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Sample records for acyl side chains

  1. Actinobacterial Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetases Involved in Steroid Side-Chain Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casabon, Israël; Swain, Kendra; Crowe, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial steroid catabolism is an important component of the global carbon cycle and has applications in drug synthesis. Pathways for this catabolism involve multiple acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases, which activate alkanoate substituents for β-oxidation. The functions of these synthetases are poorly understood. We enzymatically characterized four distinct acyl-CoA synthetases from the cholate catabolic pathway of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and the cholesterol catabolic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phylogenetic analysis of 70 acyl-CoA synthetases predicted to be involved in steroid metabolism revealed that the characterized synthetases each represent an orthologous class with a distinct function in steroid side-chain degradation. The synthetases were specific for the length of alkanoate substituent. FadD19 from M. tuberculosis H37Rv (FadD19Mtb) transformed 3-oxo-4-cholesten-26-oate (kcat/Km = 0.33 × 105 ± 0.03 × 105 M−1 s−1) and represents orthologs that activate the C8 side chain of cholesterol. Both CasGRHA1 and FadD17Mtb are steroid-24-oyl-CoA synthetases. CasG and its orthologs activate the C5 side chain of cholate, while FadD17 and its orthologs appear to activate the C5 side chain of one or more cholesterol metabolites. CasIRHA1 is a steroid-22-oyl-CoA synthetase, representing orthologs that activate metabolites with a C3 side chain, which accumulate during cholate catabolism. CasI had similar apparent specificities for substrates with intact or extensively degraded steroid nuclei, exemplified by 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oate and 1β(2′-propanoate)-3aα-H-4α(3″-propanoate)-7aβ-methylhexahydro-5-indanone (kcat/Km = 2.4 × 105 ± 0.1 × 105 M−1 s−1 and 3.2 × 105 ± 0.3 × 105 M−1 s−1, respectively). Acyl-CoA synthetase classes involved in cholate catabolism were found in both Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Overall, this study provides insight into the physiological roles of acyl-CoA synthetases in steroid catabolism and

  2. Dual mesomorphic assemblage of chitin normal acylates and rapid enthalpy relaxation of their side chains.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Miyata, Tomoya; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    Chitin derivatives having normalacyl groups (C(n)H(2n-1)O-; n = 4-20) were synthesized with pyridine, p-toluenesulfonyl chloride, and normal alkanoic acid in an N,N-dimethylacetamide-lithium chloride homogeneous system. The products (C(n)-ACs; degree of acyl substitution, DS = 1.7-1.9) showed an n-dependent thermal transition behavior: no evident transition (n = 4-10), a glass transition (n = 12 and 14), and a pseudo-first-order phase transition (n = 16-20), the latter two occurring usually below room temperature when examined by differential scanning calorimetry. Wide-angle X-ray diffractometry (WAXD) at 20 degrees C displayed a sharp diffraction peak (2theta = 2 degrees -7 degrees ) and a diffuse halo (2theta approximately 20 degrees ) for the respective C(n)-ACs. The former d-spacing (1.5-3.6 nm) increased with an increase in n to yield two stages of mutually different increasing rates, which reflects a systematic n-dependence of the period of a layered structure of the main chains. The molecular assembly of C(n)-ACs exhibited "dual mesomorphy"; nematic ordering for the semirigid carbohydrate trunk and smectic one for the flexible side chains. On the other hand, WAXD profiles of C(n)-ACs (n = 14-18) indicated almost no temperature dependence from -150 to +220 degrees C. Therefore, it was reasonably assumed that the pseudo-first-order transition observed in thermograms of C(n)-ACs (n = 16-20) was due to the enthalpy relaxation of the side-chain assemblage. An insight was provided into the kinetics of the characteristic aging behavior as a liquid-crystalline glass, in comparison with the corresponding data for other noncrystalline macromolecules.

  3. Influence of the degree of unsaturation of the acyl side chain upon the interaction of analogues of 1-arachidonoylglycerol with monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Vandevoorde, Severine; Saha, Bijali; Mahadevan, Anu; Razdan, Raj K.; Pertwee, Roger G.; Martin, Billy R.; Fowler, Christopher J. . E-mail: cf@pharm.umu.se

    2005-11-11

    Little is known as to the structural requirements of the acyl side chain for interaction of acylglycerols with monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the enzyme chiefly responsible for the metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain. In the present study, a series of twelve analogues of 1-AG (the more stable regioisomer of 2-AG) were investigated with respect to their ability to inhibit the metabolism of 2-oleoylglycerol by cytosolic and membrane-bound MAGL. In addition, the ability of the compounds to inhibit the hydrolysis of anandamide by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) was investigated. For cytosolic MAGL, compounds with 20 carbon atoms in the acyl chain and 2-5 unsaturated bonds inhibited the hydrolysis of 2-oleoylglycerol with similar potencies (IC{sub 50} values in the range 5.1-8.2 {mu}M), whereas the two compounds with a single unsaturated bond were less potent (IC{sub 50} values 19 and 21 {mu}M). The fully saturated analogue 1-monoarachidin did not inhibit the enzyme, whereas the lower side chain analogues 1-monopalmitin and 1-monomyristin inhibited the enzyme with IC{sub 50} values of 12 and 32 {mu}M, respectively. The 22-carbon chain analogue of 1-AG was also potent (IC{sub 50} value 4.5 {mu}M). Introduction of an {alpha}-methyl group for the C20:4, C20:3, and C22:4 compounds did not affect potency in a consistent manner. For the FAAH and the membrane-bound MAGL, there was no obvious relationship between the degree of unsaturation of the acyl side chain and the ability to inhibit the enzymes. It is concluded that increasing the number of unsaturated bonds on the acyl side chain of 1-AG from 1 to 5 has little effect on the affinity of acylglycerols for cytosolic MAGL.

  4. Reversible competitive α-ketoheterocycle inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase containing additional conformational constraints in the acyl side chain: orally active, long-acting analgesics.

    PubMed

    Ezzili, Cyrine; Mileni, Mauro; McGlinchey, Nicholas; Long, Jonathan Z; Kinsey, Steven G; Hochstatter, Dustin G; Stevens, Raymond C; Lichtman, Aron H; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Bilsky, Edward J; Boger, Dale L

    2011-04-28

    A series of α-ketooxazoles containing conformational constraints in the C2 acyl side chain of 2 (OL-135) were examined as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Only one of the two possible enantiomers displayed potent FAAH inhibition (S vs R enantiomer), and their potency is comparable or improved relative to 2, indicating that the conformational restriction in the C2 acyl side chain is achievable. A cocrystal X-ray structure of the α-ketoheterocycle 12 bound to a humanized variant of rat FAAH revealed its binding details, confirmed that the (S)-enantiomer is the bound active inhibitor, shed light on the origin of the enantiomeric selectivity, and confirmed that the catalytic Ser241 is covalently bound to the electrophilic carbonyl as a deprotonated hemiketal. Preliminary in vivo characterization of the inhibitors 12 and 14 is reported demonstrating that they raise brain anandamide levels following either intraperitoneal (ip) or oral (po) administration indicative of effective in vivo FAAH inhibition. Significantly, the oral administration of 12 caused dramatic accumulation of anandamide in the brain, with peak levels achieved between 1.5 and 3 h, and these elevations were maintained over 9 h. Additional studies of these two representative members of the series (12 and 14) in models of thermal hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain are reported, including the demonstration that 12 administered orally significantly attenuated mechanical (>6 h) and cold (>9 h) allodynia for sustained periods consistent with its long-acting effects in raising the endogenous concentration of anandamide.

  5. Lipid Acyl Chain Remodeling in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Renne, Mike F.; Bao, Xue; De Smet, Cedric H.; de Kroon, Anton I. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane lipid homeostasis is maintained by de novo synthesis, intracellular transport, remodeling, and degradation of lipid molecules. Glycerophospholipids, the most abundant structural component of eukaryotic membranes, are subject to acyl chain remodeling, which is defined as the post-synthetic process in which one or both acyl chains are exchanged. Here, we review studies addressing acyl chain remodeling of membrane glycerophospholipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model organism that has been successfully used to investigate lipid synthesis and its regulation. Experimental evidence for the occurrence of phospholipid acyl chain exchange in cardiolipin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylethanolamine is summarized, including methods and tools that have been used for detecting remodeling. Progress in the identification of the enzymes involved is reported, and putative functions of acyl chain remodeling in yeast are discussed. PMID:26819558

  6. Naphthalene Derivatives Induce Acyl Chain Interdigitation in Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Md Arif; Raghunathan, V A

    2016-01-14

    The interdigitated phase of the lipid bilayer results when acyl chains from opposing monolayers fully interpenetrate such that the terminal methyl groups of the respective lipid chains are located at the interfacial region on the opposite sides of the bilayer. Usually, chain interdigitation is not encountered in a symmetric chain phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane but can be induced under certain special conditions. In this article, we elucidate the contribution of small amphiphatic molecules in altering the physical properties of a symmetric chain PC bilayer membrane, which results in acyl chain interdigitation. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we have carried out a systematic investigation of the physical interactions of three naphthalene derivatives containing hydroxyl groups: β-naphthol, 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, and 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene, with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers. On the basis of the diffraction patterns, we have determined the temperature-composition phase diagrams of these binary mixtures. The present study not only enables us to gain insight into the role played by small molecules in altering the packing arrangement of the acyl chains of the constituting PC lipids of the bilayer but also brings to light some important features that have not yet been reported hitherto. One such feature is the stabilization of the enigmatic asymmetric ripple phase over a wide temperature and concentration range. The results presented here strongly point toward a clear correlation between chain interdigitation and the stability of the ripple phase.

  7. Engineered Ionizable Side Chains.

    PubMed

    Cymes, Gisela D; Grosman, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of mechanistic ion-channel biology is to obtain structural information from well-defined functional states. In the case of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, the open-channel conformation is particularly elusive owing to its transient nature and brief mean lifetime. In this Chapter, we show how the analysis of single-channel currents recorded from mutants engineered to contain single ionizable side chains in the transmembrane region can provide specific information about the open-channel conformation without any interference from the closed or desensitized conformations. The method takes advantage of the fact that the alternate binding and unbinding of protons to and from an ionizable side chain causes the charge of the protein to fluctuate by 1 unit. We show that, in mutant muscle acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (AChRs), this fluctuating charge affects the rate of ion conduction in such a way that individual proton-transfer events can be identified in a most straightforward manner. From the extent to which the single-channel current amplitude is reduced every time a proton binds, we can learn about the proximity of the engineered side chain to the lumen of the pore. And from the kinetics of proton binding and unbinding, we can calculate the side-chain's affinity for protons (pK a), and hence, we can learn about the electrostatic properties of the microenvironment around the introduced ionizable group. The application of this method to systematically mutated AChRs allowed us to identify unambiguously the stripes of the M1, M2 and M3 transmembrane α-helices that face the pore's lumen in the open-channel conformation in the context of a native membrane. PMID:26381938

  8. Mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Soupene, Eric; Kuypers, Frans A

    2008-05-01

    Acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes are essential for de novo lipid synthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and remodeling of membranes. Activation of fatty acids requires a two-step reaction catalyzed by these enzymes. In the first step, an acyl-AMP intermediate is formed from ATP. AMP is then exchanged with CoA to produce the activated acyl-CoA. The release of AMP in this reaction defines the superfamily of AMP-forming enzymes. The length of the carbon chain of the fatty acid species defines the substrate specificity for the different acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS). On this basis, five sub-families of ACS have been characterized. The purpose of this review is to report on the large family of mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL), which activate fatty acids with chain lengths of 12 to 20 carbon atoms. Five genes and several isoforms generated by alternative splicing have been identified and limited information is available on their localization. The structure of these membrane proteins has not been solved for the mammalian ACSLs but homology to a bacterial form, whose structure has been determined, points at specific structural features that are important for these enzymes across species. The bacterial form acts as a dimer and has a conserved short motif, called the fatty acid Gate domain, that seems to determine substrate specificity. We will discuss the characterization and identification of the different spliced isoforms, draw attention to the inconsistencies and errors in their annotations, and their cellular localizations. These membrane proteins act on membrane-bound substrates probably as homo- and as heterodimer complexes but have often been expressed as single recombinant isoforms, apparently purified as monomers and tested in Triton X-100 micelles. We will argue that such studies have failed to provide an accurate assessment of the activity and of the distinct function of these enzymes in mammalian cells.

  9. Understanding Acyl Chain and Glycerolipid Metabolism in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlrogge, John B.

    2013-11-05

    Progress is reported in these areas: acyl-editing in initial eukaryotic lipid assembly in soybean seeds; identification and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana lysophosphatidyl acyltransferases with preference for lysophosphatidylethanolamine; and characterization and subcellular distribution of lysolipid acyl transferase activity of pea leaves.

  10. The dependence of lipid asymmetry upon phosphatidylcholine acyl chain structure[S

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mijin; London, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Lipid asymmetry, the difference in inner and outer leaflet lipid composition, is an important feature of biomembranes. By utilizing our recently developed MβCD-catalyzed exchange method, the effect of lipid acyl chain structure upon the ability to form asymmetric membranes was investigated. Using this approach, SM was efficiently introduced into the outer leaflet of vesicles containing various phosphatidylcholines (PC), but whether the resulting vesicles were asymmetric (SM outside/PC inside) depended upon PC acyl chain structure. Vesicles exhibited asymmetry using PC with two monounsaturated chains of >14 carbons; PC with one saturated and one unsaturated chain; and PC with phytanoyl chains. Vesicles were most weakly asymmetric using PC with two 14 carbon monounsaturated chains or with two polyunsaturated chains. To define the origin of this behavior, transverse diffusion (flip-flop) of lipids in vesicles containing various PCs was compared. A correlation between asymmetry and transverse diffusion was observed, with slower transverse diffusion in vesicles containing PCs that supported lipid asymmetry. Thus, asymmetric vesicles can be prepared using a wide range of acyl chain structures, but fast transverse diffusion destroys lipid asymmetry. These properties may constrain acyl chain structure in asymmetric natural membranes to avoid short or overly polyunsaturated acyl chains. PMID:23093551

  11. Peptide nanotube aligning side chains onto one side.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuki; Mitani, Shota; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2016-06-01

    A novel pseudo cyclic penta-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine, two β-alanines, and a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid (CP5ES) is synthesized and investigated on peptide nanotube (PNT) formation. When the PNT is formed with the maximum number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the cyclic peptides, the sequence enables the alignment of the side chains, naphthyl groups, on one side of the PNT. Microscopic and spectroscopic observations of CP5ES crystals reveal that CP5ES forms rod- or needle-shaped molecular assemblies showing exciton coupling of the Cotton effect and predominant monomer emission, which are different from a reference cyclic tri-β-peptide composed of a β-naphthylalanine and two β-alanines. Insertion of a sequence of ethylenediamine-succinic acid into β-amino acids in the cyclic skeleton is therefore suggested to be effective to make the side chains aligning on one side of the PNT. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27282135

  12. Retrobiosynthetic Approach Delineates the Biosynthetic Pathway and the Structure of the Acyl Chain of Mycobacterial Glycopeptidolipids*

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Archana; Singh, Anil Kumar; Mukherjee, Raju; Chopra, Tarun; Ravindran, Madhu Sudhan; Mohanty, Debasisa; Chatterji, Dipankar; Reyrat, Jean-Marc; Gokhale, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) are dominant cell surface molecules present in several non-tuberculous and opportunistic mycobacterial species. GPLs from Mycobacterium smegmatis are composed of a lipopeptide core unit consisting of a modified C26-C34 fatty acyl chain that is linked to a tetrapeptide (Phe-Thr-Ala-alaninol). The hydroxyl groups of threonine and terminal alaninol are further modified by glycosylations. Although chemical structures have been reported for 16 GPLs from diverse mycobacteria, there is still ambiguity in identifying the exact position of the hydroxyl group on the fatty acyl chain. Moreover, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the fatty acyl component are unknown. In this study we show that a bimodular polyketide synthase in conjunction with a fatty acyl-AMP ligase dictates the synthesis of fatty acyl chain of GPL. Based on genetic, biochemical, and structural investigations, we determine that the hydroxyl group is present at the C-5 position of the fatty acyl component. Our retrobiosynthetic approach has provided a means to understand the biosynthesis of GPLs and also resolve the long-standing debate on the accurate structure of mycobacterial GPLs. PMID:22798073

  13. Carbohydrate conformation and lipid condensation in monolayers containing glycosphingolipid Gb3: influence of acyl chain structure.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Erik B; Gao, Haifei; Dennison, Andrew J C; Chopin, Nathalie; Struth, Bernd; Arnold, Thomas; Florent, Jean-Claude; Johannes, Ludger

    2014-09-01

    Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid found in the plasma membrane of animal cells, is the endocytic receptor of the bacterial Shiga toxin. Using x-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), lipid monolayers containing Gb3 were investigated at the air-water interface. XR probed Gb3 carbohydrate conformation normal to the interface, whereas GIXD precisely characterized Gb3's influence on acyl chain in-plane packing and area per molecule (APM). Two phospholipids, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), were used to study Gb3 packing in different lipid environments. Furthermore, the impact on monolayer structure of a naturally extracted Gb3 mixture was compared to synthetic Gb3 species with uniquely defined acyl chain structures. XR results showed that lipid environment and Gb3 acyl chain structure impact carbohydrate conformation with greater solvent accessibility observed for smaller phospholipid headgroups and long Gb3 acyl chains. In general, GIXD showed that Gb3 condensed phospholipid packing resulting in smaller APM than predicted by ideal mixing. Gb3's capacity to condense APM was larger for DSPC monolayers and exhibited different dependencies on acyl chain structure depending on the lipid environment. The interplay between Gb3-induced changes in lipid packing and the lipid environment's impact on carbohydrate conformation has broad implications for glycosphingolipid macromolecule recognition and ligand binding.

  14. Carbohydrate Conformation and Lipid Condensation in Monolayers Containing Glycosphingolipid Gb3: Influence of Acyl Chain Structure

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Erik B.; Gao, Haifei; Dennison, Andrew J.C.; Chopin, Nathalie; Struth, Bernd; Arnold, Thomas; Florent, Jean-Claude; Johannes, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid found in the plasma membrane of animal cells, is the endocytic receptor of the bacterial Shiga toxin. Using x-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), lipid monolayers containing Gb3 were investigated at the air-water interface. XR probed Gb3 carbohydrate conformation normal to the interface, whereas GIXD precisely characterized Gb3’s influence on acyl chain in-plane packing and area per molecule (APM). Two phospholipids, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), were used to study Gb3 packing in different lipid environments. Furthermore, the impact on monolayer structure of a naturally extracted Gb3 mixture was compared to synthetic Gb3 species with uniquely defined acyl chain structures. XR results showed that lipid environment and Gb3 acyl chain structure impact carbohydrate conformation with greater solvent accessibility observed for smaller phospholipid headgroups and long Gb3 acyl chains. In general, GIXD showed that Gb3 condensed phospholipid packing resulting in smaller APM than predicted by ideal mixing. Gb3’s capacity to condense APM was larger for DSPC monolayers and exhibited different dependencies on acyl chain structure depending on the lipid environment. The interplay between Gb3-induced changes in lipid packing and the lipid environment’s impact on carbohydrate conformation has broad implications for glycosphingolipid macromolecule recognition and ligand binding. PMID:25185550

  15. Measurement of tissue acyl-CoAs using flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry: acyl-CoA profiles in short-chain fatty acid oxidation defects

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, Andrew A.; Chen, Jie; Kallish, Staci; Stanley, Charles A.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The primary accumulating metabolites in fatty acid oxidation defects are intramitochondrial acyl-CoAs. Typically, secondary metabolites such as acylcarnitines, acylglycines and dicarboxylic acids are measured to study these disorders. Methods have not been adapted for tissue acyl-CoA measurement in defects with primarily acyl-CoA accumulation. Our objective was to develop a method to measure fatty acyl-CoA species that are present in tissues of mice with fatty acid oxidation defects using flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry. Following the addition of internal standards of [13C2] acetyl-CoA, [13C8] octanoyl-CoA, and [C17] heptadecanoic CoA, acyl-CoA’s are extracted from tissue samples and are injected directly into the mass spectrometer. Data is acquired using a 506.9 neutral loss scan and multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM). This method can identify all long, medium and short-chain acyl-CoA species in wild type mouse liver including predicted 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA species. We validated the method using liver of the short-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) knock-out mice. As expected, there is a significant increase in [C4] butyryl-CoA species in the SCAD −/− mouse liver compared to wild type. We then tested the assay in liver from the short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) deficient mice to determine the profile of acyl-CoA accumulation in this less predictable model. There was more modest accumulation of medium chain species including 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA’s consistent with the known chain-length specificity of the SCHAD enzyme. PMID:23117082

  16. Genetics Home Reference: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats into energy, especially during periods without food (fasting). Signs and symptoms of SCAD deficiency may ...

  17. Diacylglycerol Kinase ϵ Is Selective for Both Acyl Chains of Phosphatidic Acid or Diacylglycerol*

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Michael; Shulga, Yulia V.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Myers, David S.; Milne, Stephen B.; Brown, H. Alex; Topham, Matthew K.; Epand, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PI) cycle mediates many cellular events by controlling the metabolism of many lipid second messengers. Diacylglycerol kinase ϵ (DGKϵ) has an important role in this cycle. DGKϵ is the only DGK isoform to show inhibition by its product phosphatidic acid (PA) as well as substrate specificity for sn-2 arachidonoyl-diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we show that this inhibition and substrate specificity are both determined by selectivity for a combination of the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chains of PA or DAG, respectively, preferring the most prevalent acyl chain composition of lipids involved specifically in the PI cycle, 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl. Although the difference in rate for closely related lipid species is small, there is a significant enrichment of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl PI because of the cyclical nature of PI turnover. We also show that the inhibition of DGKϵ by PA is competitive and that the deletion of the hydrophobic segment and cationic cluster of DGKϵ does not affect its selectivity for the acyl chains of PA or DAG. Thus, this active site not only recognizes the lipid headgroup but also a combination of the two acyl chains in PA or DAG. We propose a mechanism of DGKϵ regulation where its dual acyl chain selectivity is used to negatively regulate its enzymatic activity in a manner that ensures DGKϵ remains committed to the PI turnover cycle. This novel mechanism of enzyme regulation within a signaling pathway could serve as a template for the regulation of enzymes in other pathways in the cell. PMID:19744926

  18. Cationic amphiphiles with fatty acyl chain asymmetry of coconut oil deliver genes selectively to mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, Voshavar; Srujan, Marepally; Prabhakar, Rairala; Reddy, Rakesh C; Sreedhar, Bojja; Rentam, Kiran K R; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2011-03-16

    Recent structure-activity studies have revealed a dramatic influence of hydrophobic chain asymmetry in enhancing gene delivery efficacies of synthetic cationic amphiphiles (Nantz, M. H. et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics2010, 7, 786-794; Koynova, R. et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics2009, 6, 951-958). The present findings demonstrate for the first time that such a transfection enhancing influence of asymmetric hydrocarbon chains observed in pure synthetic cationic amphiphiles also works for cationic amphiphiles designed with natural, asymmetric fatty acyl chains of a food-grade oil. Herein, we demonstrate that cationic amphiphiles designed with the natural fatty acyl chain asymmetry of food-grade coconut oil are less cytotoxic and deliver genes selectively to mouse lung. Despite lauroyl chains being the major fatty acyl chains of coconut oil, both the in vitro and In vivo gene transfer efficiencies of such cationic amphiphiles were found to be remarkably superior (>4-fold) to those of their pure dilauroyl analogue. Mechanistic studies involving the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) revealed higher biomembrane fusibility of the cationic liposomes of the coconut amphiphiles than that of the symmetric dilauroyl analogue. AFM study revealed pronounced fusogenic nonlamellar structures of the liposomes of coconut amphiphiles. Findings in the FRET and cellular uptake study, taken together, support the notion that the higher cellular uptake resulting from the more fusogenic nature of the liposomes of coconut amphiphiles 1 are likely to play a dominant role in making the coconut amphiphiles transfection competent.

  19. Phenethyl alcohol disorders phospholipid acyl chains and promotes translocation of the mitochondrial precursor protein apocytochrome c across a lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Jordi, W; Nibbeling, R; de Kruijff, B

    1990-02-12

    The interaction of phenethyl alcohol with model membranes and its effect on translocation of the chemically prepared mitochondrial precursor protein apocytochrome c across a lipid bilayer was studied. Phenethyl alcohol efficiently penetrates into monolayers and causes acyl chain disordering judged from deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance measurements with specific acyl chain-deuterated phospholipids. Translocation of apocytochrome c across a phospholipid bilayer was stimulated on addition of phenethyl alcohol indicating that the efficiency of translocation of this precursor protein is enhanced due to a disorder of the acyl chain region of the bilayer.

  20. Evidence for the Intercalation of Lipid Acyl Chains into Polypropylene Fiber Matrices.

    PubMed

    Schadock-Hewitt, Abby J; Bruce, Terri F; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2015-09-29

    Headgroup-functionalized lipids are being developed as ligand tethers for high selectivity separations on polypropylene capillary-channeled polymer fiber stationary phases. Surface modification is affected under ambient conditions from aqueous solution. This basic methodology has promise in many areas where robust modifications are desired on hydrophobic surfaces. In order to understand the mode of adsorption of the lipid tail to the polypropylene surface, lipids labeled with the environmentally sensitive 7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD) fluorophore were used, with NBD covalently attached to the headgroup (NBD-PE) or the acyl chain (acyl NBD-PE) of the lipid. When modified with the acyl NBD-PE, fluorescence imaging of the fiber at excitation wavelengths increasing from 470 to 510 nm caused a 32 nm shift in emission toward the red edge of the absorption band, indicating that the NBD molecule (and thus the lipid tail) is motionally restricted. Fluorescence imaging on fibers modified with NBD-PE or the free NBD-Cl dye molecule yields no change in the emission response. The results of these imaging studies provide evidence that the acyl chain portions of the lipids intercalate into free volume of the polypropylene fiber structure, yielding a robust means of surface modification and the potential for high ligand densities. PMID:26381380

  1. Synthesis of rapeseed biodiesel using short-chained alkyl acetates as acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we conducted experiments using a response surface methodology to determine the optimal reaction conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel from rapeseed oil and short-chained alkyl acetates, such as methyl acetate or ethyl acetate, as the acyl acceptor at 40 degrees C. Based on our response surface methodology experiments, the optimal reaction conditions for the synthesis of biodiesel were as follows: methyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.50%, oil-to-methyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.44, and reaction time of 19.70 h; ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.95%, oil-to-ethyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.56, and reaction time of 19.73 h. The fatty acid ester content under the above conditions when methyl acetate and ethyl acetate were used as the acyl acceptor was 58.0% and 62.6%, respectively. The statistical method described in this study can be applied to effectively optimize the enzymatic conditions required for biodiesel production with short-chained alkyl acetates.

  2. Synthesis of rapeseed biodiesel using short-chained alkyl acetates as acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we conducted experiments using a response surface methodology to determine the optimal reaction conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel from rapeseed oil and short-chained alkyl acetates, such as methyl acetate or ethyl acetate, as the acyl acceptor at 40 degrees C. Based on our response surface methodology experiments, the optimal reaction conditions for the synthesis of biodiesel were as follows: methyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.50%, oil-to-methyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.44, and reaction time of 19.70 h; ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.95%, oil-to-ethyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.56, and reaction time of 19.73 h. The fatty acid ester content under the above conditions when methyl acetate and ethyl acetate were used as the acyl acceptor was 58.0% and 62.6%, respectively. The statistical method described in this study can be applied to effectively optimize the enzymatic conditions required for biodiesel production with short-chained alkyl acetates. PMID:19802734

  3. Structure and function of a single-chain, multi-domain long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Timothy H.; Hsiao, Yu-Shan; Jo, Jeanyoung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Dietrich, Lars E.P.; Walz, Thomas; Tong, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Biotin-dependent carboxylases are widely distributed in nature and have important functions in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, cholesterol and other compounds 1–6. Defective mutations in several of these enzymes have been linked to serious metabolic diseases in humans, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a target for drug discovery against diabetes, cancer and other diseases 7–9. We report here the identification and biochemical, structural and functional characterizations of a novel single-chain (120 kD), multi-domain biotin-dependent carboxylase in bacteria. It has preference for long-chain acyl-CoA substrates, although it is also active toward short- and medium-chain acyl-CoAs, and we have named it long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase (LCC). The holoenzyme is a homo-hexamer with molecular weight of 720 kD. The 3.0 Å crystal structure of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis LCC (MapLCC) holoenzyme revealed an architecture that is strikingly different compared to those of related biotin-dependent carboxylases 10,11. In addition, the domains of each monomer have no direct contacts with each other. They are instead extensively swapped in the holoenzyme, such that one cycle of catalysis involves the participation of four monomers. Functional studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the enzyme is involved in the utilization of selected carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:25383525

  4. Lipid Gymnastics: Evidence of Complete Acyl Chain Reversal in Oxidized Phospholipids from Molecular Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2009-01-01

    In oxidative environments, biomembranes contain oxidized lipids with short, polar acyl chains. Two stable lipid oxidation products are PoxnoPC and PazePC. PoxnoPC has a carbonyl group, and PazePC has an anionic carboxyl group pendant at the end of the short, oxidized acyl chain. We have used MD simulations to explore the possibility of complete chain reversal in OXPLs in POPC-OXPL mixtures. The polar AZ chain of PazePC undergoes chain reversal without compromising the lipid bilayer integrity at concentrations up to 25% OXPL, and the carboxyl group points into the aqueous phase. Counterintuitively, the perturbation of overall membrane structural and dynamic properties is stronger for PoxnoPC than for PazePC. This is because of the overall condensing and ordering effect of sodium ions bound strongly to the lipids in the PazePC simulations. The reorientation of AZ chain is similar for two different lipid force fields. This work provides the first molecular evidence of the “extended lipid conformation” in phospholipid membranes. The chain reversal of PazePC lipids decorates the membrane interface with reactive, negatively charged functional groups. Such chain reversal is likely to exert a profound influence on the structure and dynamics of biological membranes, and on membrane-associated biological processes. PMID:19348756

  5. Effects of Nanoparticle Morphology and Acyl Chain Length on Spontaneous Lipid Transfer Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Charubin, Kamil; Liu, Ying; Heberle, Frederick A.; Katsaras, John; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C14, DMPC) in discoidal “bicelles” (0.156 h–1) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10–3 h–1). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C14 DMPC to di-C16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. Finally, the present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.

  6. Effects of Nanoparticle Morphology and Acyl Chain Length on Spontaneous Lipid Transfer Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Charubin, Kamil; Liu, Ying; Heberle, Frederick A.; Katsaras, John; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C14, DMPC) in discoidal “bicelles” (0.156 h–1) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10–3 h–1). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C14 DMPC to di-C16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlationmore » spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. Finally, the present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.« less

  7. A thiolate anion buried within the hydrocarbon ruler perturbs PagP lipid acyl chain selection.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Adil; Moktar, Joel; Mott, Patrick J; Bishop, Russell E

    2010-03-23

    The Escherichia coli outer membrane phospholipid:lipid A palmitoyltransferase PagP exhibits remarkable selectivity because its binding pocket for lipid acyl chains excludes those differing in length from palmitate by a solitary methylene unit. This narrow detergent-binding hydrophobic pocket buried within the eight-strand antiparallel beta-barrel is known as the hydrocarbon ruler. Gly88 lines the acyl chain binding pocket floor, and its substitution can raise the floor to correspondingly shorten the selected acyl chain. An aromatic exciton interaction between Tyr26 and Trp66 provides an intrinsic spectroscopic probe located immediately adjacent to Gly88. The Gly88Cys PagP enzyme was engineered to function as a dedicated myristoyltransferase, but the mutant enzyme instead selected both myristoyl and pentadecanoyl groups, was devoid of the exciton, and displayed a 21 degrees C reduction in thermal stability. We now demonstrate that the structural perturbation results from a buried thiolate anion attributed to suppression of the Cys sulfhydryl group pK(a) from 9.4 in aqueous solvent to 7.5 in the hydrocarbon ruler microenvironment. The Cys thiol is sandwiched at the interface between a nonpolar and a polar beta-barrel interior milieu, suggesting that local electrostatics near the otherwise hydrophobic hydrocarbon ruler pocket serve to perturb the thiol pK(a). Neutralization of the Cys thiolate anion by protonation restores wild-type exciton and thermal stability signatures to Gly88Cys PagP, which then functions as a dedicated myristoyltransferase at pH 7. Gly88Cys PagP assembled in bacterial membranes recapitulates lipid A myristoylation in vivo. Hydrocarbon ruler-exciton coupling in PagP thus reveals a thiol-thiolate ionization mechanism for modulating lipid acyl chain selection.

  8. Microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of side-chain to side-chain lactam-bridge cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Tala, Srinivasa R; Schnell, Sathya M; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2015-12-15

    Side-chain to side-chain lactam-bridged cyclic peptides have been utilized as therapeutic agents and biochemical tools. Previous synthetic methods of these peptides need special reaction conditions, form side products and take longer reaction times. Herein, an efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of side-chain to side-chain lactam-bridge cyclic peptides SHU9119 and MTII is reported. The synthesis time and efforts are significantly reduced in the present method, without side product formation. The analytical and pharmacological data of the synthesized cyclic peptides are in accordance with the commercially obtained compounds. This new method could be used to synthesize other side-chain to side-chain lactam-bridge peptides and amenable to automation and extensive SAR compound derivatization.

  9. Side-chain conformational entropy in protein unfolded states.

    PubMed

    Creamer, T P

    2000-08-15

    The largest force disfavoring the folding of a protein is the loss of conformational entropy. A large contribution to this entropy loss is due to the side-chains, which are restricted, although not immobilized, in the folded protein. In order to accurately estimate the loss of side-chain conformational entropy that occurs upon folding it is necessary to have accurate estimates of the amount of entropy possessed by side-chains in the ensemble of unfolded states. A new scale of side-chain conformational entropies is presented here. This scale was derived from Monte Carlo computer simulations of small peptide models. It is demonstrated that the entropies are independent of host peptide length. This new scale has the advantage over previous scales of being more precise with low standard errors. Better estimates are obtained for long (e.g., Arg and Lys) and rare (e.g., Trp and Met) side-chains. Excellent agreement with previous side-chain entropy scales is achieved, indicating that further advancements in accuracy are likely to be small at best. Strikingly, longer side-chains are found to possess a smaller fraction of the theoretical maximum entropy available than short side-chains. This indicates that rotations about torsions after chi(2) are significantly affected by side-chain interactions with the polypeptide backbone. This finding invalidates previous assumptions about side-chain-backbone interactions. Proteins 2000;40:443-450.

  10. Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice with Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (LCAD) or Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Keith B.; Liu, Jian; Tian, Liqun; Barnes, Stephen; Yang, Qinglin; Wood, Philip A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common finding in human patients with inborn errors of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Mice with either very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD−/−) or long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD−/−) develop cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy, initially measured using heart/body weight ratios, was manifested most severely in LCAD−/− male mice. VLCAD−/− mice, as a group, showed a mild increase in normalized cardiac mass (8.8% hypertrophy compared to all wild-type [WT] mice). In contrast, LCAD−/− mice as a group showed more severe cardiac hypertrophy (32.2% increase compared to all WT mice). Based on a clear male predilection, we investigated the role of dietary plant estrogenic compounds commonly found in mouse diets due to soy or alfalfa components providing natural phytoestrogens or isoflavones in cardioprotection of LCAD−/− mice. Male LCAD−/− mice fed an isoflavone-free test diet had more severe cardiac hypertrophy (58.1% hypertrophy compared to WT mice fed the same diet. There were no significant differences in the female groups fed any of the diets. Echocardiography measurement performed on male LCAD deficient mice fed a standard diet at ~3 months of age confirmed the substantial cardiac hypertrophy in these mice compared with WT controls. Left ventricular wall thickness of interventricular septum and posterior wall was remarkably increased in LCAD−/− mice compared with that of WT controls. Accordingly, the calculated LV mass after normalization to body weight was increased about 40% in the LCAD−/− mice compared with WT mice. In summary, we found that metabolic cardiomyopathy, expressed as hypertrophy, developed in mice due to either VLCAD deficiency or LCAD deficiency; however, LCAD deficiency was the most profound and appeared to be attenuated either by endogenous estrogen in females or phytoestrogens in the diet as isoflavones in males. PMID:19736549

  11. Phenothiazinium photoantimicrobials with basic side chains.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Mark; Antczak, Joanna; Baca, Martyna; Loughran, Ciara; Meegan, Katie

    2015-09-01

    Derivatives of the standard cationic photosensitiser, methylene blue, were synthesised, having extra amino (basic) functionality in the auxochromic side-chain. The resulting analogues were profiled for photodynamic activity in vitro, and screened against standard Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for photobactericidal activity. The substitution pattern of the derivatives was such that ionisation of the amino groups in situ, via protonation, provided a range of charge distribution and degree of charge across the molecular framework. While most examples exhibited greater activity than the lead compound, in addition to similar activity to the known, but more powerful, phenothiazinium photoantimicrobial, dimethyl methylene blue, this was also associated with relatively high dark toxicity, inferring that these compounds were targeting crucial structures before illumination. One derivative having an asymmetrical structure, with separation between a lipophilic and a hydrophilic region exhibited a combination of very high phototoxicity coupled with very low dark effects, against both the standard screen and an additional one containing further, relevant pathogen species, including Candida albicans. It is suggested that the great activity of this analogue is due to efficient membrane targeting.

  12. Influence of the sterol aliphatic side chain on membrane properties: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Robalo, João R; Ramalho, J P Prates; Huster, Daniel; Loura, Luís M S

    2015-09-21

    Following a recent experimental investigation of the effect of the length of the alkyl side chain in a series of cholesterol analogues (Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2013, 52, 12848-12851), we report here an atomistic molecular dynamics characterization of the behaviour of methyl-branched side chain sterols (iso series) in POPC bilayers. The studied sterols included androstenol (i-C0-sterol) and cholesterol (i-C8-sterol), as well as four other derivatives (i-C5, i-C10, i-C12 and i-C14-sterol). For each sterol, both subtle local effects and more substantial differential alterations of membrane properties along the iso series were investigated. The location and orientation of the tetracyclic ring system is almost identical in all compounds. Among all the studied sterols, cholesterol is the sterol that presents the best matching with the hydrophobic length of POPC acyl chains, whereas longer-chained sterols interdigitate into the opposing membrane leaflet. In accordance with the experimental observations, a maximal ordering effect is observed for intermediate sterol chain length (i-C5, cholesterol, i-C10). Only for these sterols a preferential interaction with the saturated sn-1 chain of POPC (compared to the unsaturated sn-2 chain) was observed, but not for either shorter or longer-chained derivatives. This work highlights the importance of the sterol alkyl chain in the modulation of membrane properties and lateral organization in biological membranes.

  13. Side-chain entropy and packing in proteins.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, S; Dill, K A

    1994-07-01

    What role does side-chain packing play in protein stability and structure? To address this question, we compare a lattice model with side chains (SCM) to a linear lattice model without side chains (LCM). Self-avoiding configurations are enumerated in 2 and 3 dimensions exhaustively for short chains and by Monte Carlo sampling for chains up to 50 main-chain monomers long. This comparison shows that (1) side-chain degrees of freedom increase the entropy of open conformations, but side-chain steric exclusion decreases the entropy of compact conformations, thus producing a substantial entropy that opposes folding; (2) there is side-chain "freezing" or ordering, i.e., a sharp decrease in entropy, near maximum compactness; and (3) the different types of contacts among side chains (s) and main-chain elements (m) have different frequencies, and the frequencies have different dependencies on compactness. mm contacts contribute significantly only at high densities, suggesting that main-chain hydrogen bonding in proteins may be promoted by compactness. The distributions of mm, ms, and ss contacts in compact SCM configurations are similar to the distributions in protein structures in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. We propose that packing in proteins is more like the packing of nuts and bolts in a jar than like the pairwise matching of jigsaw puzzle pieces. PMID:7920265

  14. 22. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD INTO CHAIN LOCKER FROM PORT SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD INTO CHAIN LOCKER FROM PORT SIDE ENTRY THROUGH CHAIN LOCKER BULKHEAD. PAWL BITT SHOWN IN FOREGROUND - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  15. Steric interactions determine side-chain conformations in protein cores.

    PubMed

    Caballero, D; Virrueta, A; O'Hern, C S; Regan, L

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the role of steric interactions in defining side-chain conformations in protein cores. Previously, we explored the strengths and limitations of hard-sphere dipeptide models in defining sterically allowed side-chain conformations and recapitulating key features of the side-chain dihedral angle distributions observed in high-resolution protein structures. Here, we show that modeling residues in the context of a particular protein environment, with both intra- and inter-residue steric interactions, is sufficient to specify which of the allowed side-chain conformations is adopted. This model predicts 97% of the side-chain conformations of Leu, Ile, Val, Phe, Tyr, Trp and Thr core residues to within 20°. Although the hard-sphere dipeptide model predicts the observed side-chain dihedral angle distributions for both Thr and Ser, the model including the protein environment predicts side-chain conformations to within 20° for only 60% of core Ser residues. Thus, this approach can identify the amino acids for which hard-sphere interactions alone are sufficient and those for which additional interactions are necessary to accurately predict side-chain conformations in protein cores. We also show that our approach can predict alternate side-chain conformations of core residues, which are supported by the observed electron density.

  16. Acyl chain length and charge effect on Tamoxifen-lipid model membrane interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilge, Duygu; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2013-05-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), which is an antiestrogenic agent, is widely used during chemotherapy of breast, pancreas, brain and liver cancers. In this study, TAM and model membrane interactions in the form of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were studied for lipids containing different acyl chain length and different charge status as a function of different TAM (1, 6, 9 and 15 mol%) concentrations. Zwitterionic lipids namely dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids were used to see the acyl chain length effect and anionic dipalmitoyl phosphtidylglycerol (DPPG) lipid was used to see the charge effect. For this purpose Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques have been conducted. For zwitterionic lipid, concentration dependent different action of TAM was observed both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases by significantly increasing the lipid order and decreasing the dynamics for 1 mol% TAM, while decreasing the lipid order and increasing the dynamics of the lipids for higher concentrations (6, 9 and 15 mol%). However, different than neutral lipids, the dynamics and disorder of DPPG liposome increased for all TAM concentrations. The interactions between TAM and head group of multilamellar liposomes was monitored by analyzing the Cdbnd O stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands. Increasing Tamoxifen concentrations led to a dehydration around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. DSC studies showed that for all types of lipids, TAM eliminates the pre-transition, shifts the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve. The results indicate that not the acyl chain length but the charge status of the polar head group induces different effects on lipid membranes order and dynamics.

  17. Very long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency which was accepted as infanticide.

    PubMed

    Eminoglu, Tuba F; Tumer, Leyla; Okur, Ilyas; Ezgu, Fatih S; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2011-07-15

    Very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) (OMIM #201475) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Major phenotypic expressions are hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, elevated creatinine kinase, and lipid infiltration of liver and muscle. At the same time, it is a rare cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or unexplained death in the neonatal period [1-4]. We report a patient with VLCADD whose parents were investigated for infanticide because her three previous siblings had suddenly died after normal deliveries.

  18. Protein side chain conformation predictions with an MMGBSA energy function.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Thomas; Panel, Nicolas; Simonson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The prediction of protein side chain conformations from backbone coordinates is an important task in structural biology, with applications in structure prediction and protein design. It is a difficult problem due to its combinatorial nature. We study the performance of an "MMGBSA" energy function, implemented in our protein design program Proteus, which combines molecular mechanics terms, a Generalized Born and Surface Area (GBSA) solvent model, with approximations that make the model pairwise additive. Proteus is not a competitor to specialized side chain prediction programs due to its cost, but it allows protein design applications, where side chain prediction is an important step and MMGBSA an effective energy model. We predict the side chain conformations for 18 proteins. The side chains are first predicted individually, with the rest of the protein in its crystallographic conformation. Next, all side chains are predicted together. The contributions of individual energy terms are evaluated and various parameterizations are compared. We find that the GB and SA terms, with an appropriate choice of the dielectric constant and surface energy coefficients, are beneficial for single side chain predictions. For the prediction of all side chains, however, errors due to the pairwise additive approximation overcome the improvement brought by these terms. We also show the crucial contribution of side chain minimization to alleviate the rigid rotamer approximation. Even without GB and SA terms, we obtain accuracies comparable to SCWRL4, a specialized side chain prediction program. In particular, we obtain a better RMSD than SCWRL4 for core residues (at a higher cost), despite our simpler rotamer library. Proteins 2016; 84:803-819. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Modified branched-chain amino acid pathways give rise to acyl acids of sucrose esters exuded from tobacco leaf trichomes.

    PubMed

    Kandra, G; Severson, R; Wagner, G J

    1990-03-10

    A major diversion of carbon from branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis/catabolism to form acyl moieties of sucrose esters (6-O-acetyl-2,3,4-tri-O-acyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D- fructofuranosides) was observed to be associated with specialized trichome head cells which secrete large amounts of sucrose esters. Surface chemistry and acetyl and acyl substituent groups of tobacco (T.I. 1068) sucrose esters were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sucrose esters were prominent surface constituents and 3-methylvaleric acid, 2- and 3-methylbutyric acid, and methylpropionic acid accounted for 60%, 25% and 9%, respectively, of total C3--C7 acyl substituents. Radiolabeled Thr, Ile, Val, Leu, pyruvate and Asp, metabolites of branched-chain amino acid pathways, were compared with radioactively labeled acetate and sucrose as donors of carbon to sucrose, acetyl and acyl components of sucrose esters using epidermal peels with undisturbed trichomes. Preparations of biosynthetically competent trichome heads (site of sucrose ester formation) were also examined. Results indicate that 3-methylvaleryl and 2-methylbutyryl groups are derived from the Thr pathway of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, 3-methylbutyryl and methylpropionyl groups are formed via the pyruvate pathway, and that acetyl groups are principally formed directly via acetyl-CoA. Arguments are presented which rule out participation of fatty acid synthase in the formation of prominent acyl acids. Results suggest that the shunting of carbon away from the biosynthesis of Val, Leu and Ile may be due to a low level of amino acid utilization in protein synthesis in specialized glandular head cells of trichomes. This would result in the availability of corresponding oxo acids for CoA activation and esterification to form sucrose esters. Preliminary evidence was found for the involvement of cycling reactions in oxo-acid-chain lengthening and for utilization of pyruvate-derived 2

  20. Acyl-chain remodeling of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in de novo and salvage phosphatidylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kishino, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hiroki; Takagi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Dioctanoyl-PC (diC8PC) supported growth of a yeast mutant defective in PC synthesis. • diC8PC was converted to PC species containing longer acyl residues in the mutant. • Both acyl residues of diC8PC were replaced by longer fatty acids in vitro. • This system will contribute to the elucidation of the acyl chain remodeling of PC. - Abstract: A yeast strain, in which endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis is controllable, was constructed by the replacement of the promoter of PCT1, encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, with GAL1 promoter in a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2, encoding phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase, respectively. This mutant did not grow in the glucose-containing medium, but the addition of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (diC8PC) supported its growth. Analyses of the metabolism of {sup 13}C-labeled diC8PC ((methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC) in this strain using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that it was converted to PC species containing acyl residues of 16 or 18 carbons at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. In addition, both acyl residues of (methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC were replaced with 16:1 acyl chains in the in vitro reaction using the yeast cell extract in the presence of palmitoleoyl-CoA. These results indicate that PC containing short acyl residues was remodeled to those with acyl chains of physiological length in yeast.

  1. Conservation of side-chain dynamics within a protein family.

    PubMed

    Law, Anthony B; Fuentes, Ernesto J; Lee, Andrew L

    2009-05-13

    The question of protein dynamics and its relevance to function is currently a topic of great interest. Proteins are particularly dynamic at the side-chain level on the time scale of picoseconds to nanoseconds. Here, we present a comparison of NMR-monitored side-chain motion between three PDZ domains of approximately 30% sequence identity and show that the side-chain dynamics display nontrivial conservation. Methyl (2)H relaxation was carried out to determine side-chain order parameters (S(2)), which were found to be more similar than naively expected from sequence, local packing, or a combination of the two. Thus, the dynamics of a rather distant homologue appears to be an excellent predictor of a protein's side-chain dynamics and, on average, better than current structure-based methods. Fast side-chain dynamics therefore display a high level of organization associated with global fold. Beyond simple conservation, the analysis herein suggests that the pattern of side-chain flexibility has significant contributions from nonlocal elements of the PDZ fold, such as correlated motions, and that the conserved dynamics may directly support function.

  2. Inhibition of Long Chain Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetase (ACSL) and Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Allan M.; Zhang, Man; Blakeman, Nina; Datta, Palika; Pham, Hung; Young, Lindon H.; Weis, Margaret T.; Hua, Duy H.

    2014-01-01

    Various triacsin C analogs, containing different alkenyl chains and carboxylic acid bioisoteres including 4-aminobenzoic acid, isothiazolidine dioxide, hydroxylamine, hydroxytriazene, and oxadiazolidine dione, were synthesized and their inhibitions of long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) were examined. Two methods, a cell-based assay of ACSL activity and an in situ [14C]-palmitate incorporation into extractable lipids were used to study the inhibition. Using an in vivo leukocyte recruitment inhibition protocol, the translocation of one or more cell adhesion molecules from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane on either the endothelium or leukocyte or both was inhibited by inhibitors 1, 9, and triacsin C. The results suggest that inhibition of ACSL may attenuate the vascular inflammatory component associated with ischemia reperfusion injury and lead to a decrease of infarct expansion. PMID:24480468

  3. Permeation and metabolism of a series of novel lipophilic ascorbic acid derivatives, 6-O-acyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acids with a branched-acyl chain, in a human living skin equivalent model.

    PubMed

    Tai, Akihiro; Goto, Satomi; Ishiguro, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kazuko; Nitoda, Teruhiko; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2004-02-01

    A series of novel lipophilic vitamin C derivatives, 6-O-acyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acids possessing a branched-acyl chain of varying length from C(8) to C(16) (6-bAcyl-AA-2G), were evaluated as topical prodrugs of ascorbic acid (AA) with transdermal activity in a human living skin equivalent model. The permeability of 6-bAcyl-AA-2G was compared with those of the derivatives having a straight-acyl chain (6-sAcyl-AA-2G). Out of 10 derivatives of 6-sAcyl-AA-2G and 6-bAcyl-AA-2G, 6-sDode-AA-2G and 6-bDode-AA-2G exhibited most excellent permeability in this model. Measurement of the metabolites permeated from the skin model suggested that 6-bDode-AA-2G was mainly hydrolyzed via 6-O-acyl AA to AA by tissue enzymes, while 6-sDode-AA-2G was hydrolyzed via 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid to AA. The former metabolic pathway seems to be advantageous for a readily available source of AA, because 6-O-acyl AA, as well as AA, is able to show vitamin C activity.

  4. Ontogenic development of the fatty acyl chain composition of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) pectoralis superficialis muscle membranes: an allometric approach.

    PubMed

    Szabó, A; Fébel, Hedvig; Horn, P; Andrássy-Baka, G; Bázár, Gy; Romvári, R

    2006-06-01

    The growth-associated development of the m. pectoralis superficialis (MPS) phospholipid (PL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) fatty acyl (FA) chain composition was determined in BUT8 meat-type turkeys. Samples (3 d, 8, 12, 16 and 20 wk) of each 6 males were analysed by lipid fractionation and subsequent gas chromatography. Results were interpreted on an allometric basis. The MPS mass increased linearly (MPS weight = 0.2787 BW- 123.67; R2 = 0.9935, P<0.001, n = 30). In the total phospholipids 62-63% unsaturated fatty acids were found irrespective of the diet. A negative allometric alteration was found for the total saturated acyl chains (B = -0.012), while a positive value for the calculated unsaturation index (B = 0.026) was obtained. Within the PUFA chains, the n3- n6 balance was markedly changed, on the favour of the n3 fatty acyl chains, namely competitive allometric trends were found for the total n3 (B = 0.087) and n6 (B = 0.032) fatty acid groups. The alterations of the TAG FA chain composition were diet-dependent. The serum creatine kinase activity increased by over one class of magnitude during the trial. The allometric approach was found to be powerful in the characterization of the basic, non diet-dependent ontogenic alterations of the phospholipid fatty acyl chain composition.

  5. Broad-range and binary-range acyl-acyl-carrier protein thioesterases suggest an alternative mechanism for medium-chain production in seeds.

    PubMed

    Voelker, T A; Jones, A; Cranmer, A M; Davies, H M; Knutzon, D S

    1997-06-01

    In the current model of medium-chain (C8-14) fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds, specialized FatB acyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) thioesterases are responsible for the production of medium chains. We have isolated and characterized FatB cDNAs from the maturing seeds of elm (Ulmus americana) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), which accumulate predominantly caprate (10:0)- and myristate (14:0)-containing oils, respectively. In neither species were we able to find cDNAs encoding enzymes specialized for these chain lengths. Nutmeg FatB hydrolyses C14-18 substrates in vitro and expression in Brassica napus seeds leads to an oil enriched in C14-18 saturates. Elm FatB1 displays a binary specificity: one activity is centered on 10:0-ACP, and a second is centered on palmitate (16:0)-ACP. After expression in B. napus seeds the oil is enriched in C10-18 saturates, predominantly 16:0, 14:0, and 10:0. The composition of free fatty acids produced by elm FatB1 in Escherichia coli shifts from C14-16 to mostly C8-10 by increasing the rate of chain termination by this enzyme. These results suggest the existence of an alternative mechanism used in the evolution of medium-chain production, a model of which is presented. PMID:9193098

  6. Ionizable Side Chains at Catalytic Active Sites of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Morales, David; Liang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic active sites of enzymes of known structure can be well defined by a modern program of computational geometry. The CASTp program was used to define and measure the volume of the catalytic active sites of 573 enzymes in the Catalytic Site Atlas database. The active sites are identified as catalytic because the amino acids they contain are known to participate in the chemical reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. Acid and base side chains are reliable markers of catalytic active sites. The catalytic active sites have 4 acid and 5 base side chains, in an average volume of 1072 Å3. The number density of acid side chains is 8.3 M (in chemical units); the number density of basic side chains is 10.6 M. The catalytic active site of these enzymes is an unusual electrostatic and steric environment in which side chains and reactants are crowded together in a mixture more like an ionic liquid than an ideal infinitely dilute solution. The electrostatics and crowding of reactants and side chains seems likely to be important for catalytic function. In three types of analogous ion channels, simulation of crowded charges accounts for the main properties of selectivity measured in a wide range of solutions and concentrations. It seems wise to use mathematics designed to study interacting complex fluids when making models of the catalytic active sites of enzymes. PMID:22484856

  7. 21. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD INTO STARBOARD SIDE OF CHAIN LOCKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD INTO STARBOARD SIDE OF CHAIN LOCKER FROM CHAIN LOCKER BULKHEAD; PAWL BITT SHOWN IN EXTREME LEFT FOREGROUND, WITH APRON IN BACKGROUND. BREASTHOOK, SHELF AND CLAMP SHOWN AT TOP OF IMAGE - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  8. Density fluctuations in saturated phospholipid bilayers increase as the acyl-chain length decreases.

    PubMed Central

    Ipsen, J H; Jørgensen, K; Mouritsen, O G

    1990-01-01

    A systematic computer simulation study is conducted for a model of the main phase transition of fully hydrated saturated diacyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers (DMPC, DPPC, and DSPC). With particular focus on the fluctuation effects on the thermal properties in the transition region, the study yields data for the specific heat, the lateral compressibility, and the lipid-domain size distribution. Via a simple model assumption the transmembrane passive ion permeability is derived from the lipid-domain interfacial measure. A comparative analysis of the various data shows, in agreement with a number of experiments, that the lateral density fluctuations and hence the response functions increase as the acyl-chain length is decreased. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:2291936

  9. Evidence for involvement of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in the metabolism of phenylbutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Kormanik, Kaitlyn; Kang, Heejung; Cuebas, Dean; Vockley, Jerry; Mohsen, Al-Walid

    2012-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate is used for treating urea cycle disorders, providing an alternative for ammonia excretion. Following conversion to its CoA ester, phenylbutyryl-CoA is postulated to undergo one round of β-oxidation to phenylacetyl-CoA, the active metabolite. Molecular modeling suggests that medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC 1.3.99.3), a key enzyme in straight chain fatty acid β-oxidation, could utilize phenylbutyryl-CoA as substrate. Moreover, phenylpropionyl-CoA has been shown to be a substrate for MCAD and its intermediates accumulate in patients with MCAD deficiency. We have examined the involvement of MCAD and other acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) in the metabolism of phenylbutyryl-CoA. Anaerobic titration of purified recombinant human MCAD with phenylbutyryl-CoA caused changes in the MCAD spectrum that are similar to those induced by octanoyl-CoA, its bona fide substrate, and unique to the development of the charge transfer ternary complex. The calculated apparent dissociation constant (KD app) for these substrates was 2.16 μM and 0.12 μM, respectively. The MCAD reductive and oxidative half reactions were monitored using the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) fluorescence reduction assay. The catalytic efficiency and the Km for phenylbutyryl-CoA were 0.2 mM−1· sec−1 and 5.3 μM compared to 4.0 mM−1· sec−1 and 2.8 μM for octanoyl-CoA. Extracts of wild type and MCAD-deficient lymphoblast cells were tested for the ability to reduce ETF using phenylbutyryl-CoA as substrate. While ETF reduction activity was detected in extracts of wild type cells, it was undetectable in extracts of cells deficient in MCAD. The results are consistent with MCAD playing a key role in phenylbutyrate metabolism. PMID:23141465

  10. Acyl-chain remodeling of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in de novo and salvage phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hiroki; Takagi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-03-01

    A yeast strain, in which endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis is controllable, was constructed by the replacement of the promoter of PCT1, encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, with GAL1 promoter in a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2, encoding phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase, respectively. This mutant did not grow in the glucose-containing medium, but the addition of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (diC8PC) supported its growth. Analyses of the metabolism of (13)C-labeled diC8PC ((methyl-(13)C)3-diC8PC) in this strain using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that it was converted to PC species containing acyl residues of 16 or 18 carbons at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. In addition, both acyl residues of (methyl-(13)C)3-diC8PC were replaced with 16:1 acyl chains in the in vitro reaction using the yeast cell extract in the presence of palmitoleoyl-CoA. These results indicate that PC containing short acyl residues was remodeled to those with acyl chains of physiological length in yeast.

  11. Interstrand side chain--side chain interactions in a designed beta-hairpin: significance of both lateral and diagonal pairings.

    PubMed

    Syud, F A; Stanger, H E; Gellman, S H

    2001-09-12

    The contributions of interstrand side chain-side chain contacts to beta-sheet stability have been examined with an autonomously folding beta-hairpin model system. RYVEV(D)PGOKILQ-NH2 ((D)P = D-proline, O = ornithine) has previously been shown to adopt a beta-hairpin conformation in aqueous solution, with a two-residue loop at D-Pro-Gly. In the present study, side chains that display interstrand NOEs (Tyr-2, Lys-9, and Leu-11) are mutated to alanine or serine, and the conformational impact of the mutations is assessed. In the beta-hairpin conformation Tyr-2 and Leu-11 are directly across from one another (non-hydrogen bonded pair). This "lateral" juxtaposition of two hydrophobic side chains appears to contribute to beta-hairpin conformational stability, which is consistent with results from other beta-sheet model studies and with statistical analyses of interstrand residue contacts in protein crystal structures. Interaction between the side chains of Tyr-2 and Lys-9 also stabilizes the beta-hairpin conformation. Tyr-2/Lys-9 is a "diagonal" interstrand juxtaposition because these residues are not directly across from one another in terms of the hydrogen bonding registry between the strands. This diagonal interaction arises from the right-handed twist that is commonly observed among beta-sheets. Evidence of diagonal side chain-side chain contacts has been observed in other autonomously folding beta-sheet model systems, but we are not aware of other efforts to determine whether a diagonal interaction contributes to beta-sheet stability.

  12. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K.; Hume, David A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2006-02-01

    The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination.

  13. Determination of individual long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters in heart and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Molaparast-Saless, F; Shrago, E; Spennetta, T L; Donatello, S; Kneeland, L M; Nellis, S H; Liedtke, A J

    1988-05-01

    A method has been developed for determination of individual long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters from heart and skeletal muscle using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The esters were extracted from freeze-clamped tissue of pig and rat hearts and rat skeletal muscle for analysis on a radially compressed C18 5mu reverse-phase column. Nine peaks in the extract with carbon chain lengths from C12 to C20 that subsequently disappeared on alkaline hydrolysis were identified. The major acyl-CoA peaks were 14:1, 18:2, 16:0 and 18:1 and additionally in rat heart 18:0. Total long-chain acyl-CoA esters obtained by summation of the individual molecular species was 11.34 +/- 1.48 nmol/g wet wt. pig heart; 14.51 +/- 2.11 nmol/g wet wt. in rat heart, and 4.35 +/- 0.71 nmol/g wet wt. in rat skeletal muscle. These values were approximately 132% of those obtained using a separate procedure that measured total CoA by HPLC after alkaline hydrolysis of the esters. The described method demonstrates the quantitation of individual acyl-CoA species in muscle tissue. Therefore, it has a number of advantages in that it permits information to be obtained on the individual molecular species under various nutritional and metabolic conditions.

  14. Modelling protein side-chain conformations using constraint logic programming.

    PubMed

    Swain, M T; Kemp, G J

    2001-12-01

    Side-chain placement is an important sub-task in protein modelling. Selecting conformations for side-chains is a difficult problem because of the large search space to be explored. This problem can be addressed using constraint logic programming (CLP), which is an artificial intelligence technique developed to solve large combinatorial search problems. The side-chain placement problem can be expressed as a CLP program in which rotamer conformations are used as values for finite domain variables, and bad steric contacts involving rotamers are represented as constraints. This paper introduces the concept of null rotamers, and shows how these can be used in implementing a novel iterative approach. We present results that compare the accuracy of models constructed using different rotamer libraries and different domain variable enumeration heuristics. The results obtained using this CLP-based approach compare favourably with those obtained by other methods.

  15. Murine bubblegum orthologue is a microsomal very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Fraisl, Peter; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Zigman, Mihaela; Berger, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that a gene termed bubblegum (Bgm), encoding an acyl-CoA synthetase, could be involved in the pathogenesis of the inherited neurodegenerative disorder X-ALD (X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy). The precise function of the ALDP (ALD protein) still remains unclear. Aldp deficiency in mammals and Bgm deficiency in Drosophila led to accumulation of VLCFAs (very long-chain fatty acids). As a first step towards studying this interaction in wild-type versus Aldp-deficient mice, we analysed the expression pattern of the murine orthologue of the Bgm gene. In contrast with the ubiquitously expressed Ald gene, Bgm expression is restricted to the tissues that are affected by X-ALD such as brain, testis and adrenals. During mouse brain development, Bgm mRNA was first detected by Northern-blot analysis on embryonic day 18 and increased steadily towards adulthood, whereas the highest level of Ald mRNA was found on embryonic day 12 and decreased gradually during differentiation. Protein fractionation and confocal laser imaging of Bgm-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins revealed a microsomal localization that was different from peroxisomes (where Aldp is detected), endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Mouse Bgm showed acyl-CoA synthetase activity towards a VLCFA substrate in addition to LCFAs, and this activity was enriched in the microsomal compartment. Speculating that Bgm expression could be regulated by Ald deficiency, we compared the abundance of Bgm mRNA in wild-type and Ald knockout mice but observed no difference. Although mouse Bgm is capable of activating VLCFA, we conclude that a direct interaction between the mouse Bgm and the Aldp seems unlikely. PMID:14516277

  16. Affinity enhancement by dendritic side chains in synthetic carbohydrate receptors.

    PubMed

    Destecroix, Harry; Renney, Charles M; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Carter, Tom S; Stewart, Patrick F N; Crump, Matthew P; Davis, Anthony P

    2015-02-01

    Dendritic side chains have been used to modify the binding environment in anthracene-based synthetic carbohydrate receptors. Control of length, charge, and branching enabled the positioning of side-chain carboxylate groups in such a way that they assisted in binding substrates rather than blocking the cavity. Conformational degeneracy in the dendrimers resulted in effective preorganization despite the flexibility of the system. Strong binding was observed to glucosammonium ions in water, with Ka values up to 7000 M(-1) . Affinities for uncharged substrates (glucose and N-acetylglucosamine) were also enhanced, despite competition from solvent and the absence of electrostatic interactions. PMID:25645064

  17. Purification and characterization of a novel pumpkin short-chain acyl-coenzyme A oxidase with structural similarity to acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, L; Gonzali, S; Alpi, A; Hayashi, H; Hayashi, M; Nishimura, M

    2000-05-01

    A novel pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase (ACOX) was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic-interaction, hydroxyapatite, affinity, and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme is a tetrameric protein, consisting of apparently identical 47-kD subunits. The protein structure of this oxidase differs from other plant and mammalian ACOXs, but is similar to the protein structure of mammalian mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACDH) and the recently identified plant mitochondrial ACDH. Subcellular organelle separation by sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the enzyme is localized in glyoxysomes, whereas no immunoreactive bands of similar molecular weight were detected in mitochondrial fractions. The enzyme selectively catalyzes the oxidation of CoA esters of fatty acids with 4 to 10 carbon atoms, and exhibits the highest activity on C-6 fatty acids. Apparently, the enzyme has no activity on CoA esters of branched-chain or dicarboxylic fatty acids. The enzyme is slightly inhibited by high concentrations of substrate and it is not inhibited by Triton X-100 at concentrations up to 0.5% (v/v). The characteristics of this novel ACOX enzyme are discussed in relation to other ACOXs and ACDHs. PMID:10806249

  18. Comparative studies of Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases for monomethyl branched chain substrates in amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Wu, Long; Deng, Guisheng; Chen, Gong; Li, Nan; Chu, Xiusheng; Li, Ding

    2013-04-01

    Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SBCAD), isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD), and isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IBD) are involved in metabolism of isoleucine, leucine, and valine, respectively. These three enzymes all belong to acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACD) family, and catalyze the dehydrogenation of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid (mmBCFA) thioester derivatives. In the present work, the catalytic properties of rat SBCAD, IVD, and IBD, including their substrate specificity, isomerase activity, and enzyme inhibition, were comparatively studied. Our results indicated that SBCAD has its catalytic properties relatively similar to those of straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in terms of their isomerase activity and enzyme inhibition, while IVD and IBD are different. IVD has relatively broader substrate specificity than those of the other two enzymes in accommodating various substrate analogs. The present study increased our understanding for the metabolism of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which should also be useful for selective control of a particular reaction through the design of specific inhibitors. PMID:23474214

  19. Improved packing of protein side chains with parallel ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The accurate packing of protein side chains is important for many computational biology problems, such as ab initio protein structure prediction, homology modelling, and protein design and ligand docking applications. Many of existing solutions are modelled as a computational optimisation problem. As well as the design of search algorithms, most solutions suffer from an inaccurate energy function for judging whether a prediction is good or bad. Even if the search has found the lowest energy, there is no certainty of obtaining the protein structures with correct side chains. Methods We present a side-chain modelling method, pacoPacker, which uses a parallel ant colony optimisation strategy based on sharing a single pheromone matrix. This parallel approach combines different sources of energy functions and generates protein side-chain conformations with the lowest energies jointly determined by the various energy functions. We further optimised the selected rotamers to construct subrotamer by rotamer minimisation, which reasonably improved the discreteness of the rotamer library. Results We focused on improving the accuracy of side-chain conformation prediction. For a testing set of 442 proteins, 87.19% of X1 and 77.11% of X12 angles were predicted correctly within 40° of the X-ray positions. We compared the accuracy of pacoPacker with state-of-the-art methods, such as CIS-RR and SCWRL4. We analysed the results from different perspectives, in terms of protein chain and individual residues. In this comprehensive benchmark testing, 51.5% of proteins within a length of 400 amino acids predicted by pacoPacker were superior to the results of CIS-RR and SCWRL4 simultaneously. Finally, we also showed the advantage of using the subrotamers strategy. All results confirmed that our parallel approach is competitive to state-of-the-art solutions for packing side chains. Conclusions This parallel approach combines various sources of searching intelligence and energy

  20. The peroxisomal Acyl-CoA thioesterase Pte1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for efficient degradation of short straight chain and branched chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Isamu; Delessert, Syndie; Hasegawa, Seiko; Seto, Yoshiaki; Zuber, Sophie; Poirier, Yves

    2006-04-28

    The role of the Saccharomyces cerevisae peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesterase (Pte1p) in fatty acid beta-oxidation was studied by analyzing the in vitro kinetic activity of the purified protein as well as by measuring the carbon flux through the beta-oxidation cycle in vivo using the synthesis of peroxisomal polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from the polymerization of the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoAs as a marker. The amount of PHA synthesized from the degradation of 10-cis-heptadecenoic, tridecanoic, undecanoic, or nonanoic acids was equivalent or slightly reduced in the pte1Delta strain compared with wild type. In contrast, a strong reduction in PHA synthesized from heptanoic acid and 8-methyl-nonanoic acid was observed for the pte1Delta strain compared with wild type. The poor catabolism of 8-methyl-nonanoic acid via beta-oxidation in pte1Delta negatively impacted the degradation of 10-cis-heptadecenoic acid and reduced the ability of the cells to efficiently grow in medium containing such fatty acids. An increase in the proportion of the short chain 3-hydroxyacid monomers was observed in PHA synthesized in pte1Delta cells grown on a variety of fatty acids, indicating a reduction in the metabolism of short chain acyl-CoAs in these cells. A purified histidine-tagged Pte1p showed high activity toward short and medium chain length acyl-CoAs, including butyryl-CoA, decanoyl-CoA and 8-methyl-nonanoyl-CoA. The kinetic parameters measured for the purified Pte1p fit well with the implication of this enzyme in the efficient metabolism of short straight and branched chain fatty acyl-CoAs by the beta-oxidation cycle.

  1. Effects of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase on cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Huang, Qiuju; Shu, Zhaohui; Liu, Peiqing; Chen, Shaorui; Pan, Xuediao; Zang, Linquan; Zhou, Sigui

    2016-07-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD), a key enzyme of fatty acid β-oxidation, plays an important role in cardiac hypertrophy. However, its effect on the cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unknown. We aimed to determine the role of SCAD in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The mRNA and protein expression of SCAD were significantly down-regulated in the cardiomyocyte apoptosis model. Inhibition of SCAD with siRNA-1186 significantly decreased SCAD expression, enzyme activity and ATP content, but obviously increased the content of free fatty acids. Meanwhile, SCAD siRNA treatment triggered the same apoptosis as cardiomyocytes treated with tBHP, such as the increase in cell apoptotic rate, the activation of caspase3 and the decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, which showed that SCAD may play an important role in primary cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The changes of phosphonate AMP-activated protein kinase α (p-AMPKα) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in cardiomyocyte apoptosis were consistent with that of SCAD. Furthermore, PPARα activator fenofibrate and AMPKα activator AICAR treatment significantly increased the expression of SCAD and inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, for the first time our findings directly demonstrated that SCAD may be as a new target to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis through the AMPK/PPARα/SCAD signal pathways. PMID:26989860

  2. Inhibition of Long Chain Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetases during Fatty Acid Loading Induces Lipotoxicity in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathi, Viswanathan; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Obesity is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) which are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. While impairment of cholesterol homeostasis is known to induce toxicity in macrophages, the consequence of altered fatty acid homeostasis is not clear. METHODS AND RESULTS Long chain acyl CoA synthetases (ACSLs) play a critical role in fatty acid homeostasis by channeling fatty acids to diverse metabolic pools. We treated mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) with VLDL or FFAs in the presence of triacsin C, an inhibitor of the three ACSL isoforms present in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with VLDL and triacsin C resulted in reduced TG accumulation but increased intracellular FFA levels which induced lipotoxicity characterized by induction of apoptosis. Treatment of MPMs with the saturated fatty acid stearic acid in the presence of triacsin C increased intracellular stearic acid and induced apoptosis. Stromal vascular cells collected from high fat diet-fed mice displayed foam cell morphology and exhibited increased mRNA levels of macrophage markers and ACSL1. Importantly, all of these changes were associated with increased FFA level in AT. CONCLUSIONS Inhibition of ACSLs during fatty acid loading results in apoptosis via accumulation of FFAs. Our data have implications in understanding the consequences of dysregulated fatty acid metabolism in macrophages. PMID:19679826

  3. Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2)/acyl-CoA thioesterase 13 (Acot13): a homotetrameric hotdog fold thioesterase with selectivity for long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Kang, Hye Won; Cohen, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Them2 (thioesterase superfamily member 2) is a 140-aminoacid protein of unknown biological function that comprises a single hotdog fold thioesterase domain. On the basis of its putative association with mitochondria, accentuated expression in oxidative tissues and interaction with StarD2 (also known as phosphatidylcholine-transfer protein, PC-TP), a regulator of fatty acid metabolism, we explored whether Them2 functions as a physiologically relevant fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase. In solution, Them2 formed a stable homotetramer, which denatured in a single transition at 59.3 °C. Them2 exhibited thioesterase activity for medium- and long-chain acyl-CoAs, with Km values that decreased exponentially as a function of increasing acyl chain length. Steady-state kinetic parameters for Them2 were characteristic of long-chain mammalian acyl-CoA thioesterases, with minimal values of Km and maximal values of kcat/Km observed for myristoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA. For these acyl-CoAs, substrate inhibition was observed when concentrations approached their critical micellar concentrations. The acyl-CoA thioesterase activity of Them2 was optimized at physiological temperature, ionic strength and pH. For both myristoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA, the addition of StarD2 increased the kcat of Them2. Enzymatic activity was decreased by the addition of phosphatidic acid/phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles. Them2 expression, which was most pronounced in mouse heart, was associated with mitochondria and was induced by activation of PPARα (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α). We conclude that, under biological conditions, Them2 probably functions as a homotetrameric long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase. Accordingly, Them2 has been designated as the 13th member of the mammalian acyl-CoA thioesterase family, Acot13. PMID:19405909

  4. Altering the sphingolipid acyl chain composition prevents LPS/GLN-mediated hepatic failure in mice by disrupting TNFR1 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M; Fritsch, J; Zigdon, H; Pewzner-Jung, Y; Schütze, S; Futerman, A H

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of ceramide in death receptor-mediated apoptosis has been widely examined with most studies focusing on the role of ceramide generated from sphingomyelin hydrolysis. We now analyze the effect of the ceramide acyl chain length by studying tumor necrosis factor α receptor-1 (TNFR1)-mediated apoptosis in a ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) null mouse, which cannot synthesize very-long acyl chain ceramides. CerS2 null mice were resistant to lipopolysaccharide/galactosamine-mediated fulminant hepatic failure even though TNFα secretion from macrophages was unaffected. Cultured hepatocytes were also insensitive to TNFα-mediated apoptosis. In addition, in both liver and in hepatocytes, caspase activities were not elevated, consistent with inhibition of TNFR1 pro-apoptotic signaling. In contrast, Fas receptor activation resulted in the death of CerS2 null mice. Caspase activation was blocked because of the inability of CerS2 null mice to internalize the TNFR1; whereas Fc-TNFα was internalized to a perinuclear region in hepatocytes from wild-type mice, no internalization was detected in CerS2 null mice. Our results indicate that altering the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids inhibits TNFR1 internalization and inhibits selective pro-apoptotic downstream signaling for apoptosis. PMID:24263103

  5. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I. )

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from (1-14C)acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns.

  6. Enhanced production of branched-chain fatty acids by replacing β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Yanfang; Bentley, Gayle J; Liu, Di; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2015-08-01

    Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are important precursors for the production of advanced biofuels with improved cold-flow properties. Previous efforts in engineering type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) for BCFA production suffered from low titers and/or the co-production of a large amount of straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), making it nearly impossible for further conversion of BCFAs to branched biofuels. Synthesis of both SCFAs and BCFAs requires FabH, the only β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the initial condensation reaction between malonyl-ACP and a short-chain acyl-CoA. In this study, we demonstrated that replacement of the acetyl-CoA-specific E. coli FabH with a branched-chain-acyl-CoA-specific FabH directed the flux to the synthesis of BCFAs, resulting in a significant enhancement in BCFA titer compared to a strain containing both acetyl-CoA- and branched-chain-acyl-CoA-specific FabHs. We further demonstrated that the composition of BCFAs can be tuned by engineering the upstream pathway to control the supply of different branched-chain acyl-CoAs, leading to the production either even-chain-iso-, odd-chain-iso-, or odd-chain-anteiso-BCFAs separately. Overall, the top-performing strain from this study produced BCFAs at 126 mg/L, comprising 52% of the total free fatty acids.

  7. Enhanced production of branched-chain fatty acids by replacing β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Jiang, Yanfang; Bentley, Gayle J; Liu, Di; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2015-08-01

    Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are important precursors for the production of advanced biofuels with improved cold-flow properties. Previous efforts in engineering type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) for BCFA production suffered from low titers and/or the co-production of a large amount of straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), making it nearly impossible for further conversion of BCFAs to branched biofuels. Synthesis of both SCFAs and BCFAs requires FabH, the only β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the initial condensation reaction between malonyl-ACP and a short-chain acyl-CoA. In this study, we demonstrated that replacement of the acetyl-CoA-specific E. coli FabH with a branched-chain-acyl-CoA-specific FabH directed the flux to the synthesis of BCFAs, resulting in a significant enhancement in BCFA titer compared to a strain containing both acetyl-CoA- and branched-chain-acyl-CoA-specific FabHs. We further demonstrated that the composition of BCFAs can be tuned by engineering the upstream pathway to control the supply of different branched-chain acyl-CoAs, leading to the production either even-chain-iso-, odd-chain-iso-, or odd-chain-anteiso-BCFAs separately. Overall, the top-performing strain from this study produced BCFAs at 126 mg/L, comprising 52% of the total free fatty acids. PMID:25788017

  8. Melting at Alkyl Side Chain Comb Polymer Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Keshav; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2002-03-01

    IR-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) in combination with internal reflection geometry has been used to study structure and melting transition temperatures of alkyl side chain acrylate comb polymers at air and sapphire interfaces. At the air interface, the SFG spectra show methyl bands and two transitions are observed. The first transition from crystalline to smectic-like is near the bulk melting transition, Tm, and the second transition from smectic-like to disordered melt state is 10-20K higher than Tm. The shorter the alkyl side chain, the larger the difference between the two transition temperatures. In contrast, methylene bands are observed at sapphire interface with a single transition near Tm. These results will be discussed in context with surface freezing effects observed for n-alkanes and alcohols.

  9. Side-Chain Conformational Preferences Govern Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew M; Bonneau, Richard; Arora, Paramjit S

    2016-08-24

    Protein secondary structures serve as geometrically constrained scaffolds for the display of key interacting residues at protein interfaces. Given the critical role of secondary structures in protein folding and the dependence of folding propensities on backbone dihedrals, secondary structure is expected to influence the identity of residues that are important for complex formation. Counter to this expectation, we find that a narrow set of residues dominates the binding energy in protein-protein complexes independent of backbone conformation. This finding suggests that the binding epitope may instead be substantially influenced by the side-chain conformations adopted. We analyzed side-chain conformational preferences in residues that contribute significantly to binding. This analysis suggests that preferred rotamers contribute directly to specificity in protein complex formation and provides guidelines for peptidomimetic inhibitor design.

  10. Acyl chain-dependent effect of lysophosphatidylcholine on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shailaja P; Riederer, Monika; Lechleitner, Margarete; Hermansson, Martin; Desoye, Gernot; Hallström, Seth; Graier, Wolfgang F; Frank, Saša

    2013-01-01

    Previously we identified palmitoyl-, oleoyl-, linoleoyl-, and arachidonoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC 16:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 20:4) as the most prominent LPC species generated by endothelial lipase (EL). In the present study, we examined the impact of those LPC on acetylcholine (ACh)- induced vascular relaxation. All tested LPC attenuated ACh-induced relaxation, measured ex vivo, using mouse aortic rings and wire myography. The rank order of potency was as follows: 18:2>20:4>16:0>18:1. The attenuating effect of LPC 16:0 on relaxation was augmented by indomethacin-mediated cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibition and CAY10441, a prostacyclin (PGI2)- receptor (IP) antagonist. Relaxation attenuated by LPC 20:4 and 18:2 was improved by indomethacin and SQ29548, a thromboxane A2 (TXA2)- receptor antagonist. The effect of LPC 20:4 could also be improved by TXA2- and PGI2-synthase inhibitors. As determined by EIA assays, the tested LPC promoted secretion of PGI2, TXA2, PGF2α, and PGE2, however, with markedly different potencies. LPC 16:0 was the most potent inducer of superoxide anion production by mouse aortic rings, followed by LPC 18:2, 20:4 and 18:1, respectively. The strong antioxidant tempol recovered relaxation impairment caused by LPC 18:2, 18:1 and 20:4, but not by LPC 16:0. The tested LPC attenuate ACh-induced relaxation through induction of proconstricting prostanoids and superoxide anions. The potency of attenuating relaxation and the relative contribution of underlying mechanisms are strongly related to LPC acyl-chain length and degree of saturation. PMID:23741477

  11. Side chain conformational averaging in human dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Lisa M; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2014-02-25

    The three-dimensional structures of the dihydrofolate reductase enzymes from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR or ecE) and Homo sapiens (hDHFR or hE) are very similar, despite a rather low level of sequence identity. Whereas the active site loops of ecDHFR undergo major conformational rearrangements during progression through the reaction cycle, hDHFR remains fixed in a closed loop conformation in all of its catalytic intermediates. To elucidate the structural and dynamic differences between the human and E. coli enzymes, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of side chain flexibility and dynamics in complexes of hDHFR that represent intermediates in the major catalytic cycle. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation dispersion experiments show that, in marked contrast to the functionally important motions that feature prominently in the catalytic intermediates of ecDHFR, millisecond time scale fluctuations cannot be detected for hDHFR side chains. Ligand flux in hDHFR is thought to be mediated by conformational changes between a hinge-open state when the substrate/product-binding pocket is vacant and a hinge-closed state when this pocket is occupied. Comparison of X-ray structures of hinge-open and hinge-closed states shows that helix αF changes position by sliding between the two states. Analysis of χ1 rotamer populations derived from measurements of (3)JCγCO and (3)JCγN couplings indicates that many of the side chains that contact helix αF exhibit rotamer averaging that may facilitate the conformational change. The χ1 rotamer adopted by the Phe31 side chain depends upon whether the active site contains the substrate or product. In the holoenzyme (the binary complex of hDHFR with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), a combination of hinge opening and a change in the Phe31 χ1 rotamer opens the active site to facilitate entry of the substrate. Overall, the data suggest that, unlike ecDHFR, hDHFR requires minimal backbone conformational rearrangement as

  12. Synthesis and biological activities of new side chain and backbone cyclic bradykinin analogues.

    PubMed

    Schumann, C; Seyfarth, L; Greiner, G; Paegelow, I; Reissmann, S

    2002-08-01

    A series of conformationally constrained cyclic analogues of the peptide hormone bradykinin (BK, Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg) was synthesized to check different turned structures proposed for the bioactive conformation of BK agonists and antagonists. Cycles differing in the size and direction of the lactam bridge were performed at the C- and N-terminal sequences of the molecule. Glutamic acid and lysine were introduced into the native BK sequence at different positions for cyclization through their side chains. Backbone cyclic analogues were synthesized by incorporation of N-carboxy alkylated and N-amino alkylated amino acids into the peptide chain. Although the coupling of Fmoc-glycine to the N-alkylated phenylalanine derivatives was effected with DIC/HOAt in SPPS, the dipeptide building units with more bulky amino acids were pre-built in solution. For backbone cyclization at the C-terminus an alternative building unit with an acylated reduced peptide bond was preformed in solution. Both types of building units were handled in the SPPS in the same manner as amino acids. The agonistic and antagonistic activities of the cyclic BK analogues were determined in rat uterus (RUT) and guinea-pig ileum (GPI) assays. Additionally, the potentiation of the BK-induced effects was examined. Among the series of cyclic BK agonists only compound 3 with backbone cyclization between positions 2 and 5 shows a significant agonistic activity on RUT. To study the influence of intramolecular ring closure we used an antagonistic analogue with weak activity, [D-Phe7]-BK. Side chain as well as backbone cyclization in the N-terminus of [D-Phe7]-BK resulted in analogues with moderate antagonistic activity on RUT. Also, compound 18 in which a lactam bridge between positions 6 and 9 was achieved via an acylated reduced peptide bond has moderate antagonistic activity on RUT. These results support the hypothesis of turn structures in both parts of the molecule as a requirement for BK

  13. An esterase on the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the hydrolysis of long chain acyl esters.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, I; Shiga, S; Kageyama, M

    1979-09-01

    A new esterase activity which hydrolyzes palmitoyl-CoA was found in the membrane fraction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the 11 strains of P. aeruginosa tested possessed this esterase activity. The esterase was constitutive and was fully active on the intact cell bodies toward substrates in the medium. It was located on the outer membrane of the cell envelope, and was not released into the culture medium. This activity was designated as OM (outer membrane) esterase. OM esterase was solubilized from the cell envelope with EDTA-Triton X-100 and purified 690-fold. It was a minor component of the outer membrane. Its molecular weight was approximately 55,000. The activity was rather stable to heat, a wide range of pH, and treatment with detergents and organic solvents. No cofactors were required. The pH optimum of the reaction was 8.5. Among various acyl-CoAs, only long chain (C12--C18) thioesters were hydrolyzed. OM esterase also hydrolyzed some kinds of oxy-esters such as p-nitrophenyl acyl esters, monoacyl esters of sucrose and Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate). On the other hand, triglycerides, phospholipids, or hydrophobic monoesters were not hydrolyzed at all. Thus, this enzyme seems to have specificity for long chain acyl esters with hydrophilic groups, whether thio- or oxy-ester. Mutants deficient in this esterase activity were isolated. These mutants were unable to grow on Tween 80 as a sole carbon source. This suggests a possible role of OM esterase in the utilization of acyl esters as carbon sources.

  14. Regulation of gene expression through a transcriptional repressor that senses acyl-chain length in membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Harald F; Schopf, Florian H; Schleifer, Hannes; Knittelfelder, Oskar L; Pieber, Bartholomäus; Rechberger, Gerald N; Wolinski, Heimo; Gaspar, Maria L; Kappe, C Oliver; Stadlmann, Johannes; Mechtler, Karl; Zenz, Alexandra; Lohner, Karl; Tehlivets, Oksana; Henry, Susan A; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2014-06-23

    Membrane phospholipids typically contain fatty acids (FAs) of 16 and 18 carbon atoms. This particular chain length is evolutionarily highly conserved and presumably provides maximum stability and dynamic properties to biological membranes in response to nutritional or environmental cues. Here, we show that the relative proportion of C16 versus C18 FAs is regulated by the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of FA de novo synthesis. Acc1 activity is attenuated by AMPK/Snf1-dependent phosphorylation, which is required to maintain an appropriate acyl-chain length distribution. Moreover, we find that the transcriptional repressor Opi1 preferentially binds to C16 over C18 phosphatidic acid (PA) species: thus, C16-chain containing PA sequesters Opi1 more effectively to the ER, enabling AMPK/Snf1 control of PA acyl-chain length to determine the degree of derepression of Opi1 target genes. These findings reveal an unexpected regulatory link between the major energy-sensing kinase, membrane lipid composition, and transcription.

  15. Ceramides with a pentadecasphingosine chain and short acyls have strong permeabilization effects on skin and model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Školová, Barbora; Janůšová, Barbora; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2016-02-01

    The composition and organization of stratum corneum lipids play an essential role in skin barrier function. Ceramides represent essential components of this lipid matrix; however, the importance of the individual structural features in ceramides is not fully understood. To probe the structure-permeability relationships in ceramides, we prepared analogs of N-lignoceroylsphingosine with shortened sphingosine (15 and 12 carbons) and acyl chains (2, 4 and 6 carbons) and studied their behavior in skin and in model lipid membranes. Ceramide analogs with pentadecasphingosine (15C) chains were more barrier-perturbing than 12C- and 18C-sphingosine ceramides; the greatest effects were found with 4 to 6C acyls (up to 15 times higher skin permeability compared to an untreated control and up to 79 times higher permeability of model stratum corneum lipid membranes compared to native very long-chain ceramides). Infrared spectroscopy using deuterated lipids and X-ray powder diffraction showed surprisingly similar behavior of the short ceramide membranes in terms of lipid chain order and packing, phase transitions and domain formation. The high- and low-permeability membranes differed in their amide I band shape and lamellar organization. These skin and membrane permeabilization properties of some short ceramides may be explored, for example, for the rational design of permeation enhancers for transdermal drug delivery.

  16. Bayesian statistical analysis of protein side-chain rotamer preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Dunbrack, R. L.; Cohen, F. E.

    1997-01-01

    We present a Bayesian statistical analysis of the conformations of side chains in proteins from the Protein Data Bank. This is an extension of the backbone-dependent rotamer library, and includes rotamer populations and average chi angles for a full range of phi, psi values. The Bayesian analysis used here provides a rigorous statistical method for taking account of varying amounts of data. Bayesian statistics requires the assumption of a prior distribution for parameters over their range of possible values. This prior distribution can be derived from previous data or from pooling some of the present data. The prior distribution is combined with the data to form the posterior distribution, which is a compromise between the prior distribution and the data. For the chi 2, chi 3, and chi 4 rotamer prior distributions, we assume that the probability of each rotamer type is dependent only on the previous chi rotamer in the chain. For the backbone-dependence of the chi 1 rotamers, we derive prior distributions from the product of the phi-dependent and psi-dependent probabilities. Molecular mechanics calculations with the CHARMM22 potential show a strong similarity with the experimental distributions, indicating that proteins attain their lowest energy rotamers with respect to local backbone-side-chain interactions. The new library is suitable for use in homology modeling, protein folding simulations, and the refinement of X-ray and NMR structures. PMID:9260279

  17. Rotatoelectricity in cholesteric side-chain liquid single crystal elastomers.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Andreas M; Brand, Helmut R

    2006-11-21

    We analyze the phenomenon of rotatoelectricity which is characteristic of cholesteric side-chain liquid single crystal elastomers. Using a linearized macroscopic continuum description and our previous work we show that if such a material is exposed to a static external electric field oriented parallel to the cholesteric helical axis, the director of the liquid crystalline phase will rotate around the helical axis. The material considered is assumed to be a perfect electric insulator. We propose an experiment in which the effect of rotatoelectricity should be directly observable and from which the ratio of the material parameters involved will be accessible.

  18. Interactions of the C-terminus of lung surfactant protein B with lipid bilayers are modulated by acyl chain saturation.

    PubMed

    Antharam, Vijay C; Farver, R Suzanne; Kuznetsova, Anna; Sippel, Katherine H; Mills, Frank D; Elliott, Douglas W; Sternin, Edward; Long, Joanna R

    2008-11-01

    Lung surfactant protein B (SP-B) is critical to minimizing surface tension in the alveoli. The C-terminus of SP-B, residues 59-80, has much of the surface activity of the full protein and serves as a template for the development of synthetic surfactant replacements. The molecular mechanisms responsible for its ability to restore lung compliance were investigated with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and (31)P and (2)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy. SP-B(59-80) forms an amphipathic helix which alters lipid organization and acyl chain dynamics in fluid lamellar phase 4:1 DPPC:POPG and 3:1 POPC:POPG MLVs. At higher levels of SP-B(59-80) in the POPC:POPG lipid system a transition to a nonlamellar phase is observed while DPPC:POPG mixtures remain in a lamellar phase. Deuterium NMR shows an increase in acyl chain order in DPPC:POPG MLVs on addition of SP-B(59-80); in POPC:POPG MLVs, acyl chain order parameters decrease. Our results indicate SP-B(59-80) penetrates deeply into DPPC:POPG bilayers and binds more peripherally to POPC:POPG bilayers. Similar behavior has been observed for KL(4), a peptide mimetic of SP-B which was originally designed using SP-B(59-80) as a template and has been clinically demonstrated to be successful in treating respiratory distress syndrome. The ability of these helical peptides to differentially partition into lipid lamellae based on their degree of monounsaturation and subsequent changes in lipid dynamics suggest a mechanism for lipid organization and trafficking within the dynamic lung environment. PMID:18694722

  19. Purification and characterization of corticosteroid side chain isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Marandici, A.; Monder, C. )

    1990-02-06

    Corticosteroid side chain isomerase of rat liver catalyzes the interconversion of the ketol (20-oxo-21-ol) and (20-hydroxy-21-al) forms of the corticosteroid side chain. The enzyme has now been purified to apparent homogeneity from rat liver cytosol by sequential chromatography on anionic, hydroxylapatite, and gel filtration columns. Ketol-aldol isomerization is followed by measuring the exchange of tritium from 21-tritiated steroids with water. The native enzyme is a dimer of MW 44,000. The isoelectric point is 4.8 {plus minus} 0.1 pH units. The purified enzyme is stimulated by Co{sup 3+} or Ni{sup 2+}. The enzyme utilizes 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, and 17-deoxycortisol as substrate but not cortisol, tetrahydrocortisol, and prednisolone. Tritium-water exchange of (21S)-(21-{sup 3}H)DOC is a pseudo-first-order reaction; 21-{sup 3}H exchange from the 21R isomer proceeds with first-order kinetics only after a lag associated with its epimerization to the 21S form.

  20. Stiffness parameter of brush-like polymers with rod-like side chains.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yo

    2016-07-01

    The stiffness parameter λ(-1) of brush-like polymers having rod-like side chains with the hard core potential was calculated. Side chains are, first, assumed to be connected with a free joint to the main chain. The free energy per molecule F was calculated invoking the single contact approximation in which only the interaction between two side chains is considered and the higher interactions are ignored. In the calculation, the contact is assumed to occur when the two side chains are in a plain and the condition for the angles between the side chain and the main chain to make a triangle by two side chains and the main chain was exactly taken into account. The change of F after bending the main chain with a certain curvature from the straight state was calculated to obtain λ(-1). The resulting λ(-1) came close to the experimental value for brush-like polymers with a poly(methacrylate) main chain and poly(hexylisocyanate) (PHIC) side chains if we add a constant as the intrinsic stiffness of the main chain, λ0 (-1), to it. By considering the potential function having a minimum when the angle between the side and main chains equals π/2, the data for brush-like polymers with a poly(styrene) main chain and PHIC side chains were also closely fitted by the theoretical values with an appropriate value of λ0 (-1) and the force constant of the angle.

  1. Two Predicted Transmembrane Domains Exclude Very Long Chain Fatty acyl-CoAs from the Active Site of Mouse Wax Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kawelke, Steffen; Feussner, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Wax esters are used as coatings or storage lipids in all kingdoms of life. They are synthesized from a fatty alcohol and an acyl-CoA by wax synthases. In order to get insights into the structure-function relationships of a wax synthase from Mus musculus, a domain swap experiment between the mouse acyl-CoA:wax alcohol acyltransferase (AWAT2) and the homologous mouse acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) was performed. This showed that the substrate specificity of AWAT2 is partially determined by two predicted transmembrane domains near the amino terminus of AWAT2. Upon exchange of the two domains for the respective part of DGAT2, the resulting chimeric enzyme was capable of incorporating up to 20% of very long acyl chains in the wax esters upon expression in S. cerevisiae strain H1246. The amount of very long acyl chains in wax esters synthesized by wild type AWAT2 was negligible. The effect was narrowed down to a single amino acid position within one of the predicted membrane domains, the AWAT2 N36R variant. Taken together, we provide first evidence that two predicted transmembrane domains in AWAT2 are involved in determining its acyl chain length specificity. PMID:26714272

  2. Two Predicted Transmembrane Domains Exclude Very Long Chain Fatty acyl-CoAs from the Active Site of Mouse Wax Synthase.

    PubMed

    Kawelke, Steffen; Feussner, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Wax esters are used as coatings or storage lipids in all kingdoms of life. They are synthesized from a fatty alcohol and an acyl-CoA by wax synthases. In order to get insights into the structure-function relationships of a wax synthase from Mus musculus, a domain swap experiment between the mouse acyl-CoA:wax alcohol acyltransferase (AWAT2) and the homologous mouse acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) was performed. This showed that the substrate specificity of AWAT2 is partially determined by two predicted transmembrane domains near the amino terminus of AWAT2. Upon exchange of the two domains for the respective part of DGAT2, the resulting chimeric enzyme was capable of incorporating up to 20% of very long acyl chains in the wax esters upon expression in S. cerevisiae strain H1246. The amount of very long acyl chains in wax esters synthesized by wild type AWAT2 was negligible. The effect was narrowed down to a single amino acid position within one of the predicted membrane domains, the AWAT2 N36R variant. Taken together, we provide first evidence that two predicted transmembrane domains in AWAT2 are involved in determining its acyl chain length specificity.

  3. Identification of Regiospecific Isomers of Diricinoleoyl-acyl-glycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain in Castor Oil by ESI-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HPLC fractions of diricinoleoyl-acyl-glycerols containing one non-ricinoleoyl chain from castor oil were used to identify the regiospecific location of this non-ricinoleoyl chain on the glycerol backbone using electrospray ionization-MS3 of lithium adducts. The regiospecific ions used were from...

  4. Phospholipid profiling identifies acyl chain elongation as a ubiquitous trait and potential target for the treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marien, Eyra; Meister, Michael; Muley, Thomas; del Pulgar, Teresa Gomez; Derua, Rita; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Van de Plas, Raf; Vanderhoydonc, Frank; Machiels, Jelle; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Dehairs, Jonas; Willette-Brown, Jami; Hu, Yinling; Dienemann, Hendrik; Thomas, Michael; Schnabel, Philipp A.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Lacal, Juan Carlos; Waelkens, Etienne; Swinnen, Johannes V.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Beyond first line treatment, few therapeutic options are available, particularly for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Here, we have explored the phospholipidomes of 30 human SCCs and found that they almost invariably (in 96.7% of cases) contain phospholipids with longer acyl chains compared to matched normal tissues. This trait was confirmed using in situ 2D-imaging MS on tissue sections and by phospholipidomics of tumor and normal lung tissue of the L-IkkαKA/KA mouse model of lung SCC. In both human and mouse, the increase in acyl chain length in cancer tissue was accompanied by significant changes in the expression of acyl chain elongases (ELOVLs). Functional screening of differentially expressed ELOVLs by selective gene knockdown in SCC cell lines followed by phospholipidomics revealed ELOVL6 as the main elongation enzyme responsible for acyl chain elongation in cancer cells. Interestingly, inhibition of ELOVL6 drastically reduced colony formation of multiple SCC cell lines in vitro and significantly attenuated their growth as xenografts in vivo in mouse models. These findings identify acyl chain elongation as one of the most common traits of lung SCC discovered so far and pinpoint ELOVL6 as a novel potential target for cancer intervention. PMID:26862848

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis growth and development requires the activity of host Long-chain Acyl-CoA Synthetases (ACSLs).

    PubMed

    Recuero-Checa, Maria A; Sharma, Manu; Lau, Constance; Watkins, Paul A; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Dean, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The obligate-intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) has undergone considerable genome reduction with consequent dependence on host biosynthetic pathways, metabolites and enzymes. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) are key host-cell enzymes that convert fatty acids (FA) into acyl-CoA for use in metabolic pathways. Here, we show that the complete host ACSL family [ACSL1 and ACSL3-6] translocates into the Ct membrane-bound vacuole, termed inclusion, and remains associated with membranes of metabolically active forms of Ct throughout development. We discovered that three different pharmacologic inhibitors of ACSL activity independently impede Ct growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Using an FA competition assay, host ACSLs were found to activate Ct branched-chain FAs, suggesting that one function of the ACSLs is to activate Ct FAs and host FAs (recruited from the cytoplasm) within the inclusion. Because the ACSL inhibitors can deplete lipid droplets (LD), we used a cell line where LD synthesis was switched off to evaluate whether LD deficiency affects Ct growth. In these cells, we found no effect on growth or on translocation of ACSLs into the inclusion. Our findings support an essential role for ACSL activation of host-cell and bacterial FAs within the inclusion to promote Ct growth and development, independent of LDs. PMID:26988341

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis growth and development requires the activity of host Long-chain Acyl-CoA Synthetases (ACSLs).

    PubMed

    Recuero-Checa, Maria A; Sharma, Manu; Lau, Constance; Watkins, Paul A; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Dean, Deborah

    2016-03-18

    The obligate-intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) has undergone considerable genome reduction with consequent dependence on host biosynthetic pathways, metabolites and enzymes. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) are key host-cell enzymes that convert fatty acids (FA) into acyl-CoA for use in metabolic pathways. Here, we show that the complete host ACSL family [ACSL1 and ACSL3-6] translocates into the Ct membrane-bound vacuole, termed inclusion, and remains associated with membranes of metabolically active forms of Ct throughout development. We discovered that three different pharmacologic inhibitors of ACSL activity independently impede Ct growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Using an FA competition assay, host ACSLs were found to activate Ct branched-chain FAs, suggesting that one function of the ACSLs is to activate Ct FAs and host FAs (recruited from the cytoplasm) within the inclusion. Because the ACSL inhibitors can deplete lipid droplets (LD), we used a cell line where LD synthesis was switched off to evaluate whether LD deficiency affects Ct growth. In these cells, we found no effect on growth or on translocation of ACSLs into the inclusion. Our findings support an essential role for ACSL activation of host-cell and bacterial FAs within the inclusion to promote Ct growth and development, independent of LDs.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis growth and development requires the activity of host Long-chain Acyl-CoA Synthetases (ACSLs)

    PubMed Central

    Recuero-Checa, Maria A.; Sharma, Manu; Lau, Constance; Watkins, Paul A.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Dean, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The obligate-intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) has undergone considerable genome reduction with consequent dependence on host biosynthetic pathways, metabolites and enzymes. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) are key host-cell enzymes that convert fatty acids (FA) into acyl-CoA for use in metabolic pathways. Here, we show that the complete host ACSL family [ACSL1 and ACSL3–6] translocates into the Ct membrane-bound vacuole, termed inclusion, and remains associated with membranes of metabolically active forms of Ct throughout development. We discovered that three different pharmacologic inhibitors of ACSL activity independently impede Ct growth in a dose-dependent fashion. Using an FA competition assay, host ACSLs were found to activate Ct branched-chain FAs, suggesting that one function of the ACSLs is to activate Ct FAs and host FAs (recruited from the cytoplasm) within the inclusion. Because the ACSL inhibitors can deplete lipid droplets (LD), we used a cell line where LD synthesis was switched off to evaluate whether LD deficiency affects Ct growth. In these cells, we found no effect on growth or on translocation of ACSLs into the inclusion. Our findings support an essential role for ACSL activation of host-cell and bacterial FAs within the inclusion to promote Ct growth and development, independent of LDs. PMID:26988341

  8. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 modulates prostaglandin E2 release from human arterial smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Golej, Deidre L.; Askari, Bardia; Kramer, Farah; Barnhart, Shelley; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2011-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) catalyze the thioesterification of long-chain FAs into their acyl-CoA derivatives. Purified ACSL4 is an arachidonic acid (20:4)-preferring ACSL isoform, and ACSL4 is therefore a probable regulator of lipid mediator production in intact cells. Eicosanoids play important roles in vascular homeostasis and disease, yet the role of ACSL4 in vascular cells is largely unknown. In the present study, the ACSL4 splice variant expressed in human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was identified as variant 1. To investigate the function of ACSL4 in SMCs, ACSL4 variant 1 was overexpressed, knocked-down by small interfering RNA, or its enzymatic activity acutely inhibited in these cells. Overexpression of ACSL4 resulted in a markedly increased synthesis of arachidonoyl-CoA, increased 20:4 incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and triacylglycerol, and reduced cellular levels of unesterified 20:4. Accordingly, secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was blunted in ACSL4-overexpressing SMCs compared with controls. Conversely, acute pharmacological inhibition of ACSL4 activity resulted in increased release of PGE2. However, long-term downregulation of ACSL4 resulted in markedly reduced PGE2 secretion. Thus, ACSL4 modulates PGE2 release from human SMCs. ACSL4 may regulate a number of processes dependent on the release of arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators in the arterial wall. PMID:21242590

  9. Crystal structures of SIRT3 reveal that the α2-α3 loop and α3-helix affect the interaction with long-chain acyl lysine.

    PubMed

    Gai, Wei; Li, He; Jiang, Hualiang; Long, Yaqiu; Liu, Dongxiang

    2016-09-01

    SIRT1-7 play important roles in many biological processes and age-related diseases. In addition to a NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase activity, they can catalyze several other reactions, including the hydrolysis of long-chain fatty acyl lysine. To study the binding modes of sirtuins to long-chain acyl lysines, we solved the crystal structures of SIRT3 bound to either a H3K9-myristoylated- or a H3K9-palmitoylated peptide. Interaction of SIRT3 with the palmitoyl group led to unfolding of the α3-helix. The myristoyl and palmitoyl groups bind to the C-pocket and an allosteric site near the α3-helix, respectively. We found that the residues preceding the α3-helix determine the size of the C-pocket. The flexibility of the α2-α3 loop and the plasticity of the α3-helix affect the interaction with long-chain acyl lysine. PMID:27501476

  10. Enrichment of hydroxylated C24- and C26-acyl-chain sphingolipids mediates PIN2 apical sorting at trans-Golgi network subdomains

    PubMed Central

    Wattelet-Boyer, Valérie; Brocard, Lysiane; Jonsson, Kristoffer; Esnay, Nicolas; Joubès, Jérôme; Domergue, Frédéric; Mongrand, Sébastien; Raikhel, Natasha; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Moreau, Patrick; Boutté, Yohann

    2016-01-01

    The post-Golgi compartment trans-Golgi Network (TGN) is a central hub divided into multiple subdomains hosting distinct trafficking pathways, including polar delivery to apical membrane. Lipids such as sphingolipids and sterols have been implicated in polar trafficking from the TGN but the underlying mechanisms linking lipid composition to functional polar sorting at TGN subdomains remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that sphingolipids with α-hydroxylated acyl-chains of at least 24 carbon atoms are enriched in secretory vesicle subdomains of the TGN and are critical for de novo polar secretory sorting of the auxin carrier PIN2 to apical membrane of Arabidopsis root epithelial cells. We show that sphingolipid acyl-chain length influences the morphology and interconnections of TGN-associated secretory vesicles. Our results uncover that the sphingolipids acyl-chain length links lipid composition of TGN subdomains with polar secretory trafficking of PIN2 to apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells. PMID:27681606

  11. The role of Δ6-desaturase acyl-carrier specificity in the efficient synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, Olga; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A

    2012-02-01

    The role of acyl-CoA-dependent Δ6-desaturation in the heterologous synthesis of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was systematically evaluated in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana. The acyl-CoA Δ6-desaturase from the picoalga Ostreococcus tauri and orthologous activities from mouse (Mus musculus) and salmon (Salmo salar) were shown to generate substantial levels of Δ6-desaturated acyl-CoAs, in contrast to the phospholipid-dependent Δ6-desaturases from higher plants that failed to modify this metabolic pool. Transgenic plants expressing the acyl-CoA Δ6-desaturases from either O. tauri or salmon, in conjunction with the two additional activities required for the synthesis of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids, contained higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid compared with plants expressing the borage phospholipid-dependent Δ6-desaturase. The use of acyl-CoA-dependent Δ6-desaturases almost completely abolished the accumulation of unwanted biosynthetic intermediates such as γ-linolenic acid in total seed lipids. Expression of acyl-CoA Δ6-desaturases resulted in increased distribution of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the polar lipids of transgenic plants, reflecting the larger substrate pool available for acylation by enzymes of the Kennedy pathway. Expression of the O. tauriΔ6-desaturase in transgenic Camelina sativa plants also resulted in the accumulation of high levels of Δ6-desaturated fatty acids. This study provides evidence for the efficacy of using acyl-CoA-dependent Δ6-desaturases in the efficient metabolic engineering of transgenic plants with high value traits such as the synthesis of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. PMID:21902798

  12. Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-Bisphosphate Acyl Chains Differentiate Membrane Binding of HIV-1 Gag from That of the Phospholipase Cδ1 Pleckstrin Homology Domain

    PubMed Central

    Olety, Balaji; Veatch, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Gag, which drives virion assembly, interacts with a plasma membrane (PM)-specific phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. While cellular acidic phospholipid-binding proteins/domains, such as the PI(4,5)P2-specific pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase Cδ1 (PHPLCδ1), mediate headgroup-specific interactions with corresponding phospholipids, the exact nature of the Gag-PI(4,5)P2 interaction remains undetermined. In this study, we used giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) to examine how PI(4,5)P2 with unsaturated or saturated acyl chains affect membrane binding of PHPLCδ1 and Gag. Both unsaturated dioleoyl-PI(4,5)P2 [DO-PI(4,5)P2] and saturated dipalmitoyl-PI(4,5)P2 [DP-PI(4,5)P2] successfully recruited PHPLCδ1 to membranes of single-phase GUVs. In contrast, DO-PI(4,5)P2 but not DP-PI(4,5)P2 recruited Gag to GUVs, indicating that PI(4,5)P2 acyl chains contribute to stable membrane binding of Gag. GUVs containing PI(4,5)P2, cholesterol, and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine separated into two coexisting phases: one was a liquid phase, and the other appeared to be a phosphatidylserine-enriched gel phase. In these vesicles, the liquid phase recruited PHPLCδ1 regardless of PI(4,5)P2 acyl chains. Likewise, Gag bound to the liquid phase when PI(4,5)P2 had DO-acyl chains. DP-PI(4,5)P2-containing GUVs showed no detectable Gag binding to the liquid phase. Unexpectedly, however, DP-PI(4,5)P2 still promoted recruitment of Gag, but not PHPLCδ1, to the dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylserine-enriched gel phase of these GUVs. Altogether, these results revealed different roles for PI(4,5)P2 acyl chains in membrane binding of two PI(4,5)P2-binding proteins, Gag and PHPLCδ1. Notably, we observed that nonmyristylated Gag retains the preference for PI(4,5)P2 containing an unsaturated acyl chain over DP-PI(4,5)P2, suggesting that Gag sensitivity to PI(4,5)P2 acyl chain saturation is determined directly by the matrix-PI(4,5)P2 interaction, rather

  13. Fatty Acid Oxidation Mediated by Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain 3 Is Required for Mutant KRAS Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Padanad, Mahesh S; Konstantinidou, Georgia; Venkateswaran, Niranjan; Melegari, Margherita; Rindhe, Smita; Mitsche, Matthew; Yang, Chendong; Batten, Kimberly; Huffman, Kenneth E; Liu, Jingwen; Tang, Ximing; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Kalhor, Neda; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D; McDonald, Jeffrey; Wistuba, Ignacio I; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo

    2016-08-01

    KRAS is one of the most commonly mutated oncogenes in human cancer. Mutant KRAS aberrantly regulates metabolic networks. However, the contribution of cellular metabolism to mutant KRAS tumorigenesis is not completely understood. We report that mutant KRAS regulates intracellular fatty acid metabolism through Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3), which converts fatty acids into fatty Acyl-CoA esters, the substrates for lipid synthesis and β-oxidation. ACSL3 suppression is associated with depletion of cellular ATP and causes the death of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, mutant KRAS promotes the cellular uptake, retention, accumulation, and β-oxidation of fatty acids in lung cancer cells in an ACSL3-dependent manner. Finally, ACSL3 is essential for mutant KRAS lung cancer tumorigenesis in vivo and is highly expressed in human lung cancer. Our data demonstrate that mutant KRAS reprograms lipid homeostasis, establishing a metabolic requirement that could be exploited for therapeutic gain. PMID:27477280

  14. Structural basis for selective recognition of acyl chains by the membrane-associated acyltransferase PatA

    PubMed Central

    Albesa-Jové, David; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Tersa, Montse; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Carreras-González, Ana; Bonnet, Pascal; Arrasate, Pedro; Eguskiza, Ander; Angala, Shiva K.; Cifuente, Javier O.; Korduláková, Jana; Jackson, Mary; Mikušová, Katarína; Guerin, Marcelo E.

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids are critical pathways for virtually all cell membranes. PatA is an essential membrane associated acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs). The enzyme transfers a palmitoyl moiety from palmitoyl–CoA to the 6-position of the mannose ring linked to 2-position of inositol in PIM1/PIM2. We report here the crystal structures of PatA from Mycobacterium smegmatis in the presence of its naturally occurring acyl donor palmitate and a nonhydrolyzable palmitoyl–CoA analog. The structures reveal an α/β architecture, with the acyl chain deeply buried into a hydrophobic pocket that runs perpendicular to a long groove where the active site is located. Enzyme catalysis is mediated by an unprecedented charge relay system, which markedly diverges from the canonical HX4D motif. Our studies establish the mechanistic basis of substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis for an important family of acyltransferases, providing exciting possibilities for inhibitor design. PMID:26965057

  15. Structural basis for selective recognition of acyl chains by the membrane-associated acyltransferase PatA.

    PubMed

    Albesa-Jové, David; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Tersa, Montse; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Carreras-González, Ana; Bonnet, Pascal; Arrasate, Pedro; Eguskiza, Ander; Angala, Shiva K; Cifuente, Javier O; Korduláková, Jana; Jackson, Mary; Mikušová, Katarína; Guerin, Marcelo E

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids are critical pathways for virtually all cell membranes. PatA is an essential membrane associated acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs). The enzyme transfers a palmitoyl moiety from palmitoyl-CoA to the 6-position of the mannose ring linked to 2-position of inositol in PIM1/PIM2. We report here the crystal structures of PatA from Mycobacterium smegmatis in the presence of its naturally occurring acyl donor palmitate and a nonhydrolyzable palmitoyl-CoA analog. The structures reveal an α/β architecture, with the acyl chain deeply buried into a hydrophobic pocket that runs perpendicular to a long groove where the active site is located. Enzyme catalysis is mediated by an unprecedented charge relay system, which markedly diverges from the canonical HX4D motif. Our studies establish the mechanistic basis of substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis for an important family of acyltransferases, providing exciting possibilities for inhibitor design. PMID:26965057

  16. Changes in conformational dynamics of basic side chains upon protein-DNA association.

    PubMed

    Esadze, Alexandre; Chen, Chuanying; Zandarashvili, Levani; Roy, Sourav; Pettitt, B Montgometry; Iwahara, Junji

    2016-08-19

    Basic side chains play major roles in recognition of nucleic acids by proteins. However, dynamic properties of these positively charged side chains are not well understood. In this work, we studied changes in conformational dynamics of basic side chains upon protein-DNA association for the zinc-finger protein Egr-1. By nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we characterized the dynamics of all side-chain cationic groups in the free protein and in the complex with target DNA. Our NMR order parameters indicate that the arginine guanidino groups interacting with DNA bases are strongly immobilized, forming rigid interfaces. Despite the strong short-range electrostatic interactions, the majority of the basic side chains interacting with the DNA phosphates exhibited high mobility, forming dynamic interfaces. In particular, the lysine side-chain amino groups exhibited only small changes in the order parameters upon DNA-binding. We found a similar trend in the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for the free Egr-1 and the Egr-1-DNA complex. Using the MD trajectories, we also analyzed side-chain conformational entropy. The interfacial arginine side chains exhibited substantial entropic loss upon binding to DNA, whereas the interfacial lysine side chains showed relatively small changes in conformational entropy. These data illustrate different dynamic characteristics of the interfacial arginine and lysine side chains. PMID:27288446

  17. Polymer side-chains as arms for molecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, Clinton Ray

    This thesis describes research based on synthetic protocols, methodologies, and applications of polymers containing side-chain molecular recognition elements. The motivation for the thesis lies in the belief among many in the field that a strict covalent paradigm for polymer chemistry is reaching its limit. The use of molecular recognition, in lieu of covalent chemistry, potentially presents a path through the current limits of polymer science. The work described in the following chapters of this thesis is, at least in part, a testament to this proposal. The first two chapters present a basic introduction and survey of the fundamental noncovalent interactions that are ubiquitous in the research of supramolecular polymers and molecular recognition. A hierarchy of noncovalent interactions, molecular recognition, and self-assembly is outlined and discussed. Chapter 2 lays the foundation for the remaining chapters of this thesis by presenting several examples of prior work related specifically to the use of molecular recognition on the side-chains of polymers. The next two chapters present research focused on advancing the functionalization of polymers through molecular recognition. The goal of this research is primarily to develop a general polymer backbone that both site-specifically and strongly associates noncovalently with small molecular substrates. These chapters demonstrate that both architecturally controlled block copolymers and random terpolymers can accept a full load of different substrates without interference among distinct molecular recognition elements along the polymer backbone. Chapters 5 and 6 present a unique application of polymers containing molecular recognition elements, templated synthesis. Chapter 5 first discusses lessons learned from small molecule based templated synthesis in which a template and a substrate are held together by metal coordination and a subsequent bond forming reaction occurs. Ultimately, the results of this chapter

  18. Peptoid oligomers with alpha-chiral, aromatic side chains: effects of chain length on secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, C W; Sanborn, T J; Zuckermann, R N; Barron, A E

    2001-04-01

    Oligomeric N-substituted glycines or "peptoids" with alpha-chiral, aromatic side chains can adopt stable helices in organic or aqueous solution, despite their lack of backbone chirality and their inability to form intrachain hydrogen bonds. Helical ordering appears to be stabilized by avoidance of steric clash as well as by electrostatic repulsion between backbone carbonyls and pi clouds of aromatic rings in the side chains. Interestingly, these peptoid helices exhibit intense circular dichroism (CD) spectra that closely resemble those of peptide alpha-helices. Here, we have utilized CD to systematically study the effects of oligomer length, concentration, and temperature on the chiral secondary structure of organosoluble peptoid homooligomers ranging from 3 to 20 (R)-N-(1-phenylethyl)glycine (Nrpe) monomers in length. We find that a striking evolution in CD spectral features occurs for Nrpe oligomers between 4 and 12 residues in length, which we attribute to a chain length-dependent population of alternate structured conformers having cis versus trans amide bonds. No significant changes are observed in CD spectra of oligomers between 13 and 20 monomers in length, suggesting a minimal chain length of about 13 residues for the formation of stable poly(Nrpe) helices. Moreover, no dependence of circular dichroism on concentration is observed for an Nrpe hexamer, providing evidence that these helices remain monomeric in solution. In light of these new data, we discuss chain length-related factors that stabilize organosoluble peptoid helices of this class, which are important for the design of helical, biomimetic peptoids sharing this structural motif.

  19. Partial deletion of beta9 loop in pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 reduces enzyme activity with a larger effect on long acyl chain substrates.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Kaouthar; Amara, Sawsan; Bezzine, Sofiane; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Carrière, Frédéric; Gaussier, Hélène

    2013-07-01

    Structural studies on pancreatic lipase have revealed a complex architecture of surface loops surrounding the enzyme active site and potentially involved in interactions with lipids. Two of them, the lid and beta loop, expose a large hydrophobic surface and are considered as acyl chain binding sites based on their interaction with an alkyl phosphonate inhibitor. While the role of the lid in substrate recognition and selectivity has been extensively studied, the implication of beta9 loop in acyl chain stabilization remained hypothetical. The characterization of an enzyme with a natural deletion of the lid, guinea pig pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (GPLRP2), suggests however an essential contribution of the beta9 loop in the stabilization of the acyl enzyme intermediate formed during the lipolysis reaction. A GPLRP2 mutant with a seven-residue deletion of beta9 loop (GPLRP2-deltabeta9) was produced and its enzyme activity was measured using various substrates (triglycerides, monoglycerides, galactolipids, phospholipids, vinyl esters) with short, medium and long acyl chains. Whatever the substrate tested, GPLRP2-deltabeta9 activity is drastically reduced compared to that of wild-type GPLRP2 and this effect is more pronounced as the length of substrate acyl chain increases. Changes in relative substrate selectivity and stereoselectivity remained however weak. The deletion within beta9 loop has also a negative effect on the rate of enzyme inhibition by alkyl phosphonates. All these findings indicate that the reduced enzyme turnover observed with GPLRP2-deltabeta9 results from a weaker stabilization of the acyl enzyme intermediate due to a loss of hydrophobic interactions. PMID:24046870

  20. Dynamics of the Heat Stress Response of Ceramides with Different Fatty-Acyl Chain Lengths in Baker's Yeast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Wei; Fonseca, Luis L; Hannun, Yusuf A; Voit, Eberhard O

    2015-08-01

    The article demonstrates that computational modeling has the capacity to convert metabolic snapshots, taken sequentially over time, into a description of cellular, dynamic strategies. The specific application is a detailed analysis of a set of actions with which Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to heat stress. Using time dependent metabolic concentration data, we use a combination of mathematical modeling, reverse engineering, and optimization to infer dynamic changes in enzyme activities within the sphingolipid pathway. The details of the sphingolipid responses to heat stress are important, because they guide some of the longer-term alterations in gene expression, with which the cells adapt to the increased temperature. The analysis indicates that all enzyme activities in the system are affected and that the shapes of the time trends in activities depend on the fatty-acyl CoA chain lengths of the different ceramide species in the system.

  1. Dynamics of the Heat Stress Response of Ceramides with Different Fatty-Acyl Chain Lengths in Baker's Yeast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Wei; Fonseca, Luis L; Hannun, Yusuf A; Voit, Eberhard O

    2015-08-01

    The article demonstrates that computational modeling has the capacity to convert metabolic snapshots, taken sequentially over time, into a description of cellular, dynamic strategies. The specific application is a detailed analysis of a set of actions with which Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to heat stress. Using time dependent metabolic concentration data, we use a combination of mathematical modeling, reverse engineering, and optimization to infer dynamic changes in enzyme activities within the sphingolipid pathway. The details of the sphingolipid responses to heat stress are important, because they guide some of the longer-term alterations in gene expression, with which the cells adapt to the increased temperature. The analysis indicates that all enzyme activities in the system are affected and that the shapes of the time trends in activities depend on the fatty-acyl CoA chain lengths of the different ceramide species in the system. PMID:26241868

  2. Effects of experimental hypo- and hyperthyroidism on hepatic long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase and hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Dang, A Q; Faas, F H; Carter, W J

    1989-07-01

    The effects of T3 treatment and thyroidectomy on rat liver microsomal long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA) synthetase and LCFA-CoA hydrolase activities were determined. Hyperthyroid rats had a 36-42% decrease in LCFA-CoA synthetase with no change in hydrolase activity. This may contribute to the redirection of fatty acids from esterification to oxidation reactions in hyperthyroidism. Thyroidectomized rats had a 40-44% decrease in synthetase and a 27-42% decrease in LCFA-CoA hydrolase activity. The decrease in both LCFA-CoA synthetase and hydrolase activities in hypothyroidism may indicate that the LCFA-CoA turnover in this futile cycle is decreased in the liver.

  3. Basic amino-acid side chains regulate transmembrane integrin signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chungho; Schmidt, Thomas; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Ye, Feng; Ulmer, Tobias S; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2011-12-18

    Side chains of Lys/Arg near transmembrane domain (TMD) membrane-water interfaces can 'snorkel', placing their positive charge near negatively charged phospholipid head groups; however, snorkelling's functional effects are obscure. Integrin β TMDs have such conserved basic amino acids. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to show that integrin β(3)(Lys 716) helps determine β(3) TMD topography. The α(ΙΙb)β(3) TMD structure indicates that precise β(3) TMD crossing angles enable the assembly of outer and inner membrane 'clasps' that hold the αβ TMD together to limit transmembrane signalling. Mutation of β(3)(Lys 716) caused dissociation of α(ΙΙb)β(3) TMDs and integrin activation. To confirm that altered topography of β(3)(Lys 716) mutants activated α(ΙΙb)β(3), we used directed evolution of β(3)(K716A) to identify substitutions restoring default state. Introduction of Pro(711) at the midpoint of β(3) TMD (A711P) increased α(ΙΙb)β(3) TMD association and inactivated integrin α(ΙΙb)β(3)(A711P,K716A). β(3)(Pro 711) introduced a TMD kink of 30 ± 1° precisely at the border of the outer and inner membrane clasps, thereby decoupling the tilt between these segments. Thus, widely occurring snorkelling residues in TMDs can help maintain TMD topography and membrane-embedding, thereby regulating transmembrane signalling.

  4. Medium-chain acyl-CoA deficiency: outlines from newborn screening, in silico predictions, and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Catarzi, Serena; Caciotti, Anna; Thusberg, Janita; Tonin, Rodolfo; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Cavicchi, Catia; Ferri, Lorenzo; Donati, Maria A; Baronio, Federico; Guerrini, Renzo; Mooney, Sean D; Morrone, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is a disorder of fatty acid oxidation characterized by hypoglycemic crisis under fasting or during stress conditions, leading to lethargy, seizures, brain damage, or even death. Biochemical acylcarnitines data obtained through newborn screening by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were confirmed by molecular analysis of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM) gene. Out of 324.000 newborns screened, we identified 14 MCADD patients, in whom, by molecular analysis, we found a new nonsense c.823G>T (p.Gly275∗) and two new missense mutations: c.253G>C (p.Gly85Arg) and c.356T>A (p.Val119Asp). Bioinformatics predictions based on both phylogenetic conservation and functional/structural software were used to characterize the new identified variants. Our findings confirm the rising incidence of MCADD whose existence is increasingly recognized due to the efficacy of an expanded newborn screening panel by LC-MS/MS making possible early specific therapies that can prevent possible crises in at-risk infants. We noticed that the "common" p.Lys329Glu mutation only accounted for 32% of the defective alleles, while, in clinically diagnosed patients, this mutation accounted for 90% of defective alleles. Unclassified variants (UVs or VUSs) are especially critical when considering screening programs. The functional and pathogenic characterization of genetic variants presented here is required to predict their medical consequences in newborns. PMID:24294134

  5. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) Protein Regulates Long-chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase by Deacetylating Conserved Lysines Near the Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Uppala, Radha; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Schreiber, Emanuel; Uechi, Guy; Beck, Megan E.; Rardin, Matthew J.; Vockley, Jerry; Verdin, Eric; Gibson, Bradford W.; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is a key mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme. We previously demonstrated increased LCAD lysine acetylation in SIRT3 knockout mice concomitant with reduced LCAD activity and reduced fatty acid oxidation. To study the effects of acetylation on LCAD and determine sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) target sites, we chemically acetylated recombinant LCAD. Acetylation impeded substrate binding and reduced catalytic efficiency. Deacetylation with recombinant SIRT3 partially restored activity. Residues Lys-318 and Lys-322 were identified as SIRT3-targeted lysines. Arginine substitutions at Lys-318 and Lys-322 prevented the acetylation-induced activity loss. Lys-318 and Lys-322 flank residues Arg-317 and Phe-320, which are conserved among all acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and coordinate the enzyme-bound FAD cofactor in the active site. We propose that acetylation at Lys-318/Lys-322 causes a conformational change which reduces hydride transfer from substrate to FAD. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9, two related enzymes with lysines at positions equivalent to Lys-318/Lys-322, were also efficiently deacetylated by SIRT3 following chemical acetylation. These results suggest that acetylation/deacetylation at Lys-318/Lys-322 is a mode of regulating fatty acid oxidation. The same mechanism may regulate other acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. PMID:24121500

  6. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) protein regulates long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase by deacetylating conserved lysines near the active site.

    PubMed

    Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Uppala, Radha; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Schreiber, Emanuel; Uechi, Guy; Beck, Megan E; Rardin, Matthew J; Vockley, Jerry; Verdin, Eric; Gibson, Bradford W; Hirschey, Matthew D; Goetzman, Eric S

    2013-11-22

    Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is a key mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme. We previously demonstrated increased LCAD lysine acetylation in SIRT3 knockout mice concomitant with reduced LCAD activity and reduced fatty acid oxidation. To study the effects of acetylation on LCAD and determine sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) target sites, we chemically acetylated recombinant LCAD. Acetylation impeded substrate binding and reduced catalytic efficiency. Deacetylation with recombinant SIRT3 partially restored activity. Residues Lys-318 and Lys-322 were identified as SIRT3-targeted lysines. Arginine substitutions at Lys-318 and Lys-322 prevented the acetylation-induced activity loss. Lys-318 and Lys-322 flank residues Arg-317 and Phe-320, which are conserved among all acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and coordinate the enzyme-bound FAD cofactor in the active site. We propose that acetylation at Lys-318/Lys-322 causes a conformational change which reduces hydride transfer from substrate to FAD. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9, two related enzymes with lysines at positions equivalent to Lys-318/Lys-322, were also efficiently deacetylated by SIRT3 following chemical acetylation. These results suggest that acetylation/deacetylation at Lys-318/Lys-322 is a mode of regulating fatty acid oxidation. The same mechanism may regulate other acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. PMID:24121500

  7. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells.

  8. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells. PMID:26754772

  9. Development and pathomechanisms of cardiomyopathy in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCAD(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Hermann, Sven; Sturm, Marga; Schäfers, Michael; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a typical manifestation of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), the most common long-chain β-oxidation defects in humans; however in some patients cardiac function is fully compensated. Cardiomyopathy may also be reversed by supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). We here characterize cardiac function of VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-)) mice over one year. Furthermore, we investigate the long-term effect of a continuous MCT diet on the cardiac phenotype. We assessed cardiac morphology and function in VLCAD(-/-) mice by in vivo MRI. Cardiac energetics were measured by (31)P-MRS and myocardial glucose uptake was quantified by positron-emission-tomography (PET). Metabolic adaptations were identified by the expression of genes regulating glucose and lipid metabolism using real-time-PCR. VLCAD(-/-) mice showed a progressive decrease in heart function over 12 months accompanied by a reduced phosphocreatine-to-ATP-ratio indicative of chronic energy deficiency. Long-term MCT supplementation aggravated the cardiac phenotype into dilated cardiomyopathy with features similar to diabetic heart disease. Cardiac energy production and function in mice with a β-oxidation defect cannot be maintained with age. Compensatory mechanisms are insufficient to preserve the cardiac energy state over time. However, energy deficiency by impaired β-oxidation and long-term MCT induce cardiomyopathy by different mechanisms. Cardiac MRI and MRS may be excellent tools to assess minor changes in cardiac function and energetics in patients with β-oxidation defects for preventive therapy.

  10. Strategies for Correcting Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Tenopoulou, Margarita; Chen, Jie; Bastin, Jean; Bennett, Michael J.; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Very long acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a genetic pediatric disorder presenting with a spectrum of phenotypes that remains for the most part untreatable. Here, we present a novel strategy for the correction of VLCAD deficiency by increasing mutant VLCAD enzymatic activity. Treatment of VLCAD-deficient fibroblasts, which express distinct mutant VLCAD protein and exhibit deficient fatty acid β-oxidation, with S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine induced site-specific S-nitrosylation of VLCAD mutants at cysteine residue 237. Cysteine 237 S-nitrosylation was associated with an 8–17-fold increase in VLCAD-specific activity and concomitant correction of acylcarnitine profile and β-oxidation capacity, two hallmarks of the disorder. Overall, this study provides biochemical evidence for a potential therapeutic modality to correct β-oxidation deficiencies. PMID:25737446

  11. Genetics Home Reference: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... down (metabolize) a group of fats called medium-chain fatty acids. These fatty acids are found in foods and the body's fat tissues. Fatty acids are a major source of energy for the heart and muscles. During periods of fasting, ... of this enzyme, medium-chain fatty acids are not metabolized properly. As a ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... metabolize) a group of fats called very long-chain fatty acids. These fatty acids are found in foods and the body's fat tissues. Fatty acids are a major source of energy for the heart and muscles. During periods of fasting, ... of this enzyme, very long-chain fatty acids are not metabolized properly. As a ...

  13. Solvation thermodynamics of amino acid side chains on a short peptide backbone

    SciTech Connect

    Hajari, Timir; Vegt, Nico F. A. van der

    2015-04-14

    The hydration process of side chain analogue molecules differs from that of the actual amino acid side chains in peptides and proteins owing to the effects of the peptide backbone on the aqueous solvent environment. A recent molecular simulation study has provided evidence that all nonpolar side chains, attached to a short peptide backbone, are considerably less hydrophobic than the free side chain analogue molecules. In contrast to this, the hydrophilicity of the polar side chains is hardly affected by the backbone. To analyze the origin of these observations, we here present a molecular simulation study on temperature dependent solvation free energies of nonpolar and polar side chains attached to a short peptide backbone. The estimated solvation entropies and enthalpies of the various amino acid side chains are compared with existing side chain analogue data. The solvation entropies and enthalpies of the polar side chains are negative, but in absolute magnitude smaller compared with the corresponding analogue data. The observed differences are large; however, owing to a nearly perfect enthalpy-entropy compensation, the solvation free energies of polar side chains remain largely unaffected by the peptide backbone. We find that a similar compensation does not apply to the nonpolar side chains; while the backbone greatly reduces the unfavorable solvation entropies, the solvation enthalpies are either more favorable or only marginally affected. This results in a very small unfavorable free energy cost, or even free energy gain, of solvating the nonpolar side chains in strong contrast to solvation of small hydrophobic or nonpolar molecules in bulk water. The solvation free energies of nonpolar side chains have been furthermore decomposed into a repulsive cavity formation contribution and an attractive dispersion free energy contribution. We find that cavity formation next to the peptide backbone is entropically favored over formation of similar sized nonpolar side

  14. A Peroxisomal Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase from Glycine max Involved in Lipid Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bingjun; Sun, Xuegang; Gu, Shoulai; Han, Tianfu; Hou, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Seed storage oil, in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG), is degraded to provide carbon and energy during germination and early seedling growth by the fatty acid β-oxidation in the peroxisome. Although the pathways for lipid degradation have been uncovered, understanding of the exact involved enzymes in soybean is still limited. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) is a critical enzyme that activates free fatty acid released from TAG to form the fatty acyl-CoA. Recent studies have shown the importance of ACSL in lipid degradation and synthesis, but few studies were focused on soybean. In this work, we cloned a ACSL gene from soybean and designated it as GmACSL2. Sequence analysis revealed that GmACSL2 encodes a protein of 733 amino acid residues, which is highly homologous to the ones in other higher plants. Complementation test showed that GmACSL2 could restore the growth of an ACS-deficient yeast strain (YB525). Co-expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated that GmACSL2 is located at peroxisome. Expression pattern analysis showed that GmACSL2 is highly expressed in germinating seedling and strongly induced 1 day after imbibition, which indicate that GmACSL2 may take part in the seed germination. GmACSL2 overexpression in yeast and soybean hairy root severely reduces the contents of the lipids and fatty acids, compared with controls in both cells, and enhances the β-oxidation efficiency in yeast. All these results suggest that GmACSL2 may take part in fatty acid and lipid degradation. In conclusion, peroxisomal GmACSL2 from Glycine max probably be involved in the lipid degradation during seed germination. PMID:24992019

  15. Intestinal acyl-CoA synthetase 5: activation of long chain fatty acids and behind.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Christina; Jeon, Min Kyung; Kaemmerer, Elke; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2013-11-14

    The intestinal mucosa is characterized by a high complexity in terms of structure and functions and allows for a controlled demarcation towards the gut lumen. On the one hand it is responsible for pulping and selective absorption of alimentary substances ensuring the immunological tolerance, on the other hand it prevents the penetration of micro-organisms as well as bacterial outgrowth. The continuous regeneration of surface epithelia along the crypt-villus-axis in the small intestine is crucial to assuring these various functions. The core phenomena of intestinal epithelia regeneration comprise cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis. These partly contrarily oriented processes are molecularly balanced through numerous interacting signaling pathways like Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and Hedgehog, and regulated by various modifying factors. One of these modifiers is acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5). It plays a key role in de novo lipid synthesis, fatty acid degradation and membrane modifications, and regulates several intestinal processes, primarily through different variants of protein lipidation, e.g., palmitoylation. ACSL5 was shown to interact with proapoptotic molecules, and besides seems to inhibit proliferation along the crypt-villus-axis. Because of its proapoptotic and antiproliferative characteristics it could be of significant relevance for intestinal homeostasis, cellular disorder and tumor development. PMID:24259967

  16. Long-chain bases of sphingolipids are transported into cells via the acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Narita, Tomomi; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Sase, Yurie; Kihara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Transport of dietary lipids into small-intestinal epithelial cells is pathologically and nutritionally important. However, lipid uptake remains an almost unexplored research area. Although we know that long-chain bases (LCBs), constituents of sphingolipids, can enter into cells efficiently, the molecular mechanism of LCB uptake is completely unclear. Here, we found that the yeast acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) Faa1 and Faa4 are redundantly involved in LCB uptake. In addition to fatty acid-activating activity, transporter activity toward long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) has been suggested for ACSs. Both LCB and LCFA transports were largely impaired in faa1Δ faa4Δ cells. Furthermore, LCB and LCFA uptakes were mutually competitive. However, the energy dependency was different for their transports. Sodium azide/2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment inhibited import of LCFA but not that of LCB. Furthermore, the ATP-AMP motif mutation FAA1 S271A largely impaired the metabolic activity and LCFA uptake, while leaving LCB import unaffected. These results indicate that only LCFA transport requires ATP. Since ACSs do not metabolize LCBs as substrates, Faa1 and Faa4 are likely directly involved in LCB transport. Furthermore, we revealed that ACSs are also involved in LCB transport in mammalian cells. Thus, our findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that ACSs directly transport LCFAs. PMID:27136724

  17. Allometric scaling of fatty acyl chains in fowl liver, lung and kidney, but not in brain phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Szabó, András; Mézes, Miklós; Romvári, Róbert; Fébel, Hedvig

    2010-03-01

    The phospholipid (PL) fatty acyl chain (FA) composition (mol%) was determined in the kidney, liver, lung and brain of 8 avian species ranging in body mass from 150g (Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica) to 19kg (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo). In all organs except the brain, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n3, DHA) was found to show a negative allometric scaling (allometric exponent: B=-0.18; -0.20 and -0.24, for kidney, liver and lung, respectively). With minor inter-organ differences, smaller birds had more n3 FAs and longer FA chains in the renal, hepatic and pulmonary PLs. Comparing our results with literature data on avian skeletal muscle, liver mitochondria and kidney microsomes and divergent mammalian tissues, the present findings in the kidney, liver and lung PLs seem to be a part of a general relationship termed "membranes as metabolic pacemakers". Marked negative allometric scaling was found furthermore for the tissue malondialdehyde concentrations in all organs except the brain (B=-0.17; -0.13 and -0.05, respectively). In the liver and kidney a strong correlation was found between the tissue MDA and DHA levels, expressing the role of DHA in shaping the allometric properties of membrane lipids.

  18. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases expressed at high levels in developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Mullen, Robert; Gidda, Satinder K; Salas, Joaquín J

    2014-03-01

    Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression experiments in tobacco cells. The HaLACS1 protein associated with the external envelope of tobacco chloroplasts, whereas HaLACS2 was strongly bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and recovered as active enzymes in the bacterial membranes. Both enzymes displayed similar substrate specificities, with a very high preference for oleic acid and weaker activity toward stearic acid. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the role of these enzymes in sunflower oil synthesis.

  19. Long-chain bases of sphingolipids are transported into cells via the acyl-CoA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Tomomi; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Sase, Yurie; Kihara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Transport of dietary lipids into small-intestinal epithelial cells is pathologically and nutritionally important. However, lipid uptake remains an almost unexplored research area. Although we know that long-chain bases (LCBs), constituents of sphingolipids, can enter into cells efficiently, the molecular mechanism of LCB uptake is completely unclear. Here, we found that the yeast acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) Faa1 and Faa4 are redundantly involved in LCB uptake. In addition to fatty acid-activating activity, transporter activity toward long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) has been suggested for ACSs. Both LCB and LCFA transports were largely impaired in faa1Δ faa4Δ cells. Furthermore, LCB and LCFA uptakes were mutually competitive. However, the energy dependency was different for their transports. Sodium azide/2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment inhibited import of LCFA but not that of LCB. Furthermore, the ATP-AMP motif mutation FAA1 S271A largely impaired the metabolic activity and LCFA uptake, while leaving LCB import unaffected. These results indicate that only LCFA transport requires ATP. Since ACSs do not metabolize LCBs as substrates, Faa1 and Faa4 are likely directly involved in LCB transport. Furthermore, we revealed that ACSs are also involved in LCB transport in mammalian cells. Thus, our findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that ACSs directly transport LCFAs. PMID:27136724

  20. Anesthetic agents in patients with very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Charlotte; Stewart, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrongenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism that renders sufferers susceptible to hypoglycemia, liver failure, cardiomyopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. The literature about the management of these patients is hugely conflicting, suggesting that both propofol and volatile anesthesia should be avoided. We have reviewed the literature and have concluded that the source papers do not support the statements that volatile anesthetic agents are unsafe. The reports on rhabdomyolysis secondary to anesthesia appear to be due to inadequate supply of carbohydrate not volatile agents. Catabolism must be avoided with minimal fasting, glucose infusions based on age and weight, and attenuation of emotional and physical stress. General anesthesia appears to be protective of stress-induced catabolism and may offer benefits in children and anxious patients over regional anesthesia. Propofol has not been demonstrated to be harmful in VLCADD but is presented in an emulsion containing very long-chain fatty acids which can cause organ lipidosis and itself can inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. It is therefore not recommended. Suxamethonium-induced myalgia may mimic symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and cause raised CK therefore should be avoided. Opioids, NSAIDS, regional anesthesia, and local anesthetic techniques have all been used without complication. PMID:25069536

  1. Long-chain bases of sphingolipids are transported into cells via the acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Narita, Tomomi; Naganuma, Tatsuro; Sase, Yurie; Kihara, Akio

    2016-05-03

    Transport of dietary lipids into small-intestinal epithelial cells is pathologically and nutritionally important. However, lipid uptake remains an almost unexplored research area. Although we know that long-chain bases (LCBs), constituents of sphingolipids, can enter into cells efficiently, the molecular mechanism of LCB uptake is completely unclear. Here, we found that the yeast acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) Faa1 and Faa4 are redundantly involved in LCB uptake. In addition to fatty acid-activating activity, transporter activity toward long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) has been suggested for ACSs. Both LCB and LCFA transports were largely impaired in faa1Δ faa4Δ cells. Furthermore, LCB and LCFA uptakes were mutually competitive. However, the energy dependency was different for their transports. Sodium azide/2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment inhibited import of LCFA but not that of LCB. Furthermore, the ATP-AMP motif mutation FAA1 S271A largely impaired the metabolic activity and LCFA uptake, while leaving LCB import unaffected. These results indicate that only LCFA transport requires ATP. Since ACSs do not metabolize LCBs as substrates, Faa1 and Faa4 are likely directly involved in LCB transport. Furthermore, we revealed that ACSs are also involved in LCB transport in mammalian cells. Thus, our findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that ACSs directly transport LCFAs.

  2. Surface active molecules: preparation and properties of long chain n-acyl-l-alpha-amino-omega-guanidine alkyl acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Infante, R; Dominguez, J G; Erra, P; Julia, R; Prats, M

    1984-12-01

    Synopsis A new route for the synthesis of long chain N(alpha)-acyl-l-alpha-amino-omega-guamdine alkyl acid derivatives, with cationic or amphoteric character has been established. The general formula of these compounds is shown below. A physico-chemical and antimicrobial study of these products as a function of the alkyl ester or sodium salt (R), the straight chain length of the fatty acid residue (x) and the number of carbons between the omega-guanidine and omega-carboxyl group (n) has been investigated. The water solubility, surface tension, critical micelle concentration (c.m.c.) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (including Pseudomonas) has been determined. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide has been used to condense fatty acids and alpha-amino-omega-guanidine alkyl acids. In these conditions protection of the omega-guanidine group is not necessary. The main characteristic of this synthetic procedure is the use of very mild experimental conditions (temperature, pH) to form the amide linkage which leads to pure optical compounds in high yield in the absence of electrolytes. The results show that some structural modifications, particularly the protection of the carboxyl group, promote variations of the surfactant and antimicrobial properties. Only those molecules with the blocked carboxyl group (cationic molecules, where R = Me, Et or Pr) showed a good surfactant and antimicrobial activity. When the carboxyl group was unprotected (amphoteric molecules, where R = Na(+)) the resulting compounds were inactive.

  3. Transcriptomic and Reverse Genetic Analysesof Branched-Chain Fatty Acid and Acyl Sugar Production in Solanum pennellii and Nicotiana benthamiana1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, Stephen P.; Schauvinhold, Ines; McQuinn, Ryan P.; Besser, Katrin; Welsby, Nicholas A.; Harper, Andrea; Aziz, Naveed; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R.; Giovannoni, James; Dixon, Richard A.; Broun, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Acyl sugars containing branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are exuded by glandular trichomes of many species in Solanaceae, having an important defensive role against insects. From isotope-feeding studies, two modes of BCFA elongation have been proposed: (1) fatty acid synthase-mediated two-carbon elongation in the high acyl sugar-producing tomato species Solanum pennellii and Datura metel; and (2) α-keto acid elongation-mediated one-carbon increments in several tobacco (Nicotiana) species and a Petunia species. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying BCFAs and acyl sugar production in trichomes, we have taken a comparative genomic approach to identify critical enzymatic steps followed by gene silencing and metabolite analysis in S. pennellii and Nicotiana benthamiana. Our study verified the existence of distinct mechanisms of acyl sugar synthesis in Solanaceae. From microarray analyses, genes associated with α-keto acid elongation were found to be among the most strongly expressed in N. benthamiana trichomes only, supporting this model in tobacco species. Genes encoding components of the branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase complex were expressed at particularly high levels in trichomes of both species, and we show using virus-induced gene silencing that they are required for BCFA production in both cases and for acyl sugar synthesis in N. benthamiana. Functional analysis by down-regulation of specific KAS I genes and cerulenin inhibition indicated the involvement of the fatty acid synthase complex in BCFA production in S. pennellii. In summary, our study highlights both conserved and divergent mechanisms in the production of important defense compounds in Solanaceae and defines potential targets for engineering acyl sugar production in plants for improved pest tolerance. PMID:18931142

  4. Effects of cholesterol and saturated sphingolipids on acyl chain order in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers--a comparative study with phase-selective fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Oskar; Nurmi, Henrik; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Slotte, J Peter

    2015-04-14

    Saturated sphingolipids have high acyl chain order. Our aim was to study how palmitoylated sphingomyelin (PSM), ceramide (PCer), glucosyl (GlcPCer)-, and galactosylceramide (GalPCer) were able to order the bulk acyl chains of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), in comparison with cholesterol. For this reason, we used lipid probes which had preferred phases that were either the disordered phase (1-oleoyl-2-propionyl[DPH-sn-glycero-3-phosphcholine (18:1-DPH-PC) or the ordered phase (trans parinaric acid (tPA). DPH was also used, although it has no clear phase preference. We measured steady-state anisotropy (all probes) and performed fluorescence lifetime analysis (tPA) as a function of composition and temperature. At concentrations where the saturated sphingolipids were not aggregated into ordered domains (and 23 °C), they did not increase POPC acyl chain order as determined from 18:1-DPH-PC anisotropy. As expected, cholesterol increased the POPC acyl chain order linearly as a function of concentration (0-28 mol %). Since PCer already forms ordered domains below 5 mol % (at 23 °C), we measured the acyl chain ordering effect of PCer at 50 °C (0-13 mol %) and observed that PCer ordered POPC acyl chains as efficiently as cholesterol. We conclude that the bulk acyl chain order of POPC was not markedly affected in bilayers where disordered and ordered domains coexist.

  5. Macromolecular recognition: Recognition of polymer side chains by cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Harada, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of cyclodextrins (CD) with water soluble polymers possessing guest residues has been investigated as model systems in biological molecular recognition. The selectivity of interaction of CD with polymer-carrying guest residues is controlled by polymer chains, i.e., the steric effect of polymer main chain, the conformational effect of polymer main chain, and multi-site interaction. Macroscopic assemblies have been also realized based on molecular recognition using polyacrylamide-based gels possessing CD and guest residues.

  6. Biosynthesis of the lipophilic side chain in the cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic IC101.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Yoko; Naganawa, Hiroshi; Kondo, Shinichi

    2002-12-01

    Antibiotic IC101 is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide having a C(15) lipophilic side chain. The side chain was shown to be synthesized in Streptomyces from acetate, propionate, and 3-methylbutyrate derived from leucine. Thus, the terminal isopentyl structure came from leucine and not from the mevalonate pathway. PMID:12502350

  7. Automated side-chain model building and sequence assignment by template matching

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    A method for automated macromolecular side-chain model building and for aligning the sequence to the map is described. An algorithm is described for automated building of side chains in an electron-density map once a main-chain model is built and for alignment of the protein sequence to the map. The procedure is based on a comparison of electron density at the expected side-chain positions with electron-density templates. The templates are constructed from average amino-acid side-chain densities in 574 refined protein structures. For each contiguous segment of main chain, a matrix with entries corresponding to an estimate of the probability that each of the 20 amino acids is located at each position of the main-chain model is obtained. The probability that this segment corresponds to each possible alignment with the sequence of the protein is estimated using a Bayesian approach and high-confidence matches are kept. Once side-chain identities are determined, the most probable rotamer for each side chain is built into the model. The automated procedure has been implemented in the RESOLVE software. Combined with automated main-chain model building, the procedure produces a preliminary model suitable for refinement and extension by an experienced crystallographer.

  8. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based Conjugated Polymers Bearing Branched Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) Side Chains for Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingxing; Zhang, Zijian; Ding, Zicheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2016-08-22

    Conjugated polymers are essential for solution-processable organic opto-electronic devices. In contrast to the great efforts on developing new conjugated polymer backbones, research on developing side chains is rare. Herein, we report branched oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) as side chains of conjugated polymers. Compared with typical alkyl side chains, branched OEG side chains endowed the resulting conjugated polymers with a smaller π-π stacking distance, higher hole mobility, smaller optical band gap, higher dielectric constant, and larger surface energy. Moreover, the conjugated polymers with branched OEG side chains exhibited outstanding photovoltaic performance in polymer solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of 5.37 % with near-infrared photoresponse was demonstrated and the device performance could be insensitive to the active layer thickness.

  9. Development and pathomechanisms of cardiomyopathy in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCAD(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Hermann, Sven; Sturm, Marga; Schäfers, Michael; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a typical manifestation of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), the most common long-chain β-oxidation defects in humans; however in some patients cardiac function is fully compensated. Cardiomyopathy may also be reversed by supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). We here characterize cardiac function of VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-)) mice over one year. Furthermore, we investigate the long-term effect of a continuous MCT diet on the cardiac phenotype. We assessed cardiac morphology and function in VLCAD(-/-) mice by in vivo MRI. Cardiac energetics were measured by (31)P-MRS and myocardial glucose uptake was quantified by positron-emission-tomography (PET). Metabolic adaptations were identified by the expression of genes regulating glucose and lipid metabolism using real-time-PCR. VLCAD(-/-) mice showed a progressive decrease in heart function over 12 months accompanied by a reduced phosphocreatine-to-ATP-ratio indicative of chronic energy deficiency. Long-term MCT supplementation aggravated the cardiac phenotype into dilated cardiomyopathy with features similar to diabetic heart disease. Cardiac energy production and function in mice with a β-oxidation defect cannot be maintained with age. Compensatory mechanisms are insufficient to preserve the cardiac energy state over time. However, energy deficiency by impaired β-oxidation and long-term MCT induce cardiomyopathy by different mechanisms. Cardiac MRI and MRS may be excellent tools to assess minor changes in cardiac function and energetics in patients with β-oxidation defects for preventive therapy. PMID:24530811

  10. DFT study of H-bonds in the peptide secondary structures: The backbone-side-chain and polar side-chains interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vener, M. V.; Egorova, A. N.; Fomin, D. P.; Tsirelson, V. G.

    2010-05-01

    The backbone-side-chain interactions in the peptide secondary structures are studied by the density functional theory methods with/without periodic boundary conditions. The alanine-based two-stranded β-sheet structure infinite models and the cluster models of the C5 structures modified by the glutamic acid residue are considered. Several low-energy structures have been localized in the BLYP/plane-wave and the BLYP/6-311++G** approximations. Combined use of the quantum-topological analysis of the electron density and frequency shifts enables us to detect and describe quantitatively the non-covalent interactions and H-bonds. We found that the strongest backbone-side-chain interaction (˜37 kJ/mol) is due to the intra-chain H-bond formed by the C dbnd O backbone group and by the COOH side-chain group. The OH…O distance equals to 1.727 Å and the frequency shift of the OH stretching vibration is 370 cm -1. The polar side-chains interaction is studied in the infinite model of the alanine-based two-stranded β-sheet structure modified by the glutamic acid/lysine residues. Moderate inter-chain H-bond (˜40 kJ/mol) is formed by glutamic acid COOH group and lysine NH 2 group. The OH…N distance equals to 1.707 Å and the frequency shift of the OH stretching vibration is 770 cm -1.

  11. Altered Energetics of Exercise Explain Risk of Rhabdomyolysis in Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Diekman, E F; Visser, G; Schmitz, J P J; Nievelstein, R A J; de Sain-van der Velden, M; Wardrop, M; Van der Pol, W L; Houten, S M; van Riel, N A W; Takken, T; Jeneson, J A L

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is common in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and other metabolic myopathies, but its pathogenic basis is poorly understood. Here, we show that prolonged bicycling exercise against a standardized moderate workload in VLCADD patients is associated with threefold bigger changes in phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in quadriceps muscle and twofold lower changes in plasma acetyl-carnitine levels than in healthy subjects. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that muscle ATP homeostasis during exercise is compromised in VLCADD. However, the measured rates of PCr and Pi recovery post-exercise showed that the mitochondrial capacity for ATP synthesis in VLCADD muscle was normal. Mathematical modeling of oxidative ATP metabolism in muscle composed of three different fiber types indicated that the observed altered energy balance during submaximal exercise in VLCADD patients may be explained by a slow-to-fast shift in quadriceps fiber-type composition corresponding to 30% of the slow-twitch fiber-type pool in healthy quadriceps muscle. This study demonstrates for the first time that quadriceps energy balance during exercise in VLCADD patients is altered but not because of failing mitochondrial function. Our findings provide new clues to understanding the risk of rhabdomyolysis following exercise in human VLCADD. PMID:26881790

  12. Altered Energetics of Exercise Explain Risk of Rhabdomyolysis in Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Diekman, E. F.; Visser, G.; Schmitz, J. P. J.; Nievelstein, R. A. J.; de Sain-van der Velden, M.; Wardrop, M.; Van der Pol, W. L.; Houten, S. M.; van Riel, N. A. W.; Takken, T.; Jeneson, J. A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is common in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and other metabolic myopathies, but its pathogenic basis is poorly understood. Here, we show that prolonged bicycling exercise against a standardized moderate workload in VLCADD patients is associated with threefold bigger changes in phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in quadriceps muscle and twofold lower changes in plasma acetyl-carnitine levels than in healthy subjects. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that muscle ATP homeostasis during exercise is compromised in VLCADD. However, the measured rates of PCr and Pi recovery post-exercise showed that the mitochondrial capacity for ATP synthesis in VLCADD muscle was normal. Mathematical modeling of oxidative ATP metabolism in muscle composed of three different fiber types indicated that the observed altered energy balance during submaximal exercise in VLCADD patients may be explained by a slow-to-fast shift in quadriceps fiber-type composition corresponding to 30% of the slow-twitch fiber-type pool in healthy quadriceps muscle. This study demonstrates for the first time that quadriceps energy balance during exercise in VLCADD patients is altered but not because of failing mitochondrial function. Our findings provide new clues to understanding the risk of rhabdomyolysis following exercise in human VLCADD. PMID:26881790

  13. LC-MS/MS-based analysis of coenzyme A and short-chain acyl-coenzyme A thioesters.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Stefan; Chu, Dinh Binh; Marx, Hans; Sauer, Michael; Hann, Stephan; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-09-01

    Absolute quantification of intracellular coenzyme A (CoA), coenzyme A disulfide, and short-chain acyl-coenzyme A thioesters was addressed by developing a tailored metabolite profiling method based on liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). A reversed phase chromatographic separation was established which is capable of separating a broad spectrum of CoA, its corresponding derivatives, and their isomers despite the fact that no ion-pairing reagent was used (which was considered as a key advantage of the method). Excellent analytical figures of merit such as high sensitivity (LODs in the nM to sub-nM range) and high repeatability (routinely 4 %; N = 15) were obtained. Method validation comprised a study on standard purity, stability, and recoveries during sample preparation. Uniformly labeled U(13)C yeast cell extracts offered ideal internal standards for validation purposes and for a quantification exercise in the rumen bacterium Megasphaera elsdenii.

  14. Temperature Induced Surface Rearrangement of Alkyl Side Chain Comb Polymers at the Polymer/Air Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Keshav S.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2001-04-01

    Monitoring the structural changes of comb polymer surfaces as a function temperature is of practical importance in order to understand the molecular rearrangement and their influence on surface properties. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) has been employed to resolve the structural changes of alkyl side chains in these comb polymers at a molecular level. The SFG response of these side chains as a function of chain length and bulk transition temperature show strong contributions from the methyl vibrations when the side chains are in the ordered crystalline state. In the melt state, the SFG spectra show peaks corresponding to methylene vibrations. The presence of methylene peaks indicate gauche defects at the surface. The range of this order-disorder transition is shown to be much broader for polymers when compared to the low molecular weight side chain alcohols.

  15. Separation of isomeric short-chain acyl-CoAs in plant matrices using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Purves, Randy W; Ambrose, Stephen J; Clark, Shawn M; Stout, Jake M; Page, Jonathan E

    2015-02-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesters are important intermediates in cellular metabolism and being able to distinguish among them is critical to fully understanding metabolic pathways in plants. Although significant advances have been made in the identification and quantification of acyl-CoAs using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), separation of isomeric species such as isobutyryl- and n-butyrl-CoA has remained elusive. Here we report an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS method for quantifying short-chain acyl-CoAs including isomeric species n-butyryl-CoA and isobutyryl-CoA as well as n-valeryl-CoA and isovaleryl-CoA. The method was applied to the analysis of extracts of hop (Humulus lupulus) and provided strong evidence for the existence of an additional structural isomer of valeryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, as well as an unexpected isomer of hexanoyl-CoA. The results showed differences in the acyl-CoA composition among varieties of Humulus lupulus, both in glandular trichomes and cone tissues. When compared with the analysis of hemp (Cannabis sativa) extracts, the contribution of isobutyryl-CoAs in hop was greater as would be expected based on the downstream polyketide products. Surprisingly, branched chain valeryl-CoAs (isovaleryl-CoA and 2-methylbutyryl-CoA) were the dominant form of valeryl-CoAs in both hop and hemp. The capability to separate these isomeric forms will help to understand biochemical pathways leading to specialized metabolites in plants.

  16. Complex changes in the liver mitochondrial proteome of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Uechi, Guy; Schreiber, Emanuel; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Day, Billy; Michael Barmada, M; Vockley, Jerry

    2014-05-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism that leads to the impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation of short chain fatty acids. It is heterogeneous in clinical presentation including asymptomatic in most patients identified by newborn screening. Multiple mutations have been identified in patients; however, neither clear genotype-phenotype relationships nor a good correlation between genotype and current biochemical markers for diagnosis has been identified. The definition and pathophysiology of this deficiency remain unclear. To better understand this disorder at a global level, quantitative alterations in the mitochondrial proteome in SCAD deficient mice were examined using a combined proteomics approach: two-dimensional gel difference electrophoresis (2DIGE) followed by protein identification with MALDI-TOF/TOF and iTRAQ labeling followed by nano-LC/MALDI-TOF/TOF. We found broad mitochondrial dysfunction in SCAD deficiency. Changes in the levels of multiple energy metabolism related proteins were identified indicating that a more complex mechanism for development of symptoms may exist. Affected pathways converge on disorders with neurologic symptoms, suggesting that even asymptomatic individuals with SCAD deficiency may be at risk to develop more severe disease. Our results also identified a pattern associated with hepatotoxicity implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, fatty acid metabolism, decrease of depolarization of mitochondria and mitochondrial membranes, and swelling of mitochondria, demonstrating that SCAD deficiency relates more directly to mitochondrial dysfunction and alteration of fatty acid metabolism. We propose several candidate molecules that may serve as markers for recognition of clinical risk associated with this disorder.

  17. Sexual dimorphism of lipid metabolism in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCAD-/-) mice in response to medium-chain triglycerides (MCT).

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-07-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are widely applied in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. Previously it was shown that long-term MCT supplementation strongly affects lipid metabolism in mice. We here investigate sex-specific effects in mice with very-long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency in response to a long-term MCT modified diet. We quantified blood lipids, acylcarnitines, glucose, insulin and free fatty acids, as well as tissue triglycerides in the liver and skeletal muscle under a control and an MCT diet over 1 year. In addition, visceral and hepatic fat content and muscular intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were assessed by in vivo(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques. The long-term application of an MCT diet induced a marked alteration of glucose homeostasis. However, only VLCAD-/- female mice developed a severe metabolic syndrome characterized by marked insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, severe hepatic and visceral steatosis, whereas VLCAD-/- males seemed to be protected and only presented with milder insulin resistance. Moreover, the highly saturated MCT diet is associated with a decreased hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity in females aggravating the harmful effects of a saturated MCT diet. Long-term MCT supplementation deeply affects lipid metabolism in a sexual dimorphic manner resulting in a severe metabolic syndrome only in female mice. These findings are striking since the first signs of insulin resistance already occur in female VLCAD-/- mice during their reproductive period. How these metabolic adaptations are finally regulated needs to be determined. More important, the relevance of these findings for humans under these dietary modifications needs to be investigated. PMID:25887160

  18. Sexual dimorphism of lipid metabolism in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCAD-/-) mice in response to medium-chain triglycerides (MCT).

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-07-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are widely applied in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. Previously it was shown that long-term MCT supplementation strongly affects lipid metabolism in mice. We here investigate sex-specific effects in mice with very-long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency in response to a long-term MCT modified diet. We quantified blood lipids, acylcarnitines, glucose, insulin and free fatty acids, as well as tissue triglycerides in the liver and skeletal muscle under a control and an MCT diet over 1 year. In addition, visceral and hepatic fat content and muscular intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were assessed by in vivo(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques. The long-term application of an MCT diet induced a marked alteration of glucose homeostasis. However, only VLCAD-/- female mice developed a severe metabolic syndrome characterized by marked insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, severe hepatic and visceral steatosis, whereas VLCAD-/- males seemed to be protected and only presented with milder insulin resistance. Moreover, the highly saturated MCT diet is associated with a decreased hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity in females aggravating the harmful effects of a saturated MCT diet. Long-term MCT supplementation deeply affects lipid metabolism in a sexual dimorphic manner resulting in a severe metabolic syndrome only in female mice. These findings are striking since the first signs of insulin resistance already occur in female VLCAD-/- mice during their reproductive period. How these metabolic adaptations are finally regulated needs to be determined. More important, the relevance of these findings for humans under these dietary modifications needs to be investigated.

  19. Side chain flexibility in perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeffrey K; Paddison, Stephen J

    2013-10-10

    Side chain flexibility in perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomers has been explored through ab initio electronic structure calculations. Three different PFSA side chain fragments were considered with a CF3CFCF3 backbone representation: Nafion (-OCF2CF(CF3)O(CF2)2SO3H), Aquivion or the short side chain (SSC) (-O(CF2)2SO3H), and the 3M PFSA (-O(CF2)4SO3H). Rotational potential energy surfaces for each bond along the length of the side chains were obtained using density functional theory with the B3LYP and the dispersion-corrected B97D functionals with and without the inclusion of a solvation model. Solvent effects were found to have minimal effect on bond rotations close to the tetrafluoroethylene backbone but had greater impact near the terminal sulfonic acid group. The carbon-sulfur bond was found to be the most flexible portion of the side chain in each of the fragments which was further enhanced with the inclusion of the solvent. Complete rotation about either the O-CF2 or CF-O bond in the Nafion side chain resulted in fairly high energetic barriers, but significant portions of these rotational surfaces had energetic penalties less than 1.5 kcal/mol indicating substantial conformational freedom. Fully extended and folded conformations of the Nafion side chain exhibit considerable contraction in side chain end-to-end distance and were observed to be nearly isoenergetic using B3LYP, but the folded structures with the ether oxygen atoms in gauche conformations were ~1.5 kcal/mol lower in energy using B97D. Below the second ether linkage of the Nafion side chain, the rotational potential energy profiles were identical to that determined for the SSC side chain. The 3M side chain was generally found to be the most rigid with barriers for complete rotation about the central carbon-carbon bonds of approximately 7 kcal/mol. These results indicate that minor differences in side chain length and chemistry may have a pronounced effect on the rotational potential energy

  20. cDNA cloning of rat and human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Y.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-05-01

    MCAD is one of three mitochondrial flavoenzymes which catalyze the first step in the ..beta..-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. It is a tetramer with a subunit Mr of 45 kDa. MCAD is synthesized in the cytosol as a 49 kDa precursor polypeptide (pMCAD), imported into mitochondria, and cleaved to the mature form. Genetic deficiency of MCAD causes recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic coma accompanied by medium chain dicarboxylic aciduria. Employing a novel approach, the authors now report isolation of partial rat and human cDNA clones encoding pMCAD. mRNA encoding pMCAD was purified to near homogeneity by polysome immunoadsorption using polyclonal monospecific antibody. Single-stranded (/sup 32/P)labeled cDNA probe was synthesized using the enriched mRNA as template, and was used to screen directly 16,000 colonies from a total rat liver cDNA library constructed in pBR322. One clone (600 bp) was detected by in situ hybridization. Hybrid-selected translation with this cDNA yielded a 49 kDa polypeptide indistinguishable in size from rat pMCAD and immunoprecipitable with anti-MCAD antibody. Using the rat cDNA as probe, 43,000 colonies from a human liver cDNA library were screened. Four identical positive clones (400 bp) were isolated and positively identified by hybrid-selected translation and immunoprecipitation. The sizes of rat and human mRNAs encoding pMCAD were 2.2 kb and 2.4 kb, respectively, as determined by Northern blotting.

  1. Gating of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore by Long Chain Fatty Acyl Analogs in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Samovski, Dmitri; Kalderon, Bella; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The role played by long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in promoting energy expenditure is confounded by their dual function as substrates for oxidation and as putative classic uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. LCFA analogs of the MEDICA (MEthyl-substituted DICarboxylic Acids) series are neither esterified into lipids nor β-oxidized and may thus simulate the uncoupling activity of natural LCFA in vivo, independently of their substrate role. Treatment of rats or cell lines with MEDICA analogs results in low conductance gating of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), with 10–40% decrease in the inner mitochondrial membrane potential. PTP gating by MEDICA analogs is accounted for by inhibition of Raf1 expression and kinase activity, resulting in suppression of the MAPK/RSK1 and the adenylate cyclase/PKA transduction pathways. Suppression of RSK1 and PKA results in a decrease in phosphorylation of their respective downstream targets, Bad(Ser-112) and Bad(Ser-155). Decrease in Bad(Ser-112, Ser-155) phosphorylation results in increased binding of Bad to mitochondrial Bcl2 with concomitant displacement of Bax, followed by PTP gating induced by free mitochondrial Bax. Low conductance PTP gating by LCFA/MEDICA may account for their thyromimetic calorigenic activity in vivo. PMID:20037159

  2. Cholesterol Analogs with Degradation-resistant Alkyl Side Chains Are Effective Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel J; Zhao, Yan; Wong, Siew Hoon; Basudhar, Debashree; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Cholest-4-en-3-one, whether added exogenously or generated intracellularly from cholesterol, inhibits the growth ofMycobacterium tuberculosiswhen CYP125A1 and CYP142A1, the cytochrome P450 enzymes that initiate degradation of the sterol side chain, are disabled. Here we demonstrate that a 16-hydroxy derivative of cholesterol, which was previously reported to inhibit growth ofM. tuberculosis, acts by preventing the oxidation of the sterol side chain even in the presence of the relevant cytochrome P450 enzymes. The finding that (25R)-cholest-5-en-3β,16β,26-triol (1) (and its 3-keto metabolite) inhibit growth suggests that cholesterol analogs with non-degradable side chains represent a novel class of anti-mycobacterial agents. In accord with this, two cholesterol analogs with truncated, fluorinated side chains have been synthesized and shown to similarly block the growth in culture ofM. tuberculosis.

  3. Steric clashes determine differences in side chain dihedral angle distributions: A study of Thr versus Val

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Alice; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

    2012-02-01

    With the long-term goal to improve the design of protein-protein interactions, we develop a simple hard sphere model for dipeptides that can predict the side-chain dihedral angle distributions of Val and Thr in both the α-helix and β-sheet backbone conformations. We find that it is essential to include the non-polar hydrogens in the model; indeed interatomic clashes involving the non-polar hydrogens largely determine the form of side-chain dihedral angle distributions. Further, we are able to explain key differences in the side-chain dihedral angle distributions for Val and Thr from intra-residue steric clashes rather than inter-residue steric clashes or hydrogen bonding. These results are the crucial first step in developing computational models that can predict the side chain conformations of residues at protein-peptide interfaces.

  4. Thermoresponsive PNIPAAM bottlebrush polymers with tailored side-chain length and end-group structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianyu; ShamsiJazeyi, Hadi; Pesek, Stacy L; Agrawal, Aditya; Hammouda, Boualem; Verduzco, Rafael

    2014-03-28

    We explore the phase behaviour, solution conformation, and interfacial properties of bottlebrush polymers with side-chains comprised of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM), a thermally responsive polymer that exhibits a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. PNIPAAM bottlebrush polymers with controlled side-chain length and side-chain end-group structure are prepared using a "grafting-through" technique. Due to reduced flexibility of bottlebrush polymer side-chains, side-chain end-groups have a disproportionate effect on bottlebrush polymer solubility and phase behaviour. Bottlebrush polymers with a hydrophobic end-group have poor water solubilities and depressed LCSTs, whereas bottlebrush polymers with thiol-terminated side-chains are fully water-soluble and exhibit an LCST greater than that of PNIPAAM homopolymers. The temperature-dependent solution conformation of PNIPAAM bottlebrush polymers in D2O is analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and data analysis using the Guinier-Porod model shows that the bottlebrush polymer radius decreases as the temperature increases towards the LCST for PNIPAAM bottlebrush polymers with relatively long 9 kg mol(-1) side-chains. Above the LCST, PNIPAAM bottlebrush polymers can form a lyotropic liquid crystal phase in water. Interfacial tension measurements show that bottlebrush polymers reduce the interfacial tension between chloroform and water to levels comparable to PNIPAAM homopolymers without the formation of microemulsions, suggesting that bottlebrush polymers are unable to stabilize highly curved interfaces. These results demonstrate that bottlebrush polymer side-chain length and flexibility impact phase behavior, solubility, and interfacial properties.

  5. Tuning the thermal conductivity of solar cell polymers through side chain engineering.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi; Lee, Doyun; Liu, Yi; Sun, Fangyuan; Sliwinski, Anna; Gao, Haifeng; Burns, Peter C; Huang, Libai; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-05-01

    Thermal transport is critical to the performance and reliability of polymer-based energy devices, ranging from solar cells to thermoelectrics. This work shows that the thermal conductivity of a low band gap conjugated polymer, poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxybenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(alkylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate)-2,6-diyl) (PBDTTT), for photovoltaic applications can be actively tuned through side chain engineering. Compared to the original polymer modified with short branched side chains, the engineered polymer using all linear and long side chains shows a 160% increase in thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the polymer exhibits a good correlation with the side chain lengths as well as the crystallinity of the polymer characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy are used to further probe the molecular level local order of different polymers. It is found that the linear side chain modified polymer can facilitate the formation of more ordered structures, as compared to the branched side chain modified ones. The effective medium theory modelling also reveals that the long linear side chain enables a larger heat carrier propagation length and the crystalline phase in the bulk polymer increases the overall thermal conductivity. It is concluded that both the length of the side chains and the induced polymer crystallization are important for thermal transport. These results offer important guidance for actively tuning the thermal conductivity of conjugated polymers through molecular level design.

  6. Steroids with a side chain containing a heterocyclic fragment: synthesis and transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskii, Aleksander V.; Litvinovskaya, Raisa P.; Khripach, Vladimir A.

    1993-07-01

    The latest data on the methods for the formation of the side chains of steroids containing a heterocyclic fragment are surveyed and described systematically. Attention is concentrated on the methods for the transformation of heterocycles in order to achieve the stereoselective formation of chiral centres in the side chain characteristic of a series of natural polyhydroxysteroids - ecdysones, brassinosteroids, vitamin D metabolites, etc. The bibliography includes 133 references.

  7. Insertion of apoLp-III into a lipid monolayer is more favorable for saturated, more ordered, acyl-chains

    SciTech Connect

    Rathnayake, Sewwandi S.; Mirheydari, Mona; Schulte, Adam; Gillahan, James E.; Gentit, Taylor; Phillips, Ashley N.; Okonkwo, Rose K.; Burger, Koert N.J.; Mann, Elizabeth K.; Vaknin, David; Bu, Wei; Agra-Kooijman, Dena Mae; Kooijman, Edgar E.

    2013-10-04

    Neutral lipid transport in mammals is complicated involving many types of apolipoprotein. The exchangeable apolipoproteins mediate the transfer of hydrophobic lipids between tissues and particles, and bind to cell surface receptors. Amphipathic a-helices form a common structural motif that facilitates their lipid binding and exchangeability. ApoLp-III, the only exchangeable apolipoprotein found in insects, is a model amphipathic a:helix bundle protein and its three dimensional structure and function mimics that of the mammalian proteins apoE and apoAI. Even the intracellular exchangeable lipid droplet protein TIP47/perilipin 3 contains an a-helix bundle domain with high structural similarity to that of apoE and apoLp-III. Here, we investigated the interaction of apoLp-III from Locusta migratoria with lipid monolayers. Consistent with earlier work we find that insertion of apoLp-III into fluid lipid monolayers is highest for diacylglycerol. We observe a preference for saturated and more highly ordered lipids, suggesting a new mode of interaction for amphipathic a-helix bundles. X-ray reflectivity shows that apoLp-III unfolds at a hydrophobic interface and flexible loops connecting the amphipathic cc-helices stay in solution. X-ray diffraction indicates that apoLp-III insertion into diacylglycerol monolayers induces additional ordering of saturated acyl-chains. These results thus shed important new insight into the protein-lipid interactions of a model exchangeable apolipoprotein with significant implications for its mammalian counterparts. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on rat liver microsomal long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase and hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, A.Q.; Faas, F.H.; Carter, W.J.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism (hyperT/sub 3/), (tri-iodothryonine (T/sub 3/) injected rats), and hypothyroidism (hypoT/sub 3/) (thyroidectomized rats) on the activation of fatty acids by a microsomal long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCA-CoA) synthetase and the degradation of LCA-CoA by a microsomal LCA-CoA hydrolase was determined. MAS was assayed by measuring the (1-/sup 14/C)-palmitate or -1-/sup 14/C) oleate incorporated into its water soluble CoA ester. MAH was assayed spectrophotomerically by following the reduction of 5',5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by the CoA released from palmitoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA. Enzyme activities are given as mean (nmoles/mg/min) +/- SEM. MAS activities were decreased 36-44% (p < 0.01) in both hypoT/sub 3/ and hyperT/sub 3/ (controls = 101 +/- 4 (n = 11, (1-/sup 14/C)-palmitate) of 72 +/- 2 (n = 5,(1-/sup 14/C)oleate)). These decreases may contribute to the decreased triacelyglycerol (TG) and phospholipid contents in the hyperT/sub 3/ liver and the decreased clearance rate of plasma TG in the hypoT/sub 3/. MAH was decreased 27-42% (p<0.01) only in hypoT/sub 3/ (controls = 77 +/- 3 (n = 11, palmitoyl-CoA) or 45 +/- 1 (n = 5, oleoyl-CoA)). This decrease was corrected by T/sub 3/ treatment. Since the decreased MAH would increase the availability of LCA-CoA, it may contribute to the increased TG synthesis in hypoT/sub 3/.

  9. Diet-Sensitive Sources of Reactive Oxygen Species in Liver Mitochondria: Role of Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Ariel R.; Kakimoto, Pâmela A. H. B.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.

    2013-01-01

    High fat diets and accompanying hepatic steatosis are highly prevalent conditions. Previous work has shown that steatosis is accompanied by enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may mediate further liver damage. Here we investigated mechanisms leading to enhanced ROS generation following high fat diets (HFD). We found that mitochondria from HFD livers present no differences in maximal respiratory rates and coupling, but generate more ROS specifically when fatty acids are used as substrates. Indeed, many acyl-CoA dehydrogenase isoforms were found to be more highly expressed in HFD livers, although only the very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) was more functionally active. Studies conducted with permeabilized mitochondria and different chain length acyl-CoA derivatives suggest that VLCAD is also a source of ROS production in mitochondria of HFD animals. This production is stimulated by the lack of NAD+. Overall, our studies uncover VLCAD as a novel, diet-sensitive, source of mitochondrial ROS. PMID:24116206

  10. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    SciTech Connect

    Dorenbos, G.

    2015-06-14

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ∼0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.

  11. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorenbos, G.

    2015-06-01

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ˜0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.

  12. A Semiautomated Assignment Protocol for Methyl Group Side Chains in Large Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggul; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Geoffrey; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The developments of biosynthetic specific labeling strategies for side-chain methyl groups have allowed structural and dynamic characterization of very large proteins and protein complexes. However, the assignment of the methyl-group resonances remains an Achilles' heel for NMR, as the experiments designed to correlate side chains to the protein backbone become rather insensitive with the increase of the transverse relaxation rates. In this chapter, we outline a semiempirical approach to assign the resonances of methyl-group side chains in large proteins. This method requires a crystal structure or an NMR ensemble of conformers as an input, together with NMR data sets such as nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) and paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs), to be implemented in a computational protocol that provides a probabilistic assignment of methyl-group resonances. As an example, we report the protocol used in our laboratory to assign the side chains of the 42-kDa catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. Although we emphasize the labeling of isoleucine, leucine, and valine residues, this method is applicable to other methyl group side chains such as those of alanine, methionine, and threonine, as well as reductively methylated cysteine side chains.

  13. Temperature dependence of amino acid side chain IR absorptions in the amide I' region.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Amide I' IR spectra are widely used for studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins as a function of temperature. Temperature dependent absorptions of amino acid side-chains that overlap the amide I' may significantly complicate the structural analyses. While the side-chain IR spectra have been investigated previously, thus far their dependence on temperature has not been reported. Here we present the study of the changes in the IR spectra with temperature for side-chain groups of aspartate, glutamate, asparagine, glutamine, arginine, and tyrosine in the amide I' region (in D2O). Band fitting analysis was employed to extract the temperature dependence of the individual spectral parameters, such as peak frequency, integrated intensity, band width, and shape. As expected, the side-chain IR bands exhibit significant changes with temperature. The majority of the spectral parameters, particularly the frequency and intensity, show linear dependence on temperature, but the direction and magnitude vary depending on the particular side-chain group. The exception is arginine, which exhibits a distinctly nonlinear frequency shift with temperature for its asymmetric CN3H5(+) bending signal, although a linear fit can account for this change to within ~1/3 cm(-1). The applicability of the determined spectral parameters for estimations of temperature-dependent side-chain absorptions in peptides and proteins are discussed.

  14. Side chain chemistry mediates backbone fragmentation in hydrogen deficient peptide radicals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingyu; Nelson, Hosea; Ly, Tony; Stoltz, Brian M; Julian, Ryan R

    2009-02-01

    A crown ether based, photolabile radical precursor which forms noncovalent complexes with peptides has been prepared. The peptide/precursor complexes can be electrosprayed, isolated in an ion trap, and then subjected to laser photolysis and collision induced dissociation to generate hydrogen deficient peptide radicals. It is demonstrated that these peptide radicals behave very differently from the hydrogen rich peptide radicals generated by electron capture methods. In fact, it is shown that side chain chemistry dictates both the occurrence and relative abundance of backbone fragments that are observed. Fragmentation at aromatic residues occurs preferentially over most other amino acids. The origin of this selectivity relates to the mechanism by which backbone dissociation is initiated. The first step is abstraction of a beta-hydrogen from the side chain, followed by beta-elimination to yield primarily a-type fragment ions. Calculations reveal that those side chains which can easily lose a beta-hydrogen correlate well with experimentally favored sites for backbone fragmentation. In addition, radical mediated side chain losses from the parent peptide are frequently observed. Eleven amino acids exhibit unique mass losses from side chains which positively identify that particular amino acid as part of the parent peptide. Therefore, side chain losses allow one to unambiguously narrow the possible sequences for a parent peptide, which when combined with predictable backbone fragmentation should lead to greatly increased confidence in peptide identification.

  15. A Markov Random Field Framework for Protein Side-Chain Resonance Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy plays a critical role in structural genomics, and serves as a primary tool for determining protein structures, dynamics and interactions in physiologically-relevant solution conditions. The current speed of protein structure determination via NMR is limited by the lengthy time required in resonance assignment, which maps spectral peaks to specific atoms and residues in the primary sequence. Although numerous algorithms have been developed to address the backbone resonance assignment problem [68,2,10,37,14,64,1,31,60], little work has been done to automate side-chain resonance assignment [43, 48, 5]. Most previous attempts in assigning side-chain resonances depend on a set of NMR experiments that record through-bond interactions with side-chain protons for each residue. Unfortunately, these NMR experiments have low sensitivity and limited performance on large proteins, which makes it difficult to obtain enough side-chain resonance assignments. On the other hand, it is essential to obtain almost all of the side-chain resonance assignments as a prerequisite for high-resolution structure determination. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel side-chain resonance assignment algorithm based on alternative NMR experiments measuring through-space interactions between protons in the protein, which also provide crucial distance restraints and are normally required in high-resolution structure determination. We cast the side-chain resonance assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF) framework, and extend and apply combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute the optimal solution that best interprets the NMR data. Our MRF framework captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NMR spectra, and exploits the structural information available from the backbone conformations determined by orientational restraints and a set of discretized side-chain conformations (i.e., rotamers). A Hausdorff

  16. Influence of side chain configuration on anti-inflammatory analgesic and anti-pyretic properties of 4-biphenylyl alkanoic acids.

    PubMed

    Tenconi, F; Barzaghi, F; Riva, M; Meli, A

    1976-04-01

    A study on the influence of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain as well as side chain configuration on some pharmacologic properties of 4-biphenylyl alkanoic acids is presented. Unlike the chemical structure dependent anti-inflammatory properties, mild analgesic and anti-pyretic properties were neither dependent upon number of carbon atoms nor side chain configuration. PMID:939325

  17. Effects of long-chain fatty-acyl esters of coenzyme A and carnitine on cell-free rat heart preparations.

    PubMed

    Varela, A; Savino, E A

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fatty acyl CoA and carnitine esters on the glycolytic system of the rat heart. Using a respiring incubation mixture containing a whole-heart homogenate it was observed that oleoyl-CoA slowed down the glucose disappearance whereas lactate accumulation did not change. Experiments were also performed by means of an incubation mixture prepared with a soluble heart extract, considered to contain all glycolytic enzymes present in heart fibres. Palmitoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA as well as palmitoyl carnitine, added separately or together, were unable to alter the glucose disappearance and lactate accumulation in this mixture. These data suggest that long chain acyl-esters have not direct inhibitory actions on the heart glycolytic activity. However, CoA esters seem to exert indirect inhibitory effects which may be relevant to the myocardium under oxygen restriction situations.

  18. Side-chain modification and "grafting onto" via olefin cross-metathesis.

    PubMed

    de Espinosa, Lucas Montero; Kempe, Kristian; Schubert, Ulrich S; Hoogenboom, Richard; Meier, Michael A R

    2012-12-13

    Olefin cross-metathesis is introduced as a versatile polymer side-chain modification technique. The reaction of a poly(2-oxazoline) featuring terminal double bonds in the side chains with a variety of functional acrylates has been successfully performed in the presence of Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst. Self-metathesis, which would lead to polymer-polymer coupling, can be avoided by using an excess of the cross-metathesis partner and a catalyst loading of 5 mol%. The results suggest that bulky acrylates reduce chain-chain coupling due to self-metathesis. Moreover, different functional groups such as alkyl chains, hydroxyl, and allyl acetate groups, as well as an oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) and a perfluorinated alkyl chain have been grafted with quantitative conversions.

  19. Linear rheology and structure of molecular bottlebrushes with short side chains

    SciTech Connect

    López-Barrón, Carlos R. Brant, Patrick; Crowther, Donna J.; Eberle, Aaron P. R.

    2015-05-15

    We investigate the microstructure and linear viscoelasticity of model molecular bottlebrushes (BBs) using rheological and small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering measurements. Our polymers have short atactic polypropylene (aPP) side chains of molecular weight ranging from 119 g/mol to 259 g/mol and narrow molecular weight distribution (M{sub w}/M{sub n} 1.02–1.05). The side chain molecular weights are a small fraction of the entanglement molecular weight of the corresponding linear polymer (M{sub e,aPP}= 7.05 kg/mol), and as such, they are unentangled. The morphology of the aPP BBs is characterized as semiflexible thick chains with small side chain interdigitation. Their dynamic master curves, obtained by time-temperature superposition, reveal two sequential relaxation processes corresponding to the segmental relaxation and the relaxation of the BB backbone. Due to the short length of the side chains, their fast relaxation could not be distinguished from the glassy relaxation. The fractional free volume is an increasing function of the side chain length (N{sub SC}). Therefore, the glassy behavior of these polymers as well as their molecular friction and dynamic properties are influenced by their N{sub SC} values. The apparent flow activation energies are a decreasing function of N{sub SC}, and their values explain the differences in zero-shear viscosity measured at different temperatures.

  20. Sparse networks of directly coupled, polymorphic, and functional side chains in allosteric proteins.

    PubMed

    Soltan Ghoraie, Laleh; Burkowski, Forbes; Zhu, Mu

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of coupled side-chain fluctuations alone in the allosteric behavior of proteins. Moreover, examination of X-ray crystallography data has recently revealed new information about the prevalence of alternate side-chain conformations (conformational polymorphism), and attempts have been made to uncover the hidden alternate conformations from X-ray data. Hence, new computational approaches are required that consider the polymorphic nature of the side chains, and incorporate the effects of this phenomenon in the study of information transmission and functional interactions of residues in a molecule. These studies can provide a more accurate understanding of the allosteric behavior. In this article, we first present a novel approach to generate an ensemble of conformations and an efficient computational method to extract direct couplings of side chains in allosteric proteins, and provide sparse network representations of the couplings. We take the side-chain conformational polymorphism into account, and show that by studying the intrinsic dynamics of an inactive structure, we are able to construct a network of functionally crucial residues. Second, we show that the proposed method is capable of providing a magnified view of the coupled and conformationally polymorphic residues. This model reveals couplings between the alternate conformations of a coupled residue pair. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first computational method for extracting networks of side chains' alternate conformations. Such networks help in providing a detailed image of side-chain dynamics in functionally important and conformationally polymorphic sites, such as binding and/or allosteric sites.

  1. SDRL: a sequence-dependent protein side-chain rotamer library.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Goliaei, Bahram; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin

    2015-07-01

    Since the introduction of the first protein side-chain rotamer library (RL) almost half a century ago, RLs have been components of many programs and algorithms in structural bioinformatics. Based on the dependence of side-chain dihedral angles on the local backbone, three types of RLs have been identified: backbone-independent, secondary-structure-dependent and backbone-dependent. In all previous studies, the effect of sequence specificity on side-chain conformational preferences was neglected. In the effort to develop a new class of RLs, we considered that the side-chain conformation of the central residue in each triplet on a protein backbone depends on the sequence of the triplet; therefore, we developed a sequence-dependent rotamer library (SDRL). To accomplish this, 400 possible triplet sequences for 18 natural amino acids as the central residue, which corresponds to 7200 triplet sequences in total, were considered. Searching the set of 11 546 selected PDB entries for the 7200 triplet sequences resulted in 2 364 541 instances occurring for 18 amino acids. Our results show that Leu and Val experience minimal impact from the adjacent residues in adopting side-chain conformations. Cys, Ile, Trp, His, Asp, Met, Glu, Gln, Arg and Lys, on the other hand, adopt their side-chain conformations mostly based on the adjacent residues on the backbone. The remaining residue types were moderately dependent on the adjacent residues. Using the new library, side-chain repacking algorithms can find preferred conformations of each residue more easily than with other backbone-independent RLs.

  2. Topology and acylation of spiralin.

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewski, H; Nyström, S; Blanchard, A; Wieslander, A

    1989-01-01

    Of the 51 polypeptides detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the plasma membrane of the helical mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum, 21 are acylated, predominantly with myristic (14:0) and palmitic (16:0) chains. This is notably the case for spiralin, the major membrane protein of this bacterium, which contains an average of 0.7 acyl chains per polypeptide, attached very probably by ester bonds to alcohol amino acids. The amphiphilicity of spiralin was demonstrated by the behavior of the protein in charge-shift electrophoresis, its incorporation into liposomes, and its ability to form in the absence of lipids and detergents, globular protein micelles (diameter, approximately 15 nm). The presence of epitopes on the two faces of the cell membrane, as probed by antibody adsorption and crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and the strong interaction between spiralin and the intracytoplasmic fibrils show that spiralin is a transmembrane protein. The mean hydropathy of the amino acid composition of spiralin (-0.30) is on the hydrophilic side of the scale. Surprisingly, the water-insoluble core of spiralin micelles, which is the putative membrane anchor, has a still more hydrophilic amino acid composition (mean hydropathy, -0.70) and is enriched in glycine and serine residues. Taking into account all these properties, we propose a topological model for spiralin featuring a transbilayer localization with hydrophilic domains protruding on the two faces of the membrane and connected by a small domain embedded within the apolar region of the lipid bilayer. In this model, the membrane anchoring of the protein is strengthened by a covalently bound acyl chain. Images PMID:2768198

  3. Newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: regional experience and high incidence of carnitine deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common inherited defect in the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation pathway, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in undiagnosed patients. Newborn screening (NBS) has considerably improved MCADD outcome, but the risk of complication remains in some patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between genotype, biochemical parameters and clinical data at diagnosis and during follow-up, in order to optimize monitoring of these patients. Methods We carried out a multicenter study in southwest Europe, of MCADD patients detected by NBS. Evaluated NBS data included free carnitine (C0) and the acylcarnitines C8, C10, C10:1 together with C8/C2 and C8/C10 ratios, clinical presentation parameters and genotype, in 45 patients. Follow-up data included C0 levels, duration of carnitine supplementation and occurrence of metabolic crises. Results C8/C2 ratio and C8 were the most accurate biomarkers of MCADD in NBS. We found a high number of patients homozygous for the prevalent c.985A > G mutation (75%). Moreover, in these patients C8, C8/C10 and C8/C2 were higher than in patients with other genotypes, while median value of C0 was significantly lower (23 μmol/L vs 36 μmol/L). The average follow-up period was 43 months. To keep carnitine levels within the normal range, carnitine supplementation was required in 82% of patients, and for a longer period in patients homozygotes for the c.985A>G mutation than in patients with other genotypes (average 31 vs 18 months). Even with treatment, median C0 levels remained lower in homozygous patients than in those with other genotypes (14 μmol/L vs 22 μmol/L). Two patients died and another three suffered a metabolic crisis, all of whom were homozygous for the c.985 A>G mutation. Conclusions Our data show a direct association between homozygosity for c.985A>G and lower carnitine values at diagnosis, and a higher dose of carnitine

  4. From Isotropic to Anisotropic Side Chain Representations: Comparison of Three Models for Residue Contact Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weitao; He, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The criterion to determine residue contact is a fundamental problem in deriving knowledge-based mean-force potential energy calculations for protein structures. A frequently used criterion is to require the side chain center-to-center distance or the -to- atom distance to be within a pre-determined cutoff distance. However, the spatially anisotropic nature of the side chain determines that it is challenging to identify the contact pairs. This study compares three side chain contact models: the Atom Distance criteria (ADC) model, the Isotropic Sphere Side chain (ISS) model and the Anisotropic Ellipsoid Side chain (AES) model using 424 high resolution protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. The results indicate that the ADC model is the most accurate and ISS is the worst. The AES model eliminates about 95% of the incorrectly counted contact-pairs in the ISS model. Algorithm analysis shows that AES model is the most computational intensive while ADC model has moderate computational cost. We derived a dataset of the mis-estimated contact pairs by AES model. The most misjudged pairs are Arg-Glu, Arg-Asp and Arg-Tyr. Such a dataset can be useful for developing the improved AES model by incorporating the pair-specific information for the cutoff distance. PMID:21552527

  5. Dynamical view of the positions of key side chains in protein-protein recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, S R; Brower, R C; Vajda, S; Camacho, C J

    2001-01-01

    When a complex is constructed from the separately determined rigid structures of a receptor and its ligand, some key side chains are usually in wrong positions. These distortions of the interface yield an apparent loss in affinity and would unfavorably affect the kinetics of association. It is generally assumed that the interacting proteins should drive the appropriate conformational changes, leading to their complementarity, but this hypothesis does not explain their fast association rates. However, nanosecond explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of misfolded surface side chains from the independently solved structures of barstar, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, and lysozyme show that even before any receptor-ligand interaction, key side chains frequently visit the rotamer conformations seen in the complex. We show that these simple structural motifs can reconcile most of the binding affinity required for a rapid and highly specific association process. Side chains amenable to induced fit are also identified. These results corroborate that solvent-side chain interactions play a critical role in the recognition process. Our findings are also supported by crystallographic data. PMID:11159432

  6. From isotropic to anisotropic side chain representations: comparison of three models for residue contact estimation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weitao; He, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The criterion to determine residue contact is a fundamental problem in deriving knowledge-based mean-force potential energy calculations for protein structures. A frequently used criterion is to require the side chain center-to-center distance or the -to- atom distance to be within a pre-determined cutoff distance. However, the spatially anisotropic nature of the side chain determines that it is challenging to identify the contact pairs. This study compares three side chain contact models: the Atom Distance criteria (ADC) model, the Isotropic Sphere Side chain (ISS) model and the Anisotropic Ellipsoid Side chain (AES) model using 424 high resolution protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. The results indicate that the ADC model is the most accurate and ISS is the worst. The AES model eliminates about 95% of the incorrectly counted contact-pairs in the ISS model. Algorithm analysis shows that AES model is the most computational intensive while ADC model has moderate computational cost. We derived a dataset of the mis-estimated contact pairs by AES model. The most misjudged pairs are Arg-Glu, Arg-Asp and Arg-Tyr. Such a dataset can be useful for developing the improved AES model by incorporating the pair-specific information for the cutoff distance. PMID:21552527

  7. Side chains control dynamics and self-sorting in fluorescent organic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, Adrien; Fischer, Irén; Abbel, Robert; Besenius, Pol; Dasgupta, Debarshi; Gillisen, Martijn A J; Portale, Giuseppe; Stevens, Amy L; Herz, Laura M; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2013-01-22

    To develop fluorescent organic nanoparticles with tailored properties for imaging and sensing, full control over the size, fluorescence, stability, dynamics, and supramolecular organization of these particles is crucial. We have designed, synthesized, and fully characterized 12 nonionic fluorene co-oligomers that formed self-assembled fluorescent nanoparticles in water. In these series of molecules, the ratio of hydrophilic ethylene glycol and hydrophobic alkyl side chains was systematically altered to investigate its role on the above-mentioned properties. The nanoparticles consisting of π-conjugated oligomers containing polar ethylene glycol side chains were less stable and larger in size, while nanoparticles self-assembled from oligomers containing nonpolar pendant chains were more stable, smaller, and generally had a higher fluorescence quantum yield. Furthermore, the dynamics of the molecules between the nanoparticles was enhanced if the number of hydrophilic side chains increased. Energy transfer studies between naphthalene and benzothiadiazole fluorene co-oligomers with the same side chains showed no exchange of molecules between the particles for the apolar molecules. For the more polar systems, the exchange of molecules between nanoparticles took place at room temperature or after annealing. Self-assembled nanoparticles consisting of π-conjugated oligomers having different side chains caused self-sorting, resulting either in the formation of domains within particles or the formation of separate nanoparticles. Our results show that we can control the stability, fluorescence, dynamics, and self-sorting properties of the nanoparticles by simply changing the nature of the side chains of the π-conjugated oligomers. These findings are not only important for the field of self-assembled nanoparticles but also for the construction of well-defined multicomponent supramolecular materials in general.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of end-grafted centipede-like polymers with stiff charged side chains.

    PubMed

    Cao, Q Q; Zuo, C C; Li, L J

    2010-05-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate centipede-like polymers with stiff charged side chains, end-grafted to a planar wall. The effect of the grafting density and the Bjerrum length on the conformational behaviour of the brush is examined in detail. In addition, we make a comparison of centipede-like polyelectrolyte (CPE) brushes with neutral centipede-like polymer (NCP) and linear polyelectrolyte (LPE) brushes. At weak electrostatic interaction, the main chains of the CPE chains adopt a strongly stretched conformation, and the monomer density profiles of side chains exhibit a clear oscillatory behaviour. With increasing Bjerrum length, the CPE brush undergoes a collapse transition. Compared to the CPE brushes, the counterion condensation effect is stronger for the LPE brushes, regardless of whether the electrostatic interaction is weak or strong and of whether the grafting density is low or high. Additionally, it is shown that the architecture of the grafted chains makes a weak contribution to the counterion condensation at strong electrostatic interaction. We also find that the electrostatic repulsion between charged side chains can enhance the stiffness of the main chains and thus limit the range of movement of the free-end monomers.

  9. Synthesis of cyclic polyesters: effects of alkoxy side chains in salicylaldiminato tin(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Wongmahasirikun, Phonpimon; Prom-on, Paweenuch; Sangtrirutnugul, Preeyanuch; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Phomphrai, Khamphee

    2015-07-21

    A new class of salicylaldiminato tin(II) catalysts having different alkoxy side chains has been developed. The ligands were modified to have different lengths and flexibilities such as –(CH2)2– (2a), –(CH2)3– (2b), –(ortho-C6H4)CH2– (2c) and –(CH2)2–O–(CH2)2– (2d). Complexes 2a, b were characterized crystallographically revealing a more constrained environment around the metal in complex 2a. These catalysts are active for the solvent-free polymerization of L-lactide and ε-caprolactone. Complex 2a having a shorter side chain was shown to better promote intramolecular transesterification affording cyclic polylactides and cyclic poly(ε-caprolactone). Complexes 2b and 2d having longer side chains produced cyclic poly(ε-caprolactone) as a major product but failed to give cyclic polylactides.

  10. Keto-Functionalized Polymer Scaffolds As Versatile Precursors to Polymer Side Chain Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingquan; Li, Ronald C.; Sand, Gregory J.; Bulmus, Volga; Davis, Thomas P.; Maynard, Heather D.

    2014-01-01

    A new methacrylate monomer with a reactive ketone side-chain, 2-(4-oxo-pentanoate) ethyl methacrylate (PAEMA), was synthesized and subsequently polymerized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to give a polymer with a narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI = 1.25). The polymer was chain extended with poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate) (PEGMA) to yield a block copolymer. Aminooxy containing small molecules and oligoethylene glycol were conjugated to the ketone functionality of the side chain in high yields. Cytotoxicity of the oxime-linked tetra(ethylene glycol) polymer to mouse fibroblast cells was investigated; the polymer was found to be non-cytotoxic up to 1 mg/mL. The ease with which this polymer is functionalized, suggests that it may be useful in forming tailored polymeric medicines. PMID:24761032

  11. BetaSCPWeb: side-chain prediction for protein structures using Voronoi diagrams and geometry prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Joonghyun; Lee, Mokwon; Cha, Jehyun; Laskowski, Roman A.; Ryu, Seong Eon; Kim, Deok-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Many applications, such as protein design, homology modeling, flexible docking, etc. require the prediction of a protein's optimal side-chain conformations from just its amino acid sequence and backbone structure. Side-chain prediction (SCP) is an NP-hard energy minimization problem. Here, we present BetaSCPWeb which efficiently computes a conformation close to optimal using a geometry-prioritization method based on the Voronoi diagram of spherical atoms. Its outputs are visual, textual and PDB file format. The web server is free and open to all users at http://voronoi.hanyang.ac.kr/betascpweb with no login requirement. PMID:27151195

  12. Porous organic material from discotic tricarboxyamide: side chain-core interactions.

    PubMed

    Jana, Poulami; Paikar, Arpita; Bera, Santu; Maity, Suman Kumar; Haldar, Debasish

    2014-01-01

    The benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyamide containing three l-methionine (1) self-assemble through 3-fold amide-amide hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking to fabricate one-dimensional nanorod like structure. However, the tyrosine analogue (2) carrying multiple H-bonding side chains lost the C3 symmetry and 3-fold amide-amide hydrogen bonds and developed a porous structure. The porous material exhibits ten times more N2 sorption (155 cc/g) than the columnar one, indicating that side chain-core interactions have a drastic effect on structure and function.

  13. 2H nuclear magnetic resonance order parameter profiles suggest a change of molecular shape for phosphatidylcholines containing a polyunsaturated acyl chain.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, L. L.; Peter, S. A.; Sinnwell, T. M.; Gawrisch, K.

    1995-01-01

    change to a more wedge-shaped space available for the acyl chain. PMID:7647244

  14. SPRITE and ASSAM: web servers for side chain 3D-motif searching in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Nadzirin, Nurul; Gardiner, Eleanor J; Willett, Peter; Artymiuk, Peter J; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2012-07-01

    Similarities in the 3D patterns of amino acid side chains can provide insights into their function despite the absence of any detectable sequence or fold similarities. Search for protein sites (SPRITE) and amino acid pattern search for substructures and motifs (ASSAM) are graph theoretical programs that can search for 3D amino side chain matches in protein structures, by representing the amino acid side chains as pseudo-atoms. The geometric relationship of the pseudo-atoms to each other as a pattern can be represented as a labeled graph where the pseudo-atoms are the graph's nodes while the edges are the inter-pseudo-atomic distances. Both programs require the input file to be in the PDB format. The objective of using SPRITE is to identify matches of side chains in a query structure to patterns with characterized function. In contrast, a 3D pattern of interest can be searched for existing occurrences in available PDB structures using ASSAM. Both programs are freely accessible without any login requirement. SPRITE is available at http://mfrlab.org/grafss/sprite/ while ASSAM can be accessed at http://mfrlab.org/grafss/assam/. PMID:22573174

  15. Arabidopsis GUX Proteins Are Glucuronyltransferases Responsible for the Addition of Glucuronic Acid Side Chains onto Xylan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Xylan, the second most abundant cell wall polysaccharide, is composed of a linear backbone of β-(1,4)-linked xylosyl residues that are often substituted with sugar side chains, such as glucuronic acid (GlcA) and methylglucuronic acid (MeGlcA). It has recently been shown that muta...

  16. Structure and dynamics of an imidazoline nitroxide side chain with strongly hindered internal motion in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Warshaviak, Dora; Khramtsov, Valery V.; Cascio, Duilio; Altenbach, Christian; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2013-07-01

    A disulfide-linked imidazoline nitroxide side chain (V1) has a similar and highly constrained internal motion at diverse topological sites in a protein, unlike that for the disulfide-linked pyrroline nitroxide side chain (R1) widely used in site directed spin labeling EPR. Crystal structures of V1 at two positions in a helix of T4 Lysozyme and quantum mechanical calculations suggest the source of the constraints as intra-side chain interactions of the disulfide sulfur atoms with both the protein backbone and the 3-nitrogen in the imidazoline ring. These interactions apparently limit the conformation of the side chain to one of only three possible rotamers, two of which are observed in the crystal structure. An inter-spin distance measurement in frozen solution using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) gives a value essentially identical to that determined from the crystal structure of the protein containing two copies of V1, indicating that lattice forces do not dictate the rotamers observed. Collectively, the results suggest the possibility of predetermining a unique rotamer of V1 in helical structures. In general, the reduced rotameric space of V1 compared to R1 should simplify interpretation of inter-spin distance information in terms of protein structure, while the highly constrained internal motion is expected to extend the dynamic range for characterizing large amplitude nanosecond backbone fluctuations.

  17. Exploring the Effects of Glycosylation and Etherification of the Side Chains of the Anticancer Drug Mitoxantrone.

    PubMed

    Shaul, Pazit; Steinbuch, Kfir B; Blacher, Eran; Stein, Reuven; Fridman, Micha

    2015-09-01

    Herein we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of symmetric and asymmetric analogues of the DNA intercalating drug mitoxantrone (MTX) in which the side chains of the parent drug were modified through glycosylation or methyl etherification. Several analogues with glycosylated side chains exhibited higher DNA affinity than the parent MTX. The most potent in vitro cytotoxicity was observed for MTX analogue 8 (1,4-dimethoxy-5,8-bis[2-(2-methoxyethylamino)ethylamino]anthracene-9,10-dione) with methoxy ether containing side chains. Treatment of melanoma-bearing mice with MTX or analogue 8 decreased the intraperitoneal tumor burden relative to untreated mice; the effect of 8 was less pronounced than that of MTX. In vitro metabolism assays of MTX with rabbit liver S9 fraction gave rise to several metabolites; almost no metabolites were detected for MTX analogue 8. The results presented indicate that derivatization of the MTX side chain primary hydroxy groups may result in a significant improvement in DNA affinity and lower susceptibility to the formation of potentially toxic metabolites.

  18. Supramolecular control of self-assembling terthiophene-peptide conjugates through the amino acid side chain

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrman, Jessica A.; Cui, Honggang; Tsai, Wei-Wen; Moyer, Tyson J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2013-07-30

    The self-assembly of oligothiophene–peptide conjugates can be directed through the systematic variation of the peptide sequence into different nanostructures, including flat spicules, nanotubes, spiral sheets, and giant, flat sheets. Furthermore, the assembly of these molecules is not controlled by steric interactions between the amino acid side chains.

  19. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2 knockdown leads to decreased fatty acid oxidation in fat body and reduced reproductive capacity in the insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Klett, Eric L; De Paula, Iron F; Ramos, Isabela B; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are important intermediates in lipid metabolism and are synthesized from fatty acids by long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL). The hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, produces glycerolipids in the midgut after a blood meal, which are stored as triacylglycerol in the fat body and eggs. We identified twenty acyl-CoA synthetase genes in R. prolixus, two encoding ACSL isoforms (RhoprAcsl1 and RhoprAcsl2). RhoprAcsl1 transcripts increased in posterior midgut on the second day after feeding, and RhoprAcsl2 was highly transcribed on the tenth day. Both enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant RhoprACSL1 and RhoprACSL2 had broad pH optima (7.5-9.5 and 6.5-9.5, respectively), were inhibited by triacsin C, and were rosiglitazone-insensitive. Both showed similar apparent Km for palmitic and oleic acid (2-6 μM), but different Km for arachidonic acid (0.5 and 6 μM for RhoprACSL1-Flag and RhoprACSL2-Flag, respectively). The knockdown of RhoprAcsl1 did not result in noticeable phenotypes. However, RhoprACSL2 deficient insects exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in triacylglycerol content in the fat body, and 90% decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation. RhoprAcsl2 knockdown also resulted in 20% increase in lifespan, delayed digestion, 30% reduced oviposition, and 50% reduction in egg hatching. Laid eggs and hatched nymphs showed remarkable alterations in morphology. In summary, R. prolixus ACSL isoforms have distinct roles on lipid metabolism. Although RhoprACSL1 functions remain unclear, we propose that RhoprACSL2 is the main contributor for the formation of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool channeled for β-oxidation in the fat body, and is also required for normal reproduction. PMID:27091636

  20. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  1. Effect of side-chain substituents on self-assembly of perylene diimide molecules: morphology control.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Datar, Aniket; Naddo, Tammene; Huang, Jialing; Oitker, Randy; Yen, Max; Zhao, Jincai; Zang, Ling

    2006-06-01

    Effect of side-chain substitutions on the morphology of self-assembly of perylene diimide molecules has been studied with two derivatives modified with distinctly different side-chains, N,N'-di(dodecyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (DD-PTCDI) and N,N'-di(nonyldecyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (ND-PTCDI). Due to the different side-chain interference, the self-assembly of the two molecules results in totally different morphologies in aggregate: one-dimensional (1D) nanobelt vs zero-dimensional (0D) nanoparticle. The size, shape, and topography of the self-assemblies were extensively characterized by a variety of microscopies including SEM, TEM, AFM, and fluorescence microscopy. The distinct morphologies of self-assembly have been obtained from both the solution-based processing and surface-supported solvent-vapor annealing. The nanobelts of DD-PTCDI fabricated in solution can feasibly be transferred to both polar (e.g., glass) and nonpolar (e.g., carbon) surfaces, implying the high stability of the molecular assembly (due to the strong pi-pi stacking). The side-chain-dependent molecular interaction was comparatively investigated using various spectrometries including UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the emission of ND-PTCDI aggregate, the emission of DD-PTCDI aggregate was significantly red-shifted (ca. 30 nm) and the emission quantum yield decreased about three times, primarily due to the more favorable molecular stacking for DD-PTCID. Moreover, the aggregate of DD-PTCDI shows a pronounced absorption band at the longer wavelength, whereas the absorption of ND-PTCDI aggregate is not significant in the same wavelength region. These optical spectral observations are reminiscent of the previous theoretical investigation on the side-chain-modulated electronic properties of PTCDI assembly.

  2. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-02-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD.

  3. Backbone dependency further improves side chain prediction efficiency in the Energy-based Conformer Library (bEBL).

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Senes, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Side chain optimization is an integral component of many protein modeling applications. In these applications, the conformational freedom of the side chains is often explored using libraries of discrete, frequently occurring conformations. Because side chain optimization can pose a computationally intensive combinatorial problem, the nature of these conformer libraries is important for ensuring efficiency and accuracy in side chain prediction. We have previously developed an innovative method to create a conformer library with enhanced performance. The Energy-based Library (EBL) was obtained by analyzing the energetic interactions between conformers and a large number of natural protein environments from crystal structures. This process guided the selection of conformers with the highest propensity to fit into spaces that should accommodate a side chain. Because the method requires a large crystallographic data-set, the EBL was created in a backbone-independent fashion. However, it is well established that side chain conformation is strongly dependent on the local backbone geometry, and that backbone-dependent libraries are more efficient in side chain optimization. Here we present the backbone-dependent EBL (bEBL), whose conformers are independently sorted for each populated region of Ramachandran space. The resulting library closely mirrors the local backbone-dependent distribution of side chain conformation. Compared to the EBL, we demonstrate that the bEBL uses fewer conformers to produce similar side chain prediction outcomes, thus further improving performance with respect to the already efficient backbone-independent version of the library.

  4. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Craig T; Mason, Philip E; Anderson, J L Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD. PMID:26899474

  5. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD. PMID:26899474

  6. Preparation of quinolinium salts differing in the length of the alkyl side chain.

    PubMed

    Marek, Jan; Buchta, Vladimir; Soukup, Ondrej; Stodulka, Petr; Cabal, Jiri; Ghosh, Kallol K; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-05-25

    Quaternary quinolinium salts differing in alkyl chain length are members of a widespread group of cationic surfactants. These compounds have numerous applications in various branches of industry and research. In this work, the preparation of quinoline-derived cationic surface active agents differing in the length of the side alkyl chains (from C₈ to C₂₀) is described. An HPLC method was successfully developed for distinction of all members of the series of prepared long-chain quinolinium derivatives. In conclusion, some possibilities of intended tests or usage have been summarized. In vitro testing using a microdilution broth method showed good activity of a substance with a C12 chain length against Gram-positive cocci and Candida species.

  7. Sub-cellular internalization and organ specific oral elivery of PABA nanoparticles by side chain variation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organic nanomaterials having specific biological properties play important roles in in vivo delivery and clearance from the live cells. To develop orally deliverable nanomaterials for different biological applications, we have synthesized several fluorescently labelled, self-assembled PABA nanoparticles using possible acid side chain combinations and tested against insect and human cell lines and in vivo animal model. Flurophores attached to nanostructures help in rapid in vivo screening and tracking through complex tissues. The sub-cellular internalization mechanism of the conjugates was determined. A set of physio-chemical parameters of engineered nanoskeletons were also defined that is critical for preferred uptake in multiple organs of live Drosophila. Results The variability of side chains alter size, shape and surface texture of each nanomaterial that lead to differential uptake in human and insect cells and to different internal organs in live Drosophila via energy dependent endocytosis. Our results showed that physical and chemical properties of C-11 and C-16 acid chain are best fitted for delivery to complex organs in Drosophila. However a distinct difference in uptake of same nanoparticle in human and insect cells postulated that different host cell physiology plays a critical role in the uptake mechanism. Conclusions The physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticle produced by variation in the acid side chains that modify size and shape of engineered nanostructure and their interplay with host cell physiology might be the major criteria for their differential uptake to different internal organs. PMID:21443763

  8. Producing High-Accuracy Lattice Models from Protein Atomic Coordinates Including Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models. PMID:22934109

  9. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains.

    PubMed

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models. PMID:22934109

  10. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains.

    PubMed

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models.

  11. Novel Fluorinated Polymers Containing Short Perfluorobutyl Side Chains and Their Super Wetting Performance on Diverse Substrates.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingxian; Zhang, Guangfa; Wang, Qiongyan; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhan, Xiaoli; Chen, Fengqiu

    2016-04-27

    Because the emission of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was completely prohibited in 2015, the widely used poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances with long perfluoroalkyl groups must be substituted by environmentally friendly alternatives. In this study, one kind of potential alternative (i.e., fluorinated polymers with short perfluorobutyl side chains) has been synthesized from the prepared monomers {i.e., (perfluorobutyl)ethyl acrylate (C4A), (perfluorobutyl)ethyl methacrylate (C4MA), 2-[[[[2-(perfluorobutyl)]sulfonyl]methyl]amino]ethyl acrylate (C4SA), and methacrylate (C4SMA)}, and the microstructure, super wetting performance, and applications of the synthesized fluorinated polymers were systematically investigated. The thermal and crystallization behaviors of the fluoropolymer films were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. Dynamic water-repellent models were constructed. The stable low surface energy and dynamic water- and oil-repellent properties of these synthesized fluorinated polymers with short perfluorobutyl side chains were attributed to the synergetic effect of amorphous fluorinated side chains in perfluoroalkyl acrylate and crystalline hydrocarbon pendant groups in stearyl acrylate. Outstanding water- and oil-repellent properties of fabrics and any other substrates could be achieved by a facile dip-coating treatment using a fluorinated copolymer dispersion. As a result, we believe that our prepared fluorinated copolymers are potential candidates to replace the fluoroalkylated polymers with long perfluorinated chains in nonstick and self-cleaning applications in our daily life. PMID:27052113

  12. Too packed to change: side-chain packing and site-specific substitution rates in protein evolution.

    PubMed

    Marcos, María Laura; Echave, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In protein evolution, due to functional and biophysical constraints, the rates of amino acid substitution differ from site to site. Among the best predictors of site-specific rates are solvent accessibility and packing density. The packing density measure that best correlates with rates is the weighted contact number (WCN), the sum of inverse square distances between a site's C α and the C α of the other sites. According to a mechanistic stress model proposed recently, rates are determined by packing because mutating packed sites stresses and destabilizes the protein's active conformation. While WCN is a measure of C α packing, mutations replace side chains. Here, we consider whether a site's evolutionary divergence is constrained by main-chain packing or side-chain packing. To address this issue, we extended the stress theory to model side chains explicitly. The theory predicts that rates should depend solely on side-chain contact density. We tested this prediction on a data set of structurally and functionally diverse monomeric enzymes. We compared side-chain contact density with main-chain contact density measures and with relative solvent accessibility (RSA). We found that side-chain contact density is the best predictor of rate variation among sites (it explains 39.2% of the variation). Moreover, the independent contribution of main-chain contact density measures and RSA are negligible. Thus, as predicted by the stress theory, site-specific evolutionary rates are determined by side-chain packing.

  13. Antiproliferative activity of long chain acylated esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sudan, Sudhanshu

    2015-01-01

    Despite their strong role in human health, poor bioavailability of flavonoids limits their biological effects in vivo. Enzymatically catalyzed acylation of fatty acids to flavonoids is one of the approaches of increasing cellular permeability and hence, biological activities. In this study, six long chain fatty acid esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) acylated enzymatically and were used for determining their antiproliferative action in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) in comparison to precursor compounds and two chemotherapy drugs (Sorafenib and Cisplatin). Fatty acid esters of Q3G showed significant inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by 85 to 90% after 6 h and 24 h of treatment, respectively. The cell death due to these novel compounds was associated with cell-cycle arrest in S-phase and apoptosis observed by DNA fragmentation, fluorescent microscopy and elevated caspase-3 activity and strong DNA topoisomerase II inhibition. Interestingly, Q3G esters showed significantly low toxicity to normal liver cells than Sorafenib (P < 0.05), a chemotherapy drug for hepatocellular carcinoma. Among all, oleic acid ester of Q3G displayed the greatest antiproliferation action and a high potential as an anti-cancer therapeutic. Overall, the results of the study suggest strong antiproliferative action of these novel food-derived compounds in treatment of cancer. PMID:25681471

  14. SIRT3 and SIRT5 regulate the enzyme activity and cardiolipin binding of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxun; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Rardin, Matthew J; Uppala, Radha; Verdin, Eric; Gibson, Bradford W; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    SIRT3 and SIRT5 have been shown to regulate mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation but the molecular mechanisms behind the regulation are lacking. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT3 and SIRT5 both target human very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), a key fatty acid oxidation enzyme. SIRT3 deacetylates and SIRT5 desuccinylates K299 which serves to stabilize the essential FAD cofactor in the active site. Further, we show that VLCAD binds strongly to cardiolipin and isolated mitochondrial membranes via a domain near the C-terminus containing lysines K482, K492, and K507. Acetylation or succinylation of these residues eliminates binding of VLCAD to cardiolipin. SIRT3 deacetylates K507 while SIRT5 desuccinylates K482, K492, and K507. Sirtuin deacylation of recombinant VLCAD rescues membrane binding. Endogenous VLCAD from SIRT3 and SIRT5 knockout mouse liver shows reduced binding to cardiolipin. Thus, SIRT3 and SIRT5 promote fatty acid oxidation by converging upon VLCAD to promote its activity and membrane localization. Regulation of cardiolipin binding by reversible lysine acylation is a novel mechanism that is predicted to extrapolate to other metabolic proteins that localize to the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:25811481

  15. Synthetic studies on maitotoxin. 1. Stereoselective synthesis of the C'D'E'F'-ring system having a side chain.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masayuki; Ishiyama, Seishi; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Tadashi

    2008-05-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of the maitotoxin C'D'E'F'-ring system having a side chain has been accomplished through a convergent strategy. The key reactions include Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons coupling of the C'D'E'-ring and the side chain and subsequent construction of the F'-ring by silane reduction of dihydropyran.

  16. MgO encapsulated mesoporous zeolite for the side chain alkylation of toluene with methanol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nanzhe; Jin, Hailian; Jeong, Eun-Young; Park, Sang-Eon

    2010-01-01

    Side chain alkylation of toluene with methanol was studied over mesoporous zeolite supported MgO catalysts. MgO were supported onto the carbon templated mesoporous silicalite-1 by direct synthesis route under microwave conditions. This direct synthesis route yields the majority of MgO highly dispersed into the mesopores of the silicalite-1 crystals. The vapor phase alkylation of toluene with methanol was performed over these catalysts under vapor phase conditions at atmospheric pressure. Mesoporous silicalite-1 supported MgO catalysts gave improved yields towards side chain alkylated products compared to the bulk MgO. The higher activity exhibited by 5% MgO supported on mesoporous silicalite compared to the one with 1% MgO can be attributed to the large number of weak basic sites observed from the CO2 TPD.

  17. Optical probe for the cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme

    DOEpatents

    Marrone, Babetta L.; Simpson, Daniel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Whaley, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    An optical probe enables the study of enzyme activity by absorbance spectroscopy or by sensitive fluorescence methods. In particular, the probe provides the ability to monitor the activity of cytochrome P-450.sub.scc enzyme, the rate limiting enzyme for steroid biosynthesis. Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, P-450.sub.scc catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and isocapraldehyde by sequential oxidations of the cholesterol side chain. The fluorogenic probe includes a cholesterol-like steroid linked to a chromophore through a linking group. The chromophore is selected to have little optical response when linked to the steroid substrate and an enhanced optical response when cleaved from the substrate and linking group. Thus, a fluorescent anion that can be optically detected is generated by the side-chain cleavage reaction during steroidogenesis.

  18. Optical probe for the cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme

    DOEpatents

    Marrone, Babetta L.; Simpson, Daniel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Whaley, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical probe enables the study of enzyme activity by absorbance spectroscopy or by sensitive fluorescence methods. In particular, the probe provides the ability to monitor the activity of cytochrome P-450.sub.scc enzyme, the rate limiting enzyme for steroid biosynthesis. Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, P-450.sub.scc catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and isocapraldehyde by sequential oxidations of the cholesterol side chain. The fluorogenic probe includes a cholesterol-like steroid linked to a chromophore through a linking group. The chromophore is selected to have little optical response when linked to the steroid substrate and an enhanced optical response when cleaved from the substrate and linking group. Thus, a fluorescent anion that can be optically detected is generated by the side-chain cleavage reaction during steroidogenesis.

  19. Multichromophoric electrochromic polymers: colour tuning of conjugated polymers through the side chain functionalization approach.

    PubMed

    Beverina, L; Pagani, G A; Sassi, M

    2014-05-28

    Organic electrochromic materials have gained constantly increasing interest over the years with respect to their inorganic counterpart due to essentially two distinctive characteristics: their processability through solution based low cost processes and their wide colour palette. Such characteristic features enabled their application in displays, smart windows, electronic paper and ophthalmic lenses. Alongside the established concept of donor-acceptor polymers, side chain functionalized multichromophoric polymers are gaining attention as a highly performing and synthetically feasible alternative, particularly relevant to applications requiring a complete colourlessness in one of the accessible redox states of the material. The primary aim of the present article is to review all the results involving the tuning of the native electrochromic properties of simple conjugated polymers through the introduction of a discrete electrochromic molecule as a side chain substituent. PMID:24647618

  20. Structure–Activity Relationships for Side Chain Oxysterol Agonists of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Oxysterols (OHCs) are byproducts of cholesterol oxidation that are known to activate the Hedeghog (Hh) signaling pathway. While OHCs that incorporate hydroxyl groups throughout the scaffold are known, those that act as agonists of Hh signaling primarily contain a single hydroxyl on the alkyl side chain. We sought to further explore how side chain hydroxylation patterns affect oxysterol-mediated Hh activation, by performing a structure–activity relationship study on a series of synthetic OHCs. The most active analogue, 23(R)-OHC (35), demonstrated potent activation of Hh signaling in two Hh-dependent cell lines (EC50 values 0.54–0.65 μM). In addition, OHC 35 was approximately 3-fold selective for the Hh pathway as compared to the liver X receptor, a nuclear receptor that is also activated by endogenous OHCs. Finally, 35 induced osteogenic differentiation and osteoblast formation in cultured cells, indicating functional agonism of the Hh pathway. PMID:24900386

  1. Loss of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoform 1 impairs cardiac autophagy and mitochondrial structure through mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Grevengoed, Trisha J; Cooper, Daniel E; Young, Pamela A; Ellis, Jessica M; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2015-11-01

    Because hearts with a temporally induced knockout of acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (Acsl1(T-/-)) are virtually unable to oxidize fatty acids, glucose use increases 8-fold to compensate. This metabolic switch activates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which initiates growth by increasing protein and RNA synthesis and fatty acid metabolism, while decreasing autophagy. Compared with controls, Acsl1(T-/-) hearts contained 3 times more mitochondria with abnormal structure and displayed a 35-43% lower respiratory function. To study the effects of mTORC1 activation on mitochondrial structure and function, mTORC1 was inhibited by treating Acsl1(T-/-) and littermate control mice with rapamycin or vehicle alone for 2 wk. Rapamycin treatment normalized mitochondrial structure, number, and the maximal respiration rate in Acsl1(T-/-) hearts, but did not improve ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption, which was likely caused by the 33-51% lower ATP synthase activity present in both vehicle- and rapamycin-treated Acsl1(T-/-) hearts. The turnover of microtubule associated protein light chain 3b in Acsl1(T-/-) hearts was 88% lower than controls, indicating a diminished rate of autophagy. Rapamycin treatment increased autophagy to a rate that was 3.1-fold higher than in controls, allowing the formation of autophagolysosomes and the clearance of damaged mitochondria. Thus, long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoform 1 (ACSL1) deficiency in the heart activated mTORC1, thereby inhibiting autophagy and increasing the number of damaged mitochondria. PMID:26220174

  2. Modulation of cellulase activity by charged lipid bilayers with different acyl chain properties for efficient hydrolysis of ionic liquid-pretreated cellulose.

    PubMed

    Mihono, Kai; Ohtsu, Takeshi; Ohtani, Mai; Yoshimoto, Makoto; Kamimura, Akio

    2016-10-01

    The stability of cellulase activity in the presence of ionic liquids (ILs) is critical for the enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose pretreated with ILs. In this work, cellulase was incorporated in the liposomes composed of negatively charged 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and zwitterionic phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with different length and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains. The liposomal cellulase-catalyzed reaction was performed at 45°C in the acetate buffer solution (pH 4.8) with 2.0g/L CC31 as cellulosic substrate. The crystallinity of CC31 was reduced by treating with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) at 120°C for 30min. The liposomal cellulase continuously catalyzed hydrolysis of the pretreated CC31 for 48h producing glucose in the presence of 15wt% [Bmim]Cl. The charged lipid membranes were interactive with [Bmim](+), as elucidated by the [Bmim]Cl-induced alterations in fluorescence polarization of the membrane-embedded 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) molecules. The charged membranes offered the microenvironment where inhibitory effects of [Bmim]Cl on the cellulase activity was relieved. The maximum glucose productivity GP of 10.8 mmol-glucose/(hmol-lipid) was obtained at the reaction time of 48h with the cellulase incorporated in the liposomes ([lipid]=5.0mM) composed of 50mol% POPG and 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosohocholine (DLPC) with relatively short and saturated acyl chains. PMID:27318965

  3. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Acyl-Chain- and Region-Specific Sphingolipid Metabolism in the Kidneys of Sphingomyelin Synthase 2-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Masayuki; Wakabayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Zhao, Songji; Sakai, Shota; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity was reported to cause kidney injury by excessive accumulation of sphingolipids such as sphingomyelin and ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase 2 (SMS2) is an important enzyme for hepatic sphingolipid homeostasis and its dysfunction is considered to result in fatty liver disease. The expression of SMS2 is also high in the kidneys. However, the contribution of SMS2 on renal sphingolipid metabolism remains unclear. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to visualize the distribution and provide quantitative data on lipids in tissue sections. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the effects of SMS2 deficiency on the distribution and concentration of sphingomyelins in the liver and kidneys of mice fed with a normal-diet or a high-fat-diet using imaging mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Our study revealed that high-fat-diet increased C18–C22 sphingomyelins, but decreased C24-sphingomyelins, in the liver and kidneys of wild-type mice. By contrast, SMS2 deficiency decreased C18–C24 sphingomyelins in the liver. Although a similar trend was observed in the whole-kidneys, the effects were minor. Interestingly, imaging mass spectrometry revealed that sphingomyelin localization was specific to each acyl-chain length in the kidneys. Further, SMS2 deficiency mainly decreased C22-sphingomyelin in the renal medulla and C24-sphingomyelins in the renal cortex. Thus, imaging mass spectrometry can provide visual assessment of the contribution of SMS2 on acyl-chain- and region-specific sphingomyelin metabolism in the kidneys. PMID:27010944

  4. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of complementary DNA encoding rat mammary gland medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thio ester hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Safford, R.; de Silva, J.; Lucas, C.; Windust, J.H.C.; Shedden, J.; James, C.M.; Sidebottom, C.M.; Slabas, A.R.; Tombs, M.P.; Hughes, S.G.

    1987-03-10

    Poly(A) + RNA from pregnant rat mammary glands was size-fractionated by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and fractions enriched in medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thio ester hydrolase (MCH) were identified by in vitro translation and immunoprecipitation. A cDNA library was constructed, in pBR322, from enriched poly(A) + RNA and screened with two oligonucleotide probes deduced from rat MCH amino acid sequence data. Cross-hybridizing clones were isolated and found to contain cDNA inserts ranging from approx. 1100 to 1550 base pairs (bp). A 1550-bp cDNA insert, from clone 43H09, was confirmed to encode MCH by hybrid-select translation/immunoprecipitation studies and by comparison of the amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence of the clone to the amino acid sequence of the MCH peptides. Northern blot analysis revealed the size of the MCH mRNA to be 1500 nucleotides, and it is therefore concluded that the 1550-bp insert (including G x C tails) of clone 43H09 represents a full- or near-full-length copy of the MCH gene. The rat MCH sequence is the first reported sequence of a thioesterase from a mammalian source, but comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of MCH and the recently published mallard duck medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thioesterase reveals significant homology. In particular, a seven amino acid sequence containing the proposed active serine of the duck thioesterase is found to be perfectly conserved in rat MCH.

  5. IMAAAGINE: a webserver for searching hypothetical 3D amino acid side chain arrangements in the Protein Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Nadzirin, Nurul; Willett, Peter; Artymiuk, Peter J; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2013-07-01

    We describe a server that allows the interrogation of the Protein Data Bank for hypothetical 3D side chain patterns that are not limited to known patterns from existing 3D structures. A minimal side chain description allows a variety of side chain orientations to exist within the pattern, and generic side chain types such as acid, base and hydroxyl-containing can be additionally deployed in the search query. Moreover, only a subset of distances between the side chains need be specified. We illustrate these capabilities in case studies involving arginine stacks, serine-acid group arrangements and multiple catalytic triad-like configurations. The IMAAAGINE server can be accessed at http://mfrlab.org/grafss/imaaagine/. PMID:23716645

  6. Quantitative Profiling of Feruloylated Arabinoxylan Side-Chains from Graminaceous Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, Rachel R.; Meyer, Marleen R.; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Graminaceous arabinoxylans are distinguished by decoration with feruloylated monosaccharidic and oligosaccharidic side-chains. Although it is hypothesized that structural complexity and abundance of these feruloylated arabinoxylan side-chains may contribute, among other factors, to resistance of plant cell walls to enzymatic degradation, quantitative profiling approaches for these structural units in plant cell wall materials have not been described yet. Here we report the development and application of a rapid and robust method enabling the quantitative comparison of feruloylated side-chain profiles in cell wall materials following mildly acidic hydrolysis, C18-solid phase extraction (SPE), reduction under aprotic conditions, and liquid chromatography with diode-array detection/mass spectrometry (LC-DAD/MS) separation and detection. The method was applied to the insoluble fiber/cell wall materials isolated from 12 whole grains: wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.), long-grain brown rice (Oryza sativa L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), kamut (Triticum turanicum Jakubz.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), spelt (Triticum spelta L.), intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), maize (Zea mays L.), popcorn (Zea mays L. var. everta), oat (Avena sativa L.) (dehulled), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (dehulled), and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). Between 51 and 96% of the total esterified monomeric ferulates were represented in the quantified compounds captured in the feruloylated side-chain profiles, which confirms the significance of these structures to the global arabinoxylan structure in terms of quantity. The method provided new structural insights into cereal grain arabinoxylans, in particular, that the structural moiety α-l-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-5-O-trans-feruloyl-l-arabinofuranose (FAXG), which had previously only been described in maize, is ubiquitous to cereal grains. PMID:26834763

  7. Communication: Accurate determination of side-chain torsion angle χ1 in proteins: Phenylalanine residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suardíaz, R.; Crespo-Otero, R.; Pérez, C.; Fabián, J. San; de la Vega, J. M. García

    2011-02-01

    Quantitative side-chain torsion angle χ1 determinations of phenylalanine residues in Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin are carried out using exclusively the correlation between the experimental vicinal coupling constants and theoretically determined Karplus equations. Karplus coefficients for nine vicinal coupling related with the torsion angle χ1 were calculated using the B3LYP functional and basis sets of different size. Optimized χ1 angles are in outstanding agreement with those previously reported by employing x ray and NMR measurements.

  8. Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations.

    PubMed

    Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek

    2016-02-01

    Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-`one-click' experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/.

  9. Improved prediction of protein side-chain conformations with SCWRL4

    PubMed Central

    Krivov, Georgii G.; Shapovalov, Maxim V.; Dunbrack, Roland L.

    2010-01-01

    Determination of side-chain conformations is an important step in protein structure prediction and protein design. Many such methods have been presented, although only a small number are in widespread use. SCWRL is one such method, and the SCWRL3 program (2003) has remained popular due to its speed, accuracy, and ease-of-use for the purpose of homology modeling. However, higher accuracy at comparable speed is desirable. This has been achieved through: 1) a new backbone-dependent rotamer library based on kernel density estimates; 2) averaging over samples of conformations about the positions in the rotamer library; 3) a fast anisotropic hydrogen bonding function; 4) a short-range, soft van der Waals atom-atom interaction potential; 5) fast collision detection using k-discrete oriented polytopes; 6) a tree decomposition algorithm to solve the combinatorial problem; and 7) optimization of all parameters by determining the interaction graph within the crystal environment using symmetry operators of the crystallographic space group. Accuracies as a function of electron density of the side chains demonstrate that side chains with higher electron density are easier to predict than those with low electron density and presumed conformational disorder. For a testing set of 379 proteins, 86% of χ1 angles and 75% of χ1+2 are predicted correctly within 40° of the X-ray positions. Among side chains with higher electron density (25th–100th percentile), these numbers rise to 89% and 80%. The new program maintains its simple command-line interface, designed for homology modeling, and is now available as a dynamic-linked library for incorporation into other software programs. PMID:19603484

  10. Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations

    PubMed Central

    Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-‘one-click’ experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674

  11. Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations.

    PubMed

    Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek

    2016-02-01

    Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-`one-click' experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674

  12. Dimerization of Amino Acid Side Chains: Lessons from the Comparison of Different Force Fields.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Djurre H; Periole, Xavier; Marrink, Siewert J

    2012-03-13

    The interactions between amino acid side chains govern protein secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure formation. For molecular modeling approaches to be able to realistically describe these phenomena, the underlying force fields have to represent these interactions as accurately as possible. Here, we compare the side chain-side chain interactions for a number of commonly used force fields, namely the all-atom OPLS, the united-atom GROMOS, and the coarse-grain MARTINI force field. We do so by calculating the dimerization free energies between selected pairs of side chains and structural characterization of their binding modes. To mimic both polar and nonpolar environments, the simulations are performed in water, n-octanol, and decane. In general, reasonable correlations are found between all three force fields, with deviations on the order of 1 kT in aqueous solvent. In apolar solvent, however, significantly larger differences are found, especially for charged amino acid pairs between the OPLS and GROMOS force fields, and for polar interactions in the MARTINI force field in comparison to the higher resolution models. Interestingly, even in cases where the dimerization free energies are similar, the binding mode may differ substantially between the force fields. This was found to be especially the case for aromatic residues. In addition to the inter-force-field comparison, we compared the various force fields to a knowledge-based potential. The two independent approaches show good correlation in aqueous solvent with an exception of aromatic residues for which the interaction strength is lower in the knowledge-based potentials.

  13. Improved prediction of protein side-chain conformations with SCWRL4.

    PubMed

    Krivov, Georgii G; Shapovalov, Maxim V; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2009-12-01

    Determination of side-chain conformations is an important step in protein structure prediction and protein design. Many such methods have been presented, although only a small number are in widespread use. SCWRL is one such method, and the SCWRL3 program (2003) has remained popular because of its speed, accuracy, and ease-of-use for the purpose of homology modeling. However, higher accuracy at comparable speed is desirable. This has been achieved in a new program SCWRL4 through: (1) a new backbone-dependent rotamer library based on kernel density estimates; (2) averaging over samples of conformations about the positions in the rotamer library; (3) a fast anisotropic hydrogen bonding function; (4) a short-range, soft van der Waals atom-atom interaction potential; (5) fast collision detection using k-discrete oriented polytopes; (6) a tree decomposition algorithm to solve the combinatorial problem; and (7) optimization of all parameters by determining the interaction graph within the crystal environment using symmetry operators of the crystallographic space group. Accuracies as a function of electron density of the side chains demonstrate that side chains with higher electron density are easier to predict than those with low-electron density and presumed conformational disorder. For a testing set of 379 proteins, 86% of chi(1) angles and 75% of chi(1+2) angles are predicted correctly within 40 degrees of the X-ray positions. Among side chains with higher electron density (25-100th percentile), these numbers rise to 89 and 80%. The new program maintains its simple command-line interface, designed for homology modeling, and is now available as a dynamic-linked library for incorporation into other software programs.

  14. Quantitative Profiling of Feruloylated Arabinoxylan Side-Chains from Graminaceous Cell Walls.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Rachel R; Meyer, Marleen R; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Graminaceous arabinoxylans are distinguished by decoration with feruloylated monosaccharidic and oligosaccharidic side-chains. Although it is hypothesized that structural complexity and abundance of these feruloylated arabinoxylan side-chains may contribute, among other factors, to resistance of plant cell walls to enzymatic degradation, quantitative profiling approaches for these structural units in plant cell wall materials have not been described yet. Here we report the development and application of a rapid and robust method enabling the quantitative comparison of feruloylated side-chain profiles in cell wall materials following mildly acidic hydrolysis, C18-solid phase extraction (SPE), reduction under aprotic conditions, and liquid chromatography with diode-array detection/mass spectrometry (LC-DAD/MS) separation and detection. The method was applied to the insoluble fiber/cell wall materials isolated from 12 whole grains: wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.), long-grain brown rice (Oryza sativa L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), kamut (Triticum turanicum Jakubz.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), spelt (Triticum spelta L.), intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), maize (Zea mays L.), popcorn (Zea mays L. var. everta), oat (Avena sativa L.) (dehulled), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (dehulled), and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). Between 51 and 96% of the total esterified monomeric ferulates were represented in the quantified compounds captured in the feruloylated side-chain profiles, which confirms the significance of these structures to the global arabinoxylan structure in terms of quantity. The method provided new structural insights into cereal grain arabinoxylans, in particular, that the structural moiety α-l-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-5-O-trans-feruloyl-l-arabinofuranose (FAXG), which had previously only been described in maize, is ubiquitous to cereal grains. PMID:26834763

  15. Preliminary assessment of the C13-side chain 2'-hydroxylase involved in Taxol biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Robert M.; Croteau, Rodney . E-mail: croteau@wsu.edu

    2005-12-09

    The biosynthesis of the anticancer drug Taxol in yew (Taxus) species is thought to involve the preliminary formation of the advanced taxane diterpenoid intermediate baccatin III upon which the functionally important N-benzoyl phenylisoserinoyl side chain is subsequently assembled at the C13-O-position. In vivo feeding studies with Taxus tissues and characterization of the two transferases responsible for C13-side chain construction have suggested a sequential process in which an aminomutase converts {alpha}-phenylalanine to {beta}-phenylalanine which is then activated to the corresponding CoA ester and transferred to baccatin III to yield {beta}-phenylalanoyl baccatin III (i.e., N-debenzoyl-2'-deoxytaxol) that undergoes subsequent 2'-hydroxylation and N-benzoylation to afford Taxol. However, because the side chain transferase can utilize both {beta}-phenylalanoyl CoA and phenylisoserinoyl CoA in the C13-O-esterification of baccatin III, ambiguity remained as to whether the 2'-hydroxylation step occurs before or after transfer of the amino phenylpropanoyl moiety. Using cell-free enzyme systems from Taxus suspension cells, no evidence was found for the direct hydroxylation of {beta}-phenylalanine to phenylisoserine; however, microsomal preparations from this tissue appeared capable of the cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylation of {beta}-phenylalanoyl baccatin III to phenylisoserinoyl baccatin III (i.e., N-debenzoyltaxol) as the penultimate step in the formation of Taxol and related N-substituted taxoids. These preliminary results, which are consistent with the proposed side chain assembly process, have clarified an important step of Taxol biosynthesis and set the foundation for cloning the responsible cytochrome P450 hydroxylase gene.

  16. Cation alkyl side chain length and symmetry effects on the surface tension of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hugo F D; Freire, Mara G; Fernandes, Ana M; Lopes-da-Silva, José A; Morgado, Pedro; Shimizu, Karina; Filipe, Eduardo J M; Lopes, José N Canongia; Santos, Luís M N B F; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-06-10

    Aiming at providing a comprehensive study of the influence of the cation symmetry and alkyl side chain length on the surface tension and surface organization of ionic liquids (ILs), this work addresses the experimental measurements of the surface tension of two extended series of ILs, namely R,R'-dialkylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([C(n)C(n)im][NTf2]) and R-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([C(n)C(1)im][NTf2]), and their dependence with temperature (from 298 to 343 K). For both series of ILs the surface tension decreases with an increase in the cation side alkyl chain length up to aliphatic chains no longer than hexyl, here labeled as critical alkyl chain length (CACL). For ILs with aliphatic moieties longer than CACL the surface tension displays an almost constant value up to [C12C12im][NTf2] or [C16C1im][NTf2]. These constant values further converge to the surface tension of long chain n-alkanes, indicating that, for sufficiently long alkyl side chains, the surface ordering is strongly dominated by the aliphatic tails present in the IL. The enthalpies and entropies of surface were also derived and the critical temperatures were estimated from the experimental data. The trend of the derived thermodynamic properties highlights the effect of the structural organization of the IL at the surface with visible trend shifts occurring at a well-defined CACL in both symmetric and asymmetric series of ILs. Finally, the structure of a long-alkyl side chain IL at the vacuum-liquid interface was also explored using Molecular Dynamics simulations. In general, it was found that for the symmetric series of ILs, at the outermost polar layers, more cations point one of their aliphatic tails outward and the other inward, relative to the surface, than cations pointing both tails outward. The number of the former, while being the preferred conformation, exceeds the latter by around 75%.

  17. Contribution of cutinase serine 42 side chain to the stabilization of the oxyanion transition state.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, A; Egmond, M; Verrips, C T; de Vlieg, J; Longhi, S; Cambillau, C; Martinez, C

    1996-01-16

    Cutinase from the fungus Fusarium solani pisi is a lipolytic enzyme able to hydrolyze both aggregated and soluble substrates. It therefore provides a powerful tool for probing the mechanisms underlying lipid hydrolysis. Lipolytic enzymes have a catalytic machinery similar to those present in serine proteinases. It is characterized by the triad Ser, His, and Asp (Glu) residues, by an oxyanion binding site that stabilizes the transition state via hydrogen bonds with two main chain amide groups, and possibly by other determinants. It has been suggested on the basis of a covalently bond inhibitor that the cutinase oxyanion hole may consist not only of two main chain amide groups but also of the Ser42 O gamma side chain. Among the esterases and the serine and the cysteine proteases, only Streptomyces scabies esterase, subtilisin, and papain, respectively, have a side chain residue which is involved in the oxyanion hole formation. The position of the cutinase Ser42 side chain is structurally conserved in Rhizomucor miehei lipase with Ser82 O gamma, in Rhizopus delemar lipase with Thr83 O gamma 1, and in Candida antartica B lipase with Thr40 O gamma 1. To evaluate the increase in the tetrahedral intermediate stability provided by Ser42 O gamma, we mutated Ser42 into Ala. Furthermore, since the proper orientation of Ser42 O gamma is directed by Asn84, we mutated Asn84 into Ala, Leu, Asp, and Trp, respectively, to investigate the contribution of this indirect interaction to the stabilization of the oxyanion hole. The S42A mutation resulted in a drastic decrease in the activity (450-fold) without significantly perturbing the three-dimensional structure. The N84A and N84L mutations had milder kinetic effects and did not disrupt the structure of the active site, whereas the N84W and N84D mutations abolished the enzymatic activity due to drastic steric and electrostatic effects, respectively. PMID:8555209

  18. Contribution of cutinase serine 42 side chain to the stabilization of the oxyanion transition state.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, A; Egmond, M; Verrips, C T; de Vlieg, J; Longhi, S; Cambillau, C; Martinez, C

    1996-01-16

    Cutinase from the fungus Fusarium solani pisi is a lipolytic enzyme able to hydrolyze both aggregated and soluble substrates. It therefore provides a powerful tool for probing the mechanisms underlying lipid hydrolysis. Lipolytic enzymes have a catalytic machinery similar to those present in serine proteinases. It is characterized by the triad Ser, His, and Asp (Glu) residues, by an oxyanion binding site that stabilizes the transition state via hydrogen bonds with two main chain amide groups, and possibly by other determinants. It has been suggested on the basis of a covalently bond inhibitor that the cutinase oxyanion hole may consist not only of two main chain amide groups but also of the Ser42 O gamma side chain. Among the esterases and the serine and the cysteine proteases, only Streptomyces scabies esterase, subtilisin, and papain, respectively, have a side chain residue which is involved in the oxyanion hole formation. The position of the cutinase Ser42 side chain is structurally conserved in Rhizomucor miehei lipase with Ser82 O gamma, in Rhizopus delemar lipase with Thr83 O gamma 1, and in Candida antartica B lipase with Thr40 O gamma 1. To evaluate the increase in the tetrahedral intermediate stability provided by Ser42 O gamma, we mutated Ser42 into Ala. Furthermore, since the proper orientation of Ser42 O gamma is directed by Asn84, we mutated Asn84 into Ala, Leu, Asp, and Trp, respectively, to investigate the contribution of this indirect interaction to the stabilization of the oxyanion hole. The S42A mutation resulted in a drastic decrease in the activity (450-fold) without significantly perturbing the three-dimensional structure. The N84A and N84L mutations had milder kinetic effects and did not disrupt the structure of the active site, whereas the N84W and N84D mutations abolished the enzymatic activity due to drastic steric and electrostatic effects, respectively.

  19. High-Performance Electron Acceptor with Thienyl Side Chains for Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuze; Zhao, Fuwen; He, Qiao; Huo, Lijun; Wu, Yang; Parker, Timothy C; Ma, Wei; Sun, Yanming; Wang, Chunru; Zhu, Daoben; Heeger, Alan J; Marder, Seth R; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2016-04-13

    We develop an efficient fused-ring electron acceptor (ITIC-Th) based on indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene core and thienyl side-chains for organic solar cells (OSCs). Relative to its counterpart with phenyl side-chains (ITIC), ITIC-Th shows lower energy levels (ITIC-Th: HOMO = -5.66 eV, LUMO = -3.93 eV; ITIC: HOMO = -5.48 eV, LUMO = -3.83 eV) due to the σ-inductive effect of thienyl side-chains, which can match with high-performance narrow-band-gap polymer donors and wide-band-gap polymer donors. ITIC-Th has higher electron mobility (6.1 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) than ITIC (2.6 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) due to enhanced intermolecular interaction induced by sulfur-sulfur interaction. We fabricate OSCs by blending ITIC-Th acceptor with two different low-band-gap and wide-band-gap polymer donors. In one case, a power conversion efficiency of 9.6% was observed, which rivals some of the highest efficiencies for single junction OSCs based on fullerene acceptors.

  20. Entropy and enthalpy of interaction between amino acid side chains in nanopores.

    PubMed

    Vaitheeswaran, S; Thirumalai, D

    2014-12-14

    Understanding the stabilities of proteins in nanopores requires a quantitative description of confinement induced interactions between amino acid side chains. We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the nature of interactions between the side chain pairs ALA-PHE, SER-ASN, and LYS-GLU in bulk water and in water-filled nanopores. The temperature dependence of the bulk solvent potentials of mean force and the interaction free energies in cylindrical and spherical nanopores is used to identify the corresponding entropic and enthalpic components. The entropically stabilized hydrophobic interaction between ALA and PHE in bulk water is enthalpically dominated upon confinement depending on the relative orientations between the side chains. In the case of SER-ASN, hydrogen bonded configurations that are similar in bulk water are thermodynamically distinct in a cylindrical pore, thus making rotamer distributions different from those in the bulk. Remarkably, salt bridge formation between LYS-GLU is stabilized by entropy in contrast to the bulk. Implications of our findings for confinement-induced alterations in protein stability are briefly outlined.

  1. Controlling the mode of operation of organic transistors through side-chain engineering

    PubMed Central

    Giovannitti, Alexander; Sbircea, Dan-Tiberiu; Inal, Sahika; Nielsen, Christian B.; Bandiello, Enrico; Hanifi, David A.; Sessolo, Michele; Malliaras, George G.; McCulloch, Iain; Rivnay, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Electrolyte-gated organic transistors offer low bias operation facilitated by direct contact of the transistor channel with an electrolyte. Their operation mode is generally defined by the dimensionality of charge transport, where a field-effect transistor allows for electrostatic charge accumulation at the electrolyte/semiconductor interface, whereas an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) facilitates penetration of ions into the bulk of the channel, considered a slow process, leading to volumetric doping and electronic transport. Conducting polymer OECTs allow for fast switching and high currents through incorporation of excess, hygroscopic ionic phases, but operate in depletion mode. Here, we show that the use of glycolated side chains on a thiophene backbone can result in accumulation mode OECTs with high currents, transconductance, and sharp subthreshold switching, while maintaining fast switching speeds. Compared with alkylated analogs of the same backbone, the triethylene glycol side chains shift the mode of operation of aqueous electrolyte-gated transistors from interfacial to bulk doping/transport and show complete and reversible electrochromism and high volumetric capacitance at low operating biases. We propose that the glycol side chains facilitate hydration and ion penetration, without compromising electronic mobility, and suggest that this synthetic approach can be used to guide the design of organic mixed conductors. PMID:27790983

  2. The dead-end elimination theorem and its use in protein side-chain positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Johan; Maeyer, Marc De; Hazes, Bart; Lasters, Ignace

    1992-04-01

    THE prediction of a protein's tertiary structure is still a considerable problem because the huge amount of possible conformational space1 makes it computationally difficult. With regard to side-chain modelling, a solution has been attempted by the grouping of side-chain conformations into representative sets of rotamers2-5. Nonetheless, an exhaustive combinatorial search is still limited to carefully identified packing units5,6containing a limited number of residues. For larger systems other strategies had to be develop-ped, such as the Monte Carlo Procedure6,7 and the genetic algorithm and clustering approach8. Here we present a theorem, referred to as the 'dead-end elimination' theorem, which imposes a suitable condition to identify rotamers that cannot be members of the global minimum energy conformation. Application of this theorem effectively controls the computational explosion of the rotamer combinatorial problem, thereby allowing the determination of the global minimum energy conformation of a large collection of side chains.

  3. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development.

    PubMed

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A J; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Houbein, Rudolf; Mariani, Celestina; Ulvskov, Peter; Jorgensen, Bodil; Schols, Henk A; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2014-05-01

    Pectin is a complex polysaccharide and an integral part of the primary plant cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to cell wall mechanical strength and cell adhesion. To understand the structure-function relationships of pectin in the cell wall, a set of transgenic potato lines with altered pectin composition was analysed. The expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in pectin acetylation, degradation of the rhamnogalacturonan backbone and type and length of neutral side chains, arabinan and galactan in particular, has been altered. Upon crossing of different transgenic lines, some transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different developmental stages were microscopically examined to study the phenotype in more detail. Scanning electron microscopy of flowers showed collapsed pollen grains in mature anthers and in earlier stages cytoplasmic protrusions at the site of the of kin pore, eventually leading to bursting of the pollen grain and leaking of the cytoplasm. This phenomenon is only observed after the microspores are released and the tapetum starts to degenerate. Timing of the phenotype indicates a role for pectic arabinan side chains during remodelling of the cell wall when the pollen grain is maturing and dehydrating.

  4. Rhamnoarabinosyl and rhamnoarabinoarabinosyl side chains as structural features of coffee arabinogalactans.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fernando M; Reis, Ana; Silva, Artur M S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2008-05-01

    The hot water soluble green coffee arabinogalactans, representing nearly 7% of total coffee bean arabinogalactans, were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR and, after partial acid hydrolysis, by ESI-MS/MS. Data obtained showed that these are highly branched type II arabinogalactans covalently linked to proteins (AGP), with a protein moiety containing 10% of 4-hydroxyproline residues. They possess a beta-(1-->3)-Galp/beta-(1-->3,6)-Galp ratio of 0.80, with a sugars composition of Rha:Ara:Gal of 0.25:1.0:1.5, and containing 2mol% of glucuronic acid residues. Beyond the occurrence of single alpha-L-Araf residues and [alpha-L-Araf-(1-->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->] disaccharide residues as side chains, these AGPs contain unusual side chains at O-3 position of the beta-(1-->6)-linked galactopyranosyl residues composed by [alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->] and [alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->] oligosaccharides. Rhamnoarabinosyl and rhamnoarabinoarabinosyl side chains are reported for the first time as structural features of plant arabinogalactan-proteins.

  5. Predicting side-chain conformations of methionine using a hard-sphere model with stereochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virrueta, A.; Gaines, J.; O'Hern, C. S.; Regan, L.

    2015-03-01

    Current research in the O'Hern and Regan laboratories focuses on the development of hard-sphere models with stereochemical constraints for protein structure prediction as an alternative to molecular dynamics methods that utilize knowledge-based corrections in their force-fields. Beginning with simple hydrophobic dipeptides like valine, leucine, and isoleucine, we have shown that our model is able to reproduce the side-chain dihedral angle distributions derived from sets of high-resolution protein crystal structures. However, methionine remains an exception - our model yields a chi-3 side-chain dihedral angle distribution that is relatively uniform from 60 to 300 degrees, while the observed distribution displays peaks at 60, 180, and 300 degrees. Our goal is to resolve this discrepancy by considering clashes with neighboring residues, and averaging the reduced distribution of allowable methionine structures taken from a set of crystallized proteins. We will also re-evaluate the electron density maps from which these protein structures are derived to ensure that the methionines and their local environments are correctly modeled. This work will ultimately serve as a tool for computing side-chain entropy and protein stability. A. V. is supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and a Ford Foundation Fellowship. J. G. is supported by NIH training Grant NIH-5T15LM007056-28.

  6. Entropy and enthalpy of interaction between amino acid side chains in nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Vaitheeswaran, S.; Thirumalai, D.

    2014-12-14

    Understanding the stabilities of proteins in nanopores requires a quantitative description of confinement induced interactions between amino acid side chains. We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the nature of interactions between the side chain pairs ALA-PHE, SER-ASN, and LYS-GLU in bulk water and in water-filled nanopores. The temperature dependence of the bulk solvent potentials of mean force and the interaction free energies in cylindrical and spherical nanopores is used to identify the corresponding entropic and enthalpic components. The entropically stabilized hydrophobic interaction between ALA and PHE in bulk water is enthalpically dominated upon confinement depending on the relative orientations between the side chains. In the case of SER-ASN, hydrogen bonded configurations that are similar in bulk water are thermodynamically distinct in a cylindrical pore, thus making rotamer distributions different from those in the bulk. Remarkably, salt bridge formation between LYS-GLU is stabilized by entropy in contrast to the bulk. Implications of our findings for confinement-induced alterations in protein stability are briefly outlined.

  7. Improved side-chain torsion potentials for the Amber ff99SB protein force field.

    PubMed

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Piana, Stefano; Palmo, Kim; Maragakis, Paul; Klepeis, John L; Dror, Ron O; Shaw, David E

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in hardware and software have enabled increasingly long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecules, exposing certain limitations in the accuracy of the force fields used for such simulations and spurring efforts to refine these force fields. Recent modifications to the Amber and CHARMM protein force fields, for example, have improved the backbone torsion potentials, remedying deficiencies in earlier versions. Here, we further advance simulation accuracy by improving the amino acid side-chain torsion potentials of the Amber ff99SB force field. First, we used simulations of model alpha-helical systems to identify the four residue types whose rotamer distribution differed the most from expectations based on Protein Data Bank statistics. Second, we optimized the side-chain torsion potentials of these residues to match new, high-level quantum-mechanical calculations. Finally, we used microsecond-timescale MD simulations in explicit solvent to validate the resulting force field against a large set of experimental NMR measurements that directly probe side-chain conformations. The new force field, which we have termed Amber ff99SB-ILDN, exhibits considerably better agreement with the NMR data.

  8. A new model for ligand release. Role of side chain in gating the enediyne antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Parameswaran; Liang, Wenchuan; Chou, Shan-Ho; Chin, Der-Hang

    2006-06-01

    Antitumor antibiotic chromoproteins such as neocarzinostatin involve a labile toxin that is tightly bound by a protective protein with very high affinity but must also be freed to exert its function. Contrary to the prevalent concept of ligand release, we established that toxin release from neocarzinostatin requires no major backbone conformational changes. We report, herein, that subtle changes in the side chains of specific amino acid residues are adequate to gate the release of chromophore. A recombinant wild type aponeocarzinostatin and its variants mutated around the opening of the chromophore binding cleft are employed to identify specific side chains likely to affect chromophore release. Preliminary, biophysical characterization of mutant apoproteins by circular dichroism and thermal denaturation indicate that the fundamental structural characteristics of wild type protein are conserved in these mutants. The chromophore reconstitution studies further show that all mutants are able to bind chromophore efficiently with similar complex structures. NMR studies on 15N-labeled mutants also suggest the intactness of binding pocket structure. Kinetic studies of chromophore release monitored by time course fluorescence and quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography analyses show that the ligand release rate is significantly enhanced only in Phe78 mutants. The extent of DNA cleavage in vitro corresponds well to the rate of chromophore release. The results provide the first clear-cut indication of how toxin release can be controlled by a specific side chain of a carrier protein.

  9. Effect of Acylglycerol Composition and Fatty Acyl Chain Length on Lipid Digestion in pH-Stat Digestion Model and Simulated In Vitro Digestion Model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin F; Jia, Cai H; Shin, Jung A; Woo, Jeong M; Wang, Xiang Y; Park, Jong T; Hong, Soon T; Lee, K-T

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pH-stat digestion model and a simulated in vitro digestion model were employed to evaluate the digestion degree of lipids depending on different acylglycerols and acyl chain length (that is, diacylglycerol [DAG] compared with soybean oil representing long-chain triacylglycerol compared with medium-chain triacylglycerol [MCT]). In the pH-stat digestion model, differences were observed among the digestion degrees of 3 oils using digestion rate (k), digestion half-time (t1/2 ), and digestion extent (Φmax). The results showed the digestion rate order was MCT > soybean oil > DAG. Accordingly, the order of digestion half-times was MCT < soybean oil < DAG. In simulated in vitro digestion model, digestion rates (k') and digestion half-times (t'1/2 ) were also obtained and the results showed a digestion rate order of MCT (k' = 0.068 min(-1) ) > soybean oil (k' = 0.037 min(-1) ) > DAG (k' = 0.024 min(-1) ). Consequently, the order of digestion half-times was MCT (t'1/2 = 10.20 min) < soybean oil (t'1/2 = 18.74 min) < DAG (t'1/2 = 29.08 min). The parameters obtained using the 2 models showed MCT was digested faster than soybean oil, and that soybean oil was digested faster than DAG.

  10. Nascent Peptide Side-chains Induce Rearrangements in Distinct Locations of the Ribosomal Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianli; Hua, Zhengmao; Kobertz, William R.; Deutsch, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Although we have numerous structures of ribosomes, none disclose side-chain rearrangements of the nascent peptide during chain elongation. This study reports for the first time that rearrangement of the peptide and/or tunnel occurs in distinct regions of the tunnel and is directed by the unique primary sequence of each nascent peptide. In the tunnel mid-region, the accessibility of an introduced cysteine to a series of novel hydrophilic maleimide reagents increases with increasing volume of the adjacent chain residue, a sensitivity not manifest at the constriction and exit port. This surprising result reveals molecular movements not yet resolvable from structural studies. These findings map solvent accessible volumes along the tunnel and provide novel insights critical to our understanding of allosteric communication within the ribosomal tunnel, translational arrest, chaperone interaction, folding, and rates of elongation. PMID:21663746

  11. Self-assembly of a series of random copolymers bearing amphiphilic side chains.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Qiao, Yingjie; Yang, Hui; Wang, Jinben

    2010-09-15

    A novel series of comb-like random copolymers were prepared by polymerization of amphiphilic macromonomers, 2-(acrylamido)-octane sulfonic acid (AMC(8)S), 2-(acrylamido)-dodecane sulfonic acid (AMC(12)S), and 2-(acrylamido)-hexadecane sulfonic acid (AMC(16)S), with 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) respectively. The synthesis of the polymers with the same contents of amphiphilic units as side chains, but different chain length, enabled us to study the chain length dependence of their association in salt solution. Steady-state fluorescence measurements with pyrene as a polarity probe, quasielastic light scattering techniques (QELS) and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) were employed to investigate the associative properties of the system. The above investigations showed that all kinds of side chains begin to assemble at certain polymer concentrations and the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) decrease dramatically with the increase in the length and content of alkyl. An interesting phenomenon is that the assembly tends more favorably to occur among different molecules rather than within single molecule when the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl groups or the polymer concentration increases, leading to the formation of larger multimolecular micelle-like aggregate. The aim of the present work is to establish the fundamental preconditions of intramolecular and intermolecular association fashions for the polymers, which is useful for the exploitation of functional groups and contributes to the development of amphiphilic random polymers. PMID:20576273

  12. Molecular structure and rheological properties of short-side-chain heavily glycosylated porcine stomach mucin.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Gleb E; Papagiannopoulos, Aristeidis; Rat, Elodie; Easton, Richard L; Waigh, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    The current accepted model for high-molecular-weight gastric mucins of the MUC family is that they adopt a polydisperse coil conformation in bulk solutions. We develop this model using well-characterized highly purified porcine gastric mucin Orthana that is genetically close to the human MUC6 type. It has short side chains and low levels of sialic acid residues and includes minute amounts of cysteine residues that, if abundant, can be responsible for the self-polymerization of mucin. We have established that the mucin structure in bulk solutions corresponds to a daisy-chain random coil. Dynamic light scattering experiments probe the internal dynamics of globular subunits (individual daisies) at the approximately 9 nm length scale, whereas viscosity and light scattering measurements indicate that the size of the whole mucin chains is much larger, approximately 50 nm. The bulk viscosity (eta) scales with mucin concentration (c) in a manner similar to that found for short-side-chain synthetic comb polyelectrolytes and is characterized by a transition between semidilute (eta approximately c1/2) and entangled (eta approximately c3/2) regimes. PMID:17910495

  13. Contribution of a tyrosine side chain to ribonuclease A catalysis and stability.

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, E. S.; Wittmayer, P. K.; Templer, B. M.; Raines, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    An intricate architecture of covalent bonds and noncovalent interactions appear to position the side chain of Lys 41 properly within the active site of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). One of these interactions arises from Tyr 97, which is conserved in all 41 RNase A homologues of known sequence. Tyr 97 has a solvent-inaccessible side chain that donates a hydrogen bond to the main-chain oxygen of Lys 41. Here, the role of Tyr 97 was examined by replacing Tyr 97 with a phenylalanine, alanine, or glycine residue. All three mutant proteins have diminished catalytic activity, with the value of Kcat being perturbed more significantly than that of Km. The free energies with which Y97F, Y97A, and Y97G RNase A bind to the rate-limiting transition state during the cleavage of poly(cytidylic acid) are diminished by 0.74, 3.3, and 3.8 kcal/mol, respectively. These results show that even though Tyr 97 is remote from the active site, its side chain contributes to catalysis. The role of Tyr 97 in the thermal stability of RNase A is large. The conformational free energies of native Y97F, Y97A, and Y97G RNase A are decreased by 3.54, 12.0, and 11.7 kcal/mol, respectively. The unusually large decrease in stability caused by the Tyr-->Phe mutation could result from a decrease in the barrier to isomerization of the Lys 41-Pro 42 peptide bond. PMID:8844858

  14. Effect of side-chain asymmetry on the intermolecular structure and order-disorder transition in alkyl-substituted polyfluorenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaapila, M.; Stepanyan, R.; Torkkeli, M.; Haase, D.; Fröhlich, N.; Helfer, A.; Forster, M.; Scherf, U.

    2016-04-01

    We study relations among the side-chain asymmetry, structure, and order-disorder transition (ODT) in hairy-rod-type poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PF6) with two identical side chains and atactic poly(9-octyl-9-methyl-fluorene) (PF1-8) with two different side chains per repeat. PF6 and PF1-8 organize into alternating side-chain and backbone layers that transform into an isotropic phase at TODT(PF 6 ) and TbiODT(PF 1 -8 ) . We interpret polymers in terms of monodisperse and bidisperse brushes and predict scenarios TODTside-chain length above or below the average grafting distance). Calorimetry and x-ray scattering indicate the condition TODT(PF 6 ) ˜TbiODT(PF 1 -8 ) following the low grafting prediction. PF6 side chains coming from the alternating backbone layers appear as two separate layers with thickness H (PF 6 ) , whereas PF1-8 side chains appear as an indistinguishable bilayer with a half thickness Hbilayer(PF 1 -8 ) /2 ≈H (PF 6 ) . The low grafting density region is structurally possible but not certain for PF6 and confirmed for PF1-8.

  15. Dependence of crystallite formation and preferential backbone orientations on the side chain pattern in PBDTTPD polymers.

    PubMed

    El Labban, Abdulrahman; Warnan, Julien; Cabanetos, Clément; Ratel, Olivier; Tassone, Christopher; Toney, Michael F; Beaujuge, Pierre M

    2014-11-26

    Alkyl substituents appended to the π-conjugated main chain account for the solution-processability and film-forming properties of most π-conjugated polymers for organic electronic device applications, including field-effect transistors (FETs) and bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Beyond film-forming properties, recent work has emphasized the determining role that side-chain substituents play on polymer self-assembly and thin-film nanostructural order, and, in turn, on device performance. However, the factors that determine polymer crystallite orientation in thin-films, implying preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate, are a matter of some debate, and these structural changes remain difficult to anticipate. In this report, we show how systematic changes in the side-chain pattern of poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-alt-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymers can (i) influence the propensity of the polymer to order in the π-stacking direction, and (ii) direct the preferential orientation of the polymer crystallites in thin films (e.g., "face-on" vs "edge-on"). Oriented crystallites, specifically crystallites that are well-ordered in the π-stacking direction, are believed to be a key contributor to improved thin-film device performance in both FETs and BHJ solar cells. PMID:25347287

  16. Nanophase separation and hindered glass transition in side-chain polymers.

    PubMed

    Beiner, Mario; Huth, Heiko

    2003-09-01

    Nanophase separation on length scales of 1-5 nanometres has been reported previously for small-molecule liquids, metallic glasses and also for several semicrystalline, liquid-crystalline and amorphous polymers. Here we show that nanophase separation of incompatible main and side-chain parts is a general phenomenon in amorphous side-chain polymers with long alkyl groups. We conclude from X-ray scattering and relaxation spectroscopy data for higher poly(n-alkyl acrylates) (PnAA) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) (PnAMA) that alkyl groups of different monomeric units aggregate in the melt and form self-assembled alkyl nanodomains with a typical size of 0.5-2 nm. A comparison with data for other polymer series having alkyl groups reveals that important structural and dynamic aspects are main-chain independent. A polyethylene-like glass transition within the alkyl nanodomains is observed and discussed in the context of a hindered glass transition in self-assembled confinements. This is an interesting link between central questions in glass-transition research and structural aspects in nanophase-separated materials.

  17. Microscopic theory of light-induced deformation in amorphous side-chain azobenzene polymers.

    PubMed

    Toshchevikov, V; Saphiannikova, M; Heinrich, G

    2009-04-16

    We propose a microscopic theory of light-induced deformation of side-chain azobenzene polymers taking into account the internal structure of polymer chains. Our theory is based on the fact that interaction of chromophores with the polarized light leads to the orientation anisotropy of azobenzene macromolecules which is accompanied by the appearance of mechanical stress. It is the first microscopic theory which provides the value of the light-induced stress larger than the yield stress. This result explains a possibility for the inscription of surface relief gratings in glassy side-chain azobenzene polymers. For some chemical architectures, elongation of a sample demonstrates a nonmonotonic behavior with the light intensity and can change its sign (a stretched sample starts to be uniaxially compressed), in agreement with experiments. Using a viscoplastic approach, we show that the irreversible strain of a sample, which remains after the light is switched off, decreases with increasing temperature and can disappear at certain temperature below the glass transition temperature. This theoretical prediction is also confirmed by recent experiments.

  18. Acyl CoA profiles of transgenic plants that accumulate medium-chain fatty acids indicate inefficient storage lipid synthesis in developing oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Larson, Tony R; Edgell, Teresa; Byrne, James; Dehesh, Katayoon; Graham, Ian A

    2002-11-01

    Several Brassica napus lines transformed with genes responsible for the synthesis of medium- or long-chain fatty acids were examined to determine limiting factor(s) for the subsequent accumulation of these fatty acids in seed lipids. Examination of a decanoic acid (10:0) accumulating line revealed a disproportionately high concentration of 10:0 CoA during seed development compared to long-chain acyl CoAs isolated from the same tissues, suggesting that poor incorporation of 10:0 CoA into seed lipids limits 10:0 fatty acid accumulation. This relationship was also seen for dodecanoyl (12:0) CoA and fatty acid in a high 12:0 line, but not for octadecanoic (18:0) CoA and fatty acid in a high 18:0 line. Comparison of 10:0 CoA and fatty acid proportions from seeds at different developmental stages for transgenic B. napus and Cuphea hookeriana, the source plant for the medium-chain thioesterase and 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase transgenes, revealed that C. hookeriana incorporates 10:0 CoA into seed lipids more efficiently than transgenic B. napus. Furthermore, beta-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle activities were not increased above wild type levels during seed development in the 8:0/10:0 line, suggesting that lipid catabolism was not being induced in response to the elevated 10:0 CoA concentrations. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic plants that are engineered to synthesize medium-chain fatty acids may lack the necessary mechanisms, such as specific acyltransferases, to incorporate these fatty acids efficiently into seed lipids.

  19. The Effect of Temperature, Cations, and Number of Acyl Chains on the Lamellar to Non-Lamellar Transition in Lipid-A Membranes: A Microscopic View.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Frederico J S; Rusu, Victor H; Soares, Thereza A; Lins, Roberto D

    2012-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the main constituent of the outer bacterial membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid-A is the structural region of LPS that interacts with the innate immune system and induces inflammatory responses. It is formed by a phosphorylated β-d-glucosaminyl-(1→6)-α-N-glucosamine disaccharide backbone containing ester-linked and amide-linked long-chain fatty acids, which may vary in length and number depending on the bacterial strains and the environment. Phenotypical variation (i.e., number of acyl chains), cation type, and temperature influence the phase transition, aggregate structure, and endotoxic activity of Lipid-A. We have applied an extension of the GROMOS force field 45a4 carbohydrate parameter set to investigate the behavior of hexa- and pentaacylated Lipid-A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at two temperatures (300 and 328 K) and in the presence of mono- and divalent cations (represented by Ca(2+) and Na(+), respectively) through molecular dynamics simulations. The distinct phase of Lipid-A aggregates was characterized by structural properties, deuterium order parameters, the molecular shape of the lipid units (conical versus cylindrical), and molecular packing. Our results show that Na(+) ions induce a transition from the lamellar to nonlamellar phase. In contrast, the bilayer integrity is maintained in the presence of Ca(2+) ions. Through these findings, we present microscopic insights on the influence of different cations on the molecular behavior of Lipid-A associated with the lamellar to nonlamellar transition.

  20. The Effect of Temperature, Cations, and Number of Acyl Chains on the Lamellar to Non-Lamellar Transition in Lipid-A Membranes: A Microscopic View

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, Frederico J.; Rusu, Victor H.; Soares, Thereza A.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2012-05-24

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the main constituent of the outer bacterial membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid-A is the structural region of LPS that interacts with the innate immune system and induces inflammatory responses. It is formed by a phosphorylated β-d-glucosaminyl-(1→6)-α-N-glucosamine disaccharide backbone containing ester-linked and amide-linked long-chain fatty acids, which may vary in length and number depending on the bacterial strains and the environment. Phenotypical variation (i.e., number of acyl chains), cation type, and temperature influence the phase transition, aggregate structure, and endotoxic activity of Lipid-A. We have applied an extension of the GROMOS force field 45a4 carbohydrate parameter set to investigate the behavior of hexa- and pentaacylated Lipid-A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at two temperatures (300 and 328 K) and in the presence of mono- and divalent cations (represented by Ca2+ and Na+, respectively) through molecular dynamics simulations. The distinct phase of Lipid-A aggregates was characterized by structural properties, deuterium order parameters, the molecular shape of the lipid units (conical versus cylindrical), and molecular packing. Our results show that Na+ ions induce a transition from the lamellar to nonlamellar phase. In contrast, the bilayer integrity is maintained in the presence of Ca2+ ions. Through these findings, we present microscopic insights on the influence of different cations on the molecular behavior of Lipid-A associated with the lamellar to nonlamellar transition.

  1. Effect of side chain length on intrahelical interactions between carboxylate- and guanidinium-containing amino acids.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Yang, Po-An; Wang, Wei-Ren; Hsu, Hao-Chun; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Yu-Te; Weng, Ming-Huei; Kuo, Li-Hung; Cheng, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    The charge-containing hydrophilic functionalities of encoded charged amino acids are linked to the backbone via different numbers of hydrophobic methylenes, despite the apparent electrostatic nature of protein ion pairing interactions. To investigate the effect of side chain length of guanidinium- and carboxylate-containing residues on ion pairing interactions, α-helical peptides containing Zbb-Xaa (i, i + 3), (i, i + 4) and (i, i + 5) (Zbb = carboxylate-containing residues Aad, Glu, Asp in decreasing length; Xaa = guanidinium residues Agh, Arg, Agb, Agp in decreasing length) sequence patterns were studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The helicity of Aad- and Glu-containing peptides was similar and mostly pH independent, whereas the helicity of Asp-containing peptides was mostly pH dependent. Furthermore, the Arg-containing peptides consistently exhibited higher helicity compared to the corresponding Agp-, Agb-, and Agh-containing peptides. Side chain conformational analysis by molecular mechanics calculations showed that the Zbb-Xaa (i, i + 3) and (i, i + 4) interactions mainly involved the χ 1 dihedral combinations (g+, g+) and (g-, g+), respectively. These low energy conformations were also observed in intrahelical Asp-Arg and Glu-Arg salt bridges of natural proteins. Accordingly, Asp and Glu provides variation in helix characteristics associated with Arg, but Aad does not provide features beyond those already delivered by Glu. Importantly, nature may have chosen the side chain length of Arg to support helical conformations through inherent high helix propensity coupled with stabilizing intrahelical ion pairing interactions with the carboxylate-containing residues.

  2. Side Chain Degradable Cationic-Amphiphilic Polymers with Tunable Hydrophobicity Show in Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Divakara S S M; Samaddar, Sandip; Hoque, Jiaul; Konai, Mohini M; Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandham; Shome, Bibek R; Haldar, Jayanta

    2016-09-12

    Cationic-amphiphilic antibacterial polymers with optimal amphiphilicity generally target the bacterial membranes instead of mammalian membranes. To date, this balance has been achieved by varying the cationic charge or side chain hydrophobicity in a variety of cationic-amphiphilic polymers. Optimal hydrophobicity of cationic-amphiphilic polymers has been considered as the governing factor for potent antibacterial activity yet minimal mammalian cell toxicity. However, the concomitant role of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity with constant cationic charge in the interactions of antibacterial polymers with bacterial membranes is not understood. Also, degradable polymers that result in nontoxic degradation byproducts offer promise as safe antibacterial agents. Here we show that amide- and ester (degradable)-bearing cationic-amphiphilic polymers with tunable side chain hydrophobicity can modulate antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that an amide polymer can be a potent antibacterial agent with lower hydrophobicity whereas the corresponding ester polymer needs a relatively higher hydrophobicity to be as effective as its amide counterpart. Our studies reveal that at higher hydrophobicities both amide and ester polymers have similar profiles of membrane-active antibacterial activity and mammalian cell toxicity. On the contrary, at lower hydrophobicities, amide and ester polymers are less cytotoxic, but the former have potent antibacterial and membrane activity compared to the latter. Incorporation of amide and ester moieties made these polymers side chain degradable, with amide polymers being more stable than the ester polymers. Further, the polymers are less toxic, and their degradation byproducts are nontoxic to mice. More importantly, the optimized amide polymer reduces the bacterial burden of burn wound infections in mice models. Our design introduces a new strategy of interplay between the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions

  3. Revealing the Supramolecular Nature of Side-Chain Terpyridine-Functionalized Polymer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Brassinne, Jérémy; Jochum, Florian D.; Fustin, Charles-André; Gohy, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, finely controlling the mechanical properties of polymeric materials is possible by incorporating supramolecular motifs into their architecture. In this context, the synthesis of a side-chain terpyridine-functionalized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) is reported via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. By addition of transition metal ions, concentrated aqueous solutions of this polymer turn into metallo-supramolecular hydrogels whose dynamic mechanical properties are investigated by rotational rheometry. Hence, the possibility for the material to relax mechanical constrains via dissociation of transient cross-links is brought into light. In addition, the complex phenomena occurring under large oscillatory shear are interpreted in the context of transient networks. PMID:25569082

  4. Theoretical Studies of Interactions between O-Phosphorylated and Standard Amino-Acid Side-Chain Models in Water

    PubMed Central

    Wiśniewska, Marta; Sobolewski, Emil; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.; Makowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation is a common post-translational modification of the amino-acid side chains (serine, tyrosine, and threonine) that contain hydroxyl groups. The transfer of the negatively charged phosphate group from an ATP molecule to such amino-acid side chains leads to changes in the local conformations of proteins and the pattern of interactions with other amino-acid side-chains. A convenient characteristic of the side chain–side chain interactions in the context of an aqueous environment is the potential of mean force (PMF) in water. A series of umbrella-sampling molecular dynamic (MD) simulations with the AMBER force field were carried out for pairs of O-phosphorylated serine (pSer), threonine (pThr), and tyrosine, (pTyr) with natural amino acids in a TIP3P water model as a solvent at 298 K. The weighted-histogram analysis method was used to calculate the four-dimensional potentials of mean force. The results demonstrate that the positions and depths of the contact minima and the positions and heights of the desolvation maxima, including their dependence on the relative orientation depend on the character of the interacting pairs. More distinct minima are observed for oppositely charged pairs such as, e.g., O-phosphorylated side-chains and positively charged ones, such as the side-chains of lysine and arginine. PMID:26100791

  5. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  6. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2010-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:22303259

  7. Acyl-lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; Debono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P; Franke, Rochus B; Graham, Ian A; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  8. Observation of shear-induced nematic-isotropic transition in side-chain liquid crystal polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujolle-Robic, Caroline; Noirez, Laurence

    2001-01-01

    Flow-induced phase transitions are a fundamental (but poorly understood) property of non-equilibrium systems, and are also of practical importance for tuning the processing conditions for plastics, petroleum products, and other related materials. Recognition that polymers may exhibit liquid crystal properties has led to the discovery of the first tailored side-chain liquid crystal polymers (SCLCPs), which are formed by inserting a spacer between the main polymer chain and the lateral mesogen liquid-crystalline graftings. Subsequent research has sought to understand the nature of the coupling between the main polymer chain and the mesogens, with a view to obtaining better control of the properties of these tailored structures. We show here that the parallel or perpendicular orientation of the mesogens with respect to the main chain can be reversed by the application of an external field produced by a shear flow, demonstrating the existence of an isotropic nematic phase transition in SCLCPs. Such a transition, which was theoretically predicted for low-molecular-weight liquid crystals but never observed, is shown to be a general property of SCLCPs too. We expect that these SCLCPs will prove to be good candidate systems for the experimental study of these non-equilibrium phenomena.

  9. Backbone and side-chain resonance assignments of the membrane localization domain from Pasteurella multocida toxin.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Michael C; Geissler, Brett; Hisao, Grant S; Satchell, Karla J F; Wilson, Brenda A; Rienstra, Chad M

    2014-04-01

    (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments are presented for the isolated four-helical bundle membrane localization domain (MLD) from Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) in its solution state. We have assigned 99% of all backbone and side-chain carbon atoms, including 99% of all backbone residues excluding proline amide nitrogens. Secondary chemical shift analysis using TALOS+ demonstrates four helices, which align with those observed within the MLD in the crystal structure of the C-terminus of PMT (PDB 2EBF) and confirm the use of the available crystal structures as templates for the isolated MLDs.

  10. Side chain packing below the fusion peptide strongly modulates triggering of the Hendra virus F protein.

    PubMed

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2010-10-01

    Triggering of the Hendra virus fusion (F) protein is required to initiate the conformational changes which drive membrane fusion, but the factors which control triggering remain poorly understood. Mutation of a histidine predicted to lie near the fusion peptide to alanine greatly reduced fusion despite wild-type cell surface expression levels, while asparagine substitution resulted in a moderate restoration in fusion levels. Slowed kinetics of six-helix bundle formation, as judged by sensitivity to heptad repeat B-derived peptides, was observed for all H372 mutants. These data suggest that side chain packing beneath the fusion peptide is an important regulator of Hendra virus F triggering.

  11. Third-order nonlinear optical characterization of side-chain copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, Robert A.; Sounik, James R.; Popolo, J.; Holcomb, Douglas P.

    1991-12-01

    Third order nonlinear optical properties of side-chain methacrylate copolymers incorporating 4-amino-4'-nitrostilbene, 4-oxy-4'nitrostilbene, and functionalized silicon phthalocyanine chromophores are measured by picosecond degenerate four wave mixing at 598 nm. The nonresonant stilbene system exhibits a pulse limited ultrafast response, while the resonant phthalocyanine system has a large excited state nonlinearity. Comparison of silicon phthalocyanine copolymers with solubilized guest/host systems dispersed in polymethylmethacrylate illustrate the importance of aggregation and phthalocyanine ring interaction in determining the linear optical properties and the magnitude and speed of the nonlinear optical response.

  12. Cyclic side-chain phenylazo naphthalene polymers: enhanced fluorescence emission and surface relief grating formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Nianchen; Zhu, Xing; Chen, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhengbiao; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Hu, Zhijun; Zhu, Xiulin

    2012-11-14

    Well-defined cyclic-polymers (cyclic-PAzoMMAs), bearing side-chain phenylazo naphthalene chromophore, were successfully synthesized by the combination of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and copper(I)-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition "click" reaction, as verified by GPC, (1) H NMR, FTIR, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The cyclic-PAzoMMA showed higher glass transition temperatures than the linear-PAzoMMA with the same molecular weight. Interestingly, the cyclic-PAzoMMA exhibited deeper modulation depth (M.D.) induced by SRG, larger value of the photoinduced birefringence, increased fluorescence emission, and longer fluorescence lifetime in comparison with its linear counterpart. PMID:22965741

  13. Recent advances in metathesis-derived polymers containing transition metals in the side chain

    PubMed Central

    Demonceau, Albert; Fischer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Summary This account critically surveys the field of side-chain transition metal-containing polymers as prepared by controlled living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of the respective metal-incorporating monomers. Ferrocene- and other metallocene-modified polymers, macromolecules including metal-carbonyl complexes, polymers tethering early or late transition metal complexes, etc. are herein discussed. Recent advances in the design and syntheses reported mainly during the last three years are highlighted, with special emphasis on new trends for superior applications of these hybrid materials. PMID:26877797

  14. Side chain engineering of poly-thiophene and its impact on crystalline silicon based hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmeier, M.; Rappich, J.; Nickel, N. H.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Janietz, S.; Frisch, J.; Koch, N.

    2015-11-16

    The influence of ether groups in the side chain of spin coated regioregular polythiophene derivatives on the polymer layer formation and the hybrid solar cell properties was investigated using electrical, optical, and X-ray diffraction experiments. The polymer layers are of high crystallinity but the polymer with 3 ether groups in the side chain (P3TOT) did not show any vibrational fine structure in the UV-Vis spectrum. The presence of ether groups in the side chains leads to better adhesion resulting in thinner and more homogeneous polymer layers. This, in turn, enhances the electronic properties of the planar c-Si/poly-thiophene hybrid solar cell. We find that the power conversion efficiency increases with the number of ether groups in the side chains, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of η = 9.6% is achieved even in simple planar structures.

  15. Side chain engineering of poly-thiophene and its impact on crystalline silicon based hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellmeier, M.; Rappich, J.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Janietz, S.; Frisch, J.; Koch, N.; Nickel, N. H.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of ether groups in the side chain of spin coated regioregular polythiophene derivatives on the polymer layer formation and the hybrid solar cell properties was investigated using electrical, optical, and X-ray diffraction experiments. The polymer layers are of high crystallinity but the polymer with 3 ether groups in the side chain (P3TOT) did not show any vibrational fine structure in the UV-Vis spectrum. The presence of ether groups in the side chains leads to better adhesion resulting in thinner and more homogeneous polymer layers. This, in turn, enhances the electronic properties of the planar c-Si/poly-thiophene hybrid solar cell. We find that the power conversion efficiency increases with the number of ether groups in the side chains, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of η = 9.6% is achieved even in simple planar structures.

  16. The essential function of genes for a hydratase and an aldehyde dehydrogenase for growth of Pseudomonas sp. strain Chol1 with the steroid compound cholate indicates an aldolytic reaction step for deacetylation of the side chain.

    PubMed

    Holert, Johannes; Jagmann, Nina; Philipp, Bodo

    2013-08-01

    In the bacterial degradation of steroid compounds, the enzymes initiating the breakdown of the steroid rings are well known, while the reactions for degrading steroid side chains attached to C-17 are largely unknown. A recent in vitro analysis with Pseudomonas sp. strain Chol1 has shown that the degradation of the C5 acyl side chain of the C24 steroid compound cholate involves the C22 intermediate 7α,12α-dihydroxy-3-oxopregna-1,4-diene-20S-carbaldehyde (DHOPDCA) with a terminal aldehyde group. In the present study, candidate genes with plausible functions in the formation and degradation of this aldehyde were identified. All deletion mutants were defective in growth with cholate but could transform it into dead-end metabolites. A mutant with a deletion of the shy gene, encoding a putative enoyl coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase, accumulated the C24 steroid (22E)-7α,12α-dihydroxy-3-oxochola-1,4,22-triene-24-oate (DHOCTO). Deletion of the sal gene, formerly annotated as the steroid ketothiolase gene skt, resulted in the accumulation of 7α,12α,22-trihydroxy-3-oxochola-1,4-diene-24-oate (THOCDO). In cell extracts of strain Chol1, THOCDO was converted into DHOPDCA in a coenzyme A- and ATP-dependent reaction. A sad deletion mutant accumulated DHOPDCA, and expression in Escherichia coli revealed that sad encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase for oxidizing DHOPDCA to the corresponding acid 7α,12α-dihydroxy-3-oxopregna-1,4-diene-20-carboxylate (DHOPDC) with NAD(+) as the electron acceptor. These results clearly show that the degradation of the acyl side chain of cholate proceeds via an aldolytic cleavage of an acetyl residue; they exclude a thiolytic cleavage for this reaction step. Based on these results and on sequence alignments with predicted aldolases from other bacteria, we conclude that the enzyme encoded by sal catalyzes this aldolytic cleavage.

  17. Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Amino Acid Side Chain Neutral Losses Following Electron-Transfer Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Qiangwei; Lee, M. Violet; Rose, Christopher M.; Marsh, Alyce J.; Hubler, Shane L.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a large set of high mass accuracy and resolution ETD tandem mass spectra, we characterized ETD-induced neutral losses. From these data we deduced the chemical formula for 20 of these losses. Many of them have been previously observed in electron-capture dissociation (ECD) spectra, such as losses of the side chains of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparagine, leucine, histidine, and carbamidomethylated cysteine residues. With this information, we examined the diagnostic value of these amino acid-specific losses. Among 1285 peptide–spectrum matches, 92.5% have agreement between neutral loss-derived peptide amino acid composition and the peptide sequences. Moreover, we show that peptides can be uniquely identified by using only the accurate precursor mass and amino acid composition based on neutral losses; the median number of sequence candidates from an accurate mass query is reduced from 21 to 8 by adding side chain loss information. Besides increasing confidence in peptide identification, our findings suggest the potential use of these diagnostic losses in ETD spectra to improve false discovery rate estimation and to enhance the performance of scoring functions in database search algorithms. PMID:21472585

  18. Evidence for in vitro binding of pectin side chains to cellulose.

    PubMed

    Zykwinska, Agata W; Ralet, Marie-Christine J; Garnier, Catherine D; Thibault, Jean-François J

    2005-09-01

    Pectins of varying structures were tested for their ability to interact with cellulose in comparison to the well-known adsorption of xyloglucan. Our results reveal that sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectins, which are rich in neutral sugar side chains, can bind in vitro to cellulose. The extent of binding varies with respect to the nature and structure of the side chains. Additionally, branched arabinans (Br-Arabinans) or debranched arabinans (Deb-Arabinans; isolated from sugar beet) and galactans (isolated from potato) were shown bind to cellulose microfibrils. The adsorption of Br-Arabinan and galactan was lower than that of Deb-Arabinan. The maximum adsorption affinity of Deb-Arabinan to cellulose was comparable to that of xyloglucan. The study of sugar beet and potato alkali-treated cell walls supports the hypothesis of pectin-cellulose interaction. Natural composites enriched in arabinans or galactans and cellulose were recovered. The binding of pectins to cellulose microfibrils may be of considerable significance in the modeling of primary cell walls of plants as well as in the process of cell wall assembly.

  19. Cyclic side-chain-linked opioid analogs utilizing cis- and trans-4-aminocyclohexyl-D-alanine.

    PubMed

    Piekielna, Justyna; Gentilucci, Luca; De Marco, Rossella; Perlikowska, Renata; Adamska, Anna; Olczak, Jacek; Mazur, Marzena; Artali, Roberto; Modranka, Jakub; Janecki, Tomasz; Tömböly, Csaba; Janecka, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Cyclization of linear sequences is a well recognized tool in opioid peptide chemistry for generating analogs with improved bioactivities. Cyclization can be achieved through various bridging bonds between peptide ends or side-chains. In our earlier paper we have reported the synthesis and biological activity of a cyclic peptide, Tyr-c[D-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]NH2 (1), which can be viewed as an analog of endomorphin-2 (EM-2, Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2). Cyclization was achieved through an amide bond between side-chains of D-Lys and Asp residues. Here, to increase rigidity of the cyclic structure, we replaced d-Lys with cis- or trans-4-aminocyclohexyl-D-alanine (D-ACAla). Two sets of analogs incorporating either Tyr or Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) residues in position 1 were synthesized. In the binding studies the analog incorporating Dmt and trans-D-ACAla showed high affinity for both, μ- and δ-opioid receptors (MOR and DOR, respectively) and moderate affinity for the κ-opioid receptor (KOR), while analog with Dmt and cis-D-ACAla was exceptionally MOR-selective. Conformational analyses by NMR and molecular docking studies have been performed to investigate the molecular structural features responsible for the noteworthy MOR selectivity.

  20. Side chain flexibility and the pore dimensions in the GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Rossokhin, Alexey V; Zhorov, Boris S

    2016-07-01

    Permeation of ions through open channels and their accessibility to pore-targeting drugs depend on the pore cross-sectional dimensions, which are known only for static X-ray and cryo-EM structures. Here, we have built homology models of the closed, open and desensitized α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor (GABAAR). The models are based, respectively, on the X-ray structure of α3 glycine receptor (α3 GlyR), cryo-EM structure of α1 GlyR and X-ray structure of β3 GABAAR. We employed Monte Carlo energy minimizations to explore how the pore lumen may increase due to repulsions of flexible side chains from a variable-diameter electroneutral atom (an expanding sphere) pulled through the pore. The expanding sphere computations predicted that the pore diameter averaged along the permeation pathway is larger by approximately 3 Å than that computed for the models with fixed sidechains. Our models predict three major pore constrictions located at the levels of -2', 9' and 20' residues. Residues around the -2' and 9' rings are known to form the desensitization and activation gates of GABAAR. Our computations predict that the 20' ring may also serve as GABAAR gate whose physiological role is unclear. The side chain flexibility of residues -2', 9' and 20' and hence the dimensions of the constrictions depend on the GABAAR functional state. PMID:27460059

  1. Enzyme directed formation of un-natural side-chains for covalent surface attachment of proteins.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hwayoung; Jaworski, Justyn

    2014-10-01

    The covalent immobilization of proteins onto surfaces is an essential aspect of several fields of research, including proteomics, sensing, heterogeneous biocatalysis, and more broadly biotechnology. Site-specific, covalent attachment of proteins has been achieved in recent years by the use of expanded genetic codes to produce proteins with controlled placement of un-natural amino acids bearing bio-orthogonal functional groups. Unfortunately, the complexity of developing such systems is impractical for most laboratories; hence, a less complicated approach to generating un-natural amino acid side-chains has been employed. Utilizing a straightforward reaction with formylglycine generating enzyme, we use the site-specific modification of engineered proteins to yield un-natural amino acid side-chains for protein immobilization. Using this approach, we demonstrate the controlled immobilization of various enzymes onto a variety of amine coated surfaces. Our results reveal reusability of the immobilized enzymes via this strategy, and furthermore, we find the activity of the immobilized enzymes to remain even after a month of use indicating significant stability of the linkage.

  2. Characterization and Diagnostic Value of Amino Acid Side Chain Neutral Losses Following Electron-Transfer Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qiangwei; Lee, M. Violet; Rose, Christopher M.; Marsh, Alyce J.; Hubler, Shane L.; Wenger, Craig D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2011-02-01

    Using a large set of high mass accuracy and resolution ETD tandem mass spectra, we characterized ETD-induced neutral losses. From these data we deduced the chemical formula for 20 of these losses. Many of them have been previously observed in electron-capture dissociation (ECD) spectra, such as losses of the side chains of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, asparagine, leucine, histidine, and carbamidomethylated cysteine residues. With this information, we examined the diagnostic value of these amino acid-specific losses. Among 1285 peptide-spectrum matches, 92.5% have agreement between neutral loss-derived peptide amino acid composition and the peptide sequences. Moreover, we show that peptides can be uniquely identified by using only the accurate precursor mass and amino acid composition based on neutral losses; the median number of sequence candidates from an accurate mass query is reduced from 21 to 8 by adding side chain loss information. Besides increasing confidence in peptide identification, our findings suggest the potential use of these diagnostic losses in ETD spectra to improve false discovery rate estimation and to enhance the performance of scoring functions in database search algorithms.

  3. Steric selectivity in Na channels arising from protein polarization and mobile side chains.

    PubMed

    Boda, Dezso; Nonner, Wolfgang; Valiskó, Mónika; Henderson, Douglas; Eisenberg, Bob; Gillespie, Dirk

    2007-09-15

    Monte Carlo simulations of equilibrium selectivity of Na channels with a DEKA locus are performed over a range of radius R and protein dielectric coefficient epsilon(p). Selectivity arises from the balance of electrostatic forces and steric repulsion by excluded volume of ions and side chains of the channel protein in the highly concentrated and charged (approximately 30 M) selectivity filter resembling an ionic liquid. Ions and structural side chains are described as mobile charged hard spheres that assume positions of minimal free energy. Water is a dielectric continuum. Size selectivity (ratio of Na+ occupancy to K+ occupancy) and charge selectivity (Na+ to Ca2+) are computed in concentrations as low as 10(-5) M Ca2+. In general, small R reduces ion occupancy and favors Na+ over K+ because of steric repulsion. Small epsilon(p) increases occupancy and favors Na+ over Ca2+ because protein polarization amplifies the pore's net charge. Size selectivity depends on R and is independent of epsilon(p); charge selectivity depends on both R and epsilon(p). Thus, small R and epsilon(p) make an efficient Na channel that excludes K+ and Ca2+ while maximizing Na+ occupancy. Selectivity properties depend on interactions that cannot be described by qualitative or verbal models or by quantitative models with a fixed free energy landscape. PMID:17526571

  4. Predictions of the physicochemical properties of amino acid side chain analogs using molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Alauddin; Sandler, Stanley I

    2016-03-01

    A candidate drug compound is released for clinical trails (in vivo activity) only if its physicochemical properties meet desirable bioavailability and partitioning criteria. Amino acid side chain analogs play vital role in the functionalities of protein and peptides and as such are important in drug discovery. We demonstrate here that the predictions of solvation free energies in water, in 1-octanol, and self-solvation free energies computed using force field-based expanded ensemble molecular dynamics simulation provide good accuracy compared to existing empirical and semi-empirical methods. These solvation free energies are then, as shown here, used for the prediction of a wide range of physicochemical properties important in the assessment of bioavailability and partitioning of compounds. In particular, we consider here the vapor pressure, the solubility in both water and 1-octanol, and the air-water, air-octanol, and octanol-water partition coefficients of amino acid side chain analogs computed from the solvation free energies. The calculated solvation free energies using different force fields are compared against each other and with available experimental data. The protocol here can also be used for a newly designed drug and other molecules where force field parameters and charges are obtained from density functional theory. PMID:26864716

  5. A new classification of the amino acid side chains based on doublet acceptor energy levels.

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, S F; Morgan, R S; Brooks, C L

    1988-01-01

    We describe a new classification of the amino acid side chains based on the potential energy level at which each will accept an extra (doublet) electron. The doublet acceptor energy level, and the doublet acceptor orbital were calculated using semiempirical INDO/2-UHF molecular orbital theory. The results of these calculations show that the side chains fall into four groups. We have termed these groups repulsive, insulating, semiconducting, and attractive in accordance with where each lies on the relative energy scale. We use this classification to examine the role of residues between the donor and acceptor in modulating the rate and mechanism of electron transfer in proteins. With the calculated acceptor levels, we construct a potential barrier for those residues between the donor and acceptor. It is the area beneath this barrier that determines the decay of electronic coupling between donor and acceptor, and thus the transfer rate. We have used this schematic approach to characterize the four electron transfer pathways in myoglobin recently studied by Mayo et al. (Mayo, S.L., W.R. Ellis, R.J. Crutchley, and H.B. Gray. 1986. Science [Wash. DC]. 233:948-952). PMID:3342271

  6. Side chain flexibility and the pore dimensions in the GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Rossokhin, Alexey V; Zhorov, Boris S

    2016-07-01

    Permeation of ions through open channels and their accessibility to pore-targeting drugs depend on the pore cross-sectional dimensions, which are known only for static X-ray and cryo-EM structures. Here, we have built homology models of the closed, open and desensitized α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor (GABAAR). The models are based, respectively, on the X-ray structure of α3 glycine receptor (α3 GlyR), cryo-EM structure of α1 GlyR and X-ray structure of β3 GABAAR. We employed Monte Carlo energy minimizations to explore how the pore lumen may increase due to repulsions of flexible side chains from a variable-diameter electroneutral atom (an expanding sphere) pulled through the pore. The expanding sphere computations predicted that the pore diameter averaged along the permeation pathway is larger by approximately 3 Å than that computed for the models with fixed sidechains. Our models predict three major pore constrictions located at the levels of -2', 9' and 20' residues. Residues around the -2' and 9' rings are known to form the desensitization and activation gates of GABAAR. Our computations predict that the 20' ring may also serve as GABAAR gate whose physiological role is unclear. The side chain flexibility of residues -2', 9' and 20' and hence the dimensions of the constrictions depend on the GABAAR functional state.

  7. Side chain effects in reactions of the potassium-tyrosine charge transfer complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, F. Ferreira; Meneses, G.; Ingólfsson, O.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2016-10-01

    Fragmentation of transient negative ions of tyrosine formed through electron transfer in collisions with neutral potassium atoms is presented in the collision energy range from 30 to 75 eV. At low collision energies the dominating side chain channel observed corresponds to the cleavage of the bond from the para-position of the phenyl ring to the β-C of the remaining moiety, but cleavage of the Cαsbnd Cβ bond is also observed. Further fragments are formed through cleavage of the Cα bond to the carbonyl group, through decomposition of the carboxyl group or through significant decomposition of the backbone. The dehydrogenated molecular anion is also observed with appreciable intensity. These results are discussed in the context of earlier studies on dissociative electron attachment to tyrosine and other amino acids, as well as within the role of the side chain in electron induced decomposition of this aromatic amino acid. Stabilization of the temporary molecular anion in the transient collision complex is discussed and we argue that this may have significant influence on the branching ratios observed.

  8. SCWRL and MolIDE: computer programs for side-chain conformation prediction and homology modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Canutescu, Adrian A; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2008-01-01

    SCWRL and MolIDE are software applications for prediction of protein structures. SCWRL is designed specifically for the task of prediction of side-chain conformations given a fixed backbone usually obtained from an experimental structure determined by X-ray crystallography or NMR. SCWRL is a command-line program that typically runs in a few seconds. MolIDE provides a graphical interface for basic comparative (homology) modeling using SCWRL and other programs. MolIDE takes an input target sequence and uses PSI-BLAST to identify and align templates for comparative modeling of the target. The sequence alignment to any template can be manually modified within a graphical window of the target-template alignment and visualization of the alignment on the template structure. MolIDE builds the model of the target structure on the basis of the template backbone, predicted side-chain conformations with SCWRL and a loop-modeling program for insertion-deletion regions with user-selected sequence segments. SCWRL and MolIDE can be obtained at (http://dunbrack.fccc.edu/Software.php).

  9. An experimental and theoretical study of the amino acid side chain Raman bands in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, Béatrice; Foley, Sarah; Cardey, Bruno; Enescu, Mironel

    2014-07-01

    The Raman spectra of a series of tripeptides with the basic formula GlyAAGly where the central amino acid (AA) was tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, glycine, methionine, histidine, lysine and leucine were measured in H2O. The theoretical Raman spectra obtained using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2df,2pd) level of theory allows a precise attribution of the vibrational bands. The experimental results show that there is a blue shift in the frequencies of several bands of the amino acid side chains in tripeptides compared to free amino acids, especially in the case of AAs containing aromatic rings. On the other hand, a very good agreement was found between the Raman bands of AA residues in tripeptides and those measured on three model proteins: bovine serum albumin, β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme. The present analysis contributes to an unambiguous interpretation of the protein Raman spectra that is useful in monitoring the biological reactions involving AA side chains alteration.

  10. A New Distributed Algorithm for Side-Chain Positioning in the Process of Protein Docking*

    PubMed Central

    Moghadasi, Mohammad; Kozakov, Dima; Vakili, Pirooz; Vajda, Sandor; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Side-chain positioning (SCP) is an important component of computational protein docking methods. Existing SCP methods and available software have been designed for protein folding applications where side-chain positioning is also important. As a result they do not take into account significant special structure that SCP for docking exhibits. We propose a new algorithm which poses SCP as a Maximum Weighted Independent Set (MWIS) problem on an appropriately constructed graph. We develop an approximate algorithm which solves a relaxation of the MWIS and then rounds the solution to obtain a high-quality feasible solution to the problem. The algorithm is fully distributed and can be executed on a large network of processing nodes requiring only local information and message-passing between neighboring nodes. Motivated by the special structure in docking, we establish optimality guarantees for a certain class of graphs. Our results on a benchmark set of enzyme-inhibitor protein complexes show that our predictions are close to the native structure and are comparable to the ones obtained by a state-of-the-art method. The results are substantially improved if rotamers from unbound protein structures are included in the search. We also establish that the use of our SCP algorithm substantially improves docking results. PMID:24844567

  11. Remote control of regioselectivity in acyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturases

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Jodie E.; Whittle, Edward; Moche, Martin; Lengqvist, Johan; Lindqvist, Ylva; Shanklin, John

    2011-01-01

    Regiospecific desaturation of long-chain saturated fatty acids has been described as approaching the limits of the discriminatory power of enzymes because the substrate entirely lacks distinguishing features close to the site of dehydrogenation. To identify the elusive mechanism underlying regioselectivity, we have determined two crystal structures of the archetypal Δ9 desaturase from castor in complex with acyl carrier protein (ACP), which show the bound ACP ideally situated to position C9 and C10 of the acyl chain adjacent to the diiron active site for Δ9 desaturation. Analysis of the structures and modeling of the complex between the highly homologous ivy Δ4 desaturase and ACP, identified a residue located at the entrance to the binding cavity, Asp280 in the castor desaturase (Lys275 in the ivy desaturase), which is strictly conserved within Δ9 and Δ4 enzymes but differs between them. We hypothesized that interaction between Lys275 and the phosphate of the pantetheine, seen in the ivy model, is key to positioning C4 and C5 adjacent to the diiron center for Δ4 desaturation. Mutating castor Asp280 to Lys resulted in a major shift from Δ9 to Δ4 desaturation. Thus, interaction between desaturase side-chain 280 and phospho-serine 38 of ACP, approximately 27 Å from the site of double-bond formation, predisposes ACP binding that favors either Δ9 or Δ4 desaturation via repulsion (acidic side chain) or attraction (positively charged side chain), respectively. Understanding the mechanism underlying remote control of regioselectivity provides the foundation for reengineering desaturase enzymes to create designer chemical feedstocks that would provide alternatives to those currently obtained from petrochemicals. PMID:21930947

  12. Remote control of regioselectivity in acyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturases.

    PubMed

    Guy, Jodie E; Whittle, Edward; Moche, Martin; Lengqvist, Johan; Lindqvist, Ylva; Shanklin, John

    2011-10-01

    Regiospecific desaturation of long-chain saturated fatty acids has been described as approaching the limits of the discriminatory power of enzymes because the substrate entirely lacks distinguishing features close to the site of dehydrogenation. To identify the elusive mechanism underlying regioselectivity, we have determined two crystal structures of the archetypal Δ9 desaturase from castor in complex with acyl carrier protein (ACP), which show the bound ACP ideally situated to position C9 and C10 of the acyl chain adjacent to the diiron active site for Δ9 desaturation. Analysis of the structures and modeling of the complex between the highly homologous ivy Δ4 desaturase and ACP, identified a residue located at the entrance to the binding cavity, Asp280 in the castor desaturase (Lys275 in the ivy desaturase), which is strictly conserved within Δ9 and Δ4 enzymes but differs between them. We hypothesized that interaction between Lys275 and the phosphate of the pantetheine, seen in the ivy model, is key to positioning C4 and C5 adjacent to the diiron center for Δ4 desaturation. Mutating castor Asp280 to Lys resulted in a major shift from Δ9 to Δ4 desaturation. Thus, interaction between desaturase side-chain 280 and phospho-serine 38 of ACP, approximately 27 Å from the site of double-bond formation, predisposes ACP binding that favors either Δ9 or Δ4 desaturation via repulsion (acidic side chain) or attraction (positively charged side chain), respectively. Understanding the mechanism underlying remote control of regioselectivity provides the foundation for reengineering desaturase enzymes to create designer chemical feedstocks that would provide alternatives to those currently obtained from petrochemicals. PMID:21930947

  13. Differential scanning calorimetric study of the effect of sterol side chain length and structure on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine thermotropic phase behavior.

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, T. P.; Vilchèze, C.; McElhaney, R. N.; Bittman, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the thermotropic phase behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers containing a series of cholesterol analogues varying in the length and structure of their alkyl side chains. We find that upon the incorporation of up to approximately 25 mol % of any of the side chain analogues, the DPPC main transition endotherm consists of superimposed sharp and broad components representing the hydrocarbon chain melting of sterol-poor and sterol-rich phospholipid domains, respectively. Moreover, the behavior of these components is dependent on sterol side chain length. Specifically, for all sterol/DPPC mixtures, the sharp component enthalpy decreases linearly to zero by 25 mol % sterol while the cooperativity is only moderately reduced from that observed in the pure phospholipid. In addition, the sharp component transition temperature decreases for all sterol/DPPC mixtures; however, the magnitude of the decrease is dependent on the sterol side chain length. With respect to the broad component, the enthalpy initially increases to a maximum around 25 mol % sterol, thereafter decreasing toward zero by 50 mol % sterol with the exception of the sterols with very short alkyl side chains. Both the transition temperature and cooperativity of the broad component clearly exhibit alkyl chain length-dependent effects, with both the transition temperature and cooperativity decreasing more dramatically for sterols with progressively shorter side chains. We ascribe the chain length-dependent effects on transition temperature and cooperativity to the hydrophobic mismatch between the sterol and the host DPPC bilayer (see McMullen, T. P. W., Lewis, R. N. A. H., and McElhaney, R. N. (1993) Biochemistry 32:516-522). Moreover, the effective stoichiometry of sterol/DPPC interactions is altered by a significantly large degree of hydrophobic mismatch between the sterol and the DPPC bilayer. Thus the short chain sterols appear to exhibit considerable immiscibility in

  14. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing.

  15. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. PMID:26284828

  16. Activity of 3-Ketosteroid 9α-Hydroxylase (KshAB) Indicates Cholesterol Side Chain and Ring Degradation Occur Simultaneously in Mycobacterium tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Capyk, Jenna K.; Casabon, Israël; Gruninger, Robert; Strynadka, Natalie C.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a significant global pathogen, contains a cholesterol catabolic pathway. Although the precise role of cholesterol catabolism in Mtb remains unclear, the Rieske monooxygenase in this pathway, 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase (KshAB), has been identified as a virulence factor. To investigate the physiological substrate of KshAB, a rhodococcal acyl-CoA synthetase was used to produce the coenzyme A thioesters of two cholesterol derivatives: 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oic acid (forming 4-BNC-CoA) and 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchola-1,4-dien-22-oic acid (forming 1,4-BNC-CoA). The apparent specificity constant (kcat/Km) of KshAB for the CoA thioester substrates was 20–30 times that for the corresponding 17-keto compounds previously proposed as physiological substrates. The apparent KmO2 was 90 ± 10 μm in the presence of 1,4-BNC-CoA, consistent with the value for two other cholesterol catabolic oxygenases. The Δ1 ketosteroid dehydrogenase KstD acted with KshAB to cleave steroid ring B with a specific activity eight times greater for a CoA thioester than the corresponding ketone. Finally, modeling 1,4-BNC-CoA into the KshA crystal structure suggested that the CoA moiety binds in a pocket at the mouth of the active site channel and could contribute to substrate specificity. These results indicate that the physiological substrates of KshAB are CoA thioester intermediates of cholesterol side chain degradation and that side chain and ring degradation occur concurrently in Mtb. This finding has implications for steroid metabolites potentially released by the pathogen during infection and for the design of inhibitors for cholesterol-degrading enzymes. The methodologies and rhodococcal enzymes used to generate thioesters will facilitate the further study of cholesterol catabolism. PMID:21987574

  17. A Major Role for Side-Chain Polyglutamine Hydrogen Bonding in Irreversible Ataxin-3 Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Relini, Annalisa; Apicella, Alessandra; Invernizzi, Gaetano; Casari, Carlo; Gliozzi, Alessandra; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Tortora, Paolo; Regonesi, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    The protein ataxin-3 consists of an N-terminal globular Josephin domain (JD) and an unstructured C-terminal region containing a stretch of consecutive glutamines that triggers the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, when it is expanded beyond a critical threshold. The disease results from misfolding and aggregation, although the pathway and structure of the aggregation intermediates are not fully understood. In order to provide insight into the mechanism of the process, we monitored the aggregation of a normal (AT3Q24) ataxin-3, an expanded (AT3Q55) ataxin-3, and the JD in isolation. We observed that all of them aggregated, although the latter did so at a much slower rate. Furthermore, the expanded AT3Q55 displayed a substantially different behavior with respect to the two other variants in that at the latest stages of the process it was the only one that did the following: i) lost its reactivity towards an anti-oligomer antibody, ii) generated SDS-insoluble aggregates, iii) gave rise to bundles of elongated fibrils, and iv) displayed two additional bands at 1604 and 1656 cm−1 in FTIR spectroscopy. Although these were previously observed in other aggregated polyglutamine proteins, no one has assigned them unambiguously, yet. By H/D exchange experiments we show for the first time that they can be ascribed to glutamine side-chain hydrogen bonding, which is therefore the hallmark of irreversibly SDS-insoluble aggregated protein. FTIR spectra also showed that main-chain intermolecular hydrogen bonding preceded that of glutamine side-chains, which suggests that the former favors the latter by reorganizing backbone geometry. PMID:21533208

  18. Anomalous diffusion and dynamical correlation between the side chains and the main chain of proteins in their native state

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Yoann; Senet, Patrick; Delarue, Patrice; Maisuradze, Gia G.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2012-01-01

    Structural fluctuations of a protein are essential for a protein to function and fold. By using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the model α/β protein VA3 in its native state, the coupling between the main-chain (MC) motions [represented by coarse-grained dihedral angles (CGDAs) γn based on four successive Cα atoms (n - 1, n, n + 1, n + 2) along the amino acid sequence] and its side-chain (SC) motions [represented by CGDAs δn formed by the virtual bond joining two consecutive Cα atoms (n, n + 1) and the bonds joining these Cα atoms to their respective Cβ atoms] was analyzed. The motions of SCs (δn) and MC (γn) over time occur on similar free-energy profiles and were found to be subdiffusive. The fluctuations of the SCs (δn) and those of the MC (γn) are generally poorly correlated on a ps time-scale with a correlation increasing with time to reach a maximum value at about 10 ns. This maximum value is close to the correlation between the δn(t) and γn(t) time-series extracted from the entire duration of the MD runs (400 ns) and varies significantly along the amino acid sequence. High correlations between the SC and MC motions [δ(t) and γ(t) time-series] were found only in flexible regions of the protein for a few residues which contribute the most to the slowest collective modes of the molecule. These results are a possible indication of the role of the flexible regions of proteins for the biological function and folding. PMID:22689963

  19. Two Activities of Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Are Involved in Lipid Trafficking between the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Plastid in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Dirk; Roth, Charlotte; Wiermer, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    In plants, fatty acids are synthesized within the plastid and need to be distributed to the different sites of lipid biosynthesis within the cell. Free fatty acids released from the plastid need to be converted to their corresponding coenzyme A thioesters to become metabolically available. This activation is mediated by long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (LACSs), which are encoded by a family of nine genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). So far, it has remained unclear which of the individual LACS activities are involved in making plastid-derived fatty acids available to cytoplasmic glycerolipid biosynthesis. Because of its unique localization at the outer envelope of plastids, LACS9 was regarded as a candidate for linking plastidial fatty export and cytoplasmic use. However, data presented in this study show that LACS9 is involved in fatty acid import into the plastid. The analyses of mutant lines revealed strongly overlapping functions of LACS4 and LACS9 in lipid trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plastid. In vivo labeling experiments with lacs4 lacs9 double mutants suggest strongly reduced synthesis of endoplasmic reticulum-derived lipid precursors, which are required for the biosynthesis of glycolipids in the plastids. In conjunction with this defect, double-mutant plants accumulate significant amounts of linoleic acid in leaf tissue. PMID:25540329

  20. Rapid detection of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene mutations by non-radioactive, single strand conformation polymorphism minigels.

    PubMed Central

    Iolascon, A; Parrella, T; Perrotta, S; Guardamagna, O; Coates, P M; Sartore, M; Surrey, S; Fortina, P

    1994-01-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a common inherited metabolic disorder affecting fatty acid beta oxidation. Identification of carriers is important since the disease can be fatal and is readily treatable once diagnosed. Twelve molecular defects have been identified in the MCAD gene; however, a single highly prevalent mutation, A985G, accounts for > 90% of mutant alleles in the white population. In order to facilitate the molecular diagnosis of MCAD deficiency, oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify the exon regions encompassing the 12 mutations enzymatically, and PCR products were then screened with a single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based method. Minigels were used allowing much faster run times, and silver staining was used after gel electrophoresis to eliminate the need for radioisotopic labelling strategies. Our non-radioactive, minigel SSCP approach showed that normals can be readily distinguished from heterozygotes and homozygotes for all three of the 12 known MCAD mutations which were detected in our sampling of 48 persons. In addition, each band pattern is characteristic for a specific mutation, including those mapping in the same PCR product like A985G and T1124C. When necessary, the molecular defect was confirmed using either restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products or by direct DNA sequence analysis or both. This rapid, non-radioactive approach can become routine for molecular diagnosis of MCAD deficiency and other genetic disorders. Images PMID:7966191

  1. Structure of a Specialized Acyl Carrier Protein Essential for Lipid A Biosynthesis with Very Long-chain Fatty Acids in Open and Closed Conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramelot, Theresa A.; Rossi, Paolo M.; Forouhar, Farhad; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Yang, Yunhuang; Ni, Shuisong; Unser, Sarah; Lew, Scott; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas; Everett, John K.; Prestegard, James H.; Hunt, John F.; Montelione, Gaetano; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-09-18

    The solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures and backbone (15)N dynamics of the specialized acyl carrier protein (ACP), RpAcpXL, from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, in both the apo form and holo form modified by covalent attachment of 4'-phosphopantetheine at S37, are virtually identical, monomeric, and correspond to the closed conformation. The structures have an extra α-helix compared to the archetypical ACP from Escherichia coli, which has four helices, resulting in a larger opening to the hydrophobic cavity. Chemical shift differences between apo- and holo-RpAcpXL indicated some differences in the hinge region between α2 and α3 and in the hydrophobic cavity environment, but corresponding changes in nuclear Overhauser effect cross-peak patterns were not detected. In contrast to the NMR structures, apo-RpAcpXL was observed in an open conformation in crystals that diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution, which resulted from movement of α3. On the basis of the crystal structure, the predicted biological assembly is a homodimer. Although the possible biological significance of dimerization is unknown, there is potential that the resulting large shared hydrophobic cavity could accommodate the very long-chain fatty acid (28-30 carbons) that this specialized ACP is known to synthesize and transfer to lipid A. These structures are the first representatives of the AcpXL family and the first to indicate that dimerization may be important for the function of these specialized ACPs.

  2. Physics-based side-chain-rotamer and side-chain and backbone virtual-bond-stretching potentials for coarse-grained UNRES force field. 2. Comparison with statistical potentials and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowska, Urszula; Maisuradze, Gia G.; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2009-01-01

    Using the harmonic-approximation approach of the accompanying paper and AM1 energy surfaces of terminally-blocked amino-acid residues, we determined physics-based side-chain-rotamer potentials and the side-chain virtual-bond-deformation potentials of 19 natural amino-acid residues with side chains. The potentials were approximated by analytical formulas and implemented in the UNRES mesoscopic dynamics program. For comparison, the corresponding statistical potentials were determined from 19,682 high-resolution protein structures. The low-free-energy region of both the AM1-derived and the statistical potentials is determined by the valence geometry and the L-chirality, and its size increases with side-chain flexibility and decreases with increasing virtual-bond-angle θ. The differences between the free energies of rotamers are greater for the AM1-derived potentials compared to the statistical potentials and, for alanine and other residues with small side chains, a region corresponding to the Cax7 conformation has remarkably low free energy for the AM1-derived potentials, as opposed to the statistical potentials. These differences probably result from the interactions between neighboring residues and indicate the need for introduction of cooperative terms accounting for the coupling between side-chain-rotamer and backbone interactions. Both AM1-derived and statistical virtual-bond-deformation potentials are multimodal for flexible side chains and are topologically similar; however, the regions of minima of the statistical potentials are much narrower, which probably results from imposing restraints in structure determination. The force field with the new potentials was preliminarily optimized using the FBP WW domain (1E0L) and the engrailed homeodomain (1ENH) as training proteins and assessed to be reasonably transferable. PMID:20017135

  3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the euryhaline herbivorous teleost Scatophagus argus: Functional characterization, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of two fatty acyl elongases.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Qinghao; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-08-01

    Both the spotted scat Scatophagus argus and rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus belong to the few cultured herbivorous marine teleost, however, their fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) system involved in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is different. The S. argus has a △6 Fad, while the rabbitfish has △4 and △6/△5 Fads, which were the first report in vertebrate and marine teleost, respectively. In order to compare the characteristics of elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) between them, two Elovl cDNAs were cloned from S. argus in the present study. One has 885bp of open read fragment (ORF) encoding a protein with 294 amino acid (aa) showing Elovl5 activity functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, which was primarily active for the elongation of C18 and C20 PUFAs. The other has 915bp of ORF coding for a 305 aa protein showing Elovl4 activity, which was more efficient in the elongation of C20 and C22 PUFAs. Tissue distribution analyses by RT-PCR showed that elovl5 was highly expressed in the liver compared to other tissues determined, whereas elovl4 transcripts were only detected in the eye. The expression of elovl5 and elovl4 were significantly affected by dietary fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in the liver and eye of fish fed a diet with an 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio of 1.7:1. These results indicated that the S. argus has a similar Elovl system in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway to that of rabbitfish although their Fad system was different, suggesting that the diversification of fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis specificities is more associated with its Fad system. These new insights expand our knowledge and understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish. PMID:27050407

  4. Riboflavin-Responsive and -Non-responsive Mutations in FAD Synthase Cause Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase and Combined Respiratory-Chain Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Koňaříková, Eliška; Giancaspero, Teresa A; Mosegaard, Signe; Boczonadi, Veronika; Mataković, Lavinija; Veauville-Merllié, Alice; Terrile, Caterina; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Haack, Tobias B; Auranen, Mari; Leone, Piero; Galluccio, Michele; Imbard, Apolline; Gutierrez-Rios, Purificacion; Palmfeldt, Johan; Graf, Elisabeth; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Oppenheim, Marcus; Schiff, Manuel; Pichard, Samia; Rigal, Odile; Pyle, Angela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Möslinger, Dorothea; Feichtinger, René G; Talim, Beril; Topaloglu, Haluk; Coskun, Turgay; Gucer, Safak; Botta, Annalisa; Pegoraro, Elena; Malena, Adriana; Vergani, Lodovica; Mazzà, Daniela; Zollino, Marcella; Ghezzi, Daniele; Acquaviva, Cecile; Tyni, Tiina; Boneh, Avihu; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Gregersen, Niels; Mayr, Johannes A; Horvath, Rita; Barile, Maria; Prokisch, Holger

    2016-06-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies (MADDs) are a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders with combined respiratory-chain deficiency and a neuromuscular phenotype. Despite recent advances in understanding the genetic basis of MADD, a number of cases remain unexplained. Here, we report clinically relevant variants in FLAD1, which encodes FAD synthase (FADS), as the cause of MADD and respiratory-chain dysfunction in nine individuals recruited from metabolic centers in six countries. In most individuals, we identified biallelic frameshift variants in the molybdopterin binding (MPTb) domain, located upstream of the FADS domain. Inasmuch as FADS is essential for cellular supply of FAD cofactors, the finding of biallelic frameshift variants was unexpected. Using RNA sequencing analysis combined with protein mass spectrometry, we discovered FLAD1 isoforms, which only encode the FADS domain. The existence of these isoforms might explain why affected individuals with biallelic FLAD1 frameshift variants still harbor substantial FADS activity. Another group of individuals with a milder phenotype responsive to riboflavin were shown to have single amino acid changes in the FADS domain. When produced in E. coli, these mutant FADS proteins resulted in impaired but detectable FADS activity; for one of the variant proteins, the addition of FAD significantly improved protein stability, arguing for a chaperone-like action similar to what has been reported in other riboflavin-responsive inborn errors of metabolism. In conclusion, our studies identify FLAD1 variants as a cause of potentially treatable inborn errors of metabolism manifesting with MADD and shed light on the mechanisms by which FADS ensures cellular FAD homeostasis. PMID:27259049

  5. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the euryhaline herbivorous teleost Scatophagus argus: Functional characterization, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of two fatty acyl elongases.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Qinghao; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-08-01

    Both the spotted scat Scatophagus argus and rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus belong to the few cultured herbivorous marine teleost, however, their fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) system involved in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is different. The S. argus has a △6 Fad, while the rabbitfish has △4 and △6/△5 Fads, which were the first report in vertebrate and marine teleost, respectively. In order to compare the characteristics of elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) between them, two Elovl cDNAs were cloned from S. argus in the present study. One has 885bp of open read fragment (ORF) encoding a protein with 294 amino acid (aa) showing Elovl5 activity functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, which was primarily active for the elongation of C18 and C20 PUFAs. The other has 915bp of ORF coding for a 305 aa protein showing Elovl4 activity, which was more efficient in the elongation of C20 and C22 PUFAs. Tissue distribution analyses by RT-PCR showed that elovl5 was highly expressed in the liver compared to other tissues determined, whereas elovl4 transcripts were only detected in the eye. The expression of elovl5 and elovl4 were significantly affected by dietary fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in the liver and eye of fish fed a diet with an 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio of 1.7:1. These results indicated that the S. argus has a similar Elovl system in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway to that of rabbitfish although their Fad system was different, suggesting that the diversification of fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis specificities is more associated with its Fad system. These new insights expand our knowledge and understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish.

  6. Contribution of the Distal Pocket Residue to the Acyl-Chain-Length Specificity of (R)-Specific Enoyl-Coenzyme A Hydratases from Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shun; Hiroe, Ayaka; Ishizuka, Koya; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    (R)-Specific enoyl-coenzyme A (enoyl-CoA) hydratases (PhaJs) are capable of supplying monomers from fatty acid β-oxidation to polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis. PhaJ1Pp from Pseudomonas putida showed broader substrate specificity than did PhaJ1Pa from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, despite sharing 67% amino acid sequence identity. In this study, the substrate specificity characteristics of two Pseudomonas PhaJ1 enzymes were investigated by site-directed mutagenesis, chimeragenesis, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and homology modeling. In PhaJ1Pp, the replacement of valine with isoleucine at position 72 resulted in an increased preference for enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) elements with shorter chain lengths. Conversely, at the same position in PhaJ1Pa, the replacement of isoleucine with valine resulted in an increased preference for enoyl-CoAs with longer chain lengths. These changes suggest a narrowing and broadening in the substrate specificity range of the PhaJ1Pp and PhaJ1Pa mutants, respectively. However, the substrate specificity remains broader in PhaJ1Pp than in PhaJ1Pa. Additionally, three chimeric PhaJ1 enzymes, composed from PhaJ1Pp and PhaJ1Pa, all showed significant hydratase activity, and their substrate preferences were within the range exhibited by the parental PhaJ1 enzymes. The crystal structure of PhaJ1Pa was determined at a resolution of 1.7 Å, and subsequent homology modeling of PhaJ1Pp revealed that in the acyl-chain binding pocket, the amino acid at position 72 was the only difference between the two structures. These results indicate that the chain-length specificity of PhaJ1 is determined mainly by the bulkiness of the amino acid residue at position 72, but that other factors, such as structural fluctuations, also affect specificity. PMID:26386053

  7. Lattice and off-lattice side chain models of protein folding: Linear time structure prediction better than 86% of optimal

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.E.; Istrail, S.

    1996-08-09

    This paper considers the protein structure prediction problem for lattice and off-lattice protein folding models that explicitly represent side chains. Lattice models of proteins have proven extremely useful tools for reasoning about protein folding in unrestricted continuous space through analogy. This paper provides the first illustration of how rigorous algorithmic analyses of lattice models can lead to rigorous algorithmic analyses of off-lattice models. The authors consider two side chain models: a lattice model that generalizes the HP model (Dill 85) to explicitly represent side chains on the cubic lattice, and a new off-lattice model, the HP Tangent Spheres Side Chain model (HP-TSSC), that generalizes this model further by representing the backbone and side chains of proteins with tangent spheres. They describe algorithms for both of these models with mathematically guaranteed error bounds. In particular, the authors describe a linear time performance guaranteed approximation algorithm for the HP side chain model that constructs conformations whose energy is better than 865 of optimal in a face centered cubic lattice, and they demonstrate how this provides a 70% performance guarantee for the HP-TSSC model. This is the first algorithm in the literature for off-lattice protein structure prediction that has a rigorous performance guarantee. The analysis of the HP-TSSC model builds off of the work of Dancik and Hannenhalli who have developed a 16/30 approximation algorithm for the HP model on the hexagonal close packed lattice. Further, the analysis provides a mathematical methodology for transferring performance guarantees on lattices to off-lattice models. These results partially answer the open question of Karplus et al. concerning the complexity of protein folding models that include side chains.

  8. Influence of O Side Chains on the Attachment of the Felix O-1 Bacteriophage to Salmonella Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, A. A.; Holme, T.

    1969-01-01

    The adsorption rate constant (ARC) of the Felix O-1 (FO) bacteriophage to sensitive Salmonella strains was used to determine the effect of variations in surface antigens on phage attachment. The N-acetylglucosamine of the common-core polysaccharide of the Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to be an essential part of the receptor for the FO phage in conformation with earlier reports. It was found that (i) the ARC was low for strains having O side chains containing two or three non core monosaccharides, (ii) the ARC varied when the O side chain contained no, or only one, noncore monosaccharide, (iii) the ARC was high when the O side chain contained only one repeating unit, and (iv) the ARC was high to mutants of chemotype Ra in which the N-acetylglucosamine was the terminal sugar of the LPS. Since a good correlation was found between the ARC of the FO phage and the phage-inactivating capacity of phenol water-extracted LPS, the results suggest that only the structure and composition of the LPS determines the adsorption rate of the FO phage. The phage-inactivating capacity of LPS from the Ra mutants increased in parallel with higher glucosamine contents in the core polysaccharide. In smooth strains having long and numerous O side chains, the access of the FO phage to its receptor is probably blocked by the presence of the side chains, whereas short and numerous side chains or T1 side chains do not interfere with the FO attachment. PMID:4897114

  9. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Circular Dichroism Spectra of Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate Reductase and Its Mutants: Contributions of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Side Chains and Exciton Coupling of Two Tryptophan Side Chains.

    PubMed

    Ohmae, Eiji; Tanaka, Suguru; Miyashita, Yurina; Katayanagi, Katsuo; Matsuo, Koichi

    2015-10-15

    Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy has recently been used for secondary structure analysis of proteins; however, the contribution of aromatic side chains to protein VUV CD spectra is unresolved. In this report, VUV CD spectra of 10 Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) mutants, in which each phenylalanine or tyrosine residue was mutated to leucine, were measured down to 175 nm at 25 °C and pH 8.0 to elucidate the contributions of these aromatic side chains to the high-energy transitions of peptide bonds. The VUV CD spectra of these mutants were different from the spectrum of the wild-type protein, indicating that the contribution of the phenylalanine and tyrosine side chains of DHFR extends to the VUV region. Furthermore, the VUV CD spectrum and the folate- or NADP(+)-induced spectral change of F103L mutant DHFR indicated a modification and regeneration of exciton coupling between the Trp47 and Trp74 side chains, respectively, suggesting that exciton coupling may also contribute to the CD spectrum of DHFR in the VUV region. These results should be useful for theoretically characterizing the contribution of aromatic side chains to protein CD spectra, leading to the improvement of protein secondary-structure analysis by VUV CD spectroscopy.

  10. Excited-state dynamics of water-soluble polythiophene derivatives: temperature and side-chain length effects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying-Zhong; Shaw, Robert W; Yu, Xiang; O'Neill, Hugh M; Hong, Kunlun

    2012-12-13

    We report synthesis and detailed spectroscopic study of three water-soluble polythiophene derivatives with distinct homologous oligo(ethylene oxide) side-chain lengths and lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs). The linear absorption spectra exhibit reversible shifts and broadening with the variation of their aqueous solution temperature, whereas the corresponding steady-state fluorescence emission spectra were found to show negligible shifts and only minor changes in their line shape. Measurements of picosecond time-resolved fluorescence at chosen emission wavelengths reveal a strong dependence of the isotropic decays on both side-chain length and aqueous solution temperature. With lengthening of the side chain, the isotropic decays become not only remarkably slow but also increasingly complex. Except for the polymer with the shortest side chain, significant acceleration of the isotropic decays was found when the solution temperature was raised to the corresponding LCSTs and beyond, which further causes formation of large aggregates as evident by the physical appearance change from clear solutions to turbid suspensions. Direct evidence for a temperature-induced change of polymer chain conformation was obtained through measurements of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropies, which are characterized by a substantial increase of the initial values from ~0.2 to 0.4 and the appearance of a pronounced fast decay component with an estimated lifetime of 36 ps. The high initial anisotropy of ~0.4 observed for the two polymers with longer side-chains above their LCSTs suggests that the polymer chains are highly ordered in the aggregates. The observed effects of side-chain length and solution temperature are discussed by considering the conformational relaxation of the polymer backbones and occurrence of interchain energy transfer.

  11. High electro-optic side-chain polymer by vapor deposition polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C. C.; Yang, G.-R.; Cocoziello, A.; Zhao, Y.-P.; Wnek, G.; Lu, T.-M.

    1996-04-01

    In this letter, we report high electro-optic methylene di(phenylene isocyanate) (MDI)/DR19 side-chain polymer film polymerization by vapor deposition polymerization. For samples deposited at substrate temperatures from 10 to 30 °C, the electro-optic (EO) coefficient, r33, was measured to be 5 pm/V after poling. A lifetime of about one week was obtained. The highest EO effect observed were films deposited at -40 °C and polymerized after poling. The EO coefficient of these samples is about 24 pm/V while the lifetime is only about 30 min. The effect of substrate temperature, the ratio of monomers, and the poling temperature on the nonlinearity of the films are studied.

  12. Discovery of thiochroman derivatives bearing a carboxy-containing side chain as orally active pure antiestrogens.

    PubMed

    Kanbe, Yoshitake; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Nishimoto, Masahiro; Ohtake, Yoshihito; Tsunenari, Toshiaki; Taniguchi, Kenji; Ohizumi, Iwao; Kaiho, Shin-ichi; Nabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kawata, Setsu; Morikawa, Kazumi; Jo, Jae-Chon; Kwon, Hee-An; Lim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hak-Yeop

    2006-08-01

    In order to search for alternatives to the sulfoxide moiety in the long side chain of pure antiestrogens, several molecules that may interact with water in a fashion similar to ICI164,384 were designed and it was found that compounds with the carboxy, the sulfamide, or the sulfonamide instead of the sulfoxide moiety also functioned as pure antiestrogens. Interestingly, the compound possessing the carboxy moiety showed superior antiestrogen activity compared to ICI182,780 when dosed orally. Results of the pharmacokinetic evaluation indicated that the potent antiestrogen activity at oral dosing attributed to both the improved absorption from the intestinal wall and the metabolic stability of the compound in liver. PMID:16709454

  13. Molecular modelling studies of side-chain rotation in substituted triazine rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, Helen E.; Cherryman, Julian C.; Margaret Chippendale, A.; Hazendonk, Paul; Harris, Robin K.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular modelling computation using the GAUSSIAN 94 package of programs was carried out to estimate four different barriers to internal rotation about amine nitrogen to sp 2 carbon bonds for two compounds with triazine rings. Whereas two of the processes appear to retain a planar side-chain nitrogen environment throughout the internal rotation, the other two involve pyramidalisation. In the latter two cases, after the barrier is passed, the process may or may not include a transient inversion at nitrogen. The internal rotation for cyclotriazine systems is discussed in relation to those for aniline and formamide. The four barrier magnitudes calculated for the triazines are in the same order as (though somewhat larger than) those measured by variable-temperature NMR bandshape analysis for a relevant compound.

  14. Side chain and backbone contributions of Phe508 to CFTR folding

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeau, Patrick H.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Machius, Mischa; Thomas, Philip J.

    2010-12-07

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an integral membrane protein, cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common CF-causing mutant, deletion of Phe508, fails to properly fold. To elucidate the role Phe508 plays in the folding of CFTR, missense mutations at this position were generated. Only one missense mutation had a pronounced effect on the stability and folding of the isolated domain in vitro. In contrast, many substitutions, including those of charged and bulky residues, disrupted folding of full-length CFTR in cells. Structures of two mutant nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) reveal only local alterations of the surface near position 508. These results suggest that the peptide backbone plays a role in the proper folding of the domain, whereas the side chain plays a role in defining a surface of NBD1 that potentially interacts with other domains during the maturation of intact CFTR.

  15. The phase dependent photophysics and photochemistry of side-chain substituted liquid crystalline polyaryl cinnamates

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.; Creed, D.; Hoyle, C.E.

    1993-12-31

    The photochemical behavior of a polymethacrylate polymer with a side-chain cinnamate ester mesogen has been investigated. Photolysis at 313 nm of the polymer film in the smectic A or smectic B phase results in only a 2+2 cycloaddition reaction at low photolysis times. In contrast, photolysis (313 nm) of the polymer film in the nematic phase yields both 2+2 cycloaddition and photo-Fries products at short photolysis times. The preference for 2+2 cyloaddition product formation in the smectic phases is attributed to preferential reaction of cinnamate ester aggregates. Accordingly, photolysis at 366 nm where only aggregates absorb yields exclusively cycloadducts even after exhaustive photolysis for long time periods.

  16. Poly-dimethylsiloxane derivates side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migani, V.; Weiss, H.; Massafra, M. R.; Merlo, A.; Colleoni, C.; Rosace, G.

    2011-02-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers finishing of Polyamide-6,6 (PA66) fabrics involves ionic interactions between reactive groups on the PDMS polymers and the ones of the textile fabric. Such interactions could be strengthened by a pretreatment with a fixing agent to promote either ion-ion and H-bonding and ion-dipole forces. These forces could contribute towards the building of substantial PDMS-PA66 systems and the achieving of better adhesion properties to fabrics. Four different silicone polymers based on PDMS were applied on a synthetic tanning agent (syntan) finished Polyamide-6,6 fabric under acid conditions. Soxhlet extraction method and ATR FT-IR technique were used to investigate the application conditions. The finishing parameters such as pH and temperature together with fastness, mechanical and performance properties of the treated samples were studied and related to PDMS side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric.

  17. Backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments of apolipophorin III from Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Crowhurst, Karin A; Horn, James V C; Weers, Paul M M

    2016-04-01

    Apolipophorin III, a 163 residue monomeric protein from the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (abbreviated as apoLp-IIIGM), has roles in upregulating expression of antimicrobial proteins as well as binding and deforming bacterial membranes. Due to its similarity to vertebrate apolipoproteins there is interest in performing atomic resolution analysis of apoLp-IIIGM as part of an effort to better understand its mechanism of action in innate immunity. In the first step towards structural characterization of apoLp-IIIGM, 99 % of backbone and 88 % of side chain (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts were assigned. TALOS+ analysis of the backbone resonances has predicted that the protein is composed of five long helices, which is consistent with the reported structures of apolipophorins from other insect species. The next stage in the characterization of apoLp-III from G. mellonella will be to utilize these resonance assignments in solving the solution structure of this protein.

  18. Non-innocent side-chains with dipole moments in organic solar cells improve charge separation.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Hilde D; Broer, Ria; Havenith, Remco W A

    2014-06-28

    Providing sustainable energy is one of the biggest challenges nowadays. An attractive answer is the use of organic solar cells to capture solar energy. Recently a promising route to increase their efficiency has been suggested: developing new organic materials with a high dielectric constant. This solution focuses on lowering the coulomb attraction between electrons and holes, thereby increasing the yield of free charges. In here, we demonstrate from a theoretical point of view that incorporation of dipole moments in organic materials indeed lowers the coulomb attraction. A combination of molecular dynamics simulations for modelling the blend and ab initio quantum chemical calculations to study specific regions was performed. This approach gives predictive insight in the suitability of new materials for application in organic solar cells. In addition to all requirements that make conjugated polymers suitable for application in organic solar cells, this study demonstrates the importance of large dipole moments in polymer side-chains.

  19. Calcium ions induce collapse of charged O-side chains of lipopolysaccharides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Schneck, Emanuel; Papp-Szabo, Erzsebet; Quinn, Bonnie E.; Konovalov, Oleg V.; Beveridge, Terry J.; Pink, David A.; Tanaka, Motomu

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) monolayers deposited on planar, hydrophobic substrates were used as a defined model of outer membranes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain dps 89. To investigate the influence of ions on the (out-of-plane) monolayer structure, we measured specular X-ray reflectivity at high energy (22 keV) to ensure transmission through water. Electron density profiles were reconstructed from the reflectivity curves, and they indicate that the presence of Ca2+ ions induces a significant change in the conformation of the charged polysaccharide head groups (O-side chains). Monte Carlo simulations based on a minimal computer model of LPS molecules allow for the modelling of 100 or more molecules over 10−3 s and theoretically explained the tendency found by experiments. PMID:19605401

  20. Shape-Selectivity with Liquid Crystal and Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymer SAW Sensor Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; OBORNY,MICHAEL C.; PUGH,COLEEN; RICCO,ANTONIO; THOMAS,ROSS C.; ZELLERS,EDWARD T.; ZHANG,GUO-ZHENG

    1999-09-23

    A liquid crystal (LC) and a side-chain liquid crystalline polymer (SCLCP) were tested as surface acoustic wave (SAW) vapor sensor coatings for discriminating between pairs of isomeric organic vapors. Both exhibit room temperature smectic mesophases. Temperature, electric-field, and pretreatment with self-assembled monolayers comprising either a methyl-terminated or carboxylic acid-terminated alkane thiol anchored to a gold layer in the delay path of the sensor were explored as means of affecting the alignment and selectivity of the LC and SCLCP films. Results for the LC were mixed, while those for the SCLCP showed a consistent preference for the more rod-like isomer of each isomer pair examined.

  1. Synthesis of brassinosteroids with a keto group in the side chain.

    PubMed

    Baradzenka, Aliona G; Barysau, Barys M; Hurski, Alaksiej L; Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare 24-epicryptolide and 22-dehydro-24-epibrassinolide as possible metabolites of 24-epibrassinolide. The main synthetic problem to be solved was the differentiation of functional groups in brassinosteroids. Distinguishing 2α,3α-diol function from another diol group in 24-epibrassinolide was achieved via selective hydrolysis of 2α,3α-cyclic carbonate or via regioselective reaction of boric acid with the functional groups in the side chain. The hydroxyl at C-23 was more reactive than the 22-OH in the oxidation with bromine in the presence of bis(tributyltin) oxide and in the benzylation reaction that resulted in the predominant formation of the corresponding α-hydroxy ketone derivatives with the ratio ranging from 4:1 to 1.5:1.

  2. Ozonolysis of surface adsorbed methoxyphenols: kinetics of aromatic ring cleavage vs. alkene side-chain oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, E. M.; Kawam, A. Z.; Van Ry, D. A.; Hinrichs, R. Z.

    2013-07-01

    Lignin pyrolysis products, which include a variety of substituted methoxyphenols, constitute a major component of organics released by biomass combustion and may play a central role in the formation of atmospheric brown carbon. Understanding the atmospheric fate of these compounds upon exposure to trace gases is therefore critical to predicting the chemical and physical properties of biomass burning aerosol. We used diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy to monitor the heterogeneous ozonolysis of 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, and isoeugenol adsorbed on NaCl and α-Al2O3 substrates. Adsorption of gaseous methoxyphenols onto these substrates produced near monolayer surface concentrations of 3 × 1018 molecules m-2. The subsequent dark heterogeneous ozonolysis of adsorbed 4-propylguaiacol cleaved the aromatic ring between the methoxy and phenol groups with the product conclusively identified by GC-MS and 1H-NMR. Kinetic analysis of eugenol and isoeugenol dark ozonolysis also suggested the formation of ring-cleaved products, although ozonolysis of the unsaturated substituent groups forming carboxylic acids and aldehydes was an order of magnitude faster. Average uptake coefficients for NaCl-adsorbed methoxyphenols were γ = 2.3 (±0.8) × 10-7 and 2 (±1) × 10-6 for ozonolysis of the aromatic ring and the unsaturated side chain, respectively, and reactions on α-Al2O3 were approximately two times slower. UV-visible radiation (λ>300 nm) enhanced eugenol ozonolysis of the aromatic ring by a factor of 4(±1) but had no effect on ozonolysis of the alkene side-chain.

  3. Molecular modeling of proton transport in the short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Iordan H; Paddison, Stephen J; Paul, Reginald

    2008-03-13

    An explanation for the superior proton conductivity of low equivalent weight (EW) short-side-chain (SSC) perfluorosulfonic acid membranes is pursued through the determination of hydrated morphology and hydronium ion diffusion coefficients using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A unique force field set for the SSC ionomer was derived from torsion profiles determined from ab initio electronic structure calculations of an oligomeric fragment consisting of two side chains. MD simulations were performed on a system consisting of a single macromolecule of the polymer (EW of 580) with the general formula F3C-[CF(OCF2CF2SO3H)-(CF2)7]40-CF3 at hydration levels corresponding to 3, 6, and 13 water molecules per sulfonic acid group. Examination of the hydrated morphology indicates the formation of hydrogen bond "bridges" between distant sulfonate groups without significant bending of the polytetrafluoroethylene backbone. Pair correlation functions of the system identify the presence of ion cages consisting of hydronium ions hydrogen-bonded to three sulfonate groups at the lowest water content. Such structures exhibit very low S-OH3+ separations, well below 4 A and severely inhibit vehicular diffusion of the protons. The number of sulfonate groups in the first solvation shell of a given hydronium ion correlates well with the differences between Nafion and the SSC polymer (Hyflon). The calculated hydronium ion diffusion coefficients of 2.84 x 10-7, 1.36 x 10-6, and 3.47 x 10-6 cm2/s for water contents of 3, 6, and 13, respectively, show only good agreement to experimentally measured values at the lowest water content, underscoring the increasing contribution of proton shuttling or hopping at the higher hydration levels. At the highest water content, the vehicular diffusion accounts for only about 1/5 of the total proton transport similar to that observed in Nafion. PMID:18281980

  4. Glutamine and Asparagine Side Chain Hyperconjugation-Induced Structurally Sensitive Vibrations.

    PubMed

    Punihaole, David; Hong, Zhenmin; Jakubek, Ryan S; Dahlburg, Elizabeth M; Geib, Steven; Asher, Sanford A

    2015-10-15

    We identified vibrational spectral marker bands that sensitively report on the side chain structures of glutamine (Gln) and asparagine (Asn). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the Amide III(P) (AmIII(P)) vibrations of Gln and Asn depend cosinusoidally on their side chain OCCC dihedral angles (the χ3 and χ2 angles of Gln and Asn, respectively). We use UV resonance Raman (UVRR) and visible Raman spectroscopy to experimentally correlate the AmIII(P) Raman band frequency to the primary amide OCCC dihedral angle. The AmIII(P) structural sensitivity derives from the Gln (Asn) Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) stretching component of the vibration. The Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) bond length inversely correlates with the AmIII(P) band frequency. As the Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) bond length decreases, its stretching force constant increases, which results in an upshift in the AmIII(P) frequency. The Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) bond length dependence on the χ3 (χ2) dihedral angle results from hyperconjugation between the Cδ═Oϵ (Cγ═Oδ) π* and Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) σ orbitals. Using a Protein Data Bank library, we show that the χ3 and χ2 dihedral angles of Gln and Asn depend on the peptide backbone Ramachandran angles. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneously broadened AmIII(P) band line shapes can be used to calculate the χ3 and χ2 angle distributions of peptides. The spectral correlations determined in this study enable important new insights into protein structure in solution, and in Gln- and Asn-rich amyloid-like fibrils and prions. PMID:26392216

  5. Regulation of fatty acid elongation and initiation by acyl-acyl carrier protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Heath, R J; Rock, C O

    1996-01-26

    Long chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) has been implicated as a physiological inhibitor of fatty acid biosynthesis since acyl-ACP degradation by thioesterase overexpression leads to constitutive, unregulated fatty acid production. The biochemical targets for acyl-ACP inhibition were unknown, and this work identified two biosynthetic enzymes that were sensitive to acyl-ACP feedback inhibition. Palmitoyl-ACP inhibited the incorporation of [14C]malonyl-CoA into long chain fatty acids in cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli. A short chain acyl-ACP species with the electrophoretic properties of beta-hydroxybutyryl-ACP accumulated concomitant with the overall decrease in the amount of [14C]malonyl-CoA incorporation, indicating that the first elongation cycle was targeted by acyl-ACP. All of the proteins required to catalyze the first round of fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA plus malonyl-CoA in vitro were isolated, and the first fatty acid elongation cycle was reconstituted with these purified components. Analysis of the individual enzymes and the pattern of intermediate accumulation in the reconstituted system identified initiation of fatty acid synthesis by beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (fabH) and enoyl-ACP reductase (fabI) in the elongation cycle as two steps attenuated by long chain acyl-ACP.

  6. Multi-functionalized side-chain supramolecular polymers: A methodology towards tunable functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Kamlesh Prabhakaran

    Even as we see a significant growth in the field of supramolecular polymers in the last ten years, multi-functionalized systems have been scarcely studied. Noncovalent multi-functionalization provides unique advantages such as rapid materials optimization via reversible functionalization as well as for the tuning of materials properties by exploiting the differences in the nature of these reversible interactions. This thesis involves the design principles, synthesis & methodology of supramolecular side-chain multi-functionalized polymers. The combination of a functionally tolerant & controlled polymerization technique such as ROMP with multiple noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, metal coordination and ionic interactions has been successfully used to synthesize these polymers. Furthermore, the orthogonality between the above interactions in block/random copolymers has been studied in detail. It has been found that the studied interactions were orthogonal to each other. To validate the viability of this methodology using multiple orthogonal interactions towards materials design noncovalent crosslinking of polymers has been used as a potential application. Three classes of networks have been studied: complementary multiple hydrogen bonded networks, metal crosslinked networks, & multi-functionalized hydrogen bonded and metal coordinated networks. The first room temperature decrosslinking by exclusive complementary hydrogen bonded interactions has been successfully achieved. Furthermore network properties have been successfully tuned by varying the network micro-structure which in turn was tuned by the hydrogen bonding motifs used for inter-chain crosslinking. By combining two different noncovalent interactions used for inter-chain crosslinking, it was possible to make multi-functionalized materials whose properties could be controlled by varying the crosslinking strategy. Hence by employing multi-functionalization methodology, important materials

  7. Long Chain Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Quercetin-3-O-Glucoside as Antioxidants to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N.; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H.P. Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G. PMID:25384198

  8. Probing the Role of Side-Chain Interconnecting Groups in the Structural Hydrophobicity of Comblike Fluorinated Polystyrene by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Su-Yeol; Chung, Jae Woo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2015-09-01

    In order to probe the role of side-chain interconnecting groups (-O-, -S-, and -SO2- linkages between the polystyrene (PST) main chain and fluorooctyl side chain) in the hydrophobicity of the comblike fluorinated polystyrenes, the molecular motion and structure of polymers are explored using the spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 and T1ρ) by solid-state (1)H and (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chain-end motions of the polystyrene main chain and the fluorooctyl side chain are homogeneous, regardless of the interconnecting groups, which means that the chain-end motions of the main chain and the side chain maintain consistency, and these are irrelevant to each other. However, the local dynamic of the main chain shows the structural heterogeneity composed of the mobile and rigid regions, attributed to the rigidity of the side chain. The mobile dynamic portions of the main chain for PST-O and PST-S increase, and their rigid dynamic portions decrease as the temperature increases, whereas the ratio of structural heterogeneity for PST-SO2 is maintained despite increasing temperature. The activation energies (Ea) corresponding to the local motion of fluorooctyl side chains for PST-O and PST-S are drastically increased on the fast motion side compared to the slow motion side, suggesting the motional transformation of side chains for PST-O and PST-S from the small local motion into the large-scale movements related to a cooperative segmental motion when heated. Also, the local motion of the fluorooctyl side chain for PST-SO2 has similar Ea values on both sides, indicating that the relaxation time of PST-SO2 does not change with temperature. Therefore, PST-SO2 is structurally more stable than PST-O or PST-S, which can be attributed to the densely packed fluorooctyl side chain structure caused by the large dipole moment of the sulfone interconnecting group.

  9. Three RFLPs defining a haplotype associated with the common mutation in a human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency occur in Alu repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Zhifang Zhang; Yeqing Zhou; Kelly, D.P.; Strauss, A.W. St. Louis Children's Hospital, MO ); Kolvraa, S.; Gregersen, N. )

    1993-06-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a common inborn error of fatty-acid oxidation and may cause sudden infant death. Previous studies revealed that (i) homozygosity for an A-to-G mutation at nucleotide 985 of the mRNA coding region (A985G) is an extremely common cause of MCAD deficiency and (ii) MCAD deficiency is strongly associated with a particular haplotype for RFLPs for BanII, PstI, and TaqI. TaqI allele 2 is always associated with the A985G mutation in human MCAD deficiency. In this study, the authors have delineated the molecular basis of the RFLPs for PstI, BamHI, and TaqI in the human MCAD gene. Their results prove that the three RFLPs are caused by point mutations in the 8 kb of DNA encompassing exons 8--10 of the human MCAD gene. The TaqI polymorphism is caused by a C-to-A substitution 392 bp upstream of the exon 8, and the PstI and BamHI polymorphisms are due to T-to-C and G-to-A substitutions, respectively, which are 727 and 931 bp downstream of exon 10, respectively. All three RFLPs lie within Alu repetitive sequences. Comparison of intronic sequences immediately following exon 10 from two normal individuals with different haplotypes showed that this region contains densely packed Alu repeats and is highly polymorphic. The results are consistent both with a founder effect as the cause of the high prevalence of a single (A985G) mutation in MCAD deficiency and with its association with a particular haplotype for these intragenic RFLPs. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Frequent side chain methyl carbon-oxygen hydrogen bonding in proteins revealed by computational and stereochemical analysis of neutron structures.

    PubMed

    Yesselman, Joseph D; Horowitz, Scott; Brooks, Charles L; Trievel, Raymond C

    2015-03-01

    The propensity of backbone Cα atoms to engage in carbon-oxygen (CH · · · O) hydrogen bonding is well-appreciated in protein structure, but side chain CH · · · O hydrogen bonding remains largely uncharacterized. The extent to which side chain methyl groups in proteins participate in CH · · · O hydrogen bonding is examined through a survey of neutron crystal structures, quantum chemistry calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations. Using these approaches, methyl groups were observed to form stabilizing CH · · · O hydrogen bonds within protein structure that are maintained through protein dynamics and participate in correlated motion. Collectively, these findings illustrate that side chain methyl CH · · · O hydrogen bonding contributes to the energetics of protein structure and folding.

  11. Tuning the electronic coupling in a low-bandgap donor-acceptor copolymer via the placement of side-chains

    SciTech Connect

    Oberhumer, Philipp M.; Huang, Ya-Shih; Massip, Sylvain; Albert-Seifried, Sebastian; Greenham, Neil C.; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Friend, Richard H.; James, David T.; Kim, Ji-Seon; Tu Guoli; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.; Beljonne, David; Cornil, Jerome

    2011-03-21

    We present a spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of the effect of the presence and position of hexyl side-chains in the novel low-bandgap alternating donor-acceptor copolymer poly[bis-N,N-(4-octylphenyl)-bis-N,N-phenyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine-alt-5,5'-4',7',-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole] (T8TBT). We use electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopic measurements supported by calculations of chain conformation, electronic transitions, and Raman modes. Using these tools, we find that sterically demanding side-chain configurations induce twisting in the electronic acceptor unit and reduce the electronic interaction with the donor. This leads to a blue-shifted and weakened (partial) charge-transfer absorption band together with a higher photoluminescence efficiency. On the other hand, sterically relaxed side-chain configurations promote coupling between donor and acceptor units and exhibit enhanced absorption at the expense of luminescence efficiency. The possibility of tuning the donor-acceptor character of conjugated polymers by varying the placement of side-chains has very important ramifications for light emitting diode, Laser, display, and photovoltaic device optimization.

  12. Miscibility of phospholipids with identical headgroups and acyl chain lengths differing by two methylene units: effects of headgroup structure and headgroup charge.

    PubMed

    Garidel, P; Blume, A

    1998-04-22

    We have investigated the influence of the chemical structure and charge of the hydrophillic headgroup on the miscibility of saturated phospholipids with acyl chain lengths differing by two methylene units, namely DMPA/DPPA, DMPC/DPPC, DMPE/DPPE and DMPG/DPPG (0.1 M NaCl). All four mixtures were analysed by DSC at pH 7. To study the influence of a change in headgroup charge, we additionally investigated DMPA/DPPA mixtures at pH 4 and 12, and DMPG/DPPG mixtures at pH 2. The experimental DSC thermograms were fitted using methods described before [Johann et al., Biophys. J. 71 (1996), 3215-3228] to obtain the temperatures of onset and end of melting and first approximations for the non-ideality parameters as a function of composition. The resulting phase diagrams were then fitted using a four non-ideality parameter model for non-ideal, non-symmetric mixing in both phases. The phase diagram of the system DMPG/DPPG has a lens-like shape, the non-ideality parameters rhog and rhol for the gel and the liquid-crystalline phase, respectively, are zero, indicating ideal mixing in both phases. For the other mixtures, differences in miscibility are observed depending on the structure of the headgroup. At pH 7, rhog > rhol, i.e., the miscibility in the liquid-crystalline phase is more ideal than in the gel state. All rhog values are positive and the sequence for rhog observed is PA>PE>PC>PG. Partial protonation of PA at pH 4 or complete deprotonation at pH 12 leads to negative non-ideality parameters for both phases, indicating a preference for mixed pair formation. Protonation of PG in DMPG/DPPG mixtures at pH 2 leads to positive non-ideality parameters for both phases, indicating a tendency for demixing. The results show, that the miscibility of phospholipids with identical headgroups but chain lengths differing by two methylene groups is dependent on headgroup structure and on headgroup charge.

  13. Minor modifications to the phosphate groups and the C3' acyl chain length of lipid A in two Bordetella pertussis strains, BP338 and 18-323, independently affect Toll-like receptor 4 protein activation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nita R; Albitar-Nehme, Sami; Kim, Emma; Marr, Nico; Novikov, Alexey; Caroff, Martine; Fernandez, Rachel C

    2013-04-26

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Bordetella pertussis are important modulators of the immune system. Interaction of the lipid A region of LPS with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex causes dimerization of TLR4 and activation of downstream nuclear factor κB (NFκB), which can lead to inflammation. We have previously shown that two strains of B. pertussis, BP338 (a Tohama I-derivative) and 18-323, display two differences in lipid A structure. 1) BP338 can modify the 1- and 4'-phosphates by the addition of glucosamine (GlcN), whereas 18-323 cannot, and 2) the C3' acyl chain in BP338 is 14 carbons long, but only 10 or 12 carbons long in 18-323. In addition, BP338 lipid A can activate TLR4 to a greater extent than 18-323 lipid A. Here we set out to determine the genetic reasons for the differences in these lipid A structures and the contribution of each structural difference to the ability of lipid A to activate TLR4. We show that three genes of the lipid A GlcN modification (Lgm) locus, lgmA, lgmB, and lgmC (previously locus tags BP0399-BP0397), are required for GlcN modification and a single amino acid difference in LpxA is responsible for the difference in C3' acyl chain length. Furthermore, by introducing lipid A-modifying genes into 18-323 to generate isogenic strains with varying penta-acyl lipid A structures, we determined that both modifications increase TLR4 activation, although the GlcN modification plays a dominant role. These results shed light on how TLR4 may interact with penta-acyl lipid A species.

  14. Structural Origins of Nitroxide Side Chain Dynamics on Membrane Protein [alpha]-Helical Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kroncke, Brett M.; Horanyi, Peter S.; Columbus, Linda

    2010-12-07

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins in their native, hydrophobic environment is important to understanding how these proteins function. EPR spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) can measure dynamics and structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid environment; however, until now the dynamics measured have been qualitative due to limited knowledge of the nitroxide spin label's intramolecular motion in the hydrophobic environment. Although several studies have elucidated the structural origins of EPR line shapes of water-soluble proteins, EPR spectra of nitroxide spin-labeled proteins in detergents or lipids have characteristic differences from their water-soluble counterparts, suggesting significant differences in the underlying molecular motion of the spin label between the two environments. To elucidate these differences, membrane-exposed {alpha}-helical sites of the leucine transporter, LeuT, from Aquifex aeolicus, were investigated using X-ray crystallography, mutational analysis, nitroxide side chain derivatives, and spectral simulations in order to obtain a motional model of the nitroxide. For each crystal structure, the nitroxide ring of a disulfide-linked spin label side chain (R1) is resolved and makes contacts with hydrophobic residues on the protein surface. The spin label at site I204 on LeuT makes a nontraditional hydrogen bond with the ortho-hydrogen on its nearest neighbor F208, whereas the spin label at site F177 makes multiple van der Waals contacts with a hydrophobic pocket formed with an adjacent helix. These results coupled with the spectral effect of mutating the i {+-} 3, 4 residues suggest that the spin label has a greater affinity for its local protein environment in the low dielectric than on a water-soluble protein surface. The simulations of the EPR spectra presented here suggest the spin label oscillates about the terminal bond nearest the ring while maintaining weak contact

  15. XANES measurements of the rate of radiation damage to selenomethionine side chains

    PubMed Central

    Holton, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation-induced disordering of selenomethionine (SeMet) side chains represents a significant impediment to protein structure solution. Not only does the increased B-factor of these sites result in a serious drop in phasing power, but some sites decay much faster than others in the same unit cell. These radiolabile SeMet side chains decay faster than high-order diffraction spots with dose, making it difficult to detect this kind of damage by inspection of the diffraction pattern. The selenium X-ray absorbance near-edge spectrum (XANES) from samples containing SeMet was found to change significantly after application of X-ray doses of 10–100 MGy. Most notably, the sharp ‘white line’ feature near the canonical Se edge disappears. The change was attributed to breakage of the Cγ—Se bond in SeMet. This spectral change was used as a probe to measure the decay rate of SeMet with X-ray dose in cryo-cooled samples. Two protein crystal types and 15 solutions containing free SeMet amino acid were examined. The damage rate was influenced by the chemical and physical condition of the sample, and the half-decaying dose for the selenium XANES signal ranged from 5 to 43 MGy. These decay rates were 34- to 3.8-fold higher than the rate at which the Se atoms interacted directly with X-ray photons, so the damage mechanism must be a secondary effect. Samples that cooled to a more crystalline state generally decayed faster than samples that cooled to an amorphous solid. The single exception was a protein crystal where a nanocrystalline cryoprotectant had a protective effect. Lowering the pH, especially with ascorbic or nitric acids, had a protective effect, and SeMet lifetime increased monotonically with decreasing sample temperature (down to 93 K). The SeMet lifetime in one protein crystal was the same as that of the free amino acid, and the longest SeMet lifetime measured was found in the other protein crystal type. This protection was found to arise from the folded

  16. Influence of LC Content on the Phase Structures of Side-Chain Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Tenneti, K.; Chen, X; Li, C; Shen, Z; Wan, X; Fan, X; Zhou, Q; Rong, L; Hsiao, B

    2009-01-01

    We report the phase structures of a series of poly(styrene-block-{l_brace}3'-[4-(4-n-dodecyloxybenzoyloxy)benzoyloxy]-4-(12-methacryloyloxydodecyloxy)benzoyloxybiphenyl{r_brace}) (PS-b-PMAC) side-chain liquid crystalline block copolymers (SC LCBCP). The SC liquid crystalline polymer was formed by side attaching a bent-core mesogen to the polymer backbone using a 12-carbon spacer. The phase structure of the high and low fPMAC samples were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The PS coil block and PMAC LC block phase separate into a lamellar morphology in all of the samples investigated (volume fraction of PMAC fPMAC 0.31-0.65). However, both the LC phase and the orientation of the hierarchical structure under mechanical shear showed strong dependence on the LC content. Samples having a high fPMAC (0.5-0.65) showed a SmC2 LC phase (Smectic C denotes the LC molecules are tilted with respect to the layer normal, and 2 represents a bilayered structure), similar to that observed in PMAC homopolymers. Upon mechanical shear, these smectic layers oriented parallel to the shear plane and the BCP lamellae oriented perpendicular to the shear plane with the layer normal parallel to the vorticity direction. In samples having a lower fPMAC, the BCP lamellae laid parallel to the shear plane and the LC phase structure in these samples was columnar rectangular. A detailed structural and morphological study will be reported.

  17. Binding of tetramethylammonium to polyether side-chained aromatic hosts. Evaluation of the binding contribution from ether oxygen donors.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Sandra; De Nicola, Gina; Roelens, Stefano

    2003-10-17

    A set of macrocyclic and open-chain aromatic ligands endowed with polyether side chains has been prepared to assess the contribution of ether oxygen donors to the binding of tetramethylammonium (TMA), a cation believed incapable of interacting with oxygen donors. The open-chain hosts consisted of an aromatic binding site and side chains possessing a variable number of ether oxygen donors; the macrocyclic ligands were based on the structure of a previously investigated host, the dimeric cyclophane 1,4-xylylene-1,4-phenylene diacetate (DXPDA), implemented with polyether-type side chains in the backbone. Association to tetramethylammonium picrate (TMAP) was measured in CDCl(3) at T = 296 K by (1)H NMR titrations. Results confirm that the main contribution to the binding of TMA comes from the cation-pi interaction established with the aromatic binding sites, but they unequivocally show that polyether chains participate with cooperative contributions, although of markedly smaller entity. Water is also bound, but the two guests interact with aromatic rings and oxygen donors in an essentially noncompetitive way. An improved procedure for the preparation of cyclophanic tetraester derivatives has been developed that conveniently recycles the oligomeric ester byproducts formed in the one-pot cyclization reaction. An alternative entry to benzylic diketones has also been provided that makes use of a low-order cyanocuprate reagent to prepare in fair yields a class of compounds otherwise uneasily accessible.

  18. Hydrogen-bonded side chain liquid crystalline block copolymer: Molecular design, synthesis, characterization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Chi-Yang

    Block copolymers can self-assemble into highly regular, microphase-separated morphologies with dimensions at nanometer length scales. Potential applications such as optical wavelength photonic crystals, templates for nanolithographic patterning, or nanochannels for biomacromolecular separation take advantage of the well-ordered, controlled size microdomains of block copolymers. Side-chain liquid crystalline block copolymers (SCLCBCPs) are drawing increasing attention since the incorporation of liquid crystallinity turns their well-organized microstructures into dynamic functional materials. As a special type of block copolymer, hydrogen-bonded SCLCBCPs are unique, compositionally tunable materials with multiple dynamic functionalities that can readily respond to thermal, electrical and mechanical fields. Hydrogen-bonded SCLCBCPs were synthesized and assembled from host poly(styrene- b-acrylic acid) diblock copolymers with narrow molecular weight distributions as proton donors and guest imidazole functionalized mesogenic moieties as proton acceptors. In these studies non-covalent hydrogen bonding is employed to connect mesogenic side groups to a block copolymer backbone, both for its dynamic character as well as for facile materials preparation. The homogeneity and configuration of the hydrogen-bonded complexes were determined by both the molecular architecture of imidazolyl side groups and the process conditions. A one-dimensional photonic crystal composed of high molecular weight hydrogen-bonded SCLCBCP, with temperature dependent optical wavelength stop bands was successfully produced. The microstructures of hydrogen-bonded complexes could be rapidly aligned in an AC electric field at temperatures below the order-disorder transition but above their glass transitions. Remarkable dipolar properties of the mesogenic groups and thermal dissociation of hydrogen bonds are key elements to fast orientation switching. Studies of a wide range of mesogen and polymer

  19. The Physiology of Protein S-acylation

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Luke H.; Shipston, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-acylation, the only fully reversible posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, is emerging as a ubiquitous mechanism to control the properties and function of a diverse array of proteins and consequently physiological processes. S-acylation results from the enzymatic addition of long-chain lipids, most typically palmitate, onto intracellular cysteine residues of soluble and transmembrane proteins via a labile thioester linkage. Addition of lipid results in increases in protein hydrophobicity that can impact on protein structure, assembly, maturation, trafficking, and function. The recent explosion in global S-acylation (palmitoyl) proteomic profiling as a result of improved biochemical tools to assay S-acylation, in conjunction with the recent identification of enzymes that control protein S-acylation and de-acylation, has opened a new vista into the physiological function of S-acylation. This review introduces key features of S-acylation and tools to interrogate this process, and highlights the eclectic array of proteins regulated including membrane receptors, ion channels and transporters, enzymes and kinases, signaling adapters and chaperones, cell adhesion, and structural proteins. We highlight recent findings correlating disruption of S-acylation to pathophysiology and disease and discuss some of the major challenges and opportunities in this rapidly expanding field. PMID:25834228

  20. Shear Flow Induced Transition from Liquid-Crystalline to Polymer Behavior in Side-Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Noirez, L.; Lapp, A.

    1997-01-01

    We determine the structure and conformation of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers subjected to shear flow in the vicinity of the smectic phase by neutron scattering on the velocity gradient plane. Below the nematic-smectic transition we observe a typical liquid-crystal behavior; the smectic layers slide, leading to a main-chain elongation parallel to the velocity direction. In contrast,a shear applied above the transition induces a tilted main-chain conformation which is typical for polymer behavior. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Nucleic acid chemistry in the organic phase: from functionalized oligonucleotides to DNA side chain polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Zheng, Lifei; Liu, Qing; de Vries, Jan Willem; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    DNA-incorporating hydrophobic moieties can be synthesized by either solid-phase or solution-phase coupling. On a solid support the DNA is protected, and hydrophobic units are usually attached employing phosphoramidite chemistry involving a DNA synthesizer. On the other hand, solution coupling in aqueous medium results in low yields due to the solvent incompatibility of DNA and hydrophobic compounds. Hence, the development of a general coupling method for producing amphiphilic DNA conjugates with high yield in solution remains a major challenge. Here, we report an organic-phase coupling strategy for nucleic acid modification and polymerization by introducing a hydrophobic DNA-surfactant complex as a reactive scaffold. A remarkable range of amphiphile-DNA structures (DNA-pyrene, DNA-triphenylphosphine, DNA-hydrocarbon, and DNA block copolymers) and a series of new brush-type DNA side-chain homopolymers with high DNA grafting density are produced efficiently. We believe that this method is an important breakthrough in developing a generalized approach to synthesizing functional DNA molecules for self-assembly and related technological applications.

  2. Differentiating amino acid residues and side chain orientations in peptides using scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Claridge, Shelley A; Thomas, John C; Silverman, Miles A; Schwartz, Jeffrey J; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen; Weiss, Paul S

    2013-12-11

    Single-molecule measurements of complex biological structures such as proteins are an attractive route for determining structures of the large number of important biomolecules that have proved refractory to analysis through standard techniques such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance. We use a custom-built low-current scanning tunneling microscope to image peptide structures at the single-molecule scale in a model peptide that forms β sheets, a structural motif common in protein misfolding diseases. We successfully differentiate between histidine and alanine amino acid residues, and further differentiate side chain orientations in individual histidine residues, by correlating features in scanning tunneling microscope images with those in energy-optimized models. Beta sheets containing histidine residues are used as a model system due to the role histidine plays in transition metal binding associated with amyloid oligomerization in Alzheimer's and other diseases. Such measurements are a first step toward analyzing peptide and protein structures at the single-molecule level.

  3. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Benzopyranone Derivatives with Basic Side Chain Against Human Lung Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Musiliyu A.; Badisa, Veera L.D.; Latinwo, Lekan M.; Waryoba, Caroline; Ugochukwu, Ngozi

    2013-01-01

    Background Coumarins belong to an important group of useful drugs with diverse pharmacological properties. In the present study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of new coumarin-based benzopyranone derivatives containing diethylaminoethoxy (5), dimethylaminoethoxy (6), morpholinoethoxy (7), piperidinylethoxy (8) and pyrrolidinylethoxyl (9) amino side chain against human carcinoma (A549) and normal (LL47) lung cell lines was evaluated. Materials and Methods The cytotoxicity was evaluated by crystal violet dye binding assay. The effect of compound 9 on different phases of the cell cycle was determined using flow cytometry. Results In A549 cells, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) for compounds 5–9 were found to be 7.08, 5.0, 34.2, 8.33 and 5.83 µM, respectively, while in LL47 cells, the LD50 values were found to be 16.7, 20.4, 34.6, 15.4 and 8.75 µM, respectively after 48 h treatment. Cell cycle data indicated that A549 cells were arrested at different phases depending on the concentration. Conclusion Compounds 5–9 showed anticancer activity against lung cancer cell lines, while compound 6 showed highly selective anticancer activity. PMID:21115914

  4. Changes in cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage expression in the rat hippocampus after kainate injury.

    PubMed

    Chia, Wan-Jie; Jenner, Andrew M; Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2008-03-01

    Our previous study showed an increase in total cholesterol level of the hippocampus after kainate-induced injury, but whether this is further metabolized to neurosteroids is not known. The first step in neurosteroid biosynthesis is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone by the enzyme cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc). This study was carried out to elucidate the expression of this enzyme in the kainate-lesioned rat hippocampus. A net decrease in P450scc protein was detected in hippocampal homogenates by Western blots at 2 weeks post-kainate injection (time of peak cholesterol concentration after kainate injury). Immunohistochemistry showed decreased labeling of the enzyme in neurons, but increased expression in a small number of astrocytes. The level of pregnenolone was also analyzed using a newly developed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, optimized for the rat hippocampus. A non-significant tendency to a decrease in pregnenolone level was detected 2 weeks post-lesion. This is in contrast to a large increase in oxysterols in the lesioned hippocampus at this time (He et al. 2006). Together, they indicate that increased cholesterol in the kainate lesioned hippocampus is mostly metabolized to oxysterols, and not neurosteroids. PMID:18040670

  5. Improving ranking of models for protein complexes with side chain modeling and atomic potentials.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Shruthi; Ravikant, D V S; Elber, Ron

    2013-04-01

    An atomically detailed potential for docking pairs of proteins is derived using mathematical programming. A refinement algorithm that builds atomically detailed models of the complex and combines coarse grained and atomic scoring is introduced. The refinement step consists of remodeling the interface side chains of the top scoring decoys from rigid docking followed by a short energy minimization. The refined models are then re-ranked using a combination of coarse grained and atomic potentials. The docking algorithm including the refinement and re-ranking, is compared favorably to other leading docking packages like ZDOCK, Cluspro, and PATCHDOCK, on the ZLAB 3.0 Benchmark and a test set of 30 novel complexes. A detailed analysis shows that coarse grained potentials perform better than atomic potentials for realistic unbound docking (where the exact structures of the individual bound proteins are unknown), probably because atomic potentials are more sensitive to local errors. Nevertheless, the atomic potential captures a different signal from the residue potential and as a result a combination of the two scores provides a significantly better prediction than each of the approaches alone.

  6. Anti-Biofouling Properties of Comblike Block Copolymers with Amphiphilic Side Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan,S.; Ayothi, R.; Hexemer, A.; Finlay, J.; Sohn, K.; Perry, R.; Ober, C.; Kramer, E.; Callow, M.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Surfaces of novel block copolymers with amphiphilic side chains were studied for their ability to influence the adhesion of marine organisms. The surface-active polymer, obtained by grafting fluorinated molecules with hydrophobic and hydrophilic blocks to a block copolymer precursor, showed interesting bioadhesion properties. Two different algal species, one of which adhered strongly to hydrophobic surfaces, and the other, to hydrophilic surfaces, showed notably weak adhesion to the amphiphilic surfaces. Both organisms are known to secrete adhesive macromolecules, with apparently different wetting characteristics, to attach to underwater surfaces. The ability of the amphiphilic surface to undergo an environment-dependent transformation in surface chemistry when in contact with the extracellular polymeric substances is a possible reason for its antifouling nature. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) was used, in a new approach based on angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to determine the variation in chemical composition within the top few nanometers of the surface and also to study the surface segregation of the amphiphilic block. A mathematical model to extract depth-profile information from the normalized NEXAFS partial electron yield is developed.

  7. Synthesis, characterisation and drug release properties of microspheres of polystyrene with aliphatic polyester side-chains.

    PubMed

    Kukut, Manolya; Karal-Yilmaz, Oksan; Yagci, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    A series of graft copolymers consisting of polystyrene backbone with biocompatible side chains based on (co)polymers of l-lactic acid and glycolic acid were synthesised by combination two controlled polymerisations, namely, nitroxide mediated radical polymerisation (NMRP) and ring opening polymerisation (ROP) with "Click" chemistry. The main goal of this work was to design new biodegradable microspheres using obtained graft copolymers for long-term sustained release of imatinib mesylate (IMM) as a model drug. The IMM loaded microspheres of the graft copolymers, polystyrene-g-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PS-g-PLLGA), polystyrene-g-poly(lactic acid) (PS-g-PLLA) and poly(lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLLGA) were then prepared by a modified water-in-oil-in-water (w1/o/w2) double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The optimised microspheres were characterised by particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and surface morphology also; their degradation and release properties were studied in vitro. The degradation studies of three different types of microspheres showed that the PS backbone of the graft copolymers slows down the degradation rate compared to PLLGA.

  8. Tunable transport through a quantum dot chain with side-coupled Majorana bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Cui; Lu, Gang; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2014-09-14

    We investigate the transport properties of a quantum dot (QD) chain side-coupled to a pair of Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that the zero-bias conductance is tightly dependent on the parity of QD number. First, if a Majorana zero mode is introduced to couple to one QD of the odd-numbered QD structure, the zero-bias conductance is equal to (e{sup 2})/(2h) , but the zero-bias conductance will experience a valley-to-peak transition if the Majorana zero mode couples to the different QDs of the even-numbered QD structure. On the other hand, when the inter-MBS coupling is nonzero, the zero-bias conductance spectrum shows a peak in the odd-numbered QD structure, and in the even-numbered QD structure one conductance valley appears at the zero-bias limit. These results show the feasibility to manipulate the current in a multi-QD structure based on the QD-MBS coupling. Also, such a system can be a candidate for detecting the MBSs.

  9. The identification of two arabinosyltransferases from tomato reveals functional equivalency of xyloglucan side chain substituents.

    PubMed

    Schultink, Alex; Cheng, Kun; Park, Yong Bum; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Pauly, Markus

    2013-09-01

    Xyloglucan (XyG) is the dominant hemicellulose present in the primary cell walls of dicotyledonous plants. Unlike Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) XyG, which contains galactosyl and fucosyl substituents, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) XyG contains arabinofuranosyl residues. To investigate the biological function of these differing substituents, we used a functional complementation approach. Candidate glycosyltransferases were identified from tomato by using comparative genomics with known XyG galactosyltransferase genes from Arabidopsis. These candidate genes were expressed in an Arabidopsis mutant lacking XyG galactosylation, and two of them resulted in the production of arabinosylated XyG, a structure not previously found in this plant species. These genes may therefore encode XyG arabinofuranosyltransferases. Moreover, the addition of arabinofuranosyl residues to the XyG of this Arabidopsis mutant rescued a growth and cell wall biomechanics phenotype, demonstrating that the function of XyG in plant growth, development, and mechanics has considerable flexibility in terms of the specific residues in the side chains. These experiments also highlight the potential of reengineering the sugar substituents on plant wall polysaccharides without compromising growth or viability. PMID:23893172

  10. Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Poly(meth)acrylates with Bent-Core Mesogens

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,X.; Tenneti, K.; Li, C.; Bai, Y.; Wan, X.; Fan, X.; Zhou, Q.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of side-chain liquid crystalline (LC) poly(meth)acrylates with end-on bent-core liquid crystalline (BCLC) mesogens. Both conventional free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization have been used to synthesize these liquid crystalline polymers (LCP). The resulting polymers exhibit thermotropic LC behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermopolarized light microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering were used to characterize the LC structure of both monomers and polymers. The electro-optic (EO) measurement was carried out by applying a triangular wave and measuring the LC EO response. SmCP (Smectic C indicates the LC molecules are tilted with respect to the layer normal; P denotes polar ordering) phases were observed for both monomers and polymers. In LC monomers, typical antiferroelectric switching was observed. In the ground state, SmCP{sub A} (A denotes antiferroelectric) was observed which switched to SmCP{sub F} (F denotes ferroelectric) upon applying an electric field. In the corresponding LCP, a unique bilayer structure was observed, which is different from the reported BCLC bilayer SmCG (G denotes generated) phase. Most of the LCPs did not switch upon applying electric field while weak AF switching was observed in a low molecular weight poly{l_brace}3'-[4-(4-n-dodecyloxybenzoyloxy)benzoyloxy]-4-(12-acryloyloxydodecyloxy)benzoyloxybiphenyl{r_brace} sample.

  11. Characterization of novel perylene diimides containing aromatic amino acid side chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooqi, Mohammed J.; Penick, Mark A.; Burch, Jessica; Negrete, George R.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Perylene diimide derivatives have attracted initial interest as industrial dyes. Recently, much attention has been focused on their strong π- π stacks resulting from the large PDI aromatic core. These PDI stacks have distinct optical properties, and provide informative models that could mimic light-harvesting systems and initial charge transfer typical of photosynthetic systems. The absorption property of PDI derivatives may be tuned from visible to near-infrared region by peripheral substitution. We have studied a new class of PDI derivatives with aryl substituents derived from the side chains of aromatic aminoacids (Tyrosine, Tryptophan and Phenylalanine). We have investigated their absorption and the fluorescence properties in a set of organic solvents and established their different tendencies to aggregate in solution despite their solubility. Most aggregation appears to be unordered. One PDI analogue (the one formed from Tyr) in Methanol, however, appears to form J-type aggregates. Based on our results the compounds appear to be promising for future investigations regarding the interaction of these dyes with biomolecules.

  12. Evaluations of Mesogen Orientation in Thin Films of Polyacrylate with Cyanobiphenyl Side Chain.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tasuku; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Saito, Itsuki; Yamamoto, Katsuhiro; Seki, Takahiro

    2016-04-19

    The orientation behavior of mesogens in a polyacrylate with cyanobiphenyl (CB) side chain in thin films was investigated in detail by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GI-SAXS) measurements using both high-energy X-rays of Cu Kα line (λ = 0.154 nm) and low-energy synchrotron X-rays (λ = 0.539 nm). By changing the film thickness ranging 7-200 nm, it is concluded that the planar orientation is predominant for thin films with thickness below 10-15 nm. This planar mesogen orientation near the substrate surface coexists with the homeotropically aligned CB mesogens in films thicker than 30 nm. For the thinnest 7 nm film, the planar orientation is unexpectedly lost, which is in consort with a disordering of smectic layer structure. Peculiar orienting characteristics of CB mesogen are suggested, which probably stem from the tendency to form an antiparallel arrangement of mesogens due to the strong dipole moment of the terminal cyano group. PMID:27031094

  13. Characterization of novel perylene diimides containing aromatic amino acid side chains

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Mohammed J.; Penick, Mark A.; Burch, Jessica; Negrete, George R.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Perylene diimide derivatives have attracted initial interest as industrial dyes. Recently, much attention has been focused on their strong π–π stacks resulting from the large PDI aromatic core. These PDI stacks have distinct optical properties, and provide informative models that could mimic light-harvesting systems and initial charge transfer typical of photosynthetic systems. The absorption property of PDI derivatives may be tuned from visible to near-infrared region by peripheral substitution. We have studied a new class of PDI derivatives with aryl substituents derived from the side chains of aromatic aminoacids (Tyrosine, Tryptophan and Phenylalanine). We have investigated their absorption and the fluorescence properties in a set of organic solvents and established their different tendencies to aggregate in solution despite their solubility. Most aggregation appears to be unordered. One PDI analogue (the one formed from Tyr) in Methanol, however, appears to form J-type aggregates. Based on our results the compounds appear to be promising for future investigations regarding the interaction of these dyes with biomolecules. PMID:26298679

  14. Side-chain engineering of benzodithiophene-fluorinated quinoxaline low-band-gap co-polymers for high-performance polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yulei; Fang, Junfeng; Li, Zuojia; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Ying; Peng, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    A new series of donor-acceptor co-polymers based on benzodithiophene and quinoxaline with various side chains have been developed for polymer solar cells. The effect of the degree of branching and dimensionality of the side chains were systematically investigated on the thermal stability, optical absorption, energy levels, molecular packing, and photovoltaic performance of the resulting co-polymers. The results indicated that the linear and 2D conjugated side chains improved the thermal stabilities and optical absorptions. The introduction of alkylthienyl side chains could efficiently lower the energy levels compared with the alkoxyl-substituted analogues, and the branched alkoxyl side chains could deepen the HOMO levels relative to the linear alkoxyl chains. The branched alkoxyl groups induced better lamellar-like ordering, but poorer face-to-face packing behavior. The 2D conjugated side chains had a negative influence on the crystalline properties of the co-polymers. The performance of the devices indicated that the branched alkoxyl side chains improved the Voc, but decreased the Jsc and fill factor (FF). However, the 2D conjugated side chains would increase the Voc, Jsc, and FF simultaneously. For the first time, our work provides insight into molecular design strategies through side-chain engineering to achieve efficient polymer solar cells by considering both the degree of branching and dimensionality.

  15. The Relationship of Pretilt Angle and Chemical Structure of Rubbed Organo-Soluble Side-Chain Polyimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian K.; Bai, F.; Bai, Z.; Ge, J.; Sun, L.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.; Harris, Frank W.; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2000-03-01

    This work is concerned with the relationship between the properties of the pretilt angles and chemical structure of the alignment layer for a series of novel organo-soluble side-chain polyimides developed at The University of Akron. The polyimides were spin cast on ITO glass substrates and mechanically rubbed with a velvet cloth. Liquid crystal display cells were constructed with an anti-parallel geometry using 10μm glass spacers and filled with the nematic liquid crystal mixture E7. The pretilt angle, which is defined as the angle between the liquid crystal director and the substrate, was measured using the magnetic null method. Various side-chain polyimide films were prepared and pretilt angles were determined employing identical processing conditions. In general, polyimides containing long flexible aliphatic side-chains (no. carbons >12) resulted in high pretilt angles (>20^o) however over time the pretilt shifted to a homeotropic alignment (i.e. 90^o to the substrate). The stability of the pretilt angles was improved when polyimide copolymers were used. Further enhancement of the stability was achieved by crosslinking the system prior to rubbing. Liquid crystal like side-chains (cyanobiphenol and biphenol based) resulted in stable pretilt angles ranging from 20 to 40^o for a spacer length of six carbons. Several surface techniques were used to study the effect of rubbing, including; atomic force microscopy, surfaced enhanced Raman scattering, and contact angle.

  16. Attenuating HIV Tat/TAR-mediated protein expression by exploring the side chain length of positively charged residues.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Chen, Yi-Ping; Liu, Shing-Lung; Chien, Fan-Ching; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Cheng, Richard P

    2015-12-01

    RNA is a drug target involved in diverse cellular functions and viral processes. Molecules that inhibit the HIV TAR RNA-Tat protein interaction may attenuate Tat/TAR-dependent protein expression and potentially serve as anti-HIV therapeutics. By incorporating positively charged residues with mixed side chain lengths, we designed peptides that bind TAR RNA with enhanced intracellular activity. Tat-derived peptides that were individually substituted with positively charged residues with varying side chain lengths were evaluated for TAR RNA binding. Positively charged residues with different side chain lengths were incorporated at each Arg and Lys position in the Tat-derived peptide to enhance TAR RNA binding. The resulting peptides showed enhanced TAR RNA binding affinity, cellular uptake, nuclear localization, proteolytic resistance, and inhibition of intracellular Tat/TAR-dependent protein expression compared to the parent Tat-derived peptide with no cytotoxicity. Apparently, the enhanced inhibition of protein expression by these peptides was not determined by RNA binding affinity, but by proteolytic resistance. Despite the high TAR binding affinity, a higher binding specificity would be necessary for practical purposes. Importantly, altering the positively charged residue side chain length should be a viable strategy to generate potentially useful RNA-targeting bioactive molecules.

  17. Cyclization and unsaturation rather than isomerisation of side chains govern the selective antibacterial activity of cationic-amphiphilic polymers.

    PubMed

    Uppu, D S S M; Bhowmik, M; Samaddar, S; Haldar, J

    2016-03-28

    Membrane-active agents represent a promising alternative to overcome antibiotic resistance. Here, we report cationic-amphiphilic polymers with variations in the side chain architecture such as cyclization, isomerization and unsaturation that resulted in potent antibacterial activity and low mammalian cell toxicity with a membrane-active mode of action.

  18. Thiophene-thiazolothiazole copolymers: significant impact of side chain composition on backbone orientation and solar cell performances.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Itaru; Saito, Masahiko; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2014-01-15

    The backbone orientation in the thiophene-thiazolothiazole (TzTz) copolymer system can be altered by tuning of the alky side chain composition. We highlight that the orientation significantly impact their solar cell efficiency in particular when using thicker active layers.

  19. Identification of N-Acyl Phosphatidylserine Molecules in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ziqiang; Li, Shengrong; Smith, Dale C.; Shaw, Walter A.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2008-01-01

    While profiling the lipidome of the mouse brain by mass spectrometry, we discovered a novel family of N-acyl phosphatidylserine (N-acyl-PS) molecules. These N-acyl-PS species were enriched by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and they were then characterized by accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and comparison to an authentic standard. Mouse brain N-acyl-PS molecules are heterogeneous and constitute about 0.1 % of the total lipid. In addition to various ester-linked fatty acyl chains on their glycerol backbones, the complexity of the N-acyl-PS series is further increased by the presence of diverse amide-linked N-acyl chains, which include saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated species. N-acyl-PS molecular species were also detected in the lipids of pig brain, mouse RAW264.7 macrophage tumor cells and yeast, but not E. coli. N-acyl-PSs may be biosynthetic precursors of N-acyl serine molecules, such as the recently reported signaling lipid N-arachidonoyl serine from bovine brain. We suggest that a phospholipase D might cleave N-acyl-PS to generate N-acyl serine, in analogy to the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anadamide) from N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine. PMID:18031065

  20. Synthesis and the third-order non-linear optical properties of new azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Najun; Lu, Jianmei; Xu, Qingfeng; Wang, Lihua

    2006-09-01

    A new series of aromatic azobenzol compounds containing vinyl have been designed as monomers. The azobenzene-containing side-chain polymers containing azo NLO chromophore in each side chain have been synthesized via free radical polymerization. FT-IR, elemental analysis and 1H NMR were performed to characterize the azo monomers. The molecular weight of the polymers and their distribution were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The third-order NLO coefficient of azo monomers and their polymers were measured by degenerated four wave mixing (DFWM) technique. As a result, the enhancement of the molecular conjugation and the increase of the NLO chromophore concentration in the molecular chain contribute much to heightening the third-order NLO effect. The electronic effect of substituent on the azobenzol group and the push-pull electronic structure contributes much to enhancing the NLO property.

  1. Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ching; Wang, Chih-Yang; Hung, Yu-Hsuan; Weng, Tzu-Yang; Yen, Meng-Chi; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL) 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL family in

  2. Amphiphilic Surface Active Triblock Copolymers with Mixed Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Side Chains for Tuned Marine Fouling-Release Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Park, D.; Weinman, C; Finlay, J; Fletcher, B; Paik, M; Sundaram, H; Dimitriou, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Two series of amphiphilic triblock surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were prepared through chemical modification of two polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymer precursors. The methyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) [M{sub n} {approx} 550 g/mol (PEG550)] and a semifluorinated alcohol (CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 9}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}OH) [F10H10] were attached at different molar ratios to impart both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups to the isoprene segment. Coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC deposited on a thicker layer of an ABA polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with algae. Dynamic water contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements were utilized to characterize the surfaces. Clear differences in surface structure were realized as the composition of attached side chains was varied. In biofouling assays, the settlement (attachment) of zoospores of the green alga Ulva was higher for surfaces incorporating a large proportion of the hydrophobic F10H10 side chains, while surfaces with a large proportion of the PEG550 side chains inhibited settlement. The trend in attachment strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva did not show such an obvious pattern. However, amphiphilic SABCs incorporating a mixture of PEG550 and F10H10 side chains performed the best. The number of cells of the diatom Navicula attached after exposure to flow decreased as the content of PEG550 to F10H10 side chains increased.

  3. Microbial biodegradation of aromatic alkanoic naphthenic acids is affected by the degree of alkyl side chain branching

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J; Smith, Ben E; Sutton, Paul A; McGenity, Terry J; Rowland, Steven J; Whitby, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) occur naturally in oil sands and enter the environment through natural and anthropogenic processes. NAs comprise toxic carboxylic acids that are difficult to degrade. Information on NA biodegradation mechanisms is limited, and there are no studies on alkyl branched aromatic alkanoic acid biodegradation, despite their contribution to NA toxicity and recalcitrance. Increased alkyl side chain branching has been proposed to explain NA recalcitrance. Using soil enrichments, we examined the biodegradation of four aromatic alkanoic acid isomers that differed in alkyl side chain branching: (4′-n-butylphenyl)-4-butanoic acid (n-BPBA, least branched); (4′-iso-butylphenyl)-4-butanoic acid (iso-BPBA); (4′-sec-butylphenyl)-4-butanoic acid (sec-BPBA) and (4′-tert-butylphenyl)-4-butanoic acid (tert-BPBA, most branched). n-BPBA was completely metabolized within 49 days. Mass spectral analysis confirmed that the more branched isomers iso-, sec- and tert-BPBA were transformed to their butylphenylethanoic acid (BPEA) counterparts at 14 days. The BPEA metabolites were generally less toxic than BPBAs as determined by Microtox assay. n-BPEA was further transformed to a diacid, showing that carboxylation of the alkyl side chain occurred. In each case, biodegradation of the carboxyl side chain proceeded through beta-oxidation, which depended on the degree of alkyl side chain branching, and a BPBA degradation pathway is proposed. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences at days 0 and 49 showed an increase and high abundance at day 49 of Pseudomonas (sec-BPBA), Burkholderia (n-, iso-, tert-BPBA) and Sphingomonas (n-, sec-BPBA). PMID:20962873

  4. Oligosaccharide Side Chains of Glycoproteins that Remain in the High-Mannose Form Are Not Accessible to Glycosidases 1

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Loïc; Johnson, Kenneth D.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1986-01-01

    Glycoproteins present in the soluble and organelle fractions of developing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cotyledons were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, affinoblotting, fractionation on immobilized concanavalin A (ConA), and digestion of the oligosaccharide side chains with specific glycosidases before and after protein denaturation. These studies led to the following observations. (a) Bean cotyledons contain a large variety of glycoproteins that bind to ConA. Binding to ConA can be eliminated by prior digestion of denatured proteins with α-mannosidase or endoglycosidase H, indicating that binding to ConA is mediated by high-mannose oligosaccharide side chains. (b) Bean cotyledons contain a large variety of fucosylated glycoproteins which bind to ConA. Because fucose-containing oligosaccharide side chains do not bind to ConA, such proteins must have both high-mannose and modified oligosaccharides. (c) For all the glycoproteins examined except one, the high-mannose oligosaccharides on the undenatured proteins are accessible to ConA and partially accessible to jack bean α-mannosidase. (d) Treatment of the native proteins with α-mannosidase removes only 1 or 2 mannose residues from the high-mannose oligosaccharides. Similar treatments of sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured or pronase-digested glycoproteins removes all α-mannose residues. The results support the following conclusions: certain side chains remain unmodified as high-mannose oligosaccharides even though the proteins to which they are attached pass through the Golgi apparatus, where other oligosaccharide chains are modified. The chains remain unmodified because they are not accessible to processing enzymes such as the Golgilocalized α-mannosidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16664775

  5. Polymer gels with associating side chains and their interaction with surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordievskaya, Yulia D.; Rumyantsev, Artem M.; Kramarenko, Elena Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Conformational behaviour of hydrophobically modified (HM) polymer gels in solutions of nonionic surfactants is studied theoretically. A HM gel contains hydrophobic side chains (stickers) grafted to its subchains. Hydrophobic stickers are capable to aggregate into joint micelles with surfactant molecules. Micelles containing more than one sticker serve as additional physical cross-links of the network, and their formation causes gel shrinking. In the proposed theoretical model, the interior of the gel/surfactant complex is treated as an array of densely packed spherical polymer brushes consisting of gel subchains tethered to the surface of the spherical sticker/surfactant micelles. Effect of stickers length and grafting density, surfactant concentration and hydrophobicity on gel swelling as well as on hydrophobic association inside it is analyzed. It is shown that increasing surfactant concentration can result in a gel collapse, which is caused by surfactant-induced hydrophobic aggregation of stickers, and a successive gel reswelling. The latter should be attributed to a growing fraction of surfactants in joint aggregates and, hence, increasing number of micelles containing only one sticker and not participating in gel physical cross-linking. In polyelectrolyte (PE) gels hydrophobic aggregation is opposed by osmotic pressure of mobile counterions, so that at some critical ionization degree hydrophobic association is completely suppressed. Hydrophobic modification of polymers is shown to open new ways for controlling gel responsiveness. In particular, it is discussed that incorporation of photosensitive groups into gel subchains and/or surfactant tail could give a possibility to vary the gel volume by light. Since hydrophobic aggregation regularities in gels and solutions are common, we hope our findings will be useful for design of polymer based self-healing materials as well.

  6. Studies on Deprotection of Cysteine and Selenocysteine Side-Chain Protecting Groups†

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Katharine M.; Flemer, Stevenson; Hondal, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    We present here a simple method for deprotecting p-methoxybenzyl groups and acetamidomethyl groups from the side-chains of cysteine and selenocysteine. This method uses the highly elecrophilic, aromatic disulfides 2,2′-dithiobis(5-nitropyridine) (DTNP) and 2,2′-dithiodipyridine (DTP) dissolved in TFA to effect removal of these heretofore difficult to remove protecting groups. The dissolution of these reagents in TFA in fact serves to “activate” them for the deprotection reaction because protonation of the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring makes the disulfide bond more electrophilic. Thus these reagents can be added to any standard cleavage cocktail used in peptide synthesis. The p-methoxybenzyl group of selenocysteine is easily removed by DTNP. Only sub-stoichiometric amounts of DTNP are required to cause full removal of the p-methoxybenzyl group, with as little as 0.2 equivalents necessary to effect 70% removal of the protecting group. The ability to remove the p-methoxybenzyl group from cysteine using DTNP required 2 equivalents of DTNP and the addition of thioanisole for complete deprotection. Thioanisole was absolutely required for the reaction in the case of the sulfur-containing amino acids, while it was not required for selenocysteine. The results are consistent with thioanisole acting as a catalyst. The acetamidomethyl group of cysteine can also be removed using DTNP, but required the addition of > 15 equivalents to be effective. DTP was less robust as a deprotection reagent. We also demonstrate that this chemistry can be used in a simultaneous cyclization/deprotection reaction between selenocysteine and cysteine residues protected by p-methoxybenzyl groups to form a selenylsulfide bond, demonstrating future high utility of the deprotection method. PMID:17031870

  7. One-sided polymerase chain reaction: the amplification of cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, O; Dorit, R L; Gilbert, W

    1989-01-01

    We report a rapid technique, based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for the direct targeting, enhancement, and sequencing of previously uncharacterized cDNAs. This method is not limited to previously sequenced transcripts, since it requires only two adjacent or partially overlapping specific primers from only one side of the region to be amplified. These primers can be located anywhere within the message. The specific primers are used in conjunction with nonspecific primers targeted either to the poly(A)+ region of the message or to an enzymatically synthesized d(A) tail. Pairwise combinations of specific and general primers allow for the amplification of regions both 3' and 5' to the point of entry into the message. The amplified PCR products can be cloned, sequenced directly by genomic sequencing, or labeled for sequencing by amplifying with a radioactive primer. We illustrate the power of this approach by deriving the cDNA sequences for the skeletal muscle alpha-tropomyosins of European common frog (Rana temporaria) and zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) using only 300 ng of a total poly(A)+ preparation. In these examples, we gained initial entry into the tropomyosin messages by using heterologous primers (to conserved regions) derived from the rat skeletal muscle alpha-tropomyosin sequence. The frog and zebrafish sequences are used in an analysis of tropomyosin evolution across the vertebrate phylogenetic spectrum. The results underscore the conservative nature of the tropomyosin molecule and support the notion of a constrained heptapeptide unit as the fundamental structural motif of tropomyosin. Images PMID:2788276

  8. Hydrogen bonding motifs of protein side chains: descriptions of binding of arginine and amide groups.

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, L.; Glusker, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    The modes of hydrogen bonding of arginine, asparagine, and glutamine side chains and of urea have been examined in small-molecule crystal structures in the Cambridge Structural Database and in crystal structures of protein-nucleic acid and protein-protein complexes. Analysis of the hydrogen bonding patterns of each by graph-set theory shows three patterns of rings (R) with one or two hydrogen bond acceptors and two donors and with eight, nine, or six atoms in the ring, designated R2(2)(8), R2(2)(9), and R1(2)(6). These three patterns are found for arginine-like groups and for urea, whereas only the first two patterns R2(2)(8) and R2(2)(9) are found for asparagine- and glutamine-like groups. In each case, the entire system is planar within 0.7 A or less. On the other hand, in macromolecular crystal structures, the hydrogen bonding patterns in protein-nucleic acid complexes between the nucleic acid base and the protein are all R2(2)(9), whereas hydrogen bonding between Watson-Crick-like pairs of nucleic acid bases is R2(2)(8). These two hydrogen bonding arrangements [R2(2)(9)] and R2(2)(8)] are predetermined by the nature of the groups available for hydrogen bonding. The third motif identified, R1(2)(6), involves hydrogen bonds that are less linear than in the other two motifs and is found in proteins. PMID:7773178

  9. The Inherent Conformational Preferences of Glutamine-Containing Peptides: the Role for Side-Chain Backbone Hydrogen Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Patrick S.; McBurney, Carl; Gellman, Samuel H.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2015-06-01

    Glutamine is widely known to be found in critical regions of peptides which readily fold into amyloid fibrils, the structures commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease and glutamine repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease. Building on previous single-conformation data on Gln-containing peptides containing an aromatic cap on the N-terminus (Z-Gln-OH and Z-Gln-NHMe), we present here single-conformation UV and IR spectra of Ac-Gln-NHBn and Ac-Ala-Gln-NHBn, with its C-terminal benzyl cap. These results point towards side-chain to backbone hydrogen bonds dominating the structures observed in the cold, isolated environment of a molecular beam. We have identified and assigned three main conformers for Ac-Gln-NHBn all involving primary side-chain to backbone interactions. Ac-Ala-Gln-NHBn extends the peptide chain by one amino acid, but affords an improvement in the conformational flexibility. Despite this increase in the flexibility, only a single conformation is observed in the gas-phase: a structure which makes use of both side-chain-to-backbone and backbone-to-backbone hydrogen bonds.

  10. Structure-Function Studies of Hydrophobic Residues That Clamp a Basic Glutamate Side Chain during Catalysis by Triosephosphate Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Richard, John P; Amyes, Tina L; Malabanan, M Merced; Zhai, Xiang; Kim, Kalvin J; Reinhardt, Christopher J; Wierenga, Rik K; Drake, Eric J; Gulick, Andrew M

    2016-05-31

    Kinetic parameters are reported for the reactions of whole substrates (kcat/Km, M(-1) s(-1)) (R)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and for the substrate pieces [(kcat/Km)E·HPi/Kd, M(-2) s(-1)] glycolaldehyde (GA) and phosphite dianion (HPi) catalyzed by the I172A/L232A mutant of triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei brucei (TbbTIM). A comparison with the corresponding parameters for wild-type, I172A, and L232A TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions shows that the effect of I172A and L232A mutations on ΔG(⧧) for the wild-type TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions of the substrate pieces is nearly the same as the effect of the same mutations on TbbTIM previously mutated at the second side chain. This provides strong evidence that mutation of the first hydrophobic side chain does not affect the functioning of the second side chain in catalysis of the reactions of the substrate pieces. By contrast, the effects of I172A and L232A mutations on ΔG(⧧) for wild-type TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate are different from the effect of the same mutations on TbbTIM previously mutated at the second side chain. This is due to the change in the rate-determining step that determines the barrier to the isomerization reaction. X-ray crystal structures are reported for I172A, L232A, and I172A/L232A TIMs and for the complexes of these mutants to the intermediate analogue phosphoglycolate (PGA). The structures of the PGA complexes with wild-type and mutant enzymes are nearly superimposable, except that the space opened by replacement of the hydrophobic side chain is occupied by a water molecule that lies ∼3.5 Å from the basic side chain of Glu167. The new water at I172A mutant TbbTIM provides a simple rationalization for the increase in the activation barrier ΔG(⧧) observed for mutant enzyme-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate and substrate pieces. By contrast, the new water at the L232A mutant does not predict the decrease in

  11. Structure-Function Studies of Hydrophobic Residues That Clamp a Basic Glutamate Side Chain during Catalysis by Triosephosphate Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Richard, John P; Amyes, Tina L; Malabanan, M Merced; Zhai, Xiang; Kim, Kalvin J; Reinhardt, Christopher J; Wierenga, Rik K; Drake, Eric J; Gulick, Andrew M

    2016-05-31

    Kinetic parameters are reported for the reactions of whole substrates (kcat/Km, M(-1) s(-1)) (R)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and for the substrate pieces [(kcat/Km)E·HPi/Kd, M(-2) s(-1)] glycolaldehyde (GA) and phosphite dianion (HPi) catalyzed by the I172A/L232A mutant of triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei brucei (TbbTIM). A comparison with the corresponding parameters for wild-type, I172A, and L232A TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions shows that the effect of I172A and L232A mutations on ΔG(⧧) for the wild-type TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions of the substrate pieces is nearly the same as the effect of the same mutations on TbbTIM previously mutated at the second side chain. This provides strong evidence that mutation of the first hydrophobic side chain does not affect the functioning of the second side chain in catalysis of the reactions of the substrate pieces. By contrast, the effects of I172A and L232A mutations on ΔG(⧧) for wild-type TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate are different from the effect of the same mutations on TbbTIM previously mutated at the second side chain. This is due to the change in the rate-determining step that determines the barrier to the isomerization reaction. X-ray crystal structures are reported for I172A, L232A, and I172A/L232A TIMs and for the complexes of these mutants to the intermediate analogue phosphoglycolate (PGA). The structures of the PGA complexes with wild-type and mutant enzymes are nearly superimposable, except that the space opened by replacement of the hydrophobic side chain is occupied by a water molecule that lies ∼3.5 Å from the basic side chain of Glu167. The new water at I172A mutant TbbTIM provides a simple rationalization for the increase in the activation barrier ΔG(⧧) observed for mutant enzyme-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate and substrate pieces. By contrast, the new water at the L232A mutant does not predict the decrease in

  12. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    DOE PAGES

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products inmore » BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.« less

  13. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products in BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.

  14. Topo-optical reactions for the identification of O-acyl sugars in amyloid deposits.

    PubMed

    Richter, Susann; Makovitzky, Josef

    2009-01-01

    The aldehyde bisulfite toluidine blue (ABT) reaction with former saponification (KOH-ABT) and periodic acid-borohydride reduction-saponification (PB-KOH-ABT) were applied to sections of human amyloid deposits in the respiratory tract. The saponification-induced increase in ABT-reactivity was confined to the presence of O-acyl sugars associated with the amyloid fibrils. The anisotropic and metachromatic effect in the ABT and KOH-ABT reaction was reduced in the corresponding PB-KOH-ABT reaction, a difference attributed to the removal of staining due to neutral carbohydrate residues. Since the periodic acid-borohydride reduction abolishes all pre-existing ABT-reactivity of neutral sugar vicinal diols, the isolated KOH-effect could be shown using the PB-KOH-ABT reaction. By application of this sequence, the problem identifying small quantities of O-acyl sugars was solved. It is suggested that the KOH-effect depends upon the removal of O-acyl substituents located on the polyhydroxy side chain (C7, C8, C9) of sialic acid residues. An advantage of such topo-optical reactions over biochemical techniques is the exact localization of O-acyl sugars in tissue sites. By means of the KOH-ABT and PB-KOH-ABT reactions we have demonstrated, for the first time, that O-acyl sugars occur within amyloid deposits.

  15. Calculation of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra from Brownian dynamics trajectories: application to nitroxide side chains in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, H J; Hubbell, W L

    1996-01-01

    We present a method to simulate electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of spin-labeled proteins that explicitly includes the protein structure in the vicinity of the attached spin label. The method is applied to a spin-labeled polyleucine alpha-helix trimer. From short (6 ns) stochastic dynamics simulations of this trimer, an effective potential energy function is calculated. Interaction with secondary and tertiary structures determine the reorientational motion of the spin label side chains. After reduction to a single particle problem, long stochastic dynamic trajectories (700 ns) of the spin label side-chain reorientation are calculated from which the Lamor frequency trajectory and subsequently the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum is determined. The simulated spectra agree well with experimental electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of bacteriorhodopsin mutants with spin labels in similar secondary and tertiary environments as in the polyleucine. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8889196

  16. Tuning Structural and Mechanical Properties of Two-Dimensional Molecular Crystals: The Roles of Carbon Side Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Cun, Huanyao; Wang, Yeliang; Du, S X; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Lizhi; Yang, Bing; He, Xiaobo; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Xueyan; Yuan, Quanzi; Zhao, Ya-Pu; Ouyang, Min; Hofer, Werner A.; Pennycook, Stephen J; Gao, Hong-jun

    2012-01-01

    A key requirement for the future applicability of molecular electronics devices is a resilience of their properties to mechanical deformation. At present, however, there is no fundamental understanding of the origins of mechanical properties of molecular films. Here we use quinacridone, which possesses flexible carbon side chains, as a model molecular system to address this issue. Eight molecular configurations with different molecular coverage are identified by scanning tunneling microscopy. Theoretical calculations reveal quantitatively the roles of different molecule-molecule and molecule-substrate interactions and predict the observed sequence of configurations. Remarkably, we find that a single Young's modulus applies for all configurations, the magnitude of which is controlled by side chain length, suggesting a versatile avenue for tuning not only the physical and chemical properties of molecular films but also their elastic properties.

  17. Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy of Ac-Ser-NH2: the role of side chain interactions in peptide folding.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Carlos; Robben, Martinus A T; Rijs, Anouk M; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, J L

    2015-08-21

    Serine capped dipeptide N-acetyl-l-serinamide (Ac-Ser-NH2) has been investigated using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopic techniques combined with laser ablation sources. Spectral signatures originating from one dominant species have been detected in the supersonic expansion. Rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of the two (14)N nuclei have been used in the characterization of a C/γ-turn structure, which is stabilized by a CO∙∙∙HN intramolecular hydrogen bond closing a seven-membered ring. Two extra hydrogen bonds involving the polar side chain (-CH2OH) further stabilize the structure. The non-observation of C5 species, attributed to the presence of the polar side chain, is in contrast with the previous gas phase observation of the related dipeptides containing glycine or alanine residues. The A-E splitting pattern arising from the internal rotation of the methyl group has been analyzed and the internal rotation barrier has been determined.

  18. Tuning structural and mechanical properties of two-dimensional molecular crystals: the roles of carbon side chains.

    PubMed

    Cun, Huanyao; Wang, Yeliang; Du, Shixuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Lizhi; Yang, Bing; He, Xiaobo; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Xueyan; Yuan, Quanzi; Zhao, Ya-Pu; Ouyang, Min; Hofer, Werner A; Pennycook, Stephen J; Gao, Hong-jun

    2012-03-14

    A key requirement for the future applicability of molecular electronics devices is a resilience of their properties to mechanical deformation. At present, however, there is no fundamental understanding of the origins of mechanical properties of molecular films. Here we use quinacridone, which possesses flexible carbon side chains, as a model molecular system to address this issue. Eight molecular configurations with different molecular coverage are identified by scanning tunneling microscopy. Theoretical calculations reveal quantitatively the roles of different molecule-molecule and molecule-substrate interactions and predict the observed sequence of configurations. Remarkably, we find that a single Young's modulus applies for all configurations, the magnitude of which is controlled by side chain length, suggesting a versatile avenue for tuning not only the physical and chemical properties of molecular films but also their elastic properties.

  19. Triazine-Based Sequence-Defined Polymers with Side-Chain Diversity and Backbone-Backbone Interaction Motifs.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Mo, Kai-For; Daily, Michael D

    2016-03-14

    Sequence control in polymers, well-known in nature, encodes structure and functionality. Here we introduce a new architecture, based on the nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry of cyanuric chloride, that creates a new class of sequence-defined polymers dubbed TZPs. Proof of concept is demonstrated with two synthesized hexamers, having neutral and ionizable side chains. Molecular dynamics simulations show backbone-backbone interactions, including H-bonding motifs and pi-pi interactions. This architecture is arguably biomimetic while differing from sequence-defined polymers having peptide bonds. The synthetic methodology supports the structural diversity of side chains known in peptides, as well as backbone-backbone hydrogen-bonding motifs, and will thus enable new macromolecules and materials with useful functions. PMID:26865312

  20. Specific Interactions of Neutral Side Chains of an Adsorbed Protein with the Surface of α-Quartz and Silica Gel.

    PubMed

    Odinokov, Alexey V; Bagaturyants, Alexander A

    2015-07-16

    Many key features of the protein adsorption on the silica surfaces still remain unraveled. One of the open questions is the interaction of nonpolar side chains with siloxane cavities. Here, we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations for the detailed investigation of the binding of several hydrophobic and amphiphilic protein side chains with silica surface. These interactions were found to be a possible driving force for protein adsorption. The free energy gain was larger for the disordered surface of amorphous silica gel as compared to α-quartz, but the impact depended on the type of amino acid. The dependence was analyzed from the structural point of view. For every amino acid an enthalpy-entropy compensation behavior was observed. These results confirm a hypothesis of an essential role of hydrophobic interactions in protein unfolding and irreversible adsorption on the silica surface.

  1. Phenylalanyl-Glycyl-Phenylalanine Tripeptide: A Model System for Aromatic-Aromatic Side Chain Interactions in Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, Haydee; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Hobza, Pavel

    2009-09-08

    The performance of a wide range of quantum chemical calculations for the ab initio study of realistic model systems of aromatic-aromatic side chain interactions in proteins (in particular those π-π interactions occurring between adjacent residues along the protein sequence) is here assessed on the phenylalanyl-glycyl-phenylalanine (FGF) tripeptide. Energies and geometries obtained at different levels of theory are compared with CCSD(T)/CBS benchmark energies and RI-MP2/cc-pVTZ benchmark geometries, respectively. Consequently, a protocol of calculation alternative to the very expensive CCSD(T)/CBS is proposed. In addition to this, the preferred orientation of the Phe aromatic side chains is discussed and compared with previous results on the topic.

  2. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindgvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a methods for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  3. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  4. Study of Class I and Class III Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases with Substrates Containing a Modified Side Chain.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kaimin; Cao, Ruikai; Hua, Duy H; Li, Ping

    2016-04-11

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are carbon and energy storage polymers produced by a variety of microbial organisms under nutrient-limited conditions. They have been considered as an environmentally friendly alternative to oil-based plastics due to their renewability, versatility, and biodegradability. PHA synthase (PhaC) plays a central role in PHA biosynthesis, in which its activity and substrate specificity are major factors in determining the productivity and properties of the produced polymers. However, the effects of modifying the substrate side chain are not well understood because of the difficulty to accessing the desired analogues. In this report, a series of 3-(R)-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A (HACoA) analogues were synthesized and tested with class I synthases from Chromobacterium sp. USM2 (PhaCCs and A479S-PhaCCs) and Caulobacter crescentus (PhaCCc) as well as class III synthase from Allochromatium vinosum (PhaECAv). It was found that, while different PHA synthases displayed distinct preference with regard to the length of the alkyl side chains, they could withstand moderate side chain modifications such as terminal unsaturated bonds and the azide group. Specifically, the specific activity of PhaCCs toward propynyl analogue (HHxyCoA) was only 5-fold less than that toward the classical substrate HBCoA. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of PhaECAv toward azide analogue (HABCoA) was determined to be 2.86 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which was 6.2% of the value of HBCoA (4.62 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) measured in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). These side chain modifications may be employed to introduce new material functions to PHAs as well as to study PHA biogenesis via click-chemistry, in which the latter remains unknown and is important for metabolic engineering to produce PHAs economically. PMID:26974339

  5. Independent Metrics for Protein Backbone and Side-Chain Flexibility: Time Scales and Effects of Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Julian E; Waldner, Birgit J; Huber, Roland G; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R

    2015-03-10

    Conformational dynamics are central for understanding biomolecular structure and function, since biological macromolecules are inherently flexible at room temperature and in solution. Computational methods are nowadays capable of providing valuable information on the conformational ensembles of biomolecules. However, analysis tools and intuitive metrics that capture dynamic information from in silico generated structural ensembles are limited. In standard work-flows, flexibility in a conformational ensemble is represented through residue-wise root-mean-square fluctuations or B-factors following a global alignment. Consequently, these approaches relying on global alignments discard valuable information on local dynamics. Results inherently depend on global flexibility, residue size, and connectivity. In this study we present a novel approach for capturing positional fluctuations based on multiple local alignments instead of one single global alignment. The method captures local dynamics within a structural ensemble independent of residue type by splitting individual local and global degrees of freedom of protein backbone and side-chains. Dependence on residue type and size in the side-chains is removed via normalization with the B-factors of the isolated residue. As a test case, we demonstrate its application to a molecular dynamics simulation of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) on the millisecond time scale. This allows for illustrating different time scales of backbone and side-chain flexibility. Additionally, we demonstrate the effects of ligand binding on side-chain flexibility of three serine proteases. We expect our new methodology for quantifying local flexibility to be helpful in unraveling local changes in biomolecular dynamics.

  6. A simple strategy to the side chain functionalization on the quinoxaline unit for efficient polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Qiu, Lixia; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Yongfang; He, Yuehui; Jiang, Lihui; Zou, Yingping

    2016-05-25

    A new tetrafluoridequinoxaline electron accepting block from a quinoxaline core, which is substituted with a fluorine atom onto its backbone and side chains, was designed. A new copolymer (PBDTT-ffQx) was synthesized from tetrafluoridequinoxaline and benzodithiophene. The copolymer was characterized in detail. The photovoltaic properties were well investigated. A high PCE of 8.6% based on the single junction device was obtained.

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of N-protected chiral 1-aminoalkylphosphonic acids and synthesis of side chain-functionalized depsiphosphonopeptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Cai, Shuzong; Xu, Jiaxi

    2006-05-01

    Optically active 1-aminoalkylphosphonic acid derivatives were synthesized in moderate yields and optical purities via Mannich-type reactions of benzyl carbamate, aldehydes, and optically pure chlorophosphites. Side chain-functionalized depsiphosphonopeptides were also prepared in satisfactory yields directly from one-pot reactions of benzyl carbamate, aldehydes, and diethyl (R,R)-2-chloro-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane-4,5-dicarboxylate. PMID:16285019

  8. Addition of ‘Charge-Shifting’ Side Chains to Linear Poly(ethyleneimine) Enhances Cell Transfection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianghui; Yang, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently that the addition of ester-functionalized, ‘charge-shifting’ side chains to linear poly(ethyleneimine) (LPEI) can be used to design polyamines that promote both self-assembly and self-disassembly with DNA in aqueous environments. This investigation sought to characterize the influence of charge-shifting side chains on the ability of LPEI to mediate cell transfection and understand the extent to which increases (or decreases) in levels of transfection could be understood in terms of time-dependent changes in the net charges of these polymers. We report that the addition of ‘charge-shifting’ side chains to LPEI leads to significant increases in levels of LPEI-mediated transfection. In particular, polymer 1e, functionalized with 20 mol% ester-functionalized side chains, mediates levels of transgene expression in vitro up to eight-fold higher than LPEI. Experiments using an amide-functionalized analog of polymer 1e demonstrated that the esters in polymer 1e play an important role in promoting increased levels of transfection. These results, in combination with the results of additional gel electrophoresis experiments, provide support for the view that increases in transfection result from time-dependent changes in the net charge of polymer 1e and the disruption of ionic interactions in polyplexes. Additional support for this view is provided by the results of confocal microscopy experiments and measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, which suggest that polymer 1e promotes the disruption of polyplexes in intracellular environments effectively. The approach reported here provides a means of addressing one important ‘late-stage’ obstacle to polyplex-mediated transfection (polyplex unpackaging). If integrated successfully with methods that have been developed to address other important barriers to transfection, this general approach could lead to the development of multifunctional polyplexes that mimic more effectively the

  9. ω-Turn: a novel β-turn mimic in globular proteins stabilized by main-chain to side-chain C−H···O interaction.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Jesmita; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Saini, Harpreet; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Kishore, Raghuvansh

    2015-02-01

    Mimicry of structural motifs is a common feature in proteins. The 10-membered hydrogen-bonded ring involving the main-chain C − O in a β-turn can be formed using a side-chain carbonyl group leading to Asx-turn. We show that the N − H component of hydrogen bond can be replaced by a C(γ) -H group in the side chain, culminating in a nonconventional C − H···O interaction. Because of its shape this β-turn mimic is designated as ω-turn, which is found to occur ∼ three times per 100 residues. Three residues (i to i + 2) constitute the turn with the C − H···O interaction occurring between the terminal residues, constraining the torsion angles ϕi + 1, ψi + 1, ϕi + 2 and χ'1(i + 2) (using the interacting C(γ) atom). Based on these angles there are two types of ω-turns, each of which can be further divided into two groups. C(β) -branched side-chains, and Met and Gln have high propensities to occur at i + 2; for the last two residues the carbonyl oxygen may participate in an additional interaction involving the S and amino group, respectively. With Cys occupying the i + 1 position, such turns are found in the metal-binding sites. N-linked glycosylation occurs at the consensus pattern Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr; with Thr at i + 2, the sequence can adopt the secondary structure of a ω-turn, which may be the recognition site for protein modification. Location between two β-strands is the most common occurrence in protein tertiary structure, and being generally exposed ω-turn may constitute the antigenic determinant site. It is a stable scaffold and may be used in protein engineering and peptide design.

  10. Prevalence and mutation analysis of short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) detected on newborn screening in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Van Calcar, Sandra C; Baker, Mei W; Williams, Phillip; Jones, Susan A; Xiong, Blia; Thao, Mai Choua; Lee, Sheng; Yang, Mai Khou; Rice, Greg M; Rhead, William; Vockley, Jerry; Hoffman, Gary; Durkin, Maureen S

    2013-01-01

    Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD), also called 2-methylbutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (2-MBCDD), is a disorder of l-isoleucine metabolism of uncertain clinical significance. SBCADD is inadvertently detected on expanded newborn screening by elevated 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine (C5), which has the same mass to charge (m/s) on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as isovalerylcarnitine (C5), an analyte that is elevated in isovaleric acidemia (IVA), a disorder in leucine metabolism. SBCADD cases identified in the Hmong-American population have been found in association with the c.1165 A>G mutation in the ACADSB gene. The purposes of this study were to: (a) estimate the prevalence of SBCADD and carrier frequency of the c.1165 A>G mutation in the Hmong ethnic group; (b) determine whether the c.1165 A>G mutation is common to all Hmong newborns screening positive for SBCADD; and (c) evaluate C5 acylcarnitine cut-off values to detect and distinguish between SBCADD and IVA diagnoses. During the first 10years of expanded newborn screening using MS/MS in Wisconsin (2001-2011), 97 infants had elevated C5 values (≥0.44μmol/L), of whom five were Caucasian infants confirmed to have IVA. Of the remaining 92 confirmed SBCADD cases, 90 were of Hmong descent. Mutation analysis was completed on an anonymous, random sample of newborn screening cards (n=1139) from Hmong infants. Fifteen infants, including nine who had screened positive for SBCADD based on a C5 acylcarnitine concentration ≥0.44μmol/L, were homozygous for the c.1165 A>G mutation. This corresponds to a prevalence in this ethnic group of being homozygous for the mutation of 1.3% (95% confidence interval 0.8-2.2%) and of being heterozygous for the mutation of 21.8% (95% confidence interval 19.4-24.3%), which is consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Detection of homozygous individuals who were not identified on newborn screening suggests that the C5 screening cut-off would need to

  11. Prevalence and mutation analysis of short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) detected on newborn screening in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Baker, Mei W.; Williams, Phillip; Jones, Susan A.; Xiong, Blia; Thao, Mai Choua; Lee, Sheng; Yang, Mai Khou; Rice, Greg M.; Rhead, William; Vockley, Jerry; Hoffman, Gary; Durkin, Maureen S.

    2015-01-01

    Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD), also called 2-methylbutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (2-MBCDD), is a disorder of L-isoleucine metabolism of uncertain clinical significance. SBCADD is inadvertently detected on expanded newborn screening by elevated 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine (C5), which has the same mass to charge (m/s) on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as isovalerylcarnitine (C5), an analyte that is elevated in isovaleric acidemia (IVA), a disorder in leucine metabolism. SBCADD cases identified in the Hmong-American population have been found in association with the c.1165 A>G mutation in the ACADSB gene. The purposes of this study were to: (a) estimate the prevalence of SBCADD and carrier frequency of the c.1165 A>G mutation in the Hmong ethnic group; (b) determine whether the c.1 165 A>G mutation is common to all Hmong newborns screening positive for SBCADD; and (c) evaluate C5 acylcarnitine cut-off values to detect and distinguish between SBCADD and IVA diagnoses. During the first 10 years of expanded newborn screening using MS/MS in Wisconsin (2001–2011), 97 infants had elevated C5 values (≥0.44 μmol/L), of whom five were Caucasian infants confirmed to have IVA Of the remaining 92 confirmed SBCADD cases, 90 were of Hmong descent. Mutation analysis was completed on an anonymous, random sample of newborn screening cards (n = 1139) from Hmong infants. Fifteen infants, including nine who had screened positive for SBCADD based on a C5 acylcarnitine concentrations ≥0.44 μmol/L, were homozygous for the c.1165 A>G mutation. This corresponds to a prevalence in this ethnic group of being homozygous for the mutation of 1.3% (95% confidence interval 0.8–2.2%) and of being heterozygous for the mutation of 21.8% (95% confidence interval 19.4–24.3%), which is consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Detection of homozygous individuals who were not identified on newborn screening suggests that the C5 screening cut

  12. Nature versus design: the conformational propensities of D-amino acids and the importance of side chain chirality.

    PubMed

    Towse, Clare-Louise; Hopping, Gene; Vulovic, Ivan; Daggett, Valerie

    2014-11-01

    D-amino acids are useful building blocks for de novo peptide design and they play a role in aging-related diseases associated with gradual protein racemization. For amino acids with achiral side chains, one should be able to presume that the conformational propensities of L- and D-amino acids are a reflection of one another due to the straightforward geometric inversion at the Cα atom. However, this presumption does not account for the directionality of the backbone dipole and the inverted propensities have never been definitively confirmed in this context. Furthermore, there is little known of how alternative side chain chirality affects the backbone conformations of isoleucine and threonine. Using a GGXGG host-guest pentapeptide system, we have completed exhaustive sampling of the conformational propensities of the D-amino acids, including D-allo-isoleucine and D-allo-threonine, using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Comparison of these simulations with the same systems hosting the cognate L-amino acids verifies that the intrinsic backbone conformational propensities of the D-amino acids are the inverse of their cognate L-enantiomers. Where amino acids have a chiral center in their side chain (Thr, Ile) the β-configuration affects the backbone sampling, which in turn can confer different biological properties.

  13. Water, proton, and oxygen transport in high IEC, short side chain PFSA ionomer membranes: consequences of a frustrated network.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Holdcroft, Steven; Mani, Ana; Zhang, Yongming; Shi, Zhiqing

    2011-10-28

    The effect of ion exchange capacity (IEC) on the water sorption properties of high IEC, short side chain (SSC) PFSA ionomer membranes, and the relationships between water content, proton conductivity, proton mobility, water permeation, oxygen diffusion, and oxygen permeation are investigated. SSC PFSA ionomer membranes possessing 1.3, 1.4, and 1.5 mmol g(-1) IEC are compared to a series of long side chain (LSC) PFSA ionomer membranes ranging in IEC from 0.9 to 1.13 mmol g(-1). At 25 °C, fully-hydrated SSC ionomer membranes are characterized as possessing higher water contents (56-75 vol%), moderate λ values (15-18), high analytical acid concentrations (2-2.8 M), and moderate conductivity (88-115 mS/cm); but lower than anticipated effective proton mobility. Complementary measurements of water permeability, oxygen diffusion, and oxygen permeability also yield lower than expected values given their much higher water contents. Potential benefits afforded by reducing the side chain length of PFSA ionomer membranes, such as increased crystallinity, higher IEC, and high hydrated acid concentration are offset by a less-developed, frustrated hydrophilic percolation network, which provides a motivation for future improvements of transport properties for this class of material.

  14. Correction of erroneously packed protein's side chains in the NMR structure based on ab initio chemical shift calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tong; Zhang, John Z H; He, Xiao

    2014-09-14

    In this work, protein side chain (1)H chemical shifts are used as probes to detect and correct side-chain packing errors in protein's NMR structures through structural refinement. By applying the automated fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (AF-QM/MM) method for ab initio calculation of chemical shifts, incorrect side chain packing was detected in the NMR structures of the Pin1 WW domain. The NMR structure is then refined by using molecular dynamics simulation and the polarized protein-specific charge (PPC) model. The computationally refined structure of the Pin1 WW domain is in excellent agreement with the corresponding X-ray structure. In particular, the use of the PPC model yields a more accurate structure than that using the standard (nonpolarizable) force field. For comparison, some of the widely used empirical models for chemical shift calculations are unable to correctly describe the relationship between the particular proton chemical shift and protein structures. The AF-QM/MM method can be used as a powerful tool for protein NMR structure validation and structural flaw detection.

  15. Effect of O side-chain length and composition on the virulence of Shigella flexneri 2a.

    PubMed

    Sandlin, R C; Goldberg, M B; Maurelli, A T

    1996-10-01

    IcsA of Shigella flexneri is required for intercellular spread and is located in the outer membrane at one pole of the bacterium, where it catalyses the polymerization of host-cell actin. The formation of the a tin tail provides the force to move the bacterium in a unidirectional manner through the host-cell cytoplasm. We have previously demonstrated that rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants of S. flexneri 2a are avirulent and cannot form plaques in tissue-culture monolayers. This inability to form plaques is associated with non-polar localization of IcsA and loss of host-cell membrane-protrusion formation ("fireworks'). To define the minimal LPS structure required for fireworks formation, we constructed a strain of S. flexneri (BS497) that contains a mutation in rfc, encoding the O side-chain polymerase, and a strain, BS520, that possesses a defective O side-chain ligase due to a mutation in rfaL. BS497 produces a LPS that consists of a core with one repeat unit of the O side-chain, while BS520 produces a LPS consisting of a complete core with no O side-chain. BS497 remained invasive but did not form fireworks or plaques in tissue-culture monolayers and was negative in the Serény test. BS520 was invasive, generated reduced numbers of short fireworks, and made tiny plaques, but it was negative in the Serény test. Analysis of BS497 with anti-IcsA antibody demonstrated that IcsA was distributed over the entire cell surface. The distribution of IcsA on the surface of BS520 was predominantly unipolar, with some trail-back of IcsA label along the sides of the bacterium. A similar pattern was seen when infected monolayers were stained for polymerized actin. These results suggest that both the presence and the length of the O side-chain are important in the proper localization or maintenance of IcsA at the pole which subsequently affects the ability to form actin tails and produce fireworks. This reduced ability to form actin tails and fireworks results in a decreased

  16. δ-Methyl Branching in the Side Chain Makes the Difference: Access to Room-Temperature Discotics.

    PubMed

    Kirres, Jochen; Knecht, Friederike; Seubert, Philipp; Baro, Angelika; Laschat, Sabine

    2016-04-18

    Although discotic liquid crystals are attractive functional materials, their use in electronic devices is often restricted by high melting and clearing points. Among the promising candidates for applications are [15]crown-5 ether-based liquid crystals with peripheral n-alkoxy side chains, which, however, still have melting points above room temperature. To overcome this problem, a series of o-terphenyl and triphenylene [15]crown-5 ether derivatives was prepared in which δ-methyl-branched alkoxy side chains of varying lengths substitute the peripheral linear alkoxy chains. The mesomorphic properties of the novel crown ethers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. δ-Methyl branching indeed lowers melting points resulting in room-temperature hexagonal columnar mesophases. The mesophase widths, which ranged from 87 to 30 K for o-terphenyls, significantly increased to 106-147 K for the triphenylenes depending on the chain lengths, revealing the beneficial effect of a flat mesogen, due to improved π-π interactions.

  17. δ-Methyl Branching in the Side Chain Makes the Difference: Access to Room-Temperature Discotics.

    PubMed

    Kirres, Jochen; Knecht, Friederike; Seubert, Philipp; Baro, Angelika; Laschat, Sabine

    2016-04-18

    Although discotic liquid crystals are attractive functional materials, their use in electronic devices is often restricted by high melting and clearing points. Among the promising candidates for applications are [15]crown-5 ether-based liquid crystals with peripheral n-alkoxy side chains, which, however, still have melting points above room temperature. To overcome this problem, a series of o-terphenyl and triphenylene [15]crown-5 ether derivatives was prepared in which δ-methyl-branched alkoxy side chains of varying lengths substitute the peripheral linear alkoxy chains. The mesomorphic properties of the novel crown ethers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. δ-Methyl branching indeed lowers melting points resulting in room-temperature hexagonal columnar mesophases. The mesophase widths, which ranged from 87 to 30 K for o-terphenyls, significantly increased to 106-147 K for the triphenylenes depending on the chain lengths, revealing the beneficial effect of a flat mesogen, due to improved π-π interactions. PMID:26853226

  18. Influence of the side chain and substrate on polythiophene thin film surface, bulk, and buried interfacial structures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Minyu; Jasensky, Joshua; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Pichan, Cayla; Lu, Xiaolin; Chen, Zhan

    2016-08-10

    The molecular structures of organic semiconducting thin films mediate the performance of various devices composed of such materials. To fully understand how the structures of organic semiconductors alter on substrates due to different polymer side chains and different interfacial interactions, thin films of two kinds of polythiophene derivatives with different side-chains, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3-potassium-6-hexanoate thiophene) (P3KHT), were deposited and compared on various surfaces. A combination of analytical tools was applied in this research: contact angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize substrate dielectric surfaces with varied hydrophobicity for polymer film deposition; X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to examine the polythiophene film bulk structure; sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was utilized to probe the molecular structures of polymer film surfaces in air and buried solid/solid interfaces. Both side-chain hydrophobicity and substrate hydrophobicity were found to mediate the crystallinity of the polythiophene film, as well as the orientation of the thiophene ring within the polymer backbone at the buried polymer/substrate interface and the polymer thin film surface in air. For the same type of polythiophene film deposited on different substrates, a more hydrophobic substrate surface induced thiophene ring alignment with the surface normal at both the buried interface and on the surface in air. For different films (P3HT vs. P3KHT) deposited on the same dielectric substrate, a more hydrophobic polythiophene side chain caused the thiophene ring to align more towards the surface at the buried polymer/substrate interface and on the surface in air. We believe that the polythiophene surface, bulk, and buried interfacial molecular structures all influence the hole mobility within the polythiophene film. Successful characterization of an organic conducting

  19. Extent of salmeterol-mediated reassertion of relaxation in guinea-pig trachea pretreated with aliphatic side chain structural analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Bergendal, A.; Lindén, A.; Skoogh, B. E.; Gerspacher, M.; Anderson, G. P.; Löfdahl, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Salmeterol is a potent, selective and long acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist. In vitro, salmeterol exerts 'reassertion' relaxation of airways smooth muscle. Reassertion relaxation refers to the capacity of salmeterol to cause repeated functional antagonism of induced contraction when airway smooth muscle is intermittently exposed to, then washed free from, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists such as sotalol. The mechanism(s) underlying reassertion relaxation are unknown but may relate to high affinity binding of the long aliphatic side chain of salmeterol to an accessory site, distinct from the agonist recognition site, in or near the beta 2-adrenoceptor (exosite binding hypothesis). 2. In order to test the exosite hypothesis, three pure analogues of salmeterol, each exactly preserving the molecular structure of the aliphatic side chain but with zero or low efficacy at the beta 2-adrenoceptor were synthesized. The effect of pre-incubating guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle with these analogues on salmeterol-induced reassertion relaxation was determined. 3. Computer Assisted Molecular Modelling of these molecules revealed that each of them exactly preserved the low energy linear conformation of the aliphatic side chain of salmeterol. Measurement of lipophilicity (octanol:water partition coefficient; log P) and direct partition into synthetic membranes (membrane partition coefficient; Kpmem) showed that all compounds had high affinity for lipids and membranes. In particular the biophysical properties of CGP 59162 (log P 1.89, Kpmem 16500) were very similar to salmeterol (log P 1.73, Kpmem 16800). 4. Two of the analogues, CGP 54103 and D 2543 (1 microM), which are structural mimics of the side chain of salmeterol, differing slightly in their length, did not prevent either the initial relaxation induced by salmeterol (0.1 microM) or the reassertion relaxation; however, it was not possible to determine whether either of these molecules occupied the beta 2-adrenoceptor. 5

  20. Influence of the side chain and substrate on polythiophene thin film surface, bulk, and buried interfacial structures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Minyu; Jasensky, Joshua; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Pichan, Cayla; Lu, Xiaolin; Chen, Zhan

    2016-08-10

    The molecular structures of organic semiconducting thin films mediate the performance of various devices composed of such materials. To fully understand how the structures of organic semiconductors alter on substrates due to different polymer side chains and different interfacial interactions, thin films of two kinds of polythiophene derivatives with different side-chains, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3-potassium-6-hexanoate thiophene) (P3KHT), were deposited and compared on various surfaces. A combination of analytical tools was applied in this research: contact angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize substrate dielectric surfaces with varied hydrophobicity for polymer film deposition; X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to examine the polythiophene film bulk structure; sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was utilized to probe the molecular structures of polymer film surfaces in air and buried solid/solid interfaces. Both side-chain hydrophobicity and substrate hydrophobicity were found to mediate the crystallinity of the polythiophene film, as well as the orientation of the thiophene ring within the polymer backbone at the buried polymer/substrate interface and the polymer thin film surface in air. For the same type of polythiophene film deposited on different substrates, a more hydrophobic substrate surface induced thiophene ring alignment with the surface normal at both the buried interface and on the surface in air. For different films (P3HT vs. P3KHT) deposited on the same dielectric substrate, a more hydrophobic polythiophene side chain caused the thiophene ring to align more towards the surface at the buried polymer/substrate interface and on the surface in air. We believe that the polythiophene surface, bulk, and buried interfacial molecular structures all influence the hole mobility within the polythiophene film. Successful characterization of an organic conducting

  1. Gel-like elasticity in glass-forming side-chain liquid-crystal polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, O.; Collin, D.; Finkelmann, H.; Rogez, D.; Martinoty, P.

    2009-09-01

    We study the complex shear modulus G of two side-chain liquid-crystal polymers (SCLCPs), a methoxy-phenylbenzoate substituted polyacrylate (thereafter called PAOCH3 ), and a cyanobiphenyl substituted polyacrylate supplied by Merck (thereafter called LCP105) using a piezoelectric rheometer. Two methods of filling the cell are used: (a) a capillary method, which can be used only at high temperature because of the low value of the viscosity, and (b) the classical one, thereafter called compression method, which consists in placing the sample between the two slides of the cell and to bring them closer. By filling the cell at high temperature either with the compression or the capillary method, we show that the response of both compounds is liquidlike ( G'˜f2 and G″˜f , where f is the frequency) for temperatures higher than a certain temperature T0 and gel-like (G'˜const,G″˜f) below T0 . This change in behavior from the conventional flow response to a gel-like response, when approaching the glass transition, is observed for nonsliding conditions and for very weak-imposed shear strains. It can be explained by a percolation-type mechanism of preglassy elastic clusters, which correspond to long-range and long-lived density fluctuations that are frozen at the time scale of the experiment. The sample response is therefore the sum of two contributions: one is due to the flow response of the polymer melt and the other to the elastic response of the network formed by the preglassy elastic clusters. By filling the cell below T0 with the compression method, both compounds exhibit a gel-type behavior by gently bringing closer the slides of the cell and an anomalous low-frequency behavior characterized by G'=const and G″=const by increasing the pressure used to bring closer the slides of the cell. A compression-assisted aggregation of the preglassy elastic clusters can explain both the increase in the low-frequency elastic plateau when the sample thickness is decreased

  2. Aberrant protein acylation is a common observation in inborn errors of acyl-CoA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pougovkina, Olga; Te Brinke, Heleen; Wanders, Ronald J A; Houten, Sander M; de Boer, Vincent C J

    2014-09-01

    Inherited disorders of acyl-CoA metabolism, such as defects in amino acid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation can present with severe clinical symptoms either neonatally or later in life, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are often incompletely understood. We now report the discovery of a novel biochemical mechanism that could contribute to the pathophysiology of these disorders. We identified increased protein lysine butyrylation in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficient mice as a result of the accumulation of butyryl-CoA. Similarly, in SCAD deficient fibroblasts, lysine butyrylation was increased. Furthermore, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) deficient patient cells had increased levels of malonylated lysines and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) deficient patient cells had increased propionylation of lysines. Since lysine acylation can greatly impact protein function, aberrant lysine acylation in inherited disorders associated with acyl-CoA accumulation may well play a role in their disease pathophysiology. PMID:24531926

  3. All-acrylic multigraft copolymers: Effect of side chain molecular weight and volume fraction on mechanical behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Andrew; Wang, Weiyu; Kang, Nam -Goo; Wang, Yangyang; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-08-21

    We present in this paper the synthesis of poly(n-butyl acrylate)-g-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PnBA-g-PMMA) multigraft copolymers via a grafting-through (macromonomer) approach. The synthesis was performed using two controlled polymerization techniques. The PMMA macromonomer was obtained by high-vacuum anionic polymerization followed by the copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate and PMMA macromonomer using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to yield the desired all-acrylic multigraft structures. The PnBA-g-PMMA multigraft structures exhibit randomly spaced branch points with various PMMA contents, ranging from 15 to 40 vol %, allowing an investigation into how physical properties vary with differences in the number of branch points and molecular weight of grafted side chains. The determination of molecular weight and polydispersity indices of both the PMMA macromonomer and the graft copolymers was carried out using size exclusion chromatography with triple detection, and the structural characteristics of both the macromonomer and PnBA-g-PMMA graft materials were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for monitoring the macromonomer synthesis. Thermal characteristics of the materials were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical performance of the graft materials was characterized by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing that samples with PMMA content of 25–40 vol % exhibit superior elastomeric properties as compared to materials containing short PMMA side chains or <25 vol % PMMA. In conclusion, atomic force microscopy showed a varying degree of microphase separation between the glassy and rubbery components that is strongly dependent on PMMA side chain molecular weight.

  4. All-acrylic multigraft copolymers: Effect of side chain molecular weight and volume fraction on mechanical behavior

    DOE PAGES

    Goodwin, Andrew; Wang, Weiyu; Kang, Nam -Goo; Wang, Yangyang; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-08-21

    We present in this paper the synthesis of poly(n-butyl acrylate)-g-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PnBA-g-PMMA) multigraft copolymers via a grafting-through (macromonomer) approach. The synthesis was performed using two controlled polymerization techniques. The PMMA macromonomer was obtained by high-vacuum anionic polymerization followed by the copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate and PMMA macromonomer using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to yield the desired all-acrylic multigraft structures. The PnBA-g-PMMA multigraft structures exhibit randomly spaced branch points with various PMMA contents, ranging from 15 to 40 vol %, allowing an investigation into how physical properties vary with differences in the number of branch points and molecular weightmore » of grafted side chains. The determination of molecular weight and polydispersity indices of both the PMMA macromonomer and the graft copolymers was carried out using size exclusion chromatography with triple detection, and the structural characteristics of both the macromonomer and PnBA-g-PMMA graft materials were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for monitoring the macromonomer synthesis. Thermal characteristics of the materials were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical performance of the graft materials was characterized by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing that samples with PMMA content of 25–40 vol % exhibit superior elastomeric properties as compared to materials containing short PMMA side chains or <25 vol % PMMA. In conclusion, atomic force microscopy showed a varying degree of microphase separation between the glassy and rubbery components that is strongly dependent on PMMA side chain molecular weight.« less

  5. Side-chain-bulk effects on the molecular packing and photovoltaic performance of benzotrithiophene-benzooxadiazole conjugated copolymers.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shang-Che; Chang, Chiao-Kai; Wang, Yi-Chien; Wei, Kung-Hwa

    2015-04-27

    Two alternating donor-acceptor conjugated polymers, PBTTBO-C13 C11 and PBTTBO-C13 C8 , comprising 5-alkylbenzo[1,2-b:3,4-b':5,6-d'']trithiophene (BTT) as the donor and 4,7-bis(4-dodecylthien-2-yl)benzo[1,2,5]oxadiazole (BO) as the acceptor, with different alkyl side-chain architectures on their BTT units are synthesized, and their bulk heterojunction photovoltaic properties when blended with the fullerene PC71 BM are characterized. Even a slight change in the length of the alkyl chain of the BTT units influences the steric bulk to such a degree that it substantially affects the molecular packing of the polymers and the performance of their photovoltaic devices. The bulkier side chains of the polymer PBTTBO-C13 C11 not only prevent its crystallization, but also suppress its light-absorption coefficient relative to that of PBTTBO-C13 C8 , as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and UV/Vis absorption studies, presumably because of weakened intermolecular interactions. Moreover, the polymer bearing bulkier side chains, PBTTBO-C13 C11 , is less miscible with PC71 BM than PBTTBO-C13 C8 , and this characteristic determines the morphology of their annealed blended films, as shown by TEM studies. The best efficiency is obtained with a device containing an annealed PBTTBO-C13 C8 /PC71 BM (1/2 w/w) active layer that was maintained at 120 °C for 10 min, which shows a power conversion efficiency of 6.2 %, an open-circuit voltage of 0.75 V, a short-circuit current density of 12.6 mA cm(-2) , and a fill factor of 66 %.

  6. Inversion of the stereochemistry around the sulfur atom of the axial methionine side chain through alteration of amino acid side chain packing in Hydrogenobacter thermophilus cytochrome C552 and its functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hulin; Tonegawa, Ken; Shibata, Tomokazu; Hemmi, Hikaru; Kobayashi, Nagao; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2013-07-16

    In cytochrome c, the coordination of the axial Met Sδ atom to the heme Fe atom occurs in one of two distinctly different stereochemical manners, i.e., R and S configurations, depending upon which of the two lone pairs of the Sδ atom is involved in the bond; hence, the Fe-coordinated Sδ atom becomes a chiral center. In this study, we demonstrated that an alteration of amino acid side chain packing induced by the mutation of a single amino acid residue, i.e., the A73V mutation, in Hydrogenobacter thermophilus cytochrome c552 (HT) forces the inversion of the stereochemistry around the Sδ atom from the R configuration [Travaglini-Allocatelli, C., et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 25729-25734] to the S configuration. Functional comparison between the wild-type HT and the A73V mutant possessing the R and S configurations as to the stereochemistry around the Sδ atom, respectively, demonstrated that the redox potential (Em) of the mutant at pH 6.00 and 25 °C exhibited a positive shift of ∼20 mV relative to that of the wild-type HT, i.e., 245 mV, in an entropic manner. Because these two proteins have similar enthalpically stabilizing interactions, the difference in the entropic contribution to the Em value between them is likely to be due to the effect of the conformational alteration of the axial Met side chain associated with the inversion of the stereochemistry around the Sδ atom due to the effect of mutation on the internal mobility of the loop bearing the axial Met. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the internal mobility of the loop bearing the axial Met, relevant to entropic control of the redox function of the protein, is affected quite sensitively by the contextual stereochemical packing of amino acid side chains in the proximity of the axial Met.

  7. Low resistance, large dimension entrance to the inner cavity of BK channels determined by changing side-chain volume.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yanyan; Niu, Xiaowei; Magleby, Karl L

    2011-06-01

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels have the largest conductance (250-300 pS) of all K(+)-selective channels. Yet, the contributions of the various parts of the ion conduction pathway to the conductance are not known. Here, we examine the contribution of the entrance to the inner cavity to the large conductance. Residues at E321/E324 on each of the four α subunits encircle the entrance to the inner cavity. To determine if 321/324 is accessible from the inner conduction pathway, we measured single-channel current amplitudes before and after exposure and wash of thiol reagents to the intracellular side of E321C and E324C channels. MPA(-) increased currents and MTSET(+) decreased currents, with no difference between positions 321 and 324, indicating that side chains at 321/324 are accessible from the inner conduction pathway and have equivalent effects on conductance. For neutral amino acids, decreasing the size of the entrance to the inner cavity by substituting large side-chain amino acids at 321/324 decreased outward single-channel conductance, whereas increasing the size of the entrance with smaller side-chain substitutions had little effect. Reductions in outward conductance were negated by high [K(+)](i). Substitutions had little effect on inward conductance. Fitting plots of conductance versus side-chain volume with a model consisting of one variable and one fixed resistor in series indicated an effective diameter and length of the entrance to the inner cavity for wild-type channels of 17.7 and 5.6 Å, respectively, with the resistance of the entrance ∼7% of the total resistance of the conduction pathway. The estimated dimensions are consistent with the structure of MthK, an archaeal homologue to BK channels. Our observations suggest that BK channels have a low resistance, large entrance to the inner cavity, with the entrance being as large as necessary to not limit current, but not much larger. PMID:21576375

  8. Chemical probing of the human sirtuin 5 active site reveals its substrate acyl specificity and peptide-based inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Claudia; Nowak, Theresa; Pannek, Martin; Gertz, Melanie; Nguyen, Giang T T; Scharfe, Michael; Born, Ilona; Sippl, Wolfgang; Steegborn, Clemens; Schutkowski, Mike

    2014-09-26

    Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases acting as sensors in metabolic pathways and stress response. In mammals there are seven isoforms. The mitochondrial sirtuin 5 is a weak deacetylase but a very efficient demalonylase and desuccinylase; however, its substrate acyl specificity has not been systematically analyzed. Herein, we investigated a carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 derived peptide substrate and modified the lysine side chain systematically to determine the acyl specificity of Sirt5. From that point we designed six potent peptide-based inhibitors that interact with the NAD(+) binding pocket. To characterize the interaction details causing the different substrate and inhibition properties we report several X-ray crystal structures of Sirt5 complexed with these peptides. Our results reveal the Sirt5 acyl selectivity and its molecular basis and enable the design of inhibitors for Sirt5. PMID:25111069

  9. On the ability of molecular dynamics force fields to recapitulate NMR derived protein side chain order parameters.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Evan S; Wand, A Joshua; Sharp, Kim A

    2016-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become a central tool for investigating various biophysical questions with atomistic detail. While many different proxies are used to qualify MD force fields, most are based on largely structural parameters such as the root mean square deviation from experimental coordinates or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts and residual dipolar couplings. NMR derived Lipari-Szabo squared generalized order parameter (O(2) ) values of amide NH bond vectors of the polypeptide chain were also often employed for refinement and validation. However, with a few exceptions, side chain methyl symmetry axis order parameters have not been incorporated into experimental reference sets. Using a test set of five diverse proteins, the performance of several force fields implemented in the NAMDD simulation package was examined. It was found that simulations employing explicit water implemented using the TIP3 model generally performed significantly better than those using implicit water in reproducing experimental methyl symmetry axis O(2) values. Overall the CHARMM27 force field performs nominally better than two implementations of the Amber force field. It appeared that recent quantum mechanics modifications to side chain torsional angles of leucine and isoleucine in the Amber force field have significantly hindered proper motional modeling for these residues. There remained significant room for improvement as even the best correlations of experimental and simulated methyl group Lipari-Szabo generalized order parameters fall below an R(2) of 0.8.

  10. Polypropylene non-woven meshes with conformal glycosylated layer for lectin affinity adsorption: the effect of side chain length.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiang-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2014-03-01

    The unique characteristics of polypropylene non-woven meshes (PPNWMs), like random network of overlapped fibers, multiple connected pores and overall high porosity, make them high potentials for use as separation or adsorption media. Meanwhile, carbohydrates can specifically recognize certain lectin through multivalent interactions. Therefore glycosylated PPNWMs, combing the merits of both, can be regarded as superior affinity membranes for lectin adsorption and purification. Here, we describe a versatile strategy for the glycosylation of PPNWMs. Two hydrophilic polymers with different side chain length, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA), were first conformally tethered on the polypropylene fiber surface by a modified plasma pretreatment and benzophenone (BP) entrapment UV irradiation process. Then glucose ligands were bound through the reaction between the hydroxyl group and acetyl glucose. Chemical changes of the PPNWMs surface were monitored by FT-IR/ATR. SEM pictures show that conformal glucose ligands can be achieved through the modified process. After deprotection, the glycosylated PPNWMs became superhydrophilic and had high specific recognition capability toward Concanavalin A (Con A). Static Con A adsorption experiments were further performed and the results indicate that fast adsorption kinetics and high binding capacity can be accomplished at the same time. We also found that increasing the side chain length of polymer brushes had positive effect on protein binding capacity due to improved chain mobility. Model studies suggest a multilayer adsorption behavior of Con A. PMID:24398082

  11. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, Elaina M.; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. •Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. •FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. •FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The

  12. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Melton, Elaina M; Cerny, Ronald L; DiRusso, Concetta C; Black, Paul N

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of

  13. Design and synthesis of novel opioid ligands with an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton having a 7-amide side chain and their pharmacologies.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshikazu; Kitazawa, Shota; Nemoto, Toru; Hirayama, Shigeto; Iwai, Takashi; Fujii, Hideaki; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Several derivatives with an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton having a 7-amide side chain were synthesized. Compounds that had an electron-donating group exhibited high affinity for the μ opioid receptor while those with a bulky substituent at the 8-nitrogen atom had low affinities for all receptor types. High affinities and selectivities for the κ receptor resulted from the introduction of the longer amide side chain at the 7α-position. Our studies indicate that the orientation of the amide side chain at the 7-position within the azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane skeleton is related to selectivity for the κ receptor.

  14. Syntheses of protoporphyrin-IX derivatives bearing extended propionate side-chains.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Robert T; Lu, Jianming; Mwakwari, Celinah; Smith, Kevin M

    2009-05-29

    In order to investigate the relationship between depth within membranes of singlet oxygen generation and effectiveness of photodynamic therapy of tumors, analogs of protoporphyrin-IX 1 bearing five 4 and seven 5 carbon atoms (in place of the 3-carbon atom chain in 1) were synthesized from monopyrrole precursors.

  15. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  16. Syntheses of protoporphyrin-IX derivatives bearing extended propionate side-chains.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Robert T; Lu, Jianming; Mwakwari, Celinah; Smith, Kevin M

    2009-05-29

    In order to investigate the relationship between depth within membranes of singlet oxygen generation and effectiveness of photodynamic therapy of tumors, analogs of protoporphyrin-IX 1 bearing five 4 and seven 5 carbon atoms (in place of the 3-carbon atom chain in 1) were synthesized from monopyrrole precursors. PMID:20161404

  17. Characterization of the orientational behavior of liquid-crystalline side-chain polymers for reversible optical data storage by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinna, Ch.; Zebger, I.; Siesler, Heinz W.; Hvilsted, Soeren; Ramanujam, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the photo-induced orientation or reorientation of dye-containing liquid-crystalline side-chain (LCSC) polymers can be used for reversible optical data storage. A method which enables the determination of this orientational behavior in addition to the order parameter is infrared dichroism. The present experimental approach uses Fourier- Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with polarized radiation to determine the orientation of the main chain and side chains in a LCSC polyester with a dodecamethylene spacing of the ester groups in the main chain and six methylene groups in the spacer, after irradiation with an Argon ion laser beam.

  18. Evaluating the Effect of Ionic Strength on Duplex Stability for PNA Having Negatively or Positively Charged Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    De Costa, N. Tilani S.; Heemstra, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced thermodynamic stability of PNA:DNA and PNA:RNA duplexes compared with DNA:DNA and DNA:RNA duplexes has been attributed in part to the lack of electrostatic repulsion between the uncharged PNA backbone and negatively charged DNA or RNA backbone. However, there are no previously reported studies that systematically evaluate the effect of ionic strength on duplex stability for PNA having a charged backbone. Here we investigate the role of charge repulsion in PNA binding by synthesizing PNA strands having negatively or positively charged side chains, then measuring their duplex stability with DNA or RNA at varying salt concentrations. At low salt concentrations, positively charged PNA binds more strongly to DNA and RNA than does negatively charged PNA. However, at medium to high salt concentrations, this trend is reversed, and negatively charged PNA shows higher affinity for DNA and RNA than does positively charged PNA. These results show that charge screening by counterions in solution enables negatively charged side chains to be incorporated into the PNA backbone without reducing duplex stability with DNA and RNA. This research provides new insight into the role of electrostatics in PNA binding, and demonstrates that introduction of negatively charged side chains is not significantly detrimental to PNA binding affinity at physiological ionic strength. The ability to incorporate negative charge without sacrificing binding affinity is anticipated to enable the development of PNA therapeutics that take advantage of both the inherent benefits of PNA and the multitude of charge-based delivery technologies currently being developed for DNA and RNA. PMID:23484047

  19. Protein loops, solitons, and side-chain visualization with applications to the left-handed helix region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.; Sha, Fan

    2012-06-01

    Folded proteins have a modular assembly. They are constructed from regular secondary structures like α helices and β strands that are joined together by loops. Here we develop a visualization technique that is adapted to describe this modular structure. In complement to the widely employed Ramachandran plot that is based on toroidal geometry, our approach utilizes the geometry of a two sphere. Unlike the more conventional approaches that describe only a given peptide unit, ours is capable of describing the entire backbone environment including the neighboring peptide units. It maps the positions of each atom to the surface of the two-sphere exactly how these atoms are seen by an observer who is located at the position of the central Cα atom. At each level of side-chain atoms we observe a strong correlation between the positioning of the atom and the underlying local secondary structure with very little if any variation between the different amino acids. As a concrete example we analyze the left-handed helix region of nonglycyl amino acids. This region corresponds to an isolated and highly localized residue independent sector in the direction of the Cβ carbons on the two-sphere. We show that the residue independent localization extends to Cγ and Cδ carbons and to side-chain oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the case of asparagine and aspartic acid. When we extend the analysis to the side-chain atoms of the neighboring residues, we observe that left-handed β turns display a regular and largely amino acid independent structure that can extend to seven consecutive residues. This collective pattern is due to the presence of a backbone soliton. We show how one can use our visualization techniques to analyze and classify the different solitons in terms of selection rules that we describe in detail.

  20. On the source of entropic elastomeric force in polypeptides and proteins: Backbone configurational vs. side-chain solvational entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Chihao; Jaggard, J.; Harris, R.D.; Urry, D.W. )

    1989-01-01

    At physiological temperature in water, the relaxed state of the protein, elastin, and model elastomeric sequential polypeptides derived from this biological elastomer is the result of an inverse temperature transition. At lower temperatures, say at 20{degree}C, the hydrophobic side chains of the elastomers are hydrated with a low-entropy net of water. Following Flory and colleagues, thermoelasticity studies suggests that these polypeptide elastomers are dominantly entropic elastomers above the temperature of the inverse temperature transition. A central question becomes the source of the entropic elastomeric force. On stretching, hydrophobic side chains become exposed to water, resulting in an exothermic reaction of hydrophobic hydration. The issue addressed by the present report is whether this decrease in solvent entropy on stretching might make a major contribution to the entropic elastomeric restoring force. It has previously been argued that the free energy of solvation can be made very small by a 30% ethylene glycol (EG):70% water solvent mixture. This is demonstrated here using the repeating pentapeptide sequence of elastin (Val{sup 1}-Pro{sup 2}-Gly{sup 3} -Val{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}){sub n} or poly(VPGVG) and its {gamma}-irradiation cross-linked elastomeric matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry of the inverse temperature transition of poly(VPGVG) shows the endothermic heat of the transition to become very small in EG/H{sub 2}O when compared with H{sub 2}O alone, which also indicates a very small entropy change for the transition on exposure of the hydrophobic side chains to the EG/H{sub 2}O solvent mixture. A similar result is found for the crosslinked elastomeric matrix. Significantly, however, in spite of the lower heats for hydrophobic solvation, the elastic modulus and the entropic elastomeric forces generated are greater in EG/H{sub 2}O.

  1. Protein loops, solitons, and side-chain visualization with applications to the left-handed helix region.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J; Sha, Fan

    2012-06-01

    Folded proteins have a modular assembly. They are constructed from regular secondary structures like α helices and β strands that are joined together by loops. Here we develop a visualization technique that is adapted to describe this modular structure. In complement to the widely employed Ramachandran plot that is based on toroidal geometry, our approach utilizes the geometry of a two sphere. Unlike the more conventional approaches that describe only a given peptide unit, ours is capable of describing the entire backbone environment including the neighboring peptide units. It maps the positions of each atom to the surface of the two-sphere exactly how these atoms are seen by an observer who is located at the position of the central C_{α} atom. At each level of side-chain atoms we observe a strong correlation between the positioning of the atom and the underlying local secondary structure with very little if any variation between the different amino acids. As a concrete example we analyze the left-handed helix region of nonglycyl amino acids. This region corresponds to an isolated and highly localized residue independent sector in the direction of the C_{β} carbons on the two-sphere. We show that the residue independent localization extends to C_{γ} and C_{δ} carbons and to side-chain oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the case of asparagine and aspartic acid. When we extend the analysis to the side-chain atoms of the neighboring residues, we observe that left-handed β turns display a regular and largely amino acid independent structure that can extend to seven consecutive residues. This collective pattern is due to the presence of a backbone soliton. We show how one can use our visualization techniques to analyze and classify the different solitons in terms of selection rules that we describe in detail.

  2. Influence of the side chain next to C-terminal benzimidazole in opioid pseudopeptides containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Trapella, Claudio; Sasaki, Yusuke; Ambo, Akihiro; Marczak, Ewa D; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Salvadori, Severo

    2009-09-10

    To improve the structure-activity studies of the lead delta opioid agonist H-Dmt-Tic-Asp*-Bid, we synthesized and pharmacologically characterized a series of analogues in which the side chain next to 1H-benzimidazole-2-yl (Bid) was substituted by those endowed with different chemical properties. Interesting results were obtained: (1) only Gly, Ala, and Asp resulted in delta agonism, (2) Phe yielded delta antagonism, (3) and all other residues except Glu (devoid of any activity) gave mu agonism.

  3. Phase behaviors, molecular and supramolecular structures in polymers containing rigid-rod backbones with cyanobiphenyl side chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jrjeng

    One of the most important and challenging topics in materials chemistry involves designing nano-structures in synthetic materials via self-assembly for various highly technical applications. A specially designed combined liquid crystalline polymer containing a polyester backbone with cyanobiphenyl side chains has been studied in aspects of phase behaviors and crystal structures. The triclinic crystal phases identified in this series of polymer are all found to be constricted by 4-monomer unit cells. This discovery of 4-monomer triclinic unit cells motivates a search for the existence of supramolecular phases and understanding the possible molecular packing. A series of newly designed polyimides, which are composed of aromatic polyimide backbones with 4-cyanobiphenyl mesogens on the side chains has been synthesized. This series of polymers possesses a lesser degree of coupling between the backbones and side chains, which indicates the possibility of microphase separation between them. The representative polyimides of BPDA-7CBBP and BPDA-11CBBP in this series, in which 4-cyanobiphenyl side chains are connected onto the backbones through seven and eleven methylene units respectively have systematically studied in this research. Two crystal forms were recognized in BPDA-11CBBA, and one of them possesses six repeating units in one monoclinic unit cell. Moreover, the existence of a supramolecular phase has been proposed based on 2D WAXD fiber patterns. In the case of BPDA-7CBBP, three crystal forms were identified: two of them are constructed by triclinic lattices with large unit cells. The numbers of repeating units in those unit cells are seven and eight, respectively. Complicated phase behaviors including a second-order transition between the supramolecular phase and a high-order liquid crystal phase have been explored. The fact that large unit cells in both polymers with the numbers of repeating units in unit cells being 6, 7, and 8 leads to an important issue for

  4. Structure-Based Design of Novel Tetrahydro-Beta-Carboline Derivatives with a Hydrophilic Side Chain as Potential Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Elhady, Ahmed K.; Sigler, Sara C.; Noureldin, Nazih; Canzoneri, Joshua C.; Ahmed, Nermin S.; Piazza, Gary A.; Abadi, Ashraf H.

    2015-01-01

    Tadalafil is a clinically approved phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It contains two chiral carbons, and the marketed isomer is the 6R, 12aR isomer with a methyl substituent on the terminal nitrogen of the piperazinedione ring. In this report, tadalafil analogues with an extended hydrophilic side chain on the piperazine nitrogen were designed to interact with particular hydrophilic residues in the binding pocket. This leads to analogues with moderate inhibitory activity on phosphodiesterase-5, even for isomers in which chiral carbons are of the S configuration.

  5. Proton clouds to measure long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Sinnige, Tessa; Daniëls, Mark; Baldus, Marc; Weingarth, Markus

    2014-03-26

    We show that selective labeling of proteins with protonated amino acids embedded in a perdeuterated matrix, dubbed 'proton clouds', provides general access to long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in proton-detected solid-state NMR, which is important to study protein tertiary structure. Proton-cloud labeling significantly improves spectral resolution by simultaneously reducing proton line width and spectral crowding despite a high local proton density in clouds. The approach is amenable to almost all canonical amino acids. Our method is demonstrated on ubiquitin and the β-barrel membrane protein BamA.

  6. Influence of side-chain regiochemistry on the transistor performance of high-mobility, all-donor polymers.

    PubMed

    Fei, Zhuping; Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya; Han, Yang; Schroeder, Bob C; Yan, Feng; Kline, R Joseph; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Heeney, Martin

    2014-10-29

    Three novel polythiophene isomers are reported whereby the only difference in structure relates to the regiochemistry of the solubilizing side chains on the backbone. This is demonstrated to have a significant impact on the optoelectronic properties of the polymers and their propensity to aggregate in solution. These differences are rationalized on the basis of differences in backbone torsion. The polymer with the largest effective conjugation length is demonstrated to exhibit the highest field-effect mobility, with peak values up to 4.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). PMID:25302474

  7. Synthesis and characterisation of new types of side chain cholesteryl polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Du, Haiyan; Zhang, Junhua

    2011-01-01

    A series of cholesterol derivatives have been synthesised via the alkylation reaction of the 3-hydroxyl group with the aliphatic bromide compounds with different chain lengths, namely 3β-alkyloxy-cholesterol. The double bond between the C5 and C6 positions in these cholesterol derivatives was oxidised into epoxy, followed by an epoxy-ring-opening reaction with the treatment with acrylic acid, resulting in a series of 3β-alkyloxy-5α-hydroxy-6β-acryloyloxycholesterol, C(n)OCh (n=1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12), The acrylate group is connected to the C6 position, which is confirmed by the single crystal structure analysis. The corresponding polymers, PC(n)OCh, were prepared via free radical polymerisation. The structure of monomers and the resulting polymers were characterised with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The thermal properties of PC(n)OCh were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). To determine the secondary structure of polymers, circular dichroism (CD) spectra were performed. It was found that not all monomers produce high-molecular-weight polymers because of steric hindrance. However, all polymers have a helical structure, which can be enhanced by increasing the alkoxy chain length. In addition, increasing the alkoxy chain length decreases the glass transition temperature and increases the decomposition temperature of the polymers. PMID:21070795

  8. Synthesis and characterisation of new types of side chain cholesteryl polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Du, Haiyan; Zhang, Junhua

    2011-01-01

    A series of cholesterol derivatives have been synthesised via the alkylation reaction of the 3-hydroxyl group with the aliphatic bromide compounds with different chain lengths, namely 3β-alkyloxy-cholesterol. The double bond between the C5 and C6 positions in these cholesterol derivatives was oxidised into epoxy, followed by an epoxy-ring-opening reaction with the treatment with acrylic acid, resulting in a series of 3β-alkyloxy-5α-hydroxy-6β-acryloyloxycholesterol, C(n)OCh (n=1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12), The acrylate group is connected to the C6 position, which is confirmed by the single crystal structure analysis. The corresponding polymers, PC(n)OCh, were prepared via free radical polymerisation. The structure of monomers and the resulting polymers were characterised with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The thermal properties of PC(n)OCh were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). To determine the secondary structure of polymers, circular dichroism (CD) spectra were performed. It was found that not all monomers produce high-molecular-weight polymers because of steric hindrance. However, all polymers have a helical structure, which can be enhanced by increasing the alkoxy chain length. In addition, increasing the alkoxy chain length decreases the glass transition temperature and increases the decomposition temperature of the polymers.

  9. Effect of Side Chains on Molecular Conformation of Anthracene-Ethynylene-Phenylene-Vinylene Oligomers: A Comparative Density Functional Study With and Without Dispersion Interaction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chuanding; Hoppe, Harald; Beenken, Wichard J D

    2016-06-01

    Using density functional calculations with and without dispersion interaction, we studied the effects of linear octyl and branched 2-ethylhexyl side chains on the oligomer conformation of the conjugated copolymer poly(p-anthracene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(p-phenylene-vinylene). With dispersion included, the branched side chains can cause significant bending of the oligomer backbone, while without dispersion they induce mainly torsional disorder. The oligomers with mainly linear side chains keep good planarity when optimized with and without dispersion. Despite their dramatically different conformations, the calculated absorption spectra of the oligomers with various side chain combinations are very similar, indicating that the conformation of the copolymer is not the main reason for the experimentally observed different spectra of ordered and disordered phases.

  10. Stereoselective introduction of two chiral centers by a single diketoreductase: an efficient biocatalytic route for the synthesis of statin side chains.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuri; Wang, Lili; Wang, Shuzhen; Chen, Yijun

    2010-06-01

    Statins, including atorvastatin (Lipitor), are the top-selling drugs in the world. The biocatalytic production of chiral side chains of statin drugs is of great interest to academia and industry. Stereoselective double reduction of a beta,delta-diketo ester catalyzed by a diketoreductase offers a simple and efficient route for the preparation of statin side chains. Comparison of different cofactor regeneration systems resulted in an easy and cost-effective process for this enzymatic reduction.

  11. Side chain dependence of intensity and wavenumber position of amide I' in IR and visible Raman spectra of XA and AX dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Measey, Thomas; Hagarman, Andrew; Eker, Fatma; Griebenow, Kai; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard

    2005-04-28

    A series of AX and XA dipeptides in D2O have been investigated by FTIR, isotropic, and anisotropic Raman spectroscopy at acidic, neutral, and alkaline pD, to probe the influence of amino acid side chains on the amide I' band. We obtained a set of spectral parameters for each peptide, including intensities, wavenumbers, half-widths, and dipole moments, and found that these amide I' parameters are indeed dependent on the side chain. Side chains with similar characteristic properties were found to have similar effects on the amide I'. For example, dipeptides with aliphatic side chains were found to exhibit a downshift of the amide I' wavenumber, while those containing polar side chains experienced an increase in wavenumber. The N-terminal charge causes a substantial upshift of amide I', whereas the C-terminal charge causes a moderate decrease of the transition dipole moment. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the investigated dipeptides in vacuo yielded different correlations between theoretically and experimentally obtained wavenumbers for aliphatic/aromatic and polar/charged side chains, respectively. This might be indicative of a role of the hydration shell in transferring side chain-backbone interactions. For Raman bands, we found a correlation between amide I' depolarization ratio and wavenumber which reflects that some side chains (valine, histidine) have a significant influence on the Raman tensor. Altogether, the obtained data are of utmost importance for utilizing amide I as a tool for secondary structure analysis of polypeptides and proteins and providing an experimental basis for theoretical modeling of this important backbone mode. This is demonstrated by a rather accurate modeling for the amide I' band profiles of the IR, isotropic Raman, and anisotropic Raman spectra of the beta-amyloid fragment Abeta(1-82).

  12. LasR receptor for detection of long-chain quorum-sensing signals: identification of N-acyl-homoserine lactones encoded by the avsI locus of Agrobacterium vitis.

    PubMed

    Savka, Michael A; Le, Phuong T; Burr, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial biosensor strains have greatly facilitated the rapid discovery, isolation, and study of quorum-sensing systems. In this study, we determined the relative sensitivity of a LasR-based E. coli bacterial bioluminescence biosensor JM109 (pSB1075) for 13 diverse long-chain N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) including oxygen-substituted and -unsubstituted AHLs containing 14, 16, and 18 carbons and with and without double bonds. Furthermore, we show by bioassay, HPLC, and GC/MS that four long-chain AHLs of the C16-HSL family are encoded by the avsI gene of Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5, a non-tumorigenic strain that inhibits pathogenic strains of A. vitis from causing crown gall on grape. The four C16-HSLs include: C16-HSL, N-hexadecanoyl homoserine lactone; 3-oxo-C16-HSL, N-(3-oxohexadecanoyl)homoserine lactone; C16:1-HSL, N-(cis-9-octadecenoyl)homoserine lactone; and 3-oxo-C16:1-HSL, N-(3-oxo-cis-11-hexadecenoyl)homoserine lactone. Thus, the LasR-based bioluminescent biosensor tested in this study should serve as a useful tool for the detection of various long-chain AHLs with and without double bonds as well as those oxylated at the third carbon from uninvestigated species. PMID:20514483

  13. Probing alkali metal-pi interactions with the side chain residue of tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiaxin; Barbour, Leonard J; Gokel, George W

    2002-04-16

    Feeble forces play a significant role in the organization of proteins. These include hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, salt bridge formation, and steric interactions. The alkali metal cation-pi interaction is a force of potentially profound importance but its consideration in biology has been limited by the lack of experimental evidence. Our previous studies of cation-pi interactions with Na(+) and K(+) involved the side arms of tryptophan (indole), tyrosine (phenol), and phenylalanine (benzene) as the arene donors. The receptor system possesses limiting steric constraints. In this report, we show that direct interactions between alkali metals and arenes occur at or within the van der Waals contact distance.

  14. Probing alkali metal–π interactions with the side chain residue of tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiaxin; Barbour, Leonard J.; Gokel, George W.

    2002-01-01

    Feeble forces play a significant role in the organization of proteins. These include hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, salt bridge formation, and steric interactions. The alkali metal cation-π interaction is a force of potentially profound importance but its consideration in biology has been limited by the lack of experimental evidence. Our previous studies of cation–π interactions with Na+ and K+ involved the side arms of tryptophan (indole), tyrosine (phenol), and phenylalanine (benzene) as the arene donors. The receptor system possesses limiting steric constraints. In this report, we show that direct interactions between alkali metals and arenes occur at or within the van der Waals contact distance. PMID:11943874

  15. Side chain variations radically alter the diffusion of poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline) functionalised nanoparticles through a mucosal barrier.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Edward D H; de la Rosa, Victor R; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw M; Grillo, Isabelle; Hoogenboom, Richard; Sillence, Katy; Hole, Patrick; Williams, Adrian C; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2016-08-16

    Functionalised nanomaterials are gaining popularity for use as drug delivery vehicles and, in particular, mucus penetrating nanoparticles may improve drug bioavailability via the oral route. To date, few polymers have been investigated for their muco-penetration, and the effects of systematic structural changes to polymer architectures on the penetration and diffusion of functionalised nanomaterials through mucosal tissue have not been reported. We investigated the influence of poly(2-oxazoline) alkyl side chain length on nanoparticle diffusion; poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline), and poly(2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline) were grafted onto the surface of thiolated silica nanoparticles and characterised by FT-IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and small angle neutron scattering. Diffusion coefficients were determined in water and in a mucin dispersion (using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis), and penetration through a mucosal barrier was assessed using an ex vivo fluorescence technique. The addition of a single methylene group in the side chain significantly altered the penetration and diffusion of the materials in both mucin dispersions and mucosal tissue. Nanoparticles functionalised with poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) were significantly more diffusive than particles with poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) while particles with poly(2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline) showed no significant increase compared to the unfunctionalised particles. These data show that variations in the polymer structure can radically alter their diffusive properties with clear implications for the future design of mucus penetrating systems. PMID:27400181

  16. The power of hard-sphere models for proteins: Understanding side-chain conformations and predicting thermodynamic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Alice; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

    2013-03-01

    We seek to dramatically improve computational protein design using minimal models that include only the dominant physical interactions. By modeling proteins with hard-sphere interactions and stereochemical constraints, we are able to explain the side-chain dihedral angle distributions for Leu, Ile, and other hydrophobic residues that are observed in protein crystal structures. We also consider inter-residue interactions on the distribution of side-chain dihedral angles for residues in the hydrophobic core of T4 lysozyme. We calculate the energetic and entropic contributions to the free energy differences between wildtype T4 lysozyme and several mutants involving Leu to Ala substitutions. We find a strong correlation between the entropy difference and the decrease in the melting temperature of the mutatants. These results emphasize that considering both entropy and enthalpy is crucial for obtaining a quantitative understanding of protein stability. NSF DMR-1006537 and PHY-1019147, the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Institute for Biological, Physical and Engineering Sciences, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Research Fellowship

  17. Variation of the net charge, lipophilicity, and side chain flexibility in Dmt(1)-DALDA: Effect on Opioid Activity and Biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Alexandre; Van Dorpe, Sylvia; Wynendaele, Evelien; Spetea, Mariana; Bracke, Nathalie; Stalmans, Sofie; Betti, Cecilia; Chung, Nga N; Lemieux, Carole; Zuegg, Johannes; Cooper, Matthew A; Tourwé, Dirk; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Schiller, Peter W; Ballet, Steven

    2012-11-26

    The influence of the side chain charges of the second and fourth amino acid residues in the peptidic μ opioid lead agonist Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) ([Dmt(1)]-DALDA) was examined. Additionally, to increase the overall lipophilicity of [Dmt(1)]-DALDA and to investigate the Phe(3) side chain flexibility, the final amide bond was N-methylated and Phe(3) was replaced by a constrained aminobenzazepine analogue. The in vitro receptor binding and activity of the peptides, as well as their in vivo transport (brain in- and efflux and tissue biodistribution) and antinociceptive properties after peripheral administration (ip and sc) in mice were determined. The structural modifications result in significant shifts of receptor binding, activity, and transport properties. Strikingly, while [Dmt(1)]-DALDA and its N-methyl analogue, Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-NMeLys-NH(2), showed a long-lasting antinociceptive effect (>7 h), the peptides with d-Cit(2) generate potent antinociception more rapidly (maximal effect at 1h postinjection) but also lose their analgesic activity faster when compared to [Dmt(1)]-DALDA and [Dmt(1),NMeLys(4)]-DALDA.

  18. Solid-state NMR Study Reveals Collagen I Structural Modifications of Amino Acid Side Chains upon Fibrillogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    De Sa Peixoto, Paulo; Laurent, Guillaume; Azaïs, Thierry; Mosser, Gervaise

    2013-01-01

    In vivo, collagen I, the major structural protein in human body, is found assembled into fibrils. In the present work, we study a high concentrated collagen sample in its soluble, fibrillar, and denatured states using one and two dimensional {1H}-13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We interpret 13C chemical shift variations in terms of dihedral angle conformation changes. Our data show that fibrillogenesis increases the side chain and backbone structural complexity. Nevertheless, only three to five rotameric equilibria are found for each amino acid residue, indicating a relatively low structural heterogeneity of collagen upon fibrillogenesis. Using side chain statistical data, we calculate equilibrium constants for a great number of amino acid residues. Moreover, based on a 13C quantitative spectrum, we estimate the percentage of residues implicated in each equilibrium. Our data indicate that fibril formation greatly affects hydroxyproline and proline prolyl pucker ring conformation. Finally, we discuss the implication of these structural data and propose a model in which the attractive force of fibrillogenesis comes from a structural reorganization of 10 to 15% of the amino acids. These results allow us to further understand the self-assembling process and fibrillar structure of collagen. PMID:23341452

  19. Controlling the morphology of side chain liquid crystalline block copolymer thin films through variations in liquid crystalline content.

    PubMed

    Verploegen, Eric; Zhang, Tejia; Jung, Yeon Sik; Ross, Caroline; Hammond, Paula T

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we describe methods for manipulating the morphology of side-chain liquid crystalline block copolymers through variations in the liquid crystalline content. By systematically controlling the covalent attachment of side chain liquid crystals to a block copolymer (BCP) backbone, the morphology of both the liquid crystalline (LC) mesophase and the phase-segregated BCP microstructures can be precisely manipulated. Increases in LC functionalization lead to stronger preferences for the anchoring of the LC mesophase relative to the substrate and the intermaterial dividing surface. By manipulating the strength of these interactions, the arrangement and ordering of the ultrathin film block copolymer nanostructures can be controlled, yielding a range of morphologies that includes perpendicular and parallel cylinders, as well as both perpendicular and parallel lamellae. Additionally, we demonstrate the utilization of selective etching to create a nanoporous liquid crystalline polymer thin film. The unique control over the orientation and order of the self-assembled morphologies with respect to the substrate will allow for the custom design of thin films for specific nanopatterning applications without manipulation of the surface chemistry or the application of external fields.

  20. Variation of the net charge, lipophilicity and side chain flexibility in Dmt1-DALDA: effect on opioid activity and biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Alexandre; Van Dorpe, Sylvia; Wynendaele, Evelien; Spetea, Mariana; Bracke, Nathalie; Stalmans, Sofie; Betti, Cecilia; Chung, Nga N.; Lemieux, Carole; Zuegg, Johannes; Cooper, Matthew A.; Tourwé, Dirk; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Schiller, Peter W.; Ballet, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the side chain charges of the second and fourth amino acid residues in the peptidic μ opioid lead agonist Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2 ([Dmt1]-DALDA) was examined. Additionally, to increase the overall lipophilicity of [Dmt1]-DALDA and to investigate the Phe3 side chain flexibility, the final amide bond was N-methylated and Phe3 was replaced by a constrained aminobenzazepine analogue. The in vitro receptor binding and activity of the peptides, as well as their in vivo transport (brain in- and efflux and tissue biodistribution) and antinociceptive properties after peripheral administration (i.p. and s.c.) in mice were determined. The structural modifications result in significant shifts of receptor binding, activity and transport properties. Strikingly, while [Dmt1]-DALDA and its N-methyl analogue, Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-NMeLys-NH2, showed a long-lasting antinociceptive effect (>7h), the peptides with D-Cit2 generate potent antinociception more rapidly (maximal effect at 1h post-injection) but also lose their analgesic activity faster, when compared to [Dmt1]-DALDA and [Dmt1,NMeLys4]-DALDA. PMID:23102273

  1. 3D HCCH 3-TOCSY for Resonance Assignment of Methyl-Containing Side Chains in 13C-Labeled Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrín, Dušan; Uhrínová, Stanislava; Leadbeater, Claire; Nairn, Jacqueline; Price, Nicholas C.; Barlow, Paul N.

    2000-02-01

    Two 3D experiments, (H)CCH3-TOCSY and H(C)CH3-TOCSY, are proposed for resonance assignment of methyl-containing amino acid side chains. After the initial proton-carbon INEPT step, during which either carbon or proton chemical shift labeling is achieved (t1), the magnetization is spread along the amino acid side chains by a carbon spin lock. The chemical shifts of methyl carbons are labeled (t2) during the following constant time interval. Finally the magnetization is transferred, in a reversed INEPT step, to methyl protons for detection (t3). The proposed experiments are characterized by high digital resolution in the methyl carbon dimension (t2max = 28.6 ms), optimum sensitivity due to the use of proton decoupling during the long constant time interval, and an optional removal of CH2, or CH2 and CH, resonances from the F2F3 planes. The building blocks used in these experiments can be implemented in a range of heteronuclear experiments focusing on methyl resonances in proteins. The techniques are illustrated using a 15N, 13C-labeled E93D mutant of Schizosacharomyces pombe phosphoglycerate mutase (23.7 kDa).

  2. Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Soluble Low-Bandgap Thienothiophene Polymers with Various Alkyl Side-Chain Lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, W. J.; Scilla, C.; Duzhko, V. V.; Jo, Jang; Coughlin, E. B.

    2011-05-27

    We report the facile synthesis and characterization of a class of thienothiophene polymers with various lengths of alkyl side chains. A series of 2-alkylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene monomers (Ttx) have been synthesized in a two-step protocol in an overall yield of 28–37%. Poly(2-alkylthieno[3,4-b]thiophenes) (PTtx, alkyl: pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, and tridecyl) were synthesized by oxidative polymerization with FeCl₃ or via Grignard metathesis (GRIM) polymerization methods. The polymers are readily soluble in common organic solvents. The polymers synthesized by GRIM polymerization method (PTtx-G) have narrower molecular weight distribution (Ð) with lower molecular weight (Mn) than those synthesized by oxidative polymerization (PTtx-O). The band structures of the polymers with various lengths of alkyl side chains were investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. These low-bandgap polymers are good candidates for organic transistors, organic light-emitting diodes, and organic photovoltaic cells.

  3. Coupling Protein Side-Chain and Backbone Flexibility Improves the Re-design of Protein-Ligand Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Ollikainen, Noah; de Jong, René M.; Kortemme, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between small molecules and proteins play critical roles in regulating and facilitating diverse biological functions, yet our ability to accurately re-engineer the specificity of these interactions using computational approaches has been limited. One main difficulty, in addition to inaccuracies in energy functions, is the exquisite sensitivity of protein–ligand interactions to subtle conformational changes, coupled with the computational problem of sampling the large conformational search space of degrees of freedom of ligands, amino acid side chains, and the protein backbone. Here, we describe two benchmarks for evaluating the accuracy of computational approaches for re-engineering protein-ligand interactions: (i) prediction of enzyme specificity altering mutations and (ii) prediction of sequence tolerance in ligand binding sites. After finding that current state-of-the-art “fixed backbone” design methods perform poorly on these tests, we develop a new “coupled moves” design method in the program Rosetta that couples changes to protein sequence with alterations in both protein side-chain and protein backbone conformations, and allows for changes in ligand rigid-body and torsion degrees of freedom. We show significantly increased accuracy in both predicting ligand specificity altering mutations and binding site sequences. These methodological improvements should be useful for many applications of protein – ligand design. The approach also provides insights into the role of subtle conformational adjustments that enable functional changes not only in engineering applications but also in natural protein evolution. PMID:26397464

  4. Z-Selective olefin metathesis on peptides: investigation of side-chain influence, preorganization, and guidelines in substrate selection.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Shane L; O'Leary, Daniel J; Grubbs, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Olefin metathesis has emerged as a promising strategy for modulating the stability and activity of biologically relevant compounds; however, the ability to control olefin geometry in the product remains a challenge. Recent advances in the design of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts has led to new strategies for achieving such control with high fidelity and Z selectivity, but the scope and limitations of these catalysts on substrates bearing multiple functionalities, including peptides, remained unexplored. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that contribute to both productive and nonproductive Z-selective metathesis on peptides. The influence of sterics, side-chain identity, and preorganization through peptide secondary structure are explored by homodimerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Our results indicate that the amino acid side chain and identity of the olefin profoundly influence the activity of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts in Z-selective metathesis. The criteria set forth for achieving high conversion and Z selectivity are highlighted by cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis on diverse peptide substrates. The principles outlined in this report are important not only for expanding the scope of Z-selective olefin metathesis to peptides but also for applying stereoselective olefin metathesis in general synthetic endeavors. PMID:25102124

  5. Triblock Copolymers with Grafted Fluorine-Free Amphiphilic Non-Ionic Side Chains for Antifouling and Fouling-Release Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Y Cho; H Sundaram; C Weinman; M Paik; M Dimitriou; J Finlay; M Callow; J Callow; E Kramer; C Ober

    2011-12-31

    Fluorine-free, amphiphilic, nonionic surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were synthesized through chemical modification of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene triblock copolymer precursor with selected amphiphilic nonionic Brij and other surfactants. Amphiphilicity was imparted by a hydrophobic aliphatic group combined with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) group-containing moiety. The surfaces were characterized by dynamic water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analysis. In biofouling assays, settlement (attachment) of both spores of the green alga Ulva and cells of the diatom Navicula on SABCs modified with Brij nonionic side chains was significantly reduced relative to a PDMS standard, with a nonionic surfactant combining a PEG group and an aliphatic moiety demonstrating the best performance. Additionally, a fouling-release assay using sporelings (young plants) of Ulva and Navicula suggested that the SABC derived from nonionic Brij side chains also out-performed PDMS as a fouling-release material. Good antifouling and fouling-release properties were not demonstrated for the other two amphiphilic surfaces derived from silicone and aromatic group containing nonionic surfactants included in this study. The results suggest that small differences in chemical surface functionality impart more significant changes with respect to the antifouling settlement and fouling-release performance of materials than overall wettability behavior.

  6. Fast side chain replacement in proteins using a coarse-grained approach for evaluating the effects of mutation during evolution.

    PubMed

    Grahnen, Johan A; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2011-08-01

    For high-throughput structural genomic and evolutionary bioinformatics approaches, there is a clear need for fast methods to evaluate substitutions structurally. Coarse-grained methods are both powerful and fast, and a coarse-grained approach to position the substituted side chains is presented. Through the application of a coarse-grained method, a speed-up on the single- residue replacement, of at least sevenfold is achieved compared with modern all-atom approaches. At the same time, this approach maintains a small median RMSD from the leading all-atom approach (as measured in coarse-grained space), and predicts the conformation of point mutants with similar accuracy and generates biologically realistic side chain angles. This method is also substantially more predictable in its run time, making it useful for high-throughput studies of protein structural evolution. To demonstrate the utility of this method, it has been implemented in a forward simulation of sequences threaded through the SH2 domains, with selective pressures to fold and bind specifically. The relative substitution rates across the protein structure and at the binding interface are reflective of those observed in SH2 domain evolution. The algorithm has been implemented in C++, with the source code and binaries (currently supported for Linux systems) freely available as SARA at http://www.wyomingbioinformatics.org/LiberlesGroup/SARA .

  7. Heterogeneous side chain conformation highlights a network of interactions implicated in hysteresis of the knotted protein, Minimal Tied Trefoil (MTTTm)

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Dominique T.; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Hysteresis is a signature for a bistability in the native landscape of a protein with significant transition state barriers for the interconversion of stable species. Large global stability, as in GFP, contributes to the observation of this rare hysteretic phenomenon in folding. The signature for such behavior is non-coincidence in the unfolding and refolding transitions, despite waiting significantly longer than the time necessary for complete denaturation. Our work indicates that hysteresis in the knotted protein, the Minimal Tied Trefoil from Thermotoga maritma (MTTTm), is mediated by a network of side chain interactions within a tightly packed core. These initially identified interactions include proline 62 from a tight β-like turn, phenylalanine 65 at the beginning of the knotting loop, and histidine 114 that initiates the threading element. It is this tightly packed region and the knotting element that we propose is disrupted with prolonged incubation in the denatured state, and is involved in the observed hysteresis. Interestingly, the disruption is not linked to backbone interactions, but rather to the packing of side chains in this critical region. PMID:26291198

  8. Z-Selective olefin metathesis on peptides: investigation of side-chain influence, preorganization, and guidelines in substrate selection.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Shane L; O'Leary, Daniel J; Grubbs, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Olefin metathesis has emerged as a promising strategy for modulating the stability and activity of biologically relevant compounds; however, the ability to control olefin geometry in the product remains a challenge. Recent advances in the design of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts has led to new strategies for achieving such control with high fidelity and Z selectivity, but the scope and limitations of these catalysts on substrates bearing multiple functionalities, including peptides, remained unexplored. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that contribute to both productive and nonproductive Z-selective metathesis on peptides. The influence of sterics, side-chain identity, and preorganization through peptide secondary structure are explored by homodimerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Our results indicate that the amino acid side chain and identity of the olefin profoundly influence the activity of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts in Z-selective metathesis. The criteria set forth for achieving high conversion and Z selectivity are highlighted by cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis on diverse peptide substrates. The principles outlined in this report are important not only for expanding the scope of Z-selective olefin metathesis to peptides but also for applying stereoselective olefin metathesis in general synthetic endeavors.

  9. Aromatic substituents for prohibiting side-chain packing and π-π stacking in tin-cored tetrahedral stilbenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheolmin; Yoon, Min-Ju; Hong, Seok Hee; Park, Minjoon; Park, Kwangyong; Kim, Soo Young

    2016-05-01

    Tetrahedral structures comprising Sn-cored materials with five different types of substituents were synthesized. For the substituents, we employed methyl and tert-butyl as aliphatic groups, and naphthyl and phenyl as aromatic groups. The bandgap is in the range of 3.28 - 3.56 eV. The All the compounds with substituents showed bathochromical photoluminescence characteristics and exhibited aggregation-induced emission characteristics. Specifically, the compounds with aromatic substituents prohibited side-chain packing and π-π stacking. The energy levels of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals were measured to be 5.5 - 5.75 and 2.0 - 2.37 eV, respectively. The maximum luminance efficiencies and power efficiencies of the Sn-cored compound-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were 0.38 - 0.71 cd/A and 0.15 - 0.28 lm/W. Therefore, it is expected that Sn-cored compounds with a tetrahedral structure, especially those containing aromatic substituents, can be used as an active material in blue OLEDs for prohibiting side-chain packing and π-π stacking. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Heterogeneous side chain conformation highlights a network of interactions implicated in hysteresis of the knotted protein, minimal tied trefoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burban, David J.; Haglund, Ellinor; Capraro, Dominique T.; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2015-09-01

    Hysteresis is a signature for a bistability in the native landscape of a protein with significant transition state barriers for the interconversion of stable species. Large global stability, as in GFP, contributes to the observation of this rare hysteretic phenomenon in folding. The signature for such behavior is non-coincidence in the unfolding and refolding transitions, despite waiting significantly longer than the time necessary for complete denaturation. Our work indicates that hysteresis in the knotted protein, the minimal tied trefoil from Thermotoga maritma (MTTTm), is mediated by a network of side chain interactions within a tightly packed core. These initially identified interactions include proline 62 from a tight β-like turn, phenylalanine 65 at the beginning of the knotting loop, and histidine 114 that initiates the threading element. It is this tightly packed region and the knotting element that we propose is disrupted with prolonged incubation in the denatured state, and is involved in the observed hysteresis. Interestingly, the disruption is not linked to backbone interactions, but rather to the packing of side chains in this critical region.

  11. Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis on Peptides: Investigation of Side-Chain Influence, Preorganization, and Guidelines in Substrate Selection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Olefin metathesis has emerged as a promising strategy for modulating the stability and activity of biologically relevant compounds; however, the ability to control olefin geometry in the product remains a challenge. Recent advances in the design of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts has led to new strategies for achieving such control with high fidelity and Z selectivity, but the scope and limitations of these catalysts on substrates bearing multiple functionalities, including peptides, remained unexplored. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that contribute to both productive and nonproductive Z-selective metathesis on peptides. The influence of sterics, side-chain identity, and preorganization through peptide secondary structure are explored by homodimerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Our results indicate that the amino acid side chain and identity of the olefin profoundly influence the activity of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts in Z-selective metathesis. The criteria set forth for achieving high conversion and Z selectivity are highlighted by cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis on diverse peptide substrates. The principles outlined in this report are important not only for expanding the scope of Z-selective olefin metathesis to peptides but also for applying stereoselective olefin metathesis in general synthetic endeavors. PMID:25102124

  12. Water molecules can control the side-chain rotamer distribution of an aryl peptide in a nonpolar environment.

    PubMed

    Radding, W

    1988-06-01

    With computer-controlled circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry it is possible to obtain difference CD spectra which result from small perturbations to the environment of a chiral molecule. In the experiments described here a dry iso-octane solution of cyclobis-N-methyl-L-phenylalanine (c-(NMe-L-Phe)2) has been perturbed by exposure to water vapor. The resulting difference spectrum shows that water coordination to c-(NMe-L-Phe)2 eliminates negative ellipticity in the 244 nm region, while it simultaneously creates positive CD intensity in the 212 nm region. These two features of the difference spectrum plus related features of other direct spectra imply that water coordinated with p-orbital unpaired electrons of the carbonyl interferes sterically with the chi = 180 degrees side-chain rotamer. It can be expected that in this way hydrogen bonding of any species to backbone carbonyls can control the rotamer distribution of aromatic side-chains, if one of the rotamers occludes unpaired electrons of the carbonyl. Such control may offer an on-off switch for electron transport through proteins.

  13. Crystallographic studies of V44 mutants of Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin: Effects of side-chain size on reduction potential

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Il Yeong; Eidsness, Marly K.; Lin, I-Jin; Gebel, Erika B.; Youn, Buhyun; Harley, Jill L.; Machonkin, Timothy E.; Frederick, Ronnie O.; Markley, John L.; Smith, Eugene T.; Ichiye, Toshiko; Kang, ChulHee

    2010-11-16

    Understanding the structural origins of differences in reduction potentials is crucial to understanding how various electron transfer proteins modulate their reduction potentials and how they evolve for diverse functional roles. Here, the high-resolution structures of several Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin (Cp Rd) variants with changes in the vicinity of the redox site are reported in order to increase this understanding. Our crystal structures of [V44L] (at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution), [V44A] (1.6 {angstrom}), [V44G] (2.0 {angstrom}) and [V44A, G45P] (1.5 {angstrom}) Rd (all in their oxidized states) show that there is a gradual decrease in the distance between Fe and the amide nitrogen of residue 44 upon reduction in the size of the side chain of residue 44; the decrease occurs from leucine to valine, alanine or glycine and is accompanied by a gradual increase in their reduction potentials. Mutation of Cp Rd at position 44 also changes the hydrogen-bond distance between the amide nitrogen of residue 44 and the sulfur of cysteine 42 in a size-dependent manner. Our results suggest that residue 44 is an important determinant of Rd reduction potential in a manner dictated by side-chain size. Along with the electric dipole moment of the 43-44 peptide bond and the 44-42 NHS type hydrogen bond, a modulation mechanism for solvent accessibility through residue 41 might regulate the redox reaction of the Rds. Proteins 2004.

  14. First observation of amino acid side chain dynamics in membrane proteins using high field deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, R.A.; Kintanar, A.; Tsai, M.D.; Smith, R.L.; Janes, N.; Oldfield, E.

    1981-05-10

    The first deuterium NMR spectra of an individual membrane protein, bacteriohodopsin in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium R1 has been obtained. Biosynthetic isotopic enrichment with (gamma-2H6) valine and high field Fourier transform operation permitted rapid data acquisition on intact membranes, including measurement of relaxation times. At some temperatures high quality spectra could be obtained in less than 1 s. (U-14C)Valine tracer studies indicate that less than or equal to 2% of valine added to the growth medium is broken down and incorporated into other membrane constituents. The NMR results indicate that the valine side chain is a rather rigid structure. Motion about C alpha-C beta is slow (less than 10(5) s-1) at growth temperature, while motion about C beta-C gamma is as expected fast (much greater than 10(5) s-1) at all accessible temperatures. The activation energy for methyl group rotation from spin-lattice relaxation data between -75 and 53 degrees C is approximately 2.4 kcal/mol, in good agreement with previous 1H NMR studies on solid alkanes. Preliminary data on (gamma-2H6)valine-labeled Acholeplasma laidlawii B (PG9) cell membranes are also presented. Results strongly suggest that it should now be possible to observe in great detail the motions of any type of amino acid side chain in membrane proteins, including the effects of lipid composition on protein dynamics.

  15. New Insights into the Structure of (1→3,1→6)-β-D-Glucan Side Chains in the Candida glabrata Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Lowman, Douglas W.; West, Lara J.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Wempe, Michael F.; Power, Trevor D.; Ensley, Harry E.; Haynes, Ken; Williams, David L.; Kruppa, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    β-glucan is a (1→3)-β-linked glucose polymer with (1→6)-β-linked side chains and a major component of fungal cell walls. β-glucans provide structural integrity to the fungal cell wall. The nature of the (1–6)-β-linked side chain structure of fungal (1→3,1→6)-β-D-glucans has been very difficult to elucidate. Herein, we report the first detailed structural characterization of the (1→6)-β-linked side chains of Candida glabrata using high-field NMR. The (1→6)-β-linked side chains have an average length of 4 to 5 repeat units spaced every 21 repeat units along the (1→3)-linked polymer backbone. Computer modeling suggests that the side chains have a bent curve structure that allows for a flexible interconnection with parallel (1→3)-β-D-glucan polymers, and/or as a point of attachment for proteins. Based on these observations we propose new approaches to how (1→6)-β-linked side chains interconnect with neighboring glucan polymers in a manner that maximizes fungal cell wall strength, while also allowing for flexibility, or plasticity. PMID:22096604

  16. Probing the carboxyester side chain in controlled deactivation (-)-δ(8)-tetrahydrocannabinols.

    PubMed

    Nikas, Spyros P; Sharma, Rishi; Paronis, Carol A; Kulkarni, Shashank; Thakur, Ganesh A; Hurst, Dow; Wood, JodiAnne T; Gifford, Roger S; Rajarshi, Girija; Liu, Yingpeng; Raghav, Jimit Girish; Guo, Jason Jianxin; Järbe, Torbjörn U C; Reggio, Patricia H; Bergman, Jack; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2015-01-22

    We recently reported on a controlled deactivation/detoxification approach for obtaining cannabinoids with improved druggability. Our design incorporates a metabolically labile ester group at strategic positions within the THC structure. We have now synthesized a series of (-)-Δ(8)-THC analogues encompassing a carboxyester group within the 3-alkyl chain in an effort to explore this novel cannabinergic chemotype for CB receptor binding affinity, in vitro and in vivo potency and efficacy, as well as controlled deactivation by plasma esterases. We have also probed the chain's polar characteristics with regard to fast onset and short duration of action. Our lead molecule, namely 2-[(6aR,10aR)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-3-yl]-2-methyl-propanoic acid 3-cyano-propyl ester (AM7438), showed picomolar affinity for CB receptors and is deactivated by plasma esterases while the respective acid metabolite is inactive. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments, the compound was found to be a remarkably potent and efficacious CB1 receptor agonist with relatively fast onset/offset of action. PMID:25470070

  17. Physiological Consequences of Compartmentalized Acyl-CoA Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Daniel E.; Young, Pamela A.; Klett, Eric L.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the complex physiological demands of mammalian life requires strict control of the metabolism of long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs because of the multiplicity of their cellular functions. Acyl-CoAs are substrates for energy production; stored within lipid droplets as triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and retinol esters; esterified to form membrane phospholipids; or used to activate transcriptional and signaling pathways. Indirect evidence suggests that acyl-CoAs do not wander freely within cells, but instead, are channeled into specific pathways. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for acyl-CoA compartmentalization, highlight the key modes of acyl-CoA regulation, and diagram potential mechanisms for controlling acyl-CoA partitioning. PMID:26124277

  18. Multifunctional conjugated polymers with main-chain donors and side-chain acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs).

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong Wook; Ko, Seo-Jin; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Su-Moon; Lee, Hyo Joong; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-11-15

    A novel multifunctional conjugated polymer (RCP-1) composed of an electron-donating backbone (carbazole) and an electron-accepting side chain (cyanoacetic acid) connected through conjugated vinylene and terthiophene has been synthesized and tested as a photosensitizer in two major molecule-based solar cells, namely dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Promising initial results on overall power conversion efficiencies of 4.11% and 1.04% are obtained from the basic structure of DSSCs and OPVs based on RCP-1, respectively. The well-defined donor (D)-acceptor (A) structure of RCP-1 has made it possible, for the first time, to reach over 4% of power conversion efficiency in DSSCs with an organic polymer sensitizer and good operation stability.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of side-chain cholesterol derivatives based on double bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Long; Bai, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Hua

    2012-07-01

    After steps of esterification, epoxidation and ring-opening, a series of novel monomers of 5-hydroxyl-6-methacryloyloxy-3-alkylate, CnCOOCh (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) were synthesized. After that, the corresponding polymers (PnCOOCh, n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) were obtained by free radical polymerization. The molecular structure, composition and thermal behaviors of monomers and polymers were confirmed by 1H NMR, FTIR, single crystal diffractometer, GPC, DSC and TGA. The results indicate that although their molecular weights are not high, all the polymers have high glass transition (Tg) and degradation temperature. In addition, Tg gradually decreases with increasing of alkyl chain lengths, and the degradation temperature increases with the increase of carbon number.

  20. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindqvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 2 figs.

  1. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  2. Oxidative acylation using thioacids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.

    1997-01-01

    Several important prebiotic reactions, including the coupling of amino acids into polypeptides by the formation of amide linkages, involve acylation. Theae reactions present a challenge to the understanding of prebiotic synthesis. Condensation reactions relying on dehydrating agents are either inefficient in aqueous solution or require strongly acidic conditions and high temperatures. Activated amino acids such as thioester derivatives have therefore been suggested as likely substrates for prebiotic peptide synthesis. Here we propose a closely related route to amide bond formation involving oxidative acylation by thioacids. We find that phenylalanine, leucine and phenylphosphate are acylated efficiently in aqueous solution by thioacetic acid and an oxidizing agent. From a prebiotic point of view, oxidative acylation has the advantage of proceeding efficiently in solution and under mild conditions. We anticipate that oxidative acylation should prove to be a general method for activating carboxylic acids, including amino acids.

  3. Structural characterization of acyl-CoA oxidases reveals a direct link between pheromone biosynthesis and metabolic state in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxing; Li, Kunhua; Jones, Rachel A; Bruner, Steven D; Butcher, Rebecca A

    2016-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans secretes ascarosides as pheromones to communicate with other worms and to coordinate the development and behavior of the population. Peroxisomal β-oxidation cycles shorten the side chains of ascaroside precursors to produce the short-chain ascaroside pheromones. Acyl-CoA oxidases, which catalyze the first step in these β-oxidation cycles, have different side chain-length specificities and enable C. elegans to regulate the production of specific ascaroside pheromones. Here, we determine the crystal structure of the acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX-1) homodimer and the ACOX-2 homodimer bound to its substrate. Our results provide a molecular basis for the substrate specificities of the acyl-CoA oxidases and reveal why some of these enzymes have a very broad substrate range, whereas others are quite specific. Our results also enable predictions to be made for the roles of uncharacterized acyl-CoA oxidases in C. elegans and in other nematode species. Remarkably, we show that most of the C. elegans acyl-CoA oxidases that participate in ascaroside biosynthesis contain a conserved ATP-binding pocket that lies at the dimer interface, and we identify key residues in this binding pocket. ATP binding induces a structural change that is associated with tighter binding of the FAD cofactor. Mutations that disrupt ATP binding reduce FAD binding and reduce enzyme activity. Thus, ATP may serve as a regulator of acyl-CoA oxidase activity, thereby directly linking ascaroside biosynthesis to ATP concentration and metabolic state.

  4. Structural characterization of acyl-CoA oxidases reveals a direct link between pheromone biosynthesis and metabolic state in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxing; Li, Kunhua; Jones, Rachel A; Bruner, Steven D; Butcher, Rebecca A

    2016-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans secretes ascarosides as pheromones to communicate with other worms and to coordinate the development and behavior of the population. Peroxisomal β-oxidation cycles shorten the side chains of ascaroside precursors to produce the short-chain ascaroside pheromones. Acyl-CoA oxidases, which catalyze the first step in these β-oxidation cycles, have different side chain-length specificities and enable C. elegans to regulate the production of specific ascaroside pheromones. Here, we determine the crystal structure of the acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX-1) homodimer and the ACOX-2 homodimer bound to its substrate. Our results provide a molecular basis for the substrate specificities of the acyl-CoA oxidases and reveal why some of these enzymes have a very broad substrate range, whereas others are quite specific. Our results also enable predictions to be made for the roles of uncharacterized acyl-CoA oxidases in C. elegans and in other nematode species. Remarkably, we show that most of the C. elegans acyl-CoA oxidases that participate in ascaroside biosynthesis contain a conserved ATP-binding pocket that lies at the dimer interface, and we identify key residues in this binding pocket. ATP binding induces a structural change that is associated with tighter binding of the FAD cofactor. Mutations that disrupt ATP binding reduce FAD binding and reduce enzyme activity. Thus, ATP may serve as a regulator of acyl-CoA oxidase activity, thereby directly linking ascaroside biosynthesis to ATP concentration and metabolic state. PMID:27551084

  5. Conformational analysis of the oligosaccharides related to side chains of holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfates.

    PubMed

    Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2015-02-01

    Anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from holothurian species were shown to affect various biological processes, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, clot formation, thrombosis, inflammation, and some others. To understand the mechanism of FCSs action, knowledge about their spatial arrangement is required. We have started the systematic synthesis, conformational analysis, and study of biological activity of the oligosaccharides related to various fragments of these types of natural polysaccharides. In this communication, five molecules representing distinct structural fragments of chondroitin sulfate have been studied by means of molecular modeling and NMR. These are three disaccharides and two trisaccharides containing fucose and glucuronic acid residues with one sulfate group per each fucose residue or without it. Long-range C-H coupling constants were used for the verification of the theoretical models. The presence of two conformers for both linkage types was revealed. For the Fuc-GlA linkage, the dominant conformer was the same as described previously in a literature as the molecular dynamics (MD) average in a dodechasaccharide FCS fragment representing the backbone chain of the polysaccharide including GalNAc residues. This shows that the studied oligosaccharides, in addition to larger ones, may be considered as reliable models for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies to reveal pharmacophore fragments of FCS.

  6. Conformational Analysis of the Oligosaccharides Related to Side Chains of Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Gerbst, Alexey G.; Dmitrenok, Andrey S.; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from holothurian species were shown to affect various biological processes, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, clot formation, thrombosis, inflammation, and some others. To understand the mechanism of FCSs action, knowledge about their spatial arrangement is required. We have started the systematic synthesis, conformational analysis, and study of biological activity of the oligosaccharides related to various fragments of these types of natural polysaccharides. In this communication, five molecules representing distinct structural fragments of chondroitin sulfate have been studied by means of molecular modeling and NMR. These are three disaccharides and two trisaccharides containing fucose and glucuronic acid residues with one sulfate group per each fucose residue or without it. Long-range C–H coupling constants were used for the verification of the theoretical models. The presence of two conformers for both linkage types was revealed. For the Fuc–GlA linkage, the dominant conformer was the same as described previously in a literature as the molecular dynamics (MD) average in a dodechasaccharide FCS fragment representing the backbone chain of the polysaccharide including GalNAc residues. This shows that the studied oligosaccharides, in addition to larger ones, may be considered as reliable models for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies to reveal pharmacophore fragments of FCS. PMID:25686272

  7. Probing the Carboxyester Side Chain in Controlled Deactivation (−)-Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabinols

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported on a controlled deactivation/detoxification approach for obtaining cannabinoids with improved druggability. Our design incorporates a metabolically labile ester group at strategic positions within the THC structure. We have now synthesized a series of (−)-Δ8-THC analogues encompassing a carboxyester group within the 3-alkyl chain in an effort to explore this novel cannabinergic chemotype for CB receptor binding affinity, in vitro and in vivo potency and efficacy, as well as controlled deactivation by plasma esterases. We have also probed the chain’s polar characteristics with regard to fast onset and short duration of action. Our lead molecule, namely 2-[(6aR,10aR)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-3-yl]-2-methyl-propanoic acid 3-cyano-propyl ester (AM7438), showed picomolar affinity for CB receptors and is deactivated by plasma esterases while the respective acid metabolite is inactive. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments, the compound was found to be a remarkably potent and efficacious CB1 receptor agonist with relatively fast onset/offset of action. PMID:25470070

  8. Helical unwinding and side-chain unlocking unravel the outward open conformation of the melibiose transporter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Ying; Ravi, Vidhya M.; Leblanc, Gérard; Padrós, Esteve; Cladera, Josep; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the alternate access mechanism of the melibiose transporter from Escherichia coli. Starting from the outward-facing partially occluded form, 2 out of 12 simulations produced an outward full open form and one partially open, whereas the rest yielded fully or partially occluded forms. The shape of the outward-open form resembles other outward-open conformations of secondary transporters. During the transporter opening, conformational changes in some loops are followed by changes in the periplasm region of transmembrane helix 7. Helical curvature relaxation and unlocking of hydrophobic and ionic locks promote the outward opening of the transporter making accessible the substrate binding site. In particular, FRET studies on mutants of conserved aromatic residues of extracellular loop 4 showed lack of substrate binding, emphasizing the importance of this loop for making crucial interactions that control the opening of the periplasmic side. This study indicates that the alternate access mechanism for the melibiose transporter fits better into a flexible gating mechanism rather than the archetypical helical rigid-body rocker-switch mechanism. PMID:27658476

  9. Unraveling the Interplay of Backbone Rigidity and Electron Rich Side-Chains on Electron Transfer in Peptides: The Realization of Tunable Molecular Wires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical studies are reported on a series of peptides constrained into either a 310-helix (1–6) or β-strand (7–9) conformation, with variable numbers of electron rich alkene containing side chains. Peptides (1 and 2) and (7 and 8) are further constrained into these geometries with a suitable side chain tether introduced by ring closing metathesis (RCM). Peptides 1, 4 and 5, each containing a single alkene side chain reveal a direct link between backbone rigidity and electron transfer, in isolation from any effects due to the electronic properties of the electron rich side-chains. Further studies on the linear peptides 3–6 confirm the ability of the alkene to facilitate electron transfer through the peptide. A comparison of the electrochemical data for the unsaturated tethered peptides (1 and 7) and saturated tethered peptides (2 and 8) reveals an interplay between backbone rigidity and effects arising from the electron rich alkene side-chains on electron transfer. Theoretical calculations on β-strand models analogous to 7, 8 and 9 provide further insights into the relative roles of backbone rigidity and electron rich side-chains on intramolecular electron transfer. Furthermore, electron population analysis confirms the role of the alkene as a “stepping stone” for electron transfer. These findings provide a new approach for fine-tuning the electronic properties of peptides by controlling backbone rigidity, and through the inclusion of electron rich side-chains. This allows for manipulation of energy barriers and hence conductance in peptides, a crucial step in the design and fabrication of molecular-based electronic devices. PMID:25122122

  10. Lessons from the gonadotropin-regulated long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (GR-LACS) null mouse model: a role in steroidogenesis, but not result in X-ALD phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yi; Tsai-Morris, Chon-Hwa; Li, Jie; Dufau, Maria L

    2009-03-01

    Gonadotropin-regulated long chain fatty acid Acyl-CoA synthetase (GR-LACS), is a member of the LACS family that is regulated by gonadotropin in the rat Leydig cell (LC). Its mouse/human homologs, lipidosin/bubblegum, have been suggested to participate in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), an adreno/neurodegenerative disorder with accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in tissues and plasma. To further gain insights into its regulatory function, a GR-LACS/lipidosin null mouse was generated. No apparent phenotypic abnormalities were observed in the X-ALD target tissues (brain, testis, adrenal). Nuclear inclusions seen in mice >15 month-old, were present in LC of 9 month-old GR-LACS(-/-) mice. LC of the null mice showed refractoriness to the gonadotropin-induced desensitization of testosterone production that is observed in adult animals. LCFAs were moderately increased in the testis, ovary and brain, but not in the adrenal gland of GR-LACS(-/-) mice, with no major changes in VLCFA. No change in LACS activity was observed in these tissues, suggesting a compensatory mechanism exhibited by other LACS members. The GR-LACS(-/-) model did not support its association with X-ALD. These studies revealed a role of GR-LACS in reducing the aging process of the LC, and its participation in gonadotropin-induced testicular desensitization of testosterone production.

  11. Comparison of surface properties of random, block, and graft copolymers having perfluoroalkyl and silicone-containing side chains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Soo-Bok

    2002-03-15

    Fluorosilicone copolymers of random, block, and graft with both perfluoroalkyl and silicone-containing side chains were synthesized, and their surface properties and surface modification effects on PVC film were compared. It can be confirmed that the fluorosilicone copolymers of random, block, and graft exhibit very low surface free energies of 9-13 dyn/cm, depending on the perfluoroalkyl group content and their molecular structure. The inherent surface free energies of the fluorosilicone copolymers are significantly influenced by their molecular structure and perfluoroalkyl group content. It can also be found that the fluorosilicone copolymers are very effective for lowering surface free energy. The surface free energy of a copolymer/PVC blend strongly varies with perfluoroalkyl group content as well as molecular structure. The molecular structure of a fluorosilicone copolymer is as important as the perfluoroalkyl group content for their inherent surface free energies and surface modification of other polymers.

  12. Tuning the pH-triggered self-assembly of dendritic peptide amphiphiles using fluorinated side chains.

    PubMed

    Appel, Ralph; Tacke, Sebastian; Klingauf, Jürgen; Besenius, Pol

    2015-01-28

    We report the synthesis of a series of anionic dendritic peptide amphiphiles of increasing hydrophobic character. By establishing state diagrams we describe their pH and ionic strength triggered self-assembly into supramolecular nanorods in water and highlight the impact of hydrophobic shielding in the supramolecular polymerisation process. Via the incorporation of fluorinated peptide side chains the pH-triggered monomer to polymer transition at physiological ionic strength is shifted from pH 5.0 to pH 7.4. We thereby show that compensating attractive non-covalent interactions and hydrophobic effects with repulsive electrostatic forces, a concept we refer to as frustrated growth, is a sensitive tool in order to manipulate one-dimensional supramolecular polymerisation processes in water. PMID:25410414

  13. Backbone and side-chain assignments of an effector membrane localization domain from Vibrio vulnificus MARTX toxin.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Michael C; Geissler, Brett; Hisao, Grant S; Wilson, Brenda A; Satchell, Karla J F; Rienstra, Chad M

    2014-10-01

    (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments are presented for the isolated four-helical bundle membrane localization domain from the domain of unknown function 5 (DUF5) effector (MLD(VvDUF5)) of the MARTX toxin from Vibrio vulnificus in its solution state. We have assigned 97% of all backbone and side-chain carbon atoms, including 96% of all backbone residues. Secondary chemical shift analysis using TALOS+ demonstrates four helices that align with those predicted by structure homology modeling using the MLDs of Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) and the clostridial TcdB and TcsL toxins as templates. Future studies will be towards solving the structure and determining the dynamics in the solution state.

  14. Electro-optical and pyroelectrical thermal analysis of novel nonlinear optical side-chain polymers with high thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard-Multhaupt, Reimund; Bauer, Stefan; Molzow, Wolf-Dietrich; Ren, W.; Wirges, Werner; Yilmaz, S.; Oertel, U.; Haenel, B.; Haeussler, L.; Komber, H.; Lunkwitz, K.

    1994-01-01

    Polymers containing nonlinear optical moieties were prepared on the basis of maleic anhydride copolymers. Azo dyes such as Disperse Red 1 (DR 1) were attached to the polymer backbones via esterification, amidization, or imidization. Optimal poling conditions for the side-chain polymers were determined by means of thermal analysis. After electrode poling with a bias voltage of 200 V at a temperature of 185 degree(s)C, the spin-coated samples were slowly cooled down to room temperature with the poling field still applied. The thermal stabilities of the poled polymer films were measured by means of electro-optical (EOTA) and pyro- electrical (PTA) thermal analysis and compared to the respective responses of DR 1/polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) guest/host polymer samples. Both experimental techniques (EOTA and PTA) are discussed in some detail together with the experimental results.

  15. Power factor enhancement in solution-processed organic n-type thermoelectric materials through side chain design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Boris; Robb, Maxwell J.; Brunetti, Fulvio G.; Miller, Levi; Patel, Shrayesh; Ho, Victor; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Hawker, Craig J.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2014-03-01

    Building efficient organic thermoelectric architectures requires complementary p-type (hole transporting) and n-type (electron transporting) components. While several high performance hole-transporting polymers have been developed, the design of n-type organics has proven challenging, and thermoelectric studies of organic n-type systems are scarce. We investigate the properties of a series of charged perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives. Charged side chains in these materials enable both water solubility and self-doping. We show that changing the length of the alkyl spacer between the charged end groups and the PDI core dramatically improves thin film thermoelectric properties. The top derivatives in our study demonstrated the highest power factor reported for n-type solution-processed films. By complementing thermoelectric characterization of these variants with insight on the electronic and structural property changes from optical spectroscopy, EPR, and GIWAXS experiments, our findings shape a promising molecular design strategy for future enhancements in thermoelectric performance.

  16. Dielectric properties of liquid-crystal azomethine polymer with a side alkyl-substituted chain, doped with fullerene C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, D. S.; Kostromin, S. V.; Musteaţa, V.; Cozan, V.; Bronnikov, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    We studied the actual and imaginary components of the dielectric constant of liquid-crystal azomethine polymer with a side chain, doped with 0.5 wt % of fullerene C60, over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies; measurements were made by means of dielectric spectroscopy. By analyzing the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant, we detected the relaxation processes (α, β1, and β2) in the nanocomposite, corresponding to certain modes of molecular motion and described them by the Arrhenius equations (β1- and β2-processes) and the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation (α-process). An antiplasticization effect is discovered after doping the polymer with fullerene C60, which manifests itself in increasing the glass transition temperature of the nanocomposite compared to this parameter typical of pure polymer.

  17. Crystal structure analysis of auromomycin apoprotein (macromomycin) shows importance of protein side chains to chromophore binding selectivity.

    PubMed

    Van Roey, P; Beerman, T A

    1989-09-01

    The crystal structure of macromomycin, the apoprotein of the antitumor antibiotic auromomycin, has been determined and refined at 1.6-A resolution. The overall structure is composed of a flattened seven-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel and two antiparallel beta-sheet ribbons. The barrel and the ribbons define a deep cleft that is the chromophore binding site. The cleft is very accessible and in this structure is occupied by two 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol and two water molecules. The overall shape of the binding site is similar to that of the analogue actinoxanthin. Highly specific side chains that are not conserved between different analogues extend into the binding site and may be important to the chromophore binding specificity.

  18. Electrostatic Solvation Free Energy of Amino Acid Side Chain Analogs: Implications for the Validity of Electrostatic Linear Response in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Bin; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2011-04-15

    Electrostatic free energies of solvation for 15 neutral amino acid side chain analogs are computed. We compare three methods of varying computational complexity and accuracy for three force fields: free energy simulations, Poisson-Boltzmann (PB), and linear response approximation (LRA) using AMBER, CHARMM, and OPLSAA force fields. We find that deviations from simulation start at low charges for solutes. The approximate PB and LRA produce an overestimation of electrostatic solvation free energies for most of molecules studied here. These deviations are remarkably systematic. The variations among force fields are almost as large as the variations found among methods. Our study confirms that success of the approximate methods for electrostatic solvation free energies comes from their ability to evaluate free energy differences accurately.

  19. In vitro and in vivo evidence for the inhibition of brassinosteroid synthesis by propiconazole through interference with side chain hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keimei; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Hoshi, Tomoki; Yoshizawa, Yuko

    2016-05-01

    We carried out the biochemical evaluation of the target site of propiconazole in BR biosynthesis. Applying BR biosynthesis intermediates to Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the presence of propiconazole under dark condition, we found that the target site of propiconazole in BR biosynthesis can be identified among the C22 and C23 side chain hydroxylation steps from campestanol to teasterone. Using differential spectra techniques to determine the binding affinity of propiconazole to CYP90D1, which is responsible for C23 hydroxylation of BR, we found that propiconazole induced typical type II binding spectra in response to purified recombinant CYP90D1 and the Kd value was found approximately 0.76 μM.

  20. Ozonolysis of surface-adsorbed methoxyphenols: kinetics of aromatic ring cleavage vs. alkene side-chain oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, E. M.; Kawam, A. Z.; Van Ry, D. A.; Hinrichs, R. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis products, which include a variety of substituted methoxyphenols, constitute a major component of organics released by biomass combustion, and may play a central role in the formation of atmospheric brown carbon. Understanding the atmospheric fate of these compounds upon exposure to trace gases is therefore critical to predicting the chemical and physical properties of biomass burning aerosol. We used diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy to monitor the heterogeneous ozonolysis of 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, and isoeugenol adsorbed on NaCl and α-Al2O3 substrates. Adsorption of gaseous methoxyphenols onto these substrates produced near-monolayer surface concentrations of 3 × 1018 molecules m-2. The subsequent dark heterogeneous ozonolysis of adsorbed 4-propylguaiacol cleaved the aromatic ring between the methoxy and phenol groups with the product conclusively identified by GC-MS and 1H-NMR. Kinetic analysis of eugenol and isoeugenol dark ozonolysis also suggested the formation of ring-cleaved products, although ozonolysis of the unsaturated substituent groups forming carboxylic acids and aldehydes was an order of magnitude faster. Average uptake coefficients for NaCl-adsorbed methoxyphenols were γ = 2.3 (± 0.8) × 10-7 and 2 (± 1) × 10-6 for ozonolysis of the aromatic ring and the unsaturated side chain, respectively, and reactions on α-Al2O3 were approximately two times slower. UV-visible radiation (λ > 300 nm) enhanced eugenol ozonolysis of the aromatic ring by a factor of 4(± 1) but had no effect on ozonolysis of the alkene side chain.

  1. Specificity of the basic side chains of Lys114, Lys125, and Arg129 of antithrombin in heparin binding.

    PubMed

    Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Arocas, Véronique; Bock, Susan C; Olson, Steven T; Björk, Ingemar

    2002-10-15

    The anticoagulant polysaccharide heparin binds and activates the plasma proteinase inhibitor antithrombin through a pentasaccharide sequence. Lys114, Lys125, and Arg129 are the three most important residues of the inhibitor for pentasaccharide binding. To elucidate to what extent another positively charged side chain can fulfill the role of each of these residues, we have mutated Lys114 and Lys125 to Arg and Arg129 to Lys. Lys114 could be reasonably well replaced with Arg with only an approximately 15-fold decrease in pentasaccharide affinity, in contrast to an approximately 10(5)-fold decrease caused by substitution with an noncharged amino acid of comparable size. However, a loss of approximately one ionic interaction on mutation to Arg indicates that the optimal configuration of the network of basic residues of antithrombin that together interact with the pentasaccharide requires a Lys in position 114. Replacement of Lys125 with Arg caused an even smaller, approximately 3-fold, decrease in pentasaccharide affinity, compared with that of approximately 400-fold caused by mutation to a neutral amino acid. An Arg in position 125 is thus essentially equivalent to the wild-type Lys in pentasaccharide binding. Substitution of Arg129 with Lys decreased the pentasaccharide affinity an appreciable approximately 100-fold, a loss approaching that of approximately 400-fold caused by substitution with a neutral amino acid. Arg is thus specifically required in position 129 for high-affinity pentasaccharide binding. This requirement is most likely due to the ability of Arg to interact with other residues of antithrombin, primarily, Glu414 and Thr44, in a manner that appropriately positions the Arg side chain for keeping the pentasaccharide anchored to the activated state of the inhibitor. PMID:12369826

  2. Polarized optical spectroscopy applied to investigate two poly(phenylene-vinylene) polymers with different side chain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâlsson, Lars-Olof; Vaughan, Helen L.; Monkman, Andrew P.

    2006-10-01

    Two related poly(phenylene-vinylene) (PPV) light-emitting polymers have been investigated by means of polarized optical spectroscopy. The purpose of the investigation was to investigate the nature of the interactions in thin films and to examine what impact the difference in side chain structure and molecular weight in poly(2'-methoxy-5-2-ethyl-hexoxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) and poly(2-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (OC1C10-PPV) has on the electronic and optical properties of the two polymers. Aligning the polymers by dispersing them in anisotropic solvents and stretched films shows that the side chains have an impact on the relative orientations of the transition dipole moments. In anisotropic solvents the linear dichroism is larger for MEH-PPV than for the related polymer OC1C10-PPV, while in stretched films the opposite situation prevails. A lower polarization of the luminescence from OC1C10-PPV, relative to MEH-PPV, was also obtained independent of alignment medium used. The data therefore suggest that while mechanical stretching may align the OC1C10-PPV to a greater degree, the emitting species is distinct from the absorbing species. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra of both polymers undergo dramatic changes when the liquid phase and the solid state (film) are compared. The solution CD spectra shows no evidence of interchain interactions; instead the spectra of both systems indicate a helical conformation of the polymers. The CD spectra of films are dramatically different with the strong Cotton effect being observed. This points to the formation of an aggregate in the film, with an associated ground state interaction, an interchain species such as a physical dimer, or a more complex higher aggregate.

  3. Amide side chain amphiphilic polymers disrupt surface established bacterial bio-films and protect mice from chronic Acinetobacter baumannii infection.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Divakara S S M; Samaddar, Sandip; Ghosh, Chandradhish; Paramanandham, Krishnamoorthy; Shome, Bibek R; Haldar, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms represent the root-cause of chronic or persistent infections in humans. Gram-negative bacterial infections due to nosocomial and opportunistic pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii are more difficult to treat because of their inherent and rapidly acquiring resistance to antibiotics. Due to biofilm formation, A. baumannii has been noted for its apparent ability to survive on artificial surfaces for an extended period of time, therefore allowing it to persist in the hospital environment. Here we report, maleic anhydride based novel cationic polymers appended with amide side chains that disrupt surface established multi-drug resistant A. baumannii biofilms. More importantly, these polymers significantly (p < 0.0001) decrease the bacterial burden in mice with chronic A. baumannii burn wound infection. The polymers also show potent antibacterial efficacy against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii with minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. We observe that optimal hydrophobicity dependent on the side chain chemical structure of these polymers dictate the selective toxicity to bacteria. Polymers interact with the bacterial cell membranes by causing membrane depolarization, permeabilization and energy depletion. Bacteria develop rapid resistance to erythromycin and colistin whereas no detectable development of resistance occurs against these polymers even after several passages. These results suggest the potential use of these polymeric biomaterials in disinfecting biomedical device surfaces after the infection has become established and also for the topical treatment of chronic bacterial infections.

  4. Dynamic properties of the native free antithrombin from molecular dynamics simulations: computational evidence for solvent- exposed Arg393 side chain.

    PubMed

    Tóth, László; Fekete, Attila; Balogh, Gábor; Bereczky, Zsuzsanna; Komáromi, István

    2015-09-01

    While antithrombin (AT) has small basal inhibitory activity, it reaches its full inhibitory potential against activated blood coagulation factors, FXa, FIXa, and FIIa (thrombin), via an allosteric and/or template (bridging) mechanism by the action of heparin, heparan sulfate, or heparin-mimetic pentasaccharides (PS). From the numerous X-ray structures available for different conformational states of AT, only indirect and incomplete conclusions can be drawn on the inherently dynamic properties of AT. As a typical example, the basal inhibitory activity of AT cannot be interpreted on the basis of "non-activated" free antithrombin X-ray structures since the Arg393 side chain, playing crucial role in antithrombin-proteinase interaction, is not exposed. In order to reveal the intrinsic dynamic properties and the reason of basal inhibitory activity of antithrombin, 2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on its native free-forms. It was shown from the simulation trajectories that the reactive center loop which is functioning as "bait" for proteases, even without any biasing potential can populate conformational state in which the Arg393 side chain is solvent exposed. It is revealed from the trajectory analysis that the peptide sequences correspond to the helix D extension, and new helix P formation can be featured with especially large root-mean-square fluctuations. Mutual information analyses of the trajectory showed remarkable (generalized) correlation between those regions of antithrombin which changed their conformations as the consequence of AT-PS complex formation. This suggests that allosteric information propagation pathways are present even in the non-activated native form of AT. PMID:25483839

  5. Protonated Dipeptide Losses from b 5 and b 4 Ions of Side Chain Hydroxyl Group Containing Pentapeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atik, A. Emin; Yalcin, Talat

    2013-10-01

    In this study, C-terminal protonated dipeptide eliminations were reported for both b 5 and b 4 ions of side chain hydroxyl group (-OH) containing pentapeptides. The study utilized the model C-terminal amidated pentapeptides having sequences of XGGFL and AXVYI, where X represents serine (S), threonine (T), glutamic acid (E), aspartic acid (D), or tyrosine (Y) residue. Upon low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) of XGGFL (where X = S, T, E, D, and Y) model peptide series, the ions at m/z 279 and 223 were observed as common fragments in all b 5 and b 4 ion (except b 4 ion of YGGFL) mass spectra, respectively. By contrast, peptides, namely SMeGGFL-NH2 and EOMeGGFL-NH2, did not show either the ion at m/z 279 or the ion at m/z 223. It is shown that the side chain hydroxyl group is required for the possible mechanism to take place that furnishes the protonated dipeptide loss from b 5 and b 4 ions. In addition, the ions at m/z 295 and 281 were detected as common fragments in all b 5 and b 4 ion (except b 4 ion of AYVYI) mass spectra, respectively, for AXVYI model peptide series. The MS4 experiments exhibited that the fragment ions at m/z 279, 223, 295, and 281 entirely reflect the same fragmentation behavior of [M + H]+ ion generated from commercial dipeptides FL-OH, GF-OH, YI-OH, and VY-OH. These novel eliminations reported here for b 5 and b 4 ions can be useful in assigning the correct and reliable peptide sequences for high-throughput proteomic studies.

  6. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C. Y.; Urano, Yasuomi

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as drug targets for atherosclerosis and for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19141679

  7. Dependence of Excited-State Properties of a Low-Bandgap Photovoltaic Copolymer on Side-Chain Substitution and Solvent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning-Jiu; Zhang, Mao-Jie; Liang, Ran; Fu, Li-Min; Zhang, Wei; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Hou, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The excited-state properties and chain conformations of a new low-bandgap copolymer based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene with meta-alkoxyphenyl-substituted side chains in solution were investigated comprehensively. Time-resolved spectroscopy suggested that the excited-state properties were sensitive to the conformations of the copolymer in solution. In addition, excited-state dynamics analyses revealed the photogeneration of triplet excited states by intersystem crossing (ISC) at a rate constant of ∼0.4×10(9)  s(-1) as a result of direct meta-alkoxyphenyl connection to the donor unit BDT irrespective to the macromolecular conformations. According to El-Sayed's rule, the fast ISC herein is correlated with the change of orbital types between singlet and triplet excited states as also shown by quantum chemical calculations. Our studies may shed light on the structure-property relationships of photovoltaic materials.

  8. Molecular Packing of High-Mobility Diketo Pyrrolo-Pyrrole Polymer Semiconductors with Branched Alkyl Side Chains

    SciTech Connect

    X Zhang; L Richter; D DeLongchamp; R Kline; M Hammond; I McCulloch; M Heeney; R Ashraf; J Smith; et al.

    2011-12-31

    We describe a series of highly soluble diketo pyrrolo-pyrrole (DPP)-bithiophene copolymers exhibiting field effect hole mobilities up to 0.74 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, with a common synthetic motif of bulky 2-octyldodecyl side groups on the conjugated backbone. Spectroscopy, diffraction, and microscopy measurements reveal a transition in molecular packing behavior from a preferentially edge-on orientation of the conjugated plane to a preferentially face-on orientation as the attachment density of the side chains increases. Thermal annealing generally reduces both the face-on population and the misoriented edge-on domains. The highest hole mobilities of this series were obtained from edge-on molecular packing and in-plane liquid-crystalline texture, but films with a bimodal orientation distribution and no discernible in-plane texture exhibited surprisingly comparable mobilities. The high hole mobility may therefore arise from the molecular packing feature common to the entire polymer series: backbones that are strictly oriented parallel to the substrate plane and coplanar with other backbones in the same layer.

  9. Structure and dynamics of the aliphatic cholesterol side chain in membranes as studied by (2)H NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Alexander; Scheidt, Holger A; Baek, Dong Jae; Bittman, Robert; Huster, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Cholesterol is an evolutionarily highly optimized molecule particularly known for its ability to condense the phospholipids in cellular membranes. Until recently, the accompanying increase in the chain order of the surrounding phospholipids was attributed to the planar and rigid tetracyclic ring structure of cholesterol. However, detailed investigations of cholesterol's aliphatic side chain demonstrated that this side chain is responsible for approximately half of the condensation effect. Therefore, we investigated the structure and dynamics of the aliphatic side chain of cholesterol using (2)H solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and microsecond timescale all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in four different model membranes: POPC, DPPC, PSM, and POPC/PSM (1 : 1 mol/mol) and at three different temperatures: 5 °C, 37 °C, and 50 °C. A cholesterol variant, in which 11 hydrogens of the aliphatic side chain were exchanged for deuterium, was used and the respective (2)H NMR spectra confirmed the axially asymmetric rotational diffusion of cholesterol in DPPC and PSM. Furthermore, NMR spectra indicated that some hydrogens showed an unexpected magnetic inequivalency. This finding was confirmed by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and detailed analysis revealed that the hydrogens of the methylene groups at C22, C23, and C24 are magnetically inequivalent. This inequivalency is caused by steric clashes of the aliphatic side chain with the ring structure of cholesterol as well as the branched C21 methyl group. These excluded volume effects result in reduced conformational flexibility of the aliphatic side chain of cholesterol and explain its high order (order parameter of 0.78 for chain motions) and large contribution to the condensation effect. Additionally, the motional pattern of the side chain becomes highly anisotropic such that it shows larger fluctuations perpendicular to the ring plane of cholesterol with a biaxiality of the

  10. Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetase Long-Chain 1 (ACSL1) Gene Polymorphism (rs6552828) and Elite Endurance Athletic Status: A Replication Study

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Catalina; Hu, Yang; Li, Yan-Chun; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Verde, Zoraida; Muniesa, Carlos A.; Oliván, Jesús; Santalla, Alfredo; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between the rs6552828 polymorphism in acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACSL1) and elite endurance athletic status. We studied 82 Caucasian (Spanish) World/Olympic-class endurance male athletes, and a group of sex and ethnically matched healthy young adults (controls, n = 197). The analyses were replicated in a cohort of a different ethnic origin (Chinese of the Han ethnic group), composed of elite endurance athletes (runners) [cases, n = 241 (128 male)] and healthy sedentary adults [controls, n = 504 (267 male)]. In the Spanish cohort, genotype (P = 0.591) and minor allele (A) frequencies were similar in cases and controls (P = 0.978). In the Chinese cohort, genotype (P = 0.973) and minor allele (G) frequencies were comparable in female endurance athletes and sedentary controls (P = 0.881), whereas in males the frequency of the G allele was higher in endurance athletes (0.40) compared with their controls (0.32, P = 0.040). The odds ratio (95%CI) for an elite endurance Chinese athlete to carry the G allele compared with ethnically matched controls was 1.381 (1.015–1.880) (P-value = 0.04). Our findings suggest that the ACSL1 gene polymorphism rs6552828 is not associated with elite endurance athletic status in Caucasians, yet a marginal association seems to exist for the Chinese (Han) male population. PMID:22829935

  11. Toward Precise Interpretation of DEER-Based Distance Distributions: Insights from Structural Characterization of V1 Spin-Labeled Side Chains.

    PubMed

    Balo, Aidin R; Feyrer, Hannes; Ernst, Oliver P

    2016-09-20

    Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance experiments can measure individual distances between two spin-labeled side chains in proteins in the range of ∼1.5-8 nm. However, the flexibility of traditional spin-labeled side chains leads to diffuse spin density loci and thus distance distributions with relatively broad peaks, thereby complicating the interpretation of protein conformational states. Here we analyzed the spin-labeled V1 side chain, which is internally anchored and hence less flexible. Crystal structures of V1-labeled T4 lysozyme constructs carrying the V1 side chain on α-helical segments suggest that V1 side chains adopt only a few discrete rotamers. In most cases, only one rotamer is observed at a given site, explaining the frequently observed narrow distance distribution for doubly V1-labeled proteins. We used the present data to derive guidelines that may allow distance interpretation of other V1-labeled proteins for higher-precision structural modeling. PMID:27532325

  12. Protein interactions with bottle-brush polymer layers: Effect of side chain and charge density ratio probed by QCM-D and AFM.

    PubMed

    Olanya, Geoffrey; Thormann, Esben; Varga, Imre; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2010-09-01

    Silica surfaces were coated with a range of cationic bottle-brush polymers with 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains, and their efficiency in reducing protein adsorption was probed by QCM-D, reflectometry and AFM. Preadsorbed layers formed by bottle-brush polymers with different side chain to charge ratio was exposed to two proteins with different net charge, lysozyme and BSA. The reduction in protein adsorption was found to depend on both the type of protein and on the nature of the polyelectrolyte layer. The most pronounced reduction in protein adsorption was achieved when the fraction of charged backbone segments was in the range 0.25-0.5 equivalent to a fraction of poly(ethylene oxide) side chains of 0.75-0.5. It was concluded that these polymers have enough electrostatic attachment points to ensure a strong binding to the surface, and at the same time a sufficient amount of poly(ethylene oxide) side chains to counteract protein adsorption. In contrast, a layer formed by a highly charged polyelectrolyte without side chains was unable to resists protein adsorption. On such a layer the adsorption of negatively charged BSA was strongly enhanced, and positively charged lysozyme adsorbed to a similar extent as to bare silica. AFM colloidal probe force measurement between silica surfaces with preadsorbed layers of bottle-brush polymers were conducted before and after exposure to BSA and lysozyme to gain insight into how proteins were incorporated in the bottle-brush polymer layers.

  13. Oxidative cleavage of the pentyl side-chain of cannabinoids. Identification of new biotransformation pathways in the metabolism of 4'-hy