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Sample records for acutely infected pigs

  1. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette; Poulsen, Karin T.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Eckersall, P. David; Heegaard, Peter M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14–18 h after lung infection in pigs. The lung infection was established with the pig specific respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative real-time PCR based expression analysis were performed on samples from liver, tracheobronchial lymph node, tonsils, spleen and on blood leukocytes, supplemented with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14–18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, pig major acute phase protein, and transferrin in peripheral lymphoid tissues. PMID:19236838

  2. Detection of respiratory pathogens in aerosols from acutely infected pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents that cause respiratory disease in pigs include porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine respiratory corona virus (PRCV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The objective of...

  3. Acute-phase protein response in pigs experimentally infected with Haemophilus parasuis.

    PubMed

    Martín de la Fuente, A J; Carpintero, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Alava, M A; Lampreave, F; Gutiérrez Martín, C B

    2010-12-01

    The acute-phase protein (APP) response to an infection caused by Haemophilus parasuis, the etiological agent of Glässer's disease in pigs, was characterized measuring serum concentrations of pig major acute-phase protein (pig MAP), haptoglobin (HPT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in colostrum-deprived pigs. They were divided into six experimental groups: non-immunized control group (I); immunized with a non-commercial bacterin (II); with an OMP-vaccine (III); with a sublethal dose (IV); and with two commercial bacterins (V and VI). All groups were challenged intratracheally with 5 × 10(9)CFU of H. parasuis 37 days after immunisation. The highest levels of the positive APPs (pig MAP, HPT and CRP) and the lowest levels of the negative APPs (ApoA-I) were observed in the animals that died as a consequence of the infection, both those in the non-immunized and in the immunized groups. However, the surviving animals (all of them in groups II, V and VI, two pigs in group III, and three in group IV) showed a minor variation in APP response, mainly on day 1 post-challenge (p.c.), and then tended to recover the initial values. APP response was still less pronounced in the groups of pigs previously immunized with bacterins. In conclusion, APP response can reflect Glässer-disease ongoing, showing a correlation between the severity and duration of the clinical signs and lesions and the magnitude of changes in the APP levels. PMID:19117607

  4. Immune responses to HTLV-I(ACH) during acute infection of pig-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Therese M; Wei, Qing; Stallworth, Jackie; Fultz, Patricia N

    2004-04-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is causally linked to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a chronic progressive neurological disease, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A nonhuman primate model that reproduces disease symptoms seen in HTLV-I-infected humans might facilitate identification of initial immune responses to the virus and an understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in HTLV-I-related disease. Previously, we showed that infection of pig-tailed macaques with HTLV-I(ACH) is associated with multiple signs of disease characteristic of both HAM/TSP and ATL. We report here that within the first few weeks after HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques, serum concentrations of interferon (IFN)-alpha increased and interleukin-12 decreased transiently, levels of nitric oxide were elevated, and activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and CD16(+) natural killer cells in peripheral blood were observed. HTLV-I(ACH) infection elicited virus-specific antibodies in all four animals within 4 to 6 weeks; however, Tax-specific lymphoproliferative responses were not detected until 25-29 weeks after infection in all four macaques. IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood cells stimulated with a Tax or Gag peptide was detected to varying degrees in all four animals by ELISPOT assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from one animal that developed only a marginal antigen-specific cellular response were unresponsive to mitogen stimulation during the last few weeks preceding its death from a rapidly progressive disease syndrome associated with HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques. The results show that during the first few months after HTLV-I(ACH) infection, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity, limited virus-specific cellular responses, sustained immune system activation, and, in some cases, immunodeficiency were evident. Thus, this animal model might be valuable for understanding early stages of infection

  5. Serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations in pigs with acute, chronic or subclinical Lawsonia intracellularis infection.

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Gebhart, Connie J; Lawhorn, Bruce D; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2015-03-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy. The clinical presentation can be acute (i.e. proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy, PHE), chronic (i.e. porcine intestinal adenomatosis, PIA) or subclinical. In humans with chronic enteropathies, low serum folate (vitamin B(9)) and cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) concentrations have been associated with increased serum concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA), which reflect the availability of both vitamins at the cellular level. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations in serum samples from pigs with PHE, PIA or subclinical L. intracellularis infection, and in negative controls. Serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations differed significantly among pigs in the PHE, PIA, subclinical and negative control groups. Serum folate concentrations in the PHE and PIA groups were lower than in the subclinical and negative control groups, while serum cobalamin concentrations were lower in the PIA group than in other groups. Serum concentrations of homocysteine were higher in the PHE, PIA and subclinical groups than in the negative control group. Serum concentrations of MMA were higher in the subclinical and PIA groups than in the control group. These data suggest that pigs infected with L. intracellularis have altered serum cobalamin, folate, homocysteine and MMA concentrations. PMID:25618855

  6. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs. PMID:26381440

  7. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  8. Preventive effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 on acute secretory diarrhea in a pig model of intestinal infection.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, B; Duncker, S; Barth, S; Bauerfeind, R; Gruber, A D; Deppenmeier, S; Breves, G

    2006-04-01

    Pretreatment with the probiotic Escherichia colistrain Nissle 1917 (EcN) was assessed in a pig model of intestinal infection to prevent acute secretory diarrhea. In the model 10(10) colony forming units of the porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Abbotstown (EcA) was given via orogastric tube to weaned piglets at day 21 postpartum (-EcN/+EcA group, n = 7). Forty-eight hours after challenge electrophysiological parameters of isolated intact jejunal epithelia were characterized in Ussing chambers. In agreement with clinical signs of diarrhea, tissues of challenged animals showed an overshoot of secretory response after stimulation of the cAMP-mediated second messenger pathway by forskolin, indicating higher excitability of chloride secretory systems under infected conditions. The data were compared with respective measurements from animals that got a daily dose of 10(10) cfu of the probiotic EcN over 10 days before EcA challenge (+EcN/+EcA group; n = 4), from a group that received only EcN (+EcN/-EcA; n = 4), or from a group that remained totally untreated (-EcN/-EcA; n = 6). EcN pretreatment completely abolished clinical signs of secretory diarrhea in +EcN/+EcA animals. Furthermore, jejunum epithelia of these animals did not exhibit an overshoot of secretory response upon stimulation with forskolin. Our studies demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of prophylactic EcN in pig small intestine for preventing an effect of toxigenic EcA. This infection model with freshly weaned piglets may be predestinated to further characterize EcN effects on the cellular level, i.e., involved second messenger pathways, or it may also be useful to examine the efficacy of other substrates or microbe strains against secretory stimuli. PMID:16614995

  9. Primary infection protects pigs against re-infection with Lawsonia intracellularis in experimental challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Riber, Ulla; Cordes, Henriette; Boutrup, Torsten S; Jensen, Tim K; Heegaard, Peter M H; Jungersen, Gregers

    2011-05-01

    In two separate trials pigs were experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis at 5-6 weeks of age followed by antibiotic treatment and resolution of the primary infection and then re-inoculated at 12-13 weeks of age. A treatment-control group of pigs received the primary infection and antibiotic treatment only, and served as control for the antibiotic treatment of the primary infection. A challenge-control group of pigs received the second inoculation dose only at 12-13 weeks of age to control infectivity of the challenge-dose and susceptibility of pigs to L. intracellularis at this age. Pigs were monitored for shedding of L. intracellularis in faeces by PCR, and for the development of antibodies and responses of acute phase proteins in serum. The presence of L. intracellularis antigen in the intestinal mucosa was examined in post mortem samples by immunohistochemistry. In both trials primary infected pigs were protected from infection after challenge inoculation as evidenced by absence of faecal shedding of L. intracellularis, lack of changes in acute phase protein concentrations after challenge and with low levels of bacterial antigen in the intestinal mucosa of re-inoculated pigs comparable to that of the treatment-control pigs. In contrast, challenge-control pigs shed L. intracellularis in faeces, had L. intracellularis antigen extensively present within all layers of the intestinal mucosa and developed a significant acute phase protein response in serum after the experimental infection. The acute phase protein response to L. intracellularis infection was detected as an increased rise in the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin from day-6 post infection, and increased serum concentrations of haptoglobin were generally seen 2-3 weeks after inoculation both at 5-6 and 12-13 weeks of age. In conclusion substantial protection against L. intracellularis infection was found in the re-inoculated pigs in contrast to the development of

  10. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  11. Infection status of pigs with Cryptosporidium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae-Ran

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the infection status of pigs with Cryptosporidium parvum, 589 fecal samples were collected from pigs raised at farm in Chungcheongbuk-do and Chungcheongnam-do. Of the 589 pig fecal samples, 62 (10.5%) were positive for C. parvum. The area showing the highest positive rate was Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (14.0%), and the lowest (0%) Salmi-myon, Chungcheongbuk-do. The positive rate of C. parvum in Judok-eup increased from 12.7% in the winter to 22.1% in the summer. The results of this study suggest that the pigs may be a source of human C. parvum infection. PMID:15060340

  12. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott; Gramer, Marie; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. PMID:23164957

  13. Correlation of Acute Humoral Response with Brain Virus Burden and Survival Time in Pig-Tailed Macaques Infected with the Neurovirulent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsmmFGb

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Shawn P.; Suwyn, Carolyn; Anderson, Daniel C.; Niedziela, Genevieve; Bradley, Juliette; Novembre, Francis J.; Herndon, James G.; McClure, Harold M.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of pig-tailed macaques with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate SIVsmmFGb frequently results in SIV encephalitis (SIVE) in addition to immunodeficiency and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We used in situ hybridization to quantitate the number of SIV-infected cells in brain parenchyma, choroid plexus, and meninges from 17 macaques that developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome after infection with SIVsmmFGb. SIV-infected cells and histopathological lesions of SIVE were identified in 15 of 17 animals (88.2%), including 12 of 12 rapid progressors (RP) and 3 of 5 slow progressors (SP). The parenchymal virus burden was much greater in RP macaques than in the three SP macaques with SIVE (median values of 24.3 versus 0.3 infected cells/mm2, respectively; P < 0.05). Viral load differences between RP and SP with SIVE were less marked in choroid plexus (29.6 versus 12.8 infected cells/mm2, respectively) and meninges (133.0 versus 34.2 infected cells/mm2, respectively). A significant negative correlation was observed between the magnitude of the anti-SIV antibody titer at 1 month after inoculation and brain virus burden at necropsy (r = −0.614; P < 0.01). The close association between immune response and SIVE in this model should prove useful for identifying correlates of immune protection against primate lentiviral encephalitis. PMID:15039205

  14. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  15. Experimental Salmonella Enterica Infection in Market-weight Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Market pigs infected with Salmonella pose a significant food safety risk by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in market-weight pigs (220-240 lbs.). Pigs (n=24) were individually inoculated (intranasally; 108 cfu/mL) with Salm...

  16. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Ole L; Iburg, Tine; Aalbaek, Bent; Leifsson, Páll S; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Heegaard, Peter; Boye, Mette; Simon, Sofie; Jensen, Kristine B; Christensen, Sophie; Melsen, Karin; Bak, Anne K; Backman, Elín R; Jørgensen, Mia H; Groegler, Désirée K; Jensen, Asger L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Jensen, Henrik E

    2009-01-01

    Background Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus, with the aim of mimicking human sepsis and pyemia. Methods The study was conducted in anaesthetized and intravenously inoculated pigs, and was based on bacteriological examination of blood and testing of blood for IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Following killing of the animals and necropsy bacteriological and histological examinations of different organs were performed 4, 5 or 6 h after inoculation. Results Clearance of bacteria from the blood was completed within the first 2 h in some of the pigs and the highest bacterial load was recorded in the lungs as compared to the spleen, liver and bones. This probably was a consequence of both the intravenous route of inoculation and the presence of pulmonary intravascular macrophages. Inoculation of bacteria induced formation of acute microabscesses in the lungs, spleen and liver, but not in the kidneys or bones. No generalized inflammatory response was recorded, i.e. IL-6 was not detected in the blood and C-reactive protein did not increase, probably because of the short time course of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrates the successful induction of acute pyemia (microabscesses), and forms a basis for future experiments that should include inoculation with strains of S. aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:19327150

  17. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. PMID:24095608

  18. Isolation and pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected (rustic farm) pigs in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cademartori, B G; Santos, L M J F; Oliveira, F C; Quevedo, P; Oliveira, P A; Ramos, T S; Rocha, A S R; Ruas, J L; Farias, N A R

    2014-06-16

    This study reported a serological test for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 100 pigs from 58 rural farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thirty-six pigs were seropositive (IFAT≥1:64). Bioassays were performed for all 36 seropositive pigs, and 17 isolates were obtained (47.2%). Seven of these isolates (41.2%) were highly pathogenic to mice, as clinical signs of acute infection were observed, and tachyzoites were found in the peritoneal exudates, livers, and lungs. The remaining 10 isolates were able to establish a chronic infection in mice, therefore, they were not highly virulent. The results of this study indicate that pork is a potential source of T. gondii transmission to humans. PMID:24612744

  19. Domestic Pigs Are Susceptible to Infection with Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Zhiguang; Shen, Huigang; Lang, Yuekun; Kolb, Elizabeth A.; Turan, Nuri; Zhu, Laihua; Ma, Jingjiao; Bawa, Bhupinder; Liu, Qinfang; Liu, Haixia; Quast, Megan; Sexton, Gabriel; Krammer, Florian; Hause, Ben M.; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Nelson, Eric A.; Richt, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza B virus (IBV) causes seasonal epidemics in humans. Although IBV has been isolated from seals, humans are considered the primary host and reservoir of this important pathogen. It is unclear whether other animal species can support the replication of IBV and serve as a reservoir. Swine are naturally infected with both influenza A and C viruses. To determine the susceptibility of pigs to IBV infection, we conducted a serological survey for U.S. Midwest domestic swine herds from 2010 to 2012. Results of this study showed that antibodies to IBVs were detected in 38.5% (20/52) of sampled farms, and 7.3% (41/560) of tested swine serum samples were positive for IBV antibodies. Furthermore, swine herds infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) showed a higher prevalence of IBV antibodies in our 2014 survey. In addition, IBV was detected in 3 nasal swabs collected from PRRSV-seropositive pigs by real-time RT-PCR and sequencing. Finally, an experimental infection in pigs, via intranasal and intratracheal routes, was performed using one representative virus from each of the two genetically and antigenically distinct lineages of IBVs: B/Brisbane/60/2008 (Victoria lineage) and B/Yamagata/16/1988 (Yamagata lineage). Pigs developed influenza-like symptoms and lung lesions, and they seroconverted after virus inoculation. Pigs infected with B/Brisbane/60/2008 virus successfully transmitted the virus to sentinel animals. Taken together, our data demonstrate that pigs are susceptible to IBV infection; therefore, they warrant further surveillance and investigation of swine as a potential host for human IBV. IMPORTANCE IBV is an important human pathogen, but its ability to infect other species, for example, pigs, is not well understood. We showed serological evidence that antibodies to two genetically and antigenically distinct lineages of IBVs were present among domestic pigs, especially in swine herds previously infected with PRRSV

  20. Enterobacter cloacae inhibits human norovirus infectivity in gnotobiotic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaohua; Samuel, Helen; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Yang, Xingdong; Jiang, Xi; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Study of HuNoV biology has been hampered by the lack of an efficient cell culture system. Recently, enteric commensal bacteria Enterobacter cloacae has been recognized as a helper in HuNoV infection of B cells in vitro. To test the influences of E. cloacae on HuNoV infectivity and to determine whether HuNoV infects B cells in vivo, we colonized gnotobiotic pigs with E. cloacae and inoculated pigs with 2.74 × 104 genome copies of HuNoV. Compared to control pigs, reduced HuNoV shedding was observed in E. cloacae colonized pigs, characterized by significantly shorter duration of shedding in post-inoculation day 10 subgroup and lower cumulative shedding and peak shedding in individual pigs. Colonization of E. cloacae also reduced HuNoV titers in intestinal tissues and in blood. In both control and E. cloacae colonized pigs, HuNoV infection of enterocytes was confirmed, however infection of B cells was not observed in ileum, and the entire lamina propria in sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were HuNoV-negative. In summary, E. cloacae inhibited HuNoV infectivity, and B cells were not a target cell type for HuNoV in gnotobiotic pigs, with or without E. cloacae colonization. PMID:27113278

  1. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact Urine Most people come into contact with ... with another person. You should avoid kissing and sexual contact with an infected person. The virus may ...

  2. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  3. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe. PMID:26344041

  4. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.

    PubMed

    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15-40 dpi). Anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15-75 dpi; high levels of anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  5. Dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of classical swine fever virus in experimentally infected pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable disease. However, we are far from fully understand the distribution, tissue tropism, pathogenesis, replication and excretion of CSFV in pigs. In this report, we investigated the dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of the virus in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results A relative quantification real-time PCR was established and used to detect the virus load in internal organs of the experimentally infected pigs. The study revealed that the virus was detected in all 21 of the internal organs and blood collected from pigs at day 1 to day 8 post infections, and had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections. However, there was irregular distribution virus load in most internal organs over the first 2 days post infection. Blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum usually contain the highest viral loads, while heart, duodenum and brain show relatively low viral loads. Conclusions All the data suggest that CSFV had an increasing virus load from day 1 to day 8 post infections in experimentally infected pigs detected by real-time RT-PCR, which was in consistent with the result of the IHC staining. The data also show that CSFV was likely to reproduce in blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and the ileum, while unlikely to replicate in the heart, duodenum and brain. The results provide a foundation for further clarification of the pathogenic mechanism of CSFV in internal organs, and indicate that blood, lymphoid tissue, pancreas and ileum may be preferred sites of acute infection. PMID:21535885

  6. Acute effects of aflatoxins on guinea pig isolated ileum.

    PubMed

    Luzi, A; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies on the aflatoxins have focused mainly on their chronic toxic effects. In this study we investigated the acute gastrointestinal effects of four common aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum. AFB(1) (EC(50) 4.6+/-0.4 microM) and AFB(2) (EC(50)17+/-4.4 microM) contracted isolated guinea pig ileum in a dose-dependent manner, whereas AFG(1) and AFG(2) evoked no contractions. Atropine (5.9 nM 11.8 and 23.6 nM) antagonized AFB(1)-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the nicotinic ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (up to 55 microM), left AFB(1)-induced contractions unchanged. In contrast, tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM), blocked AFB(1) contractile activity. The two inhibitors of ACh release, morphine (0.3 microM) and clonidine (0.4 microM), antagonized EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractions, and apamin, a drug that increases neuronal excitability, facilitated the EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractile effect. The choline uptake blocker, hemicholinium (17.4 microM) markedly reduced AFB(1)-induced contractions. These results suggest that aflatoxins induce their contractile effect indirectly through the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine release from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings. The acute actions of aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum could explain their acute gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals. PMID:12206819

  7. Ear necrosis syndrome in weaning pigs associated with PCV2 infection: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Papatsiros, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Porcine necrotic ear syndrome (PNES) in pigs has been reported as an increasing health problem in many countries with intensive pig farming. The etiology of this disease is complex and the presumed triggering factors can be divided into infectious and non-infectious agents. The present report describes a case of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2), infection associated with lesions of PNES at the weaning stage of a farrow-to-finish pig farm. Approximately 35% of weaners (1-3 weeks after weaning) presented clinical symptoms similar to Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS). About 2-3 weeks after weaning the first lesions of PNES occurred in approximately 20% of pigs, resulting in a significant health problem characterized by poor growth or severe wasting and finally mortality up to 15% in some batches. Moreover, approximately 5% of survived weaners, during growing / finishing stage, presented poor growth and secondary co-infections that lead to death. The present study based on the clinical signs, serological and pathological examinations, indicates that weaners suffered by sub-acute PCV2 infection resulting in PMWS associated with PNES. The lesions of PNES were initially observed at the same period (4-8 weeks of age) with the higher seroprevalence of PCV2 infection. Metaphylaxis of this case included intramuscular injection of florfenicol for the treatment and control of skin lesions and respiratory signs. Moreover, piglets were vaccinated against PCV2. In conclusion, sub-acute PCV2 infection could be included in triggering factors PNES in weaners. The mass vaccination against PCV2 of infected piglets might be effective in reduction of clinical signs and losses of PNES in cases of PCV2 infection associated with PNES. PMID:25610573

  8. Behavior, plasma cortisol, and immune cell populations of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine characteristics of pigs infected with Salmonella as compared with pigs not infected. Four-month old swine were either infected with Salmonella Typhimurum (n = 24) or served as non-infected controls (n = 15). All pigs were housed in individual pens (approximatel...

  9. Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Cowled, Brendan D; Galea, Francesca; Garner, M Graeme; Laffan, Shawn W; Marsh, Ian; Negus, Katherine; Sarre, Stephen D; Woolnough, Andrew P

    2013-03-23

    Although wild pig populations are known to sometimes be infected by Salmonella, the situation in Australia has received little attention and few population-based, planned studies have been conducted. Understanding the distribution of Salmonella infections within wild pig populations allows the potential hazard posed to co-grazing livestock to be assessed. We sampled a remote and isolated wild pig population in northwestern Australia. Faecal and mesenteric lymph node samples were collected from 651 wild pigs at 93 locations and cultured for Salmonella. The population sampled was typical of wild pig populations in tropical areas of Australia, and sampling occurred approximately halfway through the population's breeding season (38% of the 229 adult females were pregnant and 35% were lactating). Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella infection based on culture of 546 freshly collected faecal samples was 36.3% (95% CI 32.1-40.7%), and based on culture of mesenteric lymph nodes was 11.9% (95% CI, 9.4-15.0%). A total of 39 serovars (139 isolates) were identified--29 in faecal samples and 24 in lymph node samples--however neither Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium nor Salmonella Cholerasuis were isolated. There was a significant (p<0.0001) disagreement between faecal and lymph node samples with respect to Salmonella isolation, with isolation more likely from faecal samples. Prevalence differed between age classes, with piglets being less likely to be faecal-positive but more likely to be lymph node positive than adults. The distribution of faecal-positive pigs was spatially structured, with spatial clusters being identified. Study results suggest that this population of wild pigs is highly endemic for Salmonella, and that Salmonella is transmitted from older to younger pigs, perhaps associated with landscape features such as water features. This might have implications for infection of co-grazing livestock within this environment. PMID:23266110

  10. Pathogenesis of Lassa virus infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Jahrling, P B; Smith, S; Hesse, R A; Rhoderick, J B

    1982-01-01

    A rodent model for human Lassa fever was developed which uses inbred (strain 13) and outbred (Hartley) guinea pigs. Strain 13 guinea pigs were uniformly susceptible to lethal infection by 2 or more PFU of Lassa virus strain Josiah. In contrast, no more than 30% of the Hartley guinea pigs died regardless of the virus dose. In lethally infected strain 13 guinea pigs, peak titers of virus (10(7) to 10(8) PFU) occurred in the spleen and lymph nodes at 8 to 9 days, in the salivary glands at 11 days, and in the lung at 14 to 16 days. Virus reached low titers (10(4) PFU) in the plasma and brain and intermediate titers in the liver, adrenal glands, kidney, pancreas, and heart. In moribund animals, the most consistent and severe histological lesion as an interstitial pneumonia. In contrast, the brain was only minimally involved. The immune response of lethally infected strain 13 guinea pigs, as measured by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, was detectable within 10 days of infection and was similar in timing and intensity to the fluorescent antibody test response of both lethally infected and surviving outbred animals. In contrast to the fluorescent antibody response, neutralizing antibody developed late in convalescence and was thus detected only in surviving outbred guinea pigs. The availability of a rodent model for human Lassa fever in uniformly susceptible strain 13 guinea pigs should facilitate detailed pathophysiological studies and efficacy testing of antiviral drugs, candidate vaccines, and immunotherapy regimens to develop control methods for this life-threatening disease in humans. Images PMID:6749685

  11. Occurrence of Bordetella infection in pigs in northern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Bhoj R; Bhardwaj, Monika; Singh, Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infection causing atrophic rhinitis in pigs is reported from almost all countries. In the present study, occurrence of Bordetella infection in apparently healthy pigs was determined in 392 pigs sampled to collect 358 serum samples and 316 nasal swabs from Northern India by conventional bacterioscopy, detection of antigen with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and detection of antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT) and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Bordetella bronchiseptica could be isolated from six (1.92%) nasal swabs. Although isolates varied significantly in their antimicrobial sensitivity, they had similar plasmid profile. The genus specific and species specific amplicons were detected from 8.2% and 4.4% nasal swabs using mPCR with alc gene (genus specific) and fla gene and fim2 gene (species specific) primers, respectively. Observations revealed that there may be other bordetellae infecting pigs because about 50% of the samples positive using mPCR for genus specific amplicons failed to confirm presence of B. bronchiseptica. Of the pig sera tested with MAT and ELISA for Bordetella antibodies, 67.6% and 86.3% samples, respectively, were positive. For antigen detection mPCR was more sensitive than conventional bacterioscopy while for detection of antibodies neither of the two tests (MAT and ELISA) had specificity in relation to antigen detection. Study indicated high prevalence of infection in swine herds in Northern India. PMID:24688547

  12. Occurrence of Bordetella Infection in Pigs in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Bhoj R.; Bhardwaj, Monika; Singh, Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infection causing atrophic rhinitis in pigs is reported from almost all countries. In the present study, occurrence of Bordetella infection in apparently healthy pigs was determined in 392 pigs sampled to collect 358 serum samples and 316 nasal swabs from Northern India by conventional bacterioscopy, detection of antigen with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and detection of antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT) and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Bordetella bronchiseptica could be isolated from six (1.92%) nasal swabs. Although isolates varied significantly in their antimicrobial sensitivity, they had similar plasmid profile. The genus specific and species specific amplicons were detected from 8.2% and 4.4% nasal swabs using mPCR with alc gene (genus specific) and fla gene and fim2 gene (species specific) primers, respectively. Observations revealed that there may be other bordetellae infecting pigs because about 50% of the samples positive using mPCR for genus specific amplicons failed to confirm presence of B. bronchiseptica. Of the pig sera tested with MAT and ELISA for Bordetella antibodies, 67.6% and 86.3% samples, respectively, were positive. For antigen detection mPCR was more sensitive than conventional bacterioscopy while for detection of antibodies neither of the two tests (MAT and ELISA) had specificity in relation to antigen detection. Study indicated high prevalence of infection in swine herds in Northern India. PMID:24688547

  13. Immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of Salmonella enterica carriage and shedding in experimentally infected finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and associated immunological, physiological, and behavioral alterations, by longitudinally ...

  14. Experimental Eimeria debliecki infections in nursing and weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L; Boosinger, T R

    1987-06-01

    Three litters of six, 3-day-old nursing pigs were inoculated via a stomach tube with 8.0 X 10(5), 1.6 X 10(6) or 5.0 X 10(6) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria debliecki and four groups of six, 4-week-old weaned pigs were inoculated with 8.0 X 10(5), 1.6 X 10(6), 5.0 X 10(6) or 1.0 X 10(7) sporulated oocysts of E. debliecki to determine its pathogenicity. Clinical coccidiosis or deaths did not result from infections. Infections were confined to the jejunum and occasionally the duodenum. Microscopic lesions of mild to moderate villous atrophy were observed in one nursing pig given 5.0 X 10(6) oocysts and three weaned pigs given 1.6 X 10(6), 5.0 X 10(6) and 1.0 X 10(7) oocysts and examined 5 days post-inoculation. Pathogenic bacteria or viruses were not demonstrated in any pigs. Results of this study indicate that E. debliecki is not a cause of neonatal or weaning diarrhea in pigs. PMID:3629902

  15. Elevated fat skatole levels in immunocastrated, surgically castrated and entire male pigs with acute dysentery.

    PubMed

    Skrlep, Martin; Batorek, Nina; Bonneau, Michel; Fazarinc, Gregor; Segula, Blaž; Candek-Potokar, Marjeta

    2012-12-01

    Boar taint is due to androstenone and skatole (3-methyl-indole) accumulation in fat tissues. During a study to investigate the effect of immunocastration on fattening pigs, an outbreak of acute dysentery occurred caused by Lawsonia intracellularis and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and resulted in cachexia and high mortality. Low androstenone levels in the immunocastrates (0.25 ± 0.04 μg/g liquid fat) suggested that the immunocastration had been effective, but unusually high skatole concentrations in fat tissues were found not only in entire males, but also in surgical castrates and immunocastrates (0.22 ± 0.15, 0.14 ± 0.08 and 0.18 ± 0.14 μg/g liquid fat, respectively). The findings suggest that boar taint can arise in cases of intestinal infections, even in castrated pigs. PMID:22613221

  16. [Leptospire infections in pigs: epidemiology, diagnostics and worldwide occurrence].

    PubMed

    Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2011-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a systemic disease affecting humans and animals, and pigs are generally considered the reservoir host species for the serovars Pomona, Bratislava and Tarrasovi. Endemic infections in swine herds generally remain subclinical, as do the vast majority of leptospire infections. However, when a susceptible breeding herd is infected for the first time or its immunity is compromised, considerable losses can occur due to abortion, stillbirths, weakly piglets or infertility. Infections in pigs caused by other serovars tend to occur only incidentally, vary regionally, and depend on other reservoir hosts, primarily rodents. Leptospires persist in porcine kidneys, and the Bratislava serovar, in the genital tract; it is excreted in urine and genital fluids. Leptospirosis is transmitted by direct or indirect contact with an infected animal. Fundamental research on porcine leptospirosis was conducted in the 1970s and 1980s. However, despite subsequent application of the most recent molecular biological methods, the pathogenesis of porcine leptospirosis is still largely unknown, and research results from the last 25 years on its incidence are very heterogeneous, due not only to regional differences but also to differences in the evaluation of diagnostic and population studies. Serological testing of pigs showed serovar prevalences ranging between as much as 16.3% (Pomona) and generally no more than 2.9% (Tarassovi), whereas antibodies against Bratislava were found in as many as 41.8% of pigs tested during the last 20 years, as in previous studies, indicating that this remains the most prevalent serovar. PMID:21950211

  17. Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Ricklin, Meret E; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Brechbühl, Daniel; Python, Sylvie; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Oevermann, Anna; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental intravenous infection of pigs. The data demonstrate a rapid and broad spreading of the virus to the central nervous system (CNS) and various other organs. A particular tropism of JEV in pigs not only to the CNS but also for secondary lymphoid tissue, in particular the tonsils with the overall highest viral loads, was observed. In this organ, even 11 days post infection, the latest time point of the experiment, no apparent decrease in viral RNA loads and live virus was found despite the presence of a neutralizing antibody response. This was also well beyond the clinical and viremic phase. These results are of significance for the pathogenesis of JEV, and call for further experimental studies focusing on the cellular source and duration of virus replication in pigs. PMID:26911997

  18. Pig α1-Acid Glycoprotein: Characterization and First Description in Any Species as a Negative Acute Phase Protein

    PubMed Central

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Miller, Ingrid; Sorensen, Nanna Skall; Soerensen, Karen Elisabeth; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    The serum protein α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), also known as orosomucoid, is generally described as an archetypical positive acute phase protein. Here, porcine AGP was identified, purified and characterized from pooled pig serum. It was found to circulate as a single chain glycoprotein having an apparent molecular weight of 43 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, of which approximately 17 kDa were accounted for by N-bound oligosaccharides. Those data correspond well with the properties of the protein predicted from the single porcine AGP gene (ORM1, Q29014 (UniProt)), containing 5 putative glycosylation sites. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) was produced and shown to quantitatively and specifically react with all microheterogenous forms of pig AGP as analyzed by 2-D electrophoresis. This MAb was used to develop an immunoassay (ELISA) for quantification of AGP in pig serum samples. The adult serum concentrations of pig AGP were in the range of 1–3 mg/ml in a number of conventional pig breeds while it was lower in Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs (in the 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml range) and higher in young (2–5 days old) conventional pigs (mean: 6.6 mg/ml). Surprisingly, pig AGP was found to behave as a negative acute phase protein during a range of experimental infections and aseptic inflammation with significant decreases in serum concentration and in hepatic ORM1 expression during the acute phase response. To our knowledge this is the first description in any species of AGP being a negative acute phase protein. PMID:23844161

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 1,077 domestic pigs in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of pigs were sampled: Group A pigs (n=555) were raised in 3 geo...

  20. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Korani, M; Rezayat, SM; Gilani, K; Bidgoli, S Arbabi; Adeli, S

    2011-01-01

    Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 μg/mL) in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 μg/mL) in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater tissue abnormalities than the subjects of acute tests. It seems that colloidal nanosilver has the potential to provide target organ toxicities in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PMID:21720498

  1. Vaccination against bovine herpes mammillitis virus infections in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Smee, D F; Leonhardt, J A

    1994-01-01

    Bovine herpes mammillitis virus or bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BHV-2) causes ulcerative lesions on the teats and udders of infected cows. Since no commercial vaccine is available for this disease, we investigated certain experimental BHV-2 vaccines against this virus in infected guinea pigs. Vaginally infected guinea pigs get severe, self-limiting vaginal infections characterized by erythema and swelling and the production of measurable vaginal virus titers. Two vaccine approaches were investigated: vaccination with wild-type (WT) virus by the subcutaneous route, and vaccination either subcutaneously or intravaginally with a thymidine kinase (TK) deficient (TK-) virus. The TK- strain was prepared by passage of BHV-2 in the presence of the potent TK-dependent antiviral agent 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (FMAU). The antiviral activity of FMAU against the virus in plaque reduction assays changed from 0.05 to 2 microM at the same time that the TK activity of the mutant virus decrease to 7% of WT virus TK activity. Subcutaneous vaccination of guinea pigs with WT and TK- viruses did not induce vaginal infection. Primary vaginal infection (vaccination) with the TK- virus led to greatly reduced lesion severity compared to vaginal infection with the WT virus. However, the amount of vaginal virus titers recovered during these primary infections was similar for both TK- and WT viruses, indicating that both viruses had equal infecting potential. Thirty days after vaccination the animals were re-infected intravaginally with WT virus. The vaccinated animals showed dramatically reduced lesion severity and low recoverable virus titers compared to age-matched nonvaccinated animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7928285

  2. Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Coronavirus Infection in Pigs, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Javier; Piñeyro, Pablo; Basso, Walter; Moré, Gastón; Kienast, Mariana; Schonfeld, Sergio; Cáncer, José L.; Arauz, Sandra; Pintos, María E.; Nanni, Mariana; Machuca, Mariana; Hirano, Norio; Perfumo, Carlos J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of vomiting, wasting, and encephalomyelitis syndrome in piglets in Argentina, caused by porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis coronavirus (PHE-CoV) infection. Diagnosis was made by epidemiologic factors, pathologic features, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription–PCR, and genomic sequencing. This study documents PHE-CoV infection in South America. PMID:18325268

  3. Cytokine Expression in the Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Infection of the respiratory tract by PRV, involves mononuclear cells in draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN)...

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in pigs infected experimentally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Andrada, M; Quesada-Canales, O; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Paz-Sánchez, Y; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia, primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), is a contagious disease characterized by catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Previous studies have evaluated immunohistochemically the distribution of Mh, different cellular populations and cytokines during Mh-induced pneumonia. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is overexpressed during inflammatory responses by different cell types in the lung. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible role of COX-2 in the pathogenesis of porcine enzootic pneumonia. COX-2 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lung tissues from 10 pigs infected experimentally with Mh. Ten pigs were inoculated intranasally with Mh and killed in pairs weekly from 1 to 5 weeks post inoculation. Three Mh-free pigs were taken as controls. Bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, bronchial submucosal glands and a small number of macrophages in the bronchoalveolar exudate expressed COX-2. COX-2 protein was always associated with areas of pneumonia and expression was minimal in lungs from control pigs. These results suggest that COX-2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of Mh-infection. PMID:24925603

  5. Infectivity of Trichinella sp. isolated from Crocodylus niloticus to the indigenous Zimbabwean pig (Mukota).

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Foggin, C M

    1999-07-01

    An experimental infection of the indigenous Zimbabwean pig (Mukota) with a Trichinella sp. derived from crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) was performed. The same larval isolates of Trichinella were infected to rats as a control. The muscles of both pigs and rats were found to be heavily infected with the first-stage larvae. The present study constitutes the first report of a successful experimental infection of the pig with Trichinella sp. originating from crocodile. PMID:10501623

  6. Infection of Nonhuman Primate Cells by Pig Endogenous Retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Blusch, Juergen H.; Patience, Clive; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Templin, Christian; Roos, Christian; Von Der Helm, Klaus; Steinhoff, Gustav; Martin, Ulrich

    2000-01-01

    The ongoing shortage of human donor organs for transplantation has catalyzed new interest in the application of pig organs (xenotransplantation). One of the biggest concerns about the transplantation of porcine grafts into humans is the transmission of pig endogenous retroviruses (PERV) to the recipients or even to other members of the community. Although nonhuman primate models are excellently suited to mimic clinical xenotransplantation settings, their value for risk assessment of PERV transmission at xenotransplantation is questionable since all of the primate cell lines tested so far have been found to be nonpermissive for PERV infection. Here we demonstrate that human, gorilla, and Papio hamadryas primary skin fibroblasts and also baboon B-cell lines are permissive for PERV infection. This suggests that a reevaluation of the suitability of the baboon model for risk assessment in xenotransplantation is critical at this point. PMID:10906227

  7. Association between Influenza A Virus Infection and Pigs Subpopulations in Endemically Infected Breeding Herds

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Andres; Perez, Andres; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Davies, Peter; Culhane, Marie; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are distributed worldwide in birds, pigs and humans, and cause important endemic disease affecting hosts in all countries. Although pigs play a key role in the ecology of IAVs, the epidemiology of IAVs within swine herds is poorly understood. In this longitudinal study we describe the prevalence of IAVs infection in three subpopulations of pigs in 5 breeding herds in the Midwestern USA. Each herd was sampled monthly for a year and, at each visit, 30 individual nasal swabs were collected from the three subpopulations, namely, a) replacement females, resident on-farm for less than 4 weeks (new gilts), b) replacement females, resident on-farm for more than 4 weeks (gilts), and c) neonatal pigs less than 21 days of age (piglets). Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) was used to detect IAVs, and the association between IAVs infection and pig subpopulation was measured using a mixed logistic regression model. Nasal swabs (n = 4,190) were collected from 141 groups of pigs. At least, one IAV-positive nasal swab was found in 19.9% (n = 28) of the sampled groups, and 7.7% (n = 324) of all nasal swabs tested positive. After adjusting by annual quarter and sampling event, the odds of testing IAV positive were 7.9 (95% CI 1.4, 43.9) and 4.4 (95% CI 1.1, 17.1) times higher in groups of new gilts and piglets compared to groups of gilts, respectively. Results indicate that new gilts and piglets had higher odds of testing IAV positive than gilts in swine breeding herds and that season influences IAV infection in pigs. Based on these findings, we recommend that IAV control strategies be aimed at preventing infection before gilts are introduced into the farm, and in pigs prior to weaning. PMID:26076494

  8. Course of coccidioidomycosis in intratracheally infected guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, R A; Pavey, E F; Mead, C G

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred Hartley-inbred guinea pigs were infected intratracheally with 50 viable arthrospores of Coccidioides immitis. At weeks 1 through 10 postinfection, groups of 20 guinea pigs were assayed for skin test, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and lymphocyte transformation (LT) responses to coccidioidin. Forty-eight hours after skin testing and just before MIF and LT assays, blood was obtained for complement-fixing (CF) antibody titers and the animals were autopsied to assess the extent of fungal dissemination. Immunological assays established that skin tests and MIF responses converted within 3 weeks of infection. LT responses were not demonstrable until week 5. Dissemination of C. immitis to the liver or spleen was an early event, with 21% of guinea pigs positive by week 2 and 70% positive by week 5. CF antibody titers were demonstrable at week 5, increased logarithmically through week 7, then increased at a slower rate thereafter. Concomitant with the decreased rate of antibody production, guinea pigs began to clear C. immitis from their extrapulmonary tissues. Skin test responses peaked at 6 weeks postinfection when CF antibody titers were less than or equal to 1:16 and then plateaued with increased CF titers. Although this overall immunological profile is consistent with the disease in humans, there was not a direct correlation between CF antibody titer and dissemination to the liver or spleen, nor was there an inverse correlation between CF antibody titers and skin test or MIF responses. Rather, CF antibody titers and cell-mediated immune responses were equally demonstrable in guinea pigs with disseminated or nondisseminated disease. PMID:7216468

  9. THE ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE IN E. COLI CHALLENGED PIGS TREATED WITH SYSTEMIC ANTIBIOTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in serum C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (HG) and cortisol (CS), and rectal temperature (RT) were evaluated in response to an acute enterotoxemia elicited by antibiotic injection. Twenty-four, 24-day old, pigs were individually housed and provided feed and water ad libitum. Twelve pig...

  10. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 182...

  11. Dengue infection presenting as acute hypokalemic quadriparesis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Garg, A; Chhabra, P

    2014-01-01

    Dengue infection is one of the most common viral hemorrhagic fevers seen in the tropical countries, including India. Its presentation varies from an acute self-resolving febrile illness to life-threatening hemorrhagic shock and multiorgan dysfunction leading to death. Neurological presentations are uncommon and limited to case reports only. Most common neurological manifestations being encephalitis, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transverse myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.Hypokalemic quadriparesis as a presenting feature of dengue is extremely rare. Here, we report this case of a 33-year-old female, who presented with hypokalemic quadriparesis and was subsequently diagnosed as dengue infection. PMID:25121379

  12. Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease virus infection in pigs from Zuru, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fakai, L. U.; Faleke, O. O.; Magaji, A. A.; Ibitoye, E. B.; Alkali, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and distribution of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs from Zuru, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional serological surveys were conducted between May and December 2013 using the immunochromatography assay technique. Structured questionnaires were administered to households identified at pig rearing areas to obtain the population structures and some information on managemental practices. Results: A total number of 849 pigs were enumerated at 37 pigs rearing households. Tudun wada had the largest concentration of pigs (237 pigs), while Dabai has the least (38 pigs). A total of 250 blood samples were collected, of which 45 (18%) were positive; Zango has the highest seroprevalence (1.6%), while Dabai recorded the least (0.4%). Based on sex and age, the infection was higher in female (10.4%) and young pigs (11.6%) than male (7.6%) and adult pigs (6.4%), respectively. There was no significant (p>0.05) association between infection and pig rearing areas, sex, and age. Furthermore, none of the 250 pigs examined for classical FMDV lesions was positive. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that FMD is an important disease of pigs in the study areas. This result justifies the need for more attention and subsequent molecular study to identify the circulating FMDV in the area, which will help in the implementation of effective control measures. PMID:27047166

  13. Age related susceptibility of pigs to Cryptosporidium scrofarum infection.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Němejc, Karel; Kestřánová, Michaela; Květoňová, Dana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Rost, Michael; Samková, Eva; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2014-05-28

    Piglets from 4 to 8 weeks of age originated from a Cryptosporidium-free research breed were orally inoculated with 1 × 10(6) infectious oocysts of Cryptosporidium scrofarum. The number of shed oocysts per gram of faeces served to describe the infection intensity and prepatent period. In addition, faecal samples collected daily and tissue samples of the small and large intestine collected at 30 days post-inoculation were examined for the C. scrofarum small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using PCR. The piglets inoculated at 4-weeks of age remained uninfected, whereas 5-week-old and older animals were fully susceptible with a prepatent period ranging from 4 to 8 days. Susceptible pigs shed oocysts intermittently, and shedding intensity, reaching a mean maximum of 6000 oocysts per gram, did not differ significantly among infected animals. This study demonstrates that pigs become susceptible to C. scrofarum infection as late as 5-weeks of age. The mechanisms of age related susceptibility remain unknown. PMID:24630710

  14. Effect of animal plasma proteins on intestinal damage and recovery of neonatal pigs infected with rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Corl, Benjamin A; Harrell, Robert J; Moon, Hong Kil; Phillips, Oulayvahn; Weaver, Eric M; Campbell, Joy M; Arthington, John D; Odle, Jack

    2007-12-01

    Rotaviruses infect and elicit diarrhea in neonates of most mammalian species and cause 800,000 infant deaths a year. We used neonatal piglets to study the effects of dietary animal plasma proteins on intestinal health following rotavirus infection. Plasma protein contains a diverse mixture of functional components with biological activity and improves the health of animals challenged with other diarrhea-causing pathogens. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, we compared plasma protein- and soy protein-based diets in rotavirus-infected and noninfected piglets to determine if plasma protein reduced acute rotavirus intestinal damage or improved recovery. All infected animals shed rotavirus particles in their feces. Infected, plasma protein-fed piglets maintained growth rates similar to noninfected piglets in the first 3 days of infection; however, soy protein-fed piglets experienced reduced gains. Furthermore, infected, plasma protein-fed piglets showed no clinical signs of diarrhea. Infection reduced intestinal villus height and the villus height/crypt depth ratio by Day 3 of infection; however, reductions were not attenuated with dietary plasma protein. Infected, plasma protein-fed pigs maintained greater intestinal mucosa protein and estimated total lactase activity than infected, soy protein-fed piglets. Plasma proteins contain growth factors that may aid in rate of recovery as well as virus-binding proteins that may reduce infection pressure in the intestine. These data, combined with findings from other studies using plasma proteins in animal models of diarrhea, indicate the potential for using plasma proteins to improve the health of diarrheic neonates. PMID:17475463

  15. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  16. Glutamine supplementation maintains intramuscular glutamine concentrations and normalizes lymphocyte function in infected early weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S S; Field, C J; McBurney, M I

    1997-11-01

    Numerous studies in humans and rats have shown that glutamine supplementation during stressful conditions has favorable outcomes. However, the requirements for glutamine during weaning are unknown. Thus, the effects of glutamine supplementation in healthy and infected weaned pigs were investigated. At 21 d of age, pigs were weaned to an elemental diet supplemented with glutamine (+Gln) or an isonitrogenous diet containing nonessential amino acids (-Gln). At 26 d of age, pigs were intraperitoneally injected with Escherichia coli (+Ecoli) or buffered saline (-Ecoli) and killed at 28 d of age. Infection decreased (P < 0.05) plasma and intramuscular glutamine concentrations, but infected pigs that received +Gln diets had higher intramuscular glutamine levels than those that received -Gln diets. Infected pigs had elevated (P < 0.05) total leukocyte counts, and blood lymphocyte responses ([3H]-thymidine incorporation) to a mixture of phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin were reduced. White blood cell counts were greater (P < 0.05) in +Gln than -Gln pigs. The peak responses to concanavalin A (Con A) by lymphocytes of +Ecoli+Gln pigs were greater (P < 0.05) than those of +Ecoli-Gln pigs and not different than those of noninfected pigs. Hence, glutamine supplementation maintained muscular glutamine concentrations and normalized lymphocyte function in infected pigs. PMID:9349855

  17. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    PubMed

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms). PMID:12861708

  18. Comparison of guinea pig cytomegalovirus and guinea pig herpes-like virus: pathogenesis and persistence in experimentally infected animals.

    PubMed Central

    Tenser, R B; Hsiung, G D

    1976-01-01

    The pathogenesis of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) and guinea pig herpes-like virus (GPHLV) in guinea pigs was compared. Animals were inoculated with the two viruses by different routes and sacrificed after varying periods of time. GPCMV was consistently isolated from salivary gland 2 weeks postinoculation and thereafter following intraperitoneal or subcutaneous incoulaton. Virus was less frequently found in other tissues including blood, spleen, and kidney. Intranuclear inclusions were seen in tissue sections of salivary gland after inoculation with GPCMV- infected tissue suspension, but were only rarely found after inoculation with tissue culture virus. In GPHLV-infected guinea pigs, consistent latent infection of leukocytes and other tissues was detected by cocultivation techniques. Intranuclear inclusions were not found in the spleen, salivary gland, or other infected tissues after GPHLV infection with either tissue culture virus or infected tissue suspension. Guinea pigs inoculated with GPCMV produced high titers of specific neutralizing antibody to the homologous virus; those inoculated with GPHLV developed long-term viremia accompanied by minimal neutralizing antibody levels to the virus. Images PMID:178599

  19. Cytokine Protein Expression Levels in Tracheobronchial Lymph Node Homogenates of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Following primary infection of the respiratory tract, PRV can develop into a systemic infection with dispersion of t...

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in pigs in Aragón (northeastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Quílez, J; Sánchez-Acedo, C; Clavel, A; del Cacho, E; López-Bernad, F

    1996-12-01

    Faecal samples from 620 pigs randomly selected from 27 farms throughout Aragón were examined to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections. Detection of oocysts was performed using the ethyl-acetate stool concentration method and the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were identified in 136 (21.9%) pigs from 21 (77.8%) farms. Infected animals ranged from 1 to 6 months old and oocysts were not detected in suckling piglets or adults. Infection rates were significantly higher in weaned, 1-2 month old piglets (59.2%) than in fattening, 2-6 month old pigs (34.3%) (P < 0.001). Cryptosporidial infections were asymptomatic in most of the pigs (90.4%) and usually of low intensity, since 92.6% of the infected pigs excreted few oocysts (0-1 oocysts per field at x 200 magnifications). Although 24.1% of weaned and 5.6% of fattening pigs infected by C. parvum had diarrhoea, it was not found to be statistically associated with infection. In fact, infection rates were higher in non-diarrhoeic than in diarrhoeic pigs, in both weaned (64.7% and 46.7%, respectively) and fattening pigs (34.3% and 33.3%). PMID:9011017

  1. Infection of Guinea Pigs with Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interpretive Biting midges,Culicoides sonorensis were shown to be capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) to guinea pigs. Despite seroconversion for VSNJV, none of the guinea pigs developed clinical signs when infected in the abdomen by either infected insects or by nee...

  2. Do immune genes indicate which pigs will have persistent PRRSV infections?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The "Big Pig" project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach to 1) establish a better estimate of the proportion of pigs with persistent PRRSV infections and 2) identify virological or immunological correlates of persistent infection or immunity for diagnostic use. This study highligh...

  3. Mannan oligosaccharide improves immune responses and growth efficiency of nursery pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Che, T M; Johnson, R W; Kelley, K W; Van Alstine, W G; Dawson, K A; Moran, C A; Pettigrew, J E

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the ingestion of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS, Bio-Mos) alters the immune response of nursery pigs challenged with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 64 pigs (3 wk old), free of PRRSV, were used in 2 separate but similar experiments conducted sequentially. Pigs were blocked by initial BW. Sex and ancestry were equalized across treatments. Pigs were randomly assigned from within blocks to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement [2 types of diet: control (0%) and MOS addition (0.2%); 2 levels of PRRSV: with and without]. There were 8 replicate chambers of 2 pigs each. After 2 wk of a 4-wk period of feeding the treatments, pigs were intranasally inoculated with PRRSV or a sterile medium at 5 wk of age. The PRRSV challenge decreased ADG, ADFI, and G:F throughout the experiment (P < 0.001). Feeding MOS improved G:F of the pigs during d 7 to 14 (P=0.041) postinfection (PI). Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin were increased by PRRSV (P < 0.001). The MOS × PRRSV interaction was significant for TNF-α at d 14 PI (P=0.028), suggesting that infected pigs fed MOS had less TNF-α than those fed the control. Dietary MOS increased serum IL-10 at d 14 PI (P=0.036). Further, MOS-fed pigs had greater numbers of white blood cells (WBC) at d 3 (P=0.048) and 7 PI (P=0.042) and lymphocytes at d 7 PI (P=0.023) than control-fed pigs. In contrast, PRRSV decreased (P < 0.01) WBC numbers until d 14 PI. Dietary MOS appeared (P=0.060) to increase the neutrophils in PRRSV-infected pigs at d 3 PI, but no (P=0.202) MOS × PRRSV interaction was found. Infection with PRRSV increased rectal temperature (RT) of pigs at d 3 PI (P < 0.001) and continued to affect the infected pigs fed the control diet until d 14 PI. The MOS × PRRSV interaction for RT was found at d 7 (P < 0.01) and 10 (P=0.098) PI, indicating that the infected pigs fed MOS had a

  4. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Edmond SK; Wong, Chris LP; Lai, Kristi TW; Chan, Edmond CH; Yam, WC; Chan, Angus CW

    2005-01-01

    Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases. PMID:16029488

  5. [The Most Common Acute Gastrointestinal Infections].

    PubMed

    Greuter, Thomas; Magdeburg, Bernhard

    2015-10-14

    Acute gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea with vomiting as its main presentation are a frequently encountered entity in an outpatient setting. Due to a mostly self-limiting disease course a diagnostic work-up is often futile. Viral infections caused by Noro- or Rotavirus are most frequent, while bacterial infections are second line due to high hygienic standards in developed countries. In an inpatient setting and after a precedent antibiotic treatment one should think of clostridium difficile. Traveler’s diarrhea represents a special case, with most of the cases caused by enterovirulent E. coli. In this mini review we describe the most important pathogens in detail. PMID:26463905

  6. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility. PMID:12967589

  7. Infectivity of pestivirus following persistence of acute infection.

    PubMed

    Collins, Margaret E; Heaney, Judith; Thomas, Carole J; Brownlie, Joe

    2009-09-18

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an endemic pathogen worldwide and eradication strategies focus on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) animals arising after in utero infection. Despite this, acute infections with BVDV can persist for months or years after the removal of the PI source despite repeated screening for PIs and tight biosecurity measures. Recent evidence for a prolonged duration of viraemia in the testicles of bulls following acute BVDV infection suggests the possibility of a form of chronic persistence that may more closely resemble the persistence strategies of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To investigate the potential for virus transmission from infected and recovered cattle to virus naïve hosts we established an acute infection of 5 BVDV-naïve calves and monitored animals over 129 days. Infectious BVDV was detected in white blood cells between days 3 and 7 post-challenge. The animals seroconverted by day 21 post-infection and subsequently were apparently immune and free from infectious virus and viral antigen. Animals were further monitored and purified white blood cells were stimulated in vitro with phytohaemagglutinin A (PHA) during which time BVDV RNA was detected intermittently. Ninety-eight days following challenge, blood was transferred from these apparently virus-free and actively immune animals to a further group of 5 BVDV-naïve calves and transmission of infection was achieved. This indicates that BVDV-infected, recovered and immune animals have the potential to remain infectious for BVDV-naïve cohorts for longer than previously demonstrated. PMID:19443139

  8. The influence of dietary carbohydrates on experimental infection with Trichuris suis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Petkevicius, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Roepstorff, A

    2005-12-01

    Two experiments (Exps 1 and 2) were carried out to study the effect of dietary carbohydrates on the establishment of Trichuris suis in pigs. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with non-fermentable carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Exp. 1, thirty-two pigs were allocated randomly into 4 groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and 2 groups were fed Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs each and the other two groups were uninfected controls. All pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). In Exp. 2, twenty-four pigs were allocated randomly into 2 groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively. All the pigs were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs. Six pigs from each group were slaughtered 8 weeks p.i. and the remaining 6 pigs from each group were slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. Infections were followed by faecal egg counts and worm burdens were assessed at necropsy. Pigs fed Diet 2 had lower egg counts in both experiments; in Exp. 2 the difference was significant (P<0.05). No differences were found in worm burdens 8 weeks p.i. in both experiments, however, worms from pigs on Diet 2 were significantly shorter (P<0.0001). Pigs fed Diet 2 and slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. had significantly lower worm counts (P<0.01) compared to pigs fed Diet 1. The results indicate that fermentable carbohydrates do not affect the establishment of T. suis in naïve pigs, but result in earlier expulsion and reduced growth of the established worms. Thus, diets with highly fermentable carbohydrates may be used in the control of T. suis. PMID:16336739

  9. Pulmonary embolism and acute cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Del Borgo, Cosmo; Gianfreda, Romina; Belvisi, Valeria; Citton, Rita; Soscia, Fabrizio; Notarianni, Ermanno; Tieghi, Tiziana; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria

    2010-12-01

    A case of an immunocompetent man with acute CMV infection associated with a pulmonary embolism is described. Acute CMV infection could be a risk factor for developing thromboembolism. Pulmonary embolism should be included in differential diagnosis in patients with acute CMV infections and pulmonary opacities. PMID:21196823

  10. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  11. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  12. Identification of auto-antigens in skin scrapings from scabies-infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Zalunardo, M; Cargill, C F; Sandeman, R M

    2006-09-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei continues to cause major health and economic problems in a large range of animals and humans. Although the inflammatory response to the mite and its antigens is known to cause the main pathology, little work has been carried out on this response at the site of infection. This report presents an initial analysis of the proteins found in skin scrapings and their antigenic responsiveness in pigs. Skin scrapings and mite extracts were isolated from chronically infected sows while infected and uninfected sera were isolated from pigs with confirmed infections or mange-free pigs, respectively. Electrophoresis and sequencing confirmed the main components of both the skin and mite extracts to be serum proteins. Immunoblotting then suggested that transferrin was the major antigen recognised by pooled infected sera in the skin and the mite extracts. Immunoassays confirmed that a majority of infected pigs produced antibodies to transferrin while mange-free pigs did not. A pool of IgG from infected dogs was then used to isolate another antigen from pig skin scrapings which was shown to be haptoglobin. This was also found to induce high titres of antibody in infected pigs as compared with mange-free pigs. The use of albumin as a control antigen showed no reactivity in either group of sera. The finding of two iron-binding molecules as strong auto-antigens in pig scabies has implications for the importance of iron during this infection and may help to explain the persistence and magnitude of the host inflammatory response. PMID:16842794

  13. Swaddling and acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok, K; Yavuz, T; Taylor, C E

    1990-07-01

    In Turkey and China the ancient practice of swaddling is still commonly practiced. Both countries have extremely high rates of pneumonia, especially during the neonatal period. Preliminary evidence on the possibility that swaddling may interfere with normal respiratory function and thereby predispose to pneumonia was gathered in a teaching health center in Ankara. Babies who had been swaddled for at least three months were four times more likely to have developed pneumonia (confirmed radiologically) and upper respiratory infections than babies who were unswaddled. These preliminary findings were highly significant and are being followed up by further studies. PMID:2356917

  14. Differential immunity in pigs with high and low responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred Hampshire by Duroc crossbred pigs (HD) and 100 NE Index line pigs (I) were infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and evaluated for resistance/susceptibility. Controls (100/line) were uninfected littermates to infected pigs. Viremia (V), weight change (...

  15. Do immune genes influence which pigs will have persistent Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study, a part of the "Big Pig" project, was aimed at highlighting differences in immune responses between control pigs and pigs with PRRSV infections, from early times post inoculation (pi), 14 dpi, to long term persistent infections (as evidenced by viral RNA in tissues). Our goal is to identi...

  16. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Crivelli-Diaz, Margarita; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Lopez-de-Buen, Lorena; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT; cut off 1:25); 182 (45.3%) of the 402 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 28, 1:50 in 22, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 35, 1:800 in 23, 1:1,600 in 11, and 1:3,200 or higher in 15. Seropositive pigs were found in 137 (53.3%) of 257 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in pigs was associated with tropical-humid climate (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.47-12.62; P = 0.007) of the raising municipalities, feeding with leftovers (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.01-7.91; P = 0.04), storing pig food in the owner's home (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.09-5.22; P = 0.02), and free ranging (OR = 3.48; 95% CI 1.49-8.15; P = 0.003). Results indicate that backyard pigs in Veracruz have the highest seroprevalence of T. gondii infection obtained by MAT in pigs studied in Mexico so far. The correlates of T. gondii infection found in the present study may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection in pigs. Results also remark the risk of T. gondii infection in humans by ingestion of raw or undercook pork in Mexico. PMID:24510223

  17. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  18. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  19. SULFAMETHOXAZOLE-TRIMETHOPRIM TREATMENT OF GUINEA PIGS INFECTED WITH 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMPOPHILA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. Many antibiotics inhibit the growth of L. pneumophila in vitro, but only erythromycin and rifampin have been clinically effective. Parallel results have been observed in guinea pigs infected ip with ...

  20. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in edible tissues of healthy and experimentally infected pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bladek, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej; Jablonski, Artur; Gajda, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the comparison of the tissue pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in healthy pigs and pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Tulathromycin was given to 24 healthy and 24 infected pigs by intramuscular injection at a single dosage of 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.). Pigs were euthanised at each group and then samples of liver, kidney, muscle, injection site and skin with fat were taken at scheduled time points. Drug concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. In this study, higher values of the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were calculated in all tissue samples taken from infected than healthy pigs. In pigs with App the AUCs of liver, kidney, muscle, skin with fat and injection site were 1111, 1973, 235, 181 and 2931 mg kg(-1) h, while in pigs without inflammation they were 509, 1295, 151, 111 and 1587 mg kg(-1) h, respectively. Maximum drug tissue concentrations (Cmax) in infected animals were 2370, 6650, 2016, 666 and 83,870 µg kg(-1), while in healthy pigs they were 1483, 6677, 1733, 509 and 55,006 µg kg(-1), respectively. The eliminations half-times (T1/2) were respectively longer in all tissue samples taken from infected animals (from 157.3 to 187.3 h) than in healthy ones (from 138.6 to 161.2 h). The tulathromycin tissue concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in all tissue samples of the infected pigs compared with the healthy animals at 360 h (from 0.0014 to 0.0280) and at 792 h (from 0.0007 to 0.0242) after drug administration. The results suggest that the tissue pharmacokinetic properties and residue depletion of tulathromycin can be influenced by the disease state of animals. PMID:26247868

  1. Large-scale screening and characterization of enteroviruses and kobuviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Dung, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Hien, Vo Be; Sharp, C; Rabaa, M; Berto, A; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Woolhouse, Mark E; Bryant, Juliet E; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-02-01

    A recent survey of pigs in Dong Thap province, Vietnam identified a high frequency of enterovirus species G (EV-G) infection (144/198; 72.7%). Amongst these was a plethora of EV-G types (EV-G1, EV-G6 and four new types EV-G8-EV-G11). To better characterize the genetic diversity of EV-G and investigate the possible existence of further circulating types, we performed a larger-scale study on 484 pig and 45 farm-bred boar faecal samples collected in 2012 and 2014, respectively. All samples from the previous and current studies were also screened for kobuviruses. The overall EV infection frequency remained extremely high (395/484; 81.6%), but with comparable detection rates and viral loads between healthy and diarrhoeic pigs; this contrasted with less frequent detection of EV-G in boars (4/45; 8.9%). EV was most frequently detected in pigs ≤ 14 weeks old (∼ 95%) and declined in older pigs. Infections with EV-G1 and EV-G6 were most frequent, whilst less commonly detected types included EV-G3, EV-G4 and EV-G8-EV-G11, and five new types (EV-G12-EV-G16). In contrast, kobuvirus infection frequency was significantly higher in diarrhoeic pigs (40.9 versus 27.6%; P = 0.01). Kobuviruses also showed contrasting epizootiologies and age associations; a higher prevalence was found in boars (42%) compared with domestic pigs (29%), with the highest infection frequency amongst pigs >52 weeks old. Although genetically diverse, all kobuviruses identified belonged to the species Aichivirus C. In summary, this study confirms infection with EV-G was endemic in Vietnamese domestic pigs and exhibits high genetic diversity and extensive inter-type recombination. PMID:26653281

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in southern Piauí.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Richard Átila; Lemos, Jezlon da Fonseca; Farias, Leonardo Atta; Lopes, Carla Duque; dos Santos, Karina Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in pigs. We evaluated 143 pigs, in 10 randomly-chosen farms located in Southern Piauí. The pig's blood serum was analyzed through ELISA in detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies. A seroprevalence of 25.5% was observed in the pigs that reacted against T. gondii antigens. The data from the records demonstrated an association with some factors such as: age, diet, type of management, breed and presence of cats in the farms with a prevalence of T. gondii. With the exception of sex, all others features represent risk factors for T. gondii infection. Furthermore, our data contributed to the understanding of the T. gondii seroprevalence in pig farms located in Southern Piauí. PMID:24728369

  3. Differences in susceptibility to infection with Treponema pallidum (Nichols) between five strains of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Wicher, K; Wicher, V; Gruhn, R F

    1985-02-01

    Groups of 10 young male guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13 and outbred strains Hartley A, Hartley B, and one deficient in the fourth component of complement (C4D) were infected intradermally with 80 X 10(6) Treponema pallidum (Nichols). The course of infection and production of antitreponemal antibody were examined. Strain C4D guinea pigs were the most susceptible to infection (100%); inbred strains 2 and 13 and outbred strain Hartley B showed 80-90% symptomatic infection; and the Hartley A strain was the least susceptible to infection (10%). Strain 13 animals responded with the highest antitreponemal antibody activity, and the Hartley A strain with the lowest. The results suggest that genetic factors or complement, or both, may influence the degree of susceptibility to infection with T pallidum in guinea pigs. PMID:3910539

  4. Suppression of Neointimal Hyperplasia Following Angioplasty-Induced Vascular Injury in Pigs Infected with Swinepox Virus

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Takeshi; Jeng, David; Lucas, Alexandra; Essani, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Many patients suffering from angina pectoris are treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and quickly develop angiographic renarrowing, or restenosis, at the site of PCI treatment. Restenosis is thought to arise from the combinatorial activation of thrombotic and inflammatory responses. The inflammatory response responsible for restenosis is also thought to involve the activation of a cascade of serine proteases and its subsequent regulation. Poxviruses are known to possess a variety of immunomodulatory strategies, some of which target serine proteases, cytokines, and chemokines. To this end we evaluated whether systemic species-specific swinepox virus (SPV) infection could induce sufficient host-immune modulation to promote an anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effect, thereby preventing restenosis. Two groups of domestic feeder pigs were used - the first group was experimentally infected with SPV (n= 11) and the second group served as an uninfected control (n= 5). A week after infection, the pigs were anesthetized and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was performed in the left anterior descending coronary artery using X-ray fluoroscopy to visualize the balloon and record angiograms. Three weeks post infection, the pigs were euthanized and balloon angioplasty injured arteries were harvested and examined. We observed a statistically significant reduction of restenosis in SPV-infected pigs (p = 0.05) compared to control pigs and conclude that systemic swinepox virus infection causes sufficient host immune suppression to significantly reduce restenosis in pigs after balloon angioplasty injury. PMID:23136622

  5. Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera.

    PubMed

    Taira, K; Saeed, I; Permin, A; Kapel, C M O

    2004-05-01

    The potential zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infections from consumption of swine or poultry viscera containing larvae was assessed using a pig model. Two groups of six pigs were fed either fresh swine viscera (group FS) or poultry viscera (FP) containing around 3500 Toxocara larvae. Another two groups of six pigs were fed swine viscera (PS) or poultry viscera (PP) preserved at 4 degrees C for 1 week. All pigs were necropsied 14 days after the exposure. Liver white spots were counted and T. canis specific IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Larval burdens were assessed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs, brain, tongue, and eyes. All recipient pigs exhibited several white spots on the liver surface and detectable antibody levels. Larvae were recovered predominantly from the lungs, but also from the mesenteric lymph nodes and the liver, a few larvae were found in the brain and tongue of the pigs. Two larvae were found in the eyes of two pigs in group FS. Mean percentages of total larval recoveries in groups FS, FP, PS, and PP were 75.3, 63.6, 42.6, and 18.8%, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of larvae were recovered from pigs given swine viscera than pigs given poultry viscera. The preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week caused a significant reduction in the larval infectivity overall, nevertheless, the recoveries remained substantial. The fact that larvae migrating in swine or poultry organs and tissues have high infectivity in pigs even after preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week, suggests that human infection with T. canis might easily occur following consumption of raw or undercooked dishes, either fresh or refrigerated, prepared from swine or poultry organs and tissues harbouring T. canis larvae. PMID:15110409

  6. Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3-infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Josephine; Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Dremsek, Paul; Lange, Elke; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection in European wild boar and their role in HEV transmission to domestic pigs. To investigate the transmissibility and pathogenesis of wild boar-derived HEVgt3, we inoculated four wild boar and four miniature pigs intravenously. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR viral RNA was detected in serum, faeces and in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The antibody response evolved after fourteen days post inoculation. Histopathological findings included mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis which was more prominent in wild boar than in miniature pigs. By immunohistochemical methods, viral antigens were detected mainly in Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, partially associated with hepatic lesions, but also in spleen and lymph nodes. While clinical symptoms were subtle and gross pathology was inconspicuous, increased liver enzyme levels in serum indicated hepatocellular injury. As the faecal-oral route is supposed to be the most likely transmission route, we included four contact animals to prove horizontal transmission. Interestingly, HEVgt3-infection was also detected in wild boar and miniature pigs kept in contact to intravenously inoculated wild boar. Given the high virus loads and long duration of viral shedding, wild boar has to be considered as an important HEV reservoir and transmission host in Europe. PMID:25421429

  7. Detection of acute toxoplasmosis in pigs using loop-mediated isothermal amplification and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Delin; Yin, Hong; Wang, Meng

    2013-10-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay allows rapid diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection. In the present study, the LAMP assay was evaluated using blood from both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was compared with that of Q-PCR. Both assays detected T. gondii in the blood of experimentally infected pigs, with 100% agreement. In infected blood samples, the parasite was detected as early as 2 days post-infection and reached a peak in 3-5 days. In 216 field serum samples, the detection rates of LAMP and Q-PCR assays were 6.9% and 7.8%, respectively. This result indicates that the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was slightly lower than that of the Q-PCR assay. However, the LAMP may be an attractive diagnostic method in conditions where sophisticated and expensive equipment is unavailable. This assay could be a powerful supplement to current diagnostic methods. PMID:24327785

  8. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV. PMID:26854342

  9. Occurrence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Turčeková, Ľudmila; Antolová, Daniela; Reiterová, Katarína; Spišák, František

    2013-09-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded vertebrates. The data about the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in slaughter pigs in the Slovak Republic are still missing. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pigs from Slovakia during the period of 2006-2010 by ELISA and PCR methods. In sera of 970 slaughter pigs, 2.16% seropositivity to T. gondii was detected. In tissue samples of seropositive pigs the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed. In six monitored Slovak regions the seropositivity varied between 1.11 and 3.48%. The statistically significant differences were recorded between the Košice and Prešov region. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sows (4.26%) was two times higher than that in slaughter pigs (2.06%) (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 0.48-9.36). Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of seropositive pig isolates was confirmed by TGR1E and B1 genes and analysis of DNA polymorphism at SAG2 and ROP1 genes revealed the presence of virulent strain of genotype I in 85.7% of infected pigs and an avirulent strain (genotype II) in 14.3% of pigs. PMID:23990434

  10. Production impact of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection on fattening pigs in Norway.

    PubMed

    Er, Chiek; Skjerve, Eystein; Brun, Edgar; Hofmo, Peer Ola; Framstad, Tore; Lium, Bjørn

    2016-02-01

    Newly emerged influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian pigs, although often observed in a subclinical form, can lower the pig's growth performance by reducing feed efficiency in terms of a poorer feed conversion ratio. Infected pigs would consume more feed and require protracted production time to reach market weight. In our observational longitudinal study, growth performance data from 728 control pigs and 193 infected pigs with known viral shedding time points were analyzed using mixed linear regression models to give estimates of the marginal effects of infection. Gaussian curves describing the variability of the estimates at the individual pig level formed the fundamental inputs to our stochastic models. The models were constructed to simulate the summed negative effects of the infection at the batch level of 150 fattening pigs growing from 33 to 100 kg. Other inputs of variability and uncertainty were 1) batch transmission points, 2) pig infection points to reflect the disease transmission dynamics of the virus, and 3) final prevalence of infected pigs in the batch. Monte Carlo random sampling gave 5,000 estimates on the outputs of the marginal effects for each pig. These results were summed up to provide estimates for a batch size of 150 pigs. This figure was adjusted by our final prevalence distribution function, which was also derived from the longitudinal study with 12 cohorts of infected pigs. For a 150-fattening-pig herd randomly selected from the population, the marginal effects of the infection were 1) 835 kg (fifth percentile) to 1,350 kg (95th percentile) increased feed intake and 2) 194 (fifth percentile) to 334 (95th percentile) pig days in excess of expected figures for an uninfected batch. A batch infected during growth phase 3 (81 to 100 kg BW) gave the worst results since the longitudinal study showed that a pig infected during growth phase 3 required more feed and a greater protracted production time compared to younger infected

  11. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs. PMID:26159607

  12. Management of infection in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Werner; Werner, Jens; Uhl, Waldemar; Büchler, Markus W

    2002-01-01

    The clinical course of acute pancreatitis varies from a mild, transitory illness to a severe, rapidly fatal disease. In about 80% to 90% of cases pancreatitis presents as a mild, self-limiting disease with low morbidity and mortality. Unlike mild pancreatitis, necrotizing pancreatitis develops in about 15% of patients, with infection of pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis representing the single most important risk factor for a fatal outcome. Infection of pancreatic necrosis in the natural course develops in the second and third week after onset of the disease and is reported in 40% to 70% of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. Just recently, prevention of infection by prophylactic antibiotic treatment and assessment of the infection status of pancreatic necrosis by fine-needle aspiration have been established in the management of severe pancreatitis. Because medical treatment alone will result in a mortality rate of almost 100% in patients with signs of local and systemic septic complications, patients with infected necrosis must undergo surgical intervention, which consists of an organ-preserving necrosectomy combined with a postoperative closed lavage concept that maximizes further evacuation of infected debris and exudate. However, intensive care treatment, including prophylactic antibiotics, reduces the infection rate and delays the need for surgery in most patients until the third or fourth week after the onset of symptoms. At that time, debridement of necrosis is technically easier to perform, due to better demarcation between viable and necrotic tissue compared with necrosectomy earlier in the disease. In contrast, surgery is rarely needed in the presence of sterile pancreatic necrosis. In those patients the conservative approach is supported by the present data. PMID:12483263

  13. Acute effects of enteral leucine supplementation of a low protein diet on muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein synthesis and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) activation are increased in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs parenterally infused with insulin and amino acids (AA), particularly leucine. We hypothesized that enteral Leu supplementation of a low protein diets in neonatal pigs will acutely in...

  14. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  15. Rapid cooling after acute hyperthermia alters intestinal tissue morphology and increases the systemic inflammatory response in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute hyperthermia can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of heatstroke recovery methods on the physiological response in pigs. In four repetitions, 36 male pigs (88.7 ± 1.6 kg BW) were exposed to thermoneutral conditions (T...

  16. Acute encephalitis as initial presentation of primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Añón, Rosário Pazos; Àguas, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is a life-threatening condition. A wide variety of infectious agents are implicated and in many patients no cause is found. HIV acute seroconversion illness can rarely present as acute encephalitis. Although most experts agree in starting antiretroviral treatment in severe acute HIV infection, the evidence of the benefits are still lacking. The authors report a case of severe acute encephalitis as a primary presentation of HIV infection in which introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment resulted in clinical recovery. This case highlights the need to consider HIV infection in the differential diagnosis of treatable viral encephalitis. PMID:22761210

  17. CESSATION OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS TRANSMISSION AMONG SCAVENGING MAMMALS AFTER THE REMOVAL OF INFECTED PIGS FROM A POORLY MANAGED FARM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs infected with the zoonotic parasite Trichinella spiralis were detected on a farm in Maryland during an animal welfare investigation. Sera and/or tissues were collected from 49 pigs and 3 pig carcasses (7 weeks of age to adult, mixed sex). The tissues were tested for the presence of T. spiralis ...

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in pig from 23 farms from Catalonia, North-eastern Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Catalonia, North-eastern Spain. Blood samples from 1202 pigs including sows, and pigs of three, seven, 11, 15 and 20 weeks of age were collected from 23 farms. ...

  19. Cats and goat whey associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Meerburg, B G; Van Riel, J W; Cornelissen, J B; Kijlstra, A; Mul, M F

    2006-01-01

    In organic livestock production systems, farm-management factors are thought to play an important role in the on-farm prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii. Serological results and the results of an HACCP analysis were combined to determine important risk factors for the prevalence of this protozoan parasite. Mathematical analysis demonstrated that feeding goat whey to pigs and the presence of a high number of cats were positively correlated to T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs. Not covering roughage and the farmers' assumption that pigs can come into contact with cat feces also showed a positive relationship. In order to decrease the risk of T. gondii infecting their pigs, farmers should limit the access and number of cats on their farms and refrain from feeding goat whey to their pigs. PMID:16989566

  20. Transgenic shRNA pigs reduce susceptibility to foot and mouth disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengwei; Qiao, Jun; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Chuangfu; Ni, Wei; Wujiafu, Sai; Ma, Shiwei; Zhang, Hui; Sheng, Jingliang; Wang, Pengyan; Wang, Dawei; Huang, Jiong; Cao, Lijuan; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an economically devastating viral disease leading to a substantial loss to the swine industry worldwide. A novel alternative strategy is to develop pigs that are genetically resistant to infection. Here, we produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed FMDV-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). In vitro challenge of TG fibroblasts showed the shRNA suppressed viral growth. TG and non-TG pigs were challenged by intramuscular injection with 100 LD50 of FMDV. High fever, severe clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease and typical histopathological changes were observed in all of the non-TG pigs but in none of the high-siRNA pigs. Our results show that TG shRNA can provide a viable tool for producing animals with enhanced resistance to FMDV. PMID:26090904

  1. Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Shany; Eytan, Ori

    2014-01-01

    Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection has been reported many times in the literature since the mid 1980s – mainly in case reports and in small case series, but also in four controlled studies. Still, many physicians are unaware of this association although acute cytomegalovirus infection diagnosis in a thrombosis patient may warrant antiviral therapy and may affect anticoagulation therapy duration. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics of patients with thrombosis and acute cytomegalovirus infection are reviewed, and the current knowledge concerning this unique association is presented herein. We believe it is time to add acute cytomegalovirus infection to the list of thrombosis triggers. PMID:25624857

  2. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spp. in experimentally infected ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pigs, guinea pigs and mice.

    PubMed

    Webster, P; Kapel, C M O

    2005-06-30

    Vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis was evaluated in ferrets (n=21), foxes (n=11), pigs (n=12), guinea pigs (n=16), and mice (n=41). The placental barrier to be crossed by migratory Trichinella larvae varies structurally in different animal species. Ferrets and foxes have an endotheliochorial placenta structure, guinea pigs and mice a haemochorial, and pigs an epitheliochorial placenta. The non-encapsulating Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae have an extended muscle migration prior to entering a muscle cell. To evaluate if T. pseudospiralis was more likely to be transmitted to offspring, an additional group of foxes (n=11) infected with T. pseudospiralis was included. Two different dose levels were used for ferrets, pigs, guinea pigs, and mice. In pigs and guinea pigs, infection was given at different times of the gestation period. Vertical transmission, measured as recovery of muscle larvae in the offspring, was demonstrated in both ferrets groups, in all four guinea pig groups, and in the high dose mouse group, but not in any fox or pig groups. PMID:15925725

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jiangxi Province, Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Hai; Zhang, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Xu, Chang-Man; Deng, Shun-Zhou; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in humans and a wide range of animal species. In the current study, a serological investigation using an indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs in Jiangxi Province, southeastern China. A total of 1232 serum samples were collected from pigs in 10 administrative districts in Jiangxi, and specific antibodies were detected in 282 pigs (22.9%) with the titers ≥1:64. Positive pigs were found in each administrative district, with prevalence ranging from 5.0% to 46.2%. Age and season were found to be associated with T. gondii infection. Lactating sows (odds ratio [OR]=15.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]=6.8-35.2, p<0.01), pregnant sows (OR=11.5, 95% CI=5.3-24.8, p<0.01), nonpregnant sows (OR=13.7, 95% CI=6.4-29.3, p<0.01), breeding boars (OR=9, 95% CI=3.8-21.4, p<0.01), and fattening pigs (OR=4.9, 95% CI=2.1-11.7, p<0.01) all had a greater risk of acquiring infection compared to the weanling pigs. There is a higher risk of infection in the spring (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.6, p=0.01) and the summer (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.3-3.2, p<0.01) than in the winter. This is the first documentation of T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs in Jiangxi Province, which enriches the epidemiological data of T. gondii infection in pigs in China. The results of this study indicate that pigs in Jiangxi Province are frequently exposed to T. gondii, posing a direct threat to the pig industry as well as to public health. Integrated strategies are needed to strengthen future prevention and control of T. gondii infection in pigs in this region. PMID:24552150

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in fattening pigs in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zheng, Xu; Qiu, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-06-01

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in fattening pigs in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China, was investigated between July 2011 and June 2012. In total, 1,014 pig serum samples were collected from 10 administrative regions and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test using a commercially available kit. The average T. gondii antibody-positive prevalence was 4.6% (47/1,014), which is relatively lower than that in other provinces in China. Seroprevalence in fattening pigs raised on small farms (6.3%) was significantly higher than that on large farms (3.8%) (P < 0.05), and the seroprevalence ranged from 2.4% (Shuangyashan) to 6.8% (Qitaihe) between different geographical regions. Given that pork is not examined for T. gondii infection in China by law, these findings have public health implications and provide useful baseline information for the control of pig toxoplasmosis in this unique region of China. PMID:23116060

  5. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  6. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. Here we report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  7. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  8. Transcript Expression Analysis in Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pseudorabies Virus Infected Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study addresses the critical relationship between Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and its host at a transcriptional level during the course of an infection. RNA isolated from draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) specimens from 5-week old pigs clinically infected with a feral isolate of PRV (FS...

  9. Tail biting induces a strong acute phase response and tail-end inflammation in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Mari; Orro, Toomas; Kokkonen, Teija; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Peltoniemi, Olli; Valros, Anna

    2010-06-01

    The extent of inflammation associated with tail biting in finishing pigs was evaluated. Tail histopathology, carcass condemnation and the concentration of three acute phase proteins (APPs), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid-A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), were examined in 12 tail-bitten and 13 control pigs. The median concentrations of APPs were higher (P<0.01) in bitten (CRP 617.5mg/L, range 80.5-969.9; SAA 128.0mg/L, 6.2-774.4; Hp 2.8g/L, 1.6-3.5) than in control pigs (CRP 65.7mg/L, 28.4-180.4; SAA 6.2mg/L, 6.2-21.4; Hp 1.2g/L, 0.9-1.5). There was a tendency for APP concentrations to rise with the histopathological score but the differences were only statistically significant between some of the scores. Five (42%) bitten cases and one (8%) control pig had partial carcass condemnations owing to abscesses (P=0.07). The results show that tail biting induces an inflammatory response in the tail end leading to an acute phase response and formation of carcass abscesses. PMID:19398209

  10. Cryptosporidium suis infection in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy at × 400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  11. Cryptosporidium suis Infection in Post-Weaned and Adult Pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique and microscopy at×400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  12. Opioid activity in behavioral and heart rate responses of tethered pigs to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Loijens, L W S; Janssens, C J J G; Schouten, W G P; Wiegant, V M

    2002-04-15

    In a longitudinal experiment, effects of long-term tether housing on heart rate and behavioral responses to an acute stressor (a 15-min challenge with a nosesling) were investigated in pigs. The animals were challenged during loose housing and again after 10-11 weeks of tether housing. To detect possible changes in endogenous opioid systems modifying these responses, the pigs were pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.5 mg/kg body weight, iv). In response to the nosesling challenge, the animals showed pronounced resistance behavior and a sharp rise in heart rate. Following this initial phase of resistance, the heart rate dropped to prechallenge levels or below this line, and the pigs seemed to become sedated. Pretreatment with naloxone increased the heart rate response in animals that were long-term tether housed (n=12). No such effect was found in the control group (n=5) that was loose-housed during the entire experiment, indicating that the impact of endogenous opioid systems mitigating heart rate responses to acute stress had increased as a result of long-term tether housing. Changes in the effect of naloxone on the behavioral response were not found. Adaptive changes in opioid systems may prevent excessive physiological reactions to acute stress and, thus, may serve as a coping mechanism. PMID:12020727

  13. Programmatic Implications of Acute and Early HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben M; Kato, Masaya; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Montaner, Julio S G; Williams, Brian G

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes acute, early, chronic, and late stages. Acute HIV infection lasts approximately 3 weeks and early HIV infection, which includes acute HIV infection, lasts approximately 7 weeks. Many testing and blood screening algorithms detect HIV antibodies about 3 weeks after HIV infection. Incidence estimates are based on results of modeling, cohort studies, surveillance, and/or assays. Viral load is the key modifiable risk factor for HIV transmission and peaks during acute and early HIV infection. Empirical evidence characterizing the impact of acute and early HIV infection on the spread of the HIV epidemic are limited. Time trends of HIV prevalence collected from concentrated and generalized epidemics suggest that acute and early HIV infection may have a limited role in population HIV transmission. Collectively, these data suggest that acute and early HIV infection is relatively short and does not currently require fundamentally different programmatic approaches to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic in most settings. Research and surveillance will inform which epidemic contexts and phases may require tailored strategies for these stages of HIV infection. PMID:26310309

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nakić, Dario; Vcev, Aleksandar; Jović, Albino; Patrk, Jogen; Zekanović, Drazen; Klarin, Ivo; Ivanac, Kresimir; Mrden, Anamarija; Balen, Sanja

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether H. pylori infection is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), determine is there a link between H. pylori infection and severity of disease. In this prospective, single centre study, were enrolled 100 patients with AMI and control group was consisted 93 healthy individuals. The results of this study showed no difference between H. pylori seropositivity distribution in the investigate and control group (29 vs. 26 %) and there was no significant difference on the severity of the disease. There was significant association in the patients with three and more risk factors, where the patients with lower blood pressure (124.4/77.4 vs. 145.9/87.7 mmHg) and better controlled diabetes (HbA1c 6.1% vs. 6.9%) had greater risk for AMI if they are H. pylori seropositive. The large multicentric trials would be needed to define a precise role of H. pylori infection on the developement of AMI. PMID:22053556

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Pigs at the Time of Slaughter, United Kingdom, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Sylvia; Heaney, Judith; Cheney, Tanya; Morgan, Dilys; Wyllie, Stephen; Powell, Laura; Smith, Donald; Ijaz, Samreen; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, reports of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) have increased in England and Wales. Despite mounting evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of porcine HEV, there are limited data on its prevalence in pigs in the United Kingdom. We investigated antibody prevalence, active infection, and virus variation in serum and cecal content samples from 629 pigs at slaughter. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 92.8% (584/629), and HEV RNA was detected in 15% of cecal contents (93/629), 3% of plasma samples (22/629), and 2% of both (14/629). However, although HEV is prevalent in pigs in the United Kingdom and viremic pigs are entering the food chain, most (22/23) viral sequences clustered separately from the dominant type seen in humans. Thus, pigs raised in the United Kingdom are unlikely to be the main source of human HEV infections in the United Kingdom. Further research is needed to identify the source of these infections. PMID:26196216

  16. Acute HIV infection - New York City, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-11-27

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (AHI) is a highly infectious phase of disease that lasts approximately 2 months and is characterized by nonspecific clinical symptoms. AHI contributes disproportionately to HIV transmission because it is associated with a high level of viremia, despite negative or indeterminate antibody (Ab) tests. Diagnosis of AHI with individual or pooled nucleic acid amplification tests (p-NAAT) can enable infected persons to adopt behaviors that reduce HIV transmission, facilitate partner referral for counseling and testing, and identify social networks of persons with elevated rates of HIV transmission. The national HIV surveillance case definition does not distinguish AHI from other stages of HIV infection, and the frequency of AHI among reported HIV cases is unknown. In 2008, to increase detection of AHI and demonstrate the feasibility of AHI surveillance, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) initiated p-NAAT screening at four sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and enhanced citywide HIV surveillance (using a standard case definition) to differentiate AHI among newly reported cases. Seventy cases of AHI (representing 1.9% of all 3,635 HIV diagnoses reported in New York City) were identified: 53 cases from enhanced surveillance and 17 cases from p-NAAT screening (representing 9% of 198 HIV diagnoses at the four clinics). Men who have sex with men (MSM) constituted 81% of AHI cases. Screening STD clinic patients, especially MSM, with p-NAAT can identify additional cases of HIV infection. Surveillance for AHI is feasible and can identify circumstances in which HIV prevention efforts should be intensified. PMID:19940835

  17. A neonatal gnotobiotic pig model of human enterovirus 71 infection and associated immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Kocher, Jacob; Jortner, Bernard S; Vonck, Marlice; Pelzer, Kevin; Deng, Jie; Zhu, Runan; Li, Yuyun; Qian, Yuan; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development and pathogenesis studies for human enterovirus 71 are limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the development of a novel neonatal gnotobiotic pig model using the non-pig-adapted neurovirulent human enterovirus 71 strain BJ110, which has a C4 genotype. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural cells were infected in vitro. Oral and combined oral–nasal infection of 5-day-old neonatal gnotobiotic pigs with 5×108 fluorescence forming units (FFU) resulted in shedding up to 18 days post-infection, with viral titers in rectal swab samples peaking at 2.22×108 viral RNA copies/mL. Viral capsid proteins were detected in enterocytes within the small intestines on post-infection days (PIDs) 7 and 14. Additionally, viral RNA was detected in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues, including the central nervous system, the lung and cardiac muscle. The infected neonatal gnotobiotic pigs developed fever, forelimb weakness, rapid breathing and some hand, foot and mouth disease symptoms. Flow cytometry analysis revealed increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ-producing T cells in the brain and the blood on PID 14, but reduced frequencies were observed in the lung. Furthermore, high titers of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies were generated in both orally and combined oral–nasally infected pigs on PIDs 7, 14, 21 and 28. Together, these results demonstrate that neonatal gnotobiotic pigs represent a novel animal model for evaluating vaccines for human enterovirus 71 and for understanding the pathogenesis of this virus and the associated immune responses. PMID:26038741

  18. A neonatal gnotobiotic pig model of human enterovirus 71 infection and associated immune responses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Kocher, Jacob; Jortner, Bernard S; Vonck, Marlice; Pelzer, Kevin; Deng, Jie; Zhu, Runan; Li, Yuyun; Qian, Yuan; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-05-01

    Vaccine development and pathogenesis studies for human enterovirus 71 are limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the development of a novel neonatal gnotobiotic pig model using the non-pig-adapted neurovirulent human enterovirus 71 strain BJ110, which has a C4 genotype. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural cells were infected in vitro. Oral and combined oral-nasal infection of 5-day-old neonatal gnotobiotic pigs with 5×10(8) fluorescence forming units (FFU) resulted in shedding up to 18 days post-infection, with viral titers in rectal swab samples peaking at 2.22×10(8) viral RNA copies/mL. Viral capsid proteins were detected in enterocytes within the small intestines on post-infection days (PIDs) 7 and 14. Additionally, viral RNA was detected in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues, including the central nervous system, the lung and cardiac muscle. The infected neonatal gnotobiotic pigs developed fever, forelimb weakness, rapid breathing and some hand, foot and mouth disease symptoms. Flow cytometry analysis revealed increased frequencies of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) IFN-γ-producing T cells in the brain and the blood on PID 14, but reduced frequencies were observed in the lung. Furthermore, high titers of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies were generated in both orally and combined oral-nasally infected pigs on PIDs 7, 14, 21 and 28. Together, these results demonstrate that neonatal gnotobiotic pigs represent a novel animal model for evaluating vaccines for human enterovirus 71 and for understanding the pathogenesis of this virus and the associated immune responses. PMID:26038741

  19. Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood.

    PubMed

    Klun, Ivana; Vujanić, Marija; Yera, Hélène; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Ivović, Vladimir; Bobić, Branko; Bradonjić, Siniša; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2011-01-01

    A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

  1. Acute cholecystitis associated with infection of Enterobacteriaceae from gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Yan, Q; Luo, F; Shang, D; Wu, D; Zhang, H; Shang, X; Kang, X; Abdo, M; Liu, B; Ma, Y; Xin, Y

    2015-09-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) is one of the most common surgical diseases. Bacterial infection accounts for 50% to 85% of the disease's onset. Since there is a close relationship between the biliary system and the gut, the aims of this study were to characterize and determine the influence of gut microbiota on AC, to detect the pathogenic microorganism in the biliary system, and to explore the relationship between the gut and bile microbiota of patients with AC. A total of 185 713 high-quality sequence reads were generated from the faecal samples of 15 patients and 13 healthy controls by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Patients' samples were significantly enriched in Akkermansia, Enterobacter and Escherichia/Shigella group. The healthy controls, however, showed significant enrichment of Clostridiales, Coprococcus, Coprobacillaceae, Paraprevotella, Turicibacter and TM7-3 in their faecal samples. Escherichia coli was the main biliary pathogenic microorganism, among others such as Klebsiella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae in the bile of the patients. Additionally, the amount of bile endotoxin significantly correlated with the number of Enterobacteriaceae, especially E. coli. Our data indicate that Enterobacteriaceae might play essential role in the pathogenesis and/or progress of AC. This was verified in an in vivo model using a pathogenic E. coli isolated from one of the patients in guinea pigs and observed marked gallbladder inflammation and morphologic changes. This study thus provides insight which could be useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of AC and related diseases by controlling the growth of Enterobacteriaceae to alleviate the infection. PMID:26025761

  2. Experimental infection of conventional pigs with a 'Brachyspira hampsonii' isolate recovered from a migrating waterfowl in Spain.

    PubMed

    Aller-Morán, Luis Miguel; Martínez-Lobo, Francisco Javier; Rubio, Pedro; Carvajal, Ana

    2016-08-01

    'Brachyspira hampsonii' is a recently proposed new species within the Brachyspira genus, which produces a dysentery-like disease in pigs. This study aims at investigating whether a 'B. hampsonii' isolate recovered from a migrating waterfowl was capable of colonizing pig intestines, inducing clinical signs of dysentery and being transmitted among pigs. Eleven 7-week-old pigs were randomly assigned into two separate groups which were orally administered an avian isolate of 'B. hampsonii' (inoculated group, n = 5) or BHI broth (control group, n = 6). After inoculation, three pigs from the control group were placed in the inoculated pen and served as sentinel pigs. Our results show the capacity of this avian 'B. hampsonii' isolate to colonize the large intestine of pigs and to be transmitted among pigs. According to this, migrating birds could play a role in the epidemiology of 'B. hampsonii' as a possible source of infection in swine populations. PMID:27387719

  3. Coincidental detection of genomes of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 infecting pigs in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SAEKHOW, Prayuth; KISHIZUKA, Shingo; SANO, Natsuha; MITSUI, Hiroko; AKASAKI, Hajime; MAWATARI, Takahiro; IKEDA, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The infection status of 15 viruses in 120 pigs aged about 6 months was investigated based on tonsil specimens collected from a slaughterhouse. Only 5 species of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected at high frequencies; 67% for porcine parvovirus (PPV) (PPV-Kr or -NADL2 as the new abbreviation), 58% for PPV2 (CnP-PARV4), 39% for PPV3 (P-PARV4), 33% for PPV4 (PPV4), 55% for PBo-likeV (PBoV7) and 80% for PCV2. A phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 suggested that Japanese PPV3s showed a slight variation, and possibly, there were farms harboring homogeneous or heterogeneous PPV3s. Statistical analyses indicated that the detection of PCV2 was significantly coincidental with each detection of PPV, PPV2 and PPV3, and PPV and PPV4 were also coincidentally detected. The concurrent infection with PCV2 and porcine parvoviruses in the subclinically infected pigs may resemble the infection status of pigs with the clinical manifestations of porcine circovirus associated disease which occurs in 3–5 months old pigs and is thought to be primarily caused by the PCV2 infection. PMID:26166811

  4. Coincidental detection of genomes of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 infecting pigs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saekhow, Prayuth; Kishizuka, Shingo; Sano, Natsuha; Mitsui, Hiroko; Akasaki, Hajime; Mawatari, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    The infection status of 15 viruses in 120 pigs aged about 6 months was investigated based on tonsil specimens collected from a slaughterhouse. Only 5 species of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected at high frequencies; 67% for porcine parvovirus (PPV) (PPV-Kr or -NADL2 as the new abbreviation), 58% for PPV2 (CnP-PARV4), 39% for PPV3 (P-PARV4), 33% for PPV4 (PPV4), 55% for PBo-likeV (PBoV7) and 80% for PCV2. A phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 suggested that Japanese PPV3s showed a slight variation, and possibly, there were farms harboring homogeneous or heterogeneous PPV3s. Statistical analyses indicated that the detection of PCV2 was significantly coincidental with each detection of PPV, PPV2 and PPV3, and PPV and PPV4 were also coincidentally detected. The concurrent infection with PCV2 and porcine parvoviruses in the subclinically infected pigs may resemble the infection status of pigs with the clinical manifestations of porcine circovirus associated disease which occurs in 3-5 months old pigs and is thought to be primarily caused by the PCV2 infection. PMID:26166811

  5. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  6. Treatment of Acute HIV Infection and the Potential Role of Acutely HIV-Infected Persons in Cure Studies.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan J

    Diagnosis of acute HIV infection is important for accurate estimation of HIV incidence, identifying persons who are unaware of their HIV infection, and offering immediate treatment and risk-reduction strategies. The higher viral loads associated with acute HIV infection are associated with an increased risk of transmission. Current treatment recommendations are the same for acute and established infections. Studies of acute HIV infection indicate that initiation of antiretroviral therapy during this period may allow greater recovery of CD4+ T-cell count and function and may result in a smaller latent viral reservoir and a skewing of infection away from central memory CD4+ T cells toward shorter-lived transitional memory CD4+ T cells. This article summarizes a presentation by Susan J. Little, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program, Improving the Management of HIV Disease, held in Los Angeles, California, in April 2015. PMID:27398768

  7. Neuralgic amyotrophy complicating acute hepatitis E infection: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Theochari, Evangelia; Vincent-Smith, Lisa; Ellis, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus infection (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that is under-recognised in developed countries. Preceding infection manifested by acute transaminitis has been associated with neurological manifestations, predominately involving the peripheral nervous system, even in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of a 65-year-old previously fit and well Caucasian man with bilateral neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) and acute transaminitis. Serology testing for immunoglobulin (Ig) M and G established the diagnosis of acute HEV infection. The patient received immunomodulatory treatment with an excellent long-term outcome. The temporal association of the clinical presentation of bilateral NA and acute transaminitis from HEV infection suggested the causal association of HEV to NA. We propose screening for HEV in patients presenting with NA and acute hepatitis. PMID:25739795

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jilin Province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Cai, Y N; Leng, X; Wang, J; Ma, W; Mu, G D; Jiang, J; Liu, X Y; Wang, Z D; Zhao, Q; Yang, G L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, a total of 1,235 porcine serum samples were collected from 9 counties in Jilin Province (40°52'~46°18'N,121°38'~131°19'E), northeastern China from August to October 2013, and the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was tested by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The results showed that antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 21.3%), with higher seroprevalence in the breeding boars (28.6%, 95% CI, 20.0% to 37.2%), and breeding sows (32.0%, 95% CI, 25.2% to 38.9%). No significant difference was found among the slaughter pigs, fattening pigs and the piglets. These results indicated that infection with T. gondii in pigs is widespread in Jilin province, and is of public health concern. PMID:25801260

  9. Epidemiology of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs: a survey of Ontario Pork Producers, 1981.

    PubMed Central

    Rosendal, S; Mitchell, W R

    1983-01-01

    Information about factors associated with the spread and the effect of pleuropneumonia was obtained from 418 pork producers in Ontario, who returned a mailed questionnaire. The overall herd prevalence of pleuropneumonia was 23.2%. The prevalence among herds with feeder pigs only was 34.3% and 16% among sow herds. The chance of pleuropneumonia breaking out in a herd was increased with increased traffic of pigs into the herd. The source of supplementary stock had an important effect on the chance of pleuropneumonia occurring. The highest risk resulted from introducing stock from salesbarns and the lowest from stock of health status known to the purchaser and supplied by one breeder only. Mortality, primarily among feeder pigs, and unthriftiness were the major effects of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infection. Stress, such as crowding or inclement climatic conditions, was associated with outbreaks of pleuropneumonia. This would suggest that the infection with H. pleuropneumoniae can be subclinical until stress precipitates the disease. PMID:6831302

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Karolin; Schott, Franziska; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Wanninger, Sabrina; Sidler, Xaver; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants. PMID:26619187

  11. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Karolin; Schott, Franziska; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Wanninger, Sabrina; Sidler, Xaver; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants. PMID:26619187

  12. Prevalence and age-related infection of Cryptosporidium suis, C. muris and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in pigs on a farm complex in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kvác, Martin; Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Sak, Bohumil; Kvetonová, Dana

    2009-03-23

    A total of 413 pig faecal samples were collected from pre-weaners (119), starters (131), pre-growers (123) and sows (40) from a farm with a closed breeding system segmented into two breeding complexes and a growing complex in the region of Vysocina, Czech Republic and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using staining methods and genotyping (SSU rRNA). Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by microscopy in the faeces of 21.1% of the samples (87/413). Sequence analyses and RFLP identified C. suis in 44, Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in 23 and C. muris in 2 samples. No mixed infections were found. Pigs under 7 weeks of age were infected with C. suis only. Cryptosporidium pig genotype II was found in animals from 7 weeks of age. No relationship was found between diarrhoea and any Cryptosporidium infection in any of the different age groups (P<0.05). The pre-weaned pigs shed significantly more Cryptosporidium oocysts than older pigs and it was associated with C. suis infection. PMID:19091471

  13. Pasture is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Wallander, Camilla; Frössling, Jenny; Dórea, Fernanda C; Uggla, Arvid; Vågsholm, Ivar; Lundén, Anna

    2016-07-15

    As consumer awareness of animal welfare increases throughout Europe, housing of pigs in more animal-friendly systems is becoming more common. There is concern that these free-range and organic management systems increase the prevalence of zoonotic meat-borne pathogens, such as Toxoplasma gondii. In this study we compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii between commercial fattening pigs raised on conventional and on organic farms in Sweden. Furthermore, potential associations between presence of T. gondii antibodies and type of production, access to pasture, and geographical region were analysed. A significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence was found between conventional (1%) and organic pigs (8%). The higher odds of seropositivity in organic production was attributed to pasture access specifically (OR=1.8 for a one-month increase in length of pasture exposure). This study shows that the prevalence of T. gondii in Swedish conventional pigs is low. However, as pigs with access to pasture are at higher risk of infection and because the demand for animal-friendly production systems is increasing, there is an obvious need to practically manage the higher T. gondii presence in products from pigs raised in organic systems with outdoor access. PMID:27270386

  14. Virus-Specific Immune Memory at Peripheral Sites of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Infection in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jingya; Veselenak, Ronald L.; Gorder, Summer R.; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in modulating HSV-2 pathogenesis, the nature of tissue-resident immune memory to HSV-2 is not completely understood. We used genital HSV-2 infection of guinea pigs to assess the type and location of HSV-specific memory cells at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection. HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells were readily detected in the spleen, bone marrow, vagina/cervix, lumbosacral sensory ganglia, and spinal cord of previously-infected animals. Memory B cells were detected primarily in the spleen and to a lesser extent in bone marrow but not in the genital tract or neural tissues suggesting that the HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells present at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection represented persisting populations of plasma cells. The antibody produced by these cells isolated from neural tissues of infected animals was functionally relevant and included antibodies specific for HSV-2 glycoproteins and HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies. A vigorous IFN-γ-secreting T cell response developed in the spleen as well as the sites of HSV-2 infection in the genital tract, lumbosacral ganglia and spinal cord following acute HSV-2 infection. Additionally, populations of HSV-specific tissue-resident memory T cells were maintained at these sites and were readily detected up to 150 days post HSV-2 infection. Unlike the persisting plasma cells, HSV-specific memory T cells were also detected in uterine tissue and cervicothoracic region of the spinal cord and at low levels in the cervicothoracic ganglia. Both HSV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ resident memory cell subsets were maintained long-term in the genital tract and sensory ganglia/spinal cord following HSV-2 infection. Together these data demonstrate the long-term maintenance of both humoral and cellular arms of the adaptive immune response at the sites of HSV-2 latency and virus shedding and highlight the utility of the guinea pig infection model to investigate tissue-resident memory in the setting of HSV-2 latency

  15. Overexpression of Porcine Beta-Defensin 2 Enhances Resistance to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Tan, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zou, Geng; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Deng, Si-Min; Yu, Lei; Hu, Xue-Ying; Li, Lu

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the need for antibiotics in animal production, alternative approaches are needed to control infection. We hypothesized that overexpression of native defensin genes will provide food animals with enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In this study, recombinant porcine beta-defensin 2 (PBD-2) was overexpressed in stably transfected PK-15 porcine kidney cells. PBD-2 antibacterial activities against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important respiratory pathogen causing porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, were evaluated on agar plates. Transgenic pigs constitutively overexpressing PBD-2 were produced by a somatic cell cloning method, and their resistance to bacterial infection was evaluated by direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Recombinant PBD-2 peptide that was overexpressed in the PK-15 cells showed antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae. PBD-2 was overexpressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and jejunum of the transgenic pigs, which showed significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and reduced lung lesions after direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. The results demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of PBD-2 in pigs confers enhanced resistance against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:25916992

  16. Tail docking in pigs: acute physiological and behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Bryer, P J; Krebs, N; McGlone, J J

    2008-02-01

    Tail docking of piglets is a routine procedure on farms to control tail-biting behaviour; however, docking can cause an acute stress response. The objectives of this research were to determine the stress responses to tail docking in piglets and to compare two methods of tail docking; cautery iron (CAUT) and the more commonly used blunt trauma cutters (BT). At approximately 6 days of age, piglets were tail docked using CAUT (n = 20), BT (n = 20) or sham tail docked with their tails remaining intact (CON; n = 40). Blood samples were taken prior to tail docking and at 30, 60 and 90 min after tail docking to evaluate the effect of tail docking on white blood cell (WBC) measures and cortisol concentrations. The above experiment was repeated to observe behaviour without the periodic blood sampling, so as not to confound the effects of blood sampling on piglet behaviour. Piglet behaviour was recorded in the farrowing crate using 1 min scan-samples via live observations for 60 min prior to and 90 min after tail docking. Total WBC counts were reduced (P > 0.05) among BT and CAUT compared with CON piglets 30 min after tail docking. Cortisol concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) among BT compared with CON and CAUT piglets 60 min after tail docking. Cautery and BT-docked piglets spent more (P < 0.05) time posterior scooting compared with CON piglets between 0 and 15 min, and 31 and 45 min after tail docking. Piglets tail docked using CAUT and BT tended to spend more (P < 0.07) time sitting than CON piglets between 0 and 15 min post tail docking. Elevated blood cortisol can be reduced by the use of the CAUT rather than the BT method of tail docking. Although the tail docking-induced rise in cortisol was prevented by using CAUT, the behavioural response to BT and CAUT docking methods was similar. PMID:22445023

  17. Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections, Study Finds Share: © ... of three groups: a mindfulness meditation group, an exercise group, or a wait-list control group. Participants ...

  18. Acute tubular nephropathy in a patient with acute HIV infection: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Datta, Anandita A; Fletcher, James Lk; Townamchai, Natavudh; Chomchey, Nitiya; Kroon, Eugene; Sereti, Irini; Valcour, Victor; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    We report a 57-year old man with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented with acute HIV infection. Routine blood tests showed an elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular nephropathy, which has not been reported to occur during acute HIV infection, in the absence of rhabdomyolysis or multiple organ system failure. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated. His renal failure gradually resolved without further intervention. At one year of follow-up his HIV RNA was undetectable, and his renal function was normal. The case illustrates a rare manifestation of acute HIV infection - acute renal failure - in an older man with diabetes and hypertension. In this setting acute kidney injury might mistakenly have been attributed to his chronic comorbidities, and this case supports early HIV-1 testing in the setting of a high index of suspicion. PMID:25745498

  19. Degradation of foot-and-mouth disease virus during composting of infected pig carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Guan, J.; Chan, M.; Grenier, C.; Brooks, B.W.; Spencer, J.L.; Kranendonk, C.; Copps, J.; Clavijo, A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation and degradation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus during composting of infected pig carcasses as measured by virus isolation in tissue culture and by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Three FMD-infected pig carcasses were composted in a mixture of chicken manure and wood shavings in a biocontainment level 3 facility. Compost temperatures had reached 50°C and 70°C by days 10 and 19, respectively. Under these conditions, FMD virus was inactivated in specimens in compost by day 10 and the viral RNA was degraded in skin and internal organ tissues by day 21. In comparison, at ambient temperatures close to 20°C, FMD virus survived to day 10 in the skin tissue specimen from the pig that had the highest initial level of viral RNA in its tissues and the viral RNA persisted to day 21. Similarly, beta-actin mRNA, tested as a PCR control, persisted to day 21 in specimens held at ambient temperatures, but it was degraded in the remnants of tissues recovered from compost on day 21. Results from this study provide evidence that composting could be used for safe disposal of pig carcasses infected with FMD virus. PMID:20357957

  20. Ultrasonography in acute interstitial laser irradiation of the pig brain: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Menovsky, T; Beek, J F; Phoa, S S; Brouwer, P A; Klein, M G; Verlaan, C W; van Acker, R E; van Gemert, M J

    1995-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the use of real-time ultrasonography to visualize the effects of acute interstitial Nd:YAG laser irradiation was investigated in the normal pig brain. In six pigs, a craniotomy was performed. In the frontal or temporal lobe, a thermal laser lesion was made using a 600-micron-diameter optical fiber at powers of 1 W, 2 W, and 4 W with exposure times of 5 min and 10 min. Ten to thirty minutes after laser irradiation, the pigs were sacrificed. Ultrasound imaging was performed before, during, and after laser irradiation. During laser irradiation, a clear hyperechogenic area was observed around the fiber tip. The onset of the changes and the extent of the lesion were dependent on the power and exposure time. Histologic examination showed thermal lesions consisting of coagulation necrosis and edema. The size of the lesions correlated well with size on ultrasound imaging. The maximal lesion dimension was 12 mm in diameter (4 W for 5 min). In conclusion, within the limitations of this experimental setup, it is feasible to visualize interstitial laser-induced lesions in the brain by ultrasonography. This method is safe and simple and may be helpful in future applications of interstitial thermotherapy in brain tissue. PMID:9079450

  1. SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE GUINEA PIG DURING INFECTION WITH COXIELLA BURNETII

    PubMed Central

    Paretsky, D.; Downs, C. M.; Salmon, C. W.

    1964-01-01

    Paretsky, D. (University of Kansas, Lawrence), C. M. Downs, and C. W. Salmon. Some biochemical changes in the guinea pig during infection with Coxiella burnetii. J. Bacteriol. 88:137–142. 1964.—Guinea pigs infected with Coxiella burnetii, the rickettsial agent of Q fever, were studied for 11 days postinfection. Maximal changes in liver lipids, liver phosphorylase, and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG)-glycogen glucosyl-transferase activities occurred 3 to 4 days post-infection. In this period, total liver lipids increased from 1.26 to 5.46 mg/mg of N, with the largest increment in the glyceride fraction. Liver glycogen virtually disappeared by the second day, with no chemically detectable restoration until the eleventh day. A pattern of altered phosphorylase and UDPG-glycogen transglucosylase activities was observed, with maximal phosphorylase and minimal glucosyltransferase activities at the third and fourth days. Histochemical observations confirmed chemical analyses for lipids and glycogen. PMID:14197878

  2. SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE GUINEA PIG DURING INFECTION WITH COXIELLA BURNETII.

    PubMed

    PARETSKY, D; DOWNS, C M; SALMON, C W

    1964-07-01

    Paretsky, D. (University of Kansas, Lawrence), C. M. Downs, and C. W. Salmon. Some biochemical changes in the guinea pig during infection with Coxiella burnetii. J. Bacteriol. 88:137-142. 1964.-Guinea pigs infected with Coxiella burnetii, the rickettsial agent of Q fever, were studied for 11 days postinfection. Maximal changes in liver lipids, liver phosphorylase, and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG)-glycogen glucosyl-transferase activities occurred 3 to 4 days post-infection. In this period, total liver lipids increased from 1.26 to 5.46 mg/mg of N, with the largest increment in the glyceride fraction. Liver glycogen virtually disappeared by the second day, with no chemically detectable restoration until the eleventh day. A pattern of altered phosphorylase and UDPG-glycogen transglucosylase activities was observed, with maximal phosphorylase and minimal glucosyltransferase activities at the third and fourth days. Histochemical observations confirmed chemical analyses for lipids and glycogen. PMID:14197878

  3. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  4. Enhancement of Immunohistochemical Detection of Salmonella in Tissues of Experimentally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, J.; Janczyk, P.; Hünigen, H.; Plendl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1×1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni’s fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae. PMID:26428884

  5. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  6. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  7. Lack of effect of feeding citrus by-products in reducing Salmonella in experimentally infected weanling pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current research was to determine if feeding citrus by-products D’Limonene (DL) and citrus molasses (MOL) would reduce the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty crossbred weanling pigs (avg. BW = ...

  8. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur state, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive ...

  9. Clinical and pathological responses of pigs from two genetically diverse commercial lines to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response to infection from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) for two genetically diverse commercial pig lines was investigated. Seventy two pigs from each line, aged 6 weeks, were challenged with PRRSV VR-2385, and 66 littermates served as control. The clinical response...

  10. Effects of acute ozone exposure on the electrophysiological properties of guinea pig trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Croxton, T.L.; Takahashi, Masahiko; Kokia, Ira

    1994-12-31

    Acute ozone (O{sub 3}) exposures produce an increase in the apparent permeability of the tracheal epithelium, but the mechanism of this response is poorly understood. Comparison of previous studies suggests that qualitative differences may exist between measurements made in vivo or in vitro. To test this possibility we used both in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological techniques to investigate the effects of O{sub 3} exposure on guinea pig tracheal epithelium. Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed to either 1 or 2 ppm O{sub 3} or to filtered air for 3 h and were studied 0, 6, or 24 h after exposure. Air-exposed animals had in vitro mean tracheal potential (V{sub T}) -32.0 {+-} 1.5 mV, conductance (G{sub T}{sup L}) 2.18 {+-} 0.22 mS/cm, short-circuit current (I{sub SC}{sup L}) 62.6 {+-} 3.7 {mu}A/cm, and diameter (D) 2.44 {+-} 0.10 mm. In vitro properties after 1 ppm O{sub 3} exposure did not differ at any time point from control. Two parts per million O{sub 3} increased I{sub SC}{sup L}, but only at 6 h postexposure. The effect of O{sub 3} on I{sub SC}{sup L} was abolished by amiloride. There were no significant changes in V{sub T}, G{sub T}{sup L}, or D. In vivo tracheal potential under pentobarbital anesthesia was -19.7 {+-} 1.7 mV. At 6 h postexposure to 2 ppm O{sub 3}, but not at 0 or 24 h, in vivo V{sub I} was increased. Thus, acute exposure of guinea pigs to a high concentration of O{sub 3} caused a delayed increase in Na{sup +} absorption by the trachea with no change in conductance. This indicates that paracellular permeability of guinea pig tracheal epithelium was not substantially increased by acute O{sub 3} and suggests that enhanced macromolecular uptake in this species probably occurs transcellularly. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Acute Legionella pneumophila infection masquerading as acute alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jonathan Michael; Chan, Julian; Reid, Angeline Louise; Tan, Chistopher

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged man had deteriorated rapidly in hospital after being misdiagnosed with acute alcoholic hepatitis. Acute Legionnaires disease (Legionellosis) was subsequently diagnosed on rapid antigen urinary testing and further confirmed serologically. This led to appropriate antibiotic treatment and complete clinical resolution. Physicians caring for patients with alcohol-related liver disease should consider Legionella pneumophila in their differential diagnosis even with a paucity of respiratory symptoms. PMID:23355576

  12. Acute hemiplegia with lacunar infarct after varicella infection in childhood.

    PubMed

    Eda, I; Takashima, S; Takeshita, K

    1983-01-01

    We report 4 cases of acute hemiplegia and a small low-density lesion on computerized tomography (CT) after varicella infection. In 3 of them, CT in the acute hemiplegic stage, and later, reveals the development of lacunar infarct around the internal capsule. Focal low density may be caused by occlusive vascular lesions of the penetrating arteries. Varicella infection may play an important role as one of the causes of acute hemiplegia in childhood producing lacunar infarct, as well as delayed hemiplegia, reported previously in herpes zoster ophthalmicus. PMID:6660422

  13. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections on two Ohio pig farms with different management systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, L; Herd, R P; Bowman, G L

    1994-04-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in pigs was investigated by the use of a direct immunofluorescence assay on two Ohio farms with different management systems. Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections were detected only in weanlings on the farm with slotted and wire floors, but in both weanlings and nursing piglets on the farm with porous concrete floors. Giardia infection was also detected in sows on the latter farm. The farm with porous concrete floors had a significantly higher Cryptosporidium infection rate in nursing piglets and Giardia infection rates in weanlings than the farm with slotted and wire floors. Sows were implicated as the source of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections for nursing piglets. PMID:8073616

  14. Acute intestinal infections of non-dysenteric etiology*

    PubMed Central

    Linetskaya-Novgorodskaya, E. M.

    1959-01-01

    Recent work on the epidemiology and microbiology of acute intestinal infections has brought about a revision of long-held views as to many of their characteristics and as to their grouping. This paper deals with these infections in the light of this recent work, with particular reference to findings made in Leningrad. PMID:14417237

  15. Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-08

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Bacterial Infection; Diarrhea; Fungal Infection; Musculoskeletal Complications; Neutropenia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  16. Target organs of infection in guinea pigs with acquired congenital syphilis.

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, K; Abbruscato, F; Wicher, V; Baughn, R; Noordhoek, G T

    1996-01-01

    The target organs of infection in guinea pigs with asymptomatic acquired or congenital syphilis were identified by PCR and in some cases by rabbit infectivity test (RIT). The prevalence of Treponema pallidum DNA was examined in the following seven organs: the inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver, kidney, heart, and brain. Test samples consisted of 95 organs from two genetically different strains of female guinea pigs (C4-deficient and Albany) with different susceptibilities to cutaneous infection by T. pallidum and 195 organs from their asymptomatic offspring. Twenty organs from dams of both strains injected with heat-killed T. pallidum and 19 organs from their progeny served as negative controls. The infections of mothers and neonates were documented by PCR, RIT, and serology. Though any of the organs tested could be infected, there was a spirochetal predilection for some anatomical locations, such as the lymph nodes, heart, and brain, regardless of the strain, route of maternal infection, and age. None of the 49 organs collected from control animals were positive by PCR. In infected C4-deficient dams, one to four organs were positive by PCR, whereas the organs of 7 of their 27 (25%) asymptomatic offspring were treponemal DNA negative, despite evidence of immunoglobulin M treponemal antibodies. Comparative analysis done by both PCR and RIT on a limited number of samples showed 90% agreement between results. An examination of multiple samples obtained from single organs demonstrated that even within 24 h of spirochetemia, when most organs appeared to be infected, not all samples from an individual organ were positive by PCR. A specific immunological response in guinea pigs with congenital syphilis was a more consistent parameter of vertical transmission than was an analysis of T. pallidum DNA. PMID:8757850

  17. Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection as a Cause of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Francesca; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Mojoli, Francesco; Baldanti, Fausto; Brunetti, Enrico; Pascarella, Michela; Giordani, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Acute Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an unusual cause of venous thromboembolism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Thrombus formation can occur at the onset of the disease or later during the recovery and may also occur in the absence of acute HCMV hepatitis. It is likely due to both vascular endothelium damage caused by HCMV and impairment of the clotting balance caused by the virus itself. Here we report on two immunocompetent women with splanchnic thrombosis that occurred during the course of acute HCMV infection. Although the prevalence of venous thrombosis in patients with acute HCMV infection is unknown, physicians should be aware of its occurrence, particularly in immunocompetent patients presenting with fever and unexplained abdominal pain. PMID:24959338

  18. Profiling circulating miRNAs in serum from pigs infected with the porcine whipworm, Trichuris suis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eline Palm; Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jex, Aaron; Nejsum, Peter

    2016-06-15

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered as key regulators of gene translation and are becoming increasingly recognized for their involvement in various diseases. This study investigates the miRNA profile in pig serum during the course of an infection with the gastrointestinal parasite, Trichuris suis. Of this panel, the expression of selected miRNAs in serum from T. suis infected and uninfected pigs were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel assays at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks post first infection (wpi). One miRNA, ssc-let-7d-3p, was significantly up-regulated in infected pigs 8 wpi. Interestingly, ssc-let-7d-3p shows high complementary to tsu-let-7a, which is the most highly transcribed miRNA in T. suis. The let-7 family miRNAs have been shown to post-transcriptionally regulate the translation of the helminth-controlling cytokine, IL-13, in a murine model for asthma and we hypothesize possible interactions between these host- and parasite-derived miRNAs and their immunomodulating roles. PMID:27198773

  19. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001–2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children. PMID:27088268

  20. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ahlee; Moon, Jin Soo; Chang, Ju Young; Ko, Jae Sung

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is an inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of demonstrated stones. AAC is frequently associated with severe systemic inflammation. However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis of AAC still remain unclear. Acute infection with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in childhood is usually aymptomatic, whereas it often presents as typical infectious mononucleosis symptoms such as fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. AAC may occur during the course of acute EBV infection, which is rarely encountered in the pediatric population. AAC complicating the course of a primary EBV infection is usually associated with a favorable outcome. Most of the patients recover without any surgical treatment. Therefore, the detection of EBV in AAC would be important for prediction of better prognosis. We describe the case of a 10-year-old child who presented with AAC during the course of primary EBV infection, the first in Korea, and review the relevant literature. PMID:24749090

  1. Epstein-barr virus infection with acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ahlee; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Chang, Ju Young; Ko, Jae Sung

    2014-03-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is an inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of demonstrated stones. AAC is frequently associated with severe systemic inflammation. However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis of AAC still remain unclear. Acute infection with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in childhood is usually aymptomatic, whereas it often presents as typical infectious mononucleosis symptoms such as fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. AAC may occur during the course of acute EBV infection, which is rarely encountered in the pediatric population. AAC complicating the course of a primary EBV infection is usually associated with a favorable outcome. Most of the patients recover without any surgical treatment. Therefore, the detection of EBV in AAC would be important for prediction of better prognosis. We describe the case of a 10-year-old child who presented with AAC during the course of primary EBV infection, the first in Korea, and review the relevant literature. PMID:24749090

  2. Investigation on host susceptibility of Tibetan pig to infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus through viral challenge study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Runmin; Ji, Gaosheng; Yang, Xin; Lv, Xuebing; Zhang, Yi; Ge, Mengyun; Pan, Yun; Li, Qingzhou; Wang, Hongning; Zeng, Fanya

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports showed that infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) stimulated a variable host response and pig susceptibility to PRRSV was largely dependent on its genetic composition. In the present study, host susceptibility of Tibetan pig to PRRSV was compared with other two pig breeds, ZangMei black and Large White, by challenge of them with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). In the first challenge test, each eight piglets of the three breeds were inoculated with HP-PRRSV and clinical symptoms, viremia and animal mortality were examined up to 28 days post inoculation (DPI). In the secondary pathological study, each twelve piglets of the three breeds were challenged and three pigs of each breed were sacrificed on 4, 7, and 14 DPI for examination of gross damage and lung microscopic lesions. The results showed that no typical clinical signs such as cough, diarrhea and high fever were observed in challenged Tibetan pigs, which however all occurred in Large White accompanied with ∼40% mortality (3/8). In addition, a significant low and short viremia was detected specifically in Tibetan pigs. Based on histopathological analysis of lung sections, a mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia in Tibetan pigs and a much severe pneumonia in Large White were identified on 7-14 DPI. In summary, the study demonstrated that three genetically different pig breeds exhibited a differential host susceptibility to HP-PRRSV and Tibetan pig was much less susceptible to the virus in the three tested pig breeds. PMID:26790936

  3. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Oliveira, Fábio Conceição de; Melo, João Cardoso de; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de; Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de; Souza, Wanderley de; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis. PMID:25742268

  4. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; de Souza, Diogo Benchimol; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Fábio Conceição; de Melo, João Cardoso; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis. PMID:25742268

  5. Protein A suppresses immune responses during Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection in guinea pigs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Thomer, Lena; Missiakas, Dominique M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2015-01-06

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fcγ and cross-links VH3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High VH3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host Bmore » cell responses. Immunization with SpAKKAA, which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity.« less

  6. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheresiz, S. V.; Semenova, E. A.; Chepurnov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV) variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups. PMID:26989413

  7. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Cheresiz, S V; Semenova, E A; Chepurnov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV) variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups. PMID:26989413

  8. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs using two novel simulated-natural inoculation methods.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, C; Pacheco, J M; Rodriguez, L L; Arzt, J

    2014-04-01

    In order to characterize foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection dynamics in pigs, two simulated-natural inoculation systems were developed and evaluated. Intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) and intra-nasopharyngeal (INP) inoculation both enabled precise control of dose and timing of inoculation while simulating field exposure conditions. There were substantial differences between outcomes of infections by the two routes. IOP inoculation resulted in consistent and synchronous infection, whereas INP inoculation at similar doses resulted in delayed, or completely absent infection. All pigs that developed clinical infection had detectable levels of FMDV RNA in their oropharynx directly following inoculation. Furthermore, FMDV antigens were localized to the oropharyngeal tonsils suggesting a role in early infection. The utility of IOP inoculation was further demonstrated in a vaccine-challenge experiment. Thus, the novel system of IOP inoculation described herein, offers a valid alternative to traditionally used systems for FMDV inoculation of pigs, applicable for experimental studies of FMDV pathogenesis and vaccinology. PMID:24548596

  9. Human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory infections in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Tran Quynh Nhu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus (HBoV), a novel virus, is recognized to increasingly associate with previously unknown etiology respiratory infections in young children. In this study, the epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics of HBoV infections were described in hospitalized Vietnamese pediatric patients. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1,082 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from patients with acute respiratory infections at the Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Samples were screened for HBoV by PCR and further molecularly characterized by sequencing. HBoV was found in 78 (7.2%) children. Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 66.7% of patients infected with HBoV. Children 12-24 months old were the most affected age group. Infections with HBoV were found year-round, though most cases occurred in the dry season (December-April). HBoV was possible to cause severe diseases as determined by higher rates of hypoxia, pneumonia, and longer hospitalization duration in patients with HBoV infection than in those without (P-value <0.05). Co-infection with HBoV did not affect the disease severity. The phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene showed minor variations and all HBoV sequences belonged to species 1 (HBoV1). In conclusion, HBoV1 was circulating in Vietnam and detected frequently in young children during dry season. Acute respiratory infections caused by HBoV1 were severe enough for hospitalization, which implied that HBoV1 may have an important role in acute respiratory infections among children. PMID:24123072

  10. Influence of immunomodulation on the development of Listeria monocytogenes infection in aged guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hoan-Jen E; Lo, Chih-Yu; Matthews, Karl R

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the impact of immunomodulation on the development of listeriosis within an aged population of guinea pigs after an intragastric challenge with Listeria monocytogenes. Supplementation with vitamin E for 35 days significantly increased the level of cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)), while treatment with cyclosporin A resulted in a 25% decrease of CD8(+) T cells. In the animals receiving the low dose (10(2) CFU) of L. monocytogenes, 50% of the control-group animals became infected. Only 22% of animals receiving the orthomolecular dose of vitamin E became infected, whereas animals that were immunosuppressed had an infection rate of 89%. In the immunosuppressed group three animals (16%) developed listerial infection with a quantifiable bacterial level of 0.3-3 log CFU g(-1) of organ in the spleen and liver. In the high-dose study, the population of L. monocytogenes was consistently 1 log CFU g(-1) lower in the spleen or liver of the vitamin E-supplemented group, compared with the control and cyclosporin A-treated animals. At day 4, a significant increase in the levels of CD8(+) during listerial infection occurred in vitamin E-supplemented animals, suggesting an increased ability to produce CD8(+) T cells. The results suggest that immunomodulation of the host can influence listerial infection within an aged population of guinea pigs. PMID:17378902

  11. Dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae seroconversion and infection in pigs in the three main production systems.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Enrico; Ferrari, Nicola; Pitozzi, Alessandra; Remistani, Michela; Giardiello, Daniele; Maes, Dominiek; Alborali, Giovanni Loris

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in 66 pig farms, with different production systems (one-, two-, and three-site systems), and considered different risk factors. Serological assay was used to detect serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect M. hyopneumoniae DNA in tracheobronchial swabs. Results demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae infection status was predominantly influenced by the age of the animals and the type of production system. Infection rates were higher in older animals and the prevalence was higher in the one- and two-site systems than in the three-site systems. Dynamics of infection by RT-PCR showed that earlier M. hyopneumoniae infection on one-site farms occurs earlier, while on two- and three-site farms occurs later but spreads faster, suggesting that contact between animals of different age favors the transmission. PMID:27142053

  12. Herd specific risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia mainly occurring in fattening pigs. It is assumed that horizontal transmission of the pathogen during nursery and growing phase starts with few suckling pigs vertically infected by the sow. The aim of the present study was the exploration of the herd prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs followed by an investigation of various herd specific factors for their potential of influencing the occurrence of this pathogen at the age of weaning. Results In this cross-sectional study, 125 breeding herds were examined by taking nasal swabs from 20 suckling pigs in each herd. In total, 3.9% (98/2500) of all nasal swabs were tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR. Piglets tested positive originated from 46 different herds resulting in an overall herd prevalence of 36.8% (46/125) for M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs at the age of weaning. While the herds were epidemiologically characterized, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae was significantly increased, when the number of purchased gilts per year was more than 120 (OR: 5.8), and when the number of farrowing pens per compartment was higher than 16 (OR: 3.3). In herds with a planned and segregated production, where groups of sows entered previously emptied farrowing units, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae in piglets was higher in herds with two or four weeks between batches than in herds with one or three weeks between batches (OR: 2.7). Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, several risk factors could be identified enhancing the probability of breeding herds to raise suckling pigs already infected with M. hyopneumoniae at the time of weaning. Interestingly, some factors (farrowing rhythm, gilt acclimatisation issues) were overlapping with those also influencing the seroprevalences among sows or the transmission of the pathogen between older age groups. Taking the multifactorial

  13. Acute toxoplasmosis in pigs in Brazil caused by Toxoplasma gondii genotype Chinese 1.

    PubMed

    Olinda, Roberio G; Pena, Hilda F J; Frade, Maria T S; Ferreira, Jefferson S; Maia, Lisanka Â; Gennari, Solange M; Oliveira, Solange; Dantas, Antônio F M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings from two cases of systemic toxoplasmosis in pigs showing apathy and dyspnea. In the post-mortem examination, severe diffuse necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia with numerous intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii was observed. The lungs had not collapsed but were diffusely reddened, and the parenchyma showed friable whitish subpleural nodules with multifocal to coalescent distribution and diameters of 0.5-1.0 cm. The histopathological findings comprised mononuclear inflammation and multifocal areas of necrosis in alveolar septa (cases 1 and 2). In addition, esophagitis and ulcerations in the mucosa of the stomach and the small and large intestines were observed (case 1). Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-T. gondii antibodies on lung tissue in both cases revealed strong immunolabeling of free tachyzoites and tachyzoites in the cytoplasm of histiocytes and in cysts. Nested PCR targeting a 155-bp fragment of the B1 gene of T. gondii was positive for the DNA extracted from lung fragments from the two pigs. Genotyping of the samples by means of PCR-RFLP (10 markers) and by means of microsatellites (15 of them) revealed that these animals were infected with T. gondii that was molecularly characterized as the non-archetypal genotype Chinese 1. This presents worldwide circulation, but it had not previously been described in Brazil. The microsatellite analysis showed that the animals were infected with the same T. gondii isolate circulating in the environment. PMID:27150968

  14. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Host Factors Modulated during Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection in the Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rogée, Sophie; Le Gall, Morgane; Chafey, Philippe; Bouquet, Jérôme; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Frederici, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute enterically transmitted hepatitis. In industrialized countries, it is a zoonotic disease, with swine being the major reservoir of human HEV contamination. The occurrence and severity of the disease are variable, with clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute hepatitis, chronic infection, or fulminant hepatitis. In the absence of a robust cell culture system or small-animal models, the HEV life cycle and pathological process remain unclear. To characterize HEV pathogenesis and virulence mechanisms, a quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify cellular factors and pathways modulated during acute infection of swine. Three groups of pigs were inoculated with three different strains of swine HEV to evaluate the possible role of viral determinants in pathogenesis. Liver samples were analyzed by a differential proteomic approach, two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis, and 61 modulated proteins were identified by mass spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the three HEV strains replicate similarly in swine and that they modulate several cellular pathways, suggesting that HEV impairs several cellular processes, which can account for the various types of disease expression. Several proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, apolipoprotein E, and prohibitin, known to be involved in other viral life cycles, were upregulated in HEV-infected livers. Some differences were observed between the three strains, suggesting that HEV's genetic variability may induce variations in pathogenesis. This comparative analysis of the liver proteome modulated during infection with three different strains of HEV genotype 3 provides an important basis for further investigations on the factors involved in HEV replication and the mechanism of HEV pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for acute hepatitis, with clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic

  15. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  16. Evaluation of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a group of pigs in a subclinically affected herd from weaning to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Daniel; Kaim, Ute; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to follow the course of a subclinical Lawsonia (L.) intracellularis infection in a group of 60 pigs on a commercial farm from weaning to slaughter. From 6 to 16 and at 26 weeks of age, rectal faecal samples and blood samples were collected weekly from every pig for examination by PCR and blocking ELISA, respectively. At corresponding times starting at 8 weeks of age, pigs were randomly selected for necropsy (n=51). Intestinal tissues were examined histopathologically and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for L. intracellularis antigen. Infection with L. intracellularis showed a mainly subclinical course. Shedding of L. intracellularis was detected by PCR in three pigs as early as 6 weeks of age and persisted up until 14 weeks of age. In most pigs shedding of L. intracellularis was seen only for 1-2 weeks followed by a rapid serum antibody response. More than 50% of pigs had seroconverted by week 10. At slaughter, 30.8% of investigated animals were still found to be seropositive by ELISA. Of the 60 study animals 39 were found positive by faeces PCR (65.0%), 49 animals were found positive by serology (81.7%), and 35 pigs (68.6%) had positive results by IHC at necropsy. All but one pig were found to be L. intracellularis infected by at least one of the three methods (98.3%). In conclusion, this is the first field study revealing the presence of prominent histological lesions characteristic for L. intracellularis infection and associated positive pathogen specific PCR and immunohistological results even in subclinically infected pigs. Although intestinal alterations disappeared after 3-4 weeks, L. intracellularis was detected by IHC for a longer time, especially in intestinal lymph nodes. PMID:20605375

  17. Acute hantavirus infection induces galectin-3-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Strandin, Tomas; Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Klingström, Jonas; Sane, Jussi; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Meri, Seppo; Lundkvist, Ake; Vapalahti, Olli; Lankinen, Hilkka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-11-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that cause life-threatening diseases when transmitted to humans. Severe hantavirus infection is manifested by impairment of renal function, pulmonary oedema and capillary leakage. Both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we showed that galectin-3-binding protein (Gal-3BP) was upregulated as a result of hantavirus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Gal-3BP is a secreted glycoprotein found in human serum, and increased Gal-3BP levels have been reported in chronic viral infections and in several types of cancer. Our in vitro experiments showed that, whilst Vero E6 cells (an African green monkey kidney cell line) constitutively expressed and secreted Gal-3BP, this protein was detected in primary human cells only as a result of hantavirus infection. Analysis of Gal-3BP levels in serum samples of cynomolgus macaques infected experimentally with hantavirus indicated that hantavirus infection induced Gal-3BP also in vivo. Finally, analysis of plasma samples collected from patients hospitalized because of acute hantavirus infection showed higher Gal-3BP levels during the acute than the convalescent phase. Furthermore, the Gal-3BP levels in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome correlated with increased complement activation and with clinical variables reflecting the severity of acute hantavirus infection. PMID:25013204

  18. Acute respiratory toxicity following inhalation exposure to soman in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Michael W.; Pierre, Zdenka; Rezk, Peter; Sabnekar, Praveena; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.

    2010-06-01

    Respiratory toxicity and lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent soman was examined in guinea pigs without therapeutics to improve survival. A microinstillation inhalation exposure technique that aerosolizes the agent in the trachea was used to administer soman to anesthetized age and weight matched male guinea pigs. Animals were exposed to 280, 561, 841, and 1121 mg/m{sup 3} concentrations of soman for 4 min. Survival data showed that all saline controls and animals exposed to 280 and 561 mg/m{sup 3} soman survived, while animals exposed to 841, and 1121 mg/m{sup 3} resulted in 38% and 13% survival, respectively. The microinstillation inhalation exposure LCt{sub 50} for soman determined by probit analysis was 827.2 mg/m{sup 3}. A majority of the animals that died at 1121 mg/m{sup 3} developed seizures and died within 15-30 min post-exposure. There was a dose-dependent decrease in pulse rate and blood oxygen saturation of animals exposed to soman at 5-6.5 min post-exposure. Body weight loss increased with the dose of soman exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and blood acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity was inhibited dose-dependently in soman treated groups at 24 h. BAL cells showed a dose-dependent increase in cell death and total cell counts following soman exposure. Edema by wet/dry weight ratio of the accessory lung lobe and trachea was increased slightly in soman exposed animals. An increase in total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein was observed in soman exposed animals at all doses. Differential cell counts of BAL and blood showed an increase in total lymphocyte counts and percentage of neutrophils. These results indicate that microinstillation inhalation exposure to soman causes respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury in guinea pigs.

  19. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed. PMID:27018033

  20. Screening for acute HIV infection in South Africa: finding acute and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Reddy, Shabashini; Bishop, Karen; Lu, Zhigang; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The yield of screening for acute HIV infection among general medical patients in resource-scarce settings remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a strategy of pooled HIV plasma RNA to diagnose acute HIV infection in patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests in Durban, South Africa. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests from a routine HIV screening program in an outpatient department in Durban with an HIV prevalence of 48%. Study participants underwent venipuncture for pooled qualitative HIV RNA, and if positive, quantitative RNA, enzyme immunoassay and Western Blot (WB). Patients with negative or indeterminate WB and positive quantitative HIV RNA were considered acutely infected. Those with chronic infection (positive RNA and WB) despite negative or discordant rapid HIV tests were considered false negative rapid antibody tests. Results Nine hundred ninety-four participants were enrolled with either negative (N=976) or discordant (N=18) rapid test results. Eleven (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0%) had acute HIV infection. Of the 994 patients, an additional 20 (2.0%, 95% CI: 1.3–.3.1%) had chronic HIV infection (false negative rapid test). Conclusions One percent of outpatients with negative or discordant rapid HIV tests in Durban, South Africa had acute HIV infection readily detectable through pooled serum HIV RNA screening. Pooled RNA testing also identified an additional 2% of patients with chronic HIV infection. HIV RNA screening has the potential to identify both acute and chronic HIV infections that are otherwise missed by standard HIV testing algorithms. PMID:20553336

  1. 13C-urea breath test for diagnosis of experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in barrier born pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Rosberg, K; Gustavsson, S

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies with Helicobacter pylori infected barrier born pigs indicate that the infection has a patchy distribution, resulting in false negative culture results on endoscopic biopsy specimens. This study aimed to adapt the 13C-urea breath test as used in humans to diagnose H pylori infection in barrier born pigs. The breath test was also performed after bismuth as a single treatment and after triple therapy (bismuth, ampicillin, metronidazole). In control pigs the median excess of 13CO2 in expired air was 2.2 (range 0-12 n = 22) ppm. The infected pigs (n = 4) showed consistently high values (median 23 range 14-43) when examined on four occasions (n = 16) four to 10 weeks after inoculation. Biopsy specimens for culture had lower sensitivity than the breath test. No reduction in excess 13CO2 was seen after three days' single bismuth treatment, but after two weeks' triple therapy the breath test results had returned to normal. This suppression was temporary only, however, as the breath test was positive again four weeks after stopping treatment. In conclusion, the 13C-urea breath test is a simple and reliable test for determining H pylori infection and monitoring treatment effects in barrier born pigs. Because the test can be performed in awake pigs anaesthesia and gastroscopy are unnecessary. Images Figure 1 PMID:8504957

  2. Imaging in acute renal infection in children

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Starshak, R.J.; Schroeder, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    Infection is the most common disease of the urinary tract in children, and various imaging techniques have been used to verify its presence and location. On retrospective analysis, 50 consecutive children with documented upper urinary tract infection had abnormal findings on renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. The infection involved the renal poles only in 38 and the poles plus other renal cortical areas in eight. Four had abnormalities that spared the poles. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 32 of 50 children. Excretory urograms were abnormal in six of 23 children in whom they were obtained. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 34 of 40 children in whom voiding cystourethrography was performed. These data show the high sensitivity of renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in documenting upper urinary tract infection. The location of the abnormalities detected suggests that renal infections spread via an ascending mode and implies that intrarenal reflux is a major contributing factor.

  3. [Immune Protection against H9N2 Provided by H1N1 Pre-infection in Pigs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Maocai; Hong, Wenshan; Zheng, Zuoyi; Chen, Rirong

    2015-07-01

    To explore the impact of the history of infection by the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 on secondary infection by the influenza A virus subtype H9N2, pigs non-infected and pre-infected with H1N1 were inoculated with H9N2 in parallel to compare nasal shedding and seroconversion patterns. Unlike pigs without a background of H1N1 infection, nasal shedding was not detected in pigs pre-infected with H1N1. Both groups generated antibodies against H9N2. However, levels of H1N1 antibodies in pigs pre-infected with H1N1 increased quickly and dramatically after challenge with H9N2. Cross-reaction was not observed between H1N1 antibodies and H9N2 viruses. These findings suggest that circulation of the H1N1 virus might be a barrier to the introduction and transmission of the avian H9N2 virus, thereby delaying its adaptation in pigs. PMID:26524907

  4. Changes in cochlear function during acute endolymphatic hydrops development in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel J; Chihara, Yasuhiro; Curthoys, Ian S; Wang, Yuan; Bos, Marieke

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have injected artificial endolymph into scala media in anaesthetized guinea pigs as an acute model of endolymphatic hydrops. Here, we have injected artificial endolymph into scala media in guinea pigs at rates of 40-80 nl/min, whilst monitoring Compound Action Potential (CAP) thresholds, the Summating Potential (SP)/CAP ratio, Cochlear Microphonic (CM) distortion, low-frequency modulated Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs), and the Endocochlear Potential (EP). We found that abrupt recovery of CAP thresholds, SP/CAP ratio, and CM and DPOAE asymmetric distortion could occur several times during a single injection of less than 3 μl, suggesting that endolymph pressure could periodically decrease while the injection was ongoing. Larger volumes are thought to produce a rupture of the membranous labyrinth, however, our results suggest that multiple injections, each larger than 3 μl and within 40 min of each other, cause multiple pressure-related changes, which are difficult to be explained on the basis of a simple labyrinth rupture. We have also examined the morphological changes of the temporal bones ex vivo using X-ray micro-tomography. Both the functional changes and the micro-CT images suggest ruptures of the membranous labyrinth may not always be responsible for abrupt changes in inner ear function. Our results provide a new insight into the changes in cochlear function occurring during acute hydrops development, which compares well to the clinical findings observed in Ménière's Disease. We suggest that hydrops development may be a continual process, yet cause discontinuous functional changes due to mechanisms other than a simple rupture of the membranous labyrinth. PMID:23270618

  5. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, Irma Estela; Duchene, Adriana; Daprato, Betina; Lopez, Clara María; Cardillo, Natalia; Franco, Aníbal Juan

    2014-01-01

    Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident. PMID:25076437

  6. Chronic stress increases the opioid-mediated inhibition of the pituitary-adrenocortical response to acute stress in pigs.

    PubMed

    Janssens, C J; Helmond, F A; Loyens, L W; Schouten, W G; Wiegant, V M

    1995-04-01

    The role of endogenous opioid mechanisms in the pituitary-adrenocortical response to acute stress was investigated in a longitudinal study in cyclic female pigs before and after exposure to chronic stress (long term tethered housing). Challenge of loose-housed pigs with acute nose-sling stress for 15 min induced an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, evidenced by a transient increase in plasma ACTH (peak height above basal, 98 +/- 12 pg/ml; mean +/- SEM) and cortisol (54 +/- 3 ng/ml) concentrations. Pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.5 mg/kg BW, iv bolus) increased the challenge-induced ACTH and cortisol responses to 244 +/- 36 pg/ml and 65 +/- 5 ng/ml, respectively. This indicates that during acute nose-sling stress, endogenous opioid systems are activated that inhibit the pituitary-adrenocortical response. After exposure of the pigs to chronic stress (10-11 weeks of tethered housing), the challenge-induced ACTH response was attenuated, whereas the cortisol response remained unchanged, suggesting an increased adrenocortical sensitivity to circulating ACTH. In addition, pretreatment with naloxone induced a greater increment in the ACTH and cortisol responses in tethered pigs than in loose-housed pigs. As no such changes were found in control animals housed loose during the entire experimental period, this indicates that the impact of opioid systems had increased due to chronic stress. The increased impact of opioid systems during chronic stress may prevent excessive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical responses to acute stressors and, thus, may be of adaptive value. PMID:7895656

  7. Differences of immune responses between Tongcheng (Chinese local breed) and Large White pigs after artificial infection with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wan; Li, Zhenhong; Wang, Peng; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qingde; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xuewen; Liu, Bang

    2016-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the severest infectious diseases of pigs throughout the world. Pigs of different breeds infected with PRRS virus (PRRSV) have been reported to vary in their immune responses. Here, the differences of immune responses to highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) were investigated by artificially infecting Tongcheng (TC) pigs (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Large White (LW) pigs with PRRSV WUH3. Compared to LW pigs, TC pigs showed less severe symptoms and lower level of viral load. The routine blood test results indicated that TC pigs were relatively steady in terms of erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet. Additionally, PRRSV infection induced higher IFN-γ activity in TC pigs, but stimulated an excessive level of IL-10 and IL-12p40 in LW pigs. Our study provides direct evidence that TC pigs have stronger resistance to early PRRSV infection than LW pigs, suggesting that the resistance of pigs to PRRSV is likely associated with breed differences. PMID:26878768

  8. Transient correlation between viremia levels and IL-10 expression in pigs subclinically infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    PubMed

    Darwich, L; Segalés, J; Resendes, A; Balasch, M; Plana-Durán, J; Mateu, E

    2008-04-01

    Immunological impairment by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection is well documented in pigs suffering from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Nonetheless, little is known about immune status of pigs that remain PCV2 subclinically infected. Thus, seven pigs successfully infected in an experimental inoculation and without developing disease and nine control non-inoculated pigs were examined. Serological, virological and immunological determinations were done throughout ten weeks post-infection (PI). At week 3 PI, inoculated animals presented the peak of viremia and produced higher levels of IL-10 than the controls; correlation between viral load and IL-10 amounts was observed (p<0.05). Also, the ratio IgM/IgG suffered a shift skewing IgM production towards an IgG response. By 10 weeks PI, levels of IL-10 disappeared and the viremia decreased. In summary, subclinically PCV2-infected pigs developed a transient PCV2-specific IL-10 response during the viremic phase of infection which coincided with the inversion of the IgM/IgG ratio. PMID:17592737

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. PMID:24780140

  10. MYROIDES INFECTION IN A BABOON AFTER PROLONGED PIG KIDNEY GRAFT SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Iwase, Hayato; Wijkstrom, Martin; Singh, Jagjit; Klein, Edwin; Wagner, Robert; Humar, Abhinav; Pasculle, William; Cooper, David K.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunosuppressed patients and experimental nonhuman primates are at risk of opportunistic infection. We report a Myroides spp infection in an immunosuppressed baboon that had received a life-supporting kidney from a genetically-engineered pig. Case report The baboon received a costimulation blockade-based immunosuppressive regimen as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (tocilizumab and etanercept). Although the pig kidney functioned well, approximately four months after the transplant the baboon became less active and ate and drank poorly. On day 136, it collapsed and died despite inotropic and fluid support. A blood culture drawn before death grew Myroides spp. Discussion and conclusions To our knowledge, Myroides spp has not been reported as a cause of opportunistic infection in either patients with organ allotransplants or experimental animals. We summarize what is known about this rare organism, and suggest it should be considered in any immunocompromised patient or animal. In the present case, we suggest the baboon died of circulatory shock following infection through an indwelling intravenous catheter. PMID:26146660

  11. Acute Infection in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pastor, Juan Carlos; Maculé-Beneyto, Francisco; Suso-Vergara, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Infection is one of the most serious complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The current incidence of prosthetic knee infection is 1-3%, depending on the series. For treatment and control to be more cost effective, multidisciplinary groups made up of professionals from different specialities who can work together to eradicate these kinds of infections need to be assembled. About the microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus were among the most frequent microorganisms involved (74%). Anamnesis and clinical examination are of primary importance in order to determine whether the problem may point to a possible acute septic complication. The first diagnosis may then be supported by increased CRP and ESR levels. The surgical treatment for a chronic prosthetic knee infection has been perfectly defined and standardized, and consists in a two-stage implant revision process. In contrast, the treatment for acute prosthetic knee infection is currently under debate. Considering the different surgical techniques that already exist, surgical debridement with conservation of the prosthesis and polythene revision appears to be an attractive option for both surgeon and patient, as it is less aggressive than the two-stage revision process and has lower initial costs. The different results obtained from this technique, along with prognosis factors and conclusions to keep in mind when it is indicated for an acute prosthetic infection, whether post-operative or haematogenous, will be analysed by the authors. PMID:23919094

  12. Mycobacterium ulcerans Fails to Infect through Skin Abrasions in a Guinea Pig Infection Model: Implications for Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Heather R.; Mosi, Lydia; Donnell, Robert; Aqqad, Maha; Merritt, Richard W.; Small, Pamela L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of M. ulcerans, the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer, from the environment to humans remains an enigma despite decades of research. Major transmission hypotheses propose 1) that M. ulcerans is acquired through an insect bite or 2) that bacteria enter an existing wound through exposure to a contaminated environment. In studies reported here, a guinea pig infection model was developed to determine whether Buruli ulcer could be produced through passive inoculation of M. ulcerans onto a superficial abrasion. The choice of an abrasion model was based on the fact that most bacterial pathogens infecting the skin are able to infect an open lesion, and that abrasions are extremely common in children. Our studies show that after a 90d infection period, an ulcer was present at intra-dermal injection sites of all seven animals infected, whereas topical application of M. ulcerans failed to establish an infection. Mycobacterium ulcerans was cultured from all injection sites whereas infected abrasion sites healed and were culture negative. A 14d experiment was conducted to determine how long organisms persisted after inoculation. Mycobacterium ulcerans was isolated from abrasions at one hour and 24 hours post infection, but cultures from later time points were negative. Abrasion sites were qPCR positive up to seven days post infection, but negative at later timepoints. In contrast, M. ulcerans DNA was detected at intra-dermal injection sites throughout the study. M. ulcerans was cultured from injection sites at each time point. These results suggest that injection of M. ulcerans into the skin greatly facilitates infection and lends support for the role of an invertebrate vector or other route of entry such as a puncture wound or deep laceration where bacteria would be contained within the lesion. Infection through passive inoculation into an existing abrasion appears a less likely route of entry. PMID:24722416

  13. Effects of dietary soybean meal concentration on growth and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Alexander, L S; Rocha, G C; Van Alstine, W G; Boyd, R D; Pettigrew, J E; Dilger, R N

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM) concentration on the growth performance and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Four experimental treatments included a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 dietary SBM concentrations, 17.5% (LSBM) or 29% (HSBM), and 2 levels of PRRSV infection, uninfected sham or PRRSV infected. Sixty-four weanling pigs of split sex (21 d of age, 7.14 ± 0.54 kg) were individually housed in disease containment chambers. Pigs were provided a common diet for 1 wk postweaning before being equalized for BW and sex and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 16 replicate pigs per group. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 1 wk before receiving either a sham inoculation (sterile PBS) or a 1 × 10 50% tissue culture infective dose of PRRSV at 35 d of age (0 d postinoculation, DPI). Pig BW and feed intake were recorded weekly, and rectal temperatures were measured daily beginning on 0 DPI. Blood was collected on 0, 3, 7, and 14 DPI for determination of serum PRRSV load, differential complete blood cell counts, and haptoglobin and cytokine concentrations. Infection with PRRSV increased (P < 0.01) rectal temperatures of pigs throughout the infection period, with no influence of dietary SBM concentration. Pigs in the PRRSV-infected group had lower (P < 0.01) ADFI and G:F from 0 to 14 DPI compared with uninfected pigs. In the PRRSV-infected group, pigs fed HSBM tended to have improved ADG (P = 0.06) compared with pigs fed LSBM, whereas there was no influence of SBM concentration on growth of pigs in the uninfected group. At 14 DPI, PRRSV-infected pigs fed HSBM had a lower serum PRRSV load (P < 0.05), a higher (P = 0.02) hematocrit value, and a tendency for greater hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed LSBM. Serum haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations of PRRSV-infected pigs were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed HSBM at 3

  14. Role of tachykinins in ozone-induced acute lung injury in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Tepper, J.S.; Costa, D.L.; Fitzgerald, S.; Doerfler, D.L.; Bromberg, P.A. )

    1993-09-01

    To examine the hypothesis that the acute reversible changes caused by ozone (O3) exposure are mediated by tachykinin release, guinea pigs were depleted of tachykinins by use of repeated capsaicin (CAP) injections before O3 exposure in an attempt to prevent O3-induced functional changes. Unexpectedly, CAP pretreatment caused divergent results in the functional responses to O3. Ventilatory measurements obtained from CAP-pretreated O3-exposed (CAP-O3) animals were exacerbated rather than diminished compared with the effects of O3 alone. Similarly, lavage fluid protein accumulation was enhanced in the CAP-O3 group compared with the O3-exposed group. In better agreement with our initial hypothesis, the CAP-O3 group was less responsive than the O3-exposed animals to histamine aerosol challenge. Additionally, Evans blue dye accumulation, a hallmark of tachykinin release, was increased in O3-exposed animals and was partially blocked in the CAP-O3 group. These data suggest that tachykinin-containing sensory fibers are unlikely to mediate the acute effects of O3 exposure on tidal breathing and lavage fluid protein accumulation but may play a role in causing post-O3 airway hyperreactivity and protein extravasation into the trachea.

  15. Identification of a New Cyclovirus in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Acute Central Nervous System Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; de Vries, Michel; Canuti, Marta; Deijs, Martin; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Baker, Stephen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Tham, Nguyen Thi; BKrong, Nguyen Thi Thuy Chinh; Boni, Maciej F.; Loi, Tran Quoc; Phuong, Le Thi; Verhoeven, Joost T. P.; Crusat, Martin; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Schultsz, Constance; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Hien, Tran Tinh; van der Hoek, Lia; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute central nervous system (CNS) infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, but the etiology remains unknown in a large proportion of cases. We identified and characterized the full genome of a novel cyclovirus (tentatively named cyclovirus-Vietnam [CyCV-VN]) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens of two Vietnamese patients with CNS infections of unknown etiology. CyCV-VN was subsequently detected in 4% of 642 CSF specimens from Vietnamese patients with suspected CNS infections and none of 122 CSFs from patients with noninfectious neurological disorders. Detection rates were similar in patients with CNS infections of unknown etiology and those in whom other pathogens were detected. A similar detection rate in feces from healthy children suggested food-borne or orofecal transmission routes, while high detection rates in feces from pigs and poultry (average, 58%) suggested the existence of animal reservoirs for such transmission. Further research is needed to address the epidemiology and pathogenicity of this novel, potentially zoonotic virus. PMID:23781068

  16. Immunochromatography-based Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection in Acute Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Thacker, Sandeep; Namjoshi, Gajanan Sudhir

    2016-07-01

    Documentation of rotavirus diarrhea in a rural, resource-poor setting is a difficult task. We analyzed stool samples of 103 children admitted for acute diarrhea in a pediatric hospital in Bijnor, UP, India, using a simple bedside immunochromatography kit. Rotavirus infection was detected in 47 out of total of 103 children (45.6%). PMID:27508549

  17. Acute Borrelia infection inducing an APMPPE-like picture.

    PubMed

    Al Mousa, Munjid; Koch, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. Although several etiological factors have been suggested, none has been confirmed. We report a case of APMPPE associated with acute infection of Borreliosis. A 30-year-old man presented with a decrease in vision in the right eye of about 1-week duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was 6/36. Fundus exam revealed the presence of multiple placoid creamy retinal/subretinal lesions in the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography supported the diagnosis of APMPPE. Blood tests revealed the presence of concomitant acute Borreliosis infection, as confirmed by IgM. The patient received oral prednisone therapy and amoxicillin. Six weeks later, the visual acuity returned to 6/6, and the patient was symptom free. Borreliosis can have several manifestations in the eye. One of the less common presentations is an APMPPE-like picture. The clinician should suspect acute Borreliosis infection in patients presenting with APMPPE, especially when there is a history of a tick bite, when the patient has systemic symptoms, or when living in/visiting endemic areas. This may help in the prompt management of APMPPE, avoiding complications due to the condition itself, or systemic involvement secondary to the Borreliosis infection. PMID:27294731

  18. Increased and prolonged human norovirus infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient gnotobiotic pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shaohua; Ryu, Junghyun; Wen, Ke; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Samuel, Helen; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Jiang, Xi; Lee, Kiho; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Application of genetically engineered (GE) large animals carrying multi-allelic modifications has been hampered by low efficiency in production and extended gestation period compared to rodents. Here, we rapidly generated RAG2/IL2RG double knockout pigs using direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 system into developing embryos. RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs were immunodeficient, characterized by depletion of lymphocytes and either absence of or structurally abnormal immune organs. Pigs were maintained in gnotobiotic facility and evaluated for human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. HuNoV shedding lasted for 16 days in wild type pigs, compared to 27 days (until the end of trials) in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs. Additionally, higher HuNoV titers were detected in intestinal tissues and contents and in blood, indicating increased and prolonged HuNoV infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs and the importance of lymphocytes in HuNoV clearance. These results suggest that GE immunodeficient gnotobiotic pigs serve as a novel model for biomedical research and will facilitate HuNoV studies. PMID:27118081

  19. Increased and prolonged human norovirus infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient gnotobiotic pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaohua; Ryu, Junghyun; Wen, Ke; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Samuel, Helen; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Jiang, Xi; Lee, Kiho; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Application of genetically engineered (GE) large animals carrying multi-allelic modifications has been hampered by low efficiency in production and extended gestation period compared to rodents. Here, we rapidly generated RAG2/IL2RG double knockout pigs using direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 system into developing embryos. RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs were immunodeficient, characterized by depletion of lymphocytes and either absence of or structurally abnormal immune organs. Pigs were maintained in gnotobiotic facility and evaluated for human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. HuNoV shedding lasted for 16 days in wild type pigs, compared to 27 days (until the end of trials) in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs. Additionally, higher HuNoV titers were detected in intestinal tissues and contents and in blood, indicating increased and prolonged HuNoV infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs and the importance of lymphocytes in HuNoV clearance. These results suggest that GE immunodeficient gnotobiotic pigs serve as a novel model for biomedical research and will facilitate HuNoV studies. PMID:27118081

  20. Main risk factors for Salmonella-infections in pigs in north-western Germany.

    PubMed

    Gotter, V; Klein, G; Koesters, S; Kreienbrock, L; Blaha, T; Campe, A

    2012-10-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major zoonotic, food-borne diseases, among others, caused by pig derived food products. As infected pigs are one of the main sources of the introduction of the bacterium into the food chain, scientific research in the last years has focussed on identifying risk factors for infection as well as developing mitigation strategies on this level of production. In order to update the knowledge of the German situation by incorporating recent changes in the German pig industry, a case-control study was set up to identify the key contributing risk factors for farms located in the western part of Lower Saxony, the region with the highest pig density in Germany. Based on an extensive and systematic literature search, a comprehensive questionnaire with 302 questions concerning such topics as personnel hygiene, animal management, biosecurity, feeding management as well as cleaning and disinfection routines was utilized in a face-to-face interview on 104 case and 67 control farms. Within a stepwise forward selection process the preliminary identified factors were grouped contextually, associations between variables were calculated and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted. Identified risk factors were: the moving of individual animals during the fattening period (OR 5.3, CI 95% 1.35-20.35), not having a separate transporter for different age groups (OR 11.4, CI 95% 1.94-66.18) and pigs having contact to other animals (OR 4.3, CI 95% 1.39-12.96). The following factors were identified as being protective: not cleaning the transporter (OR 0.2, CI 95% 0.05-0.72) and not having clean boots available (OR 0.2, CI 95% 0.07-0.64). While this study was able to identify some factors which influence the Salmonella-infection of a herd, overall the process of analysis showed that the control of Salmonella on farm is due to a series of individual factors and therefore remains extremely complex. PMID:22534071

  1. [Acute poisoning of pigs with hydrogen sulfide as a result of acidification of slurry on a pig farm].

    PubMed

    Borst, G H

    2001-02-15

    On a fattening pig farm all 582 animals died of peracute intoxication with hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The accident took place after 6000 litres of lactic acid (41.5 mass %) was dumped in the slurry pit. The volume of released gas was about 575 m3. This resulted in sudden spreading by high pressure of a lethal concentration of hydrogen sulphide to all compartments of the pig house. Analysis of the situation indicated that the level of hydrogen sulphide was 7870 ppm. PMID:11233504

  2. Thymidine kinase-deficient herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Stanberry, L R; Kit, S; Myers, M G

    1985-01-01

    In guinea pigs, thymidine kinase-producing strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 replicated to high titer in the vagina and spinal cord, and animals developed severe clinical disease. Infection with thymidine kinase-deficient virus resulted in similar vaginal virus titers; however, animals exhibited little or no clinical illness and only low titers of virus were detected in spinal cord homogenate cultures. Neural and extraneural latent infection as well as recurrent infection were noted in animals inoculated with either thymidine kinase-producing or -deficient viruses. These data suggest that neural pathways are important in the pathogenesis of genital herpes and that virus-coded thymidine kinase may influence virulence but is not required for latency. Images PMID:2991558

  3. Favipiravir (T-705) Inhibits Junín Virus Infection and Reduces Mortality in a Guinea Pig Model of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Brian B.; Juelich, Terry L.; Sefing, Eric J.; Brasel, Trevor; Smith, Jennifer K.; Zhang, Lihong; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Hill, Terence E.; Yun, Tatyana; Pietzsch, Colette; Furuta, Yousuke; Freiberg, Alexander N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Junín virus (JUNV), the etiologic agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), is classified by the NIAID and CDC as a Category A priority pathogen. Presently, antiviral therapy for AHF is limited to immune plasma, which is readily available only in the endemic regions of Argentina. T-705 (favipiravir) is a broadly active small molecule RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. We have previously reported on the in vitro activity of favipiravir against several strains of JUNV and other pathogenic New World arenaviruses. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the efficacy of favipiravir in vivo, guinea pigs were challenged with the pathogenic Romero strain of JUNV, and then treated twice daily for two weeks with oral or intraperitoneal (i.p.) favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day) starting 1–2 days post-infection. Although only 20% of animals treated orally with favipiravir survived the lethal challenge dose, those that succumbed survived considerably longer than guinea pigs treated with placebo. Consistent with pharmacokinetic analysis that showed greater plasma levels of favipiravir in animals dosed by i.p. injection, i.p. treatment resulted in a substantially higher level of protection (78% survival). Survival in guinea pigs treated with ribavirin was in the range of 33–40%. Favipiravir treatment resulted in undetectable levels of serum and tissue viral titers and prevented the prominent thrombocytopenia and leucopenia observed in placebo-treated animals during the acute phase of infection. Conclusions/Significance The remarkable protection afforded by i.p. favipiravir intervention beginning 2 days after challenge is the highest ever reported for a small molecule antiviral in the difficult to treat guinea pig JUNV challenge model. These findings support the continued development of favipiravir as a promising antiviral against JUNV and other related arenaviruses. PMID:24386500

  4. Polyphasic innate immune responses to acute and chronic LCMV infection

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Brian A.; Uebelhoer, Luke S.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Price, Aryn A.; Grakoui, Arash; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-01-01

    Summary Resolution of acute and chronic viral infections requires activation of innate cells to initiate and maintain adaptive immune responses. Here we report that infection with acute Armstrong (ARM) or chronic Clone 13 (C13) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) led to two distinct phases of innate immune response. During the first 72hr of infection, dendritic cells upregulated activation markers, and stimulated anti-viral CD8+ T cells, independent of viral strain. Seven days after infection, there was an increase in Ly6Chi monocytic and Gr-1hi neutrophilic cells in lymphoid organs and blood. This expansion in cell numbers was enhanced and sustained in C13 infection, whereas it occurred only transiently with ARM infection. These cells resembled myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and potently suppressed T cell proliferation. The reduction of monocytic cells in Ccr2−/− mice or after Gr-1 antibody depletion enhanced anti-viral T cell function. Thus, innate cells have an important immunomodulatory role throughout chronic infection. PMID:23438822

  5. Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Haixue; Qian, Ping; Xu, Jinfang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks. PMID:27374903

  6. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection and immune responses in the pig-tailed macaque testis.

    PubMed

    Winnall, Wendy R; Lloyd, Sarah B; De Rose, Robert; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Hedger, Mark P; Girling, Jane E; Kent, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    The testis is a site of immune privilege in rodents, and there is evidence that T cell responses are also suppressed in the primate testis. Local immunosuppression is a potential mechanism for HIV persistence in tissue reservoirs that few studies have examined. The response of the pig-tailed macaque testis to SIVmac239 infection was characterized to test this possibility. Testes were surgically removed during early-chronic (10 wk) and late-chronic (24-30 wk) SIV infection in 4 animals and compared with those from 7 uninfected animals. SIV infection caused only minor disruption to the seminiferous epithelium without marked evidence of inflammation or consistent changes in total intratesticular leukocyte numbers. Infection also led to an increase in the relative proportion of testicular effector memory CD8(+) T cell numbers and a corresponding reduction in central memory CD4(+) T cells. A decrease in the relative proportion of resident-type CD163(+) macrophages and DCs was also observed. SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were detectable in the testis, 10-11 wk after infection by staining with SIV Gag-specific or Tat-specific MHC-I tetramers. However, testicular CD8(+) T cells from the infected animals had suppressed cytokine responses to mitogen activation. These results support the possibility that local immunosuppression in the testis may be restricting the ability of T cells to respond to SIV or HIV infection. Local immunosuppression in the testis may be an underexplored mechanism allowing HIV persistence. PMID:25605872

  7. ORF5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a target of diversifying selection as infection progresses from acute infection to virus rebound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; Trible, Benjamin R; Kerrigan, Maureen A; Tian, Kegong; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2016-06-01

    Genetic variation in both structural and nonstructural genes is a key factor in the capacity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evade host defenses and maintain within animals, farms and metapopulations. However, the exact mechanisms by which genetic variation contribute to immune evasion remain unclear. In a study to understand the role of host genetics in disease resistance, a population of pigs were experimentally infected with a type 2 PRRSV isolate. Four pigs that showed virus rebound at 42days post-infection (dpi) were analyzed by 454 sequencing to characterize the rebound quasispecies. Deep sequencing of variable regions in nsp1, nsp2, ORF3 and ORF5 showed the largest number of nucleotide substitutions at day 28 compared to days 4 and 42 post-infection. Differences were also found in genetic variations when comparing tonsil versus serum. The results of dN/dS ratios showed that the same regions evolved under negative selection. However, eight amino acid sites were identified as possessing significant levels of positive selection, including A27V and N32S substitutions in the GP5 ectodomain region. These changes may alter GP5 peptide signal sequence processing and N-glycosylation, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest genetic diversity occurs during the transition between acute and rebound stages of infection, and the introduction of mutations that may result in a gain of fitness provides a potential mechanism for persistence. PMID:26961593

  8. Systemic toxoplasmosis and concurrent porcine circovirus-2 infection in a pig.

    PubMed

    Klein, S; Wendt, M; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P

    2010-01-01

    Systemic toxoplasmosis and concurrent infection with porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) was diagnosed in a fattening pig. Clinical examination of the herd showed that up to 30% of the pigs of this weight group suffered from severe respiratory signs including sneezing and coughing, with a mortality rate of up to 5%. Gross necropsy examination revealed severe interstitial pneumonia and generalized lymphadenopathy. On microscopical examination there was necrotizing inflammation of the lung, adrenal glands and lymph nodes, associated with lymphoid depletion, cytoplasmic basophilic botryoid inclusion bodies and protozoal microorganisms. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Polymerase chain reaction analysis, in-situ hybridization and IHC confirmed systemic PCV-2 infection. These findings, associated with the respiratory signs and lesions in lymphoid tissues, are characteristic for post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In this case, immunosuppression by PCV-2 may have triggered systemic toxoplasmosis, or immune stimulation caused by coinfection with T. gondii may have caused extensive replication of PCV-2. PMID:19740479

  9. Pathogenicity and ultrastructural pathology of Eimeria debliecki (Douwes, 1921) in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Vítovec, J; Koudela, B

    1990-01-01

    It was confirmed, after experimental infection of 24 weaned pigs with different doses (200,000 and 4 mil.) of Eimeria debliecki oocysts that the developmental cycle of E. debliecki occurs in the anterior jejunum and after a high dose of oocysts also in the duodenum and anterior parts of the middle jejunum. Pathological changes characterized by a light atrophy of the villi, scarcely dispersed minute erosions of the epithelium in upper parts of the mucosa and an inflammatory response in the propria of the anterior jejunum were found in the area of the largest occurrence of developmental stages of E. debliecki (from 50 cm to 100 cm from the pylorus). An inflammatory infiltrate in the propria of the anterior jejunum from 3 DPI to 5 DPI contained a conspicuously large number of plasma cells with Russell bodies. Cellular changes were detected only in enterocytes with developmental stages of E. debliecki. Changes of the microvillous zone were observed in infected enterocytes; dilated mitochondria, free ribosomes and an increased number of residual bodies were found in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. The degree of the cellular changes of enterocytes was dependent on the maturity of the developmental stage of E. debliecki. Based on pathological changes observed by the use of light and electron microscopy, the coccidium E. debliecki is considered to be pathogenic for weaned pigs in spite it does not provoke a clinical infection. PMID:2227701

  10. Biology and pathogenicity of Eimeria spinosa Henry, 1931 in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Koudela, B; Vítovec, J

    1992-08-01

    A single-species isolate of E. spinosa from a diarrheic weaned pig was used to determine the endogenous development and pathogenicity of this swine coccidium. Seven out of 14 inoculated pigs developed endogenous stages or passed oocysts of E. spinosa in their feces. Immunosuppressive treatment with cyclophosphamide had no effect on the susceptibility to infection with E. spinosa in young pigs. The endogenous stages developed within the apical cytoplasm of the enterocytes lining the distal part of the villi in the posterior jejunum. The asexual development comprised three generations of meronts, which were seen at 5, 7 and 9 days post-infection (DPI). Meronts of the first generation measured 6-8 microns and produced 10-14 merozoites 4-6 microns in length. The second generation of meronts measured 6-8 microns and contained 10-20 merozoites 4-6 microns in length. Third generation mature meronts (8-10 microns) on DPI 9 contained 12-20 merozoites measuring 5-7 microns, which were more crescent-shaped and less blunt than the merozoites at 5 and 7 DPI. Merogony continued after formation of the gametes and the first fully developed macrogametes (10-14 microns), microgametes (9-12 microns), and oocysts were also seen at 9 DPI. The prepatent period was 8 or 9 days, but the patent period was not determined. In the present study E. spinosa infection did not produce overt clinical signs. Pathological changes consisted of an inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria of the posterior jejunum, Peyer's patches activation and sporadic erosions scattered at the villous tips. No villous atrophy in association with a large number of endogenous stages was observed. PMID:1399250

  11. Patterns and Risks of Trichinella Infection in Humans and Pigs in Northern Laos

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, James V.; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Gomez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Pozio, Edoardo; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R. C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory–secretory (ES) antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 17.1–21.1%). The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1%) of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring. PMID:25078088

  12. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  13. Analysis of activated immune cell populations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of pigs immunized and/or infected with SIV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine influenza, caused by influenza A virus (SIV), is described as an acute respiratory disease with a high morbidity in pigs. Killed vaccines that contain both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes are available commercially; however, due to recently emerging novel subtypes and genetic/antigenic variants, effec...

  14. A cross-sectional study of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs in different-sized farms in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hinjoy, Soawapak; Nelson, Kenrad E; Gibbons, Robert V; Jarman, Richard G; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Fernandez, Stefan; Tablerk, Penporn; Labrique, Alain B; Patchanee, Prapas

    2013-08-01

    Pigs are an important reservoir of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in many countries throughout the world. We evaluated the association between farm size and presence of serum antibodies against HEV, as well as other risk factors for infection in pigs raised in Nan Province, Thailand in a cross-sectional study. The sampling frame was a total-population census of all pig herds, stratified into three classes of the farm size according to criteria developed by the Nan provincial livestock health office. One-eighth of all pigs in each farm were sampled randomly. All pig-farm owners were interviewed to elicit information on general characteristics of their farms, biosecurity and hygienic procedures, and farm management. We obtained sera and fecal samples from 879 pigs to test for antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk factors for HEV seroprevalence were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies was 9.9%. Pigs studied from medium-sized farms had a higher HEV seroprevalence than those from larger farms (adjusted OR 4.95, 95% CI: 1.79, 13.70). Factors associated with HEV seropositivity included feeding pigs with agro-industrial byproducts, having veterinarians on farms, and presence of other pig farms within 100 m. Twenty-five (2.9%) of 875 sampled pig stools were positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates clustered to HEV genotype 3. PMID:23789726

  15. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modifies innate immunity and alters disease outcome in pigs subsequently infected with porcine respiratory coronavirus: implications for respiratory viral co-infections.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Alekseev, Konstantin P; Fang, Ying; Tang, Yuxin; Saif, Linda J

    2009-11-01

    The innate immune response is critical for host defence against respiratory coronaviruses (CoVs). This study demonstrated that an ongoing respiratory virus infection compromises innate immune responses and affects the pathogenesis of a respiratory CoV co-infection. An innate immunosuppressive respiratory virus infection was established by infecting weaned pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV); 10 days later, the pigs were exposed to porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). The PRRSV/PRCV dual-infected pigs had reduced weight gains, a higher incidence of fever and more severe pneumonia compared with either single infection. Significant suppression of innate immune responses [reduced alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) levels in the lungs and reduced blood natural killer cell cytotoxicity] by the ongoing PRRSV infection was observed in dual-infected pigs, which coincided with exacerbated pneumonia during early PRCV infection. The subsequent PRCV infection led to enhanced PRRSV replication in the lungs and a trend towards increased serum T-helper type 1 (Th1) (IFN-gamma) but decreased Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4] responses, further exacerbating PRRSV pneumonia. Following PRCV infection, more severe PRRSV-related pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) apoptosis occurred, as determined by an in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay, suggesting increased PRRSV replication in PAMs. Collectively, these observations suggest interactive effects between PRCV and PRRSV via early innate (IFN-alpha) and later adaptive Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4) immune responses. These findings imply that an existing immunomodulating respiratory viral co-infection may be a contributing factor to more severe pneumonia in respiratory CoV disease. This study provides new insights into host-pathogen interactions related to co-infection by CoVs and other respiratory viruses. PMID:19656969

  16. Nematode infection: A rare mimic of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hotchen, Andrew; Chin, Kian; Raja, Mahzar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis is a common condition seen in all surgical units. One rare condition that can mimic acute appendicitis is a nematode infection of the bowel. There have been few reported cases of nematode infection within the appendix and none that have been accompanied by intra-operative pictures. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 16-year-old female presented with a 12 h history of right iliac fossa pain and mild pyrexia. Bloods showed a neutrophilia and normal C-reactive protein. Laparoscopy was performed which revealed a non-inflamed appendix. The appendix was dissected and a live nematode was visualised exiting the base of the appendix. Anti-helminthics were given and the infection resolved. DISCUSSION Nematode infection is most commonly seen in Africa, Asia and South America. When seen within the United Kingdom (UK), it is seen most commonly within high-risk populations. Testing for these infections is not routine within the UK and when they are performed, the results take a considerable amount of time to return. These tests should be considered within high-risk populations so that unnecessary surgery can be avoided. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance of considering rare causes of right iliac fossa pain including nematode infection in a young patient. The case highlights this by giving intra-operative pictures of live nematodes upon dissection of the appendix. PMID:25024022

  17. Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Howey, Erin B; O'Donnell, Vivian; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Borca, Manuel V; Arzt, Jonathan

    2013-12-26

    To investigate the pathogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV), domestic pigs (n=18) were challenged with a range (10(2)-10(6) 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)) of the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain by inoculation via the intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), or intramuscular (IM) routes. A subsequent contact challenge experiment was performed in which six IOP-inoculated donor pigs were allowed to have direct contact (DC) with six naïve pigs for exposure times that varied from 24 to 72 h. All challenge routes resulted in clinical progression and postmortem lesions similar to those previously described in experimental and natural infection. The onset of clinical signs occurred between 1 and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) and included pyrexia with variable progression to obtundation, hematochezia, melena, moribundity and death with a duration of 4-11 days. Viremia was first detected between 4 and 5 dpi in all inoculation groups whereas ASFV shedding from the nasal cavity and tonsil was first detected at 3-9 dpi. IM and DC were the most consistent modes of infection, with 12/12 (100%) of pigs challenged by these routes becoming infected. Several clinical and virological parameters were significantly different between IM and DC groups indicating dissimilarity between these modes of infection. Amongst the simulated natural routes, INP inoculation resulted in the most consistent progression of disease across the widest range of doses whilst preserving simulation of natural exposure and therefore may provide a superior system for pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy investigation. PMID:24076499

  18. Latent porcine circovirus type 2-infected domestic pigs: A potential infection model for the effective development of vaccines against latent or chronic virus induced diseases.

    PubMed

    Sydler, Titus; Brägger, Stefanie; Handke, Martin; Hartnack, Sonja; Lewis, Fraser I; Sidler, Xaver; Brugnera, Enrico

    2016-02-17

    Until recently, knowledge of the pathogenicity of Circoviridae and Anelloviridae family members was limited. Our previous discoveries provided clues toward resolving this issue based on studies of the latent nature of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genotype group members. We developed a conventional pig infection model that indicated that weaners already harbored latent PCV2 infection in the thymus, which enabled the viruses to specifically modulate the maturation of T-helper cells. This finding raised the possibility that the thymi of normal fetuses were already infected with PCV2. The present findings further substantiate our hypothesis that PCV2 masquerades as the host by infecting fetuses before they acquire immune-competence. We provide the first demonstration that all domestic pig fetuses preferentially harbor latent PCV2-infected cells in their thymi. These PCV2-infected cells are different from thymocytes and are located in the medulla of the fetal thymus. These latent PCV2-infected cells in fetuses are found at the same location and share characteristics with the infected cells observed in adolescent pigs. Moreover, fetuses also harbor these infected cells in other lymph system organs. We provide the first demonstration that the fetal thymus virus pools are minimally affected by sow vaccination, highlighting the immune-privileged character of this organ. Furthermore, we found a striking reduction in virus-infected cells in the fetal spleen and an increase in PCV2-infected cells in the fetal intestine of anti-PCV2-vaccinated mothers. These data indicate that specific immune response interactions occur between mothers and their progeny that are not dependent on the humoral immunity of the mother and cannot be attributed to the rudimentary humoral responses of the fetuses because these pig fetuses do not have any PCV2-specific antibodies. These shifts in our understanding of the PCV2-infected cell pool will lead to different avenues in the search for

  19. Course and transmission characteristics of oral low-dose infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar with a Caucasian African swine fever virus isolate.

    PubMed

    Pietschmann, Jana; Guinat, Claire; Beer, Martin; Pronin, Valery; Tauscher, Kerstin; Petrov, Anja; Keil, Günther; Blome, Sandra

    2015-07-01

    In 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Transcaucasian countries and Russia. Since then, it has spread alarmingly and reached the European Union. ASFV strains are highly virulent and lead to almost 100% mortality under experimental conditions. However, the possibility of dose-dependent disease courses has been discussed. For this reason, a study was undertaken to assess the risk of chronic disease and the establishment of carriers upon low-dose oronasal infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar. It was demonstrated that very low doses of ASFV are sufficient to infect especially weak or runted animals by the oronasal route. Some of these animals did not show clinical signs indicative of ASF, and they developed almost no fever. However, no changes were observed in individual animal regarding the onset, course and outcome of infection as assessed by diagnostic tests. After amplification of ASFV by these animals, pen- and stablemates became infected and developed acute lethal disease with similar characteristics in all animals. Thus, we found no indication of prolonged or chronic individual courses upon low-dose infection in either species. The scattered onset of clinical signs and pathogen detection within and among groups confirms moderate contagiosity that is strongly linked with blood contact. In conclusion, the prolonged course at the "herd level" together with the exceptionally low dose that proved to be sufficient to infect a runted wild boar could be important for disease dynamics in wild-boar populations and in backyard settings. PMID:25916610

  20. Current Perspectives of Prophylaxis and Management of Acute Infective Endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Tranos, Paris; Dervenis, Nikolaos; Vakalis, Athanasios N; Asteriadis, Solon; Stavrakas, Panagiotis; Konstas, Anastasios G P

    2016-05-01

    Endophthalmitis is an intraocular inflammatory condition which may or may not be caused by infective agents. Noninfectious (sterile) endophthalmitis may be attributable to various causes including postoperative retained soft lens matter or toxicity following introduction of other agents into the eye. Infectious endophthalmitis is further subdivided into endogenous and exogenous. In endogenous endophthalmitis there is hematogenous spread of organisms from a distant source of infection whereas in exogenous endophthalmitis direct microbial inoculation may occur usually following ocular surgery or penetrating eye injury with or without intraocular foreign bodies. Acute infective endophthalmitis is usually exogenous induced by inoculation of pathogens following ocular surgery, open-globe injury and intravitreal injections. More infrequently the infective source is internal and septicemia spreads to the eye resulting in endogenous endophthalmitis. Several risk factors have been implicated including immunosuppression, ocular surface abnormalities, poor surgical wound construction, complicated cataract surgery with vitreous loss and certain types of intraocular lens. Comprehensive guidelines and recommendations on prophylaxis and monitoring of surgical cases have been proposed to minimize the risk of acute endophthalmitis. Early diagnosis and prompt management of infective endophthalmitis employing appropriately selected intravitreal antibiotics are essential to optimize visual outcome. PMID:26935830

  1. ANA testing in the presence of acute and chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Christine M; Binder, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibody testing is performed to help diagnose patients who have clinical symptoms suggestive of possible autoimmune diseases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are present in many systemic autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, a positive ANA test may also be seen with non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including both acute and chronic infections. When the ANA test is used as an initial screen in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, myalgias, fatigue, rash, or anemia, the likelihood of a positive result due to infection will increase, especially in children. This article identifies acute and chronic infectious diseases that are likely to produce a positive ANA result and summarizes recent literature addressing both the causes and consequences of these findings. PMID:27050929

  2. Ferret hepatitis E virus infection induces acute hepatitis and persistent infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yang, Tingting; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ishii, Koji; Kishida, Noriko; Shirakura, Masayuki; Asanuma, Hideki; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-02-01

    Ferret hepatitis E virus (HEV), a novel hepatitis E virus, has been identified in ferrets. However, the pathogenicity of ferret HEV remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the HEV RNA-positivity rates and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of 63 ferrets between before and after import from the US to Japan. We found that the ferret HEV-RNA positivity rates were increased from 12.7% (8/63) to 60.3% (38/63), and ALT elevation was observed in 65.8% (25/38) of the ferret HEV RNA-positive ferrets, indicating that ferret HEV infection is responsible for liver damage. From long term-monitoring of ferret HEV infection we determined that this infection in ferrets exhibits three patterns: sub-clinical infection, acute hepatitis, and persistent infection. The ALT elevation was also observed in ferret HEV-infected ferrets in a primary infection experiment. These results indicate that the ferret HEV infection induced acute hepatitis and persistent infection in ferrets, suggesting that the ferrets are a candidate animal model for immunological as well as pathological studies of hepatitis E. PMID:26790932

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection of Tree Shrews Differs from That of Mice in the Severity of Acute Infection and Viral Transcription in the Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihong; Li, Zhuoran; Wang, Erlin; Yang, Rui; Xiao, Yu; Han, Hongbo; Lang, Fengchao; Li, Xin; Xia, Yujie; Gao, Feng; Li, Qihan; Fraser, Nigel W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of humans are limited by the use of rodent models such as mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) are small mammals indigenous to southwest Asia. At behavioral, anatomical, genomic, and evolutionary levels, tree shrews are much closer to primates than rodents are, and tree shrews are susceptible to HSV infection. Thus, we have studied herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in the tree shrew trigeminal ganglion (TG) following ocular inoculation. In situ hybridization, PCR, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses confirm that HSV-1 latently infects neurons of the TG. When explant cocultivation of trigeminal ganglia was performed, the virus was recovered after 5 days of cocultivation with high efficiency. Swabbing the corneas of latently infected tree shrews revealed that tree shrews shed virus spontaneously at low frequencies. However, tree shrews differ significantly from mice in the expression of key HSV-1 genes, including ICP0, ICP4, and latency-associated transcript (LAT). In acutely infected tree shrew TGs, no level of ICP4 was observed, suggesting the absence of infection or a very weak, acute infection compared to that of the mouse. Immunofluorescence staining with ICP4 monoclonal antibody, and immunohistochemistry detection by HSV-1 polyclonal antibodies, showed a lack of viral proteins in tree shrew TGs during both acute and latent phases of infection. Cultivation of supernatant from homogenized, acutely infected TGs with RS1 cells also exhibited an absence of infectious HSV-1 from tree shrew TGs. We conclude that the tree shrew has an undetectable, or a much weaker, acute infection in the TGs. Interestingly, compared to mice, tree shrew TGs express high levels of ICP0 transcript in addition to LAT during latency. However, the ICP0 transcript remained nuclear, and no ICP0 protein could be seen during the course of mouse and tree shrew TG

  4. Efficacy of combined vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in dually infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Bourry, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Simon, Gaëlle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne

    2015-11-18

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is one of the main causes of economic losses for swine producers. This complex is due to a combination of different pathogens and their interactions. Two major pathogens involved in PRDC are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objectives of this study were (i) to develop an experimental model of dual Mhp/PRRSV infection in SPF pigs with European strains of Mhp and PRRSV and (ii) to assess and compare the effects of single Mhp, single PRRSV or combined Mhp/PRRSV vaccination against this dual infection. Pigs dually infected with Mhp and PRRSV showed a combination of symptoms characteristic of each pathogen but no significant exacerbation of pathogenicity. Thus, the co-infected pigs displayed coughing and pneumonia typical of Mhp infection in addition to PRRSV-related hyperthermia and decrease in average daily gain (ADG). Hyperthermia was reduced in PRRSV vaccinated animals (single or combined vaccination), whereas ADG was restored in Mhp/PRRSV vaccinated pigs only. Regarding respiratory symptoms and lung lesions, no vaccine decreased coughing. However, all vaccines reduced the pneumonia score but more so in animals receiving the Mhp vaccine, whether single or combined. This vaccine also decreased the Mhp load in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, combined vaccination against both Mhp and PRRSV efficiently pooled the efficacy of each single PRRSV and Mhp vaccination and could be an interesting tool to control PRDC in European swine production. PMID:26422712

  5. Interaction between single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Jin; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination on dually infected pigs. In total, 72 pigs were randomly divided into nine groups (eight pigs per group), as follows: five vaccinated and challenged groups, three non-vaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative control group. Single-dose vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone decreased the levels of PRRSV viremia and PRRSV-induced pulmonary lesions, whereas single-dose vaccination against PRRSV alone did not decrease nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and mycoplasma-induced pulmonary lesions in the dually infected pigs. The M. hyopneumoniae challenge impaired the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the PRRSV vaccine, whereas the PRRSV challenge did not impair the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study provides swine practitioners and producers with efficient vaccination regimes; vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae is the first step in protecting pigs against co-infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. PMID:24702900

  6. Transient acute adrenal insufficiency associated with adenovirus serotype 40 infection

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Birendra; Ali, Muhammad; Kumar, Varun; Krebit, Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    We present an instance of a 6-year-old boy who was admitted with adenovirus infection and developed transient acute adrenal insufficiency, which required supplementation with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids for 8 weeks. Adenovirus has got adrenotropic potential and can cause adrenal insufficiency. We could not find any similar reported case in medical literature. We hope our case would add to the existing knowledge of adenoviral complications in paediatric patients. PMID:24928932

  7. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the porcine kobuvirus VP1 region using infected pigs from Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) is a member of the Kobuvirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. PKoV is distributed worldwide with high prevalence in clinically healthy pigs and those with diarrhea. Methods Fecal and intestinal samples (n = 163) from pig farms in Sichuan Province, China were obtained to determine the presence of PKoV using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Specific primers were used for the amplification of the gene encoding the PKoV VP1 protein sequence. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to clarify evolutionary relationships with other PKoV strains. Results Approximately 53% (87/163) of pigs tested positive for PKoV. PKoV was widespread in asymptomatic pigs and those with diarrhea. A high prevalence of PKoV was observed in pigs younger than 4 weeks and in pigs with diarrhea. Phylogenetic analysis of 36 PKoV VP1 protein sequences showed that Sichuan PKoV strains formed four distinct clusters. Two pigs with diarrhea were found to be co-infected with multiple PKoV strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed diversity within the same host and between different hosts. Significant recombination breakpoints were observed between the CHN/SC/31-A1 and CHN/SC/31-A3 strains in the VP1 region, which were isolated from the same sample. Conclusion PKoV was endemic in Sichuan Province regardless of whether pigs were healthy or suffering from diarrhea. Based on our statistical analyses, we suggest that PKoV was the likely causative agent of high-mortality diarrhea in China from 2010. For the first time, we provide evidence for the co-existence of multiple PKoV strains in one pig, and possible recombination events in the VP1 region. Our findings provide further insights into the molecular properties of PKoV, along with its epidemiology. PMID:24025093

  8. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes. PMID:26106066

  9. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  10. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  11. A Child with Acute Encephalopathy Associated with Quadruple Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Keiko; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Masuda, Midori; Shigehara, Seiji; Oba, Chizu; Murata, Shinya; Kase, Tetsuo; Komano, Jun A.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric acute encephalopathy (AE) was sometimes attributed to virus infection. However, viral infection does not always result in AE. The risk factors for developing infantile AE upon virus infection remain to be determined. Here, we report an infant with AE co-infected with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and three picornaviruses, including coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), and human parechovirus (HPeV). EV-D68 was vertically transmitted to the infant from his mother. CVA6 and HPeV were likely transmitted to the infant at the nursery school. HHV-6 might be re-activated in the patient. It remained undetermined, which pathogen played the central role in the AE pathogenesis. However, active, simultaneous infection of four viruses should have evoked the cytokine storm, leading to the pathogenesis of AE. Conclusion: an infant case with active quadruple infection of potentially AE-causing viruses was seldom reported partly because systematic nucleic acid-based laboratory tests on picornaviruses were not common. We propose that simultaneous viral infection may serve as a risk factor for the development of AE. PMID:25883930

  12. Infection in acute leukemia patients receiving oral nonabsorable antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D M; Schimpff, S C; Fortner, C L; Smyth, A C; Young, V M; Wiernik, P H

    1978-06-01

    During a 20-month period all acute nonlymphocytic patients (87 patient trials) receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy were placed on an oral nonabsorbable antibiotic regimen consisting of gentamicin, vancomycin, and nystatin in addition to an intensive program of infection prevention aimed at reducing exogenously acquired and body-surface potential pathogens. Although side effects of anorexia, diarrhea, and nausea were common, gentamicin-vancomycin-nystatin was ingested 80% of the study time. Microbial growth in gingival and rectal cultures was substantially reduced. The incidence of bacteremias and other serious infections was low. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, other gram-negative bacilli, and Candida species caused few infections along the alimentary canal, whereas infections of the skin (especially Staphylococcus aureus) were not reduced compared with those occurring in former years. A total of the 104 acquired gram-negative bacilli were gentamicin resistant; 5 subsequently caused infection. Thus, despite certain definite drawbacks, the use of oral nonabsorbable antibiotics to suppress alimentary tract microbial flora in combination with other infection prevention techniques in granulocytopenic cancer patients has proven feasible and tolerable and has been associated with a low order of life-threatening infections. PMID:98107

  13. The requirements of protein & amino acid during acute & chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Kurpad, Anura V

    2006-08-01

    Nutrition and infection interact with each other in a synergistic vicious cycle, leading to an adverse nutritional status and increased susceptibility to infection. Infectious episodes result in hypermetabolism and a negative nitrogen balance which is modulated by hormones, cytokines and other pro-inflammatory mediators, and is compounded by a reduced food intake. The extent of the negative nitrogen balance varies with the type of infection and its duration; however, it is reasonable to suggest that the loss of body protein could be minimized by the provision of dietary nitrogen, although anorexia will limit this. Further, distinctions need to be made about the provision of nutrients or protein during the catabolic and anabolic or recovery phase of the infection, since the capacity of the body to retain protein is enhanced in the anabolic recovery phase. Meeting the increased requirement for protein (and other nutrients) in infection does not imply a complete therapeutic strategy. Infections need to be treated appropriately, with nutrition as an adjunct to the treatment. Prior undernutrition could also impair the body's response to infection, although the weight of the evidence would suggest that this happens more particularly in oedematous undernutrition. In general, the amount of extra protein that would appear to be needed is of the order of 20-25 per cent of the recommended intake, for most infections. In acute infections, this is particularly relevant during the convalescence period. Community trials have suggested that lysine supplementation to the level required for normal daily nutriture, in predominantly wheat eating or potentially lysine deficient communities, improves immune function among other functional nutritional parameters; however, there is as yet insufficient evidence to suggest a specific requirement for amino acids in infections over and above the normal daily requirement as based on recent evidence. Some clinical studies that have showed

  14. Pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary infection.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, L E

    1999-12-01

    Pivmecillinam is a beta-lactam antimicrobial marketed almost two decades ago. It has been used widely for the treatment of acute cystitis in selected areas of the world, particularly in Scandinavia. With increasing resistance of community Escherichia coli isolates to trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, as previously observed for ampicillin and sulphonamides, reassessment of empiric antimicrobial regimens for acute uncomplicated urinary infection is necessary. Thus, it is timely to revisit the role of pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute cystitis. Clinical studies document the efficacy of this antimicrobial with short course therapy for acute cystitis, and clinical practice in countries where it has been used for many years confirms its efficacy and tolerability. If this agent were more widely used for empiric treatment for acute cystitis, use of antimicrobials such as the quinolones might be avoided. Further trials to define the comparative efficacy of pivmecillinam with other antimicrobials, and further studies of community resistance in E. coli isolates to this agent are needed. PMID:10692756

  15. Experimental Infection of the Pig with Mycobacterium ulcerans: A Novel Model for Studying the Pathogenesis of Buruli Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Miriam; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Ricklin, Meret E.; Zimmer, Gert; Pluschke, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a slowly progressing, necrotising disease of the skin caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. Non-ulcerative manifestations are nodules, plaques and oedema, which may progress to ulceration of large parts of the skin. Histopathologically, BU is characterized by coagulative necrosis, fat cell ghosts, epidermal hyperplasia, clusters of extracellular acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the subcutaneous tissue and lack of major inflammatory infiltration. The mode of transmission of BU is not clear and there is only limited information on the early pathogenesis of the disease available. Methodology/Principal Findings For evaluating the potential of the pig as experimental infection model for BU, we infected pigs subcutaneously with different doses of M. ulcerans. The infected skin sites were excised 2.5 or 6.5 weeks after infection and processed for histopathological analysis. With doses of 2×107 and 2×106 colony forming units (CFU) we observed the development of nodular lesions that subsequently progressed to ulcerative or plaque-like lesions. At lower inoculation doses signs of infection found after 2.5 weeks had spontaneously resolved at 6.5 weeks. The observed macroscopic and histopathological changes closely resembled those found in M. ulcerans disease in humans. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that the pig can be infected with M. ulcerans. Productive infection leads to the development of lesions that closely resemble human BU lesions. The pig infection model therefore has great potential for studying the early pathogenesis of BU and for the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. PMID:25010421

  16. Bone and Joint Infections in Children: Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Aggarwal, Aditya N

    2016-08-01

    Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) is one of the commonest bone infection in childhood. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest organism causing AHO. With use of advanced diagnostic methods, fastidious Kingella kingae is increasingly becoming an important organism in etiology of osteoarticular infections in children under the age of 3 y. The diagnosis of AHO is primarily clinical. The main clinical symptom and sign in AHO is pain and tenderness over the affected bone especially in the metaphyseal region. However, in a neonate the clinical presentation may be subtle and misleading. Laboratory and radiological investigations supplement the clinical findings. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are frequently elevated. Ultrasonography and MRI are key imaging modalities for early detection of AHO. Determination of infecting organism in AHO is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management and therefore, organism isolation using blood cultures and site aspiration should be attempted. Several effective antibiotics regimes are available for managing AHO in children. The choice of antibiotic and its duration and mode of delivery requires individualization depending upon severity of infection, causative organism, regional sensitivity patterns, time elapsed between onset of symptoms and child's presentation and the clinical and laboratory response to the treatment. If pus has been evidenced in the soft tissues or bone region, surgical decompression of abscess is mandatory. PMID:26096866

  17. Host-microbiome interactions in acute and chronic respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven L; Wesselingh, Steve; Rogers, Geraint B

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory infection is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Understanding the factors that influence risk and outcome of these infections is essential to improving care. We increasingly understand that interactions between the microbial residents of our mucosal surfaces and host regulatory systems is fundamental to shaping local and systemic immunity. These mechanisms are most well defined in the gastrointestinal tract, however analogous systems also occur in the airways. Moreover, we now appreciate that the host-microbiota interactions at a given mucosal surface influence systemic host processes, in turn, affecting the course of infection at other anatomical sites. This review discusses the mechanisms by which the respiratory microbiome influences acute and chronic airway disease and examines the contribution of cross-talk between the gastrointestinal and respiratory compartments to microbe-mucosa interactions. PMID:26972325

  18. Contemporary management of infected necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jamdar, Saurabh; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis is a challenging scenario in contemporary critical care practice; it requires multidisciplinary care in a setting where there is a relatively limited evidence base to support decision making. This commentary provides a concise overview of current management of patients with infected necrosis, focusing on detection, the role of pharmacologic intervention, and the timing and nature of surgical interventions. Fine-needle aspiration of necrosis remains the mainstay for establishment of infection. Pharmacological intervention includes antibiotic therapy as an adjunct to surgical debridement/drainage and, more recently, drotrecogin alfa. Specific concerns remain regarding the suitability of drotrecogin alfa in this setting. Early surgical intervention is unhelpful; surgery is indicated when there is strong evidence for infection of necrotic tissue, with the current trend being toward 'less drastic' surgical interventions. PMID:16356213

  19. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  20. Antiviral effect of dietary germanium biotite supplementation in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A

    2013-01-01

    Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that would promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease. PMID:23814470

  1. INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION AND HYPERSENSITIVITY PARAMETERS UNDER GUINEA PIG MODEL OF ACUTE ASTHMA WITH MULTIPLE CHALLENGES.

    PubMed

    Parilova, O O; Shandrenko, S G

    2015-01-01

    An immunoregulatory role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of adaptive immune responses associated with allergic diseases is very important. The present study extended these observations by the examination of the reciprocal changes in characteristic immunologic parameters of the disease and NO level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges. Development of guinea pig Th2 mediated asthma was accompanied by increasing the level of allergic markers: ovalbumin (OVA) specific IgG and IL-4. We demonstrated that the infiltrate of airway cells contributes to NO synthesis in the respiratory tract during allergic inflammation. The level of intracellular NO formation significantly correlated with plasma allergen specific IgG value in OVA-induced asthma. The presented data evidence that the elevated intracellular NO level in BAL fluid may reflect a nitrosative stress in respiratory tract in general, when allergic asthma exacerbation is present. PMID:26717602

  2. Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with swine respiratory disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura C; Jiang, Zhihua; Sang, Yongming; Harhay, Gregory P; Lager, Kelly M

    2014-06-15

    Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus. The gene family has 5 and 7 members in humans and mice, respectively. Here, we confirm the current annotation of pig IFITM1, IFITM2, IFITM3, IFITM5, IFITM1L1 and IFITM1L4, manually annotated IFITM1L2, IFITM1L3, IFITM5L, IFITM3L1 and IFITM3L2, and provide expressed sequence tag (EST) and/or mRNA evidence, not contained with the NCBI Reference Sequence database (RefSeq), for the existence of IFITM6, IFITM7 and a new IFITM1-like (IFITM1LN) gene in pigs. Phylogenic analyses showed seven porcine IFITM genes with highly conserved human/mouse orthologs known to have anti-viral activity. Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling (DGETP) of swine tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) of pigs infected with swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus or porcine circovirus type 2 over 14 days post-inoculation (dpi) showed that gene expression abundance differs dramatically among pig IFITM family members, ranging from 0 to over 3000 tags per million. In particular, SIV up-regulated IFITM1 by 5.9 fold at 3 dpi. Bayesian framework further identified pig IFITM1 and IFITM3 as differentially expressed genes in the overall transcriptome analysis. In addition to being a component of protein complexes involved in homotypic adhesion, the IFITM1 is also associated with pathways related to regulation of cell proliferation and IFITM3 is involved in immune responses. PMID:24656980

  3. A Neutralizing Anti-gH/gL Monoclonal Antibody Is Protective in the Guinea Pig Model of Congenital CMV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Marcy R.; Yan, Donghong; Vij, Rajesh; Hongo, Jo-Anne; Nakamura, Gerald; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y. Gloria; Lein, Samantha; Chan, Pamela; Ross, Jed; Carano, Richard; Deng, Rong; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Xu, Min; Feierbach, Becket

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital virus infection. Congenital HCMV infection occurs in 0.2–1% of all births, and causes birth defects and developmental abnormalities, including sensorineural hearing loss and developmental delay. Several key studies have established the guinea pig as a tractable model for the study of congenital HCMV infection and have shown that polyclonal antibodies can be protective [1]–[3]. In this study, we demonstrate that an anti-guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) glycoprotein H/glycoprotein L neutralizing monoclonal antibody protects against fetal infection and loss in the guinea pig. Furthermore, we have delineated the kinetics of GPCMV congenital infection, from maternal infection (salivary glands, seroconversion, placenta) to fetal infection (fetus and amniotic fluid). Our studies support the hypothesis that a neutralizing monoclonal antibody targeting an envelope GPCMV glycoprotein can protect the fetus from infection and may shed light on the therapeutic intervention of HCMV congenital infection in humans. PMID:24722349

  4. Association of concurrent porcine circovirus (PCV) 2a and 2b infection with PCV associated disease in vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Johnson, John; Shen, Huigang; Striegel, Dave; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2013-10-01

    Investigations were performed to characterize porcine circovirus (PCV) 2 infection in 10 week old pigs from a case of apparent vaccine failure. Thirty serum samples were collected from affected or non-affected pigs and tested for anti-PCV2 antibodies and PCV2 DNA. To address potential PCV2 vaccine compliance issues, samples were tested for antibodies against baculovirus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens present in the PCV2 vaccine utilized in this herd. Both PCV2a and PCV2b DNA were detected in 76.6% (90% positive for PCV2a, 86.6% positive for PCV2b), anti-PCV2 IgG in 90%, anti-baculovirus IgG in 50%, and anti-M. hyopneumoniae IgG in 43.3% of the samples. Frequency of baculovirus and M. hyopneumoniae seropositive pigs was significantly lower in affected pigs. The finding that only 50% of the pigs developed a detectable immune response to vaccination suggests poor vaccine compliance or efficacy. Concurrent PCV2a and PCV2b infection was common and may have resulted in enhanced PCV2 replication. PMID:23829995

  5. Swine influenza virus infection in different age groups of pigs in farrow-to-finish farms in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding swine influenza virus (SIV) ecology has become more and more important from both the pig industry and public health points of views. However, the mechanism whereby SIV occurs in pig farms is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a proper strategy for SIV surveillance. Findings We conducted longitudinal monitoring in 6 farrow-to-finish farms in the central region of Thailand from 2008 to 2009. Nasal swabs and serum samples were collected periodically from clinically healthy pigs consisting of sows, fattening pigs, weaned piglets and pigs transferred from other farms. A total of 731 nasal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and 641 serum samples were subjected to detection of SIV antibodies against H1 and H3 subtypes using the hemagglutination inhibition test and ELISA. Twelve SIVs were isolated in this study and eleven were from piglets aged 4 and 8 weeks. Phylogenetical analysis revealed that SIVs isolated from different farms shared a common ancestor. Antibodies against SIVs were detected in fattening pigs on farms with no SIV isolation in the respective periods studied. These observations suggested that piglets aged 8 weeks or younger could be a main target for SIV isolation. Farm-to-farm transmission was suggested for farms where pigs from other farms are introduced periodically. In addition, antibodies against SIVs detected in fattening pigs could be a marker for SIV infection in a farm. Conclusions The present study provided important information on SIV surveillance that will enable better understanding of SIV ecology in farrow-to-finish farms. PMID:22166074

  6. Local Cellular Immune Responses and Pathogenesis of Buruli Ulcer Lesions in the Experimental Mycobacterium Ulcerans Pig Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Miriam; Ruggli, Nicolas; Borel, Nicole; Pluschke, Gerd; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease of the skin that is caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. We recently established an experimental pig (Sus scrofa) infection model for Buruli ulcer to investigate host-pathogen interactions, the efficacy of candidate vaccines and of new treatment options. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have used the model to study pathogenesis and early host-pathogen interactions in the affected porcine skin upon infection with mycolactone-producing and non-producing M. ulcerans strains. Histopathological analyses of nodular lesions in the porcine skin revealed that six weeks after infection with wild-type M. ulcerans bacteria extracellular acid fast bacilli were surrounded by distinct layers of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. Upon ulceration, the necrotic tissue containing the major bacterial burden was sloughing off, leading to the loss of most of the mycobacteria. Compared to wild-type M. ulcerans bacteria, toxin-deficient mutants caused an increased granulomatous cellular infiltration without massive tissue necrosis, and only smaller clusters of acid fast bacilli. Conclusions/Significance In summary, the present study shows that the pathogenesis and early immune response to M. ulcerans infection in the pig is very well reflecting BU disease in humans, making the pig infection model an excellent tool for the profiling of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. PMID:27128097

  7. Age at vaccination and timing of infection do not alter vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in influenza A virus infected pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used in the swine industry to reduce clinical disease against homologous influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In pigs experimentally challenged with antigenically distinct heterologous IAV of the same hemagglutinin subtype, WIV vaccinates have been sho...

  8. The effect of dietary carbohydrates and Trichuris suis infection on pig large intestine tissue structure, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Knudsen, K E Bach; Hedemann, M S; Roepstorff, A

    2006-11-30

    Two experiments (Exps. 1 and 2) were performed to study the influence of Trichuris suis infection and type of dietary carbohydrates on large intestine morphology, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with resistant carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Experiment 1, 32 pigs were allocated randomly into four groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and two groups Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs and the other two groups remained uninfected controls. In Experiment 2, 12 pigs were allocated randomly into two groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively, and inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs. All the pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post inoculation (p.i.). The worm counts were lower in pigs fed Diet 2 in both experiments, but not significantly so. Both diet and infection status significantly influenced the tissue weight of the large intestine. In both experiments, pigs fed Diet 2 had heavier large intestines than pigs fed Diet 1 and in Experiment1 the infected pigs of both diets had heavier large intestines than their respective control groups. Diet and infection also significantly affected the morphological architecture and mucin production in both experiments. Pigs fed Diet 1 had larger crypts both in terms of area and height than pigs fed Diet 2 and T. suis infected pigs on both diets in Experiment 1 had larger crypts than their respective control groups. The area of the mucin granules in the crypts constituted 22-53% of the total crypt area and was greatest in the T. suis infected pigs fed Diet 1. Epithelial cell proliferation was affected neither by diet nor infection in any of the experiments. The study showed that both T. suis infection and dietary carbohydrates significantly

  9. Slaughterhouse Pigs Are a Major Reservoir of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capable of Causing Human Infection in Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Ngo Thi; Chieu, Tran Thi Bich; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Van; Campbell, James; Anh, Pham Hong; Huu Tho, Huynh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542) of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542) carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%). 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged. PMID:21464930

  10. Morphological characterization of Cysticercus cellulosae in naturally infected pigs in Punjab (India).

    PubMed

    Chawhan, Pradeep; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Sharma, Rajnish; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-06-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is an important medical and veterinary concern in the developing world. The present study was carried out to determine the morphological characteristics of Cysticercus cellulosae, so as to differentiate the C. viscerotropica (larval form of T. asiatica) which is having only rudimentary hooks on their rostellum. Morphological analysis was conducted on 22 Cysticercus positive samples. Measurements for number of hooks (large and small), the total length and blade length of large and small hooks per rostellum were carried out as per previous studies. Microscopic examination of all the cysts showed typical characteristic of T. solium i.e. presence of hooks in all the cysts. The results indicated absence of T. asiatica from naturally infected pigs in Punjab (India). PMID:27413285

  11. Molecular Identification of a Trichinella Isolate from a Naturally Infected Pig in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling Zhao; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Ren, Hui Jun

    2011-01-01

    The first human case with trichinellosis was reported in 1964 in Tibet, China. However, up to the present, the etiological agent of trichinellosis has been unclear. The aim of this study was to identify a Tibet Trichinella isolate at a species level by PCR-based methods. Multiplex PCR revealed amplicon of the expected size (173 bp) for Trichinella spiralis in assays containing larval DNA from Tibet Trichinella isolate from a naturally infected pig. The Tibet Trichinella isolate was also identified by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region (5S ISR) and mitochondrial large-subunit ribosomal RNA (mt-lsrDNA) gene sequences. The results showed that 2 DNA fragments (749 bp and 445 bp) of the Tibet Trichinella isolate were identical to that of the reference isolates of T. spiralis. The Tibet Trichinella isolate might be classifiable to T. spiralis. This is the first report on T. spiralis in southwestern China. PMID:22355205

  12. Treatment of pigs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with various antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Stipkovits, L; Miller, D; Glavits, R; Fodor, L; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    The authors have performed a comparative study of the efficacy of various in-feed medications for the treatment of 5- to 6-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) piglets experimentally infected on day 1 with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, on day 8 with Pasteurella multocida (serotype A), and on day 15 with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (serotype 2). The treatment started on day 9 and continued for 12 consecutive days, then the piglets were euthanized for examination of macroscopic, histologic, and pathologic lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas and bacteria in the lungs. Based on the results of clinical observations (respiratory signs, rectal temperature, body weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency), macroscopic and histologic lesions of the lungs, and microbiologic findings, the best results were obtained by treatment of pigs with Econor + chlortetracycline, followed by Tetramutin, Pulmotil, Cyfac, and lincomycin + chlortetracycline. PMID:11768127

  13. Comparing the Bacterial Diversity of Acute and Chronic Dental Root Canal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adriana L.; Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.; Jesus, Ederson C.; Rosado, Alexandre S.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-01-01

    This study performed barcoded multiplex pyrosequencing with a 454 FLX instrument to compare the microbiota of dental root canal infections associated with acute (symptomatic) or chronic (asymptomatic) apical periodontitis. Analysis of samples from 9 acute abscesses and 8 chronic infections yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 916 bacterial species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (at 3% divergence) belonging to 67 genera and 13 phyla. The most abundant phyla in acute infections were Firmicutes (52%), Fusobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (13%), while in chronic infections the dominant were Firmicutes (59%), Bacteroidetes (14%) and Actinobacteria (10%). Members of Fusobacteria were much more prevalent in acute (89%) than in chronic cases (50%). The most abundant/prevalent genera in acute infections were Fusobacterium and Parvimonas. Twenty genera were exclusively detected in acute infections and 18 in chronic infections. Only 18% (n = 165) of the OTUs at 3% divergence were shared by acute and chronic infections. Diversity and richness estimators revealed that acute infections were significantly more diverse than chronic infections. Although a high interindividual variation in bacterial communities was observed, many samples tended to group together according to the type of infection (acute or chronic). This study is one of the most comprehensive in-deep comparisons of the microbiota associated with acute and chronic dental root canal infections and highlights the role of diverse polymicrobial communities as the unit of pathogenicity in acute infections. The overall diversity of endodontic infections as revealed by the pyrosequencing technique was much higher than previously reported for endodontic infections. PMID:22132218

  14. Comparing the bacterial diversity of acute and chronic dental root canal infections.

    PubMed

    Santos, Adriana L; Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N; Jesus, Ederson C; Rosado, Alexandre S; Tiedje, James M

    2011-01-01

    This study performed barcoded multiplex pyrosequencing with a 454 FLX instrument to compare the microbiota of dental root canal infections associated with acute (symptomatic) or chronic (asymptomatic) apical periodontitis. Analysis of samples from 9 acute abscesses and 8 chronic infections yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 916 bacterial species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (at 3% divergence) belonging to 67 genera and 13 phyla. The most abundant phyla in acute infections were Firmicutes (52%), Fusobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (13%), while in chronic infections the dominant were Firmicutes (59%), Bacteroidetes (14%) and Actinobacteria (10%). Members of Fusobacteria were much more prevalent in acute (89%) than in chronic cases (50%). The most abundant/prevalent genera in acute infections were Fusobacterium and Parvimonas. Twenty genera were exclusively detected in acute infections and 18 in chronic infections. Only 18% (n = 165) of the OTUs at 3% divergence were shared by acute and chronic infections. Diversity and richness estimators revealed that acute infections were significantly more diverse than chronic infections. Although a high interindividual variation in bacterial communities was observed, many samples tended to group together according to the type of infection (acute or chronic). This study is one of the most comprehensive in-deep comparisons of the microbiota associated with acute and chronic dental root canal infections and highlights the role of diverse polymicrobial communities as the unit of pathogenicity in acute infections. The overall diversity of endodontic infections as revealed by the pyrosequencing technique was much higher than previously reported for endodontic infections. PMID:22132218

  15. Therapeutic potential of transplanted placental mesenchymal stem cells in treating Chinese miniature pigs with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stem cell-based therapy to treat liver diseases is a focus of current research worldwide. So far, most such studies depend on rodent hepatic failure models. The purpose of this study was to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta (hPMSCs) and determine their therapeutic potential for treating Chinese experimental miniature pigs with acute liver failure (ALF). Methods hPMSCs were isolated and analyzed for their purity and differentiation potential before being employed as the donor cells for transplantation. ALF models of Chinese experimental miniature pigs were established and divided into four groups: no cell transplantation; hPMSCs transplantation via the jugular vein; X-ray-treated hPMSCs transplantation via the portal vein; and hPMSCs transplantation via the portal vein. The restoration of biological functions of the livers receiving transplantation was assessed via a variety of approaches such as mortality rate determination, serum biochemical analysis, and histological, immunohistochemical, and genetic analysis. Results hPMSCs expressed high levels of CD29, CD73, CD13, and CD90, had adipogenic, osteogenic, and hepatic differentiation potential. They improved liver functions in vivo after transplantation into the D-galactosamine-injured pig livers as evidenced by the fact that ALT, AST, ALP, CHE, TBIL, and TBA concentrations returned to normal levels in recipient ALF pigs. Meanwhile, histological data revealed that transplantation of hPMSCs via the portal vein reduced liver inflammation, decreased hepatic denaturation and necrosis, and promoted liver regeneration. These ameliorations were not found in the other three groups. The result of 7-day survival rates suggested that hPMSCs transplantation via the portal vein was able to significantly prolong the survival of ALF pigs compared with the other three groups. Histochemistry and RT-PCR results confirmed the presence of transplanted human cells in recipient pig livers (Groups III, IV

  16. The Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102

  17. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis. PMID:27044164

  18. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27003162

  19. Proteomic Profiling of Mouse Liver following Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun-Jun; Ma, Jun; Elsheikha, Hany M.; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii remains a global public health problem. However, its pathophysiology is still not-completely understood particularly the impact of infection on host liver metabolism. We performed iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis to evaluate early liver protein responses in BALB/c mice following infection with T. gondii PYS strain (genotype ToxoDB#9) infection. Our data revealed modification of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of immune response and downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, and the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and xenobiotics. T. gondii seems to hijack host PPAR signaling pathway to downregulate the metabolism of fatty acids, lipids and energy in the liver. The metabolism of over 400 substances was affected by the downregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. The top 10 transcription factors used by upregulated genes were Stat2, Stat1, Irf2, Irf1, Sp2, Egr1, Stat3, Klf4, Elf1 and Gabpa, while the top 10 transcription factors of downregulated genes were Hnf4A, Ewsr1, Fli1, Hnf4g, Nr2f1, Pparg, Rxra, Hnf1A, Foxa1 and Foxo1. These findings indicate global reprogramming of the metabolism of the mouse liver after acute T. gondii infection. Functional characterization of the altered proteins may enhance understanding of the host responses to T. gondii infection and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:27003162

  20. Actinomyces infection causing acute right iliac fossa pain

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajah, Narendranath; Hameed, Waseem; Middleton, Simon; Booth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of a 75-year-old man being admitted to the on-call surgical department with acute abdominal pain. On arrival he was clinically dehydrated and shocked with localised pain over McBurney's point and examination findings were suggestive of appendiceal or other colonic pathology. Full blood testing revealed a white cell count of 38×109/L and a C reactive protein (CRP) of 278 mg/L. A CT scan revealed a gallbladder empyema that extended into the right iliac fossa. This case highlights the potential for a hyperdistended gallbladder empyema to present as acute right iliac fossa pain with blood tests suggestive of complicated disease. Further analysis confirmed Actinomyces infection as the underlying aetiology prior to a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. This case serves to remind clinicians of this as a rare potential cause of atypical gallbladder pathology. PMID:24872493

  1. Influence of chitosan nanofiber scaffold on porcine endogenous retroviral expression and infectivity in pig hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Xiao, Jiang-Qiang; Zhang, Yue; Chu, Xue-Hui; Gu, Jin-Yang; Tan, Jia-Jun; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of chitosan nanofiber scaffold on the production and infectivity of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) expressed by porcine hepatocytes. METHODS: Freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes were cultured with or without chitosan nanofiber scaffold (defined as Nano group and Hep group) for 7 d. The daily collection of culture medium was used to detect reverse transcriptase (RT) activity with RT activity assay kits and PERV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real time PCR with the PERV specific primers. And Western blotting was performed with the lysates of daily retrieved cells to determine the PERV protein gag p30. Besides, the in-vitro infectivity of the supernatant was tested by incubating the human embryo kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. RESULTS: The similar changing trends between two groups were observed in real time PCR, RT activity assay and Western blotting. Two peaks of PERV expression at 10H and Day 2 were found and followed by a regular decline. No significant difference was found between two groups except the significantly high level of PERV RNA at Day 6 and PERV protein at Day 5 in Nano group than that in Hep group. And in the in-vitro infection experiment, no HEK293 cell was infected by the supernatant. CONCLUSION: Chitosan nanofiber scaffold might prolong the PERV secreting time in pig hepatocytes but would not obviously influence its productive amount and infectivity, so it could be applied in the bioartificial liver without the increased risk of the virus transmission. PMID:21734784

  2. Microbial transformation from normal oral microbiota to acute endodontic infections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endodontic infections are a leading cause of oro-facial pain and tooth loss in western countries, and may lead to severe life-threatening infections. These infections are polymicrobial with high bacterial diversity. Understanding the spatial transition of microbiota from normal oral cavities through the infected root canal to the acute periapical abscess can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of endodontic infections and lead to more effective treatment. We obtained samples from the oral cavity, infected root canal and periapical abscess of 8 patients (5 with localized and 3 with systemic infections). Microbial populations in these samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Bioinformatics tools and statistical tests with rigorous criteria were used to elucidate the spatial transition of the microbiota from normal to diseased sites. Results On average, 10,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. The microbial diversity in root canal and abscess samples was significantly lower than in the oral samples. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in oral cavities while Prevotella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in diseased samples. The microbiota community structures of root canal and abscess samples were, however, more similar to each other than to the oral cavity microbiota. Using rigorous criteria and novel bioinformatics tools, we found that Granulicatella adiacens, Eubacterium yurii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella salivae, Streptococcus mitis, and Atopobium rimae were over-represented in diseased samples. Conclusions We used a novel approach and high-throughput methodologies to characterize the microbiota associated normal and diseased oral sites in the same individuals. PMID:22839737

  3. Infection with Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus stimulates an early gamma interferon response in the serum of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lager, Kelly M.; Kehrli, Marcus E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The early release of cytokines by cells involved in innate immunity is an important host response to intracellular pathogens. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) is an important cytokine produced during the early stages of an infection by macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and other cell types, and it is also a central cytokine mediator for the induction of cellular or Th1 immunity. To better understand innate and adaptive immune responses after infection with Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), we investigated serum IFN-γ concentrations and the duration of viremia. For 2 strains of atypical PRRSV, IFN-γ was detectable in swine serum soon after infection and lasted for approximately 3 wk. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ peaked at about 10 d after inoculation and returned to approximately baseline levels by day 22. However, individual pigs manifested short, sporadic increases in the serum concentration of IFN-γ from 18 to 50 d after inoculation. Prior vaccination blocked the serum IFN-γ response associated with homologous virus challenge and altered the kinetics of the response after heterologous challenge. Two other respiratory viruses of pigs, Porcine respiratory coronavirus and Swine influenza virus, do not appear to induce serum IFN-γ. The early production of IFN-γ in PRRSV-infected pigs might result from activation of NK cells, a response that is more characteristic of immune pathways stimulated by intracellular bacterial and protozoan infections. PMID:16850939

  4. Infection with Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus stimulates an early gamma interferon response in the serum of pigs.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Ronald D; Lager, Kelly M; Kehrli, Marcus E

    2006-07-01

    The early release of cytokines by cells involved in innate immunity is an important host response to intracellular pathogens. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is an important cytokine produced during the early stages of an infection by macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and other cell types, and it is also a central cytokine mediator for the induction of cellular or Th1 immunity. To better understand innate and adaptive immune responses after infection with Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), we investigated serum IFN-gamma concentrations and the duration of viremia. For 2 strains of atypical PRRSV, IFN-gamma was detectable in swine serum soon after infection and lasted for approximately 3 wk. Serum concentrations of IFN-gamma peaked at about 10 d after inoculation and returned to approximately baseline levels by day 22. However, individual pigs manifested short, sporadic increases in the serum concentration of IFN-gamma from 18 to 50 d after inoculation. Prior vaccination blocked the serum IFN-gamma response associated with homologous virus challenge and altered the kinetics of the response after heterologous challenge. Two other respiratory viruses of pigs, Porcine respiratory coronavirus and Swine influenza virus, do not appear to induce serum IFN-gamma. The early production of IFN-gamma in PRRSV-infected pigs might result from activation of NK cells, a response that is more characteristic of immune pathways stimulated by intracellular bacterial and protozoan infections. PMID:16850939

  5. A Homolog Pentameric Complex Dictates Viral Epithelial Tropism, Pathogenicity and Congenital Infection Rate in Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Stewart; Choi, K Yeon; Root, Matthew; McGregor, Alistair

    2016-07-01

    In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), tropism to epithelial and endothelial cells is dependent upon a pentameric complex (PC). Given the structure of the placenta, the PC is potentially an important neutralizing antibody target antigen against congenital infection. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital CMV. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) potentially encodes a UL128-131 HCMV PC homolog locus (GP128-GP133). In transient expression studies, GPCMV gH and gL glycoproteins interacted with UL128, UL130 and UL131 homolog proteins (designated GP129 and GP131 and GP133 respectively) to form PC or subcomplexes which were determined by immunoprecipitation reactions directed to gH or gL. A natural GP129 C-terminal deletion mutant (aa 107-179) and a chimeric HCMV UL128 C-terminal domain swap GP129 mutant failed to form PC with other components. GPCMV infection of a newly established guinea pig epithelial cell line required a complete PC and a GP129 mutant virus lacked epithelial tropism and was attenuated in the guinea pig for pathogenicity and had a low congenital transmission rate. Individual knockout of GP131 or 133 genes resulted in loss of viral epithelial tropism. A GP128 mutant virus retained epithelial tropism and GP128 was determined not to be a PC component. A series of GPCMV mutants demonstrated that gO was not strictly essential for epithelial infection whereas gB and the PC were essential. Ectopic expression of a GP129 cDNA in a GP129 mutant virus restored epithelial tropism, pathogenicity and congenital infection. Overall, GPCMV forms a PC similar to HCMV which enables evaluation of PC based vaccine strategies in the guinea pig model. PMID:27387220

  6. A Homolog Pentameric Complex Dictates Viral Epithelial Tropism, Pathogenicity and Congenital Infection Rate in Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), tropism to epithelial and endothelial cells is dependent upon a pentameric complex (PC). Given the structure of the placenta, the PC is potentially an important neutralizing antibody target antigen against congenital infection. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital CMV. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) potentially encodes a UL128-131 HCMV PC homolog locus (GP128-GP133). In transient expression studies, GPCMV gH and gL glycoproteins interacted with UL128, UL130 and UL131 homolog proteins (designated GP129 and GP131 and GP133 respectively) to form PC or subcomplexes which were determined by immunoprecipitation reactions directed to gH or gL. A natural GP129 C-terminal deletion mutant (aa 107–179) and a chimeric HCMV UL128 C-terminal domain swap GP129 mutant failed to form PC with other components. GPCMV infection of a newly established guinea pig epithelial cell line required a complete PC and a GP129 mutant virus lacked epithelial tropism and was attenuated in the guinea pig for pathogenicity and had a low congenital transmission rate. Individual knockout of GP131 or 133 genes resulted in loss of viral epithelial tropism. A GP128 mutant virus retained epithelial tropism and GP128 was determined not to be a PC component. A series of GPCMV mutants demonstrated that gO was not strictly essential for epithelial infection whereas gB and the PC were essential. Ectopic expression of a GP129 cDNA in a GP129 mutant virus restored epithelial tropism, pathogenicity and congenital infection. Overall, GPCMV forms a PC similar to HCMV which enables evaluation of PC based vaccine strategies in the guinea pig model. PMID:27387220

  7. Serum amyloid A protein in acute viral infections.

    PubMed Central

    Miwata, H; Yamada, T; Okada, M; Kudo, T; Kimura, H; Morishima, T

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) were measured in 254 children with viral diseases, including measles, varicella, rubella, mumps, echo-30 meningitis, chronic hepatitis B and C, and in eight with Kawasaki disease. Latex agglutination nephelometric immunoassay was used for assaying SAA. In 191 out of 195 patients (98%), SAA concentrations became markedly raised in the acute phase of the viral disease: measles (97%), varicella (100%), mumps (95%), and echo-30 meningitis (99%) with mean titres of 82.4, 80.5, 60.2, 75.2, and 101.1 micrograms/ml respectively. This increase in SAA was followed by a rapid return to normal concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml) during convalescence. Remarkably higher concentrations of SAA (mean 1630 micrograms/ml) were detected in the acute phase of patients with Kawasaki disease, but in most of the children with chronic hepatitis B or C, the titres of SAA remained normal. There was no close correlation between SAA and serum concentrations for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, beta 2-microglobulin, transferrin, and IgG. There was a clear correlation between SAA and C reactive protein concentrations, although SAA showed a greater incremental change than C reactive protein in the acute phase. In the acute phase of these viral diseases, 56% of the patients had raised SAA concentrations (> or = 5 micrograms/ml) with normal C reactive protein concentrations (< 5 micrograms/ml). These results indicate that SAA could be useful as an inflammatory marker in children with acute viral infections. PMID:8481043

  8. Cross-species infection of pigs with a novel rabbit, but not rat, strain of hepatitis E virus isolated in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cossaboom, Caitlin M; Córdoba, Laura; Sanford, Brenton J; Piñeyro, Pablo; Kenney, Scott P; Dryman, Barbara A; Wang, Youchun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. In addition to humans, HEV has also been identified in pig, chicken, mongoose, deer, rat, rabbit and fish. There are four recognized and two putative genotypes of mammalian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans, while genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic. The recently identified rabbit HEV is a distant member of genotype 3. Here, we first expressed and purified the recombinant capsid protein of rabbit HEV and showed that the capsid protein of rabbit HEV cross-reacted with antibodies raised against avian, rat, swine and human HEV. Conversely, we showed that antibodies against rabbit HEV cross-reacted with capsid proteins derived from chicken, rat, swine and human HEV. Since pigs are the natural host of genotype 3 HEV, we then determined if rabbit HEV infects pigs. Twenty pigs were divided into five groups of four each and intravenously inoculated with PBS, US rabbit HEV, Chinese rabbit HEV, US rat HEV and swine HEV, respectively. Results showed that only half of the pigs inoculated with rabbit HEV had low levels of viraemia and faecal virus shedding, indicative of active but not robust HEV infection. Infection of pigs by rabbit HEV was further verified by transmission of the virus recovered from pig faeces to naïve rabbits. Pigs inoculated with rat HEV showed no evidence of infection. Preliminary results suggest that rabbit HEV is antigenically related to other HEV strains and infects pigs and that rat HEV failed to infect pigs. PMID:22535776

  9. Acute prevertebral abscess secondary to infected pancreatic pseudocyst

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Pillai, Suresh; Venkitachalam, Shruti; Anand, Aishwarya

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a middle aged, man with diabetes who presented with dysphagia and odynophagia. On evaluation, he was diagnosed to have an acute prevertebral abscess with an unusual aetiology, an infected pseudocyst of pancreas. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed an enhancing collection in the prevertebral space extending to the retrogastric space and communicating with the body of the pancreas via the oesophageal hiatus. Transoral incision and drainage of the prevertebral abscess were performed. Nasogastric tube was placed in the prevertebral space for continuous drainage and daily irrigation. Supportive intravenous broad spectrum antibiotic therapy along with the surgical intervention led to the resolution of the prevertebral abscess and the infected pancreatic pseudocyst. PMID:24408943

  10. Cerebral aspergillus infection in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Gaurav; Thulkar, Sanjay; Arava, Sudheer Kumar; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    Angioinvasive pulmonary infection from filamentous fungi is not an uncommon occurrence in immunocompromised patients like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Rarely, these lesions can spread via the hematogenous route and involve multiple visceral organs. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy with ALL who developed angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis early in the course of induction therapy, which was followed by hematogenous dissemination and formation of multiple brain abscesses. The patient was treated with intravenous amphotericin B. There was no response to the therapy and the patient succumbed to disseminated infection. Postmortem lung biopsy confirmed angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Poor penetration of amphotericin B across the blood-brain barrier could be one of the contributory factors for poor response to antifungal therapy. We discuss the various antifungal agents with respect to their penetration in brain. PMID:23580827

  11. Morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of myocarditis in two pigs infected by foot-and mouth disease virus strains of serotypes O or A.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Pacheco, Juan M; Borca, Manuel V; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Myocarditis is often cited as the cause of fatalities associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. However, the pathogenesis of FMDV-associated myocarditis has not been described in detail. The current report describes substantial quantities of FMDV in association with a marked mononuclear inflammatory reaction, interstitial edema and cardiomyocyte degeneration in the myocardium of two pigs that died during acute infection with either of two different strains of FMDV. Despite similar clinical progression, there was a marked variation in morphological characteristics of myocarditis with a significant difference in intensity of myocardial inflammation between the two cases. Phenotypic characterization of leukocyte populations revealed that in both cases, the inflammatory infiltrate consisted mainly of combinations of CD172a+, CD163+ and CD44+ cells, with a distinct subset of CD8+ cells, but with consistent lack of detection of CD3+ and CD21+ cells. This suggests that the FMDV-associated acute myocardial inflammation in the two observed cases consisted mainly of leukocytes of monocyte lineage, with a distinct population of CD8+ cells which, based on lack of CD3 detection in serial sections, are likely to represent NK cells. PMID:25015718

  12. Morphologic and phenotypic characteristics of myocarditis in two pigs infected by foot-and mouth disease virus strains of serotypes O or A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Myocarditis is often cited as the cause of fatalities associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. However, the pathogenesis of FMDV-associated myocarditis has not been described in detail. The current report describes substantial quantities of FMDV in association with a marked mononuclear inflammatory reaction, interstitial edema and cardiomyocyte degeneration in the myocardium of two pigs that died during acute infection with either of two different strains of FMDV. Despite similar clinical progression, there was a marked variation in morphological characteristics of myocarditis with a significant difference in intensity of myocardial inflammation between the two cases. Phenotypic characterization of leukocyte populations revealed that in both cases, the inflammatory infiltrate consisted mainly of combinations of CD172a+, CD163+ and CD44+ cells, with a distinct subset of CD8+ cells, but with consistent lack of detection of CD3+ and CD21+ cells. This suggests that the FMDV-associated acute myocardial inflammation in the two observed cases consisted mainly of leukocytes of monocyte lineage, with a distinct population of CD8+ cells which, based on lack of CD3 detection in serial sections, are likely to represent NK cells. PMID:25015718

  13. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids; Part I. Effects on growth performance, microbial populations and immune status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs (n=88) weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age were used in a 14 d study to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on immune status, Salmonella infection and shedding, and intestinal microbial populations following a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge. Pigs were ch...

  14. No Evidence of Gouléako and Herbert Virus Infections in Pigs, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Marklewitz, Marco; Zirkel, Florian; Wollny, Robert; Meyer, Benjamin; Heidemann, Hanna; Metzger, Sonja; Annan, Augustina; Dei, Dickson; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A recent report suggested that 2 novel bunyaviruses discovered in insects in Côte d’Ivoire caused lethal disease in swine in South Korea. We conducted cell culture studies and tested serum from pigs exposed to mosquitoes in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana and found no evidence for infection in pigs. PMID:26583956

  15. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs following deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to one...

  16. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Silvia; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg) were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM) or with quercetin (GBMQ). In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW) in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW) animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying. PMID:24847478

  17. ITIH4 (Inter-Alpha-Trypsin Inhibitor Heavy Chain 4) Is a New Acute-Phase Protein Isolated from Cattle during Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Piñeiro, M.; Andrés, M.; Iturralde, M.; Carmona, S.; Hirvonen, J.; Pyörälä, S.; Heegaard, P. M. H.; Tjørnehøj, K.; Lampreave, F.; Piñeiro, A.; Alava, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    We have isolated from calf serum a protein with an apparent Mr of 120,000. The protein was detected by using antibodies against major acute-phase protein in pigs with acute inflammation. The amino acid sequence of an internal fragment revealed that this protein is the bovine counterpart of ITIH4, the heavy chain 4 of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family. The response of this protein in the sera was determined for animals during experimental bacterial and viral infections. In the bacterial model, animals were inoculated with a mixture of Actinomyces pyogenes, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Peptostreptococcus indolicus to induce an acute-phase reaction. All animals developed moderate to severe clinical mastitis and exhibited remarkable increases in ITIH4 concentration in serum (from 3 to 12 times the initial values, peaking at 48 to 72 h after infection) that correlated with the severity of the disease. Animals with experimental infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) also showed increases in ITIH4 concentration (from two- to fivefold), which peaked at around 7 to 8 days after inoculation. Generally, no response was seen after a second infection of the same animals with the virus. Because of the significant induction of the protein in the animals in the mastitis and BRSV infection models, we can conclude that ITIH4 is a new positive acute-phase protein in cattle. PMID:15213118

  18. [Circulating immune complexes in acute and prolonged hepatitis A infection].

    PubMed

    Dautović-Krkić, Sajma; Gribajcević, Mehmed

    2002-01-01

    Level and dynamics activity of circulating immune complexes (CiC) and persistence CiC in the sera in the acute and prolonged HAV-infection was examined. In the same time we explored the relation of level and dynamics CiC compared with level, dynamics and persistence length ALT and IgM anti-HAV in sera, longitude excretion HAV Ag in stool and intensity patohistological damage in liver. Research have been undertaken in the prospected study on two groups with 90 patients in total: 60 patients with prolonged form of the hepatitis A, and 30 patients with HAV-infection with normal development. CiC was prescribe with fotometer in sediment of poliethilenglicol, and IgM anti HAV with ELISA technique. Ag-HAV in stool was prescribe with methodImmuno/electro/osmophoresis. Results of examination showed that high level values of CiC had present in all patients with HAV-infection, bat yet middle values of CiC had significantly higher in prolonged forms (p < 0.01). In a case of patients with PTHA CiC persistence almost three times longer than in HAV infection with normal development. The highest value of CiC have been found from one to two weeks after e peak ALT in HAV and in PTHA 4-6 weeks later. Persistence of elevated values CiC responded to the middle length persistence of Igm anti HAV-in the sera. PMID:12378858

  19. Toxoplasma gondii detection and viability assays in ham legs and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Samblas, M; Vilchez, S; Racero, J C; Fuentes, M V; Osuna, A

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies of toxoplasmosis show that infection in humans is mainly caused by the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. Cured "Serrano" ham is a typical pork product from the Mediterranean area, highly valued for its flavour. The "Serrano" ham is prepared from pork meat and undergoes a process known as curing and a subsequent fermentation without thermal or smoking treatments. The viability of Toxoplasma gondii in hams and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs that have been subject to different curing processes has been studied in order to evaluate the best method to completely eliminate the viable protozoa. The different treatments include, i) freezing the legs and shoulders below -20 °C for 3 days before salting with marine salt, ii) salting the meat with marine salt and nitrites, iii) salting only with marine salt (traditional process) and iv) salting with marine salt and then freezing at -20 °C for 3 days after the curing period. The ham leg samples were cured for 7 months and the shoulder samples for 5 months. The presence of T. gondii in the different treatments was studied by a "magnetic-capture" method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and a quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the T. gondii burden in the ham legs and shoulders. The infectivity capacity of T. gondii in positive samples was assayed by bioassays in mice and some physicochemical parameters, such as pH, water activity (aw) and salt content, were evaluated at the end of the curing time. In all the cases where the samples were frozen the T. gondii infectivity was eliminated. In samples in which the meat was salted in marine salt plus nitrites, the parasite viability remained for longer than in the traditional salting process. The methods described here could be useful for producers to guarantee the safety of their products. PMID:27217366

  20. Diarrheal response of gnotobiotic pigs after fetal infection and neonatal challenge with homologous and heterologous human rotavirus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A; Ji-Huang, L

    1986-01-01

    Pigs exposed in utero to human rotavirus (HRV) strain Wa serotype 1 from 15 to 36 days prior to birth responded immunologically by modifying their clinical response to neonatal oral challenge with a pathogenic dose of homologous Wa or heterologous M serotype 3 HRV. In these cases, diarrhea was prevented in 12 of 14 pigs and greatly reduced in the other two. However, fecal virus shedding was not significantly modified, since it was detected in 12 of 14 pigs. These results suggest the existence of a closer antigenic relationship between these two different HRV serotypes which may only be expressed in an in vivo test system. Exposure of fetal pigs to HRV DS-1 serotype 2 failed to cause infection or to induce any protection when pigs were challenged at birth with HRV Wa. This model for cross-protection studies in gnotobiotic piglets offers good possibilities for the evaluation of potential HRV vaccine candidates, for the in vivo study of antigenic similarities between rotavirus serotypes, and for the understanding of protective immune responses against diarrhea and virus shedding. PMID:3023662

  1. Protective Efficacy of an Inactive Vaccine Based on the LY02 Isolate against Acute Haemophilus parasuis Infection in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Qiu, Long-Xin; Dai, Ai-Ling; Wu, Wang-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis can cause Glässer's disease characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis, and meningitis. The current prevention of Glässer's disease is mainly based on the inactive vaccines; however, the protective efficacy usually fails in heterogeneous or homologous challenges. Here, the predominant lineage of H. parasuis (LY02 strain) in Fujian province, China, characterized as serovar 5, was used to evaluate the protective immunity against acute H. parasuis infection in piglets after inactivation. Following challenging with H. parasuis, only mild lesions in the pigs immunized with the killed vaccine were observed, whereas the typical symptoms of Glässer's disease presented in the nonimmunized piglets. A strong IgG immune response was induced by the inactive vaccine. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte levels were increased, indicating the potent cellular immune responses were elicited. The significantly high levels of IL-2, IL-4, TGF-β, and IFN-γ in sera from pigs immunized with this killed vaccine suggested that the mixed Th1 and Th2 immune responses were induced, associated with the high protection against H. parasuis infection compared to the nonimmunized animals. This study indicated that the inactivated LY02 strain of H. parasuis could serve as a potential vaccine candidate to prevent the prevalence of H. parasuis in Fujian province, China. PMID:26688815

  2. Finding those at risk: Acute HIV infection in Newark, NJ

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Eugene G.; Salaru, Gratian; Mohammed, Debbie; Coombs, Robert W.; Paul, Sindy M.; Cadoff, Evan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A screening strategy combining rapid HIV-1/2 (HIV) antibody testing with pooled HIV-1 RNA testing increases identification of HIV infections, but may have other limitations that restrict its usefulness to all but the highest incidence populations. Objective By combining rapid antibody detection and pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) testing, we sought to improve detection of early HIV-1 infections in an urban Newark, NJ hospital setting. Study design Pooled NAAT HIV-1 RNA testing was offered to emergency department patients and out-patients being screened for HIV antibodies by fingerstick-rapid HIV testing. For those negative by rapid HIV and agreeing to NAAT testing, pooled plasma samples were prepared and sent to the University of Washington where real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification was performed. Results Of 13,226 individuals screened, 6381 had rapid antibody testing alone, and 6845 agreed to add NAAT HIV screening. Rapid testing identified 115 antibody positive individuals. Pooled NAAT increased HIV-1 case detection by 7.0% identifying 8 additional cases. Overall, acute HIV infection yield was 0.12%. While males represent only 48.1% of those tested by NAAT, all samples that screened positive for HIV-1 RNA were obtained from men. Conclusion HIV-1 RNA testing of pooled, HIV antibody-negative specimens permits identification of recent infections. In Newark, pooled NAAT increased HIV-1 case detection and provided an opportunity to focus on treatment and prevention messages for those most at risk of transmitting infection. Although constrained by client willingness to participate in testing associated with a need to return to receive further results, use of pooled NAAT improved early infection sensitivity. PMID:23953941

  3. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment. PMID:19443033

  4. Evaluation of the Hepa Wash® treatment in pigs with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mortality of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) is still unacceptably high. Available liver support systems are still of limited success at improving survival. A new type of albumin dialysis, the Hepa Wash® system, was newly introduced. We evaluated the new liver support system as well as the Molecular Adsorbent Recycling System (MARS) in an ischemic porcine model of ALF. Methods In the first study animals were randomly allocated to control (n=5) and Hepa Wash (n=6) groups. In a further pilot study, two animals were treated with the MARS-system. All animals received the same medical and surgical procedures. An intraparenchymal intracranial pressure was inserted. Hemodynamic monitoring and goal-directed fluid therapy using the PiCCO system was done. Animals underwent functional end-to-side portacaval shunt and ligation of hepatic arteries. Treatment with albumin dialysis was started after fall of cerebral perfusion pressure to 45 mmHg and continued for 8 h. Results All animals in the Hepa Wash group survived the 13-hour observation period, except for one that died after stopping treatment. Four of the control animals died within this period (p=0.03). Hepa Wash significantly reduced impairment of cerebral perfusion pressure (23±2 vs. 10±3 mmHg, p=0.006) and mean arterial pressure (37±1 vs. 24±2 mmHg, p=0.006) but had no effect on intracranial pressure (14±1 vs. 15±1 mmHg, p=0.72). Hepa Wash also enhanced cardiac index (4.94±0.32 vs. 3.36±0.25 l/min/m2, p=0.006) and renal function (urine production, 1850 ± 570 vs. 420 ± 180 ml, p=0.045) and eliminated water soluble (creatinine, 1.3±0.2 vs. 3.2±0.3 mg/dl, p=0.01; ammonia 562±124 vs. 1382±92 μg/dl, p=0.006) and protein-bound toxins (nitrate/nitrite 5.54±1.57 vs. 49.82±13.27 μmol/l, p=0.01). No adverse events that could be attributed to the Hepa Wash treatment were observed. Conclusions Hepa Wash was a safe procedure and improved multiorgan system failure in pigs with ALF. The survival

  5. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    PubMed

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe. PMID:26238657

  6. Experimental infection of conventional nursing pigs and their dams with Porcine deltacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah; Loy, John Dustin; Brodersen, Bruce; Kelling, Clayton; Doster, Alan; Topliff, Christina; Nelson, Eric; Bai, Jianfa; Schirtzinger, Erin; Poulsen, Elizabeth; Meadors, Barbara; Anderson, Joseph; Hause, Benjamin; Anderson, Gary; Hesse, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly identified virus that has been detected in swine herds of North America associated with enteric disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the pathogenicity, course of infection, virus kinetics, and aerosol transmission of PDCoV using 87 conventional piglets and their 9 dams, including aerosol and contact controls to emulate field conditions. Piglets 2-4 days of age and their dams were administered an oronasal PDCoV inoculum with a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR quantification cycle (Cq) value of 22 that was generated from a field sample having 100% nucleotide identity to USA/Illinois121/2014 determined by metagenomic sequencing and testing negative for other enteric disease agents using standard assays. Serial samples of blood, serum, oral fluids, nasal and fecal swabs, and tissues from sequential autopsy, conducted daily on days 1-8 and regular intervals thereafter, were collected throughout the 42-day study for qRT-PCR, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Diarrhea developed in all inoculated and contact control pigs, including dams, by 2 days post-inoculation (dpi) and in aerosol control pigs and dams by 3-4 dpi, with resolution occurring by 12 dpi. Mild to severe atrophic enteritis with PDCoV antigen staining was observed in the small intestine of affected piglets from 2 to 8 dpi. Mesenteric lymph node and small intestine were the primary sites of antigen detection by immunohistochemistry, and virus RNA was detected in these tissues to the end of the study. Virus RNA was detectable in piglet fecal swabs to 21 dpi, and dams to 14-35 dpi. PMID:27578872

  7. Protein and Antigen Diversity in the Vesicular Fluid of Taenia Solium Cysticerci Dissected from Naturally Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos; Morales, Julio; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium is a health threat for humans and pigs living in developing countries, for which there is neither a flawless immunodiagnostic test nor a totally effective vaccine. Suspecting of individual diversity of hosts and parasites as possible sources of the variations of the parasite loads among cysticercotic animals and of the limited success of such immunological applications as well as, we explored and measured both in nine cases of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis. For this purpose, 2-Dimensional IgG immunoblots were performed by reacting the sera of each cysticercotic pig with the antigens contained in the vesicular fluid (VF) of their own cysticerci. We found an unexpectedly large diversity among the proteins and antigens contained in each of the nine VFs. Also diverse were the serum IgG antibody responses of the nine pigs, as none of their 2D- immunoblot images exhibited the same number of spots and resembled each other in only 6.3% to 65.3% of their features. So large an individual immunological diversity of the cysticercal antigens and of the infected pigs´ IgG antibody response should be taken into account in the design of immunological tools for diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis and should also be considered as a possibly significant source of diversity in Taenia solium´s infectiveness and pathogenicity. PMID:22110381

  8. Assessment of the effect of local application of amifostine on acute radiation-induced oral mucositis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang Jiang; Wang, Sheng Zi; Wang, Shu Yi; Zhang, Yan Ping

    2014-09-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of the local application of amifostine to treat acute buccal mucositis in guinea pigs. A total of 32 guinea pigs were randomized into four groups: (Group A) topically administered 50 mg of amifostine plus radiotherapy (RT); (Group B) 100 mg amifostine plus RT; (Group C) normal saline plus RT; and (Group D) normal saline plus sham RT. The opportunity for administration was 15 min before irradiation. When administered, the cotton pieces that had been soaked with 0.5 ml amifostine solution or saline were applied gently on the buccal mucosa of each guinea pig for 30 min. The animals in Groups A, B and C were irradiated individually with a single dose of 30 Gy to the bilateral buccal mucosa. Eight days after irradiation, the animals were scored macroscopically; they were then euthanized, and the buccal mucosal tissues were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and ICAM-1 immunohistochemical analysis. In Groups A and B, the mean macroscopic scores were 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 1.1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, when they were separately compared with Group C (4.4 ± 0.7), a noticeable difference was obtained (P < 0.05). No mucositis was observed in Group D. Comparisons of the expression of ICAM-1 were in agreement with the macroscopic data. Histologically, superficial erosion, exudate and ulcer formation were all observed in the RT groups; only the severity and extent were different. The microscopic observations in the amifostine-treated groups were better than in Group C. The results demonstrated that topical administration of amifostine to the oral mucosa is effective treatment of acute radiation-induced mucositis. PMID:24706999

  9. Fetal infections and antibody profiles in pigs naturally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    PubMed

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Garrocho, Flávia M; Lana, Angela M Q; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe early infections with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in naturally infected piglets and the piglets' serologic profiles. A total of 20 sows (15 PCV2-vaccinated and 5 unvaccinated) and 100 newborn piglets were studied. Colostrum and serum of the sows and serum of the presuckling piglets were obtained on the day of parturition. Milk samples were collected on day 20 postpartum. Blood samples were taken and the piglets weighed on days 1, 20, 42, 63, and 84 postpartum. Colostrum and milk were evaluated for infectious PCV2 and for PCV2 total antibody (TA), neutralizing antibody (NA), and IgA. Serum samples were evaluated for PCV2 TA, NA, IgA, IgM, and DNA. The sows had high levels of TA and NA in serum and colostrum; however, 11 and 5, respectively, of the 20 colostrum and milk samples contained infectious PCV2. In the serum, PCV2 DNA and IgM were detected in 17 and 5, respectively, of the 20 sows. Nine piglets were born with PCV2 antibodies, which indicates in utero transmission of PCV2 after the period of immunocompetence (> 70 d of gestation). On day 1 postpartum, PCV2 DNA was detected in 29 of the 100 serum samples from the piglets. There was no difference between the weights of viremic and nonviremic piglets throughout the study. In conclusion, even on farms with sows that have high PCV2 antibody titers, vertical transmission of PCV2 may occur, resulting in piglet infection. PMID:22754093

  10. Comparison of three molecular detection methods for detection of Trichinella in infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhibing; Cao, Jie; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Yongzhi; Deng, Mingjun; Li, Guoqing; Zhou, Jinlin

    2013-05-01

    Different molecular detection methods require diverse molecular platforms, but there is no uniform standard for people to reference in the detection of Trichinella. In this study, real-time PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and conventional PCR were developed for the detection of Trichinella by targeting mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal DNA (mt-lsrDNA). We compared the performance of the three newly developed assays. The results revealed that the detection limits of the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays were 10 and 100 fg/μL and 1 pg/μL of Trichinella spiralis genomic DNA, respectively. The assays were used in the detection of Trichinella in the field. A total of 192 samples were obtained from pigs: 75 samples from free range farming and 117 from intensive feeding factory. The infection rate was 8/192 (4.2 %), 7/192 (3.6 %), and 1/192 (1.0 %) through the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays, respectively. These data indicate that Taqman real-time PCR was a rapid, specific, and sensitive tool as a preferred option for investigation of valuable samples, but that LAMP assay was closed tube, highly sensitive, cost-effective, rapid, easy-to-perform, and was the optimal choice for detection of Trichinella in the field. The results of a model of experimental infection in mice indicated that spleen can be used as sampling site for the detection of early T. spiralis infection. However, the diaphragm and myocardium were the most suitable sampling sites for the detection of T. spiralis. PMID:23334692

  11. Kinetics of IFN-Gamma and TNF-Alpha Gene Expression and Their Relationship with Disease Progression after Infection with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Roh, In Soon; Cho, Sungae; Eum, Seok-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Guinea pig is one of the most suitable animal models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection since it shows similarities to pulmonary infection in humans. Although guinea pig shows hematogenous spread of M. tb infection into the whole body, immunological studies have mainly focused on granulomatous tissues in lungs and spleens. In order to investigate the time-course of disease pathogenesis and immunological profiles in each infected organ, we performed the following approaches with guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. tb over a 22-week post-infection period. Materials and Methods We examined body weight changes, M. tb growth curve, cytokine gene expression (IFN-γ and TNF-α), and histopathology in liver, spleen, lungs and lymph nodes of infected guinea pigs. Results The body weights of infected guinea pigs did not increase as much as uninfected ones and the number of M. tb bacilli in their organs increased except bronchotracheal lymph node during the experimental period. The gene expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α was induced between 3 and 6 weeks of infection; however, kinetic profiles of cytokine gene expression showed heterogeneity among organs over the study period. Histophathologically granulomatous lesions were developed in all four organs of infected guinea pigs. Conclusion Although IFN-γ and TNF-α gene expression profiles showed heterogeneity, the granuloma formation was clearly observed in every organ regardless of whether the number of bacilli increased or decreased. However, this protective immunity was accompanied with severe tissue damage in all four organs, which may lead to the death of guinea pigs. PMID:23549819

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs from the North of Portugal for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Dubey, J P; Neto, Francisco; Rodrigues, Alcina; Martins, Tânia; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2013-03-31

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and risk factors associated with infection were assessed in food animals from the North of Portugal for human consumption. Antibodies were assayed by means of the modified agglutination test with a cut-off titre of 100 for cattle, and 20 for sheep, goats, and pigs; 7.5% of 161 cattle, 33.6% of 119 sheep, 18.5% of 184 goats, and 9.8% of 254 pigs were seropositive. Among the risk factors examined animal age was an important risk factor for seropositivity to T. gondii. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat should be regarded as an important source of infection to people in the study area. PMID:23290614

  13. Protein A suppresses immune responses during Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Thomer, Lena; Missiakas, Dominique M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2015-01-06

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fcγ and cross-links VH3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High VH3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host B cell responses. Immunization with SpAKKAA, which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity.

  14. Risk factors for farm-level African swine fever infection in major pig-producing areas in Nigeria, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Fasina, F O; Agbaje, M; Ajani, F L; Talabi, O A; Lazarus, D D; Gallardo, C; Thompson, P N; Bastos, A D S

    2012-11-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an economically devastating disease for the pig industry, especially in Africa. Identifying what supports infection on pig farms in this region remains the key component in developing a risk-based approach to understanding the epidemiology of ASF and controlling the disease. Nigeria was used for this matched case-control study, because there is perpetual infection in some areas, while contiguous areas are intermittently infected. Risk factors and biosecurity practices in pig farms were evaluated in association with ASF infection. Subsets of farms located in high-density pig population areas and high-risk areas for ASF infection were randomly selected for analysis. Most plausible risk factor variables from the univariable analysis included in the multivariable analysis include: owner of farm had regular contact with infected farms and other farmers, untested pigs were routinely purchased into the farm in the course of outbreaks, there was an infected neighbourhood, other livestock were kept alongside pigs, there was a presence of an abattoir/slaughter slab in pig communities, wild birds had free access to pig pens, tools and implements were routinely shared by pig farmers, there was free access to feed stores by rats, and feed was purchased from a commercial source. Only the presence of an abattoir in a pig farming community (OR=8.20; CI(95%)=2.73, 24.63; P<0.001) and the presence of an infected pig farm in the neighbourhood (OR=3.26; CI(95%)=1.20, 8.83; P=0.02) were significant. There was a marginally significant negative association (protective) between risk of ASF infection and sharing farm tools and equipment (OR=0.35; CI(95%)=0.12, 1.01; P=0.05). Of the 28 biosecurity measures evaluated, food and water control (OR=0.14; CI(95%)=0.04, 0.46; P<0.001), separation/isolation of sick pigs (OR=0.14; CI(95%)=0.04, 0.53; P=0.004) and washing and disinfection of farm equipment and tools (OR=0.27; CI(95%)=0.10, 0.78; P=0.02) were negatively

  15. Recovery of an unusual Flavobacterium group IIb-like isolate from a hand infection following pig bite.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Merkin, T E; Pickett, M J

    1990-01-01

    An unusual gram-negative rod (RMA 1571) was isolated from a hand infection following a pig bite. This unclassified isolate was characterized by growth requirements, microscopic examination, biochemical characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and cellular fatty acid analysis. It was indole positive and produced yellow-pigmented growth, which placed it in the genus Flavobacterium, but its other features, including cellular fatty acid analysis, did not appear to be those of a named species. PMID:2351726

  16. Development of a serological ELISA using a recombinant protein to identify pig herds infected with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J

    2015-12-01

    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is an anaerobic spirochaete that can induce swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic colitis in grower and fattener pigs. The aim of this study was to develop a serological ELISA for use as a screening method to detect evidence of herd infection. Bioinformatic analysis of the complete genome sequence of strain WA1 was used to identify genes predicted to encode outer membrane proteins. Twenty candidate genes were expressed in an Escherichia coli mediated system, and purified as histidine-tagged recombinant proteins. Selection of optimal antigens under different conditions was conducted using Western blot and ELISA with a range of pig sera from infected and uninfected pigs. From this analysis, three recombinant proteins were selected as being most suitable for use as antigens. These antigens then were tested under optimized conditions in an indirect ELISA detecting IgG2 using 1551 sera from healthy pigs at slaughter, comprising 896 from 18 herds considered to be free from SD and 655 from 12 infected herds. Using a cut-off value for positivity of the mean plus five standard deviations of the mean for the negative sera, the best overall results were obtained with the ELISA using antigen H114, which was 100% specific and 91.7% sensitive at detecting the reported status of the herds. This new ELISA should be a useful adjunct for detecting and monitoring the status of herds with respect to the presence of B. hyodysenteriae, and should prove useful for understanding the dynamics of infection in herds where the spirochaete is present. PMID:26542367

  17. Imaging of acute myocardial infarction in pigs with Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin scintigraphy and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    ten Kate, C.I.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Schipperheyn, J.J.; Doornbos, J.; Hoedemaeker, P.J.; Maes, A.; v.d. Nat, K.H.; Camps, J.A.; Huysmans, H.A.; Pauwels, E.K. )

    1990-07-01

    Indium-111 antimyosin F(ab')2 was used in a series of scintigraphic studies on experimentally induced myocardial infarctions in pigs. Antimyosin distribution recorded by planar images of in vivo pigs and by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of excised hearts delineated areas of myocardial necrosis if infarct volume exceeded 3.3 cm3. Scintigraphic images were compared with magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from excised hearts and with photographs of slices of the hearts. Infarct size and localization determined with antimyosin were compared. The MR images, with or without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA), of the in vivo pigs were all false-negative; some myocardial wall thinning and high bloodpool signals were visible. Results show that both the antimyosin and the MR technique are specific methods for the visualization of induced myocardial necrosis in this animal model. However, the use of antimyosin is limited to a period ranging from 24 to 72 hours after infarction.

  18. Study on the role of gastric Helicobacter infection in gross pathological and histological lesions of the stomach in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, L; Palkovics, G; Solymosi, N; Tekes, L; Méhesfalvi, J

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of gastric Helicobacter infection in finishing pigs and the influence of this infection on gastric lesions was studied. Stomachs of 89 finishing pigs from 27 randomly selected herds were sampled at the slaughterhouse. Forty cases (Group A) were selected based upon the presence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea, and further 49 cases were obtained at random (Group B). Three samples of gastric tissue (junction of pars oesophagea and pars cardiaca, fundic area, and pyloric area) were collected from each stomach for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Helicobacter antigen was detected in 76 cases (85.4%). No association was found between the presence of Helicobacter in the stomach and the occurrence of gross pathological lesions in the pars oesophagea or gastritis detected on histological examination. However, a significant association was found between the occurrence of Helicobacter in the pyloric area and the presence of erosions/ulcers in the pars oesophagea (OR: 7.01, p = 0.022) in Group B. A significant association was also evident between the presence of Helicobacter and glandular lesions (dilatation of the glands + glandular abscess + degeneration of glandular epithelial cells). In conclusion, Helicobacter infection seems to be a contributing factor to pathological changes in the stomach of finishing pigs. PMID:16156132

  19. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  20. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Kureljušić, Branislav; Nedorost, Nora; Matula, Bettina; Schießl, Wolfgang; Stixenberger, Daniela; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2)) and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b.), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h.), and Pasteurella multocida (P. m.)) co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases. PMID:27428002

  1. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Weissenbacher-Lang, Christiane; Kureljušić, Branislav; Nedorost, Nora; Matula, Bettina; Schießl, Wolfgang; Stixenberger, Daniela; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2)) and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b.), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h.), and Pasteurella multocida (P. m.)) co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases. PMID:27428002

  2. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Alehan, Füsun K; Kahveci, Suat; Uslu, Yasemin; Yildirim, Tülin; Yilmaz, Başak

    2004-06-01

    We describe the case of a 30-month-old boy who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection and ultimately died. As far as we know, this is only the second case of HAV-associated ADEM to be reported in the literature. The child was brought to hospital with fever, lethargy and weakness of 2 days duration. He had developed jaundice, abdominal pain and malaise 2 weeks beforehand and these problems had resolved within 2 days. Neurological examination revealed lethargy, generalised weakness and positive Babinski's signs bilaterally. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis, increased protein and elevated anti-HAV IgM and IgG titres. Serum HAV IgM and IgG titres were also elevated. Despite aggressive treatment with ceftriaxone, acyclovir and anti-oedema measures, he developed papilloedema and coma within 24 hours of admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed diffuse cerebral oedema and multifocal hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, with most lesions in the white matter of both cerebral hemispheres. The diagnosis of ADEM was established and high-dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin were added to the treatment regimen. However, his clinical condition continued to deteriorate and he died on the 20th day in hospital. This case shows that HAV infection can be linked with ADEM. Patients with HAV infection should be examined carefully for central nervous system symptoms during follow-up. Likewise, the possibility of HAV infection should be investigated in cases of ADEM. PMID:15186542

  3. Airway microbiota and acute respiratory infection in children.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, are the leading cause of hospitalization of infants in the US. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) that appear to influence development of local and systemic immune response. We propose a 'risk and resilience' model in which airway microbiota are associated with an increased (risk microbiota) or decreased (resilience microbiota) incidence and severity of ARI in children. We also propose that modulating airway microbiota (e.g., from risk to resilience microbiota) during early childhood will optimize airway immunity and, thereby, decrease ARI incidence and severity in children. PMID:25961472

  4. Evaluation of an Erns-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to distinguish Classical swine fever virus-infected pigs from pigs vaccinated with CP7_E2alf.

    PubMed

    Pannhorst, Katrin; Fröhlich, Andreas; Staubach, Christoph; Meyer, Denise; Blome, Sandra; Becher, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Infections with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are a major economic threat to pig production. To combat CSF outbreaks and to maintain trade, new marker vaccines were developed that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). The chimeric pestivirus CP7_E2alf was shown to be safe and efficacious. Its DIVA strategy is based on the detection of CSFV E(rns)-specific antibodies that are only developed on infection. However, for the new marker vaccine to be considered a valuable control tool, a validated discriminatory assay is needed. One promising candidate is the already commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA (Prionics BV, Lelystad, The Netherlands). Four laboratories of different European Union member states tested 530 serum samples and country-specific field sera from domestic pigs and wild boar. The ELISA displayed a good robustness. However, based on its reproducibility and repeatability, ranges rather than single values for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were defined. The ELISA displayed a sensitivity of 90-98% with sera from CSFV-infected domestic pigs. A specificity of 89-96% was calculated with sera from domestic pigs vaccinated once with CP7_E2alf. The ELISA detected CSFV infections in vaccinated domestic pigs with a sensitivity of 82-94%. The sensitivity was lower with sera taken ≤21 days post-challenge indicating that the stage of CSFV infection had a considerable influence on testing. Taken together, the PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA can be used for detection of CSFV infections in CP7_E2alf-vaccinated and nonvaccinated domestic pig populations, but should only be applied on a herd basis by testing a defined number of animals. PMID:26179095

  5. Acute phase response to Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' infection in FIV-infected and non-FIV-infected cats.

    PubMed

    Korman, R M; Cerón, J J; Knowles, T G; Barker, E N; Eckersall, P D; Tasker, S

    2012-08-01

    The pathogenicity of Haemoplasma spp. in cats varies with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) causing subclinical infection while Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) often induces haemolytic anaemia. The aims of this study were to characterise the acute phase response (APR) of the cat to experimental infection with Mhf or CMhm, and to determine whether chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection influences this response. The acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations were measured pre-infection and every 7-14 days up to day 100 post-infection (pi) in cats infected with either Mhf or CMhm. Half of each group of cats (6/12) were chronically and subclinically infected with FIV. Marbofloxacin treatment was given on days 16-44 pi to half of the Mhf-infected cats, and on days 49-77 pi to half of the CMhm-infected cats. FIV-infected animals had significantly lower AGP concentrations, and significantly greater Hp concentrations than non-FIV-infected cats when infected with CMhm and Mhf, respectively. Both CMhm and Mhf infection were associated with significant increases in SAA concentrations, while AGP concentrations were only significantly increased by Mhf infection. Mhf-infected cats had significantly greater SAA concentrations than CMhm-infected animals. Both Mhf and CMhm infections were associated with an APR, with Mhf infection inducing a greater response. Chronic FIV infection appeared to modify the APR, which varied with the infecting Haemoplasma species. PMID:22763129

  6. [Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis following adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection].

    PubMed

    de Suremain, A; Somrani, R; Bourdat-Michel, G; Pinel, N; Morel-Baccard, C; Payen, V

    2015-05-01

    Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is responsible for nearly 10% of acute renal failure (ARF) cases in children. It is mostly drug-induced, but in a few cases viruses are involved, probably by an indirect mechanism. An immune-competent 13-month-old boy was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe ARF with anuria in a context of fever, cough, and rhinorrhea lasting 1 week. The kidney biopsy performed early brought out tubulointerstitial damage with mild infiltrate of lymphocytes, without any signs of necrosis. There were no virus inclusion bodies, no interstitial hemorrhage, and no glomerular or vascular damage. Other causes of TIN were excluded: there was no biological argument for an immunological, immune, or drug-induced cause. Adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were positive in respiratory multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in nasal aspirate but not in blood, urine, and renal tissue. The patient underwent dialysis for 10 days but the response to corticosteroid therapy was quickly observed within 48 h. The mechanism of TIN associated with virus infection is unknown. However, it may be immune-mediated to be able to link severe renal dysfunction and ADV and/or RSV invasion of the respiratory tract. PMID:25842199

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi Entrance through Systemic or Mucosal Infection Sites Differentially Modulates Regional Immune Response Following Acute Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Meis, Juliana; Barreto de Albuquerque, Juliana; Silva dos Santos, Danielle; Farias-de-Oliveira, Désio Aurélio; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Savino, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Acute Chagas disease is characterized by a systemic infection that leads to the strong activation of the adaptive immune response. Outbreaks of oral contamination by the infective protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi are frequent in Brazil and other Latin American countries, and an increased severity of clinical manifestations and mortality is observed in infected patients. These findings have elicited questions about the specific responses triggered after T. cruzi entry via mucosal sites, possibly modulating local immune mechanisms, and further impacting regional and systemic immunity. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of differential lymphoid organ responses in experimental models of acute T. cruzi infection. PMID:23898334

  8. ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Acute Diarrheal Infections in Adults.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; DuPont, Herbert L; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-05-01

    Acute diarrheal infections are a common health problem globally and among both individuals in the United States and traveling to developing world countries. Multiple modalities including antibiotic and non-antibiotic therapies have been used to address these common infections. Information on treatment, prevention, diagnostics, and the consequences of acute diarrhea infection has emerged and helps to inform clinical management. In this ACG Clinical Guideline, the authors present an evidence-based approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of acute diarrhea infection in both US-based and travel settings. PMID:27068718

  9. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis infection associated with pet guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Michael L; Heffernan, Richard T; Wright, Jennifer G; Klos, Rachel F; Monson, Timothy; Khan, Sofiya; Trees, Eija; Sabol, Ashley; Willems, Robert A; Flynn, Raymond; Deasy, Marshall P; Jones, Benjamen; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2014-06-01

    Salmonella causes about one million illnesses annually in the United States. Although most infections result from foodborne exposures, animal contact is an important mode of transmission. We investigated a case of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) sternal osteomyelitis in a previously healthy child who cared for two recently deceased guinea pigs (GPs). A case was defined as SE pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) XbaI pattern JEGX01.0021, BlnI pattern JEGA26.0002 (outbreak strain) infection occurring during 2010 in a patient who reported GP exposure. To locate outbreak strain isolates, PulseNet and the US Department of Agriculture National Veterinary Service Laboratories (NVSL) databases were queried. Outbreak strain isolates underwent multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted at homes, stores, and breeder or broker facilities. We detected 10 cases among residents of eight states and four NVSL GP outbreak strain isolates. One patient was hospitalized; none died. The median patient age was 9.5 (range, 1-61) years. Among 10 patients, two purchased GPs at independent stores, and three purchased GPs at different national retail chain (chain A) store locations; three were chain A employees and two reported GP exposures of unknown characterization. MLVA revealed four related patterns. Tracebacks identified four distributors and 92 sources supplying GPs to chain A, including one breeder potentially supplying GPs to all case-associated chain A stores. All environmental samples were Salmonella culture-negative. A definitive SE-contaminated environmental source was not identified. Because GPs can harbor Salmonella, consumers and pet industry personnel should be educated regarding risks. PMID:24866204

  10. Viral Infection in Adults with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Remolina, Yuly Andrea; Ulloa, María Mercedes; Vargas, Hernán; Díaz, Liliana; Gómez, Sandra Liliana; Saavedra, Alfredo; Sánchez, Edgar; Cortés, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the viral aetiology in adult patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to sentinel surveillance institutions in Bogotá in 2012. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in which microarray molecular techniques for viral identification were used on nasopharyngeal samples of adult patients submitted to the surveillance system, and further descriptions of clinical features and relevant clinical outcomes, such as mortality, need for critical care, use of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay, were obtained. Setting Respiratory infections requiring hospital admission in surveillance centres in Bogotá, Colombia. Participants Ninety-one adult patients with acute respiratory infection (55% were female). Measurements Viral identification, intensive care unit admission, hospital stay, and mortality. Results Viral identification was achieved for 63 patients (69.2%). Comorbidity was frequently identified and mainly involved chronic pulmonary disease or pregnancy. Influenza, Bocavirus and Adenovirus were identified in 30.8%, 28.6% and 18.7% of the cases, respectively. Admission to the intensive care unit occurred in 42.9% of the cases, while mechanical ventilation was required for 36.3%. The average hospital stay was 9.9 days, and mortality was 15.4%. Antibiotics were empirically used in 90.1% of patients. Conclusions The prevalence of viral aetiology of SARI in this study was high, with adverse clinical outcomes, intensive care requirements and high mortality. PMID:26576054

  11. Endometrial gene expression of acute phase extracellular matrix components following estrogen disruption of pregnancy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Morgan D; Ross, Jason W; Stein, Daniel; White, Frank; Geisert, Rodney D

    2010-12-01

    In pigs, administration of estrogen to gilts on Days 9 and 10 of pregnancy causes conceptus fragmentation and death between Days 15 and 18 of gestation. Conceptus degeneration is associated with breakdown of the microvilli surface glycocalyx on the lumenal epithelium (LE). We previously identified endometrial expression of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) and hyaluronic acid (HA), which are key components of extracellular matrix (ECM), during the period of conceptus attachment to the uterine surface in the pig. Tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible protein-6 (TNFAIP6) serves as a linker for ECM expansion and is stimulated by prostaglandin E (PGE). We hypothesized that early estrogen administration alters the normal ECM components forming glycocalyx on the LE. Bred gilts (4 gilts/trt/day) were treated with either 5mg estradiol cypionate (E) or corn oil (CO) on Days 9 and 10 of gestation. The uterus was surgically removed on either Days 10, 12, 13, 15 and 17 of gestation and endometrial tissue snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Endometrial tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), TNFAIP6, interleukin 6 (IL6), and inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chains (ITIH) were detected during early pregnancy thereby indicating all components for maintenance of the extracellular glycocalyx are present in the endometrium of pigs. However, only gene expression of ITIH2 was suppressed by E-treatment. TNFAIP6 protein was detected across all days of gestation but was not affected by E-treatment. The present study demonstrates that while the pig endometrium expresses key components of ECM only ITIH2 gene expression was altered by E-treatment. A decrease in ITIH2 could lead to the possible loss of the uterine glycocalyx leading to conceptus degeneration; however, other factors may be involved with the loss of glycocalyx during implantation in the pig following E-treatment. PMID:20850941

  12. Acute respiratory distress induced by repeated saline lavage provides stable experimental conditions for 24 hours in pigs.

    PubMed

    Muellenbach, Ralf M; Kredel, Markus; Zollhoefer, Bernd; Bernd, Zollhoefer; Johannes, Amelie; Kuestermann, Julian; Schuster, Frank; Schwemmer, Ulrich; Wurmb, Thomas; Wunder, Christian; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg

    2009-04-01

    Surfactant depletion is most often used to study acute respiratory failure in animal models. Because model stability is often criticized, the authors tested the following hypotheses: Repeated pulmonary lavage with normal saline provides stable experimental conditions for 24 hours with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mm Hg. Lung injury was induced by bilateral pulmonary lavages in 8 female pigs (51.5 +/- 4.8 kg). The animals were ventilated for 24 hours (PEEP: 5 cm H2O; tidal volume: 6 mL/kg; respiratory rate: 30/min). After 24 hours the animals were euthanized. For histopathology slides from all pulmonary lobes were obtained. Supernatant of the bronchoalveolar fluid collected before induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and after 24 hours was analyzed. A total of 19 +/- 6 lavages were needed to induce ARDS. PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary shunt fraction remained significantly deteriorated compared to baseline values after 24 hours (P < .01). Slight to moderate histopathologic changes were detected. Significant increases of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were observed after 24 hours (P < .01). The presented surfactant depletion-based lung injury model was associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and fulfilled the criteria of acute ling injury (ALI) for 24 hours. PMID:19337905

  13. Oritavancin for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Julia A.; Fowler, Vance G.; Corey, G. Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inpatient treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) exerts a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. Oritavancin is a concentration-dependent, rapidly bactericidal agent approved for the treatment of ABSSSI. Its prolonged half-life with one-time intravenous (IV) dosing offers a potential solution to this burden. In addition, oritavancin represents an alternative therapy for Streptococci and multidrug resistant gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Animal models have also shown promising results with oritavancin for other disease states including those that require long courses of IV therapy. Areas covered This review covers oritavancin’s basic chemistry, spectrum of activity, pharmacodynamics/ pharmacokinetics, efficacy in clinical trials, and provides expert opinion on future directions. To compose this review, a search of PubMed was performed, and articles written in the English language were selected based on full text availability. Expert Opinion If oritavancin is proven to be a cost-effective strategy for outpatient treatment and prevents complications of prolonged IV therapy, it will be sought as an alternative antibiotic therapy for ABSSSI. In addition, further clinical data demonstrating efficacy in gram-positive infections requiring prolonged therapy such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis could support oritavancin’s success in the current market. PMID:25803197

  14. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO{sub 2} therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. {yields} Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO{sub 2} infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. {yields} These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. {yields} NaNO{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO{sub 2} with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO{sub 2} on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO{sub 2}, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  15. Rapamycin Treatment of Healthy Pigs Subjected to Acute Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Attenuates Cardiac Functions and Increases Myocardial Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lassaletta, Antonio D; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Zanetti, Arthus V D; Feng, Jun; Anduaga, Javier; Gohh, Reginald Y.; Sellke, Frank W; Bianchi, Cesario

    2013-01-01

    Background The Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a major regulator of cell immunity and metabolism. mTOR is a well-known suppressor of tissue rejection in organ transplants, however, it has other non-immune functions including in the cardiovascular system, where it is a regulator of heart hypertrophy and locally, in coated vascular stents, inhibits vascular wall cell growth and hence neointimal formation/restenosis. Because the mTOR pathway plays major roles in normal cell growth, metabolism and survival, we hypothesized that inhibiting it with rapamycin, prior to an acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), would confer cardioprotection by virtue of slowing down cardiac function and metabolism. Methods Yorkshire pigs received orally either placebo or 4 mg/day rapamycin for 7 days before the IRI. All animals underwent median sternotomy and the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 60 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Left ventricular pressure-volume data was collected throughout the operation. The ischemic and infarcted areas were determined by monastral blue and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, respectively and plasma cardiac troponin I concentration. mTOR kinase activities were monitored in remote cardiac tissue by western blotting with specific antibodies against specific substrates phosphorylating sites. Results Rapamycin pre-treatement impaired endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation, attenuated cardiac function during IRI, and increased myocardial necrosis. Western blotting confirmed effective inhibition of myocardial mTOR kinase activities. Conclusions Pre-treatment of healthy pigs with rapamycin prior to acute myocardial IRI is associated with decreased cardiac function and higher myocardial necrosis. PMID:24266948

  16. Temporal and spatial association of Streptococcus suis infection in humans and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome outbreaks in pigs in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, V T L; Thanh, L V; Phu, V D; Trinh, D T; Inui, K; Tung, N; Oanh, N T K; Trung, N V; Hoa, N T; Bryant, J E; Horby, P W; Kinh, N V; Wertheim, H F L

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in pigs are associated with increased susceptibility of pigs to secondary bacterial infections, including Streptococcus suis - an important zoonotic pathogen causing bacterial meningitis in humans. This case-control study examined the association between human S. suis infection and PRRS outbreaks in pigs in northern Vietnam. We included 90 S. suis case-patients and 183 non-S. suis sepsis controls from a referral hospital in Hanoi in 2010, a period of major PRRS epizootics in Vietnam. PRRS exposure was determined using data from the National Centre of Veterinary Diagnosis. By univariate analysis, significantly more S. suis patients were reported residing in or adjacent to a PRRS district compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 2·82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·35-5·89 and OR 3·15, 95% CI 1·62-6·15, respectively]. Only residency in adjacent districts remained significantly associated with risk of S. suis infection after adjusting for sex, occupation, and eating practices. SaTScan analysis showed a possible cluster of S. suis infection in humans around PRRS confirmed locations during the March-August period. The findings indicate an epidemiological association between PRRS in pigs and S. suis infections in humans. Effective strategies to strengthen control of PRRS in pigs may help reduce transmission of S. suis infection to humans. PMID:25997360

  17. In vitro inactivation of complement by a serum factor present in Junin-virus infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Rimoldi, M T; de Bracco, M M

    1980-01-01

    A serum factor(s) of guinea-pigs infected with Junin virus, the etiological agent of Argentine haemorrhagic fever, is endowed with a potent anticomplementary activity. It is resistant to heat (56 degrees, 30 min) and elutes from a Sephadex G-200 column between albumin and haemoglobin. It is ineffective in the presence of EDTA or EGTA and does not sediment at 82,000 g. It has no direct effect on C4 unless functional Cl is present. However, it induces Cl activation that consumes C4 haemolytic activity in normal human and guinea-pig sera. The evidence presented in this report demonstrates that the complement activation observed in experimental Argentine haemorrhagic fever is at least in part due to a direct effect of this serum factor on the classical complement pathway. PMID:6247264

  18. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  19. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H; González, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E

    2013-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety into of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected to 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood-brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  20. Seasonal prevalence of some zoonotic trematode infections in cattle and pigs in the north-east montane zone in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, B; Tandon, V

    1992-02-01

    Seasonal variations in the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica and Eurytrema pancreaticum in cattle, and Opisthorchis noverca, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and Gastrodiscoides hominis in pigs, were studied post-necropsy over a 1 year period in a humid, subtropical north-east hilly region in India. The overall prevalence rate was 53.02% in cattle (n = 960) and 12.92% in pigs (n = 960). Fasciola gigantica and E. pancreaticum occurred throughout the year with peaks during cold winter months. Both species showed a high intensity of infection in winter and a low intensity during summer and autumn. The rate of infection due to A. malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and G. hominis rose to a peak during June-September and thereafter declined to a low level (November-March). Except for the month of February, O. noverca occurred throughout the year, with the highest rate of infection in late autumn and winter. The abundance of infection due to A. malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and G. hominis was high during late summer and early autumn. Opisthorchis noverca showed a higher density during late autumn and winter. PMID:1561763

  1. Enterovirus D68 Infection in Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Colorado, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M.; Robinson, Christine C.; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J.; Nix, W. Allan; Oberste, M. Steven; Feikin, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    During August 8, 2014–October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case–control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non–EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186

  2. Enterovirus D68 Infection in Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Colorado, USA, 2014.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Negar; Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M; Robinson, Christine C; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J; Nix, W Allan; Oberste, M Steven; Feikin, Daniel R; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2016-08-01

    During August 8, 2014-October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case-control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non-EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186

  3. Acute Heat Stress and Reduced Nutrient Intake Alter Intestinal Proteomic Profile and Gene Expression in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Lonergan, Steven M.; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress and reduced feed intake negatively affect intestinal integrity and barrier function. Our objective was to compare ileum protein profiles of pigs subjected to 12 hours of HS, thermal neutral ad libitum feed intake, or pair-fed to heat stress feed intake under thermal neutral conditions (pair-fed thermal neutral). 2D-Differential In Gel Electrophoresis and gene expression were performed. Relative abundance of 281 and 138 spots differed due to heat stress, compared to thermal neutral and pair-fed thermal neutral pigs, respectively. However, only 20 proteins were different due to feed intake (thermal neutral versus pair-fed thermal neutral). Heat stress increased mRNA expression of heat shock proteins and protein abundance of heat shock proteins 27, 70, 90-α and β were also increased. Heat stress reduced ileum abundance of several metabolic enzymes, many of which are involved in the glycolytic or TCA pathways, indicating a change in metabolic priorities. Stress response enzymes peroxiredoxin-1 and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A were decreased in pair-fed thermal neutral and thermal neutral pigs compared to heat stress. Heat stress increased mRNA abundance markers of ileum hypoxia. Altogether, these data show that heat stress directly alters intestinal protein and mRNA profiles largely independent of reduced feed intake. These changes may be related to the reduced intestinal integrity associated with heat stress. PMID:26575181

  4. Acute Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor M.; Wong, Emily Y.M.; Tsang, Alan K.L.; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K.; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother–calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk. PMID:25989145

  5. Effect of a Clostridium difficile Infection Prevention Initiative in Veterans Affairs Acute Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Evans, Martin E; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Jain, Rajiv; Roselle, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Rates of clinically confirmed hospital-onset healthcare facility-associated Clostridium difficile infections from July 1, 2012, through March 31, 2015, in 127 acute care Veterans Affairs facilities were evaluated. Quarterly pooled national standardized infection ratios decreased 15% from baseline by the final quarter of the analysis period (P=.01, linear regression). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:720-722. PMID:26864803

  6. SCID mouse models of acute and relapsing chronic Toxoplasma gondii infections.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L L

    1992-01-01

    Lymphodeficient scid/scid (SCID) mice died from acute infection with a strain of Toxoplasma gondii that causes chronic infection with mild symptoms in immunocompetent non-SCID mice. However, most SCID mice reconstituted with spleen cells from immunocompetent mice 1 month prior to T. gondii infection survived in good health after a transient period during which they appeared ill. Unreconstituted SCID mice given sulfadiazine in their drinking water from day 10 of Toxoplasma infection onward survived the acute phase of infection and lived for many weeks without overt symptoms. Histological examination revealed Toxoplasma cysts in their brains. However, if sulfadiazine was withdrawn from the drinking water of these chronically infected SCID mice, the mice died within 1 week with large numbers of trophozoites throughout their brains. These findings establish SCID mice as a potentially useful resource with which to study various aspects of immunological control of T. gondii infection during either its acute or chronic phase. Furthermore, the ability to produce chronic infections with avirulent T. gondii in SCID mice and to cause acute relapsing infections at will suggests that SCID mice may be helpful in evaluating potential therapies for acute and chronic T. gondii infections in immunocompromised patients. Images PMID:1500181

  7. Vaccine efficacy and immune response to swine influenza virus challenge in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at the time of SIV-vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of concurrent infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on the efficacy of an inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine. Eight groups of pigs were used in the study. One group was infected with a virulent PR...

  8. Experimental infection of slaughter pigs with classical swine fever virus: transmission of the virus, course of the disease and antibody response.

    PubMed

    Laevens, H; Koenen, F; Deluyker, H; de Kruif, A

    1999-08-28

    The spread of classical swine fever virus was investigated in an isolation unit containing four pens, each containing six slaughter pigs. One pig in the middle pen of three adjacent pens was inoculated intramuscularly and intranasally with the virus. The fourth pen was located in a separate compartment. The pens were visited in a strict order to study, first, the effect of indirect contact via contaminated clothing and footwear on the spread of the virus to adjacent pens and, secondly, the airborne transmission of the virus between compartments. The pigs were examined and blood samples were taken every other day for 62 days for virological and serological analyses. The virus was highly contagious for the five pigs that were in direct contact with the inoculated pig, but spread to the other pens only after all the pigs in the originally infected pen had become viraemic. The spread of the virus was promoted by contaminated clothing and footwear, but airborne transmission contributed considerably to the spread of the virus within the pighouse. The first clinical signs observed after the virus was introduced into a pen were decreased feed intake, increased mean rectal temperature and apathy. Neither the clinical course of the infection, nor the pattern of seroconversion observed over time, was affected by the differences in the intensity of contact with the virus between the pigs in the different pens. PMID:10504066

  9. Incubation periods of acute respiratory viral infections: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lessler, Justin; Reich, Nicholas G; Brookmeyer, Ron; Perl, Trish M; Nelson, Kenrad E; Cummings, Derek A T

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the incubation period is essential in the investigation and control of infectious disease, but statements of incubation period are often poorly referenced, inconsistent, or based on limited data. In a systematic review of the literature on nine respiratory viral infections of public-health importance, we identified 436 articles with statements of incubation period and 38 with data for pooled analysis. We fitted a log-normal distribution to pooled data and found the median incubation period to be 5·6 days (95% CI 4·8–6·3) for adenovirus, 3·2 days (95% CI 2·8–3·7) for human coronavirus, 4·0 days (95% CI 3·6–4·4) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, 1·4 days (95% CI 1·3–1·5) for influenza A, 0·6 days (95% CI 0·5–0·6) for influenza B, 12·5 days (95% CI 11·8–13·3) for measles, 2·6 days (95% CI 2·1–3·1) for parainfluenza, 4·4 days (95% CI 3·9–4·9) for respiratory syncytial virus, and 1·9 days (95% CI 1·4–2·4) for rhinovirus. When using the incubation period, it is important to consider its full distribution: the right tail for quarantine policy, the central regions for likely times and sources of infection, and the full distribution for models used in pandemic planning. Our estimates combine published data to give the detail necessary for these and other applications. PMID:19393959

  10. Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens In Acute Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Obasi, Chidi N.; Barrett, Bruce; Brown, Roger; Vrtis, Rose; Barlow, Shari; Muller, Daniel; Gern, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The role of bacteria in acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) of adults and interactions with viral infections is incompletely understood. This study tested the hypothesis that bacterial co-infection during ARI adds to airway inflammation and illness severity. Methods Two groups of 97 specimens each were randomly selected from multiplex-PCR identified virus-positive and virus-negative nasal specimens obtained from adults with new onset ARI, and 40 control specimens were collected from healthy adults. All specimens were analyzed for Haemophilus influenza(HI), Moraxella catarrhalis(MC) and Streptococcus pneumonia(SP) by quantitative-PCR. General linear models tested for relationships between respiratory pathogens, biomarkers (nasal wash neutrophils and CXCL8), and ARI-severity. Results Nasal specimens from adults with ARIs were more likely to contain bacteria (37% overall; HI=28%, MC=14%, SP=7%) compared to specimens from healthy adults (5% overall; HI=0%, MC=2.5%, SP=2.5%;p<0.001). Among ARI specimens, bacteria were more likely to be detected among virus-negative specimens compared to virus-positive specimens (46% vs. 27%;p=0.0046). The presence of bacteria was significantly associated with increased CXCL8 and neutrophils, but not increased symptoms. Conclusion Pathogenic bacteria were more often detected in virus-negative ARI, and also associated with increased inflammatory biomarkers. These findings suggest the possibility that bacteria may augment virus-induced ARI and contribute to airway inflammation. Summary We tested whether bacterial pathogens were associated with ARI illness and inflammation. Bacteria were detected more often in nasal secretions during ARI, especially in samples without detectable viruses, and were associated with increased airway inflammation, but not increased symptoms. PMID:24211414

  11. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. PMID:26525738

  12. Caspofungin Acetate or Fluconazole in Preventing Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-23

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  13. Exposure to environmental stressors result in increased viral load and further reduction of production parameters in pigs experimentally infected with PCV2b

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Robert; Nevel, Amanda; Diaz, Adriana V.; Martineau, Henny M.; Demmers, Theo; Browne, Christopher; Mavrommatis, Bettina; Werling, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been identified as the essential, but not sole, underlying infectious component for PCV-associated diseases (PCVAD). Several co-factors have been suggested to convert an infection with PCV2 into the clinical signs of PCVAD, including co-infection with a secondary pathogen and the genetic background of the pig. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental stressors in the form of changes in environmental temperature and increased stocking-density on viral load in serum and tissue, average daily weight gain (ADG) and food conversion rate (FCR) of pigs experimentally infected with a defined PCV2b strain over an eight week period. These stressors were identified recently as risk factors leading to the occurrence of severe PCVAD on a farm level. In the current study, PCV2-free pigs were housed in separate, environmentally controlled rooms, and the experiment was performed in a 2 × 2 factorial design. In general, PCV2b infection reduced ADG and increased FCR, and these were further impacted on by the environmental stressors. Furthermore, all stressors led to an increased viral load in serum and tissue as assessed by qPCR, although levels did not reach statistical significance. Our data suggest that there is no need for an additional pathogen to develop PCVAD in conventional status pigs, and growth retardation and clinical signs can be induced in PCV2 infected pigs that are exposed to environmental stressors alone. PMID:25866129

  14. Exposure to environmental stressors result in increased viral load and further reduction of production parameters in pigs experimentally infected with PCV2b.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Robert; Nevel, Amanda; Diaz, Adriana V; Martineau, Henny M; Demmers, Theo; Browne, Christopher; Mavrommatis, Bettina; Werling, Dirk

    2015-06-12

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been identified as the essential, but not sole, underlying infectious component for PCV-associated diseases (PCVAD). Several co-factors have been suggested to convert an infection with PCV2 into the clinical signs of PCVAD, including co-infection with a secondary pathogen and the genetic background of the pig. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental stressors in the form of changes in environmental temperature and increased stocking-density on viral load in serum and tissue, average daily weight gain (ADG) and food conversion rate (FCR) of pigs experimentally infected with a defined PCV2b strain over an eight week period. These stressors were identified recently as risk factors leading to the occurrence of severe PCVAD on a farm level. In the current study, PCV2-free pigs were housed in separate, environmentally controlled rooms, and the experiment was performed in a 2×2 factorial design. In general, PCV2b infection reduced ADG and increased FCR, and these were further impacted on by the environmental stressors. Furthermore, all stressors led to an increased viral load in serum and tissue as assessed by qPCR, although levels did not reach statistical significance. Our data suggest that there is no need for an additional pathogen to develop PCVAD in conventional status pigs, and growth retardation and clinical signs can be induced in PCV2 infected pigs that are exposed to environmental stressors alone. PMID:25866129

  15. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  17. Profiling Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children from Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farzana; Sarma, Ratna; Debroy, Arup; Kar, Sumit; Pal, Ranabir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are leading global cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. Objective: To elicit the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among under-five children. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 21 registered urban slums of Guwahati in Assam to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among 370 under-five children from 184 households and 370 families. Results: The prevalence of ARI was found to be 26.22%; infants and female children were more affected. Majority of the ARI cases were from nuclear families (84.54%), living in kutcha houses (90.72%) with inadequate ventilation (84.54%), overcrowded living condition (81.44%), with kitchen attached to the living room (65.98%) and using biomass fuel for cooking (89.69%). ARI was significantly associated with ventilation, location of kitchen in household; presence of overcrowding, nutritional status, and primary immunization status also had impacts on ARI. Conclusion: The present study had identified a high prevalence of the disease among under-fives. It also pointed out various socio-demographic, nutritional, and environmental modifiable risk factors which can be tackled by effective education of the community. PMID:23599611

  18. Effect of acute cytomegalovirus infection on drug-induced SLE.

    PubMed Central

    Schattner, A.; Sthoeger, Z.; Geltner, D.

    1994-01-01

    A 58 year old woman developed systemic symptoms, interstitial lung disease, splenomegaly, leukopenia and anti-histone and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), while treated with hydralazine for hypertension. Five months after presentation she was admitted with high fever, skin rash and atypical lymphocytosis due to acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Worsening leukopenia and increased ANA were found, and high titres of anti-DNA antibodies, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and rheumatoid factors appeared. Hydralazine was stopped and the patient gradually became asymptomatic. All autoantibodies spontaneously disappeared (over 16 weeks), and the white cell count and spleen size became normal. The patient was found to be a slow acetylator and to have both HLA-DR4 and selective IgA deficiency. Thus, a multifactorial genetic susceptibility to develop drug-induced lupus was brought out in stages first by hydralazine and then by CMV, yet all manifestations and autoantibodies resolved spontaneously, demonstrating the complex interplay of varied environmental factors with a genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:7831173

  19. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed.

  20. Nef gene evolution from a single transmitted strain in acute SIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Bimber, Benjamin N; Chugh, Pauline; Giorgi, Elena E; Kim, Baek; Almudevar, Anthony L; Dewhurst, Stephen; O'Connor, David H; Lee, Ha Youn

    2009-01-01

    Background The acute phase of immunodeficiency virus infection plays a crucial role in determining steady-state virus load and subsequent progression of disease in both humans and nonhuman primates. The acute period is also the time when vaccine-mediated effects on host immunity are likely to exert their major effects on virus infection. Recently we developed a Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation with mathematical analysis of viral evolution during primary HIV-1 infection that enables classification of new HIV-1 infections originating from multiple versus single transmitted viral strains and the estimation of time elapsed following infection. Results A total of 322 SIV nef SIV sequences, collected during the first 3 weeks following experimental infection of two rhesus macaques with the SIVmac239 clone, were analyzed and found to display a comparable level of genetic diversity, 0.015% to 0.052%, with that of env sequences from acute HIV-1 infection, 0.005% to 0.127%. We confirmed that the acute HIV-1 infection model correctly identified the experimental SIV infections in rhesus macaques as "homogenous" infections, initiated by a single founder strain. The consensus sequence of the sampled strains corresponded to the transmitted sequence as the model predicted. However, measured sequential decrease in diversity at day 7, 11, and 18 post infection violated the model assumption, neutral evolution without any selection. Conclusion While nef gene evolution over the first 3 weeks of SIV infection originating from a single transmitted strain showed a comparable rate of sequence evolution to that observed during acute HIV-1 infection, a purifying selection for the founder nef gene was observed during the early phase of experimental infection of a nonhuman primate. PMID:19505314

  1. Acute Scedosporium apiospermum Endobronchial Infection in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Padoan, Rita; Poli, Piercarlo; Colombrita, Domenico; Borghi, Elisa; Timpano, Silviana; Berlucchi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are known pathogens in cystic fibrosis patients. A boy with cystic fibrosis boy presented with acute respiratory distress. Bronchoscopy showed airways obstruction by mucus plugs and bronchial casts. Scedosporium apiospermum was identified as the only pathogen. Bronchoalveolar lavage successfully resolved the acute obstruction. Plastic bronchitis is a new clinical picture of acute Scedosporium endobronchial colonization in cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:26967814

  2. Clinical and laboratory predictive markers for acute dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of dengue virus infection during the febrile stage is essential for adjusting appropriate management. This study is to identify the predictive markers of clinical and laboratory findings in the acute stage of dengue infection during a major outbreak of dengue virus type 1 that occurred in southern Taiwan during 2007. A retrospective, hospital-based study was conducted at a university hospital in southern Taiwan from January to December, 2007. Patient who was reported for clinically suspected dengue infection was enrolled. Laboratory-positive dengue cases are confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of specific dengue IgM, fourfold increase of dengue-specific IgG titers in convalescent serum, or by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of dengue virus. Results The suspected dengue cases consist of 100 children (≤ 18 years) and 481 adults. Among the 581 patients, 67 (67%) children and 309 (64.2%) adults were laboratory-confirmed. Patients who had laboratory indeterminate were excluded. Most cases were uncomplicated and 3.8% of children and 2.9% of adults developed dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The overall mortality rate in those with DHF/DSS was 7.1%, and the average duration of hospitalization was 20 days. The most common symptoms/signs at admission were myalgia (46.8%), petechiae (36.9%) and nausea/vomiting (33.5%). The most notable laboratory findings included leukopenia (2966 ± 1896/cmm), thrombocytopenia (102 ± 45 × 103/cmm), prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (45 ± 10 s), and elevated serum levels of aminotransferase (AST, 166 ± 208 U/L; ALT, 82 ± 103 U/L) and low C - reactive protein (CRP) (6 ± 11 mg/L). Based on the clinical features for predicting laboratory-confirmed dengue infection, the sensitivities of typical rash, myalgia, and positive tourniquet test are 59.2%, 46.8%, and 34.2%, while the specificities for

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in pig farms from Catalonia, north-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, I; Dubey, J P; Simon-Grifé, M; Cabezón, O; Casal, J; Allepuz, A; Napp, S; Almería, S

    2010-08-01

    Seroprevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs were analyzed in 1202 sera samples, including sows and pigs of three, seven, 11, 15 and 20 weeks of age, from 23 farms in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. Antibodies were tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT) at titers > or =1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 228 samples (19.0%; 95% CI: 16.8-21.2). The individual prevalence in animals higher than 7 weeks of age was 22.8% (174/762; 95% CI: 16.6-29.0) and the within-farm prevalence ranged from 7.1% to 36.4%. Statistically significant differences were found among age classes. The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the presence of cats, percentage of mortality at weaning and the presence of outdoor facilities in the farms. The seroprevalence observed in the present study indicates widespread exposure to T. gondii among domestic pigs in Catalonia, which may have important implications for public health. PMID:20189210

  4. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    PubMed

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors. PMID:25837784

  5. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    PubMed

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001) than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co-infection

  6. Disseminated Neocosmospora vasinfecta infection in a patient with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Cornely, O. A.; Chemnitz, J.; Brochhagen, H. G.; Lemmer, K.; Schütt, H.; Söhngen, D.; Staib, P.; Wickenhauser, C.; Diehl, V.; Tintelnot, K.

    2001-01-01

    We report Neocosmospora vasinfecta infection following chemotherapy for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. N. vasinfecta, a plant pathogen, was identified by culture and genetic sequencing. Susceptibility testing revealed in vitro resistance for common antifungals. PMID:11266308

  7. Changes in ovarian follicles following acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Grooms, D L; Brock, K V; Pate, J L; Day, M L

    1998-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with several reproductive problems in cattle, including poor fertility, early embryonic deaths, abortion and congenital anomalies. Little is known about the cause of poor fertility in cows acutely infected with BVDV. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ovarian function following acute infection with noncytopathic BVDV. The ovaries of 5 BVDV sero-negative and virus-negative pubertal heifers were monitored daily for 4 consecutive estrous cycles. The position and diameter of all follicles (> 5 mm) and luteal structures were recorded. Daily plasma samples were collected to measure peripheral progesterone and estradiol levels. Each heifer was infected intranasally with noncytopathic BVDV following ovulation of the second estrous cycle. The maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant anovulatory and ovulatory follicles were significantly reduced following acute BVDV infection. Similarly, the number of subordinate follicles associated with both the anovulatory and ovulatory follicle was reduced following infection. There were no significant differences in other follicle or luteal dynamic parameters or in peripheral progesterone or estradiol levels. Ovarian follicular growth was different during the first 2 estrous cycles following acute infection with BVDV when compared with the 2 estrous cycles preceding infection. These differences may be important in explaining reduced fertility in herds with acute BVDV infection. PMID:10732038

  8. Enhancing the detection and management of acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Marianne; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-10-01

    Acute HCV infection refers to the 6-month period following infection acquisition, although this definition is somewhat arbitrary. While spontaneous clearance occurs in approximately 25%, the majority will develop chronic HCV infection with the potential for development of cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Detection of acute HCV infection has been hampered by its asymptomatic or non-specific presentation, lack of specific diagnostic tests and the inherent difficulties in identifying and following individuals at highest risk of transmitting and acquiring HCV infection, such as people who inject drugs (PWID). However, recognition of those with acute infection may have individual and population level benefits and could represent an ideal opportunity for intervention. Despite demonstration that HCV treatment is feasible and successful in PWID, treatment uptake remains low with multiple barriers to care at an individual and systems level. Given the burden of HCV-related disease among PWID, strategies to enhance HCV assessment, treatment and prevention in this group are urgently needed. As the therapeutic landscape of chronic HCV management is revolutionised by the advent of simple, highly effective directly-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, similar opportunities may exist in acute infection. This review will discuss issues surrounding improving the detection and management of acute HCV infection, particularly in PWID. PMID:26254495

  9. Effect of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infectious Doses on Infection Outcomes in Naïve Conventional Neonatal and Weaned Pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joseph T; Chen, Qi; Gauger, Phillip C; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Sinha, Avanti; Harmon, Karen M; Madson, Darin M; Burrough, Eric R; Magstadt, Drew R; Salzbrenner, Holly M; Welch, Michael W; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was identified in the United States (U.S.) swine population for the first time in April 2013 and rapidly spread nationwide. However, no information has been published regarding the minimum infectious dose (MID) of PEDV in different pig models. The main objective of this study was to determine the oral minimum infectious dose of PEDV in naïve conventional neonatal piglets and weaned pigs. A U.S. virulent PEDV prototype isolate (USA/IN19338/2013) with known infectious titer was serially ten-fold diluted in virus-negative cell culture medium. Dilutions with theoretical infectious titers from 560 to 0.0056 TCID50/ml together with a medium control were orogastrically inoculated (10ml/pig) into 7 groups of 5-day-old neonatal pigs (n = 4 per group) and 7 groups of 21-day-old weaned pigs (n = 6 per group). In 5-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum having titers 560-0.056 TCID50/ml, corresponding to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values 24.2-37.6, resulted in 100% infection in each group; 10ml of inoculum with titer 0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct>45) caused infection in 25% of the inoculated pigs. In 21-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum with titers 560-5.6 TCID50/ml (Ct 24.2-31.4) resulted in 100% infection in each group while 10ml of inoculum with titers 0.56-0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct values 35.3 ->45) did not establish infection in any pigs under study conditions as determined by clinical signs, PCR, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and antibody response. These data reveal that PEDV infectious dose is age-dependent with a significantly lower MID for neonatal pigs compared to weaned pigs. This information should be taken into consideration when interpreting clinical relevance of PEDV PCR results and when designing a PEDV bioassay model. The observation of such a low MID in neonates also emphasizes the importance of strict biosecurity and thorough cleaning/disinfection on sow farms. PMID:26441071

  10. Effect of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infectious Doses on Infection Outcomes in Naïve Conventional Neonatal and Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joseph T.; Chen, Qi; Gauger, Phillip C.; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G.; Sinha, Avanti; Harmon, Karen M.; Madson, Darin M.; Burrough, Eric R.; Magstadt, Drew R.; Salzbrenner, Holly M.; Welch, Michael W.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was identified in the United States (U.S.) swine population for the first time in April 2013 and rapidly spread nationwide. However, no information has been published regarding the minimum infectious dose (MID) of PEDV in different pig models. The main objective of this study was to determine the oral minimum infectious dose of PEDV in naïve conventional neonatal piglets and weaned pigs. A U.S. virulent PEDV prototype isolate (USA/IN19338/2013) with known infectious titer was serially ten-fold diluted in virus-negative cell culture medium. Dilutions with theoretical infectious titers from 560 to 0.0056 TCID50/ml together with a medium control were orogastrically inoculated (10ml/pig) into 7 groups of 5-day-old neonatal pigs (n = 4 per group) and 7 groups of 21-day-old weaned pigs (n = 6 per group). In 5-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum having titers 560–0.056 TCID50/ml, corresponding to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values 24.2–37.6, resulted in 100% infection in each group; 10ml of inoculum with titer 0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct>45) caused infection in 25% of the inoculated pigs. In 21-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum with titers 560–5.6 TCID50/ml (Ct 24.2–31.4) resulted in 100% infection in each group while 10ml of inoculum with titers 0.56–0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct values 35.3 –>45) did not establish infection in any pigs under study conditions as determined by clinical signs, PCR, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and antibody response. These data reveal that PEDV infectious dose is age-dependent with a significantly lower MID for neonatal pigs compared to weaned pigs. This information should be taken into consideration when interpreting clinical relevance of PEDV PCR results and when designing a PEDV bioassay model. The observation of such a low MID in neonates also emphasizes the importance of strict biosecurity and thorough cleaning/disinfection on sow farms. PMID:26441071

  11. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 μmol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] μmol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 μmol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs

  12. Infection dynamic of Toxoplasma gondii in two fattening pig farms exposed to high and low cat density in an endemic region.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzman-Marin, E; Uitzil-Álvarez, B; Rodríguez-Buenfil, J C; Jimenez-Coello, M

    2011-02-10

    The presence of cats in the farms is considered a risk factor for the infection of pigs with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Cats eliminate oocysts that contaminate food, water and promote the infection of host reservoir such as rodents and birds among others that are also involved in the infection of pigs. The objective of this study was to assess the dynamic of infection of T. gondii in seronegative weaned pigs from weaning to 20 weeks of age from two farms from an endemic region, one with high and low density of cats. A cohort study was performed in 64 pigs, 31 newly weaned pigs on a farm with a high density of cats (FA) and 33 newly-weaned pigs on a farm with a low density of cats (FB). Blood samples were collected every 14 days to determine the presence of IgG antibodies against T. gondii in the serum using an indirect ELISA test. True incidence rate (TIV), cumulative incidence (AI) and relative risk (RR) was calculated. The age of seroconversion was determined by using survival tables; both farms were compared with Long-Rank test. In FA 97.5% of the pigs seroconverted at the second sampling and 100% at the third sampling, while in the FB all pigs seroconverted to the fourth sampling. The TIV was 0.67 and 0.43 for FA and FB respectively, during the first four weeks at risk. A RR of 1.5 (1.04-2.39) was obtained (p<0.05). Animals of the FA had a higher risk of infection compared with the FB, however, all animals included in the study had contact with the agent. Infection with T. gondii was rapidly distributed in both farms, regardless of the relative density of cats observed during the study. These results suggest a high environmental contamination with oocysts in the facilities of both farms probably due to the fact that T. gondii infection is endemic in the area where the farms are located, allow proper establishment of the etiological agent. The points of prevention and control strategies to avoid exposure of pigs to T. gondii in an endemic area should focus

  13. Radiculoplexopathy with conduction block caused by acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Steve; Palmer, William; Cros, Didier

    2005-02-01

    The authors report a case of cervicobrachial radiculoplexopathy with proximal conduction block (CB), associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The patient presented with pain, paresthesias, and monomelic weakness in the left C7-8, and T1 myotomes. The illness was monophasic with rapid recovery. Neurophysiologic studies demonstrated CB in the proximal left median and ulnar nerve segments. The authors conclude that this syndrome resulted from a postinfectious process following acute EBV infection. PMID:15699388

  14. Acute Hepatitis as a Manifestation of Parvovirus B19 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hatakka, Aleisha; Klein, Julianne; He, Runtao; Piper, Jessica; Tam, Edward; Walkty, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of parvovirus B19-associated acute hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM) and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in a liver biopsy specimen. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute hepatitis. PMID:21734024

  15. Evaluation of bacteriophages for prevention and treatment of diarrhea due to experimental enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O149 infection of pigs.

    PubMed

    Jamalludeen, Nidham; Johnson, Roger P; Shewen, Patricia E; Gyles, Carlton L

    2009-04-14

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of selected phages individually and in combination in prevention and treatment of diarrhea due to experimental O149:H10:F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in weaned pigs. For prophylaxis, the phages were administered orally shortly after challenge, and for therapeutic use, were given 24h after challenge, following the onset of diarrhea. The parameters used to assess outcomes were weight change, duration of diarrhea, severity of diarrhea, composite diarrhea score, and extent of shedding of the challenge ETEC over 6 days. Six phages that were tested individually in a prophylactic mode were effective as determined by a significant change in each of the parameters, although the phages were not present at titres greater than 10(3)PFU/g of feces. A modified protocol involving pre-treatment of the pigs with florfenicol and oral administration of sodium bicarbonate prior to the ETEC challenge and phage administration resulted in high levels of phages in the feces. Using this protocol, a combination of three phages that was tested in the prophylactic mode significantly reduced the severity of diarrhea and the composite diarrhea score. A mixture of two phages given therapeutically significantly improved each of the outcome parameters, without perturbation of the total fecal E. coli flora. Enumeration of phages in feces after treatment indicated that the phages were replicating to high titres in the intestinal tract of ETEC infected pigs within 1-2 days before declining progressively. These findings indicate that the selected phages were effective in moderating the course of experimental O149:H10:F4 ETEC diarrhea in weaned pigs when given prophylactically or therapeutically. PMID:19058927

  16. Sequence adaptations during growth of rescued classical swine fever viruses in cell culture and within infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Friis, Martin B; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Nielsen, Jens; Belsham, Graham J; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2016-08-30

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes an economically important disease of swine. Four different viruses were rescued from full-length cloned cDNAs derived from the Paderborn strain of CSFV. Three of these viruses had been modified by mutagenesis (with 7 or 8 nt changes) within stem 2 of the subdomain IIIf of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that directs the initiation of protein synthesis. Rescued viruses were inoculated into pigs. The rescued vPader10 virus, without modifications in the IRES, induced clinical disease in pigs that was very similar to that observed previously with the parental field strain and transmission to in-contact pigs occurred. Two sequence reversions, in the NS2 and NS5B coding regions, became dominant within the virus populations in these infected pigs. Rescued viruses, with mutant IRES elements, did not induce disease and only very limited circulation of viral RNA could be detected. However, the animals inoculated with these mutant viruses seroconverted against CSFV. Thus, these mutant viruses were highly attenuated in vivo. All 4 rescued viruses were also passaged up to 20 times in cell culture. Using full genome sequencing, the same two adaptations within each of four independent virus populations were observed that restored the coding sequence to that of the parental field strain. These adaptations occurred with different kinetics. The combination of reverse genetics and in depth, full genome sequencing provides a powerful approach to analyse virus adaptation and to identify key determinants of viral replication efficiency in cells and within host animals. PMID:27527774

  17. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  18. Varicella Zoster Infection: A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain Mimicking Acute Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Olmez, Deniz; Boz, Alper; Erkan, Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster is an acute viral infection that results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adult population and immune compromised patients. It rarely occurs in healthy children. Here we present a 14 years old male with varicella zoster that had abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen to alert others who are consulted for the differentiation of acute abdomen and others who may be consulted for pain management. Keywords Varicella zoster; Abdominal pain PMID:22461879

  19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Methods Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient’s condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Results Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. Discussion In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Conclusion Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission. PMID:24180319

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Antigens Recognized by Women With Tubal Factor Infertility, Normal Fertility, and Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Budrys, Nicole M.; Gong, Siqi; Rodgers, Allison K.; Wang, Jie; Louden, Christopher; Shain, Rochelle; Schenken, Robert S.; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify Chlamydia trachomatis antigens associated with tubal factor infertility and acute infection. Methods A C. trachomatis proteome array was used to compare antibody profiles among women with tubal factor infertility, normal fertility, and acute C. trachomatis infection. Results Thirteen immunodominant antigens reacted with 50% or more sera from all women (N=73). Six C. trachomatis antigens were uniquely recognized by women diagnosed with tubal factor infertility. Combining fragmentation of the six antigens with serum sample dilution, chlamydial antigens HSP60, CT376, CT557, and CT443 could discriminate between women with tubal factor infertility and women with normal fertility with a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.41–0.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.91–1), respectively. These antigens were designated as tubal factor infertility-associated antigens. However, these tubal factor antigens were unable to distinguish tubal factor infertility patients from those with acute infection. A combination of CT875 and CT147 distinguished women with acute infection from all other C. trachomatis-exposed women with a detection sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.41–0.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.95–1), respectively. Thus, CT875 and CT147 were designated as acute infection-associated antigens. Conclusion A sequential screening of antibodies against panels of C. trachomatis antigens can be used to identify women with tubal factor infertility and acute C. trachomatis infection. PMID:22525912

  1. Effect of Feed Restriction on Performance and Postprandial Nutrient Metabolism in Pigs Co-Infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Swine Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cariolet, Roland; Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V.; Merlot, Elodie; Simon, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed. PMID:25101681

  2. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection - Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kottanattu, Lisa; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Helbling, Rossana; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis have been occasionally reported in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. We completed a review of the literature and retained 48 scientific reports published between 1966 and 2016 for the final analysis. Acute pancreatitis was recognized in 14 and acalculous cholecystitis in 37 patients with primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. In all patients, the features of acute pancreatitis or acalculous cholecystitis concurrently developed with those of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis resolved following a hospital stay of 25days or less. Acalculous cholecystitis was associated with Gilbert-Meulengracht syndrome in two cases. In conclusion, this thorough analysis indicates that acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis are unusual but plausible complications of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis deserve consideration in cases with severe abdominal pain. These complications are usually rather mild and resolve spontaneously without sequelae. PMID:27434148

  3. Colorectal Disorders in Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Panichsillapakit, Theppharit; Patel, Derek; Santangelo, Joanne; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is important in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report a case series of lower GI endoscopic and histopathologic findings of HIV-infected individuals after presentation with acute infection. Methods. We performed a retrospective case review of individuals infected with HIV who enrolled between August 2010 and April 2013 in a primary infection treatment trial. All participants started the trial during acute infection and underwent colonoscopy with biopsies at baseline and after the start of antiretroviral treatment. Results. Twenty acutely infected individuals were included in the study (mean age, 33 years; range, 20–54 years). All participants were male who reported having receptive anal sex as an HIV risk factor. Nine individuals (45%) had at least 1 finding by colorectal pathology; 1 person had 2 diagnoses (diverticulosis and focal active proctitis). The histopathological findings revealed anal dysplasia in 3 cases: 2 had high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and 1 had low-grade AIN. Two persons had a colorectal polyp, 1 hyperplastic and 1 adenomatous. Three persons were diagnosed with diverticulosis, and 2 persons were diagnosed with proctitis, including 1 with focal active proctitis and 1 with cytomegalovirus proctitis. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first case series report of lower GI disorders in acute HIV-infected individuals. Although the causal relationship remains uncertain, we describe the endoscopic findings that were observed during acute HIV infection among men who have sex with men. Understanding the prevalence of these pathologies may likely shed light on how acute HIV infection damages the lower GI tract. PMID:26925432

  4. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS PERSISTENTLY INFECTED AND ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES: ASSAYS FOR VIRAL INFECTIVITY, POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ANALYSIS, AND ANTIGEN DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detecting infectious virus, nucleic material, and antigen. Persistently infected (PI) and acutely/transiently infected calves with BVDV represent two different manifestations. Diagnostic test results impact on differentiation of PI o...

  5. Immune responses of a chimaeric protein vaccine containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens and LTB against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Silvana B; Sácristan, Rubén Del Pozo; Michiels, Annelies; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Conceição, Fabricio R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Maes, Dominiek

    2014-08-01

    A recombinant chimaeric protein containing three Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens (C-terminal portion of P97, heat shock protein P42, and NrdF) fused to an adjuvant, the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB), was used to immunize pigs against enzootic pneumonia. The systemic and local immune responses, as well as the efficacy of the chimaeric protein in inducing protection against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection were evaluated. In total, 60 male piglets, purchased from a M. hyopneumoniae-free herd, at 4 weeks of age were randomly allocated to six different experimental groups of 10 animals each: recombinant chimaeric protein by intramuscular (IM) (1) or intranasal (IN) (2) administration, commercial bacterin by IM administration (3), and the adjuvant LTB by IM (4, control group A) or IN (5, control group B) administration. All groups were immunized at 24 and 38 days of age and challenged at 52 days of age. The sixth group that was not challenged was used as the negative control (IN [n=5] or IM [n=5] administration of the LTB adjuvant). Compared with the non-challenged group, administration of the chimaeric protein induced significant (P<0.05) IgG and IgA responses against all individual antigens present in the chimaera, but it could not confer a significant protection against M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs. This lack of effectiveness points towards the need for further studies to improve the efficacy of this subunit-based vaccine approach. PMID:24909331

  6. Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected pigs to identify pathways that may be involved. Ileal samples originating from twenty-eight weaner pigs experimentally challenged with a pure culture of L. intracellularis (strain LR189/5/83) were subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray transcriptional signatures were validated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of selected genes at various time points post challenge. At peak of infection (14 days post challenge) 86% of altered transcripts were down regulated, particularly those involved in maintenance of mucosal integrity and regulation of cell transport. Among the up-regulated transcripts, CD163 and CDK1 were novel findings and considered to be important, due to their respective roles in innate immunity and cellular proliferation. Overall, targeted cellular mechanisms included those that are important in epithelial restitution, migration and protection; maintenance of stable inter-epithelial cell relationships; cell transport of nutrients and electrolytes; innate immunity; and cell cycle. PMID:24885874

  7. Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sionagh H; Wilson, Alison D; Van Ettinger, Imke; MacIntyre, Neil; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar

    2014-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected pigs to identify pathways that may be involved. Ileal samples originating from twenty-eight weaner pigs experimentally challenged with a pure culture of L. intracellularis (strain LR189/5/83) were subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray transcriptional signatures were validated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of selected genes at various time points post challenge. At peak of infection (14 days post challenge) 86% of altered transcripts were down regulated, particularly those involved in maintenance of mucosal integrity and regulation of cell transport. Among the up-regulated transcripts, CD163 and CDK1 were novel findings and considered to be important, due to their respective roles in innate immunity and cellular proliferation. Overall, targeted cellular mechanisms included those that are important in epithelial restitution, migration and protection; maintenance of stable inter-epithelial cell relationships; cell transport of nutrients and electrolytes; innate immunity; and cell cycle. PMID:24885874

  8. Lack of an effect of a commercial vaccine adjuvant on the development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) experimentally infected conventional pigs.

    PubMed

    Resendes, Ana; Segalés, Joaquim; Balasch, Mònica; Calsamiglia, Maria; Sibila, Marina; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Mateu, Enric; Plana-Durán, Joan; Mankertz, Annette; Domingo, Mariano

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial vaccine adjuvant on the clinical and pathological outcome of PCV2 experimentally infected 8 to 9-week-old conventional pigs. Forty-four pigs were divided into four groups: non-infected control pigs, pigs that received a vaccine adjuvant, pigs inoculated with PCV2, and pigs inoculated with PCV2 together with the vaccine adjuvant. Infection was monitored until 69 days post-inoculation (PI). Some PCV2 inoculated pigs had hyperthermia, but no other clinical signs were recorded. No characteristic PMWS gross or microscopic lesions were observed in any of the pigs. PCV2 DNA was detected in lymphoid tissues by in situ hybridisation in 6 PCV2 inoculated pigs on day 69 PI. All PCV2 inoculated pigs seroconverted between days 21 and 49 PI, shortly after viremia detection. Moreover, viremia was detected between days 7 and 69 PI using PCR. A peak of the virus load was detected by real-time quantitative PCR between days 14 and 21 PI. There were no significant differences in the proportion of PCV2 positive serum and in the viral load between PCV2 and PCV2 + adjuvant inoculated pigs. Although PMWS was not reproduced in neither PCV2 nor PCV2 + adjuvant inoculated pigs, viremia detection and seroconversion indicated that all PCV2 inoculated pigs developed a chronic long-term asymptomatic infection. An increase of PCV2 replication was not observed in pigs inoculated with the adjuvant. These results indicate that the principle of immunostimulation may not be applicable under the experimental conditions used, suggesting that not all adjuvants used in commercial vaccines are capable of triggering mechanisms for PMWS development. PMID:15099505

  9. Inhibition of bacterial growth and intramniotic infection in a guinea pig model of chorioamnionitis using PAMAM dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Navath, Raghavendra S; Menjoge, Anupa R; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Bellair, Robert; Dai, Hui; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2010-08-16

    Dendrimers have emerged as topical microbicides to treat vaginal infections. This study explores the in vitro, in vivo antimicrobial activity of PAMAM dendrimers, and the associated mechanism. Interestingly, topical cervical application of 500 microg of generation-4 neutral dendrimer (G(4)-PAMAM-OH) showed potential to treat the Escherichia coli induced ascending uterine infection in guinea pig model of chorioamnionitis. Amniotic fluid collected from different gestational sacs of infected guinea pigs posttreatment showed absence of E. coli growth in the cultures plated with it. The cytokine level [tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and interleukin (IL-6 and IL-1beta)] in placenta of the G(4)-PAMAM-OH treated animals were comparable to those in healthy animals while these were notably high in infected animals. Since, antibacterial activity of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers is known, the activity of hydroxyl and carboxylic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimers was compared with it. Though the G(4)-PAMAM-NH(2) shows superior antibacterial activity, it was found to be cytotoxic to human cervical epithelial cell line above 10 microg/mL, while the G(4)-PAMAM-OH was non-cytotoxic up to 1mg/mL concentration. Cell integrity, outer (OM) and inner (IM) membrane permeabilization assays showed that G(4)-PAMAM-OH dendrimer efficiently changed the OM permeability, while G(4)-PAMAM-NH(2) and G(3.5)-PAMAM-COOH damaged both OM and IM causing the bacterial lysis. The possible antibacterial mechanism are G(4)-PAMAM-NH(2) acts as polycation binding to the polyanionic lipopolysaccharide in E. coli, the G(4)-PAMAM-OH forms hydrogen bonds with the hydrophilic O-antigens in E. coli membrane and the G(3.5)-PAMAM-COOH acts as a polyanion, chelating the divalent ions in outer cell membrane of E. coli. This is the first study which shows that G(4)-PAMAM-OH dendrimer acts as an antibacterial agent. PMID:20580797

  10. The broad-spectrum antiviral favipiravir protects guinea pigs from lethal Lassa virus infection post-disease onset.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Rosenke, Kyle; Westover, Jonna B; Martellaro, Cynthia; Okumura, Atsushi; Furuta, Yousuke; Geisbert, Joan; Saturday, Greg; Komeno, Takashi; Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz; Gowen, Brian B

    2015-01-01

    With up to 500,000 infections annually, Lassa virus (LASV), the cause of Lassa fever, is one of the most prevalent etiological agents of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. LASV is endemic in several West African countries with sporadic cases and prolonged outbreaks observed most commonly in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. Additionally several cases of Lassa fever have been imported into North America, Europe and Asia making LASV a global threat to public health. Despite this, currently no approved therapeutic or vaccine exists to treat or prevent LASV infections. Here, using a passaged strain of LASV that is uniformly lethal in Hartley guinea pigs, we demonstrate that favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent and leading treatment option for influenza, has potent activity against LASV infection. In this model, once daily treatment with favipiravir significantly reduced viral titers in tissue samples and reduced mortality rates when compared with animals receiving vehicle-only or ribavirin, the current standard of care for Lassa fever. Favipiravir remained highly effective against lethal LASV infection when treatments were initiated nine days post-infection, a time when animals were demonstrating advanced signs of disease. These results support the further preclinical evaluation of favipiravir for Lassa fever and other VHFs. PMID:26456301

  11. The broad-spectrum antiviral favipiravir protects guinea pigs from lethal Lassa virus infection post-disease onset

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Rosenke, Kyle; Westover, Jonna B.; Martellaro, Cynthia; Okumura, Atsushi; Furuta, Yousuke; Geisbert, Joan; Saturday, Greg; Komeno, Takashi; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz; Gowen, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    With up to 500,000 infections annually, Lassa virus (LASV), the cause of Lassa fever, is one of the most prevalent etiological agents of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. LASV is endemic in several West African countries with sporadic cases and prolonged outbreaks observed most commonly in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. Additionally several cases of Lassa fever have been imported into North America, Europe and Asia making LASV a global threat to public health. Despite this, currently no approved therapeutic or vaccine exists to treat or prevent LASV infections. Here, using a passaged strain of LASV that is uniformly lethal in Hartley guinea pigs, we demonstrate that favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent and leading treatment option for influenza, has potent activity against LASV infection. In this model, once daily treatment with favipiravir significantly reduced viral titers in tissue samples and reduced mortality rates when compared with animals receiving vehicle-only or ribavirin, the current standard of care for Lassa fever. Favipiravir remained highly effective against lethal LASV infection when treatments were initiated nine days post-infection, a time when animals were demonstrating advanced signs of disease. These results support the further preclinical evaluation of favipiravir for Lassa fever and other VHFs. PMID:26456301

  12. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B; Carr, Anthony P; Gaunt, M Casey

    2016-09-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea. PMID:27587889

  13. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  14. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Langevin, Stanley; O'Hern, Corey S; Shattuck, Mark D; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G; Kirby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  15. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  16. Expression of Toll-like receptor signaling-related genes in pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Dong, Van Hieu; Tu, Pang-Yan; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Hsiu-Luan; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan; Chung, Wen-Bin

    2015-08-01

    Pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) have been shown to develop more severe diseases than pigs infected with PRRSV or PCV2 only. The underlying interaction mechanisms between the two viruses in developing the disease are unclear. The present study investigates the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling-related molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs infected with PRRSV or PCV2 or both. The mRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Co-infection of pigs with PRRSV and PCV2 resulted in a negatively synergistic effect on the mRNA expression of the negative regulators of TLR, including A20, Bcl-3, IRAK-M, MKP-1, SARM1 and SIGIRR, as well as the TLR downstream transcription factors IRF-1 and IRF-3. A positively synergistic effect of a combined infection of PRRSV and PCV2 on the CD14 mRNA expression was also observed. PMID:26022073

  17. Classical swine fever virus: clinical, virological, serological and hematological findings after infection of domestic pigs and wild boars with the field isolate "Spante" originating from wild boar.

    PubMed

    Kaden, V; Ziegler, U; Lange, E; Dedek, J

    2000-01-01

    A classical swine fever virus (CSFV) field isolate originating from wild boar was investigated on its virulence in domestic pigs and wild boar. Three weaner pigs and two wild boars (yearlings) were intranasally inoculated with the isolate "Spante" and tested for clinical, virological, hematological and serological findings until day 31 after infection (p. i.). One day p. i. the piglets were put in contact to three sentinel pigs. During a period of 31 d neither the domestic pigs nor the wild boars showed clinical signs specific for CSF. Two infected weaner pigs became transiently viraemic, transmitted CSFV in nasal secretions, showed a slight leukopenia and reacted serologically positive. The contact infection resulted in a viraemia in two sentinel piglets on day 30. Only one contact animal developed antibodies. None of the wild boars became viraemic, excreted CSFV in nasal secretions or developed antibodies. The CSFV isolate "Spante" represents a low virulent virus. Referring to a significant higher percentage of virologically positive tissue samples after nested PCR compared with the virus isolation, persistence of CSFV is discussed. PMID:11153219

  18. Interaction of porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Su-Jin; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccinations on disease severity in an experimental PCV2-M. hyopneumoniae dual challenge model. Vaccine effectiveness was evaluated using microbiological (PCV2 viremia and M. hyopneumoniae nasal shedding), immunological (neutralizing antibodies and interferon-γ-secreting cells), and pathological (gross lung lesions, histopathologic pulmonary and lymphoid lesions, and the presence of PCV2 antigen and M. hyopneumoniae DNA within the lesions) evaluations. Although M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of PCV2-associated lesions and lesion-associated PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs, vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not reduce PCV2 viremia, PCV2-induced lesions, or PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs. In addition, vaccination against PCV2 did not reduce the nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, the M. hyopneumoniae-induced pulmonary lesions or the lesion-associated M. hyopneumoniae DNA in dually challenged pigs. Dual challenge with PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae did not interfere with the induction of active immunity induced by a previous single vaccination for either PCV2 or M. hyopneumoniae. The results of this study demonstrated that (i) vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not decrease the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae and (ii) vaccination against PCV2 alone decreased the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae in dually challenged pigs. PMID:24631087

  19. Development of antinuclear antibodies and a genetic linkage in pigs infected with porcine circovirus type 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives. Prominent nuclear immunohistochemical staining of a PCV-2 free porcine kidney cell line (PK-15) was detected with a rabbit polyclonal antibody produced against a conserved PCV2 Rep-protein peptide. This unexpected finding led us to retrospectively test sera from gnotobiotic pigs for the ...

  20. Discovery of Antinuclear Antibodies in Pigs Infected with Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes post-weaning-multisystemic-wasting-syndrome (PMWS), a swine disease first observed in Canada in 1991 (1). It is characterized by general wasting, respiratory disease, jaundice and pallor in young pigs resulting in production losses and variable...

  1. The insulinotropic effect of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 is not affected by acute vagotomy in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Veedfald, Simon; Hansen, Marie; Christensen, Louise Wulff; Larsen, Sara Agnete Hjort; Hjøllund, Karina Rahr; Plamboeck, Astrid; Hartmann, Bolette; Deacon, Carolyn Fiona; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated whether intestinal vagal afferents are necessary for the insulinotropic effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) infused into a mesenteric artery or a peripheral vein before and after acute truncal vagotomy. What is the main finding and its importance? We found no effect of truncal vagotomy on the insulinotropic effect of exogenous GLP-1 and speculate that high circulating concentrations of GLP-1 after i.v. and i.a. infusion might have overshadowed any neural signalling component. We propose that further investigations into the possible vagal afferent signalling of GLP-1 would best be pursued using enteral stimuli to provide high subepithelial levels of endogenous GLP-1. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted from the gut in response to luminal stimuli and stimulates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. As a result of rapid enzymatic degradation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase-4, a signalling pathway involving activation of intestinal vagal afferents has been proposed. We conducted two series of experiments in α-chloralose-anaesthetized pigs. In protocol I, pigs (n = 14) were allocated for either i.v. or i.a. (mesenteric) GLP-1 infusions (1 and 2 pmol kg(-1)  min(-1) , 30 min) while maintaining permissive glucose concentrations at 6 mmol l(-1) by i.v. glucose infusion. The GLP-1 infusions were repeated after acute truncal vagotomy. In protocol II, pigs (n = 27) were allocated into six groups. Glucagon-like peptide 1 was infused i.v. or i.a. (mesenteric) for 1 h at 3 or 30 pmol kg(-1)  min(-1) . During the steady state (21 min into the GLP-1 infusion), glucose (0.2 g kg(-1) , i.v.) was administered over 9 min to stimulate β-cell secretion. Thirty minutes after the glucose infusion, GLP-1 infusions were discontinued. Following a washout period, the vagal trunks were severed in four of six groups (vagal trunks were left intact in two of six groups), whereupon all

  2. Acute hepatitis C virus infection related to capillary blood glucose meter

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Rai, Aitzaz BinSultan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 130-150 million people worldwide, becoming the major cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. There are various preventable modes of transmission of HCV infection, including needlestick and sharps injuries. However, HCV infection secondary to needlestick injury by a capillary blood glucose meter (CBGM) lancet has not been previously well reported. We describe an unusual case of a 25-year-old male medical student, acquiring acute HCV infection with a lancing device of CBGM. The source patient was a 54-year-old diabetic male with positive anti-HCV test results. In our patient, after 3 months of initial exposure, a standard set of investigations confirmed the diagnosis of acute HCV infection with the same genotype (3a) as the source. The CBGM, as in our case, may have a role in the transmission of HCV infection warranting radical advancements in diabetes screening and monitoring technology. PMID:26739982

  3. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Sereti, Irini; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (M×1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART. PMID:27446990

  4. Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Kasali, Félicien Mushagalusa; Kadima, Justin Ntokamunda; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Ngbolua, Koto-te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha-Tshibey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To verify the antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. popularly used in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to point out the possible toxicity. Method Aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaves powder were administrated to guinea pigs at the dose range of 100 mg/kg to 3.2 g/kg of body weight. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test, loading animals with glucose 4 g/kg and measuring blood glucose concentrations at various times. The effect was compared to the control and glibenclamide as antidiabetic reference drug. Acute toxicity was evaluated by recording mortality rate, changes on blood biomarkers and damage caused to vital organs. Results At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the aqueous extract induced a significant reduction of peak concentration at 30 min after glucose loading as compared with control or reference (P<0.05). At doses greater than 400 mg, some alterations on blood, kidney and liver markers were observed. Upper 800 mg/kg, mortality was observed with LD50 estimated at about 1 280 mg/kg. At the autopsy, vital organs were in haemorrhage and swelling state. Conclusion The crude aqueous extracts from the leaves of Physalis peruviana L. present hypoglycemic activity in animal model, but at high doses the plant may cause severe intoxication.

  5. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, Chris J.; Strube, Mikael L.; Hansen, Marie B.; Lindved, Bodil K.; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known. PMID:26824607

  6. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Strube, Mikael L; Hansen, Marie B; Lindved, Bodil K; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known. PMID:26824607

  7. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Plasmodium Vivax Infection: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Jasmeet; Maheshwari, Anu; Gupta, Raju; Devgan, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) usually occurs after viral infections or vaccination. Its occurrence after Plasmodium vivax infection is extremely uncommon. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl who had choreo-athetoid movements and ataxia after recovery from P.vivax infection. Diagnosis of ADEM was made on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging findings. The child responded to corticosteroids with complete neurological recovery. PMID:26266032

  8. Acute Viral Respiratory Infection Rapidly Induces a CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion-like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Erickson, John J; Lu, Pengcheng; Wen, Sherry; Hastings, Andrew K; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Joyce, Sebastian; Shyr, Yu; Williams, John V

    2015-11-01

    Acute viral infections typically generate functional effector CD8(+) T cells (TCD8) that aid in pathogen clearance. However, during acute viral lower respiratory infection, lung TCD8 are functionally impaired and do not optimally control viral replication. T cells also become unresponsive to Ag during chronic infections and cancer via signaling by inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). PD-1 also contributes to TCD8 impairment during viral lower respiratory infection, but how it regulates TCD8 impairment and the connection between this state and T cell exhaustion during chronic infections are unknown. In this study, we show that PD-1 operates in a cell-intrinsic manner to impair lung TCD8. In light of this, we compared global gene expression profiles of impaired epitope-specific lung TCD8 to functional spleen TCD8 in the same human metapneumovirus-infected mice. These two populations differentially regulate hundreds of genes, including the upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors by lung TCD8. We then compared the gene expression of TCD8 during human metapneumovirus infection to those in acute or chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We find that the immunophenotype of lung TCD8 more closely resembles T cell exhaustion late into chronic infection than do functional effector T cells arising early in acute infection. Finally, we demonstrate that trafficking to the infected lung alone is insufficient for TCD8 impairment or inhibitory receptor upregulation, but that viral Ag-induced TCR signaling is also required. Our results indicate that viral Ag in infected lungs rapidly induces an exhaustion-like state in lung TCD8 characterized by progressive functional impairment and upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors. PMID:26401005

  9. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Yazici, Pinar; Duyu, Muhterem; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Atabay, Berna; Doganavsargil, Basak; Karapinar, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26937339

  10. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Yazici, Pinar; Duyu, Muhterem; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Atabay, Berna; Doganavsargil, Basak; Karapinar, Bulent

    2016-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26937339

  11. Investigation of Pathogenesis of H1N1 Influenza Virus and Swine Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Co-Infection in Pigs by Microarray Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian; Huang, Canhui; Shi, Jian; Wang, Ruifang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection pathogenesis in pigs is unclear. In the present study, co-infection experiments were performed using swine H1N1 influenza virus and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). The H1N1-SS2 co-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical symptoms, serious pathological changes, and robust apoptosis of lungs at 6 days post-infection compared with separate H1N1 and SS2 infections. A comprehensive gene expression profiling using a microarray approach was performed to investigate the global host responses of swine lungs against the swine H1N1 infection, SS2 infection, co-infection, and phosphate-buffered saline control. Results showed 457, 411, and 844 differentially expressed genes in the H1N1, SS2, and H1N1-SS2 groups, respectively, compared with the control. Noticeably, genes associated with the immune, inflammatory, and apoptosis responses were highly overexpressed in the co-infected group. Pathway analysis indicated that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, MAPK, toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, antigen processing and presentation, and apoptosis pathway were significantly regulated in the co-infected group. However, the genes related to these were less regulated in the separate H1N1 and SS2 infection groups. This observation suggested that a certain level of synergy was induced by H1N1 and SS2 co-infection with significantly stronger inflammatory and apoptosis responses, which may lead to more serious respiratory disease syndrome and pulmonary pathological lesion. PMID:25906258

  12. Renal and Cardiac Endothelial Heterogeneity Impact Acute Vascular Rejection in Pig-to-Baboon Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Knosalla, C.; Yazawa, K.; Behdad, A.; Bodyak, N.; Shang, H.; Bühler, L.; Houser, S.; Gollackner, B.; Griesemer, A.; Schmitt-Knosalla, I.; Schuurman, H.-J.; Awwad, M.; Sachs, D. H.; Cooper, D. K. C.; Yamada, K.; Usheva, A.; Robson, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Xenograft outcomes are dictated by xenoantigen expression, for example, Gal α 1, 3Gal (Gal), but might also depend on differing vascular responses. We investigated whether differential vascular gene expression in kidney and cardiac xenografts correlate with development of thrombotic microangiopathy (TM) and consumptive coagulation (CC). Immunosuppressed baboons underwent miniswine or hDAF pig kidney (n = 6) or heart (n = 7), or Gal-transferase gene-knockout (GalT-KO) (thymo)kidney transplantation (n = 14). Porcine cDNA miniarrays determined donor proinflammatory, apoptosis-related and vascular coagulant/fibrinolytic gene expression at defined time points; validated by mRNA, protein levels and immunopathology. hDAF-transgenic and GalT-KO xenografts, (particularly thymokidneys) exhibited prolonged survival. CC was seen with Gal-expressing porcine kidneys (3 of 6), only 1 of 7 baboons post-cardiac xenotransplantation and was infrequent following GalT-KO grafts (1 of 14). Protective-type genes (heme oxygenase-I, superoxide dismutases and CD39) together with von Willebrand factor and P-selectin were upregulated in all renal grafts. Transcriptional responses in Gal-expressing xenografts were comparable to those seen in the infrequent GalT-KO rejection. In cardiac xenografts, fibrin deposition was associated with increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression establishing that gene expression profiles in renal and cardiac xenografts differ in a quantitative manner. These findings suggest that therapeutic targets may differ for renal and cardiac xenotransplants. PMID:19422330

  13. Acute and chronic respiratory lesions induced by sulfur mustard in guinea pigs: Role of tachykinins

    SciTech Connect

    Calvet, J.H.; Trouiller, G.; Harf, A.

    1993-05-13

    We investigated in anesthetized guinea pigs the involvement of tachykinins in respiratory alterations after an airway intoxication by sulfur mustard (SM). Early lesions were evaluated after 5h. Respiratory system resistance (R) and compliance were measured by the occlusion method and airway microvascular permeability by measuring the Evans Blue dye concentration in the trachea and main bronchi. Two groups of animals were studied treated with capsaicin (which induces a tachykinin depletion) or by its vehicle. Capsaicin pretreatment had no effect on the measured parameters. We also measured 14 J after the intoxication tracheal epithelium neutral endopeptidase (NEP) (the main enzyme which degrades tachykinins). In addition bronchial responsiveness to exogenous substance P was studied in two groups of animals intoxicated with SM or not. Tracheal epithelium NEP activity was decreased from 0.448 + or 0.027 nmol.min- 1.mg protein- 1 in controls to 0. 182 + or 0.038 in intoxicated animals. Response to substance P was greater in intoxicated animals with R=2.98 + or - 1.57 cmH20.MI-1.s versus 0.35 + or 0.02 in controls, after 5.10-5 M aerosolized substance P These results suggest tachykinins are not preponderant in the early stage lesions but that bronchial hyperactivity is present at recovery, related to epithelium NEP depletion.

  14. Changes in CMDP and DPOAE during acute increased inner ear pressure in the guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Wit, H. P.; Albers, F. W. J.

    2007-01-01

    During and after an increase of inner ear pressure, induced by injection of artificial perilymph, the 2f1 − f2 and f2 − f1 distortion products (DPs) in cochlear microphonics (CM) and otoacoustic emissions (OAE) were recorded in the guinea pig. An inner pressure increase of ∼600 Pa gave only small changes in CMDP and DPOAE. Along with a decrease in f1 amplitude, a small decrease in amplitude of the 2f1 − f2 and a small increase in the f2 − f1 were measured in CM. This matches a shift from a symmetrical position of the operating point for hair cell transduction, leading to an increase in even-order distortion and a decrease in odd-order distortion. Similar, a decrease in 2f1 − f2 DPOAE was expected. This might be the case at the generation sites but this effect was then more than compensated for by a better middle ear transfer, accounting for the increase of 0.4 dB of the 2f1 − f2 DPOAE amplitude. In conclusion, changes of overall inner ear fluid pressure have minor effects on cochlear function. This is a relevant finding for further understanding of diseases with changed inner ear fluid volumes, as Ménière’s. PMID:17901968

  15. Tetherin/BST-2 promotes dendritic cell activation and function during acute retrovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sam X.; Barrett, Bradley S.; Guo, Kejun; Kassiotis, George; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Dittmer, Ulf; Gibbert, Kathrin; Santiago, Mario L.

    2016-01-01

    Tetherin/BST-2 is a host restriction factor that inhibits retrovirus release from infected cells in vitro by tethering nascent virions to the plasma membrane. However, contradictory data exists on whether Tetherin inhibits acute retrovirus infection in vivo. Previously, we reported that Tetherin-mediated inhibition of Friend retrovirus (FV) replication at 2 weeks post-infection correlated with stronger natural killer, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell responses. Here, we further investigated the role of Tetherin in counteracting retrovirus replication in vivo. FV infection levels were similar between wild-type (WT) and Tetherin KO mice at 3 to 7 days post-infection despite removal of a potent restriction factor, Apobec3/Rfv3. However, during this phase of acute infection, Tetherin enhanced myeloid dendritic cell (DC) function. DCs from infected, but not uninfected, WT mice expressed significantly higher MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecule CD80 compared to Tetherin KO DCs. Tetherin-associated DC activation during acute FV infection correlated with stronger NK cell responses. Furthermore, Tetherin+ DCs from FV-infected mice more strongly stimulated FV-specific CD4+ T cells ex vivo compared to Tetherin KO DCs. The results link the antiretroviral and immunomodulatory activity of Tetherin in vivo to improved DC activation and MHC class II antigen presentation. PMID:26846717

  16. Use of quantitative real-time PCR for studying the dissemination of Leptospira interrogans in the guinea pig infection model of leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Lourdault, Kristel; Aviat, Florence; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2009-05-01

    The dynamics of leptospirosis infection have been poorly studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the LD(50), rate of bacterial dissemination, histopathology and antibody responses against leptospira following inoculation with the highly virulent Leptospira interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain in a guinea pig model of leptospirosis. Three routes of infection (intraperitoneal, conjunctival and subcutaneous inoculation) were used to establish disease in guinea pigs. The size and kinetics of leptospiral burdens in the blood and tissues of infected animals were determined over a 1 week course of infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Bacteraemia peaked at day 5 post-infection reaching more than 5x10(4) leptospires ml(-1). The highest spirochaetal load was found in the liver and kidneys, and was associated with alterations in organ tissues and a decline in liver and kidney functions. In contrast, lesions and bacteria were not detected in guinea pigs infected with an avirulent strain derived from a high-passage-number in vitro-passaged variant of the Fiocruz L1-130 strain. The use of qPCR supports the findings of earlier studies and provides an easy and reliable method for the quantification of L. interrogans in the tissues of infected animals. qPCR will be used in future studies to evaluate the efficacy of vaccine candidates against leptospirosis and the virulence of selected L. interrogans mutants relative to the parental strain. PMID:19369528

  17. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199

  18. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  19. The choice of the intravenous fluid influences the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia in anesthetized domestic pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The correction of hypovolemia with acellular fluids results in acute normovolemic anemia. Whether the choice of the infusion fluid has an impact on the maintenance of oxygen (O2) supply during acute normovolemic anemia has not been investigated so far. Methods Thirty-six anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were hemodiluted to their physiological limit of anemia tolerance, reflected by the individual critical hemoglobin concentration (Hbcrit). Hbcrit was defined as the Hb-concentration corresponding with the onset of supply-dependency of total body O2-consumption (VO2). The hemodilution protocol was randomly performed with either tetrastarch (6% HES 130/0.4, TS-group, n = 9), gelatin (3.5% urea-crosslinked polygeline, GEL-group, n = 9), hetastarch (6% HES 450/0.7, HS-group, n = 9) or Ringer's solution (RS-group, n = 9). The primary endpoint was the dimension of Hbcrit, secondary endpoints were parameters of central hemodynamics, O2 transport and tissue oxygenation. Results In each animal, normovolemia was maintained throughout the protocol. Hbcrit was met at 3.7 ± 0.6 g/dl (RS), 3.0 ± 0.6 g/dl (HS P < 0.05 vs. RS), 2.7 ± 0.6 g/dl (GEL, P < 0.05 vs. RS) and 2.1 ± 0.4 g/dl (TS, P < 0.05 vs. GEL, HS and RS). Hemodilution with RS resulted in a significant increase of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and a decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure (paO2), and O2 extraction ratio was increased, when animals of the TS-, GEL- and HS-groups met their individual Hbcrit. Conclusions The choice of the intravenous fluid has an impact on the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia induced by acellular volume replacement. Third-generation tetrastarch preparations (e.g., HES 130/0.4) appear most advantageous regarding maintenance of tissue oxygenation during progressive anemia. The underlying mechanism includes a lower degree of extravasation and favourable effects on microcirculatory function. PMID:22546374

  20. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection. PMID:27621819

  1. Relationship Between Expression of Interleukin-5 and Interleukin-13 by Epithelial Cells and Bronchiolar Changes in Pigs Infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F; Batista, M; Hernández, J N; Afonso, A M; Poveda, J B

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) is a bacterium that specifically infects the surface of bronchi and bronchioles of pigs without invading the host cells, and it is considered to be the primary agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEN). The present study investigates the morphological and immunohistological changes induced in bronchiolar epithelium by Mh infection. Lungs from 20 pigs with naturally occurring Mh pneumonia were compared with those from 10 uninfected controls. Bronchiolar epithelial height, inflammatory infiltration, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and mucin subtype MUC5AC-producing cells significantly increased in all infected animals. Mh antigen was detected in association with the cilia of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium. Interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were expressed consistently by epithelial and mononuclear cells of the airways of infected animals. The expression of these cytokines in the bronchial and bronchiolar tissues is related to the histological changes of PEN. PMID:26922858

  2. Lack of effect of feeding lactoferrin on intestinal populations and fecal shedding of Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally-infected weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the iron-binding molecule lactoferrin on reducing gut populations and fecal shedding of Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected weaned pigs. For each experiment, crossbred barrows and gilts were purchased locally and transported to ...

  3. Pathogenesis and transmission of the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 after experimental infection of pigs.

    PubMed

    Lange, Elke; Kalthoff, Donata; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Breithaupt, Angele; Maresch, Christina; Starick, Elke; Fereidouni, Sasan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2009-09-01

    Influenza virus A/H1N1, which is currently causing a pandemic, contains gene segments with ancestors in the North American and Eurasian swine lineages. To get insights into virus replication dynamics, clinical symptoms and virus transmission in pigs, we infected animals intranasally with influenza virus A/Regensburg/D6/09/H1N1. Virus excretion in the inoculated pigs was detected in nasal swabs from 1 day post-infection (p.i.) onwards and the pigs developed generally mild symptoms, including fever, sneezing, nasal discharge and diarrhoea. Contact pigs became infected, shed virus and developed clinical symptoms similar to those in the inoculated animals. Plasma samples of all animals remained negative for virus RNA. Nucleoprotein- and haemagglutinin H1-specific antibodies could be detected by ELISA 7 days p.i. CD4(+) T cells became activated immediately after infection and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell populations expanded from 3 to 7 days p.i., coinciding with clinical signs. Contact chickens remained uninfected, as judged by the absence of virus excretion, clinical signs and seroconversion. PMID:19592456

  4. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not mitigate disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases in swine worldwide. It causes reproductive failure in sows and pneumonia in pigs that predisposes them to secondary bacterial infections. Methods to control PRRSV and/or lim...

  5. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not prevent disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain JXwn06 has been shown to produce high fevers, loss of body condition, respiratory distress and death in pigs. Necropsy reveals extensive interstitial pneumonia, multi-systemic pathology and a high occurrence of secondary bacterial infections. The ful...

  6. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Evangelopoulou, G.; Kritas, S.; Christodoulopoulos, G.; Burriel, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    qualitative and qualitative costs of man and animal Salmonella infections should be calculated in the light of free trade and open borders. Understandably, accurate calculation of the economic and political costs requires knowledge of the many factors influencing nationally the quality and safety of pork products and internationally free trade. Thus, how Salmonella pig infections affect commerce and public health across open borders depends on a state’s ability to accurately calculate costs for the surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses in general, and pig infections as a particular example. PMID:27047083

  7. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulou, G; Kritas, S; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R

    2015-03-01

    and qualitative costs of man and animal Salmonella infections should be calculated in the light of free trade and open borders. Understandably, accurate calculation of the economic and political costs requires knowledge of the many factors influencing nationally the quality and safety of pork products and internationally free trade. Thus, how Salmonella pig infections affect commerce and public health across open borders depends on a state's ability to accurately calculate costs for the surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses in general, and pig infections as a particular example. PMID:27047083

  8. Blood gas stability and hematological changes in experimentally-induced acute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; Mirsky, M L; MacWilliams, P S; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T

    1989-01-01

    Blood gas and hematological responses to acute, mild Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection of growing pigs was studied. Six pigs (average weight 10.1 kg) were experimentally infected intranasally with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. Four pigs served as controls. Rectal temperatures and arterial blood for gas analysis and hematology were taken at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h postinfection. All infected pigs became febrile showing clinical signs typical of mild to moderate porcine pleuropneumonia; controls remained asymptomatic. Neutrophilia with bands and lymphopenia were observed only in infected pigs. Arterial partial pressures of O2 and CO2, and pH did not change in infected pigs. All pigs were killed after 72 h, and lungs were examined and cultured. Gross and microscopic lesions consistent with porcine pleuropneumonia were seen in 3/6 and 5/6 infected lungs, respectively. Control lungs were grossly normal with no histological evidence of pleuropneumonia. We conclude that in mild, acute porcine pleuropneumonia as established experimentally, a leukogram typical of acute inflammation and stress is seen; however, hypoxemia and alveolar hypoventilation are not features of this form of the disease. PMID:2914231

  9. Disparate Effects of Acute and Chronic Infection with SIVmac239 or SHIV-89.6P on Macaque Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, R. Keith; Fultz, Patricia N.

    2007-01-01

    Blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) contribute to both innate and adaptive immune responses by secreting high levels of IFN-α following acute bacterial and viral infections and indirectly by augmenting cell-mediated immunity. Cross-sectional studies have shown that the number of circulating pDCs in HIV patients, compared to that in uninfected individuals, is reduced. However, since the time of infection is usually unknown in HIV-infected patients, pDC-virus interactions that occur immediately after virus exposure are poorly understood. The current study investigated pDC dynamics during acute and chronic infections of macaques with either SIVmac239 or the pathogenic SIV-HIV chimera, SHIV-89.6P, as models for HIV infection. In three rhesus and three pig-tailed macaques infected intravenously with SIVmac239, the percentages of pDCs in blood declined 2- to 6-fold during the first 6 weeks after infection and remained depressed throughout the disease course. Surprisingly, no consistent, comparable decline in peripheral blood pDCs was observed in six macaques infected with SHIV-89.6P. In this latter group, percentages of pDCs did not correlate with CD4+ T cells, but there was an inverse relationship with viral load. In addition, when compared to naïve controls, the percentages of pDCs were reduced in spleens and peripheral lymph nodes of SIVmac239- but not SHIV-89.6P-infected animals that had progressed to AIDS. Proviral DNA was detected during the acute phase in pDCs isolated from macaques infected with either virus. These results imply that, even though macaque pDCs can be infected by both SIVmac239 and SHIV-89.6P, the subsequent effects on in vivo pathogenesis differ. The underlying mechanism(s) for these differences is unclear, but the selection of SIV or SHIV as a challenge virus might influence the outcome of some studies, such as those evaluating vaccines or the therapeutic efficacy of drugs. PMID:17490699

  10. Toward an HIV Cure Based on Targeted Killing of Infected Cells: Different Approaches Against Acute Versus Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Barna; Berger, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Current regimens of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) offer effective control of HIV infection, with maintenance of immune health and near-normal life expectancy. What will it take to progress beyond the status quo, whereby infectious virus can be eradicated (a “sterilizing cure”) or fully controlled without the need for ongoing cART (a “functional cure”)? Recent findings Based on therapeutic advances in the cancer field, we propose that targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill HIV-infected cells represents a logical complement to cART for achieving an HIV cure. This concept is based on the fact that cART effectively blocks replication of the virus, but does not eliminate cells that are already infected; targeted cytotoxic therapy would contribute precisely this missing component. We suggest that different modalities are suited for curing primary acute versus established chronic infection. For acute infection, relatively short-acting potent agents such as recombinant immunotoxins might prove sufficient for HIV eradication whereas for chronic infection, a long-lasting (lifelong?) modality is required to maintain full virus control, as might be achieved with genetically modified autologous T cells. Summary We present perspectives for complementing cART with targeted cytotoxic therapy whereby HIV infection is either eradicated or fully controlled, thereby eliminating the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25710815

  11. Parvovirus B19V infection in Israel: prevalence and occurrence of acute infection between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Mor, O; Ofir, I; Pavel, R; Bassal, R; Kra-Oz, Z; Cohen, D; Shohat, T; Mendelson, E

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the seroprevalence and unique pattern of parvovirus B19 (B19V) acute infections have been documented around the world. This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19V IgG antibodies in the Israeli population and to assess the pattern of acute infection based on data from two laboratories in Israel. The overall IgG prevalence in the 1008 representative sera samples was 61·4% and the age-adjusted prevalence rate was 58·2%. Seropositivity was significantly associated with age, ranging from 25·7% in children aged 20 years. While no significant differences in seropositivity were detected between sexes and population groups, significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in older Jews born in Africa or Asia. Acute infection rates of 4·1% (234 cases) were found based on the positive IgM results identified in samples from 5663 individuals collected between 2008 and 2013. Annual peaks of infection were observed in 2008 and 2011-2012 and major seasonal peak of B19V IgM positivity was identified in June each year. The number of requests for B19V serology was significantly higher for women aged 20-39 years while the majority IgM-positive cases were identified in young children. With more than 30% of the adult population being susceptible to B19V infection, monitoring B19V status should be considered in specific risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:25990962

  12. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sydnor, Emily R. M.; Perl, Trish M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have become more common as medical care has grown more complex and patients have become more complicated. HAIs are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Growing rates of HAIs alongside evidence suggesting that active surveillance and infection control practices can prevent HAIs led to the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control programs. The role for infection control programs has grown and continues to grow as rates of antimicrobial resistance rise and HAIs lead to increasing risks to patients and expanding health care costs. In this review, we summarize the history of the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control, common HAIs and the pathogens causing them, and the structure and role of a hospital epidemiology and infection control program. PMID:21233510

  13. Effect of polymorphisms in the GBP1, Mx1 and CD163 genes on host responses to PRRSV infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Niu, Pengxia; Shabir, Nadeem; Khatun, Amina; Seo, Byoung-Joo; Gu, Suna; Lee, Sang-Myoung; Lim, Si-Kyu; Kim, Kwan-Suk; Kim, Won-Il

    2016-01-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most economically important disease to the swine industry, and effective prevention strategy for this disease is still required. Guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) and myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1) are two important proteins belonging to the GTPase superfamily that have been previously described to show antiviral effects. CD163 is considered the most important receptor for PRRSV attachment and internalization. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of these genes on host resistance against PRRSV infection in conjunction with the host immune response following PRRSV challenge. The results showed that pigs with AG genotype for the GBP1 exon2 exhibited a significantly higher average daily weight gain (ADWG) and lower average viremia than AA or GG genotype. Furthermore, pigs harbouring the AG genotype for the GBP1 gene presented greater CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD8(+)CD25(+) T cell populations at 4 and 18 days post challenge (dpc), respectively, as compared with other genotypes whereas pigs with CC genotype for the CD163 gene displayed significantly higher nucleocapsid-specific antibody titers at 11dpc. However, pigs with a single 11-bp deletion or insertion in the Mx1 gene did not show significant differences in either weight gain or viremia. Based on these results, we concluded that GBP1 is most significantly associated with resistance against PRRSV infection and efficient T cell activation in pigs. PMID:26711047

  14. The effect of cytomegalovirus infection on acute rejection in kidney transplanted patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasanzamani, Boshra; Hami, Maryam; Zolfaghari, Vajihe; Torkamani, Mahtab; Ghorban Sabagh, Mahin; Ahmadi Simab, Saiideh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is known that cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common problem among kidney transplant patients. This infection can be increased morbidity and decreased graft survival. This problem has been associated with acute rejection too. Patients and Methods: One hundred and thirty renal transplant patients were included in a prospective, case-control study. The renal transplant patients were divided into two groups; patients group with CMV infection and control group without CMV infection. Serum CMV-IgG in all patients was positive (donor and recipients). None of patients had received anti-thymocyte-globulin and thymoglobulin. CMV infection was diagnosed by quantitative CMV-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test (more than 500 copies/μg). Rejection episode was defined by kidney isotope scan or biopsy. Results: In the group of 66 CMV infection patients (41 male [62.1%] and 25 female [37.9%]) the incidence of graft rejection was 36%, however in the group of 64 control patients the incidence of graft rejection was 9.4 % (P < 0.005). Conclusion: CMV infection is important predisposing factor for acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The results of this study suggests that the control of CMV infection could decrease episodes of acute kidney rejection. PMID:27471740

  15. Heart Xenograft Survival With Chimeric Pig Donors and Modest Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Beschorner, William E.; Sudan, Debra L.; Radio, Stanley J.; Yang, Tianyu; Franco, Kenneth L.; Hill, Arthur C.; Shearon, C. Carson; Thompson, Scott C.; Dixon, Robert S.; Johnson, Noel D.; Kuszynski, Charles A.; Rubocki, Ronald J.; Lechtenberg, Kelly F.; Matamoros, Aurelio; Goertzen, Timothy C.; Fox, Ira J.; Langnas, Alan N.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of donor pigs with cellular chimerism for prevention of acute rejection with modest immune suppression. The clinical use of pig organ xenografts is currently precluded by severe acute rejection, which resists standard immune suppression. Summary Background Data For long-term survival of pig organ xenografts, immune suppression significantly greater than used with allografts would currently be necessary, leaving the recipient immune deficient and at increased risk for infections. Induction of immune tolerance and tissue accommodation could enhance xenograft survival but would lead to complications and frequent graft failure. Induction of cellular chimerism within the donor pigs, however, could accomplish these goals before transplantation, significantly reducing the risk. Methods Marrow cells from sheep were infused into fetal pigs. Heart xenografts from chimeric or nonchimeric pigs were transplanted heterotopically into recipient sheep, simultaneous with infusion of splenocytes. Posttransplant suppression consisted of cyclosporine and tapered corticosteroids, comparable with allotransplants. Results All of the control grafts (n = 12) were rejected by acute vascular rejection in 4 to 8 days. In contrast, only one episode of vascular rejection was observed in the experimental group (n = 13). Four experimental recipients had an episode of moderate diffuse cellular rejection (grade 3) and one had moderate focal cellular rejection (grade 2). Each episode responded to pulse steroids. Seven grafts showed no significant rejection. There was little evidence of immune deficiency, infection, or toxicity. Conclusions Acute vascular rejection was prevented in a large animal model without the need for severe immune suppression. PMID:12560785

  16. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  17. Age at Vaccination and Timing of Infection Do Not Alter Vaccine-Associated Enhanced Respiratory Disease in Influenza A Virus-Infected Pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carine K; Rajão, Daniela S; Loving, Crystal L; Gauger, Phillip C; Pérez, Daniel R; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-06-01

    Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used in the swine industry to reduce clinical disease against homologous influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In pigs experimentally challenged with antigenically distinct heterologous IAV of the same hemagglutinin subtype, WIV vaccinates have been shown to develop vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). We evaluated the impact of vaccine valency, age at vaccination, and duration between vaccination and challenge on the development of VAERD using vaccine containing δ1-H1N2 and challenge with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus. Pigs were vaccinated with monovalent WIV MN08 (δ1-H1N2) and bivalent (δ1-H1N2-H3N2 or δ1-H1N2-pH1N1) vaccines and then were challenged with pH1N1 at 3 weeks postboost (wpb). Another group was vaccinated with the same monovalent WIV and challenged at 6 wpb to determine if the time postvaccination plays a role in the development of VAERD. In a follow-up study, the impact of age of first WIV vaccination (at 4 versus 9 weeks of age) with a boost 3 weeks later (at 7 versus 12 weeks of age) was evaluated. A monovalent live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine administered at 4 and 7 weeks of age was also included. All mismatched WIV groups had significantly higher lung lesions than the LAIV, bivalent MN08-CA09, and control groups. Age of first vaccination or length of time between booster dose and subsequent challenge did not alter the development of VAERD in WIV-vaccinated pigs. Importantly, the mismatched component of the bivalent MN08-CA09 WIV did not override the protective effect of the matched vaccine component. PMID:27030585

  18. AraC-Type Regulator Rsp Adapts Staphylococcus aureus Gene Expression to Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianming; He, Lei; Song, Yan; Villaruz, Amer E; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Yuanjun; Wang, Yanan; Qin, Juanxiu; Otto, Michael; Li, Min

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that can cause two categories of severe infections. Acute infections are characterized by pronounced toxin production, while chronic infections often involve biofilm formation. However, it is poorly understood how S. aureus controls the expression of genes associated with acute versus biofilm-associated virulence. We here identified an AraC-type transcriptional regulator, Rsp, that promotes the production of key toxins while repressing major biofilm-associated genes and biofilm formation. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis and modeling of regulatory networks indicated that upregulation of the accessory gene regulator (Agr) and downregulation of the ica operon coding for the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) were central to the regulatory impact of Rsp on virulence. Notably, the Rsp protein directly bound to the agrP2 and icaADBC promoters, resulting in strongly increased levels of the Agr-controlled toxins phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) and alpha-toxin and reduced production of PIA. Accordingly, Rsp was essential for the development of bacteremia and skin infection, representing major types of acute S. aureus infection. Our findings give important insight into how S. aureus adapts the expression of its broad arsenal of virulence genes to promote different types of disease manifestations and identify the Rsp regulator as a potential target for strategies to control acute S. aureus infection. PMID:26712209

  19. Gene expression analysis during acute hepatitis C virus infection associates dendritic cell activation with viral clearance.

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, Aintzane; Riezu-Boj, Jose-Ignacio; Larrea, Esther; Villanueva, Lorea; Lasarte, Juan Jose; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Fisicaro, Paola; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Missale, Gabriele; Ferrari, Carlo; Benjelloun, Soumaya; Prieto, Jesús; Sarobe, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Viral clearance during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the induction of potent antiviral T-cell responses. Since dendritic cells (DC) are essential in the activation of primary T-cell responses, gene expression was analyzed in DC from patients during acute HCV infection. By using microarrays, gene expression was compared in resting and activated peripheral blood plasmacytoid (pDC) and myeloid (mDC) DC from acute HCV resolving patients (AR) and from patients who become chronically infected (ANR), as well as in healthy individuals (CTRL) and chronically-infected patients (CHR). For pDC, a high number of upregulated genes was found in AR patients, irrespective of DC stimulation. However, for mDC, most evident differences were detected after DC stimulation, again corresponding to upregulated genes in AR patients. Divergent behavior of ANR was also observed when analyzing DC from CTRL and CHR, with ANR patients clustering again apart from these groups. These differences corresponded to metabolism-associated genes and genes belonging to pathways relevant for DC activation and cytokine responses. Thus, upregulation of relevant genes in DC during acute HCV infection may determine viral clearance, suggesting that dysfunctional DC may be responsible for the lack of efficient T-cell responses which lead to chronic HCV infection. PMID:26447929

  20. Limited Immunogenicity of HIV CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes in Acute Clade C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Radebe, Mopo; Nair, Kriebashnie; Chonco, Fundisiwe; Bishop, Karen; Wright, Jaclyn K.; van der Stok, Mary; Bassett, Ingrid V.; Mncube, Zenele; Altfeld, Marcus; Walker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–specific CD8+ responses contribute to the decline in acute peak viremia following infection. However, data on the relative immunogenicity of CD8+ T-cell epitopes during and after acute viremia are lacking. Methods. We characterized CD8+ T-cell responses in 20 acutely infected, antiretroviral-naive individuals with HIV-1 subtype C infection using the interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. Eleven of these had not fully seroconverted at the time of analysis. Viruses from plasma were sequenced within defined cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) cell epitopes for selected subjects. Results. At approximately 28 days after estimated initial infection, CD8+ T-cell responses were directed against an average of 3 of the 410 peptides tested (range, 0–6); 2 individuals had no detectable responses at this time. At 18 weeks, the average number of peptides targeted had increased to 5 (range 0–11). Of the 56 optimal Gag CTL epitopes sequenced, 31 were wild-type in the infecting viruses, but only 11 of 31 elicited measurable CD8+ T-cell responses. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that the majority of CD8+ responses are not elicited during acute HIV infection despite the presence of the cognate epitope in the infecting strain. There is a need to define factors that influence lack of induction of effective immune responses and the parameters that dictate immunodominance in acute infection. PMID:21844303

  1. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pandrea, Ivona; Xu, Cuiling; Stock, Jennifer L.; Frank, Daniel N.; Ma, Dongzhu; Policicchio, Benjamin B.; He, Tianyu; Kristoff, Jan; Cornell, Elaine; Haret-Richter, George S.; Trichel, Anita; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Tracy, Russell; Wilson, Cara; Landay, Alan L.; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX) and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ). RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs) starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab–infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acute and postacute SIV infection, but has no effect during chronic infection. PMID:26764484

  2. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques.

    PubMed

    Pandrea, Ivona; Xu, Cuiling; Stock, Jennifer L; Frank, Daniel N; Ma, Dongzhu; Policicchio, Benjamin B; He, Tianyu; Kristoff, Jan; Cornell, Elaine; Haret-Richter, George S; Trichel, Anita; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Tracy, Russell; Wilson, Cara; Landay, Alan L; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX) and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ). RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs) starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acute and postacute SIV infection, but has no effect during chronic infection. PMID:26764484

  3. Differentiation of Acute Q Fever from Other Infections in Patients Presenting to Hospitals, the Netherlands1

    PubMed Central

    Krijger, Elmer; Delsing, Corine E.; Sprong, Tom; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating acute Q fever from infections caused by other pathogens is essential. We conducted a retrospective case–control study to evaluate differences in clinical signs, symptoms, and outcomes for 82 patients with acute Q fever and 52 control patients who had pneumonia, fever and lower respiratory tract symptoms, or fever and hepatitis, but had negative serologic results for Q fever. Patients with acute Q fever were younger and had higher C-reactive protein levels but lower leukocyte counts. However, a large overlap was found. In patients with an indication for prophylaxis, chronic Q fever did not develop after patients received prophylaxis but did develop in 50% of patients who did not receive prophylaxis. Differentiating acute Q fever from other respiratory infections, fever, or hepatitis is not possible without serologic testing or PCR. If risk factors for chronic Q fever are present, prophylactic treatment is advised. PMID:26196955

  4. Toxoplasmosis in pigs-The last 20 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs are important to the economy of many countries because they are a source of food for humans. Infected pig meat is a source of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans and animals in many countries. This parasite also causes mortality in pigs, especially neonatal pigs. Most pigs acquire T. gondii ...

  5. Increases in Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Aaron M; Iqbal, Kashif; Schillie, Sarah; Britton, James; Kainer, Marion A; Tressler, Stacy; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    As many as 2.2 million persons in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1), and approximately 15%-25% of persons with chronic HBV infection will die prematurely from cirrhosis or liver cancer (2). Since 2006, the overall U.S. incidence of acute HBV infection has remained stable; the rate in 2013 was 1.0 case per 100,000 persons (3). Hepatitis B vaccination is highly effective in preventing HBV infection and is recommended for all infants (beginning at birth), all adolescents, and adults at risk for HBV infection (e.g., persons who inject drugs, men who have sexual contact with men, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and others). Hepatitis B vaccination coverage is low among adults: 2013 National Health Interview Survey data indicated that coverage with ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine was 32.6% for adults aged 19-49 years (4). Injection drug use is a risk factor for both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HBV. Among young adults in some rural U.S. communities, an increased incidence of HCV infection has been associated with a concurrent increase of injection drug use (5); and recent data indicate an increase of acute HCV infection in the Appalachian region associated with injection drug use (6). Using data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) during 2006-2013, CDC assessed the incidence of acute HBV infection in three of the four Appalachian states (Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia) included in the HCV infection study (6). Similar to the increase of HCV infections recently reported, an increase in incident cases of acute HBV infection in these three states has occurred among non-Hispanic whites (whites) aged 30-39 years who reported injection drug use as a common risk factor. Since 2009, cases of acute HBV infection have been reported from more non-urban than urban regions. Evidence-based services to prevent HBV infection are needed. PMID:26821369

  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication and quasispecies evolution in pigs that lack adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; Dekkers, Jack C M; Ewen, Catherine L; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2015-01-01

    The replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was studied in a line of pigs possessing a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Real-time RT-PCR revealed a unique course of infection for the SCID group. During the course of infection, viremia was initially significantly lower than normal littermates, but by 21 days was significantly elevated. Deep sequencing of the viral structural genes at days 11 and 21 identified seven amino acid substitutions in both normal and SCID pigs. The most significant change was a W99R substitution in GP2, which was present in the inoculum at a frequency of 35%, but eventually disappeared from all pigs regardless of immune status. Therefore, amino acid substitutions that appear during acute infection are likely the result of the adaptation of the virus to replication in pigs and not immune selection. PMID:25451069

  7. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    PubMed Central

    Nakimuli-Mpungu, E; Mutamba, B; Nshemerirwe, S; Kiwuwa, MS; Musisi, S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania. Methods We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals. Results Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000). HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06). Conclusion Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons. PMID:22096397

  8. Transcriptome Analysis on Chinese Shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during WSSV Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have discovered a lot of immune-related genes responding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in crustacean. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host responses during the WSSV acute infection stage in naturally infected shrimp. In this study, we employed next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques to observe the transcriptome differences of the shrimp between latent infection stage and acute infection stage. A total of 64,188,426 Illumina reads, including 31,685,758 reads from the latent infection group and 32,502,668 reads from the acute infection group, were generated and assembled into 46,676 unigenes (mean length: 676 bp; range: 200–15,094 bp). Approximately 24,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Among which, 805 differentially expressed genes were identified and categorized into 11 groups based on their possible function. Genes in the Toll and IMD pathways, the Ras-activated endocytosis process, the RNA interference pathway, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and many other genes, were found to be activated in shrimp from latent infection stage to acute infection stage. The anti-bacterially proPO-activating cascade was firstly uncovered to be probably participated in antiviral process. These genes contain not only members playing function in host defense against WSSV, but also genes utilized by WSSV for its rapid proliferation. In addition, the transcriptome data provides detail information for identifying novel genes in absence of the genome database of shrimp. PMID:23527000

  9. Acute hepatitis C in an HIV-infected patient: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Driver, Todd H; Terrault, Norah; Saxena, Varun

    2013-05-01

    With the decrease in transmission via transfusions and injection drug use, acute symptomatic hepatitis C is infrequently seen in developed countries. We report a case of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adult who presented with abdominal pain. His alanine aminotransferase was greater than sixty times the upper limit of normal without any evidence on examination of fulminant hepatic failure. His workup revealed an elevated hepatitis C viral level with a negative hepatitis C antibody. He was discharged once his liver function tests improved. As an outpatient, he had a recurrent bout of symptoms with an elevation of his alanine aminotransferase and hepatitis C viral levels that promoted anti-hepatitis C virus treatment. This case illustrates the importance of considering acute hepatitis C as a cause of acute hepatitis in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. While patients with acute symptomatic hepatitis C generally have a higher rate of spontaneous viral clearance compared to those with an insidious acute infection, most still progress to chronic hepatitis C infection, and patients with HIV coinfection carry a higher risk of progression to chronic disease. PMID:23151989

  10. Multi-Agent Simulations of the Immune Response to Hiv during the Acute Stage of Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walshe, R.; Ruskin, H. J.; Callaghan, A.

    Results of multi-agent based simulations of the immune response to HIV during the acute phase of infection are presented here. The model successfully recreates the viral dynamics associated with the acute phase of infection, i.e., a rapid rise in viral load followed by a sharp decline to what is often referred to as a "set point", a result of T-cell response and emergence of HIV neutralizing antibodies. The results indicate that sufficient T Killer cell response is the key factor in controlling viral growth during this phase with antibody levels of critical importance only in the absence of a sufficient T Killer response.

  11. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a complication of influenza A (H1N1) pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Larranaga, Jose Maria; Marcos, Pedro J; Pombo, Francisco; Otero-Gonzalez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease characterized by its acute onset and a clinical presentation simulating a bacterial pneumonia. Although it can be idiopathic, it has been described related to drugs, toxic agents and infections, mostly parasitic. We describe the case of influenza A (H1N1) severe pneumonia complicated by an acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Patient presented with respiratory failure and diffuse ground-glass opacities at chest-computed tomography. Clinical suspicion for this complication and bronchoalveolar lavage with cellular count analysis is crucial. PMID:27055842

  12. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection. PMID:22490115

  13. Induction of mycoplasmal pneumonia in experimentally infected pigs by means of different inoculation routes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morante, Beatriz; Segalés, Joaquim; López-Soria, Sergio; de Rozas, Ana Pérez; Maiti, Henrike; Coll, Teresa; Sibila, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of three different inoculation routes into mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP) in pigs challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). Thirty six-week-old M. hyopneumoniae seronegative piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: three challenged groups with experimentally inoculated pigs by either the endotracheal (ET; n = 8), intranasal (IN; n = 8) or aerosol (AE; n = 8) routes and one uninfected group (Control; n = 6). Blood samples were collected 1 day before challenge and at necropsy, 28 days post-inoculation (dpi), to assess seroconversion. Laryngeal swabs were collected at -1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 dpi in order to evaluate colonization. At necropsy, lung lesions were scored and lung tissue was collected for histopathological studies and M. hyopneumoniae DNA detection. Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was also obtained to detect M. hyopneumoniae DNA, specific IgA antibodies and cytokines. MP was observed in all inoculated groups, but the ET group displayed a significantly higher number of animals affected by MP as well as a higher mean lung lesion score. These results were paralleled with an earlier seroconversion and upper respiratory tract colonization of M. hyopneumoniae. Additionally, in the ET group, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific IgA antibodies in BALF were found. Under the conditions of the present study, MP was reproduced by the three evaluated inoculation routes. Obtained results suggest that the ET route is the most effective in order to induce MP in pigs experimentally challenged with M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:27160189

  14. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Subclinical Infection in Pigs: Bacteriological and Genotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles.

    PubMed

    Moredo, Fabiana A; Piñeyro, Pablo E; Márquez, Gabriela C; Sanz, Marcelo; Colello, Rocío; Etcheverría, Analía; Padola, Nora L; Quiroga, María A; Perfumo, Carlos J; Galli, Lucía; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2015-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major pathogen responsible for neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, and edema disease in pigs. Although it can be harmless, ETEC is also present in the intestines of other animal species and humans, causing occasional diarrhea outbreaks. The evaluation of this pathogen's presence in food sources is becoming an increasingly important issue in human health. In order to determine the prevalence of ETEC in nondiarrheic pigs, 990 animals from 11 pig farms were sampled. Using end-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), eltA, estI genes, or both, were detected in 150 (15.2%) animals. From the positive samples, 40 (26.6%) ETEC strains were isolated, showing 19 antibiotic-resistance patterns; 52.5% of these strains had multiple antibiotic resistances, and 17.5% carried the intI2 gene. The most prevalent genotypes were rfb(O157)/estII/aidA (32.5%) and estI/estII (25.0%). The estII gene was identified most frequently (97.5%), followed by estI (37.5%), astA (20.0%), and eltA (12.5%). The genes coding the fimbriae F5, F6, and F18 were detected in three single isolates. The aidA gene was detected in 20 ETEC strains associated with the estII gene. Among the isolated ETEC strains, stx(2e)/estI, stx(2e)/estI/estII, and stx(2e)/estI/estII/intI2 genotypes were identified. The ETEC belonged to 12 different serogroups; 37.5% of them belonged to serotype O157:H19. Isolates were grouped by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR into 5 clusters with 100.0% similarity. In this study, we demonstrated that numerous ETEC genotypes cohabit and circulate in swine populations without clinical manifestation of neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, or edema disease in different production stages. The information generated is important not only for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes, but also for understanding the dynamics and ecology of ETEC in pigs in different production stages that can be potentially transmitted to humans

  15. Hippocampal protection in mice with an attenuated inflammatory monocyte response to acute CNS picornavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Charles L.; LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G.; Sundsbak, Rhianna S.; Sauer, Brian M.; LaFrance, Stephanie J.; Buenz, Eric J.; Schmalstieg, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal injury during acute viral infection of the brain is associated with the development of persistent cognitive deficits and seizures in humans. In C57BL/6 mice acutely infected with the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, hippocampal CA1 neurons are injured by a rapid innate immune response, resulting in profound memory deficits. In contrast, infected SJL and B6xSJL F1 hybrid mice exhibit essentially complete hippocampal and memory preservation. Analysis of brain-infiltrating leukocytes revealed that SJL mice mount a sharply attenuated inflammatory monocyte response as compared to B6 mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiments isolated the attenuation to the SJL immune system. Adoptive transfer of B6 inflammatory monocytes into acutely infected B6xSJL hosts converted these mice to a hippocampal damage phenotype and induced a cognitive deficit marked by failure to recognize a novel object. These findings show that inflammatory monocytes are the critical cellular mediator of hippocampal injury during acute picornavirus infection of the brain. PMID:22848791

  16. Iron metabolism and oxidative profile of dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Acute and subclinical disease.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Oliveira, Jéssica R; Coelho, Stefanie B; Contin, Catarina M; Tatsch, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Santana, Aureo E; Tonin, Alexandre A; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant profile and iron metabolism in serum of dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked sera samples of dogs were divided into two groups: negative control (n = 17) and infected by E. canis on acute (n = 24), and subclinical (n = 18) phases of the disease. The eritrogram, leucogram, and platelet counts were evaluate as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) concentration. In addition, the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in sera were also analyzed. Blood samples were examined for the presence of E. canis by PCR techniques. History and clinical signals were recorded for each dog. During the acute phase of the disease, infected animals showed thrombocytopenia and anemia when compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05) as a consequence of lower iron levels. Ferritin and transferrin levels were higher in both phases (acute and subclinical) of the disease. The AOPP and FRAP levels increased in infected animals on the acute phase; however, the opposite occurred in the subclinical phase. We concluded that dogs naturally infected by E. canis showed changes in the iron metabolism and developed an oxidant status in consequence of disease pathophysiology. PMID:26724737

  17. Interleukin-3 protects mice from acute herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, W L; Ziltener, H J; Liew, F Y

    1990-01-01

    Evidence presented here from kinetic studies of interleukin-3 (IL-3) production by spleen cells from adult mice infected subcutaneously with HSV-1 and stimulated with virus antigen in vitro shows that high levels of IL-3 were produced at the onset of the animal's recovery from the disease state. Injections of anti-IL-3 antibody into HSV-1-infected mice resulted in exacerbation of the disease. Primary mouse embryonic head cells grown in the presence of murine IL-3, when infected with HSV-1, showed a 1000-fold decrease in virus titre compared with untreated control cells. This inhibiting effect was reversed by anti-IL-3 and anti-IFN-alpha, beta and gamma antibodies. These data suggest that IL-3 plays a host-protective role against HSV infection and it does so probably by inducing brain cells to produce interferons which then inhibit virus replication. PMID:2176641

  18. Acute Diffuse and Total Alopecia of the Female Scalp Associated with Borrelia-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Ekta K; Trüeb, Ralph Michel

    2015-01-01

    A case of acute diffuse and total alopecia of the female scalp associated with Borrelia-infection (acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) is presented. Today, acute diffuse and total alopecia of the female scalp is recognized as a distinct variant of alopecia areata (AA) predominantly observed in women. Cases of AA have formerly been reported in association with infections. AA is understood to represent an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the hair follicle. It is conceivable that the antigenic stimulus provided by the infection may act as a trigger for alopecia. Vice versa, alopecia may act as a marker for detection of undiagnosed infection. Treatment of the patient with intravenous ceftriaxone led to the resolution of cutaneous borreliosis, and in addition to topical clobetasol foam to complete recovery of hair. PMID:25878446

  19. Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deverick J.; Podgorny, Kelly; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I.; Bratzler, Dale W.; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Greene, Linda; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Saiman, Lisa; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Maragakis, Lisa L.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,”1 published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.2 PMID:24799638

  20. Comparative analysis of cytokine transcript profiles within mediastinal lymph node compartments of pigs after infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome genotype 1 strains differing in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Rosales, Rubén S; Pallarés, Francisco J; Risco, David; Quereda, Juan J; Graham, Simon P; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Morgan, Sophie B; Steinbach, Falko; Drew, Trevor W; Strickland, Tony S; Salguero, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) induces a weak immune response enabling it to persist in different organs of infected pigs. This has been attributed to the ability of PRRSV to influence the induction of cytokine responses. In this study, we investigated the cytokine transcriptional profiles in different compartments of the mediastinal lymph node of pigs infected with three genotype 1 PRRSV strains of differing pathogenicity: the low virulence prototype Lelystad virus (LV), and UK field strain 215-06 and the highly virulent subtype 3 SU1-Bel isolate from Belarus. We have used a combination of laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) followed by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of immune cell markers (CD3, CD79a and MAC387) and RT-qPCR quantification of PRRSV and cytokine transcripts. Compared to mock infected pigs, we found a significant downregulation of TNF-α and IFN-α in follicular and interfollicular areas of the mediastinal lymph node from 3 days post-infection (dpi) in animals infected with all three strains. This was accompanied by a transient B cell depletion and T cell and macrophage infiltration in the follicles together with T cell depletion in the interfollicular areas. A delayed upregulation of IFN-γ and IL-23p19 was observed mainly in the follicles. The PRRSV load was higher in all areas and time-points studied in the animals infected with the SU1-Bel strain. This paper describes the first application of LCM to study the cytokine transcript profiles and virus distribution in different compartments of the lymph node of pigs. PMID:25889072

  1. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with acute tubule interstitial nephritis leading to acute kidney injury in influenza A (H1N1) infection

    PubMed Central

    Kute, V. B.; Vanikar, A. V.; Shah, P. R.; Gumber, M. R.; Patel, H. V.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory complications and renal failure are the leading causes for morbidity and mortality due to influenza (H1N1) virus infection. There has been limited information on histopathology of H1N1 influenza-related acute kidney injury (AKI). We describe AKI with H1N1 infection in a 52-year-old female. Renal biopsy showed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with acute tubule interstitial nephritis. Her condition improved rapidly with oseltamivir, fluid replacement, steroid and dialysis. Our case suggests that H1N1 infection may have a causative link to the development of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. PMID:24701045

  2. Experimental aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Jobert, J L; Savoye, C; Cariolet, R; Kobisch, M; Madec, F

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possible role of aerosol in the transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an experiment including 18 specific pathogen-free (SPF), 10-week-old piglets, randomly distributed into 2 adjacent units, was carried out. In these facilities, air was forced through absolute filters to prevent any contact with infectious agents. During the first 6 d post inoculation, the 2 units were connected by a rectangular opening and the air circulation was forced by the ventilation system from unit A (inoculated pigs) to unit B (non-inoculated pigs). The A. pleuropneumoniae strain (biovar 1 serovar 9) was isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia. Two different infecting doses, 10(7) cfu/animal and 10(8) cfu/animal, were inoculated by intranasal route in 6 pigs of unit A. The infection spread quickly from the inoculated pigs to the non-inoculated pigs. Clinical signs were acute during the 4 d post inoculation: hyperthermia, respiratory distress and, sometimes, death (6 pigs of the unit A and 2 pigs of the unit B). All pigs seroconverted against A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 9 within 2 weeks. Lung lesions were severe: fibrinous pleurisy and lung hemorrhages in the acute stage, pleural adherences and focal pulmonary necrosis in the chronic stage. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from the tonsils and/or lungs in 16 animals. It could be also isolated from the air of the experimental unit. This study showed that A. pleuropneumoniae was readily transmitted through aerosol over a distance of at least 2.5 m. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10680652

  3. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in tracheobronchial lymph nodes from pigs singularly infected or coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in tracheobronchial lymph nodes from pigs singularly infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO), or coinfected with both. Twenty-eight pigs were randomly assigned to one ...

  4. The association between obesity and outpatient visits for acute respiratory infections in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Campitelli, Michael A.; Rosella, Laura C.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Recent evidence suggests that obesity increases the risk of severe outcomes following respiratory infection. It is less clear whether obesity is associated with the risk of being infected with influenza or other respiratory pathogens. Therefore, we examined the association between obesity and outpatient visits for acute respiratory infections. Design We conducted a retrospective cohort study over 13 years on 104,665 individuals in Ontario, Canada who responded to population health surveys and agreed to linkage with health administrative data. Individuals aged 18–64 years who responded to a survey within 5 years prior to the start of an influenza season were included. Poisson regression, with adjustment for relevant confounders, was used to measure the association between self-reported BMI and outpatient visits coded as acute respiratory infection. We conducted numerous sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of our findings. Results We observed higher rates of outpatient visits for ARI during influenza season periods compared with normal weight individuals for those who were overweight (BMI 25–29.9) (Rate Ratio [RR] 1.10; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.07–1.13), obese class I (BMI 30–34.9) (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.13–1.22), and obese class II or III (BMI ≥35) (RR 1.19; 95% CI 1.12–1.25) Associations of a similar magnitude were observed during non-influenza season periods. Obesity was a greater risk factor for acute respiratory infections managed in emergency departments than physician offices. Conclusions Obese individuals are at an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute respiratory infection during both influenza and non-influenza season periods, suggesting that the effect of obesity on the risk of respiratory infections is not limited to influenza. Interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of obesity may have the added benefit reducing the population burden of respiratory infections. PMID:23670219

  5. Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity. PMID:24642543

  6. Late regulation of immune genes and microRNAs in circulating leukocytes in a pig model of influenza A (H1N2) infection

    PubMed Central

    Brogaard, Louise; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Larsen, Lars E.; Mortensen, Shila; Schlegel, Michael; Dürrwald, Ralf; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short regulatory RNA molecules which are implicated in modulating gene expression. Levels of circulating, cell-associated miRNAs in response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection has received limited attention so far. To further understand the temporal dynamics and biological implications of miRNA regulation in circulating leukocytes, we collected blood samples before and after (1, 3, and 14 days) IAV challenge of pigs. Differential expression of miRNAs and innate immune factor mRNA transcripts was analysed using RT-qPCR. A total of 20 miRNAs were regulated after IAV challenge, with the highest number of regulated miRNAs seen on day 14 after infection at which time the infection was cleared. Targets of the regulated miRNAs included genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. Significant regulation of both miRNAs and mRNA transcripts at 14 days after challenge points to a protracted effect of IAV infection, potentially affecting the host’s ability to respond to secondary infections. In conclusion, experimental IAV infection of pigs demonstrated the dynamic nature of miRNA and mRNA regulation in circulating leukocytes during and after infection, and revealed the need for further investigation of the potential immunosuppressing effect of miRNA and innate immune signaling after IAV infection. PMID:26893019

  7. Analysis of meat juice ELISA results and questionnaire data to investigate farm-level risk factors for Salmonella infection in UK pigs.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P; Clough, H E; Cook, A J C

    2010-11-01

    The study set out to explore risk factors for Salmonella infection in pigs, based on seroprevalence amongst slaughtered pigs, using a large study population of holdings and a comprehensive list of farm characteristics. Farm data were collected from pig quality assurance schemes and supplemented by a postal questionnaire. These data were used with meat juice serology results from ongoing abattoir Salmonella surveillance, for a multivariable risk factor analysis, modelling the ELISA sample to positive ratio directly (ELISA ratio). The study population contained 566 farms, covering a geographically representative spread of farms within the United Kingdom, with a mean average of 224 sample results per holding over a 4-year period. The model highlighted that temporal factors (quarterly and yearly cycles) and monthly meteorological summaries for rainfall, sunshine and temperature were associated with Salmonella presence (P < 0.01). The ELISA ratio was found to be highest in autumn and lowest in spring and summer, whereas yearly averages showed a greater degree of variation than seasonal. Two feed variables (homemix and barley) were found to be protective factors, as was a conventional, rather than organic or freedom foods, farm enterprise type. The number of annual pig deliveries and dead stock collections, and the main cause of pig mortality on the farm were found to be associated with Salmonella infection. Scottish farms had a lower ELISA ratio than other regions, and an increased number of pig farms within a 10-km radius was associated with a higher ELISA ratio. The study demonstrated that the analysis of routinely collected data from surveillance and quality assurance schemes was cost-effective, with sufficient power to detect modest associations between Salmonella and exposure variables. The model results can be used to inform on-farm Salmonella control policies and could target-specific geographical regions and seasons to assist the efficiency of surveillance. PMID

  8. Dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Saito, Akatsuki; Katakai, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kurosawa, Terue; Hamano, Masataka; Higashino, Atsunori; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Kurane, Ichiro; Akari, Hirofumi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examined the dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus (DENV) infection in a marmoset model. Here, we found that DENV infection in marmosets greatly induced responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. Interestingly, the strength of the immune response was greater in animals infected with a dengue fever strain than in those infected with a dengue hemorrhagic fever strain of DENV. In contrast, when animals were re-challenged with the same DENV strain used for primary infection, the neutralizing antibody induced appeared to play a critical role in sterilizing inhibition against viral replication, resulting in strong but delayed responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. The results in this study may help to better understand the dynamics of cellular and humoral immune responses in the control of DENV infection. PMID:23381396

  9. The infant and young child during periods of acute infection

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Passive immunity, which is conferred on infants through maternal antibodies and breast milk, helps to protect them against infection during the first months of life. Later, as this immunity decreases and contact with the environment increases, the incidence of infections rises rapidly and persists at a high level during the second and third years of life. Infections and inadequate diet may be of little consequence for the well-nourished child; in underweight children, however, each episode of infection is frequently more protracted and has a considerably greater impact on health. Besides the reduced food intake and absorption, the demand for nutrients is higher during periods of infectious diseases. Infants who are exclusively breast-fed are at much lower risk from diarrhoeal diseases. In contrast, bottle-fed infants and children receiving foods other than milk, particularly in an unsanitary environment, are at much greater risk of infection from contaminated food and utensils. The period of convalescence from diarrhoeal and other disease is characterized by the return of a normal appetite and increased nutritional requirements to permit catch-up growth and the replenishment of nutritional reserves. A primary requirement is that children receive sufficient dietary energy and nutrients to enable them to achieve their growth potential. PMID:20604473

  10. Effects of feeding diets containing increasing proportions of bunt-infected wheat (Tilletia caries) on performance and health of pigs.

    PubMed

    Preugschat, Karin; Kersten, Susanne; Ettle, Thomas; Richter, Wolfgang; Karl, Horst; Breves, Gerhard; Büttner, Peter; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Tilletia caries is a fungus that mainly infects wheat, causing the disease bunt. Wheat bunt had been one of the most dangerous plant diseases before seed dressing was a common practice. However, it is still of importance in organic farming, since seed dressing is not permitted. Trimethylamine (TMA) is a metabolic product of T. caries known to cause a fishy odour of highly contaminated wheat. Therefore, contamination of feed is supposed to decrease feed intake. However, systematic studies on the effect of practically relevant proportions of bunt-infected wheat on performance and health of pigs are not available. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of increasing proportions of bunt-infected wheat (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of the diet) corresponding to a total spore content of 0%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% on the performance and health of piglets during a 5-week experiment starting after weaning. TMA was not detectable in the contaminated wheat and the feed intake of piglets remained unaffected. However, live weight gain decreased linearly and feed-to-gain ratio significantly increased as the proportion of contaminated wheat increased. Haematological and serum clinical-chemical characteristics as well as the viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not influenced by dietary treatments. Based on the limited data of the present experiment it might be concluded from the adverse effects of bunt-infected wheat in piglet diets on the feed-to-gain ratio that a spore content of 0.2% of the complete diet should not be exceeded. PMID:24499404

  11. Aetiology of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Hospitalised Children in Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Jan; Panayiotou, Christakis; Tryfonos, Christina; Koptides, Dana; Koliou, Maria; Kalogirou, Nikolas; Georgiou, Eleni; Christodoulou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve clinical management and prevention of viral infections in hospitalised children improved etiological insight is needed. The aim of the present study was to assess the spectrum of respiratory viral pathogens in children admitted to hospital with acute respiratory tract infections in Cyprus. For this purpose nasopharyngeal swab samples from 424 children less than 12 years of age with acute respiratory tract infections were collected over three epidemic seasons and were analysed for the presence of the most common 15 respiratory viruses. A viral pathogen was identified in 86% of the samples, with multiple infections being observed in almost 20% of the samples. The most frequently detected viruses were RSV (30.4%) and Rhinovirus (27.4%). RSV exhibited a clear seasonality with marked peaks in January/February, while rhinovirus infections did not exhibit a pronounced seasonality being detected almost throughout the year. While RSV and PIV3 incidence decreased significantly with age, the opposite was observed for influenza A and B as well as adenovirus infections. The data presented expand our understanding of the epidemiology of viral respiratory tract infections in Cypriot children and will be helpful to the clinicians and researchers interested in the treatment and control of viral respiratory tract infections. PMID:26761647

  12. Increased number of intestinal villous M cells in levamisole -pretreated weaned pigs experimentally infected with F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain

    PubMed Central

    Valpotić, H.; Kovšca Janjatović, A.; Lacković, G.; Božić, F.; Dobranić, V.; Svoboda, D.; Valpotić, I.; Popović, M.

    2010-01-01

    Immunoprophylaxis of porcine postweaning colibacillosis (PWC) caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing F4 fimbriae is an unsolved problem. Just as ETEC strains can exploit intestinal microfold (M) cells as the entry portal for infection, their high transcytotic ability make them an attractive target for mucosally delivered vaccines, adjuvants and therapeutics. We have developed a model of parenteral/oral immunization of 4-weeks-old pigs with either levamisole or vaccine candidate F4ac+ non-ETEC strain to study their effects on de novo differentiation of antigen-sampling M cells. Identification, localization and morphometric quantification of cytokeratin 18 positive M cells in the ileal mucosa of 6-weeks-old pigs revealed that they were: 1) exclusively located within villous epithelial layer, 2) significantly numerous (P< 0.01) in levamisole pretreated/challenged pigs, and 3) only slightly, but not significantly numerous in vaccinated/challenged pigs compared with non-pretreated/challenged control pigs. The fact that levamisole may affect the M cells frequency by increasing their numbers, makes it an interesting adjuvant to study development of an effective M cell-targeted vaccine against porcine PWC. PMID:22073366

  13. Acute Babesia bovis infections: renal involvement in the hypotensive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, I G; Goodger, B V

    1979-08-01

    Splenectomised calves in metabolism cages were infected with Babesia bovis. During the infection, urine samples were collected and analysed for electrolytes, proteins, kinin, and urinary kallikrein. During the later stages of the infection there were significant reductions in urinary volume, water intake, urinary kinin, kallikrein, and electrolytes. Proteinuria was detected from 3--8 days postinfection of which 15--20% was haemoglobin and most of the remainder was albumin (70--75%). Fibrin degradation products, fibrinogen-like products, and haptoglobin were not detected. Degeneration of cortical tubules was detected by histological studies. As these tubules produce urinary kallikrein it seems probable that diminished glomerular blood flow and hence glomerular filtration rate are due to decreased production of this enzyme. PMID:494708

  14. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de Los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  15. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  16. Risk Factors for the Development of Intra-Abdominal Fungal Infections in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, Brian J.; Gordon, Stuart R.; Gardner, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intra-abdominal fungal infections (AFI) complicating acute pancreatitis arise in the context of pancreatic necrosis. Our goal was to determine which risk factors contribute to AFI in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods Records were reviewed from 479 non-transfer patients admitted to our medical center with acute pancreatitis from 1985–2009. Using multivariable regression models, risk factors for AFI were identified. Results Out of 479 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, 17 patients were subsequently found to have an AFI and 3 of these patients expired. The mean length of stay for patients with an AFI was 24 days and 76% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Patients with AFI were more likely to have received prophylactic antibiotics on admission (OR 1.7, 95% C.I. 1.2–2.3), TPN within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7) or to have necrosis on CT scan within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7). Multivariable regression models identified admission antibiotic use (OR 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.4–1.8) as the strongest predictor of AFI. Conclusion Admission antibiotics are the biggest risk factor for the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections in acute pancreatitis. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infected necrosis should therefore be discouraged. PMID:25872170

  17. Acute Neurological Illness in a Kidney Transplant Recipient Following Infection With Enterovirus-D68: An Emerging Infection?

    PubMed

    Wali, R K; Lee, A H; Kam, J C; Jonsson, J; Thatcher, A; Poretz, D; Ambardar, S; Piper, J; Lynch, C; Kulkarni, S; Cochran, J; Djurkovic, S

    2015-12-01

    We report the first case of enterovirus-D68 infection in an adult living-donor kidney transplant recipient who developed rapidly progressive bulbar weakness and acute flaccid limb paralysis following an upper respiratory infection. We present a 45-year-old gentleman who underwent pre-emptive living-donor kidney transplantation for IgA nephropathy. Eight weeks following transplantation, he developed an acute respiratory illness from enterovirus/rhinovirus that was detectable in nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Within 24 h of onset of respiratory symptoms, the patient developed binocular diplopia which rapidly progressed to multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions (acute bulbar syndrome) over the next 24 h. Within the next 48 h, asymmetric flaccid paralysis of the left arm and urinary retention developed. While his neurological symptoms were evolving, the Centers for Disease Control reported that the enterovirus strain from the NP swabs was, in fact, Enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68). Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated unique gray matter and anterior horn cell changes in the midbrain and spinal cord, respectively. Constellation of these neurological symptoms and signs was suggestive for postinfectious encephalomyelitis (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis [ADEM]) from EV-D68. Treatment based on the principles of ADEM included intensive physical therapy and other supportive measures, which resulted in a steady albeit slow improvement in his left arm and bulbar weakness, while maintaining stable allograft function. PMID:26228743

  18. No Beneficial Effects Evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in Weaned Pigs Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Aßmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F. G.; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs. PMID:22544257

  19. Impact of Early Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with Acute HIV Infection in Vienna, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Herout, Sandra; Mandorfer, Mattias; Breitenecker, Florian; Reiberger, Thomas; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Rieger, Armin; Aichelburg, Maximilian C.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated during acute HIV infection. Most recent data provides evidence of benefits of early ART. Methods We retrospectively compared the clinical and immunological course of individuals with acute HIV infection, who received ART within 3 months (group A) or not (group B) after diagnosis. Results Among the 84 individuals with acute HIV infection, 57 (68%) received ART within 3 months (A) whereas 27 (32%) did not receive ART within 3 months (B), respectively. Clinical progression to CDC stadium B or C within 5 years after the diagnosis of HIV was less common in (A) when compared to (B) (P = 0.002). After twelve months, both the mean increase in CD4+ T cell count and the mean decrease in viral load was more pronounced in (A), when compared to (B) (225 vs. 87 cells/μl; P = 0.002 and -4.19 vs. -1.14 log10 copies/mL; P<0.001). Twenty-four months after diagnosis the mean increase from baseline of CD4+ T cells was still higher in group A compared to group B (251 vs. 67 cells/μl, P = 0.004). Conclusions Initiation of ART during acute HIV infection is associated with a lower probability of clinical progression to more advanced CDC stages and significant immunological benefits. PMID:27065239

  20. Knowledge of Acute Human Immnuodeficiency Virus Infection among Gay and Bisexual Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grin, Benjamin; Chan, Philip A.; Operario, Don

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in at-risk college men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on knowledge about acute HIV infection (AHI). Participants and Methods: A one-time anonymous survey was administered to college students attending a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  1. Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing. PMID:26890854

  2. Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening.

    PubMed

    Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R; Smith, Davey M; Little, Susan J

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing. PMID:26890854

  3. Acute infection by hepatitis E virus with a slight immunoglobulin M antibody response.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Yuki; Oshiro, Yukio; Imanishi, Mamiko; Ishige, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2015-08-01

    The anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody response is generally regarded as a useful marker for diagnosing primary infection. However, in some cases, this antibody is not detected during the acute phase of infection. An 81-year-old man with stable membranous nephropathy who presented with asymptomatic acute liver dysfunction came to our hospital. HEV RNA of genotype 3 was detected in his serum, and he was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E. According to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, high-level positivity for anti-HEV IgG and IgA antibodies was observed, but the assay was negative for IgM antibody throughout the clinical course of infection. The patient was not immunosuppressed. We further investigated the presence of IgM antibody using two other polyclonal antibodies against human IgM as secondary antibodies and another recombinant ORF2 protein of genotype 3 as an immobilized antigen. IgM was weakly detected in the serum during the acute phase only by the test with the antigen of genotype 3. Multi-genotype antigens can detect a slight IgM antibody response; however, anti-HEV IgA is more useful in diagnosing primary HEV infection, particularly in cases with a low IgM antibody response. PMID:26215116

  4. Development of Hamster Models for Acute and Chronic Infections with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Golden Syrian hamster is frequently used as a small animal model to study acute leptospirosis. However, use of this small animal model to study Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infections has not been well documented. Cattle are the normal maintenance hosts of L. borgpetersenii serovar...

  5. Acute hepatitis associated with autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection--San Antonio, Texas, 2009.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Rania A; Drobeniuc, Jan; Sanchez, Roger; Heseltine, Gary; Alsip, Bryan; Kamili, Saleem; Hu, Dale J; Guerra, Fernando; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2011-10-01

    Locally acquired hepatitis E infection is increasingly being observed in industrialized countries. We report 2 cases of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in the United States. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3a related to US-2 and swine hepatitis E virus strains was isolated from one of the patients, indicating potential food-borne or zoonotic transmission. PMID:21896699

  6. Incidence of respiratory viruses in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Verne, Eduardo; Nazario-Fuertes, Ronald; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J; Pumarola, Tomás

    2015-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are responsible for high morbi-mortality in Peruvian children. However, the etiological agents are poorly identified. This study, conducted during the pandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2009, aims to determine the main etiological agents responsible for acute respiratory infections in children from Lima, Peru. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 717 children with acute respiratory infections between January 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR for 13 respiratory viruses: influenza A, B, and C virus; parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, among others. Samples were also tested with direct fluorescent-antibodies (DFA) for six respiratory viruses. RT-PCR and DFA detected respiratory viruses in 240 (33.5%) and 85 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common etiological agents were RSV-A (15.3%), followed by influenza A (4.6%), PIV-1 (3.6%), and PIV-2 (1.8%). The viruses identified by DFA corresponded to RSV (5.9%) and influenza A (1.8%). Therefore, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) were found to be the most common etiology of acute respiratory infections. The authors suggest that active surveillance be conducted to identify the causative agents and improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. PMID:25784285

  7. Comparative analysis of the acute response of zebrafish Danio rerio skin to two different bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Lü, Aijun; Hu, Xiucai; Wang, Yi; Shen, Xiaojing; Zhu, Aihua; Shen, Lulu; Ming, Qinglei; Feng, Zhaojun

    2013-12-01

    Skin is an important innate immune organ in fish; however, little is known about the skin's immune response to infectious pathogens. We conducted a comparative analysis of the acute immune response of Zebrafish Danio rerio skin against gram-positive (Staphylococcus chromogenes) and gram-negative (Citrobacter freundii) bacterial infections. Gene expression profiles induced from the two different infections were identified by microarray hybridization, with many genes demonstrating an acute immune response in the skin. Differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in response to stress and stimulus, complement activation, acute-phase response, and defense and immune response. Compared with transcription patterns of skin from the two infections, a similar innate immunity (e.g., transferrin, coagulation factor, complements, and lectins) was observed but with different acute-phase genes (e.g., ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-microglobulin, vitellogenin, and heat shock protein). These results suggest that the skin of fish plays an important role in the innate immune responses to bacterial infection. PMID:24341765

  8. Cytokine expression during early and late phase of acute Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed for both syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate cytokine expression during the course of acute Puumala hantavirus infection. Results We retrospectively studied 64 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala hantavirus infection in 2010 during a hantavirus epidemic in Germany. Hantavirus infection was confirmed by positive anti-hantavirus IgG/IgM. Cytokine expression of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β1 was analysed by ELISA during the early and late phase of acute hantavirus infection (average 6 and 12 days after onset of symptoms, respectively). A detailed description of the demographic and clinical presentation of severe hantavirus infection requiring hospitalization during the 2010 hantavirus epidemic in Germany is given. Acute hantavirus infection was characterized by significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1 and TNF-α in both early and late phase compared to healthy controls. From early to late phase of disease, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α significantly decreased whereas TGF-β1 levels increased. Disease severity characterized by elevated creatinine and low platelet counts was correlated with high pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α but low immunosuppressive TGF-β1 levels and vice versa . Conclusion High expression of cytokines activating T-lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages in the early phase of disease supports the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. In the late phase of disease, immunosuppressive TGF-β1 level increase significantly. We suggest that delayed induction of a protective immune mechanism to downregulate a massive early pro-inflammatory immune response might contribute to the pathologies characteristic of human hantavirus infection

  9. Viral reassortment and transmission after co-infection of pigs with classical H1N1 and triple-reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjun; Lager, Kelly M.; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa; Ulery, Eva S.; Janke, Bruce H.; Solórzano, Alicia; Webby, Richard J.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Jürgen A.

    2010-01-01

    Triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses circulating in North American pigs contain the internal genes derived from swine (matrix, non-structural and nucleoprotein), human [polymerase basic 1 (PB1)] and avian (polymerase acidic and PB2) influenza viruses forming a constellation of genes that is well conserved and is called the triple-reassortant internal gene (TRIG) cassette. In contrast, the external genes [haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA)] are less conserved, reflecting multiple reassortant events that have produced viruses with different combinations of HA and NA genes. This study hypothesized that maintenance of the TRIG cassette confers a selective advantage to the virus. To test this hypothesis, pigs were co-infected with the triple-reassortant H3N2 A/Swine/Texas/4199-2/98 (Tx/98) and the classical H1N1 A/Swine/Iowa/15/1930 viruses and co-housed with a group of sentinel animals. This direct contact group was subsequently moved into contact with a second group of naïve animals. Four different subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 and H3N2) of influenza virus were identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from the lungs of the experimentally infected pigs, with most of the viruses containing TRIG from the Tx/98 virus. Interestingly, only the intact H3N2 Tx/98 virus was transmitted from the infected pigs to the direct-contact animals and from them to the second contact group of pigs. These results demonstrated that multiple reassortments can occur within a host; however, only specific gene constellations are readily transmissible. It was concluded that certain HA and NA gene pairs, in conjunction with the TRIG cassette, may have a competitive advantage over other combinations for transmission and maintenance in swine. PMID:20484565

  10. Transcriptomic and Epigenetic Profiling of the Lung of Influenza-Infected Pigs: A Comparison of Different Birth Weight and Susceptibility Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie M.; Gunvaldsen, Rayna E.; Detmer, Susan E.; Dyck, Michael K.; Dixon, Walter T.; Foxcroft, George R.; Plastow, Graham S.; Harding, John C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a common cause of respiratory disease in swine. Infections range in severity from asymptomatic to causing significant morbidity. The main objective of this study was to compare lung transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to influenza infection in pigs from high or low birth weight litters. The latter is a potential indicator of intrauterine growth restriction, a significant risk factor for prenatal programming effects. Individual pigs from high (HBW) or low birth weight (LBW) litters (n = 17) were inoculated with influenza A virus and euthanized 48 hours later. Lesion severity and viral loads were assessed as previously described. The transcriptional response to infection in LBW and HBW groups (n = 16) was assessed by microarray. A separate analysis of pigs classified as ‘Resilient’ (RES) or ‘Susceptible’ (SUS) (n = 6) on the basis of severity of lung pathology was also conducted. Eight genes were confirmed as differentially expressed for the birth weight comparison, including three antiviral genes with lower expression in LBW: ISG15, OAS1, and OAS2 (P<0.05). The promoter region methylation status of these three genes was assessed for each birth weight group, and no differences were found. These expression data are consistent with our previous finding that LBW pigs had less severe lesion scores and a trend towards lower viral titres in lung than the HBW cohort. The SUS v RES comparison identified 91 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05) that were enriched with functional annotation terms and pathways associated with inflammation. The cytokine genes IL6, IL8, and CCL2 were all upregulated in SUS pigs, and may have driven disease severity in these animals. In conclusion, this study found no evidence that the transcriptional immune response to influenza was adversely affected by low litter birth weight, but did identify several candidate genes for driving disease pathology. PMID:26393920

  11. Capgras-like syndrome in a patient with an acute urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Salviati, Massimo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Macrì, Francesco; Fojanesi, Marta; Minichino, Amedeo; Gallo, Mariana; De Michele, Francesco; Chiaie, Roberto Delle; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Delusional misidentification syndromes are a group of delusional phenomena in which patients misidentify familiar persons, objects, or themselves, believing that they have been replaced or transformed. In 25%–40% of cases, misidentification syndromes have been reported in association with organic illness. We report an acute episode of Capgras-like delusion lasting 8 days, focused on the idea that people were robots with human bodies, in association with an acute urinary infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case report associating urinary tract infection with Capgras-like syndrome. Awareness of the prevalence of delusional misidentification syndromes associated with acute medical illness should promote diligence on the part of clinicians in recognizing this disorder. PMID:23355784

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a child presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tullu, Milind S; Patil, Dhananjay P; Muranjan, Mamta N; Kher, Archana S; Lahiri, Keya R

    2011-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an extremely rare occurrence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We describe an 8-year-old male child who presented with weakness of both lower limbs for 10 days and focal convulsions for 2 days. The child had left, upper motor neuron facial palsy, lower limb hypotonia, and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies for HIV tested positive and the CD4 count was 109 cells/µL. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, brain) revealed extensive confluent hyperintensities (on T2-weighted images) in left parietal, right temporal, and right occipital regions of the white matter, and similar signals were seen in right lentiform nucleus and right posterior thalami, suggesting acute disseminated