. Thirty minutes after the glucose infusion, GLP-1 infusions were discontinued. Following a washout period, the vagal trunks were severed in four of six groups (vagal trunks were left intact in two of six groups), whereupon all

  16. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M C; Rostagno, M H; Gardiner, G E; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T; Radcliffe, J S

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered, direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs after deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to 1 of the following treatments, which were administered for 14 d: 1) control diet; 2) control diet + DFM (Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus licheniformis) in drinking water at 10(9) cfu/L for each strain of bacteria; 3) control diet + organic acid-based blend (predominantly propionic, acetic, and benzoic acids) in drinking water at 2.58 mL/L; and 4) control diet + 55 mg/kg carbadox. Pigs were challenged with 10(10) cfu Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium 6 d after commencement of treatments. Pigs (n = 22/d) were harvested before Salmonella challenge and on d 2, 4, and 8 after challenge. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal mucosal tissues were sampled for measurement of villus height and crypt depth. Jejunal tissue was sampled for determination of active nutrient absorption in modified Ussing chambers. Duodenal villus height was greater in pigs fed in-feed antibiotic before infection (P < 0.05). Jejunal crypts were deeper in DFM- and acid-treated pigs on d 4 after infection compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). Salmonella infection resulted in a linear decrease in phosphorus (P < 0.001) and glucose (P < 0.05) active transport, and an increase (P < 0.001) in glutamine uptake immediately after challenge. Salmonella infection reduced basal short-circuit current (I(sc)); however, water-delivered DFM or organic acid treatments caused greater basal I(sc) on d 2 after challenge than did carbadox. Carbachol-induced chloride ion secretion was greatest in negative control pigs before infection (P < 0.01) and DFM-treated pigs (P < 0.05) after infection. In conclusion, both the DFM and acidification treatments induced increases in basal active ion movement and jejunal

  17. Development of antinuclear antibodies and a genetic linkage in pigs infected with porcine circovirus type 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives. Prominent nuclear immunohistochemical staining of a PCV-2 free porcine kidney cell line (PK-15) was detected with a rabbit polyclonal antibody produced against a conserved PCV2 Rep-protein peptide. This unexpected finding led us to retrospectively test sera from gnotobiotic pigs for the ...

  18. Discovery of Antinuclear Antibodies in Pigs Infected with Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes post-weaning-multisystemic-wasting-syndrome (PMWS), a swine disease first observed in Canada in 1991 (1). It is characterized by general wasting, respiratory disease, jaundice and pallor in young pigs resulting in production losses and variable...

  19. Vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs experimentally infected with Senecavirus A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Senecavirus A (SVA), a picornavirus, has been infrequently associated with cases of idiopathic vesicular disease (IVD) in pigs in the US and Canada since 1988. In 2014 and 2015 there was surge of IVD cases in Brazil and US, respectively. SVA was identified in serum, vesicular fluid, an...

  20. Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Kasali, Félicien Mushagalusa; Kadima, Justin Ntokamunda; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Ngbolua, Koto-te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha-Tshibey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To verify the antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. popularly used in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to point out the possible toxicity. Method Aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaves powder were administrated to guinea pigs at the dose range of 100 mg/kg to 3.2 g/kg of body weight. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test, loading animals with glucose 4 g/kg and measuring blood glucose concentrations at various times. The effect was compared to the control and glibenclamide as antidiabetic reference drug. Acute toxicity was evaluated by recording mortality rate, changes on blood biomarkers and damage caused to vital organs. Results At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the aqueous extract induced a significant reduction of peak concentration at 30 min after glucose loading as compared with control or reference (P<0.05). At doses greater than 400 mg, some alterations on blood, kidney and liver markers were observed. Upper 800 mg/kg, mortality was observed with LD50 estimated at about 1 280 mg/kg. At the autopsy, vital organs were in haemorrhage and swelling state. Conclusion The crude aqueous extracts from the leaves of Physalis peruviana L. present hypoglycemic activity in animal model, but at high doses the plant may cause severe intoxication.

  1. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B; Carr, Anthony P; Gaunt, M Casey

    2016-09-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea. PMID:27587889

  2. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  3. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Strube, Mikael L; Hansen, Marie B; Lindved, Bodil K; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known. PMID:26824607

  4. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, Chris J.; Strube, Mikael L.; Hansen, Marie B.; Lindved, Bodil K.; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known. PMID:26824607

  5. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Strube, Mikael L; Hansen, Marie B; Lindved, Bodil K; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known.

  6. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  7. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Langevin, Stanley; O'Hern, Corey S; Shattuck, Mark D; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G; Kirby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  8. Renal and Cardiac Endothelial Heterogeneity Impact Acute Vascular Rejection in Pig-to-Baboon Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Knosalla, C.; Yazawa, K.; Behdad, A.; Bodyak, N.; Shang, H.; Bühler, L.; Houser, S.; Gollackner, B.; Griesemer, A.; Schmitt-Knosalla, I.; Schuurman, H.-J.; Awwad, M.; Sachs, D. H.; Cooper, D. K. C.; Yamada, K.; Usheva, A.; Robson, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Xenograft outcomes are dictated by xenoantigen expression, for example, Gal α 1, 3Gal (Gal), but might also depend on differing vascular responses. We investigated whether differential vascular gene expression in kidney and cardiac xenografts correlate with development of thrombotic microangiopathy (TM) and consumptive coagulation (CC). Immunosuppressed baboons underwent miniswine or hDAF pig kidney (n = 6) or heart (n = 7), or Gal-transferase gene-knockout (GalT-KO) (thymo)kidney transplantation (n = 14). Porcine cDNA miniarrays determined donor proinflammatory, apoptosis-related and vascular coagulant/fibrinolytic gene expression at defined time points; validated by mRNA, protein levels and immunopathology. hDAF-transgenic and GalT-KO xenografts, (particularly thymokidneys) exhibited prolonged survival. CC was seen with Gal-expressing porcine kidneys (3 of 6), only 1 of 7 baboons post-cardiac xenotransplantation and was infrequent following GalT-KO grafts (1 of 14). Protective-type genes (heme oxygenase-I, superoxide dismutases and CD39) together with von Willebrand factor and P-selectin were upregulated in all renal grafts. Transcriptional responses in Gal-expressing xenografts were comparable to those seen in the infrequent GalT-KO rejection. In cardiac xenografts, fibrin deposition was associated with increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression establishing that gene expression profiles in renal and cardiac xenografts differ in a quantitative manner. These findings suggest that therapeutic targets may differ for renal and cardiac xenotransplants. PMID:19422330

  9. Changes in neuroreceptor function of tracheal smooth muscle following acute ozone exposure of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, H J; Voss, H P; Kramer, K; Boere, A J; Dormans, J A; van Bree, L; Bast, A

    1997-07-11

    We studied the effect of in vivo ozone inhalation (3 ppm, 2 h) on neuroreceptor function in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle in vitro and the role of the epithelial layer in this process. Changes in smooth muscle tension after stimulation of the muscarinic- and beta-adrenergic receptor were recorded isometrically and stained tracheal tissue sections were histologically evaluated for changes in the epithelial and smooth muscle layer. Ozone exposure resulted in an increase in maximal contraction following stimulation of the muscarinic receptor, whereas pD2 values remained unchanged. After stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor no increase in maximal relaxation but only an increase in pD2 value was observed after correction for differences in precontraction level in control- and ozone-exposed situations. Mechanical removal of the epithelial layer resulted in a slight increase of the maximal contraction level after stimulation with methacholine in the control situation, whereas exposure to ozone resulted in a strong decrease of the maximal contraction level under these conditions. Histological stainings showed a slight and focal influx of neutrophilic granulocytes in the epithelial layer, submucosal layer and airway lumen after exposure to ozone. These data support the idea that ozone is able to increase the maximal degree of airway narrowing upon muscarinergic stimulation, i.e. a hyperreactivity response. The results also suggest that functionally altered epithelium plays an important role in the process of ozone-induced hyperreactivity, possibly linked with an early inflammatory response.

  10. Acute and chronic respiratory lesions induced by sulfur mustard in guinea pigs: Role of tachykinins

    SciTech Connect

    Calvet, J.H.; Trouiller, G.; Harf, A.

    1993-05-13

    We investigated in anesthetized guinea pigs the involvement of tachykinins in respiratory alterations after an airway intoxication by sulfur mustard (SM). Early lesions were evaluated after 5h. Respiratory system resistance (R) and compliance were measured by the occlusion method and airway microvascular permeability by measuring the Evans Blue dye concentration in the trachea and main bronchi. Two groups of animals were studied treated with capsaicin (which induces a tachykinin depletion) or by its vehicle. Capsaicin pretreatment had no effect on the measured parameters. We also measured 14 J after the intoxication tracheal epithelium neutral endopeptidase (NEP) (the main enzyme which degrades tachykinins). In addition bronchial responsiveness to exogenous substance P was studied in two groups of animals intoxicated with SM or not. Tracheal epithelium NEP activity was decreased from 0.448 + or 0.027 nmol.min- 1.mg protein- 1 in controls to 0. 182 + or 0.038 in intoxicated animals. Response to substance P was greater in intoxicated animals with R=2.98 + or - 1.57 cmH20.MI-1.s versus 0.35 + or 0.02 in controls, after 5.10-5 M aerosolized substance P These results suggest tachykinins are not preponderant in the early stage lesions but that bronchial hyperactivity is present at recovery, related to epithelium NEP depletion.

  11. Changes in CMDP and DPOAE during acute increased inner ear pressure in the guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Wit, H. P.; Albers, F. W. J.

    2007-01-01

    During and after an increase of inner ear pressure, induced by injection of artificial perilymph, the 2f1 − f2 and f2 − f1 distortion products (DPs) in cochlear microphonics (CM) and otoacoustic emissions (OAE) were recorded in the guinea pig. An inner pressure increase of ∼600 Pa gave only small changes in CMDP and DPOAE. Along with a decrease in f1 amplitude, a small decrease in amplitude of the 2f1 − f2 and a small increase in the f2 − f1 were measured in CM. This matches a shift from a symmetrical position of the operating point for hair cell transduction, leading to an increase in even-order distortion and a decrease in odd-order distortion. Similar, a decrease in 2f1 − f2 DPOAE was expected. This might be the case at the generation sites but this effect was then more than compensated for by a better middle ear transfer, accounting for the increase of 0.4 dB of the 2f1 − f2 DPOAE amplitude. In conclusion, changes of overall inner ear fluid pressure have minor effects on cochlear function. This is a relevant finding for further understanding of diseases with changed inner ear fluid volumes, as Ménière’s. PMID:17901968

  12. Acute hepatitis C virus infection related to capillary blood glucose meter

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Rai, Aitzaz BinSultan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 130-150 million people worldwide, becoming the major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. There are various preventable modes of transmission of HCV infection, including needlestick and sharps injuries. However, HCV infection secondary to needlestick injury by a capillary blood glucose meter (CBGM) lancet has not been previously well reported. We describe an unusual case of a 25-year-old male medical student, acquiring acute HCV infection with a lancing device of CBGM. The source patient was a 54-year-old diabetic male with positive anti-HCV test results. In our patient, after 3 months of initial exposure, a standard set of investigations confirmed the diagnosis of acute HCV infection with the same genotype (3a) as the source. The CBGM, as in our case, may have a role in the transmission of HCV infection warranting radical advancements in diabetes screening and monitoring technology. PMID:26739982

  13. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (Mx1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART. PMID:27446990

  14. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Sereti, Irini; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (M×1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART. PMID:27446990

  15. Routine Laboratory Screening for Acute and Recent HIV Infection in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jesse L.; Segura, Eddy R.; Montano, Silvia M.; Leon, Segundo R.; Kochel, Tadeusz; Salvatierra, Hector J.; Alcantara, Jorge; Cáceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Prior to implementing screening programs for acute HIV infection in developing countries, key issues including cost, feasibility, and public health impact must be determined. We compared fourth-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with pooled HIV-1 RNA assays for the detection of acute and early HIV infection in counseling and testing populations in Lima, Peru. Methods Adults presenting for HIV testing at designated clinics in Lima-Callao, Peru were offered additional screening for acute HIV infection. All serum samples were tested with fourth-generation Ag/Ab EIA and confirmed by line immunoassay (LIA). Negative specimens were combined into 50-sample pools for HIV-1 RNA screening by PCR analysis in standard pooling algorithms. RNA-positive samples were re-tested with a third-generation EIA to evaluate the relative sensitivity of standard testing procedures. Results Between 2007 and 2008 we recruited 1,191 participants. The prevalence of HIV infection was 3.2% (38/1191; 2.2-4.2%) overall and 10.6% (25/237; CI=6.6-14.5%) among men who reported sex with men (MSM). The prevalence of acute or recent HIV infection was 0.2% (CI=0-0.4%) overall and 0.8% (CI=0-2.0%) among MSM. Compared with third generation EIA testing, both fourth generation EIA and RNA PCR increased the rate of HIV case identification by 5.6% overall and by 8.0% within the subpopulation of MSM. Conclusions Screening for acute HIV infection within Peru's resource-limited public health system was acceptable and detected a high prevalence of acute and recent HIV infection among MSM. Additional efforts are needed to screen for and prevent transmission of HIV among MSM in Peru during the acute seroconversion stage. PMID:21113069

  16. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    PubMed

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications.

  17. Investigation of Pathogenesis of H1N1 Influenza Virus and Swine Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Co-Infection in Pigs by Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian; Huang, Canhui; Shi, Jian; Wang, Ruifang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection pathogenesis in pigs is unclear. In the present study, co-infection experiments were performed using swine H1N1 influenza virus and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). The H1N1-SS2 co-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical symptoms, serious pathological changes, and robust apoptosis of lungs at 6 days post-infection compared with separate H1N1 and SS2 infections. A comprehensive gene expression profiling using a microarray approach was performed to investigate the global host responses of swine lungs against the swine H1N1 infection, SS2 infection, co-infection, and phosphate-buffered saline control. Results showed 457, 411, and 844 differentially expressed genes in the H1N1, SS2, and H1N1-SS2 groups, respectively, compared with the control. Noticeably, genes associated with the immune, inflammatory, and apoptosis responses were highly overexpressed in the co-infected group. Pathway analysis indicated that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, MAPK, toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, antigen processing and presentation, and apoptosis pathway were significantly regulated in the co-infected group. However, the genes related to these were less regulated in the separate H1N1 and SS2 infection groups. This observation suggested that a certain level of synergy was induced by H1N1 and SS2 co-infection with significantly stronger inflammatory and apoptosis responses, which may lead to more serious respiratory disease syndrome and pulmonary pathological lesion.

  18. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  19. Reassessment of HIV-1 Acute Phase Infectivity: Accounting for Heterogeneity and Study Design with Simulated Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Steve E.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2015-01-01

    Background The infectivity of the HIV-1 acute phase has been directly measured only once, from a retrospectively identified cohort of serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Rakai, Uganda. Analyses of this cohort underlie the widespread view that the acute phase is highly infectious, even more so than would be predicted from its elevated viral load, and that transmission occurring shortly after infection may therefore compromise interventions that rely on diagnosis and treatment, such as antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP). Here, we re-estimate the duration and relative infectivity of the acute phase, while accounting for several possible sources of bias in published estimates, including the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and unmeasured heterogeneity in risk. Methods and Findings We estimated acute phase infectivity using two approaches. First, we combined viral load trajectories and viral load-infectivity relationships to estimate infectivity trajectories over the course of infection, under the assumption that elevated acute phase infectivity is caused by elevated viral load alone. Second, we estimated the relative hazard of transmission during the acute phase versus the chronic phase (RHacute) and the acute phase duration (dacute) by fitting a couples transmission model to the Rakai retrospective cohort using approximate Bayesian computation. Our model fit the data well and accounted for characteristics overlooked by previous analyses, including individual heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility and the retrospective cohort's exclusion of couples that were recorded as serodiscordant only once before being censored by loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. Finally, we replicated two highly cited analyses of the Rakai data on simulated data to identify biases underlying the discrepancies between previous estimates and our own. From the Rakai data, we estimated RHacute = 5.3 (95% credibility interval [95% CrI]: 0

  20. Viral-bacterial interactions and risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Gent, Janneane F; Pyles, Richard B; Miller, Aaron L; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2011-11-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common complication of upper respiratory tract infection whose pathogenesis involves both viruses and bacteria. We examined risks of acute otitis media associated with specific combinations of respiratory viruses and acute otitis media bacterial pathogens. Data were from a prospective study of children ages 6 to 36 months and included viral and bacterial culture and quantitative PCR for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Repeated-measure logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between specific viruses, bacteria, and the risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection. In unadjusted analyses of data from 194 children, adenovirus, bocavirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were significantly associated with AOM (P < 0.05 by χ(2) test). Children with high respiratory syncytial virus loads (≥3.16 × 10(7) copies/ml) experienced increased acute otitis media risk. Higher viral loads of bocavirus and metapneumovirus were not significantly associated with acute otitis media. In adjusted models controlling for the presence of key viruses, bacteria, and acute otitis media risk factors, acute otitis media risk was independently associated with high RSV viral load with Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio [OR], 4.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 and 10.19) and Haemophilus influenzae (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38 and 3.02). The risk was higher for the presence of bocavirus and H. influenzae together (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.90 and 6.86). Acute otitis media risk differs by the specific viruses and bacteria involved. Acute otitis media prevention efforts should consider methods for reducing infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus, bocavirus, and adenovirus in addition to acute otitis media bacterial pathogens.

  1. Antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-infected and bacterin-vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Furesz, S E; Mallard, B A; Bossé, J T; Rosendal, S; Wilkie, B N; MacInnes, J I

    1997-01-01

    Current porcine pleuropneumonia bacterins afford only partial protection by decreasing mortality but not morbidity. In order to better understand the type(s) of immune response associated with protection, antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) were compared for piglets before and after administration of a commercial bacterin, which confers partial protection, or a low-dose (10(5) CFU/ml) aerosol challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae CM5 (LD), which induces complete protection. Control groups received phosphate-buffered saline or adjuvant. Serum antibody response, antibody avidity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and lymphocyte blastogenic responses were measured and compared among treatment groups to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide (CPS), hemolysin (HLY), and outer membrane proteins (OMP) of A. pleuropneumoniae. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and sera were collected prior to and following primary and secondary immunization-infection and high-dose A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 (10(7) CFU/ml) aerosol challenge. Serum antibody and DTH, particularly that to HLY, differed significantly between treatment groups, and increases were associated with protection. LD-infected piglets had higher antibody responses (P < or = 0.01) and antibody avidity (P < or = 0.10) than bacterin-vaccinated and control groups. Anti-HLY antibodies were consistently associated with protection, whereas anti-LPS and anti-CPS antibodies were not. LD-infected animals had higher DTH responses, particularly to HLY, than bacterin-vaccinated pigs (P < or = 0.03). The LD-infected group maintained consistent blastogenic responses to HLY, LPS, CPS, and OMP over the course of infection, unlike the bacterin-vaccinated and control animals. These data suggest that the immune responses induced by a commercial bacterin are very different from those induced by LD aerosol infection and that current bacterins may be modified, for instance, by addition of HLY, so as to

  2. Influence of the estrous cycle on the development of upper genital tract pathology as a result of chlamydial infection in the guinea pig model of pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; Sanders, M M; Kidd, A T

    1993-04-01

    Guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis at varying times during the estrous cycle. Genital tract tissues were collected 30 days after infection and processed for histopathological analysis. No difference was seen in the course of lower genital tract infection. However, a significantly greater percentage of tissues from animals infected on day 11 of the cycle were found to have chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the mesosalpinx compared to those from animals infected on day 6 or day 16. In addition, a significantly greater percentage of oviduct tissues from day 11-infected guinea pigs had marked tubal dilatation when compared to oviducts from day 6-or day 16-infected animals. The increased incidence of pathological changes was also noted in the endocervix, uterine fundus, and uterine horns but not the exocervix. These data indicate that the time of the estrous cycle and the corresponding hormonal influences may be an important influence on the development of upper genital tract disease.

  3. Sequential Bottlenecks Drive Viral Evolution in Early Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Kerensa; Gaudieri, Silvana; Pham, Son T.; Chopra, Abha; Cameron, Barbara; Maher, Lisa; Dore, Gregory J.; White, Peter A.; Lloyd, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a pandemic human RNA virus, which commonly causes chronic infection and liver disease. The characterization of viral populations that successfully initiate infection, and also those that drive progression to chronicity is instrumental for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine design. A comprehensive and longitudinal analysis of the viral population was conducted in four subjects followed from very early acute infection to resolution of disease outcome. By means of next generation sequencing (NGS) and standard cloning/Sanger sequencing, genetic diversity and viral variants were quantified over the course of the infection at frequencies as low as 0.1%. Phylogenetic analysis of reassembled viral variants revealed acute infection was dominated by two sequential bottleneck events, irrespective of subsequent chronicity or clearance. The first bottleneck was associated with transmission, with one to two viral variants successfully establishing infection. The second occurred approximately 100 days post-infection, and was characterized by a decline in viral diversity. In the two subjects who developed chronic infection, this second bottleneck was followed by the emergence of a new viral population, which evolved from the founder variants via a selective sweep with fixation in a small number of mutated sites. The diversity at sites with non-synonymous mutation was higher in predicted cytotoxic T cell epitopes, suggesting immune-driven evolution. These results provide the first detailed analysis of early within-host evolution of HCV, indicating strong selective forces limit viral evolution in the acute phase of infection. PMID:21912520

  4. Regulatory T cells are decreased in acute RHDV lethal infection of adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luzia; Marques, Raquel M; Aguas, Artur P; Ferreira, Paula G

    2012-08-15

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is the etiologic agent of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), an acute lethal infection that kills 90% of adult rabbits due to severe acute liver inflammation. Interestingly, young rabbits are naturally resistant to RHDV infection. Here, we have compared naturally occurring CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) between young and adult rabbits after infection by RHDV. The number and frequency of Tregs was decreased in the spleen of adult rabbits 24h after the RHDV infection; this was in contrast with the unchanged number and frequency of splenic Tregs found in young rabbits after the same infection. Also, serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-β were enhanced in the infected adult rabbits whereas no alteration was observed in infected young rabbits. However, this increase is accompanied by a burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but seems not able to prevent the death of the animals with severe acute liver inflammation in few days after infection. Since Tregs downregulate inflammation, we conclude that their decrease may contribute to the natural susceptibility of adult rabbits to RHDV infection.

  5. Tetherin/BST-2 promotes dendritic cell activation and function during acute retrovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sam X.; Barrett, Bradley S.; Guo, Kejun; Kassiotis, George; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Dittmer, Ulf; Gibbert, Kathrin; Santiago, Mario L.

    2016-01-01

    Tetherin/BST-2 is a host restriction factor that inhibits retrovirus release from infected cells in vitro by tethering nascent virions to the plasma membrane. However, contradictory data exists on whether Tetherin inhibits acute retrovirus infection in vivo. Previously, we reported that Tetherin-mediated inhibition of Friend retrovirus (FV) replication at 2 weeks post-infection correlated with stronger natural killer, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell responses. Here, we further investigated the role of Tetherin in counteracting retrovirus replication in vivo. FV infection levels were similar between wild-type (WT) and Tetherin KO mice at 3 to 7 days post-infection despite removal of a potent restriction factor, Apobec3/Rfv3. However, during this phase of acute infection, Tetherin enhanced myeloid dendritic cell (DC) function. DCs from infected, but not uninfected, WT mice expressed significantly higher MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecule CD80 compared to Tetherin KO DCs. Tetherin-associated DC activation during acute FV infection correlated with stronger NK cell responses. Furthermore, Tetherin+ DCs from FV-infected mice more strongly stimulated FV-specific CD4+ T cells ex vivo compared to Tetherin KO DCs. The results link the antiretroviral and immunomodulatory activity of Tetherin in vivo to improved DC activation and MHC class II antigen presentation. PMID:26846717

  6. Effects of acute dietary iron overload in pigs (Sus scrofa) with induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, A; Morales, S; Arredondo, M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between high iron (Fe) levels and elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is believed that the formation of Fe-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals may contribute to the development of diabetes. Our goal was to determine the effect of a diet with a high Fe content on type 2 diabetic pigs. Four groups of piglets were studied: (1) control group, basal diet; (2) Fe group, basal diet with 3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate; (3) diabetic group (streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes) with basal diet; (4) diabetic/Fe group, diabetic animals/3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate. For 2 months, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Tissue samples of liver and duodenum were obtained to determine mRNA relative abundance of DMT1, ferroportin (Fpn), ferritin (Fn), hepcidin (Hpc), and transferrin receptor by qRT-PCR. Fe group presented increased levels of hematological (erythrocytes, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and iron parameters. Diabetic/Fe group showed similar behavior as Fe group but in lesser extent. The relative abundance of different genes in the four study groups yielded a different expression pattern. DMT1 showed a lower expression in the two iron groups compared with control and diabetic animals, and Hpc showed an increased on its expression in Fe and diabetic/Fe groups. Diabetic/Fe group presents greater expression of Fn and Fpn. These results suggest that there is an interaction between Fe nutrition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the diabetes development.

  7. Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle of pigs with acute monensin myotoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    Large doses of monensin, a Na+-selective carboxylic ionophore, produce polyfocal, monophasic necrosis of skeletal muscle, with Type I fiber selectivity, in swine. For a study of the sequential ultrastructural alterations in affected skeletal muscles, 14 weanling pigs were given 40 mg monensin/kg body weight and were euthanatized 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 days later. Myotoxicosis and myoglobinuria were apparent clinically. At necropsy, white, dry areas of necrosis were present in the muscle masses of the anterior and posterior thigh, shoulder, and loin. Two patterns of skeletal muscle necrosis were observed on Day 1, especially in Type I fibers. In fibers exhibiting the first of these patterns, the contractile material was disrupted, forming dense amorphous and filamentous clumps scattered within the persistent sheaths of external lamina (sarcolemmal tubes); the mitochondria were swollen and contained flocculent matrix densities, and the nuclei were pyknotic. Fibers showing the second pattern were uniformly dense, but their sarcoplasm was not disrupted. Sublethally injured fibers were also observed and showed focal myofibrillar lysis. On Days 2 and 4, the necrotic muscle had marked infiltration of macrophages in the interstitium and within sarcolemmal tubes. Rapid resolution of the fiber necrosis occurred by phagocytosis of the sarcoplasmic debris. Regeneration of affected muscles developed early following injury and progressed rapidly to complete restoration of the necrotic muscles without residual fibrosis. Regeneration was initiated on Day 1 by activation of satellite cells to form presumptive myoblasts; on Days 4 and 8 these cells showed evidence of fusion, forming myotubes to restore the necrotic fibers. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6696050

  8. Effect of acute food restriction on pulmonary growth and protein turnover in preterm guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kelly, F J; Fussell, J C; Postle, T D

    1992-02-01

    The effects of food restriction on the growth and protein turnover of the immature lung were investigated. Preterm guinea pigs, delivered by cesarean section at 65 days gestation (term = 68 days), were given free access to a lactating dam or restricted from feeding for 48 h. Food restriction resulted in significantly reduced body and lung (P less than 0.05) weight compared with fed controls. The rate of pulmonary protein synthesis determined in vivo was reduced by 33% in the food-restricted pups (28.9 +/- 10.2 vs. 19.4 +/- 4.5%, P less than 0.05 for control and food-restricted pups, respectively), whereas the calculated rate of protein breakdown remained unchanged. The inhibition of protein synthesis was accounted for by a 36% decrease in ribosomal efficiency (11.03 +/- 2.61 vs. 7.04 +/- 1.26%, P less than 0.01 for control and food-restricted pups, respectively), whereas ribosomal capacity was unaltered. Polyribosomal analysis indicated an increase in the proportion of RNA present in polysomes and a fall in the free monomer pool (26%), suggesting that food restriction blocked translation by reducing the rate of peptide chain elongation. This finding was confirmed by the analysis of ribosome transit times, which indicated a significant increase in the elongation rate in the lungs from food-restricted pups (0.51 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.94 +/- 0.19 min, P less than 0.05 for control and food-restricted pups, respectively). These results imply that nutrient supply plays an important role in protein deposition and hence growth and repair capacity of the immature lung. PMID:1539652

  9. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199

  10. Severe Plasmodium falciparum infection mimicking acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Helmi; Ismail, Muhammad Dzafir; Jalalonmuhali, Maisarah; Atiya, Nadia; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela

    2014-08-30

    This case report describes a case of presumed acute myocardial infarction in a returned traveler who was later diagnosed to have severe malaria. Emergency coronary angiography was normal and subsequent peripheral blood film was positive for Plasmodium falciparum.

  11. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulou, G; Kritas, S; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R

    2015-03-01

    and qualitative costs of man and animal Salmonella infections should be calculated in the light of free trade and open borders. Understandably, accurate calculation of the economic and political costs requires knowledge of the many factors influencing nationally the quality and safety of pork products and internationally free trade. Thus, how Salmonella pig infections affect commerce and public health across open borders depends on a state's ability to accurately calculate costs for the surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses in general, and pig infections as a particular example.

  12. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Evangelopoulou, G.; Kritas, S.; Christodoulopoulos, G.; Burriel, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    qualitative and qualitative costs of man and animal Salmonella infections should be calculated in the light of free trade and open borders. Understandably, accurate calculation of the economic and political costs requires knowledge of the many factors influencing nationally the quality and safety of pork products and internationally free trade. Thus, how Salmonella pig infections affect commerce and public health across open borders depends on a state’s ability to accurately calculate costs for the surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses in general, and pig infections as a particular example. PMID:27047083

  13. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulou, G; Kritas, S; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R

    2015-03-01

    and qualitative costs of man and animal Salmonella infections should be calculated in the light of free trade and open borders. Understandably, accurate calculation of the economic and political costs requires knowledge of the many factors influencing nationally the quality and safety of pork products and internationally free trade. Thus, how Salmonella pig infections affect commerce and public health across open borders depends on a state's ability to accurately calculate costs for the surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses in general, and pig infections as a particular example. PMID:27047083

  14. Pathogenesis and transmission of the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 after experimental infection of pigs.

    PubMed

    Lange, Elke; Kalthoff, Donata; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Breithaupt, Angele; Maresch, Christina; Starick, Elke; Fereidouni, Sasan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2009-09-01

    Influenza virus A/H1N1, which is currently causing a pandemic, contains gene segments with ancestors in the North American and Eurasian swine lineages. To get insights into virus replication dynamics, clinical symptoms and virus transmission in pigs, we infected animals intranasally with influenza virus A/Regensburg/D6/09/H1N1. Virus excretion in the inoculated pigs was detected in nasal swabs from 1 day post-infection (p.i.) onwards and the pigs developed generally mild symptoms, including fever, sneezing, nasal discharge and diarrhoea. Contact pigs became infected, shed virus and developed clinical symptoms similar to those in the inoculated animals. Plasma samples of all animals remained negative for virus RNA. Nucleoprotein- and haemagglutinin H1-specific antibodies could be detected by ELISA 7 days p.i. CD4(+) T cells became activated immediately after infection and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell populations expanded from 3 to 7 days p.i., coinciding with clinical signs. Contact chickens remained uninfected, as judged by the absence of virus excretion, clinical signs and seroconversion.

  15. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not mitigate disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases in swine worldwide. It causes reproductive failure in sows and pneumonia in pigs that predisposes them to secondary bacterial infections. Methods to control PRRSV and/or lim...

  16. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection. PMID:27621819

  17. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection.

  18. Respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, and mixed acute lower respiratory infections in children in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country.

  19. The acute phase response in parasite infection. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, L R; Gauldie, J; Befus, A D; McAdam, K P; Baltz, M L; Pepys, M B

    1984-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory reactions are a prominent feature of many parasitic infections and the cellular and humoral components of the acute phase reaction may have an impact on the host-parasite relationship. We examined serum changes of four acute phase reactants: alpha 1-proteinase inhibition (alpha 1Pi); complement C3; serum amyloid A protein (SAA); and serum amyloid P component (SAP), in mice undergoing a primary infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. SAA and SAP showed changes within the first 2 days of infection indicating the presence of an acute phase response associated with inflammation in the lung. Alpha 1Pi and C3 serum levels were not altered. However, all four acute phase reactants were synthesized in greater amounts by primary cultures of hepatocytes taken from infected animals at this time. Subsequently, as parasite-mediated inflammatory changes occur in the gut, both serum and hepatocyte cultures demonstrate an acute inflammatory response in all four reactants. It is proposed that the early reaction between parasites and macrophage/monocyte lead to the release of a mediator of inflammation which initiates the hepatocyte response. In this infection, at least one of the APR is shown to localize to the site of inflammation influencing the host-parasite relationship. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6204934

  20. Collection of Oral Fluids Using Cotton Ropes as a Sampling Method to Detect Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, W; Morris, J; Davis, A; Giles, M; Wang, J; Nguyen, H T T; Kim, P V; Quach, N V; Le, P T T; Nguyen, P H N; Dang, H; Tran, H X; Vu, P P; Hung, V V; Le, Q T; Tran, T M; Mai, T M T; Le, Q T V; Singanallur, N B

    2015-10-01

    In high-density farming practices, it is important to constantly monitor for infectious diseases, especially diseases that have the potential to spread rapidly between holdings. Pigs are known to amplify foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by excreting large amounts of virus, and it is therefore important to detect the virus quickly and accurately to minimize the spread of disease. Ropes were used to collect oral fluid samples from pigs, and each sample was compared to saliva samples collected from individual animals by detecting FMD virus RNA using real-time PCR. Two different experiments are described where groups of pigs were infected with different serotypes of FMD virus, either with or without vaccination, and unvaccinated pigs were kept in aerosol contact. The sensitivity of the rope sampling varied between 0.67 and 0.92, and the statistical agreement between this method and individual sampling ranged from substantial to moderate for the two different serotypes. The ease of collecting oral fluids using ropes together with the high sensitivity of subsequent FMD detection through PCR indicates that this could be a useful method to monitor pig populations for FMD virus infection. With further validation of the sensitivity of detection of FMD virus RNA, this can be a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool.

  1. Effect of polymorphisms in the GBP1, Mx1 and CD163 genes on host responses to PRRSV infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Niu, Pengxia; Shabir, Nadeem; Khatun, Amina; Seo, Byoung-Joo; Gu, Suna; Lee, Sang-Myoung; Lim, Si-Kyu; Kim, Kwan-Suk; Kim, Won-Il

    2016-01-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most economically important disease to the swine industry, and effective prevention strategy for this disease is still required. Guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) and myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1) are two important proteins belonging to the GTPase superfamily that have been previously described to show antiviral effects. CD163 is considered the most important receptor for PRRSV attachment and internalization. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of these genes on host resistance against PRRSV infection in conjunction with the host immune response following PRRSV challenge. The results showed that pigs with AG genotype for the GBP1 exon2 exhibited a significantly higher average daily weight gain (ADWG) and lower average viremia than AA or GG genotype. Furthermore, pigs harbouring the AG genotype for the GBP1 gene presented greater CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD8(+)CD25(+) T cell populations at 4 and 18 days post challenge (dpc), respectively, as compared with other genotypes whereas pigs with CC genotype for the CD163 gene displayed significantly higher nucleocapsid-specific antibody titers at 11dpc. However, pigs with a single 11-bp deletion or insertion in the Mx1 gene did not show significant differences in either weight gain or viremia. Based on these results, we concluded that GBP1 is most significantly associated with resistance against PRRSV infection and efficient T cell activation in pigs. PMID:26711047

  2. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sydnor, Emily R. M.; Perl, Trish M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have become more common as medical care has grown more complex and patients have become more complicated. HAIs are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Growing rates of HAIs alongside evidence suggesting that active surveillance and infection control practices can prevent HAIs led to the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control programs. The role for infection control programs has grown and continues to grow as rates of antimicrobial resistance rise and HAIs lead to increasing risks to patients and expanding health care costs. In this review, we summarize the history of the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control, common HAIs and the pathogens causing them, and the structure and role of a hospital epidemiology and infection control program. PMID:21233510

  3. Disparate Effects of Acute and Chronic Infection with SIVmac239 or SHIV-89.6P on Macaque Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, R. Keith; Fultz, Patricia N.

    2007-01-01

    Blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) contribute to both innate and adaptive immune responses by secreting high levels of IFN-α following acute bacterial and viral infections and indirectly by augmenting cell-mediated immunity. Cross-sectional studies have shown that the number of circulating pDCs in HIV patients, compared to that in uninfected individuals, is reduced. However, since the time of infection is usually unknown in HIV-infected patients, pDC-virus interactions that occur immediately after virus exposure are poorly understood. The current study investigated pDC dynamics during acute and chronic infections of macaques with either SIVmac239 or the pathogenic SIV-HIV chimera, SHIV-89.6P, as models for HIV infection. In three rhesus and three pig-tailed macaques infected intravenously with SIVmac239, the percentages of pDCs in blood declined 2- to 6-fold during the first 6 weeks after infection and remained depressed throughout the disease course. Surprisingly, no consistent, comparable decline in peripheral blood pDCs was observed in six macaques infected with SHIV-89.6P. In this latter group, percentages of pDCs did not correlate with CD4+ T cells, but there was an inverse relationship with viral load. In addition, when compared to naïve controls, the percentages of pDCs were reduced in spleens and peripheral lymph nodes of SIVmac239- but not SHIV-89.6P-infected animals that had progressed to AIDS. Proviral DNA was detected during the acute phase in pDCs isolated from macaques infected with either virus. These results imply that, even though macaque pDCs can be infected by both SIVmac239 and SHIV-89.6P, the subsequent effects on in vivo pathogenesis differ. The underlying mechanism(s) for these differences is unclear, but the selection of SIV or SHIV as a challenge virus might influence the outcome of some studies, such as those evaluating vaccines or the therapeutic efficacy of drugs. PMID:17490699

  4. Electrophysiological alternans and restitution during acute regional ischaemia in myocardium of anaesthetized pig.

    PubMed Central

    Dilly, S G; Lab, M J

    1988-01-01

    1. Alternate long and short action potential durations, or electrical alternans, has only been sporadically observed in ischaemic myocardium in situ. We systematically studied alternans in the latter to characterize the phenomenon, relate it to ventricular arrhythmia and suggest possible mechanisms. 2. Sixteen Landrace pigs were anaesthetized (Azaperone, N2O and O2), ventilated and the hearts exposed. A branch of the left coronary artery was ligated. Left intraventricular and systemic pressures were monitored. Monophasic action potentials were recorded simultaneously with up to five suction electrodes in and around the proposed ischaemia area. 3. A computer measured the duration of every action potential, at several phases of repolarization, throughout the first hour of ischaemia. This allowed the systematic study of the alternans. Measurements during defined stimulus protocols were also made for the construction of electrical restitution curves. 4. Alternans was found in all recordings within the ischaemic area and in two-thirds of those in the 'border' area. There was no alternans in non-ischaemic areas. 5. The alternans, when action potential duration was plotted for every beat, appeared as an oscillation which was pleomorphic. It could be: (a) stable for hundreds of beats; (b) switched or triggered (by one extraneous beat having a different cycle length) between one stable state with high and one with low or absent alternans; (c) damped; (d) undamped to take a crescendo form, sometimes preceding ventricular fibrillation. 6. The alternans in general showed an ill-defined peak incidence between about 200 to 1500 beats after the onset of ischaemia, and a clearer late peak at about 3000 beats. These periods occurred at about 2-7 min and 15-40 min, corresponding to so-called phase 1A and 1B arrhythmia respectively. Only the late peak was seen with triggered alternans. 7. The electrical restitution curve for the action potential duration during ischaemia when

  5. Prevalence of antibiotic use for pediatric acute upper respiratory tract infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Mi; Shin, Ju-Young; Kim, Mi Hee; Lee, Shin Haeng; Choi, Sohyun; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial prescribing for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) among pediatric outpatients and to identify the national patterns of its use from 2009 to 2011 in Korea. Using National Patients Sample database from 2009 to 2011, we estimated the frequency of antibiotics prescribing for URI in pediatric outpatients with diagnoses of acute nasopharyngitis (common cold), acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, acute laryngitis/tracheitis, acute obstructive laryngitis/epiglottitis, and acute upper respiratory infections of multiple and unspecified sites. The proportions of each antibiotic class were calculated by year and absolute and relative differences were estimated. Also, we investigated daily amount of prescribed antibiotics per defined population according to the type of medical care institution, physician specialty, and geographic region. The overall antibiotic prescribing proportion was 58.7% and its annual proportion slightly decreased (55.4% in 2011 vs. 60.5% in 2009; adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.83). Variations by the type of medical care institution were observed. Tertiary hospitals (45.0%) were less likely to prescribe antibiotics than primary care clinics (59.4%), hospitals (59.0%), and general hospitals (61.2%); they showed different tendencies in choosing antibiotics. Variations by physician specialty and region were also observed. Prevalence of antimicrobial prescribing for pediatric URI is still considered higher than that of western countries and varies by the type of medical care institution, physician specialty, and geographic region.

  6. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  7. Epidemiology of acute infections among patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Lorien S; Go, Alan S

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this review were (1) to review recent literature on the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infections in patients who had chronic kidney disease (CKD) and did or did not require renal replacement therapy; (2) to review literature on the efficacy and use of selected vaccines for patients with CKD; and (3) to outline a research framework for examining key issues regarding infections in patients with CKD. Infection-related hospitalizations contribute substantially to excess morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD, and infection is the second leading cause of death in this population. Patients who have CKD and do not require renal replacement therapy seem to be at higher risk for infection compared with patients without CKD; however, data about patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis therapy are very limited. Numerous factors potentially predispose patients with CKD to infection: advanced age, presence of coexisting illnesses, vaccine hyporesponsiveness, immunosuppressive therapy, uremia, dialysis access, and the dialysis procedure. Targeted vaccination seems to have variable efficacy in the setting of CKD and is generally underused in this population. In conclusion, infection is a primary issue when caring for patients who receive maintenance dialysis. Very limited data exist about the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infection in patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis. Future research is needed to delineate accurately the epidemiology of infections in these populations and to develop effective preventive strategies across the spectrum of CKD severity. PMID:18650409

  8. Neurological complications of acute and persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Häusler, Martin; Ramaekers, Vincent Thomas; Doenges, Martin; Schweizer, Klaus; Ritter, Klaus; Schaade, Lars

    2002-10-01

    Neurological complications of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been reported almost exclusively in the course of acute primary infections. The role of EBV in paediatric neurological disease was investigated prospectively over a 2-year period, searching for acute primary, chronic, and reactivated EBV infections. Active EBV infections were diagnosed in 10/48 patients, including two with acute primary EBV infections (cranial neuritis and cerebellitis), one with chronic active infection (T/NK cell lymphoma with cranial neuritis), and seven with reactivated infections. Among these seven patients, three showed "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome, one facial nerve palsy, one progressive macrocephaly, and two prolonged encephalitic illness. The prognosis was good except for the patient with lethal T/NK cell lymphoma and the two girls with encephalitic illness. Despite steroid treatment, these girls suffered prolonged cognitive impairment and epileptic seizures. Both developed left-sided hippocampal atrophy, and one of them hippocampal sclerosis. Like primary infections, reactivated EBV infections cause neurological complications in a considerable number of paediatric patients, lead to serious long-term complications, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hippocampal lesions. PMID:12210416

  9. The effect of cytomegalovirus infection on acute rejection in kidney transplanted patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzamani, Boshra; Hami, Maryam; Zolfaghari, Vajihe; Torkamani, Mahtab; Ghorban Sabagh, Mahin; Ahmadi Simab, Saiideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is known that cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common problem among kidney transplant patients. This infection can be increased morbidity and decreased graft survival. This problem has been associated with acute rejection too. Patients and Methods: One hundred and thirty renal transplant patients were included in a prospective, case-control study. The renal transplant patients were divided into two groups; patients group with CMV infection and control group without CMV infection. Serum CMV-IgG in all patients was positive (donor and recipients). None of patients had received anti-thymocyte-globulin and thymoglobulin. CMV infection was diagnosed by quantitative CMV-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test (more than 500 copies/μg). Rejection episode was defined by kidney isotope scan or biopsy. Results: In the group of 66 CMV infection patients (41 male [62.1%] and 25 female [37.9%]) the incidence of graft rejection was 36%, however in the group of 64 control patients the incidence of graft rejection was 9.4 % (P < 0.005). Conclusion: CMV infection is important predisposing factor for acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The results of this study suggests that the control of CMV infection could decrease episodes of acute kidney rejection. PMID:27471740

  10. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs.

    PubMed

    von Rosen, T; Lohse, L; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have highlighted the important role of cytokines in disease development of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of 7 porcine cytokines in serum from pigs infected with 3 different CSFV strains. Based on the clinical picture in 6-month-old Danish pigs, the strains used for inoculation were classified as being of low (Bergen), low to moderate (Eystrup) and moderate to high (Lithuania) virulence. The cytokines interferon-alpha (INF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed increased levels after CSFV infection with more or less comparable course in the 3 groups. However, the cytokine level peaked with a 2-3 days delay in pigs infected with the low virulent strain compared to those infected with a moderately or highly virulent strain. These findings may indicate that INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α are involved in the immune response during CSFV infection with strains of different virulence.

  11. Endovascular intervention for acute stroke due to infective endocarditis: case report.

    PubMed

    Dababneh, Haitham; Hedna, V Shushrutha; Ford, Jenna; Taimeh, Ziad; Peters, Keith; Mocco, J; Waters, Michael F

    2012-02-01

    The overall incidence of neurological complications due to infective endocarditis is as high as 40%, with embolic infarcts more common than hemorrhagic strokes. The standard of care for typical strokes does not apply to infective endocarditis because there is a substantial risk of hemorrhage with thrombolysis. In the last decade there have been multiple case reports of intravenous and intraarterial thrombolysis with successful outcomes for acute strokes with related infective endocarditis, but successful endovascular interventions for acute strokes associated with infective endocarditis are rarely reported. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first case in the literature to use a mechanical retrieval device in successful vegetation retrieval in an infective endocarditis acute stroke. Although an interventional approach for treatment of acute stroke related to infective endocarditis is a promising option, it is controversial and a cautious clinical decision should be made on a case-by-case basis. The authors conclude that this approach can be tested in a case series with matched controls, because this condition is rare and a randomized clinical trial is not a realistic option.

  12. Whole-body protein kinetics in marasmus and kwashiorkor during acute infection.

    PubMed

    Manary, M J; Broadhead, R L; Yarasheski, K E

    1998-06-01

    Marasmus and kwashiorkor are clinically distinct manifestations of severe malnutrition. This study tested the hypothesis that rates of whole-body protein synthesis and breakdown are higher in marasmus than in kwashiorkor during acute infection. We measured whole-body protein kinetics using stable isotope tracers in eight children with marasmus and acute infection (pneumonia or malaria) to determine the rate of appearance of urea and leucine in plasma. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and C-reactive protein were also measured. These findings were compared with those reported previously for 13 children with kwashiorkor (including marasmic kwashiorkor) and acute infection who were studied with the same methods. HIV infection was present in 10 of 21 children. Rates of protein breakdown and synthesis were higher in marasmus than in kwashiorkor (227 +/- 59 compared with 103 +/- 30 micromol leucine x kg(-1) x h(-1) and 216 +/- 60 compared with 97 +/- 30 micromol leucine x kg(-1) x h(-1), P < 0.001). The concentration of globulin (total protein minus albumin) was higher in marasmus than kwashiorkor (40 +/- 17 compared with 25 +/- 7 g/L, P < or = 0.01), but C-reactive protein was not different (73 +/- 79 compared with 83 +/- 89 mg/L). HIV infection and body composition did not explain the differences between marasmus and kwashiorkor. The accelerated rate of protein turnover in children with marasmus and acute infection requires further investigation.

  13. The early pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs infected by contact: a quantitative time-course study using TaqMan RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Alexandersen, S; Oleksiewicz, M B; Donaldson, A I

    2001-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically important virus disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The objective of the present study was to examine the early pathogenesis of FMD in pigs by a quantitative time-course study. Under experimental conditions, recipient pigs were infected by contact with donor pigs affected by FMD. Every 24 h from day 1 to day 4 after exposure, two recipient pigs were selected randomly, killed and necropsied. A range of tissues were analysed by a quantitative TaqMan RT-PCR method and by titration of FMD virus on primary bovine thyroid cells. The titres of virus determined by assay in cell culture and calculated from the quantitative TaqMan data correlated strongly (r>0.9), thereby establishing the validity of the TaqMan calculations. The data indicated that the replication of virus in the lungs contributes only in small part to airborne virus excretion. Sites in the pharynx, trachea and nasal mucosa are probably more important in that regard. The sites of earliest virus infection and possibly replication in recipient pigs appeared to be in the pharynx (soft palate, tonsil and floor of pharynx). The data indicated that FMD virus replication in pigs is rapid and that the majority of virus amplification occurs in the skin. A model for the progression of infection is proposed, indicating initial spread from the pharyngeal region, through regional lymph nodes and via the blood to epithelial cells, resulting in several cycles of virus amplification and spread.

  14. Differentiation of Acute Q Fever from Other Infections in Patients Presenting to Hospitals, the Netherlands1

    PubMed Central

    Krijger, Elmer; Delsing, Corine E.; Sprong, Tom; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating acute Q fever from infections caused by other pathogens is essential. We conducted a retrospective case–control study to evaluate differences in clinical signs, symptoms, and outcomes for 82 patients with acute Q fever and 52 control patients who had pneumonia, fever and lower respiratory tract symptoms, or fever and hepatitis, but had negative serologic results for Q fever. Patients with acute Q fever were younger and had higher C-reactive protein levels but lower leukocyte counts. However, a large overlap was found. In patients with an indication for prophylaxis, chronic Q fever did not develop after patients received prophylaxis but did develop in 50% of patients who did not receive prophylaxis. Differentiating acute Q fever from other respiratory infections, fever, or hepatitis is not possible without serologic testing or PCR. If risk factors for chronic Q fever are present, prophylactic treatment is advised. PMID:26196955

  15. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques.

    PubMed

    Pandrea, Ivona; Xu, Cuiling; Stock, Jennifer L; Frank, Daniel N; Ma, Dongzhu; Policicchio, Benjamin B; He, Tianyu; Kristoff, Jan; Cornell, Elaine; Haret-Richter, George S; Trichel, Anita; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Tracy, Russell; Wilson, Cara; Landay, Alan L; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX) and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ). RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs) starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acu