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Sample records for acyl transferase lcat

  1. The TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 S-acyl transferase regulates plant cell growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Kemp, Alison C; Grierson, Claire S

    2005-09-01

    TIP GROWTH DEFECTIVE1 (TIP1) of Arabidopsis thaliana affects cell growth throughout the plant and has a particularly strong effect on root hair growth. We have identified TIP1 by map-based cloning and complementation of the mutant phenotype. TIP1 encodes an ankyrin repeat protein with a DHHC Cys-rich domain that is expressed in roots, leaves, inflorescence stems, and floral tissue. Two homologues of TIP1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human (Homo sapiens) have been shown to have S-acyl transferase (also known as palmitoyl transferase) activity. S-acylation is a reversible hydrophobic protein modification that offers swift, flexible control of protein hydrophobicity and affects protein association with membranes, signal transduction, and vesicle trafficking within cells. We show that TIP1 binds the acyl group palmitate, that it can rescue the morphological, temperature sensitivity, and yeast casein kinase2 localization defects of the yeast S-acyl transferase mutant akr1Delta, and that inhibition of acylation in wild-type Arabidopsis roots reproduces the Tip1- mutant phenotype. Our results demonstrate that S-acylation is essential for normal plant cell growth and identify a plant S-acyl transferase, an essential research tool if we are to understand how this important, reversible lipid modification operates in plant cells.

  2. Endothelial cell palmitoylproteomics identifies novel lipid modified targets and potential substrates for protein acyl transferases

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Ethan P.; Derakhshan, Behrad; Lam, TuKiet T.; Davalos, Alberto; Sessa, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Protein S-palmitoylation is the post-translational attachment of a saturated 16-carbon palmitic acid to a cysteine side chain via a thioester bond. Palmitoylation can affect protein localization, trafficking, stability, and function. The extent and roles of palmitoylation in endothelial cell (EC) biology is not well understood, in part due to technological limits on palmitoylprotein detection. Objective To develop a method using acyl-biotinyl exchange (ABE) technology coupled with mass spectrometry to globally isolate and identify palmitoylproteins in EC. Methods and Results More than 150 putative palmitoyl proteins were identified in EC using ABE and mass spectrometry. Among the novel palmitoylproteins identified is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an intensively studied enzyme that protects all cells from oxidative damage. Mutation of cysteine 6 prevents palmitoylation, leads to reduction in SOD1 activity in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits nuclear localization, thereby supporting a functional role for SOD1 palmitoylation. Moreover, we used ABE to search for substrates of particular protein acyl transferases in EC. We found that palmitoylation of the cell adhesion protein PECAM1 is dependent on the protein acyl transferase ZDHHC21. We show that knockdown of ZDHHC21 leads to reduced levels of PECAM1 at the cell surface. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of EC palmitoylproteomics to reveal new insights into the role of this important post-translational lipid modification in EC biology. PMID:22496122

  3. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Azadeh; Yufa, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ghrelin is a multifunctional orexigenic hormone with a unique acyl modification enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is well-characterized in nonmammals, and GOAT sequences of several fishes are available in the GenBank. However, endogenous GOAT in non-mammals remains poorly understood. In this research, GOAT sequence comparison, tissue-specific GOAT expression, and its regulation by nutrient status and exogenous ghrelin were studied. It was found that the bioactive core of zebrafish GOAT amino acid sequence share high identity with that of mammals. GOAT mRNA was most abundant in the gut. GOAT-like immunoreactivity (i.r.) was found colocalized with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa. Food deprivation increased, and feeding decreased GOAT and preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut. GOAT and ghrelin peptides in the gut and brain showed corresponding decrease in food-deprived state. Intraperitoneal injection of acylated fish ghrelin caused a significant decrease in GOAT mRNA expression, suggesting a feedback mechanism regulating its abundance. Together, these results provide the first in-depth characterization of GOAT in a non-mammal. Our results demonstrate that endogenous GOAT expression is responsive to metabolic status and availability of acylated ghrelin, providing further evidences for GOAT in the regulation of feeding in teleosts. PMID:26226634

  4. The Level of Circulating Octanoate Does Not Predict Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase (GOAT)-Mediated Acylation of Ghrelin During Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Nikolayev, Alexander; Liu, Jianhua; Pezzoli, Suzan S.; Farhy, Leon S.; Patrie, James; Gaylinn, Bruce D.; Heiman, Mark; Thorner, Michael O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acyl-ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide released from the stomach. Ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) attaches an 8-carbon medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) (octanoate) to serine 3 of ghrelin. This acylation is necessary for the activity of ghrelin. Animal data suggest that MCFAs provide substrate for GOAT and an increase in nutritional octanoate increases acyl-ghrelin. Objectives: To address the question of the source of substrate for acylation, we studied whether the decline in ghrelin acylation during fasting is associated with a decline in circulating MCFAs. Methods: Eight healthy young men (aged 18–28 years, body mass index range, 20.6–26.2 kg/m2) had blood drawn every 10 minutes for acyl- and desacyl-ghrelin and every hour for free fatty acids (FFAs) during the last 24 hours of a 61.5-hour fast and during a fed day. FFAs were measured by a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy method. Acyl- and desacyl-ghrelin were measured in an in-house assay; the results were published previously. Ghrelin acylation was assessed by the ratio of acyl-ghrelin to total ghrelin. Results: With the exception of MCFAs C8 and C10, all other FFAs, the MCFAs (C6 and C12), and the long-chain fatty acids (C14–C18) significantly increased with fasting (P < .05). There was no significant association between the fold change in ghrelin acylation and circulating FFAs. Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in circulating MCFAs are not linked to the decline in ghrelin acylation during fasting and support the hypothesis that acylation of ghrelin depends at least partially on the availability of gastroluminal MCFAs or the regulation of GOAT activity. PMID:25337923

  5. The protein acyl transferase ZDHHC21 modulates α1 adrenergic receptor function and regulates hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Ethan P.; Jozsef, Levente; Di Lorenzo, Annarita; Held, Kara F.; Luciano, Amelia K.; Melendez, Jonathan; Milstone, Leonard M.; Velazquez, Heino; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Palmitoylation, the reversible addition of the lipid palmitate to a cysteine, can alter protein localization, stability, and function. The ZDHHC family of protein acyl transferases catalyzes palmitoylation of numerous proteins. The role of ZDHHC enzymes in intact tissue and in vivo is largely unknown. Herein, we characterize vascular functions in a mouse that expresses a nonfunctional ZDHHC21 (“F233Δ”). Approach and Results Physiological studies of isolated aortae and mesenteric arteries from F233Δ mice revealed an unexpected defect in responsiveness to phenylephrine, an α1 adrenergic receptor agonist. In vivo, F233Δ mice displayed a blunted response to infusion of phenylephrine and were found to have elevated catecholamine levels and elevated vascular α1 adrenergic receptor gene expression. Telemetry studies showed that the F233Δ mice were tachycardic and hypotensive at baseline, consistent with diminished vascular tone. In biochemical studies, ZDHHC21 was shown to palmitoylate the α1D adrenoceptor, and to interact with it in a molecular complex, thus suggesting a possible molecular mechanism by which the receptor can be regulated by ZDHHC21. Conclusions Together the data support a model in which ZDHHC21 F233Δ diminishes the function of vascular α1 adrenergic receptors, leading to reduced vascular tone which manifests in vivo as hypotension and tachycardia. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of a ZDHHC isoform affecting vascular function in vivo and identifies a novel molecular mode of regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. PMID:26715683

  6. Endophilin and CtBP/BARS are not acyl transferases in endocytosis or Golgi fission.

    PubMed

    Gallop, Jennifer L; Butler, P Jonathan G; McMahon, Harvey T

    2005-12-01

    Endophilins have been proposed to have an enzymatic activity (a lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase or LPAAT activity) that can make phosphatidic acid in membranes. This activity is thought to change the bilayer asymmetry in such a way that negative membrane curvature at the neck of a budding vesicle will be stabilized. An LPAAT activity has also been proposed for CtBP/BARS (carboxy-terminal binding protein/brefeldin A-ribosylated substrate), a transcription co-repressor that is implicated in dynamin-independent endocytosis and fission of the Golgi in mitosis. Here we show that the LPAAT activity associated with endophilin is a contaminant of the purification procedure and can be also found associated with the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin. Likewise, the LPAAT activity associated with CtBP/BARS is also a co-purification artefact. The proposed locus of activity in endophilins includes the BAR domain, which has no catalytic site but instead senses positive membrane curvature. These data will prompt a re-evaluation of the molecular details of membrane budding.

  7. Unacylated ghrelin promotes adipogenesis in rodent bone marrow via ghrelin O-acyl transferase and GHS-R1a activity: evidence for target cell-induced acylation

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Anna L.; Nelson, Timothy A. S.; Guschina, Irina A.; Parsons, Lydia C.; Lewis, Charlotte L.; Brown, Richard C.; Christian, Helen C.; Davies, Jeffrey S.; Wells, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Despite being unable to activate the cognate ghrelin receptor (GHS-R), unacylated ghrelin (UAG) possesses a unique activity spectrum that includes promoting bone marrow adipogenesis. Since a receptor mediating this action has not been identified, we re-appraised the potential interaction of UAG with GHS-R in the regulation of bone marrow adiposity. Surprisingly, the adipogenic effects of intra-bone marrow (ibm)-infused acylated ghrelin (AG) and UAG were abolished in male GHS-R-null mice. Gas chromatography showed that isolated tibial marrow adipocytes contain the medium-chain fatty acids utilised in the acylation of UAG, including octanoic acid. Additionally, immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that tibial marrow adipocytes show prominent expression of the UAG-activating enzyme ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT), which is located in the membranes of lipid trafficking vesicles and in the plasma membrane. Finally, the adipogenic effect of ibm-infused UAG was completely abolished in GOAT-KO mice. Thus, the adipogenic action of exogenous UAG in tibial marrow is dependent upon acylation by GOAT and activation of GHS-R. This suggests that UAG is subject to target cell-mediated activation – a novel mechanism for manipulating hormone activity. PMID:28361877

  8. Maternally supplied S-acyl-transferase is required for crystalloid organelle formation and transmission of the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Neuza; Ramesar, Jai; Avramut, M. Cristina; Koster, Abraham J.; Dessens, Johannes T.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Chevalley-Maurel, Séverine; Janse, Chris J.; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Mair, Gunnar R.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of the malaria parasite from the mammalian host to the mosquito vector requires the formation of adequately adapted parasite forms and stage-specific organelles. Here we show that formation of the crystalloid—a unique and short-lived organelle of the Plasmodium ookinete and oocyst stage required for sporogony—is dependent on the precisely timed expression of the S-acyl-transferase DHHC10. DHHC10, translationally repressed in female Plasmodium berghei gametocytes, is activated translationally during ookinete formation, where the protein is essential for the formation of the crystalloid, the correct targeting of crystalloid-resident protein LAP2, and malaria parasite transmission. PMID:27303037

  9. The bushlike radiation of muroid rodents is exemplified by the molecular phylogeny of the LCAT nuclear gene.

    PubMed

    Michaux, J; Catzeflis, F

    2000-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 40 extant species of rodents, with an emphasis on the taxonomic sampling of Muridae and Dipodidae, were studied using sequences of the nuclear protein-coding gene LCAT (lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase). Analysis of 804 bp from the exonic regions of LCAT confirmed many traditional groupings in and around Muridae. A strong support was found for the families Muridae (represented by 29 species) and Dipodidae (5 species). Compared with Sciuridae, Gliridae, and Caviomorpha, the Dipodidae family appeared the closest relative of Muridae, confirming the suprafamilial Myodonta concept. Within the speciose family Muridae, the first branching leads to the fossorial Spalacinae and semifossorial Rhyzomyinae. The remaining components of Muridae appear as a polytomy from which are issued Sigmodontinae, Calomyscinae, Arvicolinae, Cricetinae, Mystromyinae, Nesomyinae, and some Dendromurinae (Steatomys and Dendromus). This phylogeny is interpreted as the result of a bushlike radiation at the end of the early Miocene, leading to emergence of most living subfamilies. The separation between three additional taxa, Murinae, Gerbillinae, and "Acomyinae" (which comprises the genera Acomys, Deomys, Uranomys, and Lophuromys), has occurred more recently from a common ancestor issued from the main basal radiation. As previously shown by other molecular studies, the vlei rats, Otomyinae, are nested within Old World Murinae. In the same way, the zokors, Myospalacinae, appear strongly nested within the hamsters, Cricetinae. Finally, we propose a sister group relationship between Malagasy Nesomyinae and south African Mystromyinae.

  10. Tomatidine, a tomato sapogenol, ameliorates hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inhibiting acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyl-transferase (ACAT).

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Kiyota, Naoko; Tsurushima, Keiichiro; Yoshitomi, Makiko; Horlad, Hasita; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro; Nagai, Ryoji

    2012-03-14

    It was previously revealed that esculeoside A, a new glycoalkaloid, and esculeogenin A, a new aglycon of esculeoside A, contained in ripe tomato ameliorate atherosclerosis in apoE-deficent mice. This study examined whether tomatidine, the aglycone of tomatine, which is a major tomato glycoalkaloid, also shows similar inhibitory effects on cholesterol ester (CE) accumulation in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and atherogenesis in apoE-deficient mice. Tomatidine significantly inhibited the CE accumulation induced by acetylated LDL in HMDM in a dose-dependent manner. Tomatidine also inhibited CE formation in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyl-transferase (ACAT)-1 or ACAT-2, suggesting that tomatidine suppresses both ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 activities. Furthermore, the oral administration of tomatidine to apoE-deficient mice significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and areas of atherosclerotic lesions. The study provides the first evidence that tomatidine significantly suppresses the activity of ACAT and leads to reduction of atherogenesis.

  11. Potential role of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol transferase (ACAT) Inhibitors as hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerosis drugs.

    PubMed

    Leon, Carlos; Hill, John S; Wasan, Kishor M

    2005-10-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol transferase (ACAT) is an integral membrane protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. ACAT catalyzes the formation of cholesteryl esters from cholesterol and fatty acyl coenzyme A. The cholesteryl esters are stored as cytoplasmic lipid droplets inside the cell. This process is very important to the organism as high cholesterol levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease. In mammals, two ACAT genes have been identified, ACAT1 and ACAT2. ACAT1 is ubiquitous and is responsible for cholesteryl ester formation in brain, adrenal glands, macrophages, and kidneys. ACAT2 is expressed in the liver and intestine. The inhibition of ACAT activity has been associated with decreased plasma cholesterol levels by suppressing cholesterol absorption and by diminishing the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins such as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). ACAT inhibition also prevents the conversion of macrophages into foam cells in the arterial walls, a critical event in the development of atherosclerosis. This review paper will focus on the role of ACAT in cholesterol metabolism, in particular as a target to develop novel therapeutic agents to control hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Defective Pollen Wall 2 (DPW2) Encodes an Acyl Transferase Required for Rice Pollen Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianxin; Rautengarten, Carsten; Yang, Li; Uzair, Muhammad; Zhu, Lu; Luo, Qian; An, Gynheung; Waßmann, Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic lipids are both essential structural components of the plant cuticle, an important interface between the plant and environment. Although cross links between aromatic and aliphatic or other moieties are known to be associated with the formation of leaf cutin and root and seed suberin, the contribution of aromatic lipids to the biosynthesis of anther cuticles and pollen walls remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile mutant, defective pollen wall 2 (dpw2), which showed an abnormal anther cuticle, a defective pollen wall, and complete male sterility. Compared with the wild type, dpw2 anthers have increased amounts of cutin and waxes and decreased levels of lipidic and phenolic compounds. DPW2 encodes a cytoplasmically localized BAHD acyltransferase. In vitro assays demonstrated that recombinant DPW2 specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acid moieties, using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors. Thus, The cytoplasmic hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:ω-hydroxy fatty acid transferase DPW2 plays a fundamental role in male reproduction via the biosynthesis of key components of the anther cuticle and pollen wall. PMID:27246096

  13. Lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt1) is dispensable for protein O-mannosylation by Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Dávalos, Laura Elena; Espitia, Clara; González-Cerón, Gabriela; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria; Servín-González, Luis

    2014-01-01

    A protein glycosylation system related to that for protein mannosylation in yeast is present in many actinomycetes. This system involves polyprenyl phosphate mannose synthase (Ppm), protein mannosyl transferase (Pmt), and lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt). In this study, we obtained a series of mutants in the ppm (sco1423), lnt1 (sco1014), and pmt (sco3154) genes of Streptomyces coelicolor, which encode Ppm, Lnt1, and Pmt, to analyze their requirement for glycosylation of the heterologously expressed Apa glycoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results show that both Ppm and Pmt were required for Apa glycosylation, but that Lnt1 was dispensable for both Apa and the bacteriophage φC31 receptor glycosylation. A bacterial two-hybrid assay revealed that contrary to M. tuberculosis, Lnt1 of S. coelicolor does not interact with Ppm. The D2 catalytic domain of M. tuberculosisPpm was sufficient for complementation of an S. coelicolor double mutant lacking Lnt1 and Ppm, both for Apa glycosylation and for glycosylation of φC31 receptor. On the other hand, M. tuberculosisPmt was not active in S. coelicolor, even when correctly localized to the cytoplasmic membrane, showing fundamental differences in the requirements for Pmt activity in these two species.

  14. A Single Protein S-acyl Transferase Acts through Diverse Substrates to Determine Cryptococcal Morphology, Stress Tolerance, and Pathogenic Outcome.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Tirado, Felipe H; Peng, Tao; Yang, Meng; Hang, Howard C; Doering, Tamara L

    2015-05-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic yeast that kills over 625,000 people yearly through lethal meningitis. Host phagocytes serve as the first line of defense against this pathogen, but fungal engulfment and subsequent intracellular proliferation also correlate with poor patient outcome. Defining the interactions of this facultative intracellular pathogen with host phagocytes is key to understanding the latter's opposing roles in infection and how they contribute to fungal latency, dissemination, and virulence. We used high-content imaging and a human monocytic cell line to screen 1,201 fungal mutants for strains with altered host interactions and identified multiple genes that influence fungal adherence and phagocytosis. One of these genes was PFA4, which encodes a protein S-acyl transferase (PAT), one of a family of DHHC domain-containing proteins that catalyzes lipid modification of proteins. Deletion of PFA4 caused dramatic defects in cryptococcal morphology, stress tolerance, and virulence. Bioorthogonal palmitoylome-profiling identified Pfa4-specific protein substrates involved in cell wall synthesis, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking responsible for these phenotypic alterations. We demonstrate that a single PAT is responsible for the modification of a subset of proteins that are critical in cryptococcal pathogenesis. Since several of these palmitoylated substrates are conserved in other pathogenic fungi, protein palmitoylation represents a potential avenue for new antifungal therapeutics.

  15. The Plasmodium palmitoyl-S-acyl-transferase DHHC2 is essential for ookinete morphogenesis and malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Jorge M.; Kehrer, Jessica; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Janse, Chris J.; Mair, Gunnar R.

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational addition of C-16 long chain fatty acids to protein cysteine residues is catalysed by palmitoyl-S-acyl-transferases (PAT) and affects the affinity of a modified protein for membranes and therefore its subcellular localisation. In apicomplexan parasites this reversible protein modification regulates numerous biological processes and specifically affects cell motility, and invasion of host cells by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. Using inhibitor studies we show here that palmitoylation is key to transformation of zygotes into ookinetes during initial mosquito infection with P. berghei. We identify DHHC2 as a unique PAT mediating ookinete formation and morphogenesis. Essential for life cycle progression in asexual blood stage parasites and thus refractory to gene deletion analyses, we used promoter swap (ps) methodology to maintain dhhc2 expression in asexual blood stages but down regulate expression in sexual stage parasites and during post-fertilization development of the zygote. The ps mutant showed normal gamete formation, fertilisation and DNA replication to tetraploid cells, but was characterised by a complete block in post-fertilisation development and ookinete formation. Our report highlights the crucial nature of the DHHC2 palmitoyl-S-acyltransferase for transmission of the malaria parasite to the mosquito vector through its essential role for ookinete morphogenesis. PMID:26526684

  16. The ankyrin repeats and DHHC S-acyl transferase domain of AKR1 act independently to regulate switching from vegetative to mating states in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Grierson, Claire S

    2011-01-01

    Signal transduction from G-protein coupled receptors to MAPK cascades through heterotrimeric G-proteins has been described for many eukaryotic systems. One of the best-characterised examples is the yeast pheromone response pathway, which is negatively regulated by AKR1. AKR1-like proteins are present in all eukaryotes and contain a DHHC domain and six ankyrin repeats. Whilst the DHHC domain dependant S-acyl transferase (palmitoyl transferase) function of AKR1 is well documented it is not known whether the ankyrin repeats are also required for this activity. Here we show that the ankyrin repeats of AKR1 are required for full suppression of the yeast pheromone response pathway, by sequestration of the Gβγ dimer, and act independently of AKR1 S-acylation function. Importantly, the functions provided by the AKR1 ankyrin repeats and DHHC domain are not required on the same molecule to fully restore WT phenotypes and function. We also show that AKR1 molecules are S-acylated at locations other than the DHHC cysteine, increasing the abundance of AKR1 in the cell. Our results have important consequences for studies of AKR1 function, including recent attempts to characterise S-acylation enzymology and kinetics. Proteins similar to AKR1 are found in all eukaryotes and our results have broad implications for future work on these proteins and the control of switching between Gβγ regulated pathways.

  17. A robust all-atom model for LCAT generated by homology modeling[S

    PubMed Central

    Segrest, Jere P.; Jones, Martin K.; Catte, Andrea; Thirumuruganandham, Saravana P.

    2015-01-01

    LCAT is activated by apoA-I to form cholesteryl ester. We combined two structures, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of oxidized (short) acyl chains of phospholipid, and bacteriophage tubulin PhuZ, as C- and N-terminal templates, respectively, to create a novel homology model for human LCAT. The juxtaposition of multiple structural motifs matching experimental data is compelling evidence for the general correctness of many features of the model: i) The N-terminal 10 residues of the model, required for LCAT activity, extend the hydrophobic binding trough for the sn-2 chain 15–20 Å relative to PLA2. ii) The topography of the trough places the ester bond of the sn-2 chain less than 5 Å from the hydroxyl of the catalytic nucleophile, S181. iii) A β-hairpin resembling a lipase lid separates S181 from solvent. iv) S181 interacts with three functionally critical residues: E149, that regulates sn-2 chain specificity, and K128 and R147, whose mutations cause LCAT deficiency. Because the model provides a novel explanation for the complicated thermodynamic problem of the transfer of hydrophobic substrates from HDL to the catalytic triad of LCAT, it is an important step toward understanding the antiatherogenic role of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:25589508

  18. A robust all-atom model for LCAT generated by homology modeling.

    PubMed

    Segrest, Jere P; Jones, Martin K; Catte, Andrea; Thirumuruganandham, Saravana P

    2015-03-01

    LCAT is activated by apoA-I to form cholesteryl ester. We combined two structures, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of oxidized (short) acyl chains of phospholipid, and bacteriophage tubulin PhuZ, as C- and N-terminal templates, respectively, to create a novel homology model for human LCAT. The juxtaposition of multiple structural motifs matching experimental data is compelling evidence for the general correctness of many features of the model: i) The N-terminal 10 residues of the model, required for LCAT activity, extend the hydrophobic binding trough for the sn-2 chain 15-20 Å relative to PLA2. ii) The topography of the trough places the ester bond of the sn-2 chain less than 5 Å from the hydroxyl of the catalytic nucleophile, S181. iii) A β-hairpin resembling a lipase lid separates S181 from solvent. iv) S181 interacts with three functionally critical residues: E149, that regulates sn-2 chain specificity, and K128 and R147, whose mutations cause LCAT deficiency. Because the model provides a novel explanation for the complicated thermodynamic problem of the transfer of hydrophobic substrates from HDL to the catalytic triad of LCAT, it is an important step toward understanding the antiatherogenic role of HDL in reverse cholesterol transport.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: complete LCAT deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship--a review of LCAT deficiency. Vasc Health Risk ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  20. Precocious leaf senescence by functional loss of PROTEIN S-ACYL TRANSFERASE14 involves the NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Ying; Wang, Jia-Gang; Song, Shi-Jian; Wang, Qun; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha

    2016-02-04

    We report here that Arabidopsis PROTEIN S-ACYL TRANSFERASE14 (PAT14), through its palmitate transferase activity, acts at the vacuolar trafficking route to repress salicylic acid (SA) signaling, thus mediating age-dependent but not carbon starvation-induced leaf senescence. Functional loss of PAT14 resulted in precocious leaf senescence and its transcriptomic analysis revealed that senescence was dependent on salicylic acid. Overexpressing PAT14 suppressed the expression of SA responsive genes. Introducing the SA deficient mutants, npr1-5 and NahG, but not other hormonal mutants, completely suppressed the precocious leaf senescence of PAT14 loss-of-function, further supporting the epistatic relation between PAT14 and the SA pathway. By confocal fluorescence microscopy, we showed that PAT14 is localized at the Golgi, the trans-Golg network/early endosome, and prevacuolar compartments, indicating its roles through vacuolar trafficking. By reporter analysis and real time PCRs, we showed that the expression PAT14, unlike most of the senescence associated genes, is not developmentally regulated, suggesting post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms on its functionality. We further showed that the maize and wheat homologs of PAT14 fully rescued the precocious leaf senescence of pat14-2, demonstrating that the role of PAT14 in suppressing SA signaling during age-dependent leaf senescence is evolutionarily conserved between dicots and monocots.

  1. ACAT inhibition reverses LCAT deficiency and improves plasma HDL in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, N D; Liang, K

    2004-11-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with increased risk of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and profound alteration of plasma lipid profile. Uremic dyslipidemia is marked by increased plasma concentration of ApoB-containing lipoproteins and impaired high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. These abnormalities are, in part, due to acquired LCAT deficiency and upregulation of hepatic acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). ACAT catalyzes intracellular esterification of cholesterol, thereby promoting hepatic production of ApoB-containing lipoproteins and constraining HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in the peripheral tissues. In view of the above considerations, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of ACAT may ameliorate CRF-induced dyslipidemia. 5/6 Nephrectomized rats were treated with either ACAT inhibitor IC-976 (30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or placebo for 6 wk. Sham-operated rats served as controls. Key cholesterol-regulating enzymes, plasma lipids, and creatinine clearance were measured. The untreated CRF rats exhibited increased plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL (VLDL) cholesterol, unchanged plasma HDL cholesterol, elevated total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, reduced liver microsomal free cholesterol, and diminished creatinine clearance. This was accompanied by reduced plasma LCAT, increased hepatic ACAT-2 mRNA, ACAT-2 protein and ACAT activity, and unchanged hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. ACAT inhibitor raised plasma HDL cholesterol, lowered LDL and VLDL cholesterol, and normalized total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio without changing total cholesterol concentration (hence, a shift from ApoB-containing lipoproteins to HDL). This was accompanied by normalizations of hepatic ACAT activity and plasma LCAT. In conclusion, inhibition of ACAT reversed LCAT deficiency and improved plasma HDL level in CRF rats. Future studies are needed to explore

  2. Mitotane Inhibits Sterol-O-Acyl Transferase 1 Triggering Lipid-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sbiera, Silviu; Leich, Ellen; Liebisch, Gerhard; Sbiera, Iuliu; Schirbel, Andreas; Wiemer, Laura; Matysik, Silke; Eckhardt, Carolin; Gardill, Felix; Gehl, Annemarie; Kendl, Sabine; Weigand, Isabel; Bala, Margarita; Ronchi, Cristina L; Deutschbein, Timo; Schmitz, Gerd; Rosenwald, Andreas; Allolio, Bruno; Fassnacht, Martin; Kroiss, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that harbors a dismal prognosis in advanced stages. Mitotane is approved as an orphan drug for treatment of ACC and counteracts tumor growth and steroid hormone production. Despite serious adverse effects, mitotane has been clinically used for decades. Elucidation of its unknown molecular mechanism of action seems essential to develop better ACC therapies. Here, we set out to identify the molecular target of mitotane and altered downstream mechanisms by combining expression genomics and mass spectrometry technology in the NCI-H295 ACC model cell line. Pathway analyses of expression genomics data demonstrated activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and profound alteration of lipid-related genes caused by mitotane treatment. ER stress marker CHOP was strongly induced and the two upstream ER stress signalling events XBP1-mRNA splicing and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 A (eIF2α) phosphorylation were activated by mitotane in NCI-H295 cells but to a much lesser extent in four nonsteroidogenic cell lines. Lipid mass spectrometry revealed mitotane-induced increase of free cholesterol, oxysterols, and fatty acids specifically in NCI-H295 cells as cause of ER stress. We demonstrate that mitotane is an inhibitor of sterol-O-acyl-transferase 1 (SOAT1) leading to accumulation of these toxic lipids. In ACC tissue samples we show variable SOAT1 expression correlating with the response to mitotane treatment. In conclusion, mitotane confers adrenal-specific cytotoxicity and down-regulates steroidogenesis by inhibition of SOAT1 leading to lipid-induced ER stress. Targeting of cancer-specific lipid metabolism opens new avenues for treatment of ACC and potentially other types of cancer.

  3. Classification of the adenylation and acyl-transferase activity of NRPS and PKS systems using ensembles of substrate specific hidden Markov models.

    PubMed

    Khayatt, Barzan I; Overmars, Lex; Siezen, Roland J; Francke, Christof

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) of microbes, fungi and plants because they can produce bioactive peptides such as antibiotics. The ability to identify the substrate specificity of the enzyme's adenylation (A) and acyl-transferase (AT) domains is essential to rationally deduce or engineer new products. We here report on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based ensemble method to predict the substrate specificity at high quality. We collected a new reference set of experimentally validated sequences. An initial classification based on alignment and Neighbor Joining was performed in line with most of the previously published prediction methods. We then created and tested single substrate specific HMMs and found that their use improved the correct identification significantly for A as well as for AT domains. A major advantage of the use of HMMs is that it abolishes the dependency on multiple sequence alignment and residue selection that is hampering the alignment-based clustering methods. Using our models we obtained a high prediction quality for the substrate specificity of the A domains similar to two recently published tools that make use of HMMs or Support Vector Machines (NRPSsp and NRPS predictor2, respectively). Moreover, replacement of the single substrate specific HMMs by ensembles of models caused a clear increase in prediction quality. We argue that the superiority of the ensemble over the single model is caused by the way substrate specificity evolves for the studied systems. It is likely that this also holds true for other protein domains. The ensemble predictor has been implemented in a simple web-based tool that is available at http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/NRPS-PKS-substrate-predictor/.

  4. Lipoprotein X Causes Renal Disease in LCAT Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ossoli, Alice; Neufeld, Edward B; Thacker, Seth G; Vaisman, Boris; Pryor, Milton; Freeman, Lita A; Brantner, Christine A; Baranova, Irina; Francone, Nicolás O; Demosky, Stephen J; Vitali, Cecilia; Locatelli, Monica; Abbate, Mauro; Zoja, Carlamaria; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-01-01

    Human familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency (FLD) is characterized by low HDL, accumulation of an abnormal cholesterol-rich multilamellar particle called lipoprotein-X (LpX) in plasma, and renal disease. The aim of our study was to determine if LpX is nephrotoxic and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of FLD renal disease. We administered a synthetic LpX, nearly identical to endogenous LpX in its physical, chemical and biologic characteristics, to wild-type and Lcat-/- mice. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated an apoA-I and LCAT-dependent pathway for LpX conversion to HDL-like particles, which likely mediates normal plasma clearance of LpX. Plasma clearance of exogenous LpX was markedly delayed in Lcat-/- mice, which have low HDL, but only minimal amounts of endogenous LpX and do not spontaneously develop renal disease. Chronically administered exogenous LpX deposited in all renal glomerular cellular and matrical compartments of Lcat-/- mice, and induced proteinuria and nephrotoxic gene changes, as well as all of the hallmarks of FLD renal disease as assessed by histological, TEM, and SEM analyses. Extensive in vivo EM studies revealed LpX uptake by macropinocytosis into mouse glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells and delivery to lysosomes where it was degraded. Endocytosed LpX appeared to be degraded by both human podocyte and mesangial cell lysosomal PLA2 and induced podocyte secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in vitro and renal Cxl10 expression in Lcat-/- mice. In conclusion, LpX is a nephrotoxic particle that in the absence of Lcat induces all of the histological and functional hallmarks of FLD and hence may serve as a biomarker for monitoring recombinant LCAT therapy. In addition, our studies suggest that LpX-induced loss of endothelial barrier function and release of cytokines by renal glomerular cells likely plays a role in the initiation and progression of FLD nephrosis.

  5. Lipoprotein X Causes Renal Disease in LCAT Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Seth G.; Vaisman, Boris; Pryor, Milton; Freeman, Lita A.; Brantner, Christine A.; Baranova, Irina; Francone, Nicolás O.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Vitali, Cecilia; Locatelli, Monica; Abbate, Mauro; Zoja, Carlamaria; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Human familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency (FLD) is characterized by low HDL, accumulation of an abnormal cholesterol-rich multilamellar particle called lipoprotein-X (LpX) in plasma, and renal disease. The aim of our study was to determine if LpX is nephrotoxic and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of FLD renal disease. We administered a synthetic LpX, nearly identical to endogenous LpX in its physical, chemical and biologic characteristics, to wild-type and Lcat-/- mice. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated an apoA-I and LCAT-dependent pathway for LpX conversion to HDL-like particles, which likely mediates normal plasma clearance of LpX. Plasma clearance of exogenous LpX was markedly delayed in Lcat-/- mice, which have low HDL, but only minimal amounts of endogenous LpX and do not spontaneously develop renal disease. Chronically administered exogenous LpX deposited in all renal glomerular cellular and matrical compartments of Lcat-/- mice, and induced proteinuria and nephrotoxic gene changes, as well as all of the hallmarks of FLD renal disease as assessed by histological, TEM, and SEM analyses. Extensive in vivo EM studies revealed LpX uptake by macropinocytosis into mouse glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells and delivery to lysosomes where it was degraded. Endocytosed LpX appeared to be degraded by both human podocyte and mesangial cell lysosomal PLA2 and induced podocyte secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in vitro and renal Cxl10 expression in Lcat-/- mice. In conclusion, LpX is a nephrotoxic particle that in the absence of Lcat induces all of the histological and functional hallmarks of FLD and hence may serve as a biomarker for monitoring recombinant LCAT therapy. In addition, our studies suggest that LpX-induced loss of endothelial barrier function and release of cytokines by renal glomerular cells likely plays a role in the initiation and progression of FLD nephrosis. PMID:26919698

  6. Cloning and Characterisation of (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-acyl Carrier Protein-coenzyme A Transferase Gene (phaG) from Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55.

    PubMed

    Arsad, Hasni; Sudesh, Kumar; Nazalan, Najimudin; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Wahab, Habibah; Razip Samian, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    The (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP-CoA transferase catalyses the conversion of (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP to (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA derivatives, which serves as the ultimate precursor for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerisation from unrelated substrates in pseudomonads. PhaG was found to be responsible for channelling precursors for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from a de novo fatty acid biosynthesis pathway when cultured on carbohydrates, such as glucose or gluconate. The phaG gene was cloned from Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55 using a homologous probe. The gene was located in a 3660 bp Sal I fragment (GenBank accession number EU305558). The open reading frame (ORF) was 885 bp long and encoded a 295 amino acid protein. The predicted molecular weight was 33251 Da, and it showed a 62% identity to the PhaG of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The function of the cloned phaG of Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55 was confirmed by complementation studies. Plasmid pBCS39, which harboured the 3660 bp Sal I fragment, was found to complement the PhaG-mutant heterologous host cell, Pseudomonas putida PhaGN-21. P. putida PhaGN-21, which harboured pBCS39, accumulated PHA that accounted for up to 18% of its cellular dry weight (CDW). P. putida PhaGN-21, which harboured the vector alone (PBBR1MCS-2), accumulated only 0.6% CDW of PHA.

  7. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid to n-3 LCPUFA and expression of PPAR-alpha, acyl Coenzyme A oxidase 1 and carnitine acyl transferase I are incremented after feeding rats with α-linolenic acid-rich oils.

    PubMed

    González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys; Gormaz, Juan Guillermo; D'Espessailles, Amanda; Espinosa, Alejandra; Masson, Lilia; Varela, Patricia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Valenzuela, Rodrigo

    2012-07-01

    High dietary intake of n-6 fatty acids in relation to n-3 fatty acids may generate health disorders, such as cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Fish consumption rich in n-3 fatty acids is low in Latin America, it being necessary to seek other alternatives to provide α-linolenic acid (ALA), precursor of n-3 LCPUFA (EPA and DHA). Two innovative oils were assayed, chia (Salvia hispanica) and rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa). This study evaluated hepatic bioconversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, expression of PPAR-α, acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT-I), and accumulation of EPA and DHA in plasma and adipose tissue in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three experimental groups were fed 21 days: sunflower oil (SFO, control); chia oil (CO); rosa mosqueta oil (RMO). Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids from plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and TLC. Expression of PPAR-α (RT-PCR) and ACOX1 and CAT-I (Western blot). CO and RMO increased plasma, hepatic and adipose tissue levels of ALA, EPA and DHA and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio compared to SFO (p < 0.05, One-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls test). CO increased levels of ALA and EPA compared to RMO (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for DHA levels. CO also increased the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I. Only CAT-I levels were increased by RO. CO and RMO may be a nutritional alternative to provide ALA for its bioconversion to EPA and DHA, and to increase the expression of PPAR-α, ACOX1 and CAT-I, especially CO-oil.

  8. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Seth G; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L; Kruth, Howard S; Adelman, Steven J; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-07-01

    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(-/-)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-null [Lcat(-/-)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrate that increased cholesterol esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles.

  9. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    SciTech Connect

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  10. Human plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. On the substrate efficiency of cholest-5-ene-3 beta-thiol as a fatty acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G; Dolphin, P J

    1995-09-14

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a plasma enzyme which catalyses cholesteryl ester formation from lecithin and cholesterol present in the surface of plasma lipoproteins. Sterol fatty acid acceptors have previously been shown to require the presence of a trans conformation of the A/B ring and a 3 beta-OH group. Our laboratory has, however, demonstrated that two thiol sites within LCAT can become fatty acylated following lecithin cleavage although this does not appear to be essential for catalysis. In order to assess the ability of LCAT to donate a fatty acid derived from the sn-2 position of lecithin and present as an acyl enzyme intermediate (linked via an oxyester bond to Ser-181) to a sulfhydryl residue, we evaluated the ability of cholest-5-ene-3 beta-thiol to act as a substrate for cholesterol ester formation by LCAT. Thiocholesterol was a good terminal fatty acyl acceptor when incorporated into synthetic proteoliposomes containing lecithin/thiocholesterol/apo A-I in the molar ratios of 250:15:0.8. The Km for thiocholesterol was 203.6 microM with a Vmax of 5.3 nmol thiocholesteryl ester formed/h per microgram. The Km for cholesterol when substituted for thiocholesterol in the proteoliposomes was 29.5 microM with a Vmax of 8.8 nmol cholesteryl ester formed/h per microgram. Thiocholesterol and cholesterol were shown to occupy the same catalytic site in LCAT. Thus, thiocholesterol exhibits approx. 10% of the substrate efficiency of cholesterol when incubated with pure human LCAT. We conclude that LCAT can transacylate a fatty acyl moiety from the sn-2 position of lecithin to the 3 beta-SH group of thiocholesterol forming a cholesteryl thioester. Although the 3 beta-SH group is not as good a terminal acceptor as the 3 beta-OH group of cholesterol, LCAT is clearly capable of transacylating a fatty acid esterified via an oxyester linkage to one containing a thioester.

  11. Understanding Acyl Chain and Glycerolipid Metabolism in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlrogge, John B.

    2013-11-05

    Progress is reported in these areas: acyl-editing in initial eukaryotic lipid assembly in soybean seeds; identification and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana lysophosphatidyl acyltransferases with preference for lysophosphatidylethanolamine; and characterization and subcellular distribution of lysolipid acyl transferase activity of pea leaves.

  12. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Seth G.; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L.; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A.; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L.; Kruth, Howard S.; Adelman, Steven J.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(−/−)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-null [Lcat(−/−)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(−/−) mice (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrate that increased cholesterol esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles. PMID:25964513

  13. Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT) Deficiency Promotes Differentiation of Satellite Cells to Brown Adipocytes in a Cholesterol-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Nesan, Dinushan; Tavallaee, Ghazaleh; Koh, Deborah; Bashiri, Amir; Abdin, Rawand; Ng, Dominic S

    2015-12-18

    Our laboratory previously reported that lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and LDL receptor double knock-out mice (Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(-/-) or DKO) spontaneously develop functioning ectopic brown adipose tissue (BAT) in skeletal muscle, putatively contributing to protection from the diet-induced obesity phenotype. Here we further investigated their developmental origin and the mechanistic role of LCAT deficiency. Gene profiling of skeletal muscle in DKO newborns and adults revealed a classical lineage. Primary quiescent satellite cells (SC) from chow-fed DKO mice, not in Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(+/+) single-knock-out (SKO) or C57BL/6 wild type, were found to (i) express exclusively classical BAT-selective genes, (ii) be primed to express key functional BAT genes, and (iii) exhibit markedly increased ex vivo adipogenic differentiation into brown adipocytes. This gene priming effect was abrogated upon feeding the mice a 2% high cholesterol diet in association with accumulation of excess intracellular cholesterol. Ex vivo cholesterol loading of chow-fed DKO SC recapitulated the effect, indicating that cellular cholesterol is a key regulator of SC-to-BAT differentiation. Comparing adipogenicity of Ldlr(+/+)xLcat(-/-) (LCAT-KO) SC with DKO SC identified a role for LCAT deficiency in priming SC to express BAT genes. Additionally, we found that reduced cellular cholesterol is important for adipogenic differentiation, evidenced by increased induction of adipogenesis in cholesterol-depleted SC from both LCAT-KO and SKO mice. Taken together, we conclude that ectopic BAT in DKO mice is classical in origin, and its development begins in utero. We further showed complementary roles of LCAT deficiency and cellular cholesterol reduction in the SC-to-BAT adipogenesis.

  14. Ghrelin acylation and metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Al Massadi, O; Tschöp, M H; Tong, J

    2011-11-01

    Since its discovery, many physiologic functions have been ascribed to ghrelin, a gut derived hormone. The presence of a median fatty acid side chain on the ghrelin peptide is required for the binding and activation of the classical ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-1a. Ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) was recently discovered as the enzyme responsible for this acylation process. GOAT is expressed in all tissues that have been found to express ghrelin and has demonstrated actions on several complex endocrine organ systems such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal, insular and adrenal axis as well as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, bone and gustatory system. Ghrelin acylation is dependent on the function of GOAT and the availability of substrates such as proghrelin and short- to medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). This process is governed by GOAT activity and has been shown to be modified by dietary lipids. In this review, we provided evidence that support an important role of GOAT in the regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism by modulating acyl ghrelin (AG) production. The relevance of GOAT and AG during periods of starvation remains to be defined. In addition, we summarized the recent literature on the metabolic effects of GOAT specific inhibitors and shared our view on the potential of targeting GOAT for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  15. Coincubation of PON1, APO A1, and LCAT increases the time HDL is able to prevent LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hine, David; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike

    2012-02-01

    The inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a major antiatherogenic property of this lipoprotein. This activity is due, in part, to HDL associated proteins. However, whether these proteins interact in the antioxidant activity of HDL is unknown. LDL was incubated with apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) alone or in combination, in the presence or absence of HDL under oxidizing conditions. LDL lipid peroxide concentrations were determined. Apo A1, LCAT, and PON1 all inhibit LDL oxidation in the absence of HDL and enhance the ability of HDL to inhibit LDL oxidation. Their effect was additive rather than synergistic; the combination of these proteins significantly enhanced the length of time LDL was protected from oxidation. This seemed to be due to the ability of PON1 to prevent the oxidative inactivation of LCAT. Apo A1, LCAT, and PON1 can all contribute to the antioxidant activity of HDL in vitro. The combination of apo A1, LCAT, and PON1 prolongs the time that HDL can prevent LDL oxidation, due, at least in part, to the prevention LCAT inactivation.

  16. Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P.; Edwards, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The 55 Arabidopsis glutathione transferases (GSTs) are, with one microsomal exception, a monophyletic group of soluble enzymes that can be divided into phi, tau, theta, zeta, lambda, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and TCHQD classes. The populous phi and tau classes are often highly stress inducible and regularly crop up in proteomic and transcriptomic studies. Despite much study on their xenobiotic-detoxifying activities their natural roles are unclear, although roles in defence-related secondary metabolism are likely. The smaller DHAR and lambda classes are likely glutathione-dependent reductases, the zeta class functions in tyrosine catabolism and the theta class has a putative role in detoxifying oxidised lipids. This review describes the evidence for the functional roles of GSTs and the potential for these enzymes to perform diverse functions that in many cases are not “glutathione transferase” activities. As well as biochemical data, expression data from proteomic and transcriptomic studies are included, along with subcellular localisation experiments and the results of functional genomic studies. PMID:22303257

  17. Molecular phylogeny of rodents, with special emphasis on murids: evidence from nuclear gene LCAT.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M; Catzeflis, F; Briolay, J; Mouchiroud, D

    1997-12-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 19 extant species of rodents, with special emphasis on rats, mice, and allied Muroidea, were studied using sequences of the nuclear protein-coding gene LCAT (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase), an enzyme of cholesterol metabolism. Analysis of 705 base pairs from the exonic regions of LCAT confirmed known groupings in and around Muroidea. Strong support was found for the families Sciuridae (squirrel and marmot) and Gliridae (dormice) and for suprafamilial taxa Muroidea and Caviomorpha (guinea pig and allies). Within Muroidea, the first branching leads to the fossorial mole rats Spalacinae and bamboo rats Rhizomyinae. The other Muroidea appear as a polytomy from which are issued Gerbillinae (gerbils), Murinae (rats and mice), Sigmodontinae (New World cricetids), Cricetinae (hamsters), and Arvicolinae (voles). Evidence from LCAT sequences agrees with that from a number of previous molecular and morphological studies, both concerning branching orders inside Muroidea and the bush-like radiation of rodent suprafamilial taxa (caviomorphs, sciurids, glirids, muroids), thus suggesting that this nuclear gene is an appropriate candidate for addressing questions of rodents relationships.

  18. CFD Analysis of Flexible Thermal Protection System Shear Configuration Testing in the LCAT Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlemann, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents results of computational analysis performed after flexible thermal protection system shear configuration testing in the LCAT facility. The primary objectives were to predict the shear force on the sample and the sensitivity of all surface properties to the shape of the sample. Bumps of 0.05, 0.10,and 0.15 inches were created to approximate the shape of some fabric samples during testing. A large amount of information was extracted from the CFD solutions for comparison between runs and also current or future flight simulations.

  19. Progress toward Understanding Protein S-acylation: Prospective in Plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxiao; Qi, Baoxiu

    2017-01-01

    S-acylation, also known as S-palmitoylation or palmitoylation, is a reversible post-translational lipid modification in which long chain fatty acid, usually the 16-carbon palmitate, covalently attaches to a cysteine residue(s) throughout the protein via a thioester bond. It is involved in an array of important biological processes during growth and development, reproduction and stress responses in plant. S-acylation is a ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotes catalyzed by a family of enzymes called Protein S-Acyl Transferases (PATs). Since the discovery of the first PAT in yeast in 2002 research in S-acylation has accelerated in the mammalian system and followed by in plant. However, it is still a difficult field to study due to the large number of PATs and even larger number of putative S-acylated substrate proteins they modify in each genome. This is coupled with drawbacks in the techniques used to study S-acylation, leading to the slower progress in this field compared to protein phosphorylation, for example. In this review we will summarize the discoveries made so far based on knowledge learnt from the characterization of protein S-acyltransferases and the S-acylated proteins, the interaction mechanisms between PAT and its specific substrate protein(s) in yeast and mammals. Research in protein S-acylation and PATs in plants will also be covered although this area is currently less well studied in yeast and mammalian systems.

  20. Progress toward Understanding Protein S-acylation: Prospective in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaxiao; Qi, Baoxiu

    2017-01-01

    S-acylation, also known as S-palmitoylation or palmitoylation, is a reversible post-translational lipid modification in which long chain fatty acid, usually the 16-carbon palmitate, covalently attaches to a cysteine residue(s) throughout the protein via a thioester bond. It is involved in an array of important biological processes during growth and development, reproduction and stress responses in plant. S-acylation is a ubiquitous mechanism in eukaryotes catalyzed by a family of enzymes called Protein S-Acyl Transferases (PATs). Since the discovery of the first PAT in yeast in 2002 research in S-acylation has accelerated in the mammalian system and followed by in plant. However, it is still a difficult field to study due to the large number of PATs and even larger number of putative S-acylated substrate proteins they modify in each genome. This is coupled with drawbacks in the techniques used to study S-acylation, leading to the slower progress in this field compared to protein phosphorylation, for example. In this review we will summarize the discoveries made so far based on knowledge learnt from the characterization of protein S-acyltransferases and the S-acylated proteins, the interaction mechanisms between PAT and its specific substrate protein(s) in yeast and mammals. Research in protein S-acylation and PATs in plants will also be covered although this area is currently less well studied in yeast and mammalian systems. PMID:28392791

  1. Enzymatic Glycosylation by Transferases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blixt, Ola; Razi, Nahid

    Glycosyltransferases are important biological catalysts in cellular systems generating complex cell surface glycans involved in adhesion and signaling processes. Recent advances in glycoscience have increased the demands to access significant amount of glycans representing the glycome. Glycosyltransferases are now playing a key role for in vitro synthesis of oligosaccharides and the bacterial genome are increasingly utilized for cloning and over expression of active transferases in glycosylation reactions. This chapter highlights the recent progress towards preparative synthesis of oligosaccharides representing terminal sequences of glycoproteins and glycolipids using recombinant transferases. Transferases are also being explored in the context of solid-phase synthesis, immobilized on resins and over expression in vivo by engineered bacteria.

  2. Oxidative acylation using thioacids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.

    1997-01-01

    Several important prebiotic reactions, including the coupling of amino acids into polypeptides by the formation of amide linkages, involve acylation. Theae reactions present a challenge to the understanding of prebiotic synthesis. Condensation reactions relying on dehydrating agents are either inefficient in aqueous solution or require strongly acidic conditions and high temperatures. Activated amino acids such as thioester derivatives have therefore been suggested as likely substrates for prebiotic peptide synthesis. Here we propose a closely related route to amide bond formation involving oxidative acylation by thioacids. We find that phenylalanine, leucine and phenylphosphate are acylated efficiently in aqueous solution by thioacetic acid and an oxidizing agent. From a prebiotic point of view, oxidative acylation has the advantage of proceeding efficiently in solution and under mild conditions. We anticipate that oxidative acylation should prove to be a general method for activating carboxylic acids, including amino acids.

  3. Des-acyl ghrelin prevents heatstroke-like symptoms in rats exposed to high temperature and high humidity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Yujiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Noboru; Nakahara, Keiko

    2016-02-26

    We have shown previously that des-acyl ghrelin decreases body temperature in rats through activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. Here we investigated whether des-acyl ghrelin ameliorates heatstroke in rats exposed to high temperature. Peripheral administration of des-acyl ghrelin significantly attenuated hyperthermia induced by exposure to high-temperature (35°C) together with high humidity (70-80%). Although biochemical analysis revealed that exposure to high temperature significantly increased hematocrit and the serum levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)), most of these heatstroke-associated reactions were significantly reduced by treatment with des-acyl ghrelin. The level of des-acyl ghrelin in plasma was also found to be significantly increased under high-temperature conditions. These results suggest that des-acyl ghrelin could be useful for preventing heatstroke under high temperature condition.

  4. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2010-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:22303259

  5. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  6. Compared with Acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) 1 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, ACAT2 displays the greatest capacity to differentiate cholesterol from sitosterol.

    PubMed

    Temel, Ryan E; Gebre, Abraham K; Parks, John S; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2003-11-28

    The capacity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) 2 to differentiate cholesterol from the plant sterol, sitosterol, was compared with that of the sterol esterifying enzymes, ACAT1 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Cholesterol-loaded microsomes from transfected cells containing either ACAT1 or ACAT2 exhibited significantly more ACAT activity than their sitosterol-loaded counterparts. In sitosterol-loaded microsomes, both ACAT1 and ACAT2 were able to esterify sitosterol albeit with lower efficiencies than cholesterol. The mass ratios of cholesterol ester to sitosterol ester formed by ACAT1 and ACAT2 were 1.6 and 7.2, respectively. Compared with ACAT1, ACAT2 selectively esterified cholesterol even when sitosterol was loaded into the microsomes. To further characterize the difference in sterol specificity, ACAT1 and ACAT2 were compared in intact cells loaded with either cholesterol or sitosterol. Despite a lower level of ACAT activity, the ACAT1-expressing cells esterified 4-fold more sitosterol than the ACAT2 cells. The data showed that compared with ACAT1, ACAT2 displayed significantly greater selectively for cholesterol compared with sitosterol. The plasma cholesterol esterification enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase was also compared. With recombinant high density lipoprotein particles, the esterification rate of cholesterol by LCAT was only 15% greater than for sitosterol. Thus, LCAT was able to efficiently esterify both cholesterol and sitosterol. In contrast, ACAT2 demonstrated a strong preference for cholesterol rather than sitosterol. This sterol selectivity by ACAT2 may reflect a role in the sorting of dietary sterols during their absorption by the intestine in vivo.

  7. Plant glutathione transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Lapthorn, Adrian; Edwards, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are encoded by a large and diverse gene family in plants, which can be divided on the basis of sequence identity into the phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The theta and zeta GSTs have counterparts in animals but the other classes are plant-specific and form the focus of this article. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 48 GST genes, with the tau and phi classes being the most numerous. The GST proteins have evolved by gene duplication to perform a range of functional roles using the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate or coenzyme. GSTs are predominantly expressed in the cytosol, where their GSH-dependent catalytic functions include the conjugation and resulting detoxification of herbicides, the reduction of organic hydroperoxides formed during oxidative stress and the isomerization of maleylacetoacetate to fumarylacetoacetate, a key step in the catabolism of tyrosine. GSTs also have non-catalytic roles, binding flavonoid natural products in the cytosol prior to their deposition in the vacuole. Recent studies have also implicated GSTs as components of ultraviolet-inducible cell signaling pathways and as potential regulators of apoptosis. Although sequence diversification has produced GSTs with multiple functions, the structure of these proteins has been highly conserved. The GSTs thus represent an excellent example of how protein families can diversify to fulfill multiple functions while conserving form and structure. PMID:11897031

  8. Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-08

    ACCESSION NO.D,. 03261102F 2312 A~5 11. TITLE (include Securqt Classification) 0 Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 12. PERSONAL...I’:- AFOSR.Tlt. 8 7 - 0 9 8,2 0IL * pi AFOSR- 85 -0377 PROGRESS REPORT Molecular Cloning of Adenosinediphosphoribosyl Transferase 5." Period of...Pharmacology and the Cardiovascular Research Institute September 8, 1987 .’, 5.’- "’S ". -f, AFOSR - 85 -0377 PROGRESS REPORT Molecular Cloning of

  9. Crystallographic trapping of the glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate of family I CoA transferases

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan,E.; Li, Y.; Ajamian, E.; Iannuzzi, P.; Kernaghan, S.; Fraser, M.; Cygler, M.; Matte, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coenzyme A transferases are involved in a broad range of biochemical processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and exhibit a diverse range of substrate specificities. The YdiF protein from Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an acyl-CoA transferase of unknown physiological function, and belongs to a large sequence family of CoA transferases, present in bacteria to humans, which utilize oxoacids as acceptors. In vitro measurements showed that YdiF displays enzymatic activity with short-chain acyl-CoAs. The crystal structures of YdiF and its complex with CoA, the first co-crystal structure for any Family I CoA transferase, have been determined and refined at 1.9 and 2.0 Angstrom resolution, respectively. YdiF is organized into tetramers, with each monomer having an open {alpha}/{beta} structure characteristic of Family I CoA transferases. Co-crystallization of YdiF with a variety of CoA thioesters in the absence of acceptor carboxylic acid resulted in trapping a covalent {gamma}-glutamyl-CoA thioester intermediate. The CoA binds within a well defined pocket at the N- and C-terminal domain interface, but makes contact only with the C-terminal domain. The structure of the YdiF complex provides a basis for understanding the different catalytic steps in the reaction of Family I CoA transferases.

  10. Protein-based peptide-bond formation by aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazunori; Toh, Yukimatsu; Suto, Kyoko; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Oka, Natsuhisa; Wada, Takeshi; Tomita, Kozo

    2007-10-18

    Eubacterial leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase (LF-transferase) catalyses peptide-bond formation by using Leu-tRNA(Leu) (or Phe-tRNA(Phe)) and an amino-terminal Arg (or Lys) of a protein, as donor and acceptor substrates, respectively. However, the catalytic mechanism of peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase remained obscure. Here we determine the structures of complexes of LF-transferase and phenylalanyl adenosine, with and without a short peptide bearing an N-terminal Arg. Combining the two separate structures into one structure as well as mutation studies reveal the mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase. The electron relay from Asp 186 to Gln 188 helps Gln 188 to attract a proton from the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal Arg of the acceptor peptide. This generates the attacking nucleophile for the carbonyl carbon of the aminoacyl bond of the aminoacyl-tRNA, thus facilitating peptide-bond formation. The protein-based mechanism for peptide-bond formation by LF-transferase is similar to the reverse reaction of the acylation step observed in the peptide hydrolysis reaction by serine proteases.

  11. Acylation of Ferrocene: A Greener Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Nguyen, Andy; Ramos, Eric J.; Kobelja, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The acylation of ferrocene is a common reaction used in organic laboratories to demonstrate Friedel-Crafts acylation and the purification of compounds using column chromatography. This article describes an acylation of ferrocene experiment that is more eco-friendly than the conventional acylation experiment. The traditional experiment was modified…

  12. Glycosyltransferases from oat (Avena) implicated in the acylation of avenacins.

    PubMed

    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T; Goss, Rebecca J M; Field, Robert A; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-02-08

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid.

  13. Glutathione transferases and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Anna Paola; Fiorile, Maria Carmela; Primavera, Alessandra; Lo Bello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    There is substantial agreement that the unbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species may affect the onset and/or the course of a number of common diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Many studies suggest a crucial role for oxidative stress in the first phase of aging, or in the pathogenesis of various diseases including neurological ones. Particularly, the role exerted by glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes (Glutathione Transferases) in the nervous system appears more relevant, this latter tissue being much more vulnerable to toxins and oxidative stress than other tissues such as liver, kidney or muscle. The present review addresses the question by focusing on the results obtained by specimens from patients or by in vitro studies using cells or animal models related to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. In general, there is an association between glutathione depletion and Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. In addition, a significant decrease of glutathione transferase activity in selected areas of brain and in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid was found. For some glutathione transferase genes there is also a correlation between polymorphisms and onset/outcome of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, there is a general agreement about the protective effect exerted by glutathione and glutathione transferases but no clear answer about the mechanisms underlying this crucial role in the insurgence of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. p-Coumaroyl-CoA:monolignol transferase (PMT) acts specifically in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Deborah L; Karlen, Steven D; Cass, Cynthia L; Padmakshan, Dharshana; Lu, Fachuang; Liu, Sarah; Le Bris, Philippe; Antelme, Sébastien; Santoro, Nicholas; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Sibout, Richard; Lapierre, Catherine; Ralph, John; Sedbrook, John C

    2014-03-01

    Grass lignins contain substantial amounts of p-coumarate (pCA) that acylate the side-chains of the phenylpropanoid polymer backbone. An acyltransferase, named p-coumaroyl-CoA:monolignol transferase (OsPMT), that could acylate monolignols with pCA in vitro was recently identified from rice. In planta, such monolignol-pCA conjugates become incorporated into lignin via oxidative radical coupling, thereby generating the observed pCA appendages; however p-coumarates also acylate arabinoxylans in grasses. To test the authenticity of PMT as a lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, we examined Brachypodium distachyon plants with altered BdPMT gene function. Using newly developed cell wall analytical methods, we determined that the transferase was involved specifically in monolignol acylation. A sodium azide-generated Bdpmt-1 missense mutant had no (<0.5%) residual pCA on lignin, and BdPMT RNAi plants had levels as low as 10% of wild-type, whereas the amounts of pCA acylating arabinosyl units on arabinoxylans in these PMT mutant plants remained unchanged. pCA acylation of lignin from BdPMT-overexpressing plants was found to be more than three-fold higher than that of wild-type, but again the level on arabinosyl units remained unchanged. Taken together, these data are consistent with a defined role for grass PMT genes in encoding BAHD (BEAT, AHCT, HCBT, and DAT) acyltransferases that specifically acylate monolignols with pCA and produce monolignol p-coumarate conjugates that are used for lignification in planta.

  15. Chemical Reporters for Exploring Protein Acylation

    PubMed Central

    Thinon, Emmanuelle; Hang, Howard C.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are acylated by a variety of metabolites that regulates many important cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life. Acyl groups in cells can vary in structure from the smallest unit, acetate, to modified long chain fatty acids, all of which can be activated and covalently attached to diverse amino acid side chains and consequently modulate protein function. For example, acetylation of Lys residues can alter the charge state of proteins and generate new recognition elements for protein–protein interactions. Alternatively, long chain fatty-acylation targets proteins to membranes and enables spatial control of cell signalling. To facilitate the analysis of protein acylation in biology, acyl analogues bearing alkyne or azide tags have been developed that enable fluorescent imaging and proteomic profiling of modified proteins using bioorthogonal ligation methods. Herein, we summarize the currently available acylation chemical reporters and highlight their utility to discover and quantify the roles of protein acylation in biology. PMID:25849926

  16. The Phosphopantetheinyl Transferases: Catalysis of a Posttranslational Modification Crucial for Life

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Vickery, Christopher R.; Noel, Joseph P.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Although holo-acyl carrier protein synthase, AcpS, a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase), was characterized in the 1960s, it was not until the publication of the landmark paper by Lambalot et al. in 1996 that PPTases garnered wide-spread attention being classified as a distinct enzyme superfamily. In the past two decades an increasing number of papers has been published on PPTases ranging from identification, characterization, structure determination, mutagenesis, inhibition, and engineering in synthetic biology. In this review, we comprehensively discuss all current knowledge on this class of enzymes that post-translationally install a 4′-phosphopantetheine arm on various carrier proteins. PMID:24292120

  17. Hibiscus cannabinus feruloyl-coa:monolignol transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-15

    The invention relates to isolated nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes. The isolated nucleic acids and/or the enzymes enable incorporation of monolignol ferulates into the lignin of plants, where such monolignol ferulates include, for example, p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and/or sinapyl ferulate. The invention also includes methods and plants that include nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme and/or feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzymes.

  18. Substrate specificity of the acyl transferase domains of EpoC from the epothilone polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Petković, Hrvoje; Sandmann, Axel; Challis, Iain R; Hecht, Hans-Jürgen; Silakowski, Barbara; Low, Lindsey; Beeston, Nicola; Kuscer, Enej; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Leadlay, Peter F; Kendrew, Steven G; Wilkinson, Barrie; Müller, Rolf

    2008-02-07

    The production of epothilone mixtures is a direct consequence of the substrate tolerance of the module 3 acyltransferase (AT) domain of the epothilone polyketide synthase (PKS) which utilises both malonyl- and methylmalonyl-CoA extender units. Particular amino acid motifs in the active site of AT domains influence substrate selection for methylmalonyl-CoA (YASH) or malonyl-CoA (HAFH). This motif appears in hybrid form (HASH) in epoAT3 and may represent the molecular basis for the relaxed specificity of the domain. To investigate this possibility the AT domains from modules 2 and 3 of the epothilone PKS were examined in the heterologous DEBS1-TE model PKS. Substitution of AT1 of DEBS1-TE by epoAT2 and epoAT3 both resulted in functional PKSs, although lower yields of total products were observed when compared to DEBS1-TE (2% and 11.5% respectively). As expected, epoAT3 was significantly more promiscuous in keeping with its nature during epothilone biosynthesis. When the mixed motif (HASH) of epoAT3 within the hybrid PKS was mutated to HAFH (indicative of malonyl-CoA selection) it resulted in a non-productive PKS. When this mixed motif was converted to YASH (indicative of methylmalonyl-CoA selection) the selectivity of the hybrid PKS for methylmalonyl-CoA showed no statistically significant increase, and was associated with a loss of productivity.

  19. The Physiology of Protein S-acylation

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Luke H.; Shipston, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-acylation, the only fully reversible posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, is emerging as a ubiquitous mechanism to control the properties and function of a diverse array of proteins and consequently physiological processes. S-acylation results from the enzymatic addition of long-chain lipids, most typically palmitate, onto intracellular cysteine residues of soluble and transmembrane proteins via a labile thioester linkage. Addition of lipid results in increases in protein hydrophobicity that can impact on protein structure, assembly, maturation, trafficking, and function. The recent explosion in global S-acylation (palmitoyl) proteomic profiling as a result of improved biochemical tools to assay S-acylation, in conjunction with the recent identification of enzymes that control protein S-acylation and de-acylation, has opened a new vista into the physiological function of S-acylation. This review introduces key features of S-acylation and tools to interrogate this process, and highlights the eclectic array of proteins regulated including membrane receptors, ion channels and transporters, enzymes and kinases, signaling adapters and chaperones, cell adhesion, and structural proteins. We highlight recent findings correlating disruption of S-acylation to pathophysiology and disease and discuss some of the major challenges and opportunities in this rapidly expanding field. PMID:25834228

  20. Feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase

    DOEpatents

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-09-13

    The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.

  1. Feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase

    DOEpatents

    Wilkerson, Curtis; Ralph, John; Withers, Saunia; Mansfield, Shawn D.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.

  2. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  3. 21 CFR 862.1535 - Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... carbamyl transferase (OCT) in serum. Ornithine carbamyl transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases, such as infectious hepatitis, acute cholecystitis (inflammation...

  4. The Drosophila protein palmitoylome: Characterizing palmitoyl-thioesterases and DHHC palmitoyl-transferases

    PubMed Central

    Bannan, Barbra A.; Van Etten, Jamie; Kohler, John A.; Tsoi, Yui; Hansen, Nicole M.; Sigmon, Stacey; Fowler, Elizabeth; Buff, Haley; Williams, Tiffany S.; Ault, Jeffrey G.; Glaser, Robert L.; Korey, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Palmitoylation is the post-translational addition of a palmitate moiety to a cysteine residue through a covalent thioester bond. The addition and removal of this modification is controlled by both palmitoyl acyl-transferases and thioesterases. Using bioinformatic analysis, we identified 22 DHHC family palmitoyl acyl-transferase homologs in the Drosophila genome. We used in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and published FlyAtlas microarray data to characterize the expression patterns of all 22 fly homologs. Our results indicate that all are expressed genes, but several, including CG1407, CG4676, CG5620, CG6017/dHIP14, CG6618, CG6627, and CG17257 appear to be enriched in neural tissues suggesting that they are important for neural function. Furthermore, we have found that several may be expressed in a sex-specific manner with adult male-specific expression of CG4483 and CG17195. Using tagged versions of the DHHC genes, we demonstrate that fly DHHC proteins are primarily located in either the Golgi Apparatus or Endoplasmic Reticulum in S2 cells, except for CG1407, which was found on the plasma membrane. We also characterized the subcellular localization and expression of the three known thioesterases: Palmitoyl-protein Thioesterase 1 (Ppt1), Palmitoyl-protein Thioesterase 2 (Ppt2), and Acyl-protein Thioesterase 1 (APT1). Our results indicate that Ppt1 and Ppt2 are the major lysosomal thioesterases while APT1 is the likely cytoplasmic thioesterase. Finally, in vivo rescue experiments show that Ppt2 expression cannot rescue the neural inclusion phenotypes associated with loss of Ppt1, further supporting distinct functions and substrates for these two thioesterases. These results will serve as the basis for a more complete understanding of the protein palmitoylome's normal cellular functions in the fly and will lead to further insights into the molecular etiology of diseases associated with the mis-regulation of palmitoylation. PMID:18719403

  5. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate encodes a transferase required for feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids in cutin polyester.

    PubMed

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E K; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-02-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C(16) and C(18) unsubstituted, ω-hydroxy, and α,ω-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm.

  6. Acyl hydrolases from trans-AT polyketide synthases target acetyl units on acyl carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Matthew; Afonso, Jose P; Kohlhaas, Christoph; Karbaum, Petra; Frank, Sarah; Piel, Jörn; Oldham, Neil J

    2016-04-18

    Acyl hydrolase (AH) domains are a common feature of trans-AT PKSs. They have been hypothesised to perform a proofreading function by removing acyl chains from stalled sites. This study determines the substrate tolerance of the AH PedC for a range of acyl-ACPs. Clear preference towards short, linear acyl-ACPs is shown, with acetyl-ACP the best substrate. These results imply a more targeted housekeeping role for PedC: namely the removal of unwanted acetyl groups from ACP domains caused by erroneous transfer of acetyl-CoA, or possibly by decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP.

  7. Automation of PRM-dependent D3-Leu tracer enrichment in HDL to study the metabolism of apoA-I, LCAT and other apolipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lang Ho; Andraski, Allison B; Pieper, Brett; Higashi, Hideyuki; Sacks, Frank M; Aikawa, Masanori; Singh, Sasha A

    2017-01-01

    We developed an automated quantification workflow for PRM-enabled detection of D3-Leu labeled apoA-I in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) isolated from humans. Subjects received a bolus injection of D3-Leu and blood was drawn at eight time points over three days. HDL was isolated and separated into six size fractions for subsequent proteolysis and PRM analysis for the detection of D3-Leu signal from ∼0.03 to 0.6% enrichment. We implemented an intensity-based quantification approach that takes advantage of high-resolution/accurate mass PRM scans to identify the D3-Leu 2HM3 ion from non-specific peaks. Our workflow includes five modules for extracting the targeted PRM peak intensities (XPIs): Peak centroiding, noise removal, fragment ion matching using Δm/z windows, nine intensity quantification options, and validation and visualization outputs. We optimized the XPI workflow using in vitro synthesized and clinical samples of D0/D3-Leu labeled apoA-I. Three subjects' apoA-I enrichment curves in six HDL size fractions, and LCAT, apoA-II and apoE from two size fractions were generated within a few hours. Our PRM strategy and automated quantification workflow will expedite the turnaround of HDL apoA-I metabolism data in clinical studies that aim to understand and treat the mechanisms behind dyslipidemia.

  8. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  9. Acyl-CoA binding protein expression is fiber type- specific and elevated in muscles from the obese insulin-resistant Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Franch, Jesper; Knudsen, Jens; Ellis, Bronwyn A; Pedersen, Preben K; Cooney, Gregory J; Jensen, Jørgen

    2002-02-01

    Accumulation of acyl-CoA is hypothesized to be involved in development of insulin resistance. Acyl-CoA binds to acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) with high affinity, and therefore knowledge about ACBP concentration is important for interpreting acyl-CoA data. In the present study, we used a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify ACBP concentration in different muscle fiber types. Furthermore, ACBP concentration was compared in muscles from lean and obese Zucker rats. Expression of ACBP was highest in the slow-twitch oxidative soleus muscle and lowest in the fast-twitch glycolytic white gastrocnemius (0.46 +/- 0.02 and 0.16 +/- 0.005 microg/mg protein, respectively). Expression of ACBP was soleus > red gastrocnemius > extensor digitorum longus > white gastrocnemius. Similar fiber type differences were found for carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)-1, and a correlation was observed between ACBP and CPT-1. Muscles from obese Zucker rats had twice the triglyceride content, had approximately twice the long-chain acyl CoA content, and were severely insulin resistant. ACBP concentration was approximately 30% higher in all muscles from obese rats. Activities of CPT-1 and 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase were increased in muscles from obese rats, whereas citrate synthase activity was similar. In conclusion, ACBP expression is fiber type-specific with the highest concentration in oxidative muscles and the lowest in glycolytic muscles. The 90% increase in the concentration of acyl-CoA in obese Zucker muscle compared with only a 30% increase in the concentration of ACBP supports the hypothesis that an increased concentration of free acyl-CoA is involved in the development of insulin resistance.

  10. Functional Dissection of the Bipartite Active Site of the Class I Coenzyme A (CoA)-Transferase Succinyl-CoA:Acetate CoA-Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. The ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA. PMID:27242998

  11. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jesse; Mullins, Elwood; Kappock, T.

    2016-05-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates less than 3 Å apart. In this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analogue dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analogue of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. The ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.

  12. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    DOE PAGES

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-05-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. Here in this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes andmore » orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. Finally, the ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.« less

  13. Functional dissection of the bipartite active site of the class I coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Mullins, Elwood A.; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2016-05-23

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferases catalyze the reversible transfer of CoA from acyl-CoA thioesters to free carboxylates. Class I CoA-transferases produce acylglutamyl anhydride intermediates that undergo attack by CoA thiolate on either the internal or external carbonyl carbon atoms, forming distinct tetrahedral intermediates <3 Å apart. Here in this study, crystal structures of succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) from Acetobacter aceti are used to examine how the Asn347 carboxamide stabilizes the internal oxyanion intermediate. A structure of the active mutant AarC-N347A bound to CoA revealed both solvent replacement of the missing contact and displacement of the adjacent Glu294, indicating that Asn347 both polarizes and orients the essential glutamate. AarC was crystallized with the nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) analog dethiaacetyl-CoA (1a) in an attempt to trap a closed enzyme complex containing a stable analog of the external oxyanion intermediate. One active site contained an acetylglutamyl anhydride adduct and truncated 1a, an unexpected result hinting at an unprecedented cleavage of the ketone moiety in 1a. Solution studies confirmed that 1a decomposition is accompanied by production of near-stoichiometric acetate, in a process that seems to depend on microbial contamination but not AarC. A crystal structure of AarC bound to the postulated 1a truncation product (2a) showed complete closure of one active site per dimer but no acetylglutamyl anhydride, even with acetate added. These findings suggest that an activated acetyl donor forms during 1a decomposition; a working hypothesis involving ketone oxidation is offered. Finally, the ability of 2a to induce full active site closure furthermore suggests that it subverts a system used to impede inappropriate active site closure on unacylated CoA.

  14. Identification and characterization of a fatty acyl reductase from a Spodoptera littoralis female gland involved in pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Carot-Sans, G; Muñoz, L; Piulachs, M D; Guerrero, A; Rosell, G

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs), the enzymes that catalyse reduction of a fatty acyl-CoA to the corresponding alcohol in insect pheromone biosynthesis, are postulated to play an important role in determining the proportion of each component in the pheromone blend. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized from the Egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a FAR cDNA (Slit-FAR1), which appeared to be expressed only in the pheromone gland and was undetectable in other female tissues, such as fat body, ovaries, wings, legs or thorax. The encoded protein has been successfully expressed in a recombinant system, and the recombinant enzyme is able to produce the intermediate fatty acid alcohols of the pheromone biosynthesis of S. littoralis from the corresponding acyl-CoA precursors. The kinetic variables Km and Vmax, which have been calculated for each acyl-CoA pheromone precursor, suggest that in S. littoralis pheromone biosynthesis other biosynthetic enzymes (e.g. desaturases, acetyl transferase) should also contribute to the final ratio of components of the pheromone blend. In a phylogenetic analysis, Slit-FAR1 appeared grouped in a cluster of other FARs involved in the pheromone biosynthesis of other insects, with little or non-specificity for the natural pheromone precursors.

  15. Roles for glutathione transferases in antioxidant recycling

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Steel, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs. PMID:21778824

  16. Structural snapshots along the reaction pathway of Yersinia pestis RipA, a putative butyryl-CoA transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Rodrigo; Lan, Benson; Latif, Yama; Chim, Nicholas; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-04-01

    The crystal structures of Y. pestis RipA mutants were determined to provide insights into the CoA transferase reaction pathway. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, is able to survive in both extracellular and intracellular environments within the human host, although its intracellular survival within macrophages is poorly understood. A novel Y. pestis three-gene rip (required for intracellular proliferation) operon, and in particular ripA, has been shown to be essential for survival and replication in interferon γ-induced macrophages. RipA was previously characterized as a putative butyryl-CoA transferase proposed to yield butyrate, a known anti-inflammatory shown to lower macrophage-produced NO levels. RipA belongs to the family I CoA transferases, which share structural homology, a conserved catalytic glutamate which forms a covalent CoA-thioester intermediate and a flexible loop adjacent to the active site known as the G(V/I)G loop. Here, functional and structural analyses of several RipA mutants are presented in an effort to dissect the CoA transferase mechanism of RipA. In particular, E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants show increased butyryl-CoA transferase activities when compared with wild-type RipA. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal structures of E61V, M31G and F60M RipA mutants, when compared with the wild-type RipA structure, reveal important conformational changes orchestrated by a conserved acyl-group binding-pocket phenylalanine, Phe85, and the G(V/I)G loop. Binary structures of M31G RipA and F60M RipA with two distinct CoA substrate conformations are also presented. Taken together, these data provide CoA transferase reaction snapshots of an open apo RipA, a closed glutamyl-anhydride intermediate and an open CoA-thioester intermediate. Furthermore, biochemical analyses support essential roles for both the catalytic glutamate and the flexible G(V/I)G loop along the reaction pathway, although further research is required to fully

  17. ROMPgel beads in IRORI format: acylations revisited.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard S

    2005-01-01

    Functionalized "designer" polymers derived from ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMPgels) are attractive for their high loading, high purity, and ease of synthesis. Their physical state may vary from liquid to gel to granular solid, making a general method of handling these polymers difficult. By incorporating a suitable norbornene-substituted linker on standard Wang beads, ROMPgels can be easily grafted onto the resin, adding the convenience of a bead format while still maintaining the high loading and excellent site accessibility. This advantage is demonstrated by the use of an N-hydroxysuccinimide ROMPgel (3.3 mmol g(-1), a 3-fold increase from the parent linker resin) in IRORI Kan format. Conditions for the acylation of these IRORI-formatted ROMPgels are reported, along with the scope and limitations of the choice of acylating reagents. Yields are greatly improved by the use of perfluorinated solvents as a nonparticipating cosolvent in the acylation process. A simple titration method for the quantification of the acylated ROMPgels is also reported. Spent Kans are regenerated after each use without apparent loss of activity or purity after several cycles. Due to the high loading and reduced swelling of the ROMPgel resin, up to 0.39 mmol acyl group has successfully been recovered from a single IRORI miniKan, demonstrating the high capacity of the resin and applicability to both lead discovery and optimization programs.

  18. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Haluska, P; Dy, G K; Adjei, A A

    2002-09-01

    Protein farnesylation catalysed by the enzyme farnesyl protein transferase involves the addition of a 15-carbon farnesyl group to conserved amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus of certain proteins. Protein substrates of farnesyl transferase include several G-proteins, which are critical intermediates of cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation such as Ras, Rho, PxF and lamins A and B. Activated Ras proteins trigger a cascade of phosphorylation events through sequential activation of the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, which is critical for cell survival, and the Raf/Mek/Erk kinase pathway that has been implicated in cell proliferation. Ras mutations which encode for constitutively activated proteins are found in 30% of human cancers. Because farnesylation of Ras is required for its transforming and proliferative activity, the farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors were designed as anticancer agents to abrogate Ras function. However, current evidence suggests that the anticancer activity of the farnesyl transferase inhibitors may not be simply due to Ras inhibition. This review will discuss available clinical data on three of these agents that are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  19. Functional Characterization of Lpt3 and Lpt6, the Inner-Core Lipooligosaccharide Phosphoethanolamine Transferases from Neisseria meningitidis▿

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Cory Q.; St. Michael, Frank; Stupak, Jacek; Li, Jianjun; Cox, Andrew D.; Richards, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Neisseria meningitidis contains heptose (Hep) residues that are modified with phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) at the 3 (3-PEtn) and/or 6 (6-PEtn) position. The lpt3 (NMB2010) and lpt6 (NMA0408) genes of N. meningitidis, which are proposed to encode the required HepII 3- and 6-PEtn transferases, respectively, were cloned and overexpressed as C-terminally polyhistidine-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and found to localize to the inner membrane, based on sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Lpt3-His6 and Lpt6-His6 were purified from Triton X-100-solubilized membranes by nickel chelation chromatography, and dot blot analysis of enzymatic reactions with 3-PEtn- and 6-PEtn-specific monoclonal antibodies demonstrated conclusively that Lpt3 and Lpt6 are phosphatidylethanolamine-dependent LOS HepII 3- and 6-PEtn transferases, respectively, and that both enzymes are capable of transferring PEtn to both fully acylated LOS and de-O-acylated (de-O-Ac) LOS. Further enzymatic studies using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrated that both Lpt3 and Lpt6 are capable of transferring PEtn to de-O-Ac LOS molecules already containing PEtn at the 6 and 3 positions of HepII, respectively, demonstrating that there is no obligate order of PEtn addition in the generation of 3,6-di-PEtn LOS moieties in vitro. PMID:19854897

  20. In silico prediction of acyl glucuronide reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Tim; Lewis, Richard; Luker, Tim; Bonnert, Roger; Bernstein, Michael A.; Birkinshaw, Timothy N.; Thom, Stephen; Wenlock, Mark; Paine, Stuart

    2011-11-01

    Drugs and drug candidates containing a carboxylic acid moiety, including many widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often metabolized to form acyl glucuronides (AGs). NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen are amongst the most widely used drugs on the market, whereas similar carboxylic acid drugs such as Suprofen have been withdrawn due to adverse events. Although the link between these AG metabolites and toxicity is not proven, there is circumstantial literature evidence to suggest that more reactive acyl glucuronides may, in some cases, present a greater risk of exhibiting toxic effects. We wished therefore to rank the reactivity of potential new carboxylate-containing drug candidates, and performed kinetic studies on synthetic acyl glucuronides to benchmark our key compounds. Driven by the desire to quickly rank the reactivity of compounds without the need for lengthy synthesis of the acyl glucuronide, a correlation was established between the degradation half-life of the acyl glucuronide and the half life for the hydrolysis of the more readily available methyl ester derivative. This finding enabled a considerable broadening of chemical property space to be investigated. The need for kinetic measurements was subsequently eliminated altogether by correlating the methyl ester hydrolysis half-life with the predicted 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbonyl carbon together with readily available steric descriptors in a PLS model. This completely in silico prediction of acyl glucuronide reactivity is applicable within the earliest stages of drug design with low cost and acceptable accuracy to guide intelligent molecular design. This reactivity data will be useful alongside the more complex additional pharmacokinetic exposure and distribution data that is generated later in the drug discovery process for assessing the overall toxicological risk of acidic drugs.

  1. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C. Y.; Urano, Yasuomi

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as drug targets for atherosclerosis and for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19141679

  2. Acyl silicates and acyl aluminates as activated intermediates in peptide formation on clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Kennedy, R. M.; Macklin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Glycine reacts with heating on dried clays and other minerals to give peptides in much better yield than in the absence of mineral. This reaction was proposed to occur by way of an activated intermediate such as an acyl silicate or acyl aluminate analogous to acyl phosphates involved in several biochemical reactions including peptide bond synthesis. The proposed mechanism has been confirmed by trapping the intermediate, as well as by direct spectroscopic observation of a related intermediate. The reaction of amino acids on periodically dried mineral surfaces represents a widespead, geologically realistic setting for prebiotic peptide formation via in situ activation.

  3. Characterisation of the Candida albicans Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt2 as a Potential Antifungal Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Dobb, Katharine S.; Kaye, Sarah J.; Beckmann, Nicola; Thain, John L.; Stateva, Lubomira; Birch, Mike; Oliver, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal drugs acting via new mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat the increasing numbers of severe fungal infections caused by pathogens such as Candida albicans. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Aspergillus fumigatus, encoded by the essential gene pptB, has previously been identified as a potential antifungal target. This study investigated the function of its orthologue in C. albicans, PPT2/C1_09480W by placing one allele under the control of the regulatable MET3 promoter, and deleting the remaining allele. The phenotypes of this conditional null mutant showed that, as in A. fumigatus, the gene PPT2 is essential for growth in C. albicans, thus fulfilling one aspect of an efficient antifungal target. The catalytic activity of Ppt2 as a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the acyl carrier protein Acp1 as a substrate were demonstrated in a fluorescence transfer assay, using recombinant Ppt2 and Acp1 produced and purified from E.coli. A fluorescence polarisation assay amenable to high-throughput screening was also developed. Therefore we have identified Ppt2 as a broad-spectrum novel antifungal target and developed tools to identify inhibitors as potentially new antifungal compounds. PMID:26606674

  4. Acyl anion free N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sarah J; Candish, Lisa; Lupton, David W

    2013-06-21

    Reaction discovery using N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalysis has been dominated by the chemistry of acyl anion equivalents. Recent studies demonstrate that NHCs are far more diverse catalysts, with a variety of reactions discovered that proceed without acyl anion equivalent formation. In this tutorial review selected examples of acyl anion free NHC catalysis using carbonyl compounds are presented.

  5. New developments in probing and targeting protein acylation in malaria, leishmaniasis and African sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Ritzefeld, Markus; Wright, Megan H; Tate, Edward W

    2017-03-08

    Infections by protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum or Leishmania donovani, have a significant health, social and economic impact and threaten billions of people living in tropical and sub-tropical regions of developing countries worldwide. The increasing range of parasite strains resistant to frontline therapeutics makes the identification of novel drug targets and the development of corresponding inhibitors vital. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important modulators of biology and inhibition of protein lipidation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of parasitic diseases. In this review we summarize the latest insights into protein lipidation in protozoan parasites. We discuss how recent chemical proteomic approaches have delivered the first global overviews of protein lipidation in these organisms, contributing to our understanding of the role of this PTM in critical metabolic and cellular functions. Additionally, we highlight the development of new small molecule inhibitors to target parasite acyl transferases.

  6. Purification and characterization of the Oligosaccharyl transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, T.M.

    1990-11-01

    Oligosaccharyl transferase was characterized to be a glycoprotein with at least one saccharide unit that had a D-manno or D- glucopyranose configuration with unmodified hydroxy groups at C-3, C-4 and C-6, using a Concanavalin A affinity column. This afforded a 100 fold increase in the transferase purity in the solubilized microsomal sample and also removed over 90% of the microsomal proteins (the cytosolic ones being removed before solubilization). The detergent, N,N-Dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) was used for solubilization and it yielded a system compatible with the assay and the purification steps. An efficient method for detergent extraction without dilution of sample or protein precipitation was also developed.

  7. High acyl gellan as an emulsion stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Joice Aline Pires; da Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2016-03-30

    High acyl gellan (0.01-0.2% w/w) was used as stabilizer in oil in water emulsions containing 30% (w/w) of sunflower oil and prepared under different process conditions. Stable emulsions to phase separation could be obtained using high acyl gellan (HA) content above 0.05% (w/w), while low acyl gellan (LA) prepared at the same conditions could not stabilize emulsions. Emulsions properties depended on the process used to mix the oil and gellan dispersion since high pressure homogenization favored stabilization while very high energy density applied by ultrasound led to systems destabilization. Emulsions prepared using high pressure homogenization showed zeta potential values ranging from -50 up to -59 mV, suggesting that electrostatic repulsion could be contributing to the systems stability. Rheological properties of continuous phase were also responsible for emulsions stabilization, since HA gellan dispersions showed high viscosity and gel-like behavior. The high viscosity of the continuous phase could be associated to the presence of high acyl gellan microgels/aggregates. Disentanglement of these aggregates performed by ultrasound strongly decreased the viscosity and consequently affected the emulsions behavior, reducing the stability to phase separation.

  8. Acylated pregnane glycosides from Caralluma russeliana.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Ahmed, Ahmed A; Hegazy, Mohamed-Elamir F; Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Yahya, Mohammad Abdul-Aziz

    2007-05-01

    The chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Caralluma russeliana yielded four acylated pregnane glycosides, namely russeliosides E-H, three were found now. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, NOESY and HMBC experiments.

  9. Rubber transferase in guayule plants. [Parthenium argentatum

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfield, C.L.; Foster, M.A.; Benedict, C.R.

    1986-04-01

    Rubber transferase catalyzes the transfer of cis-1,4-polyprenyl-PP to isopentenyl-PP (IPP) with the elimination of PP/sub i/. Rubber transferase activity in guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) stems was localized in the lipid fraction of the homogenate following centrifugation in buffer and 0.4M Mannitol. Washed rubber particles were obtained by the chromatography of the lipid fraction on Ultrogel columns with an exclusion limit of 750,000 daltons by the procedure of B.G. Audley (private communication). The rubber particles catalyzed the incorporation of /sup 14/C-IPP into cis-polyisoprene. The radioactive cis-polyisoprene was identified by ozonolysis and chromatography of the resulting /sup 14/C-levulinic acid. The synthesis of cis-polyisoprene in the rubber particles required Mg/sup 2 +/ and IPP and was stimulated 2-fold with the addition of DMAPP. Rubber synthesis in guayule plants growing in the Permian Basin of West Texas does not occur during summer months but is induced by the cold night temperatures of the fall and winter. From August to December individual plants (which were transplanted in May) accumulated from 66mg to 11,800mg or rubber. During this period there was a 4-fold increase in rubber transferase activity in stem homogenates induced by the low temperatures.

  10. Acylation of the Type 3 Secretion System Translocon Using a Dedicated Acyl Carrier Protein

    PubMed Central

    Agrebi, Rym; Canestrari, Mickaël J.; Mignot, Tâm; Lebrun, Régine; Bouveret, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens often deliver effectors into host cells using type 3 secretion systems (T3SS), the extremity of which forms a translocon that perforates the host plasma membrane. The T3SS encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) is genetically associated with an acyl carrier protein, IacP, whose role has remained enigmatic. In this study, using tandem affinity purification, we identify a direct protein-protein interaction between IacP and the translocon protein SipB. We show, by mass spectrometry and radiolabelling, that SipB is acylated, which provides evidence for a modification of the translocon that has not been described before. A unique and conserved cysteine residue of SipB is identified as crucial for this modification. Although acylation of SipB was not essential to virulence, we show that this posttranslational modification promoted SipB insertion into host-cell membranes and pore-forming activity linked to the SPI-1 T3SS. Cooccurrence of acyl carrier and translocon proteins in several γ- and β-proteobacteria suggests that acylation of the translocon is conserved in these other pathogenic bacteria. These results also indicate that acyl carrier proteins, known for their involvement in metabolic pathways, have also evolved as cofactors of new bacterial protein lipidation pathways. PMID:28085879

  11. Molar absorptivity and color characteristics of acylated and non-acylated pelargonidin-based anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Giusti, M M; Rodríguez-Saona, L E; Wrolstad, R E

    1999-11-01

    The effects of glycosylation and acylation on the spectral characteristics, molar absorptivity, and color attributes of purified acylated and non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives were compared. Pigments were obtained from strawberries, radishes, red-fleshed potatoes, and partially hydrolyzed radish pigments. Individual pigments were isolated by using semipreparative HPLC. Spectral and color (CIELch) attributes of purified pigments were measured. Molar absorptivity ranged from 15 600 to 39 590 for pelargonidin-3-glucoside (pg-3-glu) and pg-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside acylated with p-coumaric acid, respectively. The presence of cinnamic acid acylation had a considerable impact on spectral and color characteristics, causing a bathochromic shift of lambda(max). Sugar substitution also played an important role, with a hypsochromic shift caused by the presence of glycosylation. Pg-3, 5-diglu and pg-3,5-triglu possessed a higher hue angle (>40 degrees ) than the other pg derivatives at pH 1.0, corresponding to the yellow-orange region of the color solid. Acylation with malonic acid did not affect lambda(max) and showed little effect on color characteristics. The solvent system had an effect not only on the molar absorptivity, but also on the visual color characteristic of the pigments.

  12. Effect of various eicosanoid products of arachidonic acid on the acyl CoA: Cholesterol acyl transferase activity in three different mammalian cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Malo, P.El.

    1988-01-01

    Acylcoenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes cholesterol ester synthesis intracellularly and has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. An in vitro assay has been adapted for determining ACAT activity from rat FU5AH hepatoma, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and rat thoracic aortic smooth muscle (RSM) cells. Formation of {sup 14}C-labelled cholesteryl oleate at 0 to 60 min {plus minus} cholesterol was determined; in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, ACAT activity was approximately linear and surpassed the plateau observed in ACAT activity without cholesterol. Increasing exogenous cholesterol concentration, the amount of oleoyl CoA or the amount of microsomal protein produced a corresponding increase in ACAT activity, while ester formation was slightly increased by decreasing the ratio of Triton WR-1339 to cholesterol. Both the thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) mimic, U-44069, and the inflammatory lipoxygenase product, LTB{sub 4}, decreased optimal in vitro microsomal ACAT activity from RSM, but not form FU5AH, while CHO ACAT activity was suppressed by LTB{sub r} only. PGI{sub 2}, PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2{alpha}} had minimal effects for each cell type.

  13. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A; Williams, Todd D; Welti, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG (galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerol) depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses.

  14. Arabidopsis Deficient in Cutin Ferulate Encodes a Transferase Required for Feruloylation of ω-Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Cutin Polyester1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Ouellet, Mario; Nafisi, Majse; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Benke, Peter; Stranne, Maria; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2012-01-01

    The cuticle is a complex aliphatic polymeric layer connected to the cell wall and covers surfaces of all aerial plant organs. The cuticle prevents nonstomatal water loss, regulates gas exchange, and acts as a barrier against pathogen infection. The cuticle is synthesized by epidermal cells and predominantly consists of an aliphatic polymer matrix (cutin) and intracuticular and epicuticular waxes. Cutin monomers are primarily C16 and C18 unsubstituted, ω-hydroxy, and α,ω-dicarboxylic fatty acids. Phenolics such as ferulate and p-coumarate esters also contribute to a minor extent to the cutin polymer. Here, we present the characterization of a novel acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acyl-transferase that is encoded by a gene designated Deficient in Cutin Ferulate (DCF). The DCF protein is responsible for the feruloylation of ω-hydroxy fatty acids incorporated into the cutin polymer of aerial Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) organs. The enzyme specifically transfers hydroxycinnamic acids using ω-hydroxy fatty acids as acyl acceptors and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs, preferentially feruloyl-CoA and sinapoyl-CoA, as acyl donors in vitro. Arabidopsis mutant lines carrying DCF loss-of-function alleles are devoid of rosette leaf cutin ferulate and exhibit a 50% reduction in ferulic acid content in stem insoluble residues. DCF is specifically expressed in the epidermis throughout all green Arabidopsis organs. The DCF protein localizes to the cytosol, suggesting that the feruloylation of cutin monomers takes place in the cytoplasm. PMID:22158675

  15. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce D; Trouth, Frances; Shangguan, Lingfei; Dong, Wen; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response. Both SHT polypeptides had extremely high identity with just five amino-acid substitutions. Recombinant SmSHT catalyzed the synthesis of mono-, bi- and tri- acylated polyamines. Using caffeoyl-CoA as the acyl donor, SmSHT preferred spermidine as the acyl acceptor. When spermidine was the acyl acceptor, the donor preference order for SmSHT was caffeoyl-CoA>feruloyl-CoA>ρ-coumaroyl-CoA. SrSHT exhibited the same substrate specificity as SmSHT, yet exhibited significantly higher catalytic activity than SmSHT. For example, under caffeoyl-CoA and spermidine, Kcat of SrSHT was 37.3% higher than SmSHT. Molecular modeling suggests that five amino-acid substitutions in SrSHT result in four alterations in their predicted 3D structures. In particular, the conserved Lys402 adjacent to the DFGWG motif, and Cys200 in the crossover loop in SmSHT were replaced by Glu and Ser in SrSHT. These substitutions may contribute to the enhanced activity in SrSHT. Our study provides a platform to generate HCAA rich fruits for eggplant and other solanaceous crops. PMID:28018606

  16. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce D; Trouth, Frances; Shangguan, Lingfei; Dong, Wen; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response. Both SHT polypeptides had extremely high identity with just five amino-acid substitutions. Recombinant SmSHT catalyzed the synthesis of mono-, bi- and tri- acylated polyamines. Using caffeoyl-CoA as the acyl donor, SmSHT preferred spermidine as the acyl acceptor. When spermidine was the acyl acceptor, the donor preference order for SmSHT was caffeoyl-CoA>feruloyl-CoA>ρ-coumaroyl-CoA. SrSHT exhibited the same substrate specificity as SmSHT, yet exhibited significantly higher catalytic activity than SmSHT. For example, under caffeoyl-CoA and spermidine, Kcat of SrSHT was 37.3% higher than SmSHT. Molecular modeling suggests that five amino-acid substitutions in SrSHT result in four alterations in their predicted 3D structures. In particular, the conserved Lys402 adjacent to the DFGWG motif, and Cys200 in the crossover loop in SmSHT were replaced by Glu and Ser in SrSHT. These substitutions may contribute to the enhanced activity in SrSHT. Our study provides a platform to generate HCAA rich fruits for eggplant and other solanaceous crops.

  17. Acyl glucuronides: the good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Regan, Sophie L; Maggs, James L; Hammond, Thomas G; Lambert, Craig; Williams, Dominic P; Park, B Kevin

    2010-10-01

    Acyl glucuronidation is the major metabolic conjugation reaction of most carboxylic acid drugs in mammals. The physiological consequences of this biotransformation have been investigated incompletely but include effects on drug metabolism, protein binding, distribution and clearance that impact upon pharmacological and toxicological outcomes. In marked contrast, the exceptional but widely disparate chemical reactivity of acyl glucuronides has attracted far greater attention. Specifically, the complex transacylation and glycation reactions with proteins have provoked much inconclusive debate over the safety of drugs metabolised to acyl glucuronides. It has been hypothesised that these covalent modifications could initiate idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. However, despite a large body of in vitro data on the reactions of acyl glucuronides with protein, evidence for adduct formation from acyl glucuronides in vivo is limited and potentially ambiguous. The causal connection of protein adduction to adverse drug reactions remains uncertain. This review has assessed the intrinsic reactivity, metabolic stability and pharmacokinetic properties of acyl glucuronides in the context of physiological, pharmacological and toxicological perspectives. Although numerous experiments have characterised the reactions of acyl glucuronides with proteins, these might be attenuated substantially in vivo by rapid clearance of the conjugates. Consequently, to delineate a relationship between acyl glucuronide formation and toxicological phenomena, detailed pharmacokinetic analysis of systemic exposure to the acyl glucuronide should be undertaken adjacent to determining protein adduct concentrations in vivo. Further investigation is required to ascertain whether acyl glucuronide clearance is sufficient to prevent covalent modification of endogenous proteins and consequentially a potential immunological response.

  18. Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency as decreased acyl-carnitine profile in serum.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bing; Li, Duoling; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yuying; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2015-06-01

    We report a case with late onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) characterized by decreased acyl-carnitine profile in serum which is consistent with primary systemic carnitine deficiency (CDSP) while just the contrary to a typical MADD. This patient complained with muscle weakness, muscle pain and intermittent vomiting, and was diagnosed as polymyositis, received prednisone therapy before consulted with us. Muscle biopsy revealed mild lipid storage. The findings of serum acyl-carnitines were consistent with CDSP manifesting as decreased free and total carnitines in serum. But oral L-carnitine supplementation was not very effective to this patient and mutation analysis of the SLC22A5 gene for CDSP was normal. Later, another acyl-carnitine analysis revealed a typical MADD profile in serum, which was characterized by increased multiple acyl-carnitines. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified in electron transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) gene which confirmed the diagnosis of MADD. After administration of riboflavin, he improved dramatically, both clinically and biochemically. Thus, late onset riboflavin-responsive MADD should be included in the differential diagnosis for adult carnitine deficiency.

  19. Fatty Acyl Chains of Mycobacterium marinum Lipooligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, Yoann; Alibaud, Laeticia; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Maes, Emmanuel; Tokarski, Caroline; Elass, Elisabeth; Kremer, Laurent; Guérardel, Yann

    2011-01-01

    We have recently established the fine structure of the glycan backbone of lipooligosaccharides (LOS-I to LOS-IV) isolated from Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These studies culminated with the description of an unusual terminal N-acylated monosaccharide that confers important biological functions to LOS-IV, such as macrophage activation, that may be relevant to granuloma formation. It was, however, also suggested that the lipid moiety was required for LOSs to exert their immunomodulatory activity. Herein, using highly purified LOSs from M. marinum, we have determined through a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR techniques, the structure and localization of the fatty acids composing the lipid moiety. The occurrence of two distinct polymethyl-branched fatty acids presenting specific localizations is consistent with the presence of two highly related polyketide synthases (Pks5 and Pks5.1) in M. marinum and presumably involved in the synthesis of these fatty acyl chains. In addition, a bioinformatic search permitted us to identify a set of enzymes potentially involved in the biosynthesis or transfer of these lipids to the LOS trehalose unit. These include MMAR_2343, a member of the Pap (polyketide-associated protein) family, that acylates trehalose-based glycolipids in M. marinum. The participation of MMAR_2343 to LOS assembly was demonstrated using a M. marinum mutant carrying a transposon insertion in the MMAR_2343 gene. Disruption of MMAR_2343 resulted in a severe LOS breakdown, indicating that MMAR_2343, hereafter designated PapA4, fulfills the requirements for LOS acylation and assembly. PMID:21803773

  20. Physiological Consequences of Compartmentalized Acyl-CoA Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Daniel E.; Young, Pamela A.; Klett, Eric L.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the complex physiological demands of mammalian life requires strict control of the metabolism of long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs because of the multiplicity of their cellular functions. Acyl-CoAs are substrates for energy production; stored within lipid droplets as triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and retinol esters; esterified to form membrane phospholipids; or used to activate transcriptional and signaling pathways. Indirect evidence suggests that acyl-CoAs do not wander freely within cells, but instead, are channeled into specific pathways. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for acyl-CoA compartmentalization, highlight the key modes of acyl-CoA regulation, and diagram potential mechanisms for controlling acyl-CoA partitioning. PMID:26124277

  1. Characterization of a structurally and functionally diverged acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from milkweed seed.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, E B; Coughlan, S J; Shanklin, J

    1997-04-01

    A cDNA for a structurally variant acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase was isolated from milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) seed, a tissue enriched in palmitoleic (16:1delta9)* and cis-vaccenic (18:1delta11) acids. Extracts of Escherichia coli that express the milkweed cDNA catalyzed delta9 desaturation of acyl-ACP substrates, and the recombinant enzyme exhibited seven- to ten-fold greater specificity for palmitoyl (16:0)-ACP and 30-fold greater specificity for myristoyl (14:0)-ACP than did known delta9-stearoyl (18:0)-ACP desaturases. Like other variant acyl-ACP desaturases reported to date, the milkweed enzyme contains fewer amino acids near its N-terminus compared to previously characterized delta9-18:0-ACP desaturases. Based on the activity of an N-terminal deletion mutant of a delta9-18:0-ACP desaturase, this structural feature likely does not account for differences in substrate specificities.

  2. Acyl-acyl carrier protein as a source of fatty acids for bacterial bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, D.M.; Meighen, E.A.

    1985-09-01

    Pulse-chase experiments with (/sup 3/H)tetradecanoic acid and ATP showed that the bioluminescence-related 32-kDa acyltransferase from Vibrio harveyi can specifically catalyze the deacylation of a /sup 3/H-labeled 18-kDa protein observed in extracts of this bacterium. The 18-kDa protein has been partially purified and its physical and chemical properties strongly indicate that it is fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP). Both this V. harveyi (/sup 3/H)acylprotein and (/sup 3/H)palmitoyl-ACP from Escherichia coli were substrates in vitro for either the V. harveyi 32-kDa acyltransferase or the analogous enzyme (34K) from Photobacterium phosphoreum. TLC analysis indicated that the hexane-soluble product of the reaction is fatty acid. No significant cleavage of either E. coli or V. harveyi tetradecanoyl-ACP was observed in extracts of these bacteria unless the 32-kDa or 34K acyltransferase was present. Since these enzymes are believed to be responsible for the supply of fatty acids for reduction to form the aldehyde substrate of luciferase, the above results suggest that long-chain acyl-ACP is the source of fatty acids for bioluminescence.

  3. Acylated flavonol glycoside from Platanus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Tantry, Mudasir A; Akbar, Seema; Dar, Javid A; Irtiza, Syed; Galal, Ahmed; Khuroo, Mohammad A; Ghazanfar, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions of ethanolic extract of Platanus orientalis leaves led to the isolation of new acylated flavonol glycoside as 3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavonol 3-[O-2-O-(2,4-Dihydroxy)-E-cinnamoyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, along with seven known compounds. All the compounds were characterized by NMR including 2D NMR techniques. The isolates were evaluated for NF-κB, nitric oxide (NO), aromatase and QR2 chemoprevention activities and some of them appeared to be modestly active.

  4. Bioorthogonal mimetics of palmitoyl-CoA and myristoyl-CoA and their subsequent isolation by click chemistry and characterization by mass spectrometry reveal novel acylated host-proteins modified by HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, David R; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Ubaida Mohien, Ceereena; Aquino, Veronica N; Bullock, Brandon T; Dinglasan, Rhoel R; Agnew, Brian J; Graham, David R M

    2015-06-01

    Protein acylation plays a critical role in protein localization and function. Acylation is essential for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) assembly and budding of HIV-1 from the plasma membrane in lipid raft microdomains and is mediated by myristoylation of the Gag polyprotein and the copackaging of the envelope protein is facilitated by colocalization mediated by palmitoylation. Since the viral accessory protein NEF has been shown to alter the substrate specificity of myristoyl transferases, and alter cargo trafficking lipid rafts, we hypothesized that HIV-1 infection may alter protein acylation globally. To test this hypothesis, we labeled HIV-1 infected cells with biomimetics of acyl azides, which are incorporated in a manner analogous to natural acyl-Co-A. A terminal azide group allowed us to use a copper catalyzed click chemistry to conjugate the incorporated modifications to a number of substrates to carry out SDS-PAGE, fluorescence microscopy, and enrichment for LC-MS/MS. Using LC-MS/MS, we identified 103 and 174 proteins from the myristic and palmitic azide enrichments, with 27 and 45 proteins respectively that differentiated HIV-1 infected from uninfected cells. This approach has provided us with important insights into HIV-1 biology and is widely applicable to many virological systems.

  5. Characterization of the "Escherichia Coli" Acyl Carrier Protein Phosphodiesterase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small essential protein that functions as a carrier of the acyl intermediates of fatty acid synthesis. ACP requires the posttranslational attachment of a 4'phosphopantetheine functional group, derived from CoA, in order to perform its metabolic function. A Mn[superscript 2+] dependent enzymatic activity that removes…

  6. Interaction of the electrophilic ketoprofenyl-glucuronide and ketoprofenyl-coenzyme A conjugates with cytosolic glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Osbild, Sandra; Bour, Jérome; Maunit, Benoît; Guillaume, Cécile; Asensio, Carine; Muller, Jean-François; Netter, Patrick; Kirsch, Glbert; Bagrel, Denyse; Lapicque, Françoise; Battaglia, Eric

    2008-02-01

    Carboxylic acid-containing drugs are metabolized mainly through the formation of glucuronide and coenzyme A esters. These conjugates have been suspected to be responsible for the toxicity of several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of the reactivity of the electrophilic ester bond. In the present study we investigated the reactivity of ketoprofenyl-acylglucuronide (KPF-OG) and ketoprofenyl-acyl-coenzyme A (KPF-SCoA) toward cytosolic rat liver glutathione S-transferases (GST). We observed that KPF-SCoA, but not KPF-OG inhibited the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide catalyzed by both purified cytosolic rat liver GST and GST from FAO and H5-6 rat hepatoma cell lines. Photoaffinity labeling with KPF-SCoA suggested that the binding of this metabolite may overlap the binding site of 4-methylumbelliferone sulfate. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis showed that both hydrolysis and transacylation reactions were observed in the presence of GST and glutathione. The formation of ketoprofenyl-S-acyl-glutathione could be kinetically characterized (apparent K(m) = 196.0 +/- 70.6 microM). It is concluded that KPF-SCoA is both a GST inhibitor and a substrate of a GST-dependent transacylation reaction. The reactivity and inhibitory potency of thioester CoA derivatives toward GST may have potential implications on the reported in vivo toxicity of some carboxylic acid-containing drugs.

  7. Acyl peptidic siderophores: structures, biosyntheses and post-assembly modifications.

    PubMed

    Kem, Michelle P; Butler, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Acyl peptidic siderophores are produced by a variety of bacteria and possess unique amphiphilic properties. Amphiphilic siderophores are generally produced in a suite where the iron(III)-binding headgroup remains constant while the fatty acid appendage varies by length and functionality. Acyl peptidic siderophores are commonly synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases; however, the method of peptide acylation during biosynthesis can vary between siderophores. Following biosynthesis, acyl siderophores can be further modified enzymatically to produce a more hydrophilic compound, which retains its ferric chelating abilities as demonstrated by pyoverdine from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the marinobactins from certain Marinobacter species. Siderophore hydrophobicity can also be altered through photolysis of the ferric complex of certain β-hydroxyaspartic acid-containing acyl peptidic siderophores.

  8. Acyl-CoA binding proteins: multiplicity and function.

    PubMed

    Gossett, R E; Frolov, A A; Roths, J B; Behnke, W D; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F

    1996-09-01

    The physiological role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA is thought to be primarily in intermediary metabolism of fatty acids. However, recent data show that nM to microM levels of these lipophilic molecules are potent regulators of cell functions in vitro. Although long-chain fatty acyl-CoA are present at several hundred microM concentration in the cell, very little long-chain fatty acyl-CoA actually exists as free or unbound molecules, but rather is bound with high affinity to membrane lipids and/or proteins. Recently, there is growing awareness that cytosol contains nonenzymatic proteins also capable of binding long-chain fatty acyl-CoA with high affinity. Although the identity of the cytosolic long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding protein(s) has been the subject of some controversy, there is growing evidence that several diverse nonenzymatic cytosolic proteins will bind long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Not only does acyl-CoA binding protein specifically bind medium and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA), but ubiquitous proteins with multiple ligand specificities such as the fatty acid binding proteins and sterol carrier protein-2 also bind LCFA-CoA with high affinity. The potential of these acyl-CoA binding proteins to influence the level of free LCFA-CoA and thereby the amount of LCFA-CoA bound to regulatory sites in proteins and enzymes is only now being examined in detail. The purpose of this article is to explore the identity, nature, function, and pathobiology of these fascinating newly discovered long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins. The relative contributions of these three different protein families to LCFA-CoA utilization and/or regulation of cellular activities are the focus of new directions in this field.

  9. Cysteine-286 as the site of acylation of the Lux-specific fatty acyl-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y; Meighen, E A

    1997-04-04

    The channelling of fatty acids into the fatty aldehyde substrate for the bacterial bioluminescence reaction is catalyzed by a fatty acid reductase multienzyme complex, which channels fatty acids through the thioesterase (LuxD), synthetase (LuxE) and reductase (LuxC) components. Although all three components can be readily acylated in extracts of different luminescent bacteria, this complex has been successfully purified only from Photobacterium phosphoreum and the sites of acylation identified on LuxD and LuxE. To identify the acylation site on LuxC, the nucleotide sequence of P. phosphoreum luxC has been determined and the gene expressed in a mutant Escherichia coli strain. Even in crude extracts, the acylated reductase intermediate as well as acyl-CoA reductase activity could be readily detected, providing the basis for analysis of mutant reductases. Comparison of the amino-acid sequences of LuxC from P. phosphoreum, P. leiognathi and other luminescent bacteria, showed that only three cysteine residues (C171, C279, and C286) were conserved. As a cysteine residue on LuxC has been implicated in fatty acyl transfer, each of the conserved cysteine residues of the P. phosphoreum and P. leiognathi reductases was converted to a serine residue, and the properties of the mutant proteins examined. Only mutation of C286-blocked reductase activity and prevented formation of the acylated reductase intermediate, showing that C286 is the site of acylation on LuxC.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis acyl carrier protein synthase adopts two different pH-dependent structural conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Aggarwal, Anup; Shipman, Lance; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial acyl carrier protein synthase plays an essential role in the synthesis of fatty acids, nonribosomal peptides and polyketides. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, AcpS or group I phosphopentatheine transferase exhibits two different structural conformations depending upon the pH. The crystal structures of acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes determined at pH 5.3 and pH 6.5, respectively, are reported. Comparison of the Mtb apo-AcpS structure with the recently reported structure of the Mtb AcpS–ADP complex revealed that AcpS adopts two different conformations: the orthorhombic and trigonal space-group structures show structural differences in the α2 helix and in the conformation of the α3–α4 connecting loop, which is in a closed conformation. The apo-AcpS structure shows electron density for the entire model and was obtained at lower pH values (4.4–6.0). In contrast, at a higher pH value (6.5) AcpS undergoes significant conformational changes, resulting in disordered regions that show no electron density in the AcpS model. The solved structures also reveal that C. ammoniagenes AcpS undergoes structural rearrangement in two regions, similar to the recently reported Mtb AcpS–ADP complex structure. In vitro reconstitution experiments show that AcpS has a higher post-translational modification activity between pH 4.4 and 6.0 than at pH values above 6.5, where the activity drops owing to the change in conformation. The results show that apo-AcpS and AcpS–ADP adopt different conformations depending upon the pH conditions of the crystallization solution.

  11. Characterization of a Serine Hydrolase Targeted by Acyl-protein Thioesterase Inhibitors in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Louise E.; Rusch, Marion; Adibekian, Alexander; Bullen, Hayley E.; Graindorge, Arnault; Freymond, Céline; Rottmann, Matthias; Braun-Breton, Catherine; Baumeister, Stefan; Porfetye, Arthur T.; Vetter, Ingrid R.; Hedberg, Christian; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, cysteine palmitoylation is an important reversible modification that impacts protein targeting, folding, stability, and interactions with partners. Evidence suggests that protein palmitoylation contributes to key biological processes in Apicomplexa with the recent palmitome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum reporting over 400 substrates that are modified with palmitate by a broad range of protein S-acyl transferases. Dynamic palmitoylation cycles require the action of an acyl-protein thioesterase (APT) that cleaves palmitate from substrates and conveys reversibility to this posttranslational modification. In this work, we identified candidates for APT activity in Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of parasites with low micromolar concentrations of β-lactone- or triazole urea-based inhibitors that target human APT1 showed varied detrimental effects at multiple steps of the parasite lytic cycle. The use of an activity-based probe in combination with these inhibitors revealed the existence of several serine hydrolases that are targeted by APT1 inhibitors. The active serine hydrolase, TgASH1, identified as the homologue closest to human APT1 and APT2, was characterized further. Biochemical analysis of TgASH1 indicated that this enzyme cleaves substrates with a specificity similar to APTs, and homology modeling points toward an APT-like enzyme. TgASH1 is dispensable for parasite survival, which indicates that the severe effects observed with the β-lactone inhibitors are caused by the inhibition of non-TgASH1 targets. Other ASH candidates for APT activity were functionally characterized, and one of them was found to be resistant to gene disruption due to the potential essential nature of the protein. PMID:23913689

  12. Characterization of Discrete Phosphopantetheinyl Transferases in Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19 Unveils a Complicate Phosphopantetheinylation Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Luo, Hong-Dou; Ren, Ni-Ni; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yong-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) play essential roles in both primary metabolisms and secondary metabolisms via post-translational modification of acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs). In this study, an industrial FK506 producing strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis L19, together with Streptomyces avermitilis, was identified to contain the highest number (five) of discrete PPTases known among any species thus far examined. Characterization of the five PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 unveiled that stw ACP, an ACP in a type II PKS, was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT1, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; sts FAS ACP, the ACP in fatty acid synthase (FAS), was phosphopantetheinylated by three PPTases FKPPT2, FKPPT3, and FKACPS; TcsA-ACP, an ACP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by two PPTases FKPPT3 and FKACPS; FkbP-PCP, an PCP involved in FK506 biosynthesis, was phosphopantetheinylated by all of these five PPTases FKPPT1-4 and FKACPS. Our results here indicate that the functions of these PPTases complement each other for ACPs/PCPs substrates, suggesting a complicate phosphopantetheinylation network in S. tsukubaensis L19. Engineering of these PPTases in S. tsukubaensis L19 resulted in a mutant strain that can improve FK506 production. PMID:27052100

  13. The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Houseal, M. Trevor; Mulligan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, massive multiscalar trait profiling across a large population of mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA2/J (D2)—the BXD family—was combined with linkage and bioinformatic analyses to characterize mechanisms controlling GST expression and to identify downstream consequences of this variation. Similar to humans, mice show a wide range in expression of GST family members. Variation in the expression of Gsta4, Gstt2, Gstz1, Gsto1, and Mgst3 is modulated by local expression QTLs (eQTLs) in several tissues. Higher expression of Gsto1 in brain and liver of BXD strains is strongly associated (P < 0.01) with inheritance of the B6 parental allele whereas higher expression of Gsta4 and Mgst3 in brain and liver, and Gstt2 and Gstz1 in brain is strongly associated with inheritance of the D2 parental allele. Allele-specific assays confirmed that expression of Gsto1, Gsta4, and Mgst3 are modulated by sequence variants within or near each gene locus. We exploited this endogenous variation to identify coexpression networks and downstream targets in mouse and human. Through a combined systems genetics approach, we provide new insight into the biological role of naturally occurring variants in GST genes. PMID:26829228

  14. The Conserved Modular Elements of the Acyl Carrier Proteins of Lipid Synthesis Are Only Partially Interchangeable*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Cronan, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work showed that expression of acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) of a diverse set of bacteria replaced the function of Escherichia coli ACP in lipid biosynthesis. However, the AcpAs of Lactococcus lactis and Enterococcus faecalis were inactive. Both failed to support growth of an E. coli acpP mutant strain. This defect seemed likely because of the helix II sequences of the two AcpAs, which differed markedly from those of the proteins that supported growth. To test this premise, chimeric ACPs were constructed in which L. lactis helix II replaced helix II of E. coli AcpP and vice versa. Expression of the AcpP protein L. lactis AcpA helix II allowed weak growth, whereas the L. lactis AcpA-derived protein that contained E. coli AcpP helix II failed to support growth of the E. coli mutant strain. Replacement of the L. lactis AcpA helix II residues in this protein showed that substitution of valine for the phenylalanine residue four residues downstream of the phosphopanthetheine-modified serine gave robust growth and allowed modification by the endogenous AcpS phosphopantetheinyl transferase (rather than the promiscuous Sfp transferase required to modify the L. lactis AcpA and the chimera of L. lactis AcpA helix II in AcpP). Further chimera constructs showed that the lack of function of the L. lactis AcpA-derived protein containing E. coli AcpP helix II was due to incompatibility of L. lactis AcpA helix I with the downstream elements of AcpP. Therefore, the origins of ACP incompatibility can reside in either helix I or in helix II. PMID:25861991

  15. Differential turnover of phospholipid acyl groups in mouse peritoneal macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwae, T.; Schmid, P.C.; Johnson, S.B.; Schmid, H.H. )

    1990-03-25

    Phospholipid acyl turnover was assessed in mouse peritoneal exudate cells which consisted primarily of macrophages. The cells were incubated for up to 5 h in media containing 40% H218O, and uptake of 18O into ester carbonyls of phospholipids was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of hydrogenated methyl esters. The uptake was highest in choline phospholipids and phosphatidylinositol, less in ethanolamine phospholipids, and much less in phosphatidylserine. Acyl groups at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of diacyl glycerophospholipids, including arachidonic and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, acquired 18O at about the same rate. Acyl groups of alkylacyl glycerophosphocholine exhibited lower rates of 18O uptake, and acyl groups of ethanolamine plasmalogens (alkenylacyl glycerophosphoethanolamines) acquired only minimal amounts of 18O within 5 h, indicating a low average acyl turnover via free fatty acids. Pulse experiments with exogenous 3H-labeled arachidonic acid supported the concept that acylation of alkenyl glycerophosphoethanolamine occurs by acyl transfer from other phospholipids rather than via free fatty acids and acyl-CoA. The 18O content of intracellular free fatty acids increased gradually over a 5-h period, whereas in extracellular free fatty acids it reached maximal 18O levels within the first hour. Arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were found to participate readily in deacylation-reacylation reactions but were present only in trace amounts in the free fatty acid pools inside and outside the cells. We conclude that acyl turnover of macrophage phospholipids through hydrolysis and reacylation is rapid but tightly controlled so that appreciable concentrations of free arachidonic acid do not occur.

  16. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Although acyl carrier protein (ACP) is the best studied protein in plant fatty acid biosynthesis, the in vivo forms of ACPs and their steady state pools have not been examined previously in either seed or leaf. Information about the relative pool sizes of free ACP and its acyl-ACP intermediates is essential for understanding regulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. In this study we utilized antibodies directed against spinach ACP as a sensitive assay to analyze the acyl groups while they were still covalently attached to ACPs. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Synthesis of coenzyme A thioesters using methyl acyl phosphates in an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mohan; Bearne, Stephen L

    2014-12-28

    Regioselective S-acylation of coenzyme A (CoA) is achieved under aqueous conditions using various aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids activated as their methyl acyl phosphate monoesters. Unlike many hydrophobic activating groups, the anionic methyl acyl phosphate mixed anhydride is more compatible with aqueous solvents, making it useful for conducting acylation reactions in an aqueous medium.

  18. Gamma-glutamyl transferase and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme located on the external surface of cellular membranes. GGT contributes in maintaining the physiological concentrations of cytoplasmic glutathione and cellular defense against oxidative stress via cleavage of extracellular glutathione and increased availability of amino acids for its intracellular synthesis. Increased GGT activity is a marker of antioxidant inadequacy and increased oxidative stress. Ample evidence suggests that elevated GGT activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, arterial hypertension, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause and CVD-related mortality. The evidence is weaker for an association between elevated GGT activity and acute ischemic events and myocardial infarction. The risk for CVD or CVD-related mortality mediated by GGT may be explained by the close correlation of GGT with conventional CVD risk factors and various comorbidities, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol consumption, oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. The finding of GGT activity in atherosclerotic plaques and correlation of intra-plaque GGT activity with histological indexes of plaque instability may suggest a participation of GGT in the pathophysiology of CVD, particularly atherosclerosis. However, whether GGT has a direct role in the pathophysiology of CVD or it is an epiphenomenon of coexisting CVD risk factors or comorbidities remains unknown and Hill’s criteria of causality relationship between GGT and CVD are not fulfilled. The exploration whether GGT provides prognostic information on top of the information provided by known cardiovascular risk factors regarding the CVD or CVD-related outcome and exploration of molecular mechanisms of GGT involvement in the pathophysiology of CVD and eventual use of interventions to reduce circulating GGT activity remain a duty of

  19. The activity of Rhizomuchor miehei lipase as a biocatalyst in enzymatic acylation of cyclic alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftitah, Elvina Dhiaul; Srihardyastuti, Arie; Ariefin, Mokhamat

    2017-03-01

    We report the activity of Rhizomuchor miehei lipase (RML) as a biocatalyst, in particular the investigations concerning the effort of substrate-structure reactivity on the enzymatic acylation. The acylation was studied using acetic anhydride as an acyl donor and performed in n-hexane as a solvent. The selectivity of the enzymatic acylation was revealed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectra. We observed that, RML has shown different behavior when catalyzing the acylation of isopulegol and mixture of isopulegol and citronellal (ratio 1:1). The chemoselectivity for the O-acylation was improved when the acyl acceptor included mixture of isopulegol and citronellal

  20. Purification of a Jojoba Embryo Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase and Expression of Its cDNA in High Erucic Acid Rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Metz, James G.; Pollard, Michael R.; Anderson, Lana; Hayes, Thomas R.; Lassner, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    The jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. This is in contrast to the triglycerides found in seeds of other plants. We purified an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) from developing embryos and cloned the cDNA encoding the enzyme. Expression of a cDNA in Escherichia coli confers FAR activity upon those cells and results in the accumulation of fatty alcohols. The FAR sequence shows significant homology to an Arabidopsis protein of unknown function that is essential for pollen development. When the jojoba FAR cDNA is expressed in embryos of Brassica napus, long-chain alcohols can be detected in transmethylated seed oils. Resynthesis of the gene to reduce its A plus T content resulted in increased levels of alcohol production. In addition to free alcohols, novel wax esters were detected in the transgenic seed oils. In vitro assays revealed that B. napus embryos have an endogenous fatty acyl-coenzyme A: fatty alcohol acyl-transferase activity that could account for this wax synthesis. Thus, introduction of a single cDNA into B. napus results in a redirection of a portion of seed oil synthesis from triglycerides to waxes. PMID:10712526

  1. Acylated cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides in Matthiola incana.

    PubMed

    Saito, N; Tatsuzawa, F; Nishiyama, A; Yokoi, M; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    1995-03-01

    Four acylated cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides were isolated from purple-violet flowers of Matthiola incana and their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Three acylated anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-acyl-2-O-(2-O-sinapyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D- glucopyranosides)-5-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides), in which the acyl group is p-coumaryl, caffeyl or ferulyl, respectively. The remaining pigment is free from malonic acid and was identified as cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-trans-ferulyl-2-O-(2- O-trans-sinapyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside)-5-O- (beta-D-glucopyranoside). Analysis of the anthocyanin constituents in 16 purple-violet cultivars revealed that they contained the above triacylated anthocyanins in variable amounts as main pigments. An aromatic pair of pigments containing sinapic and ferulic acids are considered to produce an important intramolecular effect, making bluish colours in these flowers.

  2. Acyl Meldrum's acid derivatives: application in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janikowska, K.; Rachoń, J.; Makowiec, S.

    2014-07-01

    This review is focused on an important class of Meldrum's acid derivatives commonly known as acyl Meldrum's acids. The preparation methods of these compounds are considered including the recently proposed and rather rarely used ones. The chemical properties of acyl Meldrum's acids are described in detail, including thermal stability and reactions with various nucleophiles. The possible mechanisms of these transformations are analyzed. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  3. Oxidative activation of dihydropyridine amides to reactive acyl donors.

    PubMed

    Funder, Erik Daa; Trads, Julie B; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2015-01-07

    Amides of 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) are activated by oxidation for acyl transfer to amines, alcohols and thiols. In the reduced form the DHP amide is stable towards reaction with amines at room temperature. However, upon oxidation with DDQ the acyl donor is activated via a proposed pyridinium intermediate. The activated intermediate reacts with various nucleophiles to give amides, esters, and thio-esters in moderate to high yields.

  4. Experimental inhibition of porcupine-mediated Wnt O-acylation attenuates kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Madan, Babita; Patel, Mehul B; Zhang, Jiandong; Bunte, Ralph M; Rudemiller, Nathan P; Griffiths, Robert; Virshup, David M; Crowley, Steven D

    2016-05-01

    Activated Wnt signaling is critical in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis, a final common pathway for most forms of chronic kidney disease. Therapeutic intervention by inhibition of individual Wnts or downstream Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been proposed, but these approaches do not interrupt the functions of all Wnts nor block non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. Alternatively, an orally bioavailable small molecule, Wnt-C59, blocks the catalytic activity of the Wnt-acyl transferase porcupine, and thereby prevents secretion of all Wnt isoforms. We found that inhibiting porcupine dramatically attenuates kidney fibrosis in the murine unilateral ureteral obstruction model. Wnt-C59 treatment similarly blunts collagen mRNA expression in the obstructed kidney. Consistent with its actions to broadly arrest Wnt signaling, porcupine inhibition reduces expression of Wnt target genes and bolsters nuclear exclusion of β-catenin in the kidney following ureteral obstruction. Importantly, prevention of Wnt secretion by Wnt-C59 blunts expression of inflammatory cytokines in the obstructed kidney that otherwise provoke a positive feedback loop of Wnt expression in collagen-producing fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Thus, therapeutic targeting of porcupine abrogates kidney fibrosis not only by overcoming the redundancy of individual Wnt isoforms but also by preventing upstream cytokine-induced Wnt generation. These findings reveal a novel therapeutic maneuver to protect the kidney from fibrosis by interrupting a pathogenic crosstalk loop between locally generated inflammatory cytokines and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  5. Acylated pregnane glycosides from Caralluma quadrangula.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Almehdar, Hussein; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    In a previous study, the methanolic extract as well as the chloroform fraction of the aerial parts of Caralluma quadrangula (Forssk.) N.E.Br. indigenous to Saudi Arabia showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against breast cancer (MCF7) cell line. In a biologically-guided fractionation approach, four acylated pregnane glycosides were isolated from the chloroform fraction of C. quadrangula. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by the analysis of their MS and NMR data. The compounds were identified as 12,20-di-O-benzoylboucerin 3-O-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-canaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (1), 12,20-di-O-benzoylboucerin 3-O-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-canaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (2), 12,20-di-O-benzoylboucerin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-canaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (3) and 12,20-di-O-benzoyl-3β,5α,12β,14β,20-pentahydroxy-(20R)-pregn-6-ene 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-canaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (4). The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activity against breast cancer (MCF7) cell line.

  6. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, but the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a plant lipid modification occurring during bacterial infection. Little is known about the range of stresses that induce this lipid modification, the molecular species induced, and the function of the modification. Lipidomic analysis using trip...

  7. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  8. Regioselective self-acylating cyclodextrins in organic solvent

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunae; Yun, Deokgyu; Jeong, Daham; Im, Jieun; Kim, Hyunki; Dindulkar, Someshwar D.; Choi, Youngjin; Jung, Seunho

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic cyclodextrins have been synthesized with self-acylating reaction using vinyl esters in dimethylformamide. In the present study no base, catalyst, or enzyme was used, and the structural analyses using thin layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry show that the cyclodextrin is substituted preferentially by one acyl moiety at the C2 position of the glucose unit, suggesting that cyclodextrin functions as a regioselective catalytic carbohydrate in organic solvent. In the self-acylation, the most acidic OH group at the 2-position and the inclusion complexing ability of cyclodextrin were considered to be significant. The substrate preference was also observed in favor of the long-chain acyl group, which could be attributed to the inclusion ability of cyclodextrin cavity. Furthermore, using the model amphiphilic building block, 2-O-mono-lauryl β-cyclodextrin, the self-organized supramolecular architecture with nano-vesicular morphology in water was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The cavity-type nano-assembled vesicle and the novel synthetic methods for the preparation of mono-acylated cyclodextrin should be of great interest with regard to drug/gene delivery systems, functional surfactants, and carbohydrate derivatization methods. PMID:27020946

  9. An annotated database of Arabidopsis mutants of acyl lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Zhang, Meng; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Yang, Weili; Shorrosh, Basil; Suh, Mi Chung; Ohlrogge, John

    2014-12-10

    Mutants have played a fundamental role in gene discovery and in understanding the function of genes involved in plant acyl lipid metabolism. The first mutant in Arabidopsis lipid metabolism (fad4) was described in 1985. Since that time, characterization of mutants in more than 280 genes associated with acyl lipid metabolism has been reported. This review provides a brief background and history on identification of mutants in acyl lipid metabolism, an analysis of the distribution of mutants in different areas of acyl lipid metabolism and presents an annotated database (ARALIPmutantDB) of these mutants. The database provides information on the phenotypes of mutants, pathways and enzymes/proteins associated with the mutants, and allows rapid access via hyperlinks to summaries of information about each mutant and to literature that provides information on the lipid composition of the mutants. Mutants for at least 30 % of the genes in the database have multiple names, which have been compiled here to reduce ambiguities in searches for information. Furthermore, the database should also provide a tool for exploring the relationships between mutants in acyl lipid-related genes and their lipid phenotypes and point to opportunities for further research.

  10. An annotated database of Arabidopsis mutants of acyl lipid metabolism

    DOE PAGES

    McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Zhang, Meng; ...

    2014-12-10

    Mutants have played a fundamental role in gene discovery and in understanding the function of genes involved in plant acyl lipid metabolism. The first mutant in Arabidopsis lipid metabolism (fad4) was described in 1985. Since that time, characterization of mutants in more than 280 genes associated with acyl lipid metabolism has been reported. This review provides a brief background and history on identification of mutants in acyl lipid metabolism, an analysis of the distribution of mutants in different areas of acyl lipid metabolism and presents an annotated database (ARALIPmutantDB) of these mutants. The database provides information on the phenotypes ofmore » mutants, pathways and enzymes/proteins associated with the mutants, and allows rapid access via hyperlinks to summaries of information about each mutant and to literature that provides information on the lipid composition of the mutants. Mutants for at least 30 % of the genes in the database have multiple names, which have been compiled here to reduce ambiguities in searches for information. Furthermore, the database should also provide a tool for exploring the relationships between mutants in acyl lipid-related genes and their lipid phenotypes and point to opportunities for further research.« less

  11. Regioselective self-acylating cyclodextrins in organic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Eunae; Yun, Deokgyu; Jeong, Daham; Im, Jieun; Kim, Hyunki; Dindulkar, Someshwar D.; Choi, Youngjin; Jung, Seunho

    2016-03-01

    Amphiphilic cyclodextrins have been synthesized with self-acylating reaction using vinyl esters in dimethylformamide. In the present study no base, catalyst, or enzyme was used, and the structural analyses using thin layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry show that the cyclodextrin is substituted preferentially by one acyl moiety at the C2 position of the glucose unit, suggesting that cyclodextrin functions as a regioselective catalytic carbohydrate in organic solvent. In the self-acylation, the most acidic OH group at the 2-position and the inclusion complexing ability of cyclodextrin were considered to be significant. The substrate preference was also observed in favor of the long-chain acyl group, which could be attributed to the inclusion ability of cyclodextrin cavity. Furthermore, using the model amphiphilic building block, 2-O-mono-lauryl β-cyclodextrin, the self-organized supramolecular architecture with nano-vesicular morphology in water was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The cavity-type nano-assembled vesicle and the novel synthetic methods for the preparation of mono-acylated cyclodextrin should be of great interest with regard to drug/gene delivery systems, functional surfactants, and carbohydrate derivatization methods.

  12. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H.; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels. PMID:26858288

  13. Exploiting the Substrate Promiscuity of Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase to Reduce Lignin.

    PubMed

    Eudes, Aymerick; Pereira, Jose H; Yogiswara, Sasha; Wang, George; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Baidoo, Edward E K; Lee, Taek Soon; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Loqué, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Lignin poses a major challenge in the processing of plant biomass for agro-industrial applications. For bioengineering purposes, there is a pressing interest in identifying and characterizing the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of lignin. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT; EC 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of the most important lignin monomers: coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. In this study, we investigated the substrate promiscuity of HCT from a bryophyte (Physcomitrella) and from five representatives of vascular plants (Arabidopsis, poplar, switchgrass, pine and Selaginella) using a yeast expression system. We demonstrate for these HCTs a conserved capacity to acylate with p-coumaroyl-CoA several phenolic compounds in addition to the canonical acceptor shikimate normally used during lignin biosynthesis. Using either recombinant HCT from switchgrass (PvHCT2a) or an Arabidopsis stem protein extract, we show evidence of the inhibitory effect of these phenolics on the synthesis of p-coumaroyl shikimate in vitro, which presumably occurs via a mechanism of competitive inhibition. A structural study of PvHCT2a confirmed the binding of a non-canonical acceptor in a similar manner to shikimate in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, we exploited in Arabidopsis the substrate flexibility of HCT to reduce lignin content and improve biomass saccharification by engineering transgenic lines that overproduce one of the HCT non-canonical acceptors. Our results demonstrate conservation of HCT substrate promiscuity and provide support for a new strategy for lignin reduction in the effort to improve the quality of plant biomass for forage and cellulosic biofuels.

  14. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of ethacrynic acid analogues on glutathione-s-transferase P1-1 activity inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guisen; Yu, Tao; Wang, Rui; Wang, Xiaobing; Jing, Yongkui

    2005-06-02

    Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a glutathione-s-transferase pi (GSTP1-1) inhibitor. Fifteen of EA analogues were designed and synthesized and their inhibition on GSTP1-1 activity was tested in lysate of human leukemia HL-60 cells. These compounds were synthesized using substituted phenol as precursors through reacting with 2-chlorocarboxylic acid and acylation. Structure-activity analysis indicates that replacements of chlorides of EA by methyl, bromide, and fluoride at 3' position remain the GSTP1-1 inhibitory effect. The compounds without any substitute at 3' position lose the activity on GSTP1-1 inhibition. These data suggest that the substitution of 3' position of EA is necessary for inhibiting GSTP1-1 activity.

  15. Trapping of the Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase–Acyl Carrier Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tallorin, Lorillee; Finzel, Kara; Nguyen, Quynh G.; Beld, Joris; La Clair, James J.; Burkart, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    An ideal target for metabolic engineering, fatty acid biosynthesis remains poorly understood on a molecular level. These carrier protein-dependent pathways require fundamental protein–protein interactions to guide reactivity and processivity, and their control has become one of the major hurdles in successfully adapting these biological machines. Our laboratory has developed methods to prepare acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) loaded with substrate mimetics and cross-linkers to visualize and trap interactions with partner enzymes, and we continue to expand the tools for studying these pathways. We now describe application of the slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor triclosan to explore the interactions between the type II fatty acid ACP from Escherichia coli, AcpP, and its corresponding enoyl-ACP reductase, FabI. We show that the AcpP–triclosan complex demonstrates nM binding, inhibits in vitro activity, and can be used to isolate FabI in complex proteomes. PMID:26938266

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthase Assays.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel; Frane, Nicole D; Brecht, Ryan M; Keeler, Jesse; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Quorum sensing is cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinate attacks on their hosts by inducing virulent gene expression, biofilm production, and other cellular functions, including antibiotic resistance. AHL synthase enzymes synthesize N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, commonly referred to as autoinducers, to facilitate quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. Studying the synthases, however, has proven to be a difficult road. Two assays, including a radiolabeled assay and a colorimetric (DCPIP) assay are well-documented in literature to study AHL synthases. In this paper, we describe additional methods that include an HPLC-based, C-S bond cleavage and coupled assays to investigate this class of enzymes. In addition, we compare and contrast each assay for both acyl-CoA- and acyl-ACP-utilizing synthases. The expanded toolkit described in this study should facilitate mechanistic studies on quorum sensing signal synthases and expedite discovery of antivirulent compounds.

  17. Asymmetric Allylboration of Acyl Imines Catalyzed by Chiral Diols

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sha; Moquist, Philip N.; Schaus, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    Chiral BINOL-derived diols catalyze the enantioselective asymmetric allylboration of acyl imines. The reaction requires 15 mol% of (S)-3,3′-Ph2-BINOL as the catalyst and allyldiisopropoxyborane as the nucleophile. The reaction products are obtained in good yields (75 – 94%) and high enantiomeric ratios (95:5 – 99.5:0.5) for aromatic and aliphatic imines. High diastereoselectivities (dr > 98:2) and enantioselectivities (er > 98:2) are obtained in the reactions of acyl imines with crotyldiisopropoxyboranes. This asymmetric transformation is directly applied to the synthesis of maraviroc, the selective CCR5 antagonist with potent activity against HIV-1 infection. Mechanistic investigations of the allylboration reaction including IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry study indicate that acyclic boronates are activated by chiral diols via exchange of one of the boronate alkoxy groups with activation of the acyl imine via hydrogen bonding. PMID:18020334

  18. Late onset ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency in males.

    PubMed Central

    Drogari, E; Leonard, J V

    1988-01-01

    Six boys with ornithine carbamoyl transferase deficiency presenting in infancy or later childhood are described. There was wide variation in both the time of presentation and the symptoms, which may initially suggest a neurological, behavioural, or gastroenterological problem. Two patients died, as did two male siblings who were probably affected, but with early recognition of the hyperammonaemia the outlook is good. PMID:3202644

  19. Histamine N-methyl transferase: inhibition by drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Pacifici, G M; Donatelli, P; Giuliani, L

    1992-01-01

    1. Histamine N-methyl transferase activity was measured in samples of human liver, brain, kidney, lung and intestinal mucosa. The mean (+/- s.d.) rate (nmol min-1 mg-1 protein) of histamine N-methylation was 1.78 +/- 0.59 (liver, n = 60), 1.15 +/- 0.38 (renal cortex, n = 8), 0.79 +/- 0.14 (renal medulla, n = 8), 0.35 +/- 0.08 (lung, n = 20), 0.47 +/- 0.18 (human intestine, n = 30) and 0.29 +/- 0.14 (brain, n = 13). 2. Inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase by 15 drugs was investigated in human liver. The IC50 for the various drugs ranged over three orders of magnitude; chloroquine was the most potent inhibitor. 3. The average IC50 values for chloroquine were 12.6, 22.0, 19.0, 21.6 microM in liver, renal cortex, brain and colon, respectively. These values are lower than the Michaelis-Menten constant for histamine N-methyltransferase in liver (43.8 microM) and kidney (45.5 microM). Chloroquine carried a mixed non-competitive inhibition of hepatic histamine N-methyl transferase. Some side-effects of chloroquine may be explained by inhibition of histamine N-methyl transferase. PMID:1457266

  20. Rational design of an organometallic glutathione transferase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, W.H.; Parker, L.J.; De Luca, A.; Juillerat-Jeanneret, L.; Morton, C.J.; LoBello, M.; Parker, M.W.; Dyson, P.J.

    2010-08-17

    A hybrid organic-inorganic (organometallic) inhibitor was designed to target glutathione transferases. The metal center is used to direct protein binding, while the organic moiety acts as the active-site inhibitor. The mechanism of inhibition was studied using a range of biophysical and biochemical methods.

  1. Homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) cDNA’s in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This reaction ...

  2. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GLUTATHIONE s-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. M K Ross1 and R A Pegram2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL/ORD, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  3. Identification of Unusual Phospholipid Fatty Acyl Compositions of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Kania, Magdalena; Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Danikiewicz, Witold; Russa, Ryszard; Fuchs, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Acanthamoeba are opportunistic protozoan pathogens that may lead to sight-threatening keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. The successful prognosis requires early diagnosis and differentiation of pathogenic Acanthamoeba followed by aggressive treatment regimen. The plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba consists of 25% phospholipids (PL). The presence of C20 and, recently reported, 28- and 30-carbon fatty acyl residues is characteristic of amoeba PL. A detailed knowledge about this unusual PL composition could help to differentiate Acanthamoeba from other parasites, e.g. bacteria and develop more efficient treatment strategies. Therefore, the detailed PL composition of Acanthamoeba castellanii was investigated by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Normal and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection was used for detailed characterization of the fatty acyl composition of each detected PL. The most abundant fatty acyl residues in each PL class were octadecanoyl (18∶0), octadecenoyl (18∶1 Δ9) and hexadecanoyl (16∶0). However, some selected PLs contained also very long fatty acyl chains: the presence of 28- and 30-carbon fatty acyl residues was confirmed in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin. The majority of these fatty acyl residues were also identified in PE that resulted in the following composition: 28∶1/20∶2, 30∶2/18∶1, 28∶0/20∶2, 30∶2/20∶4 and 30∶3/20∶3. The PL of amoebae are significantly different in comparison to other cells: we describe here for the first time unusual, very long chain fatty acids with Δ5-unsaturation (30∶35,21,24) and 30∶221,24 localized exclusively in specific phospholipid classes of A. castellanii protozoa that could serve as specific biomarkers for the presence of these

  4. Sphingomyelin interfacial behavior: the impact of changing acyl chain composition.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X M; Smaby, J M; Momsen, M M; Brockman, H L; Brown, R E

    2000-01-01

    Sphingomyelins (SMs) containing homogeneous acyl chains with 12, 14, 16, 18, 24, or 26 carbons were synthesized and characterized using an automated Langmuir-type film balance. Surface pressure was monitored as a function of lipid molecular area at constant temperatures between 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C. SM containing lauroyl (12:0) acyl chains displayed only liquid-expanded behavior. Increasing the length of the saturated acyl chain (e.g., 14:0, 16:0, or 18:0) resulted in liquid-expanded to condensed two-dimensional phase transitions at many temperatures in the 10-30 degrees C range. Similar behavior was observed for SMs with lignoceroyl (24:0) or (cerotoyl) 26:0 acyl chains, but isotherms showed only condensed behavior at 10 and 15 degrees C. Insights into the physico-mechanical in-plane interactions occurring within the different SM phases and accompanying changes in SM phase state were provided by analyzing the interfacial area compressibility moduli. At similar surface pressures, SM fluid phases were less compressible than those of phosphatidylcholines with similar chain structures. The area per molecule and compressibility of SM condensed phases depended upon the length of the saturated acyl chain and upon spreading temperature. Spreading of SMs with very long saturated acyl chains at temperatures 30-35 degrees below T(m) resulted in condensed films with lower in-plane compressibilities, but consistently larger cross-sectional molecular areas than the condensed phases achieved by spreading at temperatures only 10-20 degrees below T(m). This behavior is discussed in terms of the enhancement of SM lateral aggregation by temperature reduction, a common approach used during domain isolation from biomembranes. PMID:10733971

  5. Quantum chemical study of penicillin: Reactions after acylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Feng, Dacheng; Zhu, Feng

    The density functional theory methods were used on the model molecules of penicillin to determine the possible reactions after their acylation on ?-lactamase, and the results were compared with sulbactam we have studied. The results show that, the acylated-enzyme tetrahedral intermediate can evolves with opening of ?-lactam ring as well as the thiazole ring; the thiazole ring-open products may be formed via ?-lactam ring-open product or from tetrahedral intermediate directly. Those products, in imine or enamine form, can tautomerize via hydrogen migration. In virtue of the water-assisted, their energy barriers are obviously reduced.

  6. Novel approach in LC-MS/MS using MRM to generate a full profile of acyl-CoAs: discovery of acyl-dephospho-CoAs[S

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingling; Zhang, Shenghui; Berthiaume, Jessica M.; Simons, Brigitte; Zhang, Guo-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A metabolomic approach to selectively profile all acyl-CoAs was developed using a programmed multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method in LC-MS/MS and was employed in the analysis of various rat organs. The programmed MRM method possessed 300 mass ion transitions with the mass difference of 507 between precursor ion (Q1) and product ion (Q3), and the precursor ion started from m/z 768 and progressively increased one mass unit at each step. Acyl-dephospho-CoAs resulting from the dephosphorylation of acyl-CoAs were identified by accurate MS and fragmentation. Acyl-dephospho-CoAs were also quantitatively scanned by the MRM method with the mass difference of 427 between Q1 and Q3 mass ions. Acyl-CoAs and dephospho-CoAs were assayed with limits of detection ranging from 2 to 133 nM. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by assaying a range of concentrations of spiked acyl-CoAs with the results of 80–114%. The distribution of acyl-CoAs reflects the metabolic status of each organ. The physiological role of dephosphorylation of acyl-CoAs remains to be further characterized. The methodology described herein provides a novel strategy in metabolomic studies to quantitatively and qualitatively profile all potential acyl-CoAs and acyl-dephospho-CoAs. PMID:24367045

  7. Copper(II)/amine synergistically catalyzed enantioselective alkylation of cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals with aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shutao; Mao, Ying; Lou, Hongxiang; Liu, Lei

    2015-07-07

    The first catalytic asymmetric alkylation of N-acyl quinoliniums with aldehydes has been described. A copper/amine synergistic catalytic system has been developed, allowing the addition of functionalized aldehydes to a wide range of electronically varied N-acyl quinoliniums in good yields with excellent enantiocontrol. The synergistic catalytic system was also effective for N-acyl dihydroisoquinoliniums and β-caboliniums, demonstrating the general applicability of the protocol in the enantioselective alkylation of diverse cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals.

  8. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a) Identification. A galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system is a device intended to measure the...

  9. A Cerulenin Insensitive Short Chain 3-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase in Spinacia oleracea Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Jan G.; Clough, Richard C.; Barnum, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    A cerulenin insensitive 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase has been assayed in extracts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf. The enzyme was active in the 40 to 80% ammonium sulfate precipitate of whole leaf homogenates and catalyzed the synthesis of acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein. This condensation reaction was five-fold faster than acetyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase, and the initial rates of acyl-acyl carrier protein synthesis were independent of the presence of cerulenin. In the presence of fatty acid synthase cofactors and 100 micromolar cerulenin, the principal fatty acid product of de novo synthesis was butyric and hexanoic acids. Using conformationally sensitive native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for separation, malonyl-, acetyl-, butyryl-, hexanoyl, and long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins could be detected by immunoblotting and autoradiography. In the presence of 100 micromolar cerulenin, the accumulation of butyryl- and hexanoyl-acyl carrier protein was observed, with no detectable long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins or fatty acids being produced. In the absence of cerulenin, the long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins also accumulated. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16666765

  10. Acyl migration kinetics of vegetable oil 1,2-diacylglycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acyl migration kinetics of long-chain 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) to form 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) over the temperature range of 25 to 80 degrees Celsius were examined using proton NMR spectroscopy. The 1,2-DAG mole fraction of 0.32 at equilibrium was found to be insensitive to temperature...

  11. One-Step Conversion of Methyl Ketones to Acyl Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Florencio

    2015-10-16

    Treatment of aromatic and heteroaromatic methyl ketones with sulfur monochloride and catalytic amounts of pyridine in refluxing chlorobenzene leads to the formation of acyl chlorides. Both electron-rich and electron-poor aryl methyl ketones can be used as starting materials. The resulting C1-byproduct depends on the precise reaction conditions chosen.

  12. Lubricity characteristics of seed oils modified by acylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

  13. Mechanistic studies of malonic acid-mediated in situ acylation.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Koushik; Naoum, Johnny N; Roy, Tapta Kanchan; Gilon, Chaim; Gerber, R Benny; Friedler, Assaf

    2015-09-01

    We have previously introduced an easy to perform, cost-effective and highly efficient acetylation technique for solid phase synthesis (SPPS). Malonic acid is used as a precursor and the reaction proceeds via a reactive ketene that acetylates the target amine. Here we present a detailed mechanistic study of the malonic acid-mediated acylation. The influence of reaction conditions, peptide sequence and reagents was systematically studied. Our results show that the methodology can be successfully applied to different types of peptides and nonpeptidic molecules irrespective of their structure, sequence, or conformation. Using alkyl, phenyl, and benzyl malonic acid, we synthesized various acyl peptides with almost quantitative yields. The ketenes obtained from the different malonic acid derived precursors were characterized by in situ (1) H-NMR. The reaction proceeded in short reaction times and resulted in excellent yields when using uronium-based coupling agents, DIPEA as a base, DMF/DMSO/NMP as solvents, Rink amide/Wang/Merrifield resins, temperature of 20°C, pH 8-12 and 5 min preactivation at inert atmosphere. The reaction was unaffected by Lewis acids, transition metal ions, surfactants, or salt. DFT studies support the kinetically favorable concerted mechanism for CO2 and ketene formation that leads to the thermodynamically stable acylated products. We conclude that the malonic acid-mediated acylation is a general method applicable to various target molecules.

  14. Fluorescently labelled bovine acyl-CoA-binding protein acting as an acyl-CoA sensor: interaction with CoA and acyl-CoA esters and its use in measuring free acyl-CoA esters and non-esterified fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Wadum, Majken C T; Villadsen, Jens K; Feddersen, Søren; Møller, Rikke S; Neergaard, Thomas B F; Kragelund, Birthe B; Højrup, Peter; Faergeman, Nils J; Knudsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are key metabolites in lipid synthesis and beta-oxidation but, at the same time, are important regulators of intermediate metabolism, insulin secretion, vesicular trafficking and gene expression. Key tools in studying the regulatory functions of acyl-CoA esters are reliable methods for the determination of free acyl-CoA concentrations. No such method is presently available. In the present study, we describe the synthesis of two acyl-CoA sensors for measuring free acyl-CoA concentrations using acyl-CoA-binding protein as a scaffold. Met24 and Ala53 of bovine acyl-CoA-binding protein were replaced by cysteine residues, which were covalently modified with 6-bromoacetyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene to make the two fluorescent acyl-CoA indicators (FACIs) FACI-24 and FACI-53. FACI-24 and FACI-53 showed fluorescence emission maximum at 510 and 525 nm respectively, in the absence of ligand (excitation 387 nm). Titration of FACI-24 and FACI-53 with hexadecanoyl-CoA and dodecanoyl-CoA increased the fluorescence yield 5.5-and 4.7-fold at 460 and 495 nm respectively. FACI-24 exhibited a high, and similar increase in, fluorescence yield at 460 nm upon binding of C14-C20 saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoA esters. Both indicators bind long-chain (>C14) acyl-CoA esters with high specificity and affinity (K(d)=0.6-1.7 nM). FACI-53 showed a high fluorescence yield for C8-C12 acyl chains. It is shown that FACI-24 acts as a sensitive acyl-CoA sensor for measuring the concentration of free acyl-CoA, acyl-CoA synthetase activity and the concentrations of free fatty acids after conversion of the fatty acid into their respective acyl-CoA esters. PMID:12071849

  15. Ethanol Metabolism Modifies Hepatic Protein Acylation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Kristofer S.; Green, Michelle F.; Petersen, Dennis R.; Hirschey, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein acetylation increases in response to chronic ethanol ingestion in mice, and is thought to reduce mitochondrial function and contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 regulates the acetylation status of several mitochondrial proteins, including those involved in ethanol metabolism. The newly discovered desuccinylase activity of the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT5 suggests that protein succinylation could be an important post-translational modification regulating mitochondrial metabolism. To assess the possible role of protein succinylation in ethanol metabolism, we surveyed hepatic sub-cellular protein fractions from mice fed a control or ethanol-supplemented diet for succinyl-lysine, as well as acetyl-, propionyl-, and butyryl-lysine post-translational modifications. We found mitochondrial protein propionylation increases, similar to mitochondrial protein acetylation. In contrast, mitochondrial protein succinylation is reduced. These mitochondrial protein modifications appear to be primarily driven by ethanol metabolism, and not by changes in mitochondrial sirtuin levels. Similar trends in acyl modifications were observed in the nucleus. However, comparatively fewer acyl modifications were observed in the cytoplasmic or the microsomal compartments, and were generally unchanged by ethanol metabolism. Using a mass spectrometry proteomics approach, we identified several candidate acetylated, propionylated, and succinylated proteins, which were enriched using antibodies against each modification. Additionally, we identified several acetyl and propionyl lysine residues on the same sites for a number of proteins and supports the idea of the overlapping nature of lysine-specific acylation. Thus, we show that novel post-translational modifications are present in hepatic mitochondrial, nuclear, cytoplasmic, and microsomal compartments and ethanol ingestion, and its associated metabolism, induce specific

  16. Interaction of antimicrobial peptide with mycolyl transferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Devjani I; Gohil, Tejas P

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that about 40% of the Indian population are infected with tuberculosis (TB) and that ∼3,000,000 people die as a result of TB annually. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2011, the World Health Organization declared India as having the highest TB burden worldwide. An important criteria for pathogenicity is the presence of mycolic acid linked to the protective outer membrane of bacteria. Mycolyl transferase catalyzes the transfer of mycolic acid and promotes cell wall synthesis. This is also considered as a novel target for drug-mediated intervention strategies. Here, we have attempted to understand the interaction between the antimicrobial peptide (AMP), dermcidin, and mycolyl transferase in M. tuberculosis using a computational approach. The present study was undertaken in order to elucidate the capability of AMPs to treat this bacteria, which is less sensitive to available antibiotics, and to design a novel method for new therapies.

  17. [Glutathione S-transferase of alpha class from pike liver].

    PubMed

    Borvinskaia, E V; Smirnov, L P; Nemova, N N

    2013-01-01

    In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from the liver of pike Esox lucius, which was homogenous according to SDS-PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. It is a homodimer with subunits mass 25235.36 Da (according to HPLC-MS/MS) and pI about 6.4. Substrate specificity, thermostability, some kinetic characteristics and optimum pH were determined. The enzyme was identified as Alpha class GST.

  18. Activation of Exogenous Fatty Acids to Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Cannot Bypass FabI Inhibition in Neisseria*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Bruhn, David F.; Frank, Matthew W.; Lee, Richard E.; Rock, Charles O.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria is a Gram-negative pathogen with phospholipids composed of straight chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides that are not essential. The FabI inhibitor, AFN-1252, was deployed as a chemical biology tool to determine whether Neisseria can bypass the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by incorporating exogenous fatty acids. Neisseria encodes a functional FabI that was potently inhibited by AFN-1252. AFN-1252 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in growing Neisseria, a delayed inhibition of growth phenotype, and minimal inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, showing that its mode of action is through inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. Isotopic fatty acid labeling experiments showed that Neisseria encodes the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipids by an acyl-acyl carrier protein-dependent pathway. However, AFN-1252 remained an effective antibacterial when Neisseria were supplemented with exogenous fatty acids. These results demonstrate that extracellular fatty acids are activated by an acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasN) and validate type II fatty acid synthesis (FabI) as a therapeutic target against Neisseria. PMID:26567338

  19. Rates of thrombin acylation and deacylation upon reaction with low molecular weight acylating agents, carbamylating agents and carbonylating agents.

    PubMed

    Brown, A D; Powers, J C

    1995-08-01

    Acylated derivatives of thrombin have been made using low molecular weight acylating agents, carbamylating agents and carbonylating agents. The compounds used to acylate the active site serine include isatoic anhydrides, benzoxazinones, benzylisocyanate, N-(benzylcarbonyloxy)succinimide and p-(dimethylamino)benzoylimidazolide. The rates of acylation and deacylation were determined. The best overall inhibitors of thrombin are 2-ethoxy-4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one, isatoic anhydride and tert-butyl-2,4-dioxo-2H-3,1-benzoxazine-1(4H)-acetate, which have k2/Ki values of 52,700 M-1s-1, 48,900 M-1s-1 and 5400 M-1s-1, respectively. The carbamyl derivative of thrombin formed with benzylisocyanate had the slowest rate of deacylation (2.3 x 10(-7) s-1), while the ester derivative formed with 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)methylimino-4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one had the fastest rate of deacylation (1.9 x 10(-4) s-1).

  20. Palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase and the evolutionary origin of plant acyl-ACP thioesterases.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A; Davies, H M; Voelker, T A

    1995-01-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases play an essential role in chain termination during de novo fatty acid synthesis and in the channeling of carbon flux between the two lipid biosynthesis pathways in plants. We have discovered that there are two distinct but related thioesterase gene classes in higher plants, termed FatA and FatB, whose evolutionary divergence appears to be ancient. FatA encodes the already described 18:1-ACP thioesterase. In contrast, FatB representatives encode thioesterases preferring acyl-ACPs having saturated acyl groups. We unexpectedly obtained a 16:0-ACP thioesterase cDNA from Cuphea hookeriana seed, which accumulate predominantly 8:0 and 10:0. The 16:0 thioesterase transcripts were found in non-seed tissues, and expression in transgenic Brassica napus led to the production of a 16:0-rich oil. We present evidence that this type of FatB gene is ancient and ubiquitous in plants and that specialized plant medium-chain thioesterases have evolved independently from such enzymes several times during angiosperm evolution. Also, the ubiquitous 18:1-ACP thioesterase appears to be a derivative of a 16:0 thioesterase. PMID:7734968

  1. Production of a Brassica napus low-molecular mass acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein in Arabidopsis alters the acyl-coenzyme A pool and acyl composition of oil in seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expressio...

  2. Acylation of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2: Interaction with Lipid Membranes and In Vitro Intestinal Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Rahbek, Ulrik Lytt

    2014-01-01

    Background Acylation of peptide drugs with fatty acid chains has proven beneficial for prolonging systemic circulation as well as increasing enzymatic stability without disrupting biological potency. Acylation has furthermore been shown to increase interactions with the lipid membranes of mammalian cells. The extent to which such interactions hinder or benefit delivery of acylated peptide drugs across cellular barriers such as the intestinal epithelia is currently unknown. The present study investigates the effect of acylating peptide drugs from a drug delivery perspective. Purpose We hypothesize that the membrane interaction is an important parameter for intestinal translocation, which may be used to optimize the acylation chain length for intestinal permeation. This work aims to characterize acylated analogues of the intestinotrophic Glucagon-like peptide-2 by systematically increasing acyl chain length, in order to elucidate its influence on membrane interaction and intestinal cell translocation in vitro. Results Peptide self-association and binding to both model lipid and cell membranes was found to increase gradually with acyl chain length, whereas translocation across Caco-2 cells depended non-linearly on chain length. Short and medium acyl chains increased translocation compared to the native peptide, but long chain acylation displayed no improvement in translocation. Co-administration of a paracellular absorption enhancer was found to increase translocation irrespective of acyl chain length, whereas a transcellular enhancer displayed increased synergy with the long chain acylation. Conclusions These results show that membrane interactions play a prominent role during intestinal translocation of an acylated peptide. Acylation benefits permeation for shorter and medium chains due to increased membrane interactions, however, for longer chains insertion in the membrane becomes dominant and hinders translocation, i.e. the peptides get ‘stuck’ in the cell

  3. The Penicillium chrysogenum aclA gene encodes a broad-substrate-specificity acyl-coenzyme A ligase involved in activation of adipic acid, a side-chain precursor for cephem antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Koetsier, Martijn J; Gombert, Andreas K; Fekken, Susan; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van den Berg, Marco A; Kiel, Jan A K W; Jekel, Peter A; Janssen, Dick B; Pronk, Jack T; van der Klei, Ida J; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the cephalosporin side-chain precursor to the corresponding CoA-thioester is an essential step for its incorporation into the beta-lactam backbone. To identify an acyl-CoA ligase involved in activation of adipate, we searched in the genome database of Penicillium chrysogenum for putative structural genes encoding acyl-CoA ligases. Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis was used to identify the one presenting the highest expression level when cells were grown in the presence of adipate. Deletion of the gene renamed aclA, led to a 32% decreased specific rate of adipate consumption and a threefold reduction of adipoyl-6-aminopenicillanic acid levels, but did not affect penicillin V production. After overexpression in Escherichia coli, the purified protein was shown to have a broad substrate range including adipate. Finally, protein-fusion with cyan-fluorescent protein showed co-localization with microbody-borne acyl-transferase. Identification and functional characterization of aclA may aid in developing future metabolic engineering strategies for improving the production of different cephalosporins.

  4. Modification of the substrate specificity of an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase by protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Yuan, L; Voelker, T A; Hawkins, D J

    1995-11-07

    The plant acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (TEs) are of biochemical interest because of their roles in fatty acid synthesis and their utilities in the bioengineering of plant seed oils. When the FatB1 cDNA encoding a 12:0-ACP TE (Uc FatB1) from California bay, Umbellularia californica (Uc) was expressed in Escherichia coli and in developing oilseeds of the plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus, large amounts of laurate (12:0) and small amounts of myristate (14:0) were accumulated. We have isolated a TE cDNA from camphor (Cinnamomum camphorum) (Cc) seeds that shares 92% amino acid identity with Uc FatB1. This TE, Cc FatB1, mainly hydrolyzes 14:0-ACP as shown by E. coli expression. We have investigated the roles of the N- and C-terminal regions in determining substrate specificity by constructing two chimeric enzymes, in which the N-terminal portion of one protein is fused to the C-terminal portion of the other. Our results show that the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein is critical for the specificity. By site-directed mutagenesis, we have replaced several amino acids in Uc FatB1 by using the Cc FatB1 sequence as a guide. A double mutant, which changes Met-197 to an Arg and Arg-199 to a His (M197R/R199H), turns Uc FatB1 into a 12:0/14:0 TE with equal preference for both substrates. Another mutation, T231K, by itself does not effect the specificity. However, when it is combined with the double mutant to generate a triple mutant (M197R/R199H/T231K), Uc FatB1 is converted to a 14:0-ACP TE. Expression of the double-mutant cDNA in E. coli K27, a strain deficient in fatty acid degradation, results in accumulation of similar amounts of 12:0 and 14:0. Meanwhile the E. coli expressing the triple-mutant cDNA produces predominantly 14:0 with very small amounts of 12:0. Kinetic studies indicate that both wild-type Uc FatB1 and the triple mutant have similar values of Km,app with respect to 14:0-ACP. Inhibitory studies also show that 12:0-ACP is a good

  5. [S-Acyl derivatives of thiosalicylamides having antifungal activity. II].

    PubMed

    Mazza, M; Modena, T; Montanari, L; Pavanetto, F

    1978-07-01

    Some S-acyl derivatives of N-alkylthiosalicylamides [Table I: substances (I leads to XXXI)] were prepared and tested for antifungal activity. The substances, most of which had not been previously reported, were prepared by condensation of 2-mercapto-N-alkylbenzamides with suitable acylating agents. The antifungal activity of the compounds was tested in vitro against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. For some compounds the was tested activity against the above strains fungicidal, Candida tropicalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many of the compounds proved to have high antifungal activity comparable with that of Clotrimazol. The results extended knowledge on the structure-antifungal activity relationships of this class of compounds. The compounds with the highest antifungal activity were: 2-acetylmercapto-N,n-heptylbenzamide (XXVIII); 2-acetylmercapto-5-Cl-N,n-propylbenzamide (XIV); 2-acetylmercapto-N,n-octylbenzamide (XXXI); 2-acetylmercapto-N,n-pentylbenzamide (XXV); 2-acetylmercapto-N,n-hexylbenzamide (XXVII).

  6. Metabolic Glycoengineering with N-Acyl Side Chain Modified Mannosamines.

    PubMed

    Wratil, Paul R; Horstkorte, Rüdiger; Reutter, Werner

    2016-08-08

    In metabolic glycoengineering (MGE), cells or animals are treated with unnatural derivatives of monosaccharides. After entering the cytosol, these sugar analogues are metabolized and subsequently expressed on newly synthesized glycoconjugates. The feasibility of MGE was first discovered for sialylated glycans, by using N-acyl-modified mannosamines as precursor molecules for unnatural sialic acids. Prerequisite is the promiscuity of the enzymes of the Roseman-Warren biosynthetic pathway. These enzymes were shown to tolerate specific modifications of the N-acyl side chain of mannosamine analogues, for example, elongation by one or more methylene groups (aliphatic modifications) or by insertion of reactive groups (bioorthogonal modifications). Unnatural sialic acids are incorporated into glycoconjugates of cells and organs. MGE has intriguing biological consequences for treated cells (aliphatic MGE) and offers the opportunity to visualize the topography and dynamics of sialylated glycans in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo (bioorthogonal MGE).

  7. Thiourea-Catalyzed Aminolysis of N-acyl Homoserine Lactones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), molecules integral to bacterial quorum sensing . The catalysts afford rate enhancement of up to 10 times the...SUBJECT TERMS quorum sensing Michael A. Bertucci, Stephen J. Lee, Michel R. Gagné University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill Office of Sponsored... quorum sensing . The catalysts afford rate enhancement of up to 10 times the control in CD3CN. Mild catalysis in other polar aprotic solvents is

  8. Antinociceptive property of new 4-acyl-arylhydrazone pyrazole compounds.

    PubMed

    Matheus, M E; Oliveira, L F; Freitas, A C; Carvalho, A M; Barreiro, E J

    1991-01-01

    A series of new 4-acyl-arylhydrazone pyrazole compounds were tested for antinociceptive activity using the inhibition of abdominal contortions induced by acetylcholine (4 mg/kg, ip) in the mouse. Dipyrone was used for comparison of the antinociceptive potency of the compounds being tested. All drugs were administered po in saline (dipyrone) or in propylene glycol (4-acyl-arylhydrazones). The maximum response induced by dipyrone (86% inhibition) was assigned an efficacy index of 1.0. Although none of the compounds had an efficacy index greater than 1.0, all three reached 1.0. The two most potent compounds, W1d and W1g, which also had an efficacy similar to that of dipyrone, contain a p-N(CH3)2 and m-OH,p-OCH3 group in the aromatic ring of the acyl-hydrazone, respectively. W1d presented the lowest antinociceptive ED50 in the series (1.41 mg/kg) and was eleven times more potent than dipyrone (ED50 = 15.80 mg/kg). Other substitutions at the para position had lower potency than W1d. The present results indicate that the introduction of a group at the para position of the acyl-arylhydrazone ring increases the antinociceptive activity of these compounds to provide compounds of the same efficacy but greater potency than dipyrone to which these new compounds are structurally related. Other assays of nociceptive activity are being used to characterize the mechanism of action of the potential new drugs.

  9. Acylation type determines ghrelin's effects on energy homeostasis in rodents.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Kristy M; Chaudhary, Nilika; Müller, Timo D; Kirchner, Henriette; Habegger, Kirk M; Ottaway, Nickki; Smiley, David L; Dimarchi, Richard; Hofmann, Susanna M; Woods, Stephen C; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Holst, Birgitte; Pfluger, Paul T; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2012-10-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal polypeptide that acts through the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) to promote food intake and increase adiposity. Activation of GHSR requires the presence of a fatty-acid (FA) side chain on amino acid residue serine 3 of the ghrelin molecule. However, little is known about the role that the type of FA used for acylation plays in the biological action of ghrelin. We therefore evaluated a series of differentially acylated peptides to determine whether alterations in length or stability of the FA side chain have an impact on the ability of ghrelin to activate GHSR in vitro or to differentially alter food intake, body weight, and body composition in vivo. Fatty acids principally available in the diet (such as palmitate C16) and therefore representing potential substrates for the ghrelin-activating enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) were used for dose-, time-, and administration/route-dependent effects of ghrelin on food intake, body weight, and body composition in rats and mice. Our data demonstrate that altering the length of the FA side chain of ghrelin results in the differential activation of GHSR. Additionally, we found that acylation of ghrelin with a long-chain FA (C16) delays the acute central stimulation of food intake. Lastly, we found that, depending on acylation length, systemic and central chronic actions of ghrelin on adiposity can be enhanced or reduced. Together our data suggest that modification of the FA side-chain length can be a novel approach to modulate the efficacy of pharmacologically administered ghrelin.

  10. Six new acylated anthocyanins from red radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Tsuji, Kouji; Yongzhen, Piao; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-09-01

    Six new acylated anthocyanins (1-6) were isolated along with the three known congeners (7-9) from the fresh roots of red radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated by our group. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic properties. Among the six new anthocyanins, the five constituents (1, 2, 4-6) were shown to contain the malonyl function at 6-OH in the glucopyranosyl residue linked to C-5 in the pelargonidin nucleus.

  11. A new cytotoxic acylated apigenin glucoside from Phyllanthus emblica L.

    PubMed

    El-Desouky, S K; Ryu, Shi Young; Kim, Young-Kyoon

    2008-01-10

    A new acylated apigenin glucoside (apigenin-7-O-(6''-butyryl-beta-glucopyranoside) (1) was isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) together with the known compounds; gallic acid (2), methyl gallate (3), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloylglucose (4) and luteolin-4'-O-neohesperiodoside (5). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, HSQC, HMBC).

  12. Metabolism of acyl-lipids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Riekhof, Wayne

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae are emerging platforms for production of a suite of compounds targeting several markets, including food, nutraceuticals, green chemicals, and biofuels. Many of these products, such as biodiesel or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), derive from lipid metabolism. A general picture of lipid metabolism in microalgae has been deduced from well characterized pathways of fungi and land plants, but recent advances in molecular and genetic analyses of microalgae have uncovered unique features, pointing out the necessity to study lipid metabolism in microalgae themselves. In the past 10 years, in addition to its traditional role as a model for photosynthetic and flagellar motility processes, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has emerged as a model organism to study lipid metabolism in green microalgae. Here, after summarizing data on total fatty acid composition, distribution of acyl-lipid classes, and major acyl-lipid molecular species found in C. reinhardtii, we review the current knowledge on the known or putative steps for fatty acid synthesis, glycerolipid desaturation and assembly, membrane lipid turnover, and oil remobilization. A list of characterized or putative enzymes for the major steps of acyl-lipid metabolism in C. reinhardtii is included, and subcellular localizations and phenotypes of associated mutants are discussed. Biogenesis and composition of Chlamydomonas lipid droplets and the potential importance of lipolytic processes in increasing cellular oil content are also highlighted.

  13. Phylogenetic and experimental characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase family reveals significant diversity in enzymatic specificity and activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. Results To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2) seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo substrate specificities of the acyl-ACP TEs were determined in E. coli. Based on their specificities, these enzymes were clustered into three classes: 1) Class I acyl-ACP TEs act primarily on 14- and 16-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; 2) Class II acyl-ACP TEs have broad substrate specificities, with major activities toward 8- and 14-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; and 3) Class III acyl-ACP TEs act predominantly on 8-carbon acyl-ACPs. Several novel acyl-ACP TEs act on short-chain and unsaturated acyl-ACP or 3-ketoacyl-ACP substrates, indicating the diversity of enzymatic specificity in this enzyme family. Conclusion These acyl-ACP TEs can potentially be used to diversify the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to produce novel fatty acids. PMID:21831316

  14. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1990-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet changing science objectives. The two main technical disadvantages of the Moon are: 1) its gravity field; and 2) direct Sun and Earth light. The gravity term is manageable. It also appears to be feasible to shield the telescope from direct sun and Earth light and from scattering from nearby lunar terrain. Thermal disturbances to the telescope also appear to be manageable by proper shielding, enabling the telescope to become as cold as if it were at a lunar pole crater. If these conditions are met, the telescope could be at a logistically convenient location near the Lunar Outpost. We want to address a concept that is significantly different from those presented in the preliminary communications from Garth Illingworth in order to help fill in the matrix of possibilities. This option, moreover, is of special interest to JPL and could be an area where JPL can contribute in future studies.

  15. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet changing science objectives. The two main technical disadvantages of the Moon are: 1) its gravity field; and 2) direct Sun and Earth light. The gravity term is manageable. It also appears to be feasible to shield the telescope from direct sun and Earth light and from scattering from nearby lunar terrain. Thermal disturbances to the telescope also appear to be manageable by proper shielding, enabling the telescope to become as cold as if it were at a lunar pole crater. If these conditions are met, the telescope could be at a logistically convenient location near the Lunar Outpost. We want to address a concept that is significantly different from those presented in the preliminary communications from Garth Illingworth in order to help fill in the matrix of possibilities. This option, moreover, is of special interest to JPL and could be an area where JPL can contribute in future studies.

  16. Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization. PMID:12228415

  17. Direct nonchromatographic assay for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekharan, R.; Ray, T.K.; Cronan, J.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    1-Acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (also called lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase) which catalyzes the acylation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate to phosphatidic acid is generally assayed by the use of a radioactive substrate followed by a time-consuming chromatographic separation of substrate and product. We report a direct and highly sensitive nonchromatographic assay for this enzyme based on the ability of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase to dephosphorylate 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate but not phosphatidic acid. This selective hydrolysis coupled with the use of /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate as substrate permits measurement of the product, /sup 32/P-labeled phosphatidic acid by solvent extraction or precipitation. We also report a series of enzymatic reactions for the efficient conversion of /sup 32/Pi to /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate.

  18. Characterization of Lipid A Variants by Energy-Resolved Mass Spectrometry: Impact of Acyl Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crittenden, Christopher M.; Akin, Lucas D.; Morrison, Lindsay J.; Trent, M. Stephen; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2016-12-01

    Lipid A molecules consist of a diglucosamine sugar core with a number of appended acyl chains that vary in their length and connectivity. Because of the challenging nature of characterizing these molecules and differentiating between isomeric species, an energy-resolved MS/MS strategy was undertaken to track the fragmentation trends and map genealogies of product ions originating from consecutive cleavages of acyl chains. Generalizations were developed based on the number and locations of the primary and secondary acyl chains as well as variations in preferential cleavages arising from the location of the phosphate groups. Secondary acyl chain cleavage occurs most readily for lipid A species at the 3' position, followed by primary acyl chain fragmentation at both the 3' and 3 positions. In the instances of bisphosphorylated lipid A variants, phosphate loss occurs readily in conjunction with the most favorable primary and secondary acyl chain cleavages.

  19. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase in erythrocytes (red blood cells... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  20. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase in erythrocytes (red blood cells... hereditary disease galactosemia (disorder of galactose metabolism) in infants. (b) Classification. Class II....

  1. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1315 - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1315 Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase test system. (a)...

  3. ZrCl4-mediated regio- and chemoselective Friedel-Crafts acylation of indole.

    PubMed

    Guchhait, Sankar K; Kashyap, Maneesh; Kamble, Harshad

    2011-06-03

    An efficient method for regio- and chemoselective Friedel-Crafts acylation of indole using acyl chlorides in the presence of ZrCl(4) has been discovered. It minimizes/eliminates common competing reactions that occur due to high and multiatom-nucleophilic character of indole. In this method, a wide range of aroyl, heteroaroyl alkenoyl, and alkanoyl chlorides undergo smooth acylation with various indoles without NH protection and afford 3-acylindoles in good to high yields.

  4. Nucleotidyl transferase assisted DNA labeling with different click chemistries.

    PubMed

    Winz, Marie-Luise; Linder, Eva Christina; André, Timon; Becker, Juliane; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-09-30

    Here, we present a simple, modular and efficient strategy that allows the 3'-terminal labeling of DNA, regardless of whether it has been chemically or enzymatically synthesized or isolated from natural sources. We first incorporate a range of modified nucleotides at the 3'-terminus, using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. In the second step, we convert the incorporated nucleotides, using either of four highly efficient click chemistry-type reactions, namely copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, Staudinger ligation or Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand. Moreover, we create internal modifications, making use of either ligation or primer extension, after the nucleotidyl transferase step, prior to the click reaction. We further study the influence of linker variants on the reactivity of azides in different click reactions. We find that different click reactions exhibit distinct substrate preferences, a fact that is often overlooked, but should be considered when labeling oligonucleotides or other biomolecules with click chemistry. Finally, our findings allowed us to extend our previously published RNA labeling strategy to the use of a different copper-free click chemistry, namely the Staudinger ligation.

  5. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

    1999-06-01

    A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts.

  6. Characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Nutricati, Eliana; Miceli, Antonio; Blando, Federica; De Bellis, Luigi

    2006-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family, divided on the basis of sequence identity into phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The phi and tau classes are present only in plants. GSTs appear to be ubiquitous in plants and are involved in herbicide detoxification and stress response, but little is known about the precise role of GSTs in normal plant physiology and during biotic and abiotic stress response. Two cDNAs representing the two plant classes tau and phi, AtGSTF9 and AtGSTU26, were expressed in vitro and the corresponding proteins were analysed. Both GSTs were able to catalyse a glutathione conjugation to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), but they were inactive as transferases towards p-nitrobenzylchloride (pNBC). AtGSTF9 showed activity towards benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and an activity as glutathione peroxidase with cumene hydroperoxide (CumHPO). AtGSTU26 was not active as glutathione peroxidase and towards BITC. RT-PCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression of the two genes in response to treatment with herbicides and safeners, chemicals, low and high temperature. Our results reveal that AtGSTU26 is induced by the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor and the safener benoxacor, and after exposure to low temperatures. In contrast, AtGSTF9 seems not to be influenced by the treatments employed.

  7. Nucleotidyl transferase assisted DNA labeling with different click chemistries

    PubMed Central

    Winz, Marie-Luise; Linder, Eva Christina; André, Timon; Becker, Juliane; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a simple, modular and efficient strategy that allows the 3′-terminal labeling of DNA, regardless of whether it has been chemically or enzymatically synthesized or isolated from natural sources. We first incorporate a range of modified nucleotides at the 3′-terminus, using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. In the second step, we convert the incorporated nucleotides, using either of four highly efficient click chemistry-type reactions, namely copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, Staudinger ligation or Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand. Moreover, we create internal modifications, making use of either ligation or primer extension, after the nucleotidyl transferase step, prior to the click reaction. We further study the influence of linker variants on the reactivity of azides in different click reactions. We find that different click reactions exhibit distinct substrate preferences, a fact that is often overlooked, but should be considered when labeling oligonucleotides or other biomolecules with click chemistry. Finally, our findings allowed us to extend our previously published RNA labeling strategy to the use of a different copper-free click chemistry, namely the Staudinger ligation. PMID:26013812

  8. Acute ethanol treatment induces a bimodal response of phospholipid acylation rates in rat red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Verine, A.; Valette, A.; Richard, D.; Boyer, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol in rats elicited a bimodal response of acylation rates in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine of intact red blood cells. Within an initial period, ethanol inhibited acylation rates. The inhibition then reversed, leading to increased values which persisted as long as ethanol was present in plasma. Acylation rates were not correlated to ethanol concentrations in plasma. The authors suggest that red cells first desensitize to, then overcompensate for the inhibitory effect of ethanol on acylation reactions. These adaptive changes may be one of the events mediating membrane tolerance to ethanol.

  9. A novel plasmid for detection of N-acyl homoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Ling, Elizabeth A; Ellison, Matthew L; Pesci, Everett C

    2009-07-01

    Many bacteria utilize acyl-homoserine lactones as cell to cell signals that can regulate the expression of numerous genes. Structural differences in acyl-homoserine lactones produced by different bacteria, such as acyl side chain length and the presence or absence of an oxy group, make many of the commonly used detection bioassays impractical for broad range detection. Here we present a simple, broad range acyl-homoserine lactone detection bioassay that can be used to detect a wide range of these chemical signals. A plasmid (pEAL01) was constructed and transformed into Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain QSC105 to allow for detection of a broad range of acyl-homoserine lactones through induction of a lasB'-lacZ transcriptional fusion. Monitoring beta-galactosidase activity from this bioassay showed that P. aeruginosa strain QSC105 (pEAL01) could detect the presence of eight acyl-homoserine lactones tested at physiological concentrations. This novel strain could also detect acyl-homoserine lactones from the extracts of four different bacteria that produce different acyl-homoserine lactones signals. These data indicate that strain QSC105 (pEAL01) can be used to detect a wide variety of acyl-homoserine lactones by a simple beta-galactosidase assay and this bioassay could be a useful and inexpensive tool to quickly identify the presence of these signal molecules.

  10. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome.

  11. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A; Tesmer, John JG

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25727495

  12. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the flower of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

    PubMed

    Bendaikha, Sarah; Gadaut, Méredith; Harakat, Dominique; Magid, Alabdul

    2014-07-01

    Seven acylated flavonol glycosides named elaeagnosides A-G, in addition to seven known flavonoids were isolated from the flowers of Elaeagnus angustifolia. Their structures were elucidated by different spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR experiments and HR-ESI-MS analysis. In order to identify natural antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor agents, the abilities of these flavonoids to scavenge the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and to inhibit tyrosinase activity were evaluated. Results revealed that two of these compounds had significant anti-oxidant effect and one compound showed weak tyrosinase-inhibitory activity compared with kojic acid, quercetin, or ascorbic acid, which were used as positive control.

  13. Cloning and functional analysis of a phosphopantetheinyl transferase superfamily gene associated with jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; McVey, J; Vining, L C

    2001-06-01

    Sequence analysis of a XhoI/SacI fragment of chromosomal DNA downstream of jadL in the Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 gene cluster for jadomycin biosynthesis detected a partial ORF similar in its deduced amino acid sequence to the hetI product involved in synthesizing a regulator of heterocyst spacing in ANABAENA: By probing a phage library of S. venezuelae DNA with the XhoI/SacI fragment, the authors identified and isolated a hybridizing clone. The nucleotide sequence of its DNA contained three complete ORFs (jadM, N and X) and one incomplete ORF (jadO). The jadM ORF lay immediately downstream of, and partially overlapped, jadL. It contained 786 nucleotides encoding an amino acid sequence like those of enzymes in the phosphopantetheinyl transferase family. The jadN ORF contained 1794 nucleotides and encoded an amino acid sequence resembling acyl-CoA decarboxylases, thus suggesting a role in polyketide condensation reactions. The jadX ORF was not identified, but the partial jadO showed marked similarities in its deduced amino acid sequence to NDP-hexose-2,3-dehydratases, indicating a role in forming the sugar component of jadomycin B. Expression of jadM in Escherichia coli and examination of the product by SDS-PAGE established that the ORF encoded a 29.1 kDa protein, corresponding in size to the 262 amino acid polypeptide deduced from the jadM sequence. Evidence from a Northern hybridization indicated that jadM expression is correlated with jadomycin B synthesis. Cultures of S. venezuelae ISP5230 disrupted in jadM produced only 2-5% of the wild-type titre of jadomycin B, but grew well and produced chloramphenicol normally. The authors conclude that jadM encodes a holo-ACP synthase needed primarily for jadomycin B biosynthesis.

  14. Brain-specific carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1c: role in CNS fatty acid metabolism, food intake, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Michael J; Cha, Seung Hun; Millington, David S; Cline, Gary; Shulman, Gerald I; Suwa, Akira; Asaumi, Makoto; Kurama, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Teruhiko; Lane, M Daniel

    2008-05-01

    While the brain does not utilize fatty acids as a primary energy source, recent evidence shows that intermediates of fatty acid metabolism serve as hypothalamic sensors of energy status. Increased hypothalamic malonyl-CoA, an intermediate in fatty acid synthesis, is indicative of energy surplus and leads to the suppression of food intake and increased energy expenditure. Malonyl-CoA functions as an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1 (CPT1), a mitochondrial outer membrane enzyme that initiates translocation of fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation. The mammalian brain expresses a unique homologous CPT1, CPT1c, that binds malonyl-CoA tightly but does not support fatty acid oxidation in vivo, in hypothalamic explants or in heterologous cell culture systems. CPT1c knockout (KO) mice under fasted or refed conditions do not exhibit an altered CNS transcriptome of genes known to be involved in fatty acid metabolism. CPT1c KO mice exhibit normal levels of metabolites and of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA and fatty acyl-CoA levels either in the fasted or refed states. However, CPT1c KO mice exhibit decreased food intake and lower body weight than wild-type littermates. In contrast, CPT1c KO mice gain excessive body weight and body fat when fed a high-fat diet while maintaining lower or equivalent food intake. Heterozygous mice display an intermediate phenotype. These findings provide further evidence that CPT1c plays a role in maintaining energy homeostasis, but not through altered fatty acid oxidation.

  15. Identification of an Arabidopsis Feruloyl-Coenzyme A Transferase Required for Suberin Synthesis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Isabel; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Ohlrogge, John B.; Pollard, Mike

    2009-01-01

    All plants produce suberin, a lipophilic barrier of the cell wall that controls water and solute fluxes and restricts pathogen infection. It is often described as a heteropolymer comprised of polyaliphatic and polyaromatic domains. Major monomers include ω-hydroxy and α,ω-dicarboxylic fatty acids, glycerol, and ferulate. No genes have yet been identified for the aromatic suberin pathway. Here we demonstrate that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene AT5G41040, a member of the BAHD family of acyltransferases, is essential for incorporation of ferulate into suberin. In Arabidopsis plants transformed with the AT5G41040 promoter:YFP fusion, reporter expression is localized to cell layers undergoing suberization. Knockout mutants of AT5G41040 show almost complete elimination of suberin-associated ester-linked ferulate. However, the classic lamellar structure of suberin in root periderm of at5g41040 is not disrupted. The reduction in ferulate in at5g41040-knockout seeds is associated with an approximate stoichiometric decrease in aliphatic monomers containing ω-hydroxyl groups. Recombinant AT5G41040p catalyzed acyl transfer from feruloyl-coenzyme A to ω-hydroxyfatty acids and fatty alcohols, demonstrating that the gene encodes a feruloyl transferase. CYP86B1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene whose transcript levels correlate with AT5G41040 expression, was also investigated. Knockouts and overexpression confirmed CYP86B1 as an oxidase required for the biosynthesis of very-long-chain saturated α,ω-bifunctional aliphatic monomers in suberin. The seed suberin composition of cyp86b1 knockout was surprisingly dominated by unsubstituted fatty acids that are incapable of polymeric linkages. Together, these results challenge our current view of suberin structure by questioning both the function of ester-linked ferulate as an essential component and the existence of an extended aliphatic polyester. PMID:19759341

  16. Palmitoylation of the Cysteine Residue in the DHHC Motif of a Palmitoyl Transferase Mediates Ca2+ Homeostasis in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Zheng, Qingqing; Sun, Congcong; Song, Jinxing; Gao, Lina; Zhang, Shizhu; Muñoz, Alberto; Read, Nick D.; Lu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Finely tuned changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]c) mediate numerous intracellular functions resulting in the activation or inactivation of a series of target proteins. Palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification involved in membrane protein trafficking between membranes and in their functional modulation. However, studies on the relationship between palmitoylation and calcium signaling have been limited. Here, we demonstrate that the yeast palmitoyl transferase ScAkr1p homolog, AkrA in Aspergillus nidulans, regulates [Ca2+]c homeostasis. Deletion of akrA showed marked defects in hyphal growth and conidiation under low calcium conditions which were similar to the effects of deleting components of the high-affinity calcium uptake system (HACS). The [Ca2+]c dynamics in living cells expressing the calcium reporter aequorin in different akrA mutant backgrounds were defective in their [Ca2+]c responses to high extracellular Ca2+ stress or drugs that cause ER or plasma membrane stress. All of these effects on the [Ca2+]c responses mediated by AkrA were closely associated with the cysteine residue of the AkrA DHHC motif, which is required for palmitoylation by AkrA. Using the acyl-biotin exchange chemistry assay combined with proteomic mass spectrometry, we identified protein substrates palmitoylated by AkrA including two new putative P-type ATPases (Pmc1 and Spf1 homologs), a putative proton V-type proton ATPase (Vma5 homolog) and three putative proteins in A. nidulans, the transcripts of which have previously been shown to be induced by extracellular calcium stress in a CrzA-dependent manner. Thus, our findings provide strong evidence that the AkrA protein regulates [Ca2+]c homeostasis by palmitoylating these protein candidates and give new insights the role of palmitoylation in the regulation of calcium-mediated responses to extracellular, ER or plasma membrane stress. PMID:27058039

  17. Glutathione S-transferase class {pi} polymorphism in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Aivaliotis, M.J.; Cantu, T.; Gilligan, R.

    1995-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) comprises a family of isozymes with broad substrate specificities. One or more GST isozymes are present in most animal tissues and function in several detoxification pathways through the conjugation of reduced glutathione with various electrophiles, thereby reducing their potential toxicity. Four soluble GST isozymes encoded by genes on different chromosomes have been identified in humans. The acidic class pi GST, GSTP (previously designated GST-3), is widely distributed in adult tissues and appears to be the only GST isozyme present in leukocytes and placenta. Previously reported electrophoretic analyses of erythrocyte and leukocyte extracts revealed single bands of activity, which differed slightly in mobility between the two cell types, or under other conditions, a two-banded pattern. To our knowledge, no genetically determined polymorphisms have previously been reported in GSTP from any species. We now report a polymorphism of GSTP in baboon leukocytes, and present family data that verifies autosomal codominant inheritance. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. MOF Acetyl Transferase Regulates Transcription and Respiration in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aindrila; Seyfferth, Janine; Lucci, Jacopo; Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Böttinger, Lena; Mårtensson, Christoph U; Panhale, Amol; Stehle, Thomas; Kretz, Oliver; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Avilov, Sergiy; Eimer, Stefan; Hein, Lutz; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2016-10-20

    A functional crosstalk between epigenetic regulators and metabolic control could provide a mechanism to adapt cellular responses to environmental cues. We report that the well-known nuclear MYST family acetyl transferase MOF and a subset of its non-specific lethal complex partners reside in mitochondria. MOF regulates oxidative phosphorylation by controlling expression of respiratory genes from both nuclear and mtDNA in aerobically respiring cells. MOF binds mtDNA, and this binding is dependent on KANSL3. The mitochondrial pool of MOF, but not a catalytically deficient mutant, rescues respiratory and mtDNA transcriptional defects triggered by the absence of MOF. Mof conditional knockout has catastrophic consequences for tissues with high-energy consumption, triggering hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure in murine hearts; cardiomyocytes show severe mitochondrial degeneration and deregulation of mitochondrial nutrient metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. Thus, MOF is a dual-transcriptional regulator of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes connecting epigenetics and metabolism.

  19. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Part 2. Transferases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Robert N.; Tewari, Yadu B.

    1994-07-01

    Equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for reactions catalyzed by the transferase class of enzymes have been compiled. For each reaction the following information is given: the reference for the data; the reaction studied; the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number; the method of measurement; the conditions of measurement [temperature, pH, ionic strength, and the buffer(s) and cofactor(s) used]; the data and an evaluation of it; and, sometimes, commentary on the data and on any corrections which have been applied to it or any calculations for which the data have been used. The data from 285 references have been examined and evaluated. Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers are given for the substances involved in these various reactions. There is a cross reference between the substances and the Enzyme Commission numbers of the enzymes used to catalyze the reactions in which the substances participate.

  20. Incorporation of a single His residue by rational design enables thiol-ester hydrolysis by human glutathione transferase A1-1.

    PubMed

    Hederos, Sofia; Broo, Kerstin S; Jakobsson, Emma; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Mannervik, Bengt; Baltzer, Lars

    2004-09-07

    A strategy for rational enzyme design is reported and illustrated by the engineering of a protein catalyst for thiol-ester hydrolysis. Five mutants of human glutathione (GSH; gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly) transferase A1-1 were designed in the search for a catalyst and to provide a set of proteins from which the reaction mechanism could be elucidated. The single mutant A216H catalyzed the hydrolysis of the S-benzoyl ester of GSH under turnover conditions with a k(cat)/K(M) of 156 M(-1) x min(-1), and a catalytic proficiency of >10(7) M(-1) when compared with the first-order rate constant of the uncatalyzed reaction. The wild-type enzyme did not hydrolyze the substrate, and thus, the introduction of a single histidine residue transformed the wild-type enzyme into a turnover system for thiol-ester hydrolysis. By kinetic analysis of single, double, and triple mutants, as well as from studies of reaction products, it was established that the enzyme A216H catalyzes the hydrolysis of the thiol-ester substrate by a mechanism that includes an acyl intermediate at the side chain of Y9. Kinetic measurements and the crystal structure of the A216H GSH complex provided compelling evidence that H216 acts as a general-base catalyst. The introduction of a single His residue into human GSH transferase A1-1 created an unprecedented enzymatic function, suggesting a strategy that may be of broad applicability in the design of new enzymes. The protein catalyst has the hallmarks of a native enzyme and is expected to catalyze various hydrolytic, as well as transesterification, reactions.

  1. Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives’ Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiang; Wang, Erpei; Lu, Yuyun; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Yan, Rian

    2015-01-01

    This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively. PMID:26098744

  2. Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives' Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiang; Wang, Erpei; Lu, Yuyun; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Yan, Rian

    2015-01-01

    This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively.

  3. Acyl-CoA Synthetase Is Located in the Outer Membrane and Acyl-CoA Thioesterase in the Inner Membrane of Pea Chloroplast Envelopes 1

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jaen; Keegstra, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Both acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA thioesterase activities are present in chloroplast envelope membranes. The functions of these enzymes in lipid metabolism remains unresolved, although the synthetase has been proposed to be involved in either plastid galactolipid synthesis or the export of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the cytoplasm. We have examined the locations of both enzymes within the two envelope membranes of pea (Pisum sativum var Laxton's Progress No. 9) chloroplasts. Inner and outer envelope membranes were purified from unfractionated envelope preparations by linear density sucrose gradient centrifugation. Acyl-CoA synthetase was located in the outer envelope membrane while acyl-CoA thioesterase was located in the inner envelope membrane. Thus, it seems unlikely that the synthetase is directly involved in galactolipid assembly. Instead, its localization supports the hypothesis that it functions in the transport of plastid-synthesized fatty acids to the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:16663076

  4. Stereoelectronic basis for the kinetic resolution of N-heterocycles with chiral acylating reagents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Sheng-Ying; Wanner, Benedikt; Wheeler, Philip; Beauchemin, André M; Rovis, Tomislav; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2014-06-10

    The kinetic resolution of N-heterocycles with chiral acylating agents reveals a previously unrecognized stereoelectronic effect in amine acylation. Combined with a new achiral hydroxamate, this effect makes possible the resolution of various N-heterocycles by using easily prepared reagents. A transition-state model to rationalize the stereochemical outcome of this kinetic resolution is also proposed.

  5. ACBP and cholesterol differentially alter fatty acyl CoA utilization by microsomal ACAT.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsu; Zhou, Minglong; McIntosh, Avery; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Kier, Ann B

    2003-01-01

    Microsomal acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is stimulated in vitro and/or in intact cells by proteins that bind and transfer both substrates, cholesterol, and fatty acyl CoA. To resolve the role of fatty acyl CoA binding independent of cholesterol binding/transfer, a protein that exclusively binds fatty acyl CoA (acyl CoA binding protein, ACBP) was compared. ACBP contains an endoplasmic reticulum retention motif and significantly colocalized with acyl-CoA cholesteryl acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) and endoplasmic reticulum markers in L-cell fibroblasts and hepatoma cells, respectively. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, ACAT was stimulated in the order: ACBP > sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) > liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP). Stimulation was in the same order as the relative affinities of the proteins for fatty acyl CoA. In contrast, in the absence of exogenous cholesterol, these proteins inhibited microsomal ACAT, but in the same order: ACBP > SCP-2 > L-FABP. The extracellular protein BSA stimulated microsomal ACAT regardless of the presence or absence of exogenous cholesterol. Thus, ACBP was the most potent intracellular fatty acyl CoA binding protein in differentially modulating the activity of microsomal ACAT to form cholesteryl esters independent of cholesterol binding/transfer ability.

  6. Structural properties of pepsin-solubilized collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Li, Conghu; Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2015-10-01

    The structural properties of pepsin-solubilized calf skin collagen acylated by lauroyl chloride along with succinic anhydride were investigated in this paper. Compared with native collagen, acylated collagen retained the unique triple helix conformation, as determined by amino acid analysis, circular dichroism and X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, the thermostability of acylated collagen using thermogravimetric measurements was enhanced as the residual weight increased by 5%. With the temperature increased from 25 to 115 °C, the secondary structure of native and acylated collagens using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements was destroyed since the intensity of the major amide bands decreased and the positions of the major amide bands shifted to lower wavenumber, respectively. Meanwhile, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy revealed that the most sensitive bands for acylated and native collagens were amide I and II bands, respectively. Additionally, the corresponding order of the groups between native and acylated collagens was different and the correlation degree for acylated collagen was weaker than that of native collagen, suggesting that temperature played a small influence on the conformation of acylated collagen, which might be concluded that the hydrophobic interaction improved the thermostability of collagen.

  7. Fatty acid acylation of rat brain myelin proteolipid protein in vitro: identification of the lipid donor.

    PubMed

    Bizzozero, O A; Lees, M B

    1986-02-01

    The immediate acyl chain donor for fatty acid esterification of proteolipid protein (PLP) was identified in an in vitro system. Rat brain total membranes, after removal of crude nuclear and mitochondrial fractions, were incubated with radioactive acyl donors, extracted with chloroform/methanol, and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the presence of [3H]palmitic acid, CoA, ATP, and Mg2+, acylation of endogenous PLP occurred at a linear rate for at least 2 h. The radioactivity was associated with the protein via an ester linkage, mainly as palmitic acid. Omission of ATP, CoA, Mg2+, or all three reduced fatty acid incorporation into PLP to 44, 27, 8, and 4%, respectively, of the values in the complete system. Incubation of the membrane fraction with [3H]palmitoyl-CoA in the absence of CoA and ATP led to highly labeled PLP. These data demonstrate that activation of free fatty acid is required for acylation. Phospholipids and glycolipids were not able to acylate the PLP directly. Finally, when isolated myelin was incubated with [3H]palmitoyl-CoA in the absence of cofactors, only PLP was labeled, thus confirming the identity of palmitoyl-CoA as the direct acyl chain donor and suggesting that the acylating activity and the PLP pool available for acylation are both in the myelin.

  8. Ortho C-H Acylation of Aryl Iodides by Palladium/Norbornene Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhe; Wang, Jianchun; Ren, Zhi; Dong, Guangbin

    2015-10-19

    Reported herein is a palladium/norbornene-catalyzed ortho-arene acylation of aryl iodides by a Catellani-type C-H functionalization. This transformation is enabled by isopropyl carbonate anhydrides, which serve as both an acyl cation equivalent and a hydride source.

  9. The Role of Mitochondrial Non-Enzymatic Protein Acylation in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shin Yee; Ng, Li Theng; Ng, Li Fang; Inoue, Takao; Tolwinski, Nicholas S.; Hagen, Thilo; Gruber, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, various large-scale proteomic studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial proteins are highly acylated, most commonly by addition of acetyl and succinyl groups. These acyl modifications may be enzyme catalysed but can also be driven non-enzymatically. The latter mechanism is promoted in mitochondria due to the nature of the mitochondrial microenvironment, which is alkaline and contains high concentrations of acyl-CoA species. Protein acylation may modify enzyme activity, typically inhibiting it. We posited that organismal ageing might be accompanied by an accumulation of acylated proteins, especially in mitochondria, and that this might compromise mitochondrial function and contribute to ageing. In this study, we used R. norvegicus, C. elegans and D. melanogaster to compare the acylation status of mitochondrial proteins between young and old animals. We observed a specific age-dependent increase in protein succinylation in worms and flies but not in rat. Rats have two substrate-specific mitochondrial deacylases, SIRT3 and SIRT5 while both flies and worms lack these enzymes. We propose that accumulation of mitochondrial protein acylation contributes to age-dependent mitochondrial functional decline and that SIRT3 and SIRT5 enzymes may promote longevity through regulation of mitochondrial protein acylation during ageing. PMID:28033361

  10. Selective acylation of plasma membrane proteins of Mycoplasma agalactiae: the causal agent of agalactia.

    PubMed

    Le Hénaff, M; Guéguen, M M; Fontenelle, C

    2000-01-01

    Revealed by in vivo labeling with (14)C-palmitic acid, about 15 acylated proteins were identified in the plasma membrane of Mycoplasma agalactiae (type strain PG2), including the major component p40. Triton X-114 phase partitioning and Western blotting demonstrated the amphiphilic properties of the acyl proteins and showed that they were also antigenic components. Chemical analyses of fatty acids bound to proteins revealed the following selectivity order within acylation: stearic acid (18:0) > linoleic acid (18:2c) approximately palmitic acid (16:0) > oleic acid (18:1c) > myristic acid (14:0), with 16:0 and 18:1c preferred for the O-acylation and 18:0 for the N-acylation. The ratio [O-ester- + amide-bound acyl chains]/O-ester-linked chains being close to 1.4 as well as the presence of S-glycerylcysteine suggest that acyl proteins in M. agalactiae are true lipoproteins containing N-acyl diacyl glycerylcysteine, probably processed by a mechanism analogous to that described for Gram-negative eubacteria.

  11. Expression Cloning of a Pseudomonas Gene Encoding a Hydroxydecanoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein-Dependent UDP-GlcNAc Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Garry D.; Kaltashov, Igor A.; Cotter, Robert J.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    1998-01-01

    UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-3-O-acyltransferase (UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase) catalyzes the first step of lipid A biosynthesis (M. S. Anderson and C. R. H. Raetz, J. Biol. Chem. 262:5159–5169, 1987). We here report the isolation of the lpxA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a library of Pseudomonas strain PAO1 expressed in Escherichia coli LE392 (J. Lightfoot and J. S. Lam, J. Bacteriol. 173:5624–5630, 1991). Pseudomonas lpxA encodes a 10-carbon-specific UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase, whereas the E. coli transferase is selective for a 14-carbon acyl chain. Recombinant cosmid 1137 enabled production of a 3-hydroxydecanoyl-specific UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase in E. coli. It was identified by assaying lysozyme-EDTA lysates of individual members of the library with 3-hydroxydecanoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the substrate. Cosmid 1137 contained a 20-kb insert of P. aeruginosa DNA. The lpxA gene region was localized to a 1.3-kb SalI-PstI fragment. Sequencing revealed that it contains one complete open reading frame (777 bp) encoding a new lpxA homolog. The predicted Pseudomonas LpxA is 258 amino acids long and contains 21 complete hexapeptide repeating units, spaced in approximately the same manner as the 24 repeats of E. coli LpxA. The P. aeruginosa UDP-GlcNAc acyltransferase is 54% identical and 67% similar to the E. coli enzyme. A plasmid (pGD3) containing the 1.3-kb SalI-PstI fragment complemented E. coli RO138, a temperature-sensitive mutant harboring lpxA2. LpxA assays of extracts of this construct indicated that it is >1,000-fold more selective for 3-hydroxydecanoyl-ACP than for 3-hydroxymyristoyl-ACP. Mass spectrometry of lipid A isolated from this strain by hydrolysis at pH 4.5 revealed [M-H]− 1,684.5 (versus 1,796.5 for wild-type lipid A), consistent with 3-hydroxydecanoate rather than 3-hydroxymyristate at positions 3 and 3′. PMID:9440522

  12. Impact of intracerebroventricular obestatin on plasma acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 levels, and on gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lee, Wei-Jei; Chong, Keong; Lee, Shou-Dong; Liao, You-Di

    2012-07-01

    Obestatin, which is a putative 23-amino-acid peptide, is derived from the C-terminal part of the mammalian preproghrelin gene. Nesfatin-1 mRNA is co-expressed with ghrelin in gastric endocrine X/A-like cells; therefore, nesfatin-1 may also interact with preproghrelin gene products in the stomach. In this study, we investigated the impact of obestatin on the plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, and on the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal 2 h after an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in conscious, fasted rats. The rats were implanted with ICV catheters. Plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, expected to be co-expressed with obestatin, were measured, whereas the human/rat corticotropin-releasing factor (h/rCRF) was applied as an inhibitor of gastric emptying. The ICV administration of obestatin (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/rat) did not modify the plasma acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin levels, the acyl ghrelin/des-acyl ghrelin ratio and nesfatin-1 concentrations. The ICV acute administration of obestatin had no influence on the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal, but the ICV h/rCRF injection delayed it. The weight of food ingested 1 h before ICV injection significantly, but negatively correlated with the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal. Our study indicates that the ICV injection of obestatin does not change the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal and the relatively weak interrelationships between ghrelin gene products and nesfatin-1. However, the weight of the ingested food negatively affects the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal in conscious, fasted rats.

  13. Acylation of salmon calcitonin modulates in vitro intestinal peptide flux through membrane permeability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon; Strauss, Holger M; Rahbek, Ulrik L; Andresen, Thomas L

    2015-10-01

    Acylation of peptide drugs with fatty acid chains has proven beneficial for prolonging systemic circulation, as well as increasing enzymatic stability and interactions with lipid cell membranes. Thus, acylation offers several potential benefits for oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, and we hypothesize that tailoring the acylation may be used to optimize intestinal translocation. This work aims to characterize acylated analogues of the therapeutic peptide salmon calcitonin (sCT), which lowers blood calcium, by systematically increasing acyl chain length at two positions, in order to elucidate its influence on intestinal cell translocation and membrane interaction. We find that acylation drastically increases in vitro intestinal peptide flux and confers a transient permeability enhancing effect on the cell layer. The analogues permeabilize model lipid membranes, indicating that the effect is due to a solubilization of the cell membrane, similar to transcellular oral permeation enhancers. The effect is dependent on pH, with larger effect at lower pH, and is impacted by acylation chain length and position. Compared to the unacylated peptide backbone, N-terminal acylation with a short chain provides 6- or 9-fold increase in peptide translocation at pH 7.4 and 5.5, respectively. Prolonging the chain length appears to hamper translocation, possibly due to self-association or aggregation, although the long chain acylated analogues remain superior to the unacylated peptide. For K(18)-acylation a short chain provides a moderate improvement, whereas medium and long chain analogues are highly efficient, with a 12-fold increase in permeability compared to the unacylated peptide backbone, on par with currently employed oral permeation enhancers. For K(18)-acylation the medium chain acylation appears to be optimal, as elongating the chain causes greater binding to the cell membrane but similar permeability, and we speculate that increasing the chain length further may

  14. Non-enzymatic protein acylation as a carbon stress regulated by sirtuin deacylases

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gregory R.; Hirschey, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular proteins are decorated with a wide range of acetyl and other acyl modifications. Many studies have demonstrated regulation of site-specific acetylation by acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Acylation is emerging as a new type of lysine modification, but less is known about its overall regulatory role. Furthermore, the mechanisms of lysine acylation, its overlap with protein acetylation, and how it influences cellular function are major unanswered questions in the field. In this review, we discuss the known roles of acetyltransferases and deacetylases, and the sirtuins as a conserved family of NAD+-dependent protein deacylases that are important for response to cellular stress and homeostasis. We also consider the evidence for an emerging idea of non-enzymatic protein acylation. Finally, we put forward the hypothesis that protein acylation is a form of protein “carbon stress”, that the deacylases evolved to remove as a part of a global protein quality control network. PMID:24725594

  15. 40 CFR 721.7270 - 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride. 721.7270 Section 721.7270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-soya acyl derivs., chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7270 - 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride. 721.7270 Section 721.7270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-soya acyl derivs., chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. 721.10056 Section 721.10056 Protection of Environment...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides (PMN P-03-47; CAS No. 90194-13-1) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. 721.10056 Section 721.10056 Protection of Environment...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides (PMN P-03-47; CAS No. 90194-13-1) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. 721.10056 Section 721.10056 Protection of Environment...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides (PMN P-03-47; CAS No. 90194-13-1) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. 721.10056 Section 721.10056 Protection of Environment...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides (PMN P-03-47; CAS No. 90194-13-1) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. 721.10056 Section 721.10056 Protection of Environment...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides (PMN P-03-47; CAS No. 90194-13-1) is subject to reporting...

  2. A simple method for isolation and construction of markerless cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kouji; Keta, Sumie; Uesaka, Kazuma; Kato, Akihiro; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Ihara, Kunio; Omata, Tatsuo; Aichi, Makiko

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) secrete free fatty acids (FFAs) into the external medium and hence have been used for the studies aimed at photosynthetic production of biofuels. While the wild-type strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is highly sensitive to exogenously added linolenic acid, mutants defective in the aas gene are known to be resistant to the externally provided fatty acid. In this study, the wild-type Synechocystis cells were shown to be sensitive to lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids as well, and the resistance to these fatty acids was shown to be enhanced by inactivation of the aas gene. On the basis of these observations, we developed an efficient method to isolate aas-deficient mutants from cultures of Synechocystis cells by counter selection using linoleic acid or linolenic acid as the selective agent. A variety of aas mutations were found in about 70 % of the FFA-resistant mutants thus selected. Various aas mutants were isolated also from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, using lauric acid as a selective agent. Selection using FFAs was useful also for construction of markerless aas knockout mutants from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Thus, genetic engineering of FFA-producing cyanobacterial strains would be greatly facilitated by the use of the FFAs for counter selection.

  3. Spectrophotometric studies of acyl-coenzyme A synthetases of rat liver mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Garland, P. B.; Yates, D. W.; Haddock, B. A.

    1970-01-01

    1. Deca-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid is a substrate for both ATP-specific (EC 6.2.1.2 or 3) and GTP-specific (EC 6.2.1.–) acyl-CoA synthetases of rat liver mitochondria. The enzymic synthesis of decatetraenoyl-CoA results in new spectral characteristics. The difference spectrum for the acyl-CoA minus free acid has a maximum at 376nm with εmM 34. Isosbestic points are at 345nm and 440nm. 2. The acylation of CoA by decatetraenoate in mitochondrial suspensions can be continuously measured with a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer. 3. By using this technique, three distinct types of acyl-CoA synthetase activity were demonstrated in rat liver mitochondria. One of these utilized added CoA and ATP, required added Mg2+ and corresponded to a previously described `external' acyl-CoA synthetase. The other two acyl-CoA synthetase activities utilized intramitochondrial CoA and did not require added Mg2+. Of these two `internal' acyl-CoA synthetases, one was insensitive to uncoupling agents, was inhibited by phosphate or arsenate, and corresponded to the GTP-specific enzyme. The other corresponded to the ATP-specific enzyme. 4. Atractylate inhibited the activity of the two internal acyl-CoA synthetases only when the energy source was added ATP. 5. The amount of intramitochondrial CoA acylated by decatetraenoate was independent of whether the internal ATP-specific or GTP-specific acyl-CoA synthetase was active. It is concluded that these two internal acyl-CoA synthetases have access to the same intramitochondrial pool of CoA. 6. The amount of intramitochondrial CoA that could be acylated with decatetraenoate was decreased by the addition of palmitoyl-dl-carnitine, 2-oxoglutarate, or pyruvate. These observations indicated that pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.–), citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7), and succinyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.4) all have access to the same intramitochondrial pool of CoA as do

  4. Acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing: from evolution to application.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Martin; Sexton, D Joseph; Diggle, Stephen P; Greenberg, E Peter

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread process in bacteria that employs autoinducing chemical signals to coordinate diverse, often cooperative activities such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, and exoenzyme secretion. Signaling via acyl-homoserine lactones is the paradigm for QS in Proteobacteria and is particularly well understood in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite thirty years of mechanistic research, empirical studies have only recently addressed the benefits of QS and provided support for the traditional assumptions regarding its social nature and its role in optimizing cell-density-dependent group behaviors. QS-controlled public-goods production has served to investigate principles that explain the evolution and stability of cooperation, including kin selection, pleiotropic constraints, and metabolic prudence. With respect to medical application, appreciating social dynamics is pertinent to understanding the efficacy of QS-inhibiting drugs and the evolution of resistance. Future work will provide additional insight into the foundational assumptions of QS and relate laboratory discoveries to natural ecosystems.

  5. Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing in the Roseobacter Clade

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Jindong; Liu, Yue; Fuqua, Clay; Hill, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Roseobacter clade are ecologically important and numerically abundant in coastal environments and can associate with marine invertebrates and nutrient-rich marine snow or organic particles, on which quorum sensing (QS) may play an important role. In this review, we summarize current research progress on roseobacterial acyl-homoserine lactone-based QS, particularly focusing on three relatively well-studied representatives, Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395, the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 and the dinoflagellate symbiont Dinoroseobacter shibae. Bioinformatic survey of luxI homologues revealed that over 80% of available roseobacterial genomes encode at least one luxI homologue, reflecting the significance of QS controlled regulatory pathways in adapting to the relevant marine environments. We also discuss several areas that warrant further investigation, including studies on the ecological role of these diverse QS pathways in natural environments. PMID:24402124

  6. Acylation in trypanosomatids: an essential process and potential drug target

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, Amanda M.; Sharma, Aabha I.; Paul, Kimberly S.; Engman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acylation—the addition of fatty acid moieties such as myristate and palmitate to proteins—is essential for the survival, growth, and infectivity of the trypanosomatids: Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania. Myristoylation and palmitoylation are critical for parasite growth, targeting and localization, and the intrinsic function of some proteins. The trypanosomatids possess a single N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) and multiple palmitoyl acyltransferases, and these enzymes and their cellular targets are only now being characterized. Global inhibition of either process leads to cell death in trypanosomatids, and genetic ablation of NMT compromises virulence. Moreover, NMT inhibitors effectively cure T. brucei infection in rodents. Thus, protein acylation represents an attractive target for the development of trypanocidal drugs. PMID:24954795

  7. Tunable Oleo-Furan Surfactants by Acylation of Renewable Furans

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An important advance in fluid surface control was the amphiphilic surfactant composed of coupled molecular structures (i.e., hydrophilic and hydrophobic) to reduce surface tension between two distinct fluid phases. However, implementation of simple surfactants has been hindered by the broad range of applications in water containing alkaline earth metals (i.e., hard water), which disrupt surfactant function and require extensive use of undesirable and expensive chelating additives. Here we show that sugar-derived furans can be linked with triglyceride-derived fatty acid chains via Friedel–Crafts acylation within single layer (SPP) zeolite catalysts. These alkylfuran surfactants independently suppress the effects of hard water while simultaneously permitting broad tunability of size, structure, and function, which can be optimized for superior capability for forming micelles and solubilizing in water. PMID:27924310

  8. Acylated quercetagetin glycosides with antioxidant activity from Tagetes maxima.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Irene; Bastida, Jaume; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Carles

    2005-10-01

    The fractionation of a methanolic extract of Tagetes maxima guided for antioxidant activity resulted in the isolation of three acylated quercetagetin glycosides, quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside), quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) and quercetagetin-7-O-(6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside), as well as four known flavonoid glycosides. The structural elucidation was accomplished by spectroscopic methods (ESI-MS/MS and NMR). The antioxidant activity of fractions and isolated compounds was determined by checking the scavenging activity against three different radicals: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH*), hydroxyl (*OH), and superoxide (O2*-). The three isolated compounds exhibited a high radical scavenging activity in comparison with reference compounds.

  9. Crystal structure of the essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphopantetheinyl transferase PptT, solved as a fusion protein with maltose binding protein.

    PubMed

    Jung, James; Bashiri, Ghader; Johnston, Jodie M; Brown, Alistair S; Ackerley, David F; Baker, Edward N

    2014-12-01

    Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are key enzymes in the assembly-line production of complex molecules such as fatty acids, polyketides and polypeptides, where they activate acyl or peptidyl carrier proteins, transferring a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl moiety from coenzyme A (CoA) to a reactive serine residue on the carrier protein. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes two PPTases, both essential and therefore attractive drug targets. We report the structure of the type-II PPTase PptT, obtained from crystals of a fusion protein with maltose binding protein. The structure, at 1.75Å resolution (R=0.156, Rfree=0.191), reveals an α/β fold broadly similar to other type-II PPTases, but with differences in peripheral structural elements. A bound CoA is clearly defined with its pantetheinyl arm tucked into a hydrophobic pocket. Interactions involving the CoA diphosphate, bound Mg(2+) and three active site acidic side chains suggest a plausible pathway for proton transfer during catalysis.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of novel acyl derivatives from jatropha oil as potential lubricant basestocks.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-05-21

    A novel class of jatropha oil-based acylated derivatives from hydroxy alkyl esters of jatropha fatty acids (C1, C3, C4, and C8) and various anhydrides (C2, C3, C4, and C6) were synthesized and their physicochemical and lubricant properties reported. Jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were dihydroxylated using the in situ performic acid method and further acylated with different anhydrides to produce acylated derivatives. Acylated derivatives of dihydroxy jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were charaterized by NMR, FTIR, GC, and GC-MS analysis and were evaluated for their viscosity, viscosity index, pour and flash points, and oxidation stability. Most of the derivatives are either in ISO VG 22 or 32 viscosity grade with good viscosity index. It was observed that increase in acyl chain length and branching in the end-chain ester improved the pour point of the diacyl derivatives. All of the hexanoylated esters exhibited better oxidation stability compared to other acylated products, and their pour points are comparable to those of synthetic esters such as TMP trioleates. In general, isoalcohol esters with longer acyl chains showed promise as potential candidates for hydraulic fluids and metal-working fluids in ISO VG 22 and 32 viscosity range.

  11. N-Acylation During Glidobactin Biosynthesis by the Tridomain Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Module GlbF

    PubMed Central

    Imker, Heidi J.; Krahn, Daniel; Clerc, Jérôme; Kaiser, Markus; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Glidobactins are hybrid NRPS-PKS natural products that function as irreversible proteasome inhibitors. A variety of medium chain 2(E),4(E)-diene fatty acids N-acylate the peptidolactam core and contribute significantly to the potency of proteasome inhibition. We have expressed the initiation NRPS module GlbF (C-A-T) in Escherichia coli and observe soluble active protein only on co-expression with the 8 kDa MbtH-like protein, GlbE. Following adenylation and installation of Thr as a T-domain thioester, the starter condensation domain utilizes fatty acyl-CoA donors to acylate the Thr1 amino group and generate the fatty acyl-Thr1-S-pantetheinyl-GlbF intermediate to be used in subsequent chain elongation. Previously proposed to be mediated via acyl carrier protein fatty acid donors, direct utilization of fatty acyl-CoA donors for N-acylation of T-domain tethered amino acids is likely a common strategy for chain initiation in NRPS-mediated lipopeptide biosynthesis. PMID:21035730

  12. Acyl spermidines in inflorescence extracts of elder (Sambucus nigra L., Adoxaceae) and elderflower drinks.

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Larsson, Sonny; Veitch, Nigel C; Porter, Elaine A; Ding, Ning; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2013-04-10

    LC-UV-MS analyses of inflorescence extracts of Sambucus nigra L. (elder, Adoxaceae) revealed the presence of numerous acyl spermidines, with isomers of N,N-diferuloylspermidine and N-acetyl-N,N-diferuloylspermidine being most abundant. Pollen was the main source of the acyl spermidines in the inflorescence. Three of the major acyl spermidines were isolated and their structures determined by NMR spectroscopy as N⁵,N¹⁰-di-(E,E)-feruloylspermidine and the new compounds N¹-acetyl-N⁵,N¹⁰-di-(Z,E)-feruloylspermidine and N¹-acetyl-N⁵,N¹⁰-di-(E,E)-feruloylspermidine. An isomer of N,N,N-triferuloylspermidine was also obtained and identified as N¹,N⁵,N¹⁰-tri-(E,E,E)-feruloylspermidine. In addition to stereoisomers of the isolated acyl spermidines, other acyl spermidines detected by the positive ion LC-UV-MS were isomers of N-caffeoyl-N,N-diferuloylspermidine, N-coumaroyl-N,N-diferuloylspermidine, N-caffeoyl-N-feruloylspermidine, N-coumaroyl-N-feruloylspermidine, N-acetyl-N-caffeoyl-N-feruloylspermidine, and N-acetyl-N-coumaroyl-N-feruloylspermidine. Analysis of commercial elderflower drinks showed that acyl spermidines were persistent in these processed elderflower products. Examination of inflorescence extracts from Sambucus canadensis L. (American elder) revealed the presence of acyl spermidines that were different from those of S. nigra.

  13. Metabolism of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Quorum-Sensing Signals by Variovorax paradoxus

    PubMed Central

    Leadbetter, Jared R.; Greenberg, E. P.

    2000-01-01

    Acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) serve as dedicated cell-to-cell signaling molecules in many species of the class Proteobacteria. We have addressed the question of whether these compounds can be degraded biologically. A motile, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from soil based upon its ability to utilize N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone as the sole source of energy and nitrogen. The bacterium was classified as a strain of Variovorax paradoxus. The V. paradoxus isolate was capable of growth on all of the acyl-HSLs tested. The molar growth yields correlated with the length of the acyl group. HSL, a product of acyl-HSL metabolism, was used as a nitrogen source, but not as an energy source. Cleavage and partial mineralization of the HSL ring were demonstrated by using radiolabeled substrate. This study indicates that some strains of V. paradoxus degrade and grow on acyl-HSL signals as the sole energy and nitrogen sources. This study provides clues about the metabolic pathway of acyl-HSL degradation by V. paradoxus. PMID:11092851

  14. Metabolism of acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals by Variovorax paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Leadbetter, J R; Greenberg, E P

    2000-12-01

    Acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) serve as dedicated cell-to-cell signaling molecules in many species of the class Proteobacteria. We have addressed the question of whether these compounds can be degraded biologically. A motile, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from soil based upon its ability to utilize N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone as the sole source of energy and nitrogen. The bacterium was classified as a strain of Variovorax paradoxus. The V. paradoxus isolate was capable of growth on all of the acyl-HSLs tested. The molar growth yields correlated with the length of the acyl group. HSL, a product of acyl-HSL metabolism, was used as a nitrogen source, but not as an energy source. Cleavage and partial mineralization of the HSL ring were demonstrated by using radiolabeled substrate. This study indicates that some strains of V. paradoxus degrade and grow on acyl-HSL signals as the sole energy and nitrogen sources. This study provides clues about the metabolic pathway of acyl-HSL degradation by V. paradoxus.

  15. Preparation and characterization of O-acylated fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Gao, Na; Wu, Mingyi; Liu, Shao; Lian, Wu; Li, Zi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2012-08-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), a kind of complex glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber, has potent anticoagulant activity. In order to understand the relationship between structures and activity, the depolymerized FuCS (dFuCS) was chosen to prepare its derivates by selective substitution at OH groups. Its O-acylation was carried out in a homogeneous way using carboxylic acid anhydrides. The structures of O-acylated derivatives were characterized by NMR. The results indicated that the 4-O-sulfated fucose residues may be easier to be acylated than the other ones in the sulfated fucose branches. But the O-acylation was always accompanied by the β-elimination, and the degree of elimination was higher as that of acylation was higher. The results of clotting assay indicated that the effect of partial O-acylation of the dFuCS on their anticoagulant potency was not significant and the O-acylation of 2-OH groups of 4-O-sulfated fucose units did not affect the anticoagulant activity.

  16. Crystal structure of E. coli lipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guotao; Zhao, Yan; Kang, Xusheng; Li, Zhijie; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Fei; Sankaran, Krishnan; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2016-01-05

    Lipoprotein biogenesis is essential for bacterial survival. Phosphatidylglycerol:prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyses the first reaction of the three-step post-translational lipid modification. Deletion of the lgt gene is lethal to most Gram-negative bacteria. Here we present the crystal structures of Escherichia coli Lgt in complex with phosphatidylglycerol and the inhibitor palmitic acid at 1.9 and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal the presence of two binding sites and support the previously reported structure-function relationships of Lgt. Complementation results of lgt-knockout cells with different mutant Lgt variants revealed critical residues, including Arg143 and Arg239, that are essential for diacylglyceryl transfer. Using a GFP-based in vitro assay, we correlated the activities of Lgt with structural observations. Together, the structural and biochemical data support a mechanism whereby substrate and product, lipid-modified lipobox-containing peptide, enter and leave the enzyme laterally relative to the lipid bilayer.

  17. Inactivation of Anopheles gambiae Glutathione Transferase ε2 by Epiphyllocoumarin

    PubMed Central

    Marimo, Patience; Hayeshi, Rose; Mukanganyama, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are part of a major family of detoxifying enzymes that can catalyze the reductive dehydrochlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The delta and epsilon classes of insect GSTs have been implicated in conferring resistance to this insecticide. In this study, the inactivation of Anopheles gambiae GSTε2 by epiphyllocoumarin (Tral 1) was investigated. Recombinant AgGSTε2 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells containing a pET3a-AGSTε2 plasmid and purified by affinity chromatography. Tral 1 was shown to inactivate GSTε2 both in a time-dependent manner and in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-life of GSTε2 in the presence of 25 μM ethacrynic acid (ETA) was 22 minutes and with Tral 1 was 30 minutes, indicating that Tral 1 was not as efficient as ETA as an inactivator. The inactivation parameters kinact and KI were found to be 0.020 ± 0.001 min−1 and 7.5 ± 2.1 μM, respectively, after 90 minutes of incubation. Inactivation of GSTε2 by Tral 1 implies that Tral 1 covalently binds to this enzyme in vitro and would be expected to exhibit time-dependent effects on the enzyme in vivo. Tral 1, therefore, would produce irreversible effects when used together with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria control programmes where resistance is mediated by GSTs. PMID:26925266

  18. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Céspedes, Walkiria; Xamena, Noel; Surrallés, Jordi; Creus, Amadeu; Galofré, Pere; Marcos, Ricardo

    2003-02-10

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are enzymes involved in the metabolism of many carcinogens and mutagens, also acting as important free-radical scavengers. The existence of different genetic polymorphisms in human populations has proven to be a susceptibility factor for different tumours. Nevertheless, as far as we know, for thyroid cancer no study has been conducted until now linking its incidence to genetic susceptibility biomarkers. The present investigation has been conducted to detect the possible association between polymorphism at the GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes and thyroid cancer incidence. Thus, 134 thyroid cancer patients and 116 controls, all from the urban district of Barcelona (Spain), have been included in this study. The results indicate that, according to the calculated odds ratio, the frequencies of the different genotypes found in the group of cancer patients do not significantly differ from those values obtained in the controls. This is true for the overall data as well as for the tumour characterization as follicular and papillar types. In addition, none of the possible combinations of mutant genotypes were shown to be risk factors. Finally, when the sex of the patients, the age of tumour onset, and life-style habits were also taken into account, no influence was observed related to the different genotypes. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study clearly suggest that those susceptibility factors related to the different GST polymorphic enzymes are not a predisposing factor in thyroid cancer disease.

  19. Monolignol acylation and lignin structure in some nonwoody plants: a 2D NMR study.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Angel T; Rencoret, Jorge; Marques, Gisela; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ibarra, David; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; del Río, José C

    2008-11-01

    Lignins from three nonwoody angiosperms were analyzed by 2D NMR revealing important differences in their molecular structures. The Musa textilis milled-wood-lignin (MWL), with a syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of 9, was strongly acylated (near 85% of side-chains) at the gamma-carbon by both acetates and p-coumarates, as estimated from (1)H-(13)C correlations in C(gamma)-esterified and C(gamma)-OH units. The p-coumarate H(3,5)-C(3,5) correlation signal was completely displaced by acetylation, and disappeared after alkali treatment, indicating that p-coumaric acid was esterified maintaining its free phenolic group. By contrast, the Cannabis sativa MWL (S/G approximately 0.8) was free of acylating groups, and the Agave sisalana MWL (S/G approximately 4) showed high acylation degree (near 80%) but exclusively with acetates. Extensive C(gamma)-acylation results in the absence (in M. textilis lignin) or low abundance (4% in A. sisalana lignin) of beta-beta' resinol linkages, which require free C(gamma)-OH to form the double tetrahydrofuran ring. However, minor signals revealed unusual acylated beta-beta' structures confirming that acylation is produced at the monolignol level, in agreement with chromatographic identification of gamma-acetylated sinapyl alcohol among the plant extractives. In contrast, resinol substructures involved 22% side-chains in the C.sativa MWL. The ratio between beta-beta' and beta-O-4' side-chains in these and other MWL varied from 0.32 in C.sativa MWL to 0.02 in M. textilis MWL, and was inversely correlated with the degree of acylation. The opposite was observed for the S/G ratio that was directly correlated with the acylation degree. Monolignol acylation is discussed as a mechanism potentially involved in the control of lignin structure.

  20. Plant Acyl-CoA:Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferases (LPCATs) Have Different Specificities in Their Forward and Reverse Reactions*

    PubMed Central

    Lager, Ida; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Jasieniecka, Katarzyna; Kazachkov, Michael; Wang, Peng; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall; Smith, Mark A.; Bayon, Shen; Dyer, John M.; Shockey, Jay M.; Heinz, Ernst; Green, Allan; Banas, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) enzymes have central roles in acyl editing of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Plant LPCAT genes were expressed in yeast and characterized biochemically in microsomal preparations of the cells. Specificities for different acyl-CoAs were similar for seven LPCATs from five different species, including species accumulating hydroxylated acyl groups in their seed oil, with a preference for C18-unsaturated acyl-CoA and low activity with palmitoyl-CoA and ricinoleoyl (12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoyl)-CoA. We showed that Arabidopsis LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 enzymes catalyzed the acylation and de-acylation of both sn positions of PC, with a preference for the sn-2 position. When acyl specificities of the Arabidopsis LPCATs were measured in the reverse reaction, sn-2-bound oleoyl, linoleoyl, and linolenoyl groups from PC were transferred to acyl-CoA to a similar extent. However, a ricinoleoyl group at the sn-2-position of PC was removed 4–6-fold faster than an oleoyl group in the reverse reaction, despite poor utilization in the forward reaction. The data presented, taken together with earlier published reports on in vivo lipid metabolism, support the hypothesis that plant LPCAT enzymes play an important role in regulating the acyl-CoA composition in plant cells by transferring polyunsaturated and hydroxy fatty acids produced on PC directly to the acyl-CoA pool for further metabolism or catabolism. PMID:24189065

  1. Sialomucins are characteristically O-acylated in poorly differentiated and colloid prostatic adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sáez, C; Japón, M A; Conde, A F; Poveda, M A; Luna-Moré, S; Segura, D I

    1998-12-01

    Mucinous glycoproteins are secreted by prostatic adenocarcinomas and might play important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. Their histochemical properties on routine biopsy specimens have not been fully characterized. We present a histochemical study of mucin in 21 prostatic adenocarcinomas, with particular focus on the demonstration of different types of sialomucins. We applied the following histochemical techniques to routinely processed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections: Alcian blue (pH 2.5) and periodic acid-Schiff to reveal both acidic and neutral mucins; high iron diamine and Alcian blue (pH 2.5) to show sulfated and acidic nonsulfated mucosubstances simultaneously; periodic acid borohydride, potassium hydroxide, and periodic acid-Schiff to demonstrate O-acylated sialic acids; periodic acid thionine-Schiff, potassium hydroxide, and periodic acid-Schiff to differentiate pre-existing glycols from those revealed after saponification procedures; and periodic acid borohydride and periodic acid-Schiff to show C9-O-acylated sialic acid. These techniques are useful tools for demonstrating neutral and acidic (sialo- and sulfo-) mucins and di(C8,C9- or C7,C9-)-O-acylated, tri(C7,C8,C9-)-O-acylated and mono(C9)-O-acylated sialomucins. Most prostatic adenocarcinomas showed acidic mucins, with sialomucins predominating over sulfomucins. Well-differentiated and moderately differentiated noncolloid tumors had non-O-acylated sialomucins. Poorly differentiated tumors contained mono-O-acylated (C9) sialomucins, and colloid-type tumors secreted mono-, di-, and tri-O-acylated sialoglycoproteins. Acidic mucins, mainly sialomucins, constitute the major secretory component in prostatic adenocarcinomas, and our results show that the O-acylation of these sialoglycoproteins inversely correlates with tumor differentiation. Well-differentiated and moderately differentiated tumors are not O-acylated, whereas the poorly differentiated ones characteristically have O-acylated

  2. Revised nomenclature for the mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase gene family.

    PubMed

    Mashek, Douglas G; Bornfeldt, Karin E; Coleman, Rosalind A; Berger, Johannes; Bernlohr, David A; Black, Paul; DiRusso, Concetta C; Farber, Steven A; Guo, Wen; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Khodiyar, Varsha; Kuypers, Frans A; Maltais, Lois J; Nebert, Daniel W; Renieri, Alessandra; Schaffer, Jean E; Stahl, Andreas; Watkins, Paul A; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Yamamoto, Tokuo T

    2004-10-01

    By consensus, the acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) community, with the advice of the human and mouse genome nomenclature committees, has revised the nomenclature for the mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases. ACS is the family root name, and the human and mouse genes for the long-chain ACSs are termed ACSL1,3-6 and Acsl1,3-6, respectively. Splice variants of ACSL3, -4, -5, and -6 are cataloged. Suggestions for naming other family members and for the nonmammalian acyl-CoA synthetases are made.

  3. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency with an atypical presentation and ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Carey, M P; Poulton, K; Hawkins, C; Murphy, R P

    1987-01-01

    A case of carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency presenting in a 72 year old woman with the clinical picture of ophthalmoplegia plus other muscle weakness is reported. Histological and ultrastructural examination showed the features of a mitochondrial myopathy. Images PMID:3655814

  4. Role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters in the regulation of metabolism and in cell signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Faergeman, N J; Knudsen, J

    1997-01-01

    The intracellular concentration of free unbound acyl-CoA esters is tightly controlled by feedback inhibition of the acyl-CoA synthetase and is buffered by specific acyl-CoA binding proteins. Excessive increases in the concentration are expected to be prevented by conversion into acylcarnitines or by hydrolysis by acyl-CoA hydrolases. Under normal physiological conditions the free cytosolic concentration of acyl-CoA esters will be in the low nanomolar range, and it is unlikely to exceed 200 nM under the most extreme conditions. The fact that acetyl-CoA carboxylase is active during fatty acid synthesis (Ki for acyl-CoA is 5 nM) indicates strongly that the free cytosolic acyl-CoA concentration is below 5 nM under these conditions. Only a limited number of the reported experiments on the effects of acyl-CoA on cellular functions and enzymes have been carried out at low physiological concentrations in the presence of the appropriate acyl-CoA-buffering binding proteins. Re-evaluation of many of the reported effects is therefore urgently required. However, the observations that the ryanodine-senstitive Ca2+-release channel is regulated by long-chain acyl-CoA esters in the presence of a molar excess of acyl-CoA binding protein and that acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the AMP kinase kinase and the Escherichia coli transcription factor FadR are affected by low nanomolar concentrations of acyl-CoA indicate that long-chain acyl-CoA esters can act as regulatory molecules in vivo. This view is further supported by the observation that fatty acids do not repress expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase or Delta9-desaturase in yeast deficient in acyl-CoA synthetase. PMID:9173866

  5. Decarboxylation of malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) by 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthases in plant fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, E; Brummel, M; Schuch, R; Spener, F

    1997-01-01

    In order to identify regulatory steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, the influence of intermediate 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier proteins) (3-oxoacyl-ACPs) and end-product acyl-ACPs of the fatty acid synthase reaction on the condensation reaction was investigated in vitro, using total fatty acid synthase preparations and purified 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthases (KASs; EC 2.3.1.41) from Cuphea lanceolata seeds. KAS I and II in the fatty acid synthase preparations were assayed for the elongation of octanoyl- and hexadecanoyl-ACP respectively, and the accumulation of the corresponding condensation product 3-oxoacyl-ACP was studied by modulating the content of the reducing equivalentS NADH and NADPH. Complete omission of reducing equivalents resulted with either KAS in the abnormal synthesis of acetyl-ACP from malonyl-ACP by a decarboxylation reaction. Supplementation with NADPH or NADH, separately or in combination with recombinant 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100), led to a decrease in the amount of acetyl-ACP and a simultaneous increase in elongation products. This demonstrates that the accumulation of 3-oxoacyl-ACP inhibits the condensation reaction on the one hand, and induces the decarboxylation of malonyl-ACP on the other. By carrying out similar experiments with purified enzymes, this decarboxylation was attributed to the action of KAS. Our data point to a regulatory mechanism for the degradation of malonyl-ACP in plants which is activated by the accumulation of the fatty acid synthase intermediate 3-oxoacyl-ACP. PMID:9020860

  6. The determination of tRNALeu recognition nucleotides for Escherichia coli L/F transferase

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Angela Wai Shan; Leung, Charles Chung Yun; Fahlman, Richard Peter

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli leucyl/phenylalanyl-tRNA protein transferase catalyzes the tRNA-dependent post-translational addition of amino acids onto the N-terminus of a protein polypeptide substrate. Based on biochemical and structural studies, the current tRNA recognition model by L/F transferase involves the identity of the 3′ aminoacyl adenosine and the sequence-independent docking of the D-stem of an aminoacyl-tRNA to the positively charged cluster on L/F transferase. However, this model does not explain the isoacceptor preference observed 40 yr ago. Using in vitro-transcribed tRNA and quantitative MALDI-ToF MS enzyme activity assays, we have confirmed that, indeed, there is a strong preference for the most abundant leucyl-tRNA, tRNALeu (anticodon 5′-CAG-3′) isoacceptor for L/F transferase activity. We further investigate the molecular mechanism for this preference using hybrid tRNA constructs. We identified two independent sequence elements in the acceptor stem of tRNALeu (CAG)—a G3:C70 base pair and a set of 4 nt (C72, A4:U69, C68)—that are important for the optimal binding and catalysis by L/F transferase. This maps a more specific, sequence-dependent tRNA recognition model of L/F transferase than previously proposed. PMID:24935875

  7. Molecular characterization of a glutathione transferase from Pinus tabulaeformis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-Yin; Lu, Hai; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2005-05-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play important roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. To date, studies on GSTs in higher plants have focused largely on agricultural plants. In contrast, there is virtually no information on the molecular characteristics of GSTs in gymnosperms. The present study reports for the first time the cloning, expression and characteristics of a GST gene (PtGSTU1) from a pine, Pinus tabulaeformis, which is widely distributed from northern to central China covering cold temperate and drought regions. The PtGSTU1 gene encodes a protein of 228 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 26.37 kDa. Reverse transcription PCR revealed that PtGSTU1 was expressed in different tissues, both above and below ground, of P. tabulaeformis. The over-expressed recombinant PtGSTU1 showed high activity towards the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl). Kinetic analysis with respect to CDNB as substrate revealed a Km of 0.47 mM and Vmax of 169.1 micromol/min per mg of protein. The recombinant PtGSTU1 retained more than 60% of its maximum enzymatic activity from 15 degrees C to 45 degrees C with a broad optimum Tm range of 25 degrees C - 35 degrees C. The enzyme had a maximum activity at approximately pH 8.5 - 9.0. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Ser13 in the N-terminal domain is a critical catalytic residue, responsible for stabilisation of the thiolate anion of enzyme-bound glutathione. Based on comparative analyses of its amino acid sequence, phylogeny and predicted three-dimensional structure, the PtGSTU1 should be classified as a tau class GST.

  8. Phosphonocarboxylates Inhibit the Second Geranylgeranyl Addition by Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Rudi A.; Tavaré, Richard; Figueiredo, Ana C.; Błażewska, Katarzyna M.; Kashemirov, Boris A.; McKenna, Charles E.; Ebetino, Frank H.; Taylor, Adam; Rogers, Michael J.; Coxon, Fraser P.; Seabra, Miguel C.

    2009-01-01

    Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT) catalyzes the post-translational geranylgeranyl (GG) modification of (usually) two C-terminal cysteines in Rab GTPases. Here we studied the mechanism of the Rab geranylgeranylation reaction by bisphosphonate analogs in which one phosphonate group is replaced by a carboxylate (phosphonocarboxylate, PC). The phosphonocarboxylates used were 3-PEHPC, which was previously reported, and 2-hydroxy-3-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl-2-phosphonopropionic acid ((+)-3-IPEHPC), a >25-fold more potent related compound as measured by both IC50 and Ki.(+)-3-IPEHPC behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor with respect to GG pyrophosphate (GGPP) and an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to Rab substrates. We propose that phosphonocarboxylates prevent only the second GG transfer onto Rabs based on the following evidence. First, geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins ending with a single cysteine motif such as CAAX, is not affected by the inhibitors, either in vitro or in vivo. Second, the addition of an -AAX sequence onto Rab-CC proteins protects the substrate from inhibition by the inhibitors. Third, we demonstrate directly that in the presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC, Rab-CC and Rab-CXC proteins are modified by only a single GG addition. The presence of (+)-3-IPEHPC resulted in a preference for the Rab N-terminal cysteine to be modified first, suggesting an order of cysteine geranylgeranylation in RGGT catalysis. Our results further suggest that the inhibitor binds to a site distinct from the GGPP-binding site on RGGT. We suggest that phosphonocarboxylate inhibitors bind to a GG-cysteine binding site adjacent to the active site, which is necessary to align the mono-GG-Rab for the second GG addition. These inhibitors may represent a novel therapeutic approach in Rab-mediated diseases. PMID:19074143

  9. Acyl tunichlorins: a new class of nickel chlorins isolated from the Caribbean tunicate Trididemnum solidum.

    PubMed Central

    Sings, H L; Bible, K C; Rinehart, K L

    1996-01-01

    A new class of nickel-containing chlorins (acyl tunichlorins) has been isolated from the Caribbean tunicate Trididemnum solidum. The structures of 28 of these nickel (II) hydroporphyrins were elucidated using mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, and chemical degradation/derivatization. Unique structural features of these compounds include the diversity of aliphatic side chains, which are derived from C14:0 to C22:6 fatty acids, and their location at an unprecedented position at C-2a on the hydroporphyrin nucleus. No chlorins with ester-linked acyl side chains at C-2a have been reported previously. Although the exact biological role that these compounds play in T. solidum remains unknown, acyl tunichlorins represent the only nickel-containing chlorins to be isolated from a living system and are the C-2a acyl derivatives of tunichlorin, a nickel chlorin reported by this laboratory in 1988. PMID:8855217

  10. Enhanced Activity of Nanocrystalline Beta Zeolite for Acylation of Veratrole with Acetic Anhydride.

    PubMed

    Aisha Mahmood Abdulkareem, Al-Turkustani; Selvin, Rosilda

    2016-04-01

    Friedel-Craft acylation of veratrole using homogeneous acid catalysts such as AlCl3, FeCl3, ZnCl2, and HF etc. produces acetoveratrone, (3',4'-dimethoxyacetophenone), which is the intermediate for synthesis of papavarine alkaloids. The problems associated with these homogeneous catalysts can be overcome by using heterogeneous solid catalysts. Since acetoveratrone is a larger molecule, large pore Beta zeolites with smaller particle sizes are beneficial for the liquid-phase acylation of veratrole, for easy diffusion of reactants and products. The present study aims in the acylation of veratrole with acetic anhydride using nanocrystalline Beta Zeolite catalyst. A systematic investigation of the effects of various reaction parameters was done. The catalysts were characterized for their structural features by using XRD, TEM and DLS analyses. The catalytic activity of nanocrystalline Beta zeolite was compared with commercial Beta zeolite for the acylation and was found that nanocrystalline Beta zeolite possessed superior activity.

  11. New N-acyl taurine from the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Xu, Tunhai; Wen, Kewei; Yang, Xian-Wen; Xu, Shi-Hai; Liu, Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    A new N-acyl taurine (1), together with a new natural product, l-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2,4-triazole (4), and two known compounds (2 and 3), were isolated from the sea urchin, Glyptocidaris crenularis. The new N-acyl taurine was elucidated as 2-(5R,15S-dihydroxyeicosanoylamino) ethanesulfonic acid on the basis of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) analyses and the modified Mosher ester method. Compound 2 showed significant toxicity against brine shrimp larvae.

  12. 3-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is not similar to other condensing enzymes of fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Tai, H; Jaworski, J G

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding spinach (Spinacia oleracea) 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III), which catalyzes the initial condensing reaction in fatty acid biosynthesis, was isolated. Based on the amino acid sequence of tryptic digests of purified spinach KAS III, degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed and used to amplify a 612-bp fragment from first-strand cDNA of spinach leaf RNA. A root cDNA library was probed with the PCR fragment, and a 1920-bp clone was isolated. Its deduced amino acid sequence matched the sequences of the tryptic digests obtained from the purified KAS III. Northern analysis confirmed that it was expressed in both leaf and root. The clone contained a 1218-bp open reading frame coding for 405 amino acids. The identity of the clone was confirmed by expression in Escherichia coli BL 21 as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. The deduced amino acid sequence was 48 and 45% identical with the putative KAS III of Porphyra umbilicalis and KAS III of E. coli, respectively. It also had a strong local homology to the plant chalcone synthases but had little homology with other KAS isoforms from plants, bacteria, or animals. PMID:8290632

  13. Plant fatty acyl reductases: enzymes generating fatty alcohols for protective layers with potential for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Primary fatty alcohols are found throughout the biological world, either in free form or in a combined state. They are common components of plant surface lipids (i.e. cutin, suberin, sporopollenin, and associated waxes) and their absence can significantly perturb these essential barriers. Fatty alcohols and/or derived compounds are also likely to have direct functions in plant biotic and abiotic interactions. An evolutionarily related set of alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases (FARs) is present in all kingdoms of life. Plant microsomal and plastid-associated FAR enzymes have been characterized, acting on acyl-coenzymeA (acyl-CoA) or acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates, respectively. FARs have distinct substrate specificities both with regard to chain length and chain saturation. Fatty alcohols and wax esters, which are a combination of fatty alcohol and fatty acid, have a variety of commercial applications. The expression of FARs with desired specificities in transgenic microbes or oilseed crops would provide a novel means of obtaining these valuable compounds. In the present review, we report on recent progress in characterizing plant FAR enzymes and in understanding the biological roles of primary fatty alcohols, as well as describe the biotechnological production and industrial uses of fatty alcohols.

  14. Structural basis for acyl-group discrimination by human Gcn5L2

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Alison E.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Gcn5 is a conserved acetyltransferase that regulates transcription by acetylating the N-terminal tails of histones. Motivated by recent studies identifying a chemically diverse array of lysine acyl modifications in vivo, the acyl-chain specificity of the acetyltransferase human Gcn5 (Gcn5L2) was examined. Whereas Gcn5L2 robustly catalyzes lysine acetylation, the acyltransferase activity of Gcn5L2 becomes progressively weaker with increasing acyl-chain length. To understand how Gcn5 discriminates between different acyl-CoA molecules, structures of the catalytic domain of human Gcn5L2 bound to propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA were determined. Although the active site of Gcn5L2 can accommodate propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA without major structural rearrangements, butyryl-CoA adopts a conformation incompatible with catalysis that obstructs the path of the incoming lysine residue and acts as a competitive inhibitor of Gcn5L2 versus acetyl-CoA. These structures demonstrate how Gcn5L2 discriminates between acyl-chain donors and explain why Gcn5L2 has weak activity for acyl moieties that are larger than an acetyl group. PMID:27377381

  15. Bacillus subtilis acyl carrier protein is encoded in a cluster of lipid biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed Central

    Morbidoni, H R; de Mendoza, D; Cronan, J E

    1996-01-01

    A cluster of Bacillus subtilis fatty acid synthetic genes was isolated by complementation of an Escherichia coli fabD mutant encoding a thermosensitive malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylase. The B. subtilis genomic segment contains genes that encode three fatty acid synthetic proteins, malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylase (fabD), 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (fabG), and the N-terminal 14 amino acid residues of acyl carrier protein (acpP). Also present is a sequence that encodes a homolog of E. coli plsX, a gene that plays a poorly understood role in phospholipid synthesis. The B. subtilis plsX gene weakly complemented an E. coli plsX mutant. The order of genes in the cluster is plsX fabD fabG acpP, the same order found in E. coli, except that in E. coli the fabH gene lies between plsX and fabD. The absence of fabH in the B. subtilis cluster is consistent with the different fatty acid compositions of the two organisms. The amino acid sequence of B. subtilis acyl carrier protein was obtained by sequencing the purified protein, and the sequence obtained strongly resembled that of E. coli acyl carrier protein, except that most of the protein retained the initiating methionine residue. The B. subtilis fab cluster was mapped to the 135 to 145 degrees region of the chromosome. PMID:8759840

  16. Rheological behavior of acylated pepsin-solubilized collagen solutions: Effects of concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Conghu; Duan, Lian; Tian, Zhenhua; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-11-01

    Effects of concentration on the rheological behavior of acylated pepsin-solubilized collagen solutions were investigated by steady shear tests, dynamic frequency sweep, creep tests and thixotropic loop measurements in this paper. The results showed that both acylated collagen and native collagen solutions exhibited the typical pseudoplastic behavior and displayed shear thinned behavior with the increase of shear rate. With the increase of acylated collagen concentrations from 5 to 10 mg/mL, shear viscosity, elasticity modulus ( G'), viscous modulus ( G″), complex viscosity ( η*), and the ability to resist deformation increased due to the physical entanglement, whilst loss tangent (tan δ) decreased. Additionally, with the increase of acylated collagen concentrations, the area of thixotropic loop increased from 6.94 to 44.40 watts/m3, indicating that the thixotropy of acylated collagen increased. Compared with native collagen solution, acylated collagen solution had stronger shear viscosity, η*, thixotropy, and ability to resist deformation. Furthermore, Power law model, Carreau model, Cross model, Leonov model and Burger model, were suitable for the fitting of the experimental data.

  17. Effects of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis of the rat fetal spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Miho; Nakahara, Keiko; Goto, Shintaro; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya . E-mail: a0d201u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp; Date, Yukari; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2006-11-24

    Expressions of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) mRNA and its protein were confirmed in rat fetal spinal cord tissues by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, over 3 nM ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induced significant proliferation of primary cultured cells from the fetal spinal cord. The proliferating cells were then double-stained using antibodies against the neuronal precursor marker, nestin, and the cell proliferation marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and the nestin-positive cells were also found to be co-stained with antibody against GHS-R. Furthermore, binding studies using [{sup 125}I]des-acyl ghrelin indicated the presence of a specific binding site for des-acyl ghrelin, and confirmed that the binding was displaced with unlabeled des-acyl ghrelin or ghrelin. These results indicate that ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induce proliferation of neuronal precursor cells that is both dependent and independent of GHS-R, suggesting that both ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are involved in neurogenesis of the fetal spinal cord.

  18. Lipopolysaccharides with acylation defects potentiate TLR4 signaling and shape T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Anna; Ohne, Yoichiro; Degos, Clara; Gorvel, Laurent; Moriyón, Ignacio; Oh, Sangkon; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins are components of Gram-negative enterobacteria that cause septic shock in mammals. However, a LPS carrying hexa-acyl lipid A moieties is highly endotoxic compared to a tetra-acyl LPS and the latter has been considered as an antagonist of hexa-acyl LPS-mediated TLR4 signaling. We investigated the relationship between the structure and the function of bacterial LPS in the context of human and mouse dendritic cell activation. Strikingly, LPS with acylation defects were capable of triggering a strong and early TLR4-dependent DC activation, which in turn led to the activation of the proteasome machinery dampening the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Upon activation with tetra-acyl LPS both mouse and human dendritic cells triggered CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell responses and, importantly, human myeloid dendritic cells favored the induction of regulatory T cells. Altogether, our data suggest that LPS acylation controlled by pathogenic bacteria might be an important strategy to subvert adaptive immunity.

  19. Production of a Brassica napus Low-Molecular Mass Acyl-Coenzyme A-Binding Protein in Arabidopsis Alters the Acyl-Coenzyme A Pool and Acyl Composition of Oil in Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Olga; Singer, Stacy D.; Nykiforuk, Cory L.; Gidda, Satinder; Mullen, Robert T.; Moloney, Maurice M.; Weselake, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Low-molecular mass (10 kD) cytosolic acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) has a substantial influence over fatty acid (FA) composition in oilseeds, possibly via an effect on the partitioning of acyl groups between elongation and desaturation pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of a Brassica napus ACBP (BnACBP) complementary DNA in the developing seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in increased levels of polyunsaturated FAs at the expense of eicosenoic acid (20:1cisΔ11) and saturated FAs in seed oil. In this study, we investigated whether alterations in the FA composition of seed oil at maturity were correlated with changes in the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pool in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BnACBP. Our results indicated that both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP exhibited relative increases in linoleic acid (18:2cisΔ9,12; 17.9%–44.4% and 7%–13.2%, respectively) and decreases in 20:1cisΔ11 (38.7%–60.7% and 13.8%–16.3%, respectively). However, alterations in the FA composition of the acyl-CoA pool did not always correlate with those seen in the seed oil. In addition, we found that targeting of BnACBP to the endoplasmic reticulum resulted in FA compositional changes that were similar to those seen in lines expressing cytosolic BnACBP, with the most prominent exception being a relative reduction in α-linolenic acid (18:3cisΔ9,12,15) in both the acyl-CoA pool and seed oil of the former (48.4%–48.9% and 5.3%–10.4%, respectively). Overall, these data support the role of ACBP in acyl trafficking in developing seeds and validate its use as a biotechnological tool for modifying the FA composition of seed oil. PMID:24740000

  20. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase Isozymes in Sorghum by Herbicide Antidotes 1

    PubMed Central

    Dean, John V.; Gronwald, John W.; Eberlein, Charlotte V.

    1990-01-01

    Certain chemicals referred to as herbicide antidotes protect sorghum from injury by chloroacetanilide herbicides such as metolachlor. The effect of herbicide antidotes on the glutathione S-transferase isozyme complement of etiolated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) shoots was examined. Elution profiles of glutathione S-transferase isozymes from untreated and antidote-treated seedlings were generated by fast protein liquid chromatography utilizing an anion exchange (Mono Q) column. In untreated seedlings, there were two glutathione S-transferase isozymes, a major isozyme which exhibited activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and a minor isozyme which exhibited activity toward metolachlor. Treating sorghum seedlings with various antidotes (flurazole, oxabetrinil, CGA-133205, naphthalic anhydride, dichlormid) resulted in the appearance of four to five additional glutathione S-transferase isozymes (de-pending on the particular antidote) which exhibited activity toward metolachlor as a substrate and little or no activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Treating etiolated sorghum shoots with metolachlor was also found to induce at least four isozymes which exhibited activity toward the herbicide. An increase in glutathione S-transferase activity, measured with metolachlor as substrate, was detected within 4 h after treatment with 30 micromolar oxabetrinil, but 36 hours were required for maximum expression of activity. Addition of either the transcription inhibitor cordycepin or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited the appearance of glutathione S-transferase activity measured with metolachlor as substrate. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that antidotes confer protection against metolachlor injury in sorghum by inducing the de novo synthesis of glutathione S-transferase isozymes which catalyze the detoxification of the herbicide. PMID:16667299

  1. The thermodynamic characteristics of ferrocene alkyl and acyl derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanenko, V. N.; Krol', O. V.; Varushchenko, R. M.; Druzhinina, A. I.; Verevkin, S. P.

    2010-07-01

    The heat capacity of iso-butylferrocene C5H5FeC5H4-C4H9- i was measured over the temperature range 7-372 K in an adiabatic vacuum calorimeter. Substance purity and the thermodynamic characteristics of fusion (temperature, enthalpy, and entropy) were determined. Saturated vapor pressures and the enthalpies of vaporization of n-propylferrocene C5H5FeC5H4-C3H7- n, propionylferrocene C5H5FeC5H4-COC2H5, and iso-butylferrocene were measured by the dynamic method of substance transfer in an inert gas flow. The entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs energy of the substances in the ideal gas state at 298.15 K were calculated. The thermodynamic values obtained in this work and reported in the literature for ferrocene alkyl and acyl derivatives were critically analyzed. The mutual consistency of the data on both homologous series was checked.

  2. The solution structure of acyl carrier protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hing C; Liu, Gaohua; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Rock, Charles O; Zheng, Jie

    2002-05-03

    Acyl carrier protein (ACP) performs the essential function of shuttling the intermediates between the enzymes that constitute the type II fatty acid synthase system. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is unique in producing extremely long mycolic acids, and tubercular ACP, AcpM, is also unique in possessing a longer carboxyl terminus than other ACPs. We determined the solution structure of AcpM using protein NMR spectroscopy to define the similarities and differences between AcpM and the typical structures. The amino-terminal region of the structure is well defined and consists of four helices arranged in a right-handed bundle held together by interhelical hydrophobic interactions similar to the structures of other bacterial ACPs. The unique carboxyl-terminal extension from helix IV has a "melted down" feature, and the end of the molecule is a random coil. A comparison of the apo- and holo-forms of AcpM revealed that the 4'-phosphopantetheine group oscillates between two states; in one it is bound to a hydrophobic groove on the surface of AcpM, and in another it is solvent-exposed. The similarity between AcpM and other ACPs reveals the conserved structural motif that is recognized by all type II enzymes. However, the function of the coil domain extending from helix IV to the carboxyl terminus remains enigmatic, but its structural characteristics suggest that it may interact with the very long chain intermediates in mycolic acid biosynthesis or control specific protein-protein interactions.

  3. Endogenous N-acyl taurines regulate skin wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Oscar; Pontis, Silvia; Armirotti, Andrea; Cardinali, Giorgia; Kovacs, Daniela; Migliore, Marco; Summa, Maria; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Picardo, Mauro; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular serine amidase, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), degrades a heterogeneous family of lipid-derived bioactive molecules that include amides of long-chain fatty acids with taurine [N-acyl-taurines (NATs)]. The physiological functions of the NATs are unknown. Here we show that genetic or pharmacological disruption of FAAH activity accelerates skin wound healing in mice and stimulates motogenesis of human keratinocytes and differentiation of human fibroblasts in primary cultures. Using untargeted and targeted lipidomics strategies, we identify two long-chain saturated NATs—N-tetracosanoyl-taurine [NAT(24:0)] and N-eicosanoyl-taurine [NAT(20:0)]—as primary substrates for FAAH in mouse skin, and show that the levels of these substances sharply decrease at the margins of a freshly inflicted wound to increase again as healing begins. Additionally, we demonstrate that local administration of synthetic NATs accelerates wound closure in mice and stimulates repair-associated responses in primary cultures of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, through a mechanism that involves tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and an increase in intracellular calcium levels, under the permissive control of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptors. The results point to FAAH-regulated NAT signaling as an unprecedented lipid-based mechanism of wound-healing control in mammalian skin, which might be targeted for chronic wound therapy. PMID:27412859

  4. Defluoridation potential of jute fibers grafted with fatty acyl chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Suvendu; Saha, Prosenjit; Roy, Debasis; Sen, Ramkrishna; Adhikari, Basudam

    2015-11-01

    Waterborne fluoride is usually removed from water by coagulation, adsorption, ion exchange, electro dialysis or reverse osmosis. These processes are often effective over narrow pH ranges, release ions considered hazardous to human health or produce large volumes of toxic sludge that are difficult to handle and dispose. Although plant matters have been shown to remove waterborne fluoride, they suffer from poor removal efficiency. Following from the insight that interaction between microbial carbohydrate biopolymers and anionic surfaces is often facilitated by lipids, an attempt has been made to enhance fluoride adsorption efficiency of jute by grafting the lignocellulosic fiber with fatty acyl chains found in vegetable oils. Fluoride removal efficiency of grafted jute was found to be comparable or higher than those of alternative defluoridation processes. Infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic evidence indicated that hydrogen bonding, protonation and C-F bonding were responsible for fluoride accumulation on grafted jute. Adsorption based on grafted jute fibers appears to be an economical, sustainable and eco-friendly alternative technique for removing waterborne fluoride.

  5. Acylation and metabolism of (n-6) fatty acids in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, A.C.; Sprecher, H.

    1986-05-01

    Isolated hepatocytes (5 x 10/sup 6/ in 2ml) from chow fed rats were incubated from 20 to 60 min. with increasing concentrations of (1-/sup 14/C) labeled 18:2 (n-6), 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6) to define optimum conditions for measuring acylation and metabolism to other (n-6) acids with subsequent incorporation into lipids. The triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids (PL) contained 157 and 80 nmols of 18:2 (n-6) and 6.0 and 6.1 nmols of other (n-6) acids, respectively, when cells were incubated with 0.3mM (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2 (n-6) for 40 min. When cells were incubated with 0.3mM (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2 (n-6) plus 0.15 to 0.45mM 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6), the metabolism of 18:2 (n-6) to other (n-6) acids was inhibited but not totally abolished. These results may suggest that (n-6) acid made from linoleate do not totally equilibrate with exogenous 18:3 (n-6) or 20:3 (n-6).

  6. Total and acylated ghrelin levels in children with poor growth.

    PubMed

    Pinsker, Jordan E; Ondrasik, Deborah; Chan, Debora; Fredericks, Gregory J; Tabisola-Nuesca, Eludrizza; Fernandez-Aponte, Minela; Focht, Dean R; Poth, Merrily

    2011-06-01

    Ghrelin, an enteric hormone with potent appetite stimulating effects, also stimulates growth hormone release. We hypothesized that altered levels of total ghrelin (TG) or acylated ghrelin (AG) could affect growth by altering growth hormone secretion, subsequently affecting insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) generation or by altering appetite and food intake. After institutional review board approval, 52 children presenting for evaluation of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms (group 1), poor weight gain (group 2), or poor linear growth (group 3) were evaluated for fasting TG and AG levels in addition to their regular evaluation. Serum ghrelin, IGF-1, and prealbumin were compared between groups. No difference was observed for mean fasting TG between groups. However, mean fasting AG was highest in patients in group 2 (465 ± 128 pg/mL) versus group 1 (176 ± 37 pg/mL) and group 3 (190 ± 34 pg/mL). IGF-1 was lowest in patients in group 2 despite similar prealbumin levels among the three groups. We conclude that serum AG levels are highest in children with isolated poor weight gain compared with children with short stature or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, suggesting the possibility of resistance to AG in underweight children. Additional studies are needed to further clarify ghrelin's role in growth and appetite.

  7. Acylated flavonol tri- and tetraglycosides in the flavonoid metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Rowe, Emily R; Lewis, Gwilym P; Veitch, Nigel C

    2011-04-01

    The foliar metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae) contains a complex mixture of flavonoids including acylated derivatives of the 3-O-rhamnosyl(1→2)[rhamnosyl(1→6)]-galactosides of kaempferol and quercetin and their 7-O-rhamnosides, together with an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. Thirteen of the acylated flavonoids, 12 of which had not been reported previously, were characterised by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Eight of these were the four isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) and their 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosides, and three were isomers of quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) - the remaining 4Z isomer was identified by LC-UV-MS analysis of a crude extract. The final two acylated flavonoids characterised by NMR were the 3E and 4E isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E-feruloyl-β-d-galactopyranoside)-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside while the 3Z and 4Z isomers were again detected by LC-UV-MS. Using the observed fragmentation behaviour of the isolated compounds following a variety of MS experiments, a further 18 acylated flavonoids were given tentative structures by LC-MS analysis of a crude extract. Acylated flavonoids were absent from the flowers of C. kentukea, which contained an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin glycosides. Immature fruits contained kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside and its 7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside as the major flavonoids with acylated flavonoids, different from those in the leaves, only present as minor constituents. The presence of acylated flavonoids distinguishes the foliar flavonoid metabolome of C. kentukea from that of a closely related legume, Styphnolobium japonicum, which contains a similar

  8. A special acyl carrier protein for transferring long hydroxylated fatty acids to lipid A in Rhizobium.

    PubMed

    Brozek, K A; Carlson, R W; Raetz, C R

    1996-12-13

    Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharides in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, varies in structure among different Rhizobiaceae. The Rhizobium meliloti lipid A backbone, like that of Escherichia coli, is a beta1'-6-linked glucosamine disaccharide that is phosphorylated at positions 1 and 4'. Rhizobium leguminosarum lipid A lacks both phosphates, but contains aminogluconate in place of the proximal glucosamine 1-phosphate, and galacturonic acid instead of the 4'-phosphate. A peculiar feature of the lipid As of all Rhizobiaceae is acylation with 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid, a long hydroxylated fatty acid not found in E. coli. We now describe an in vitro system, consisting of a membrane enzyme and a cytosolic acyl donor from R. leguminosarum, that transfers 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid to (Kdo)2-lipid IVA, a key lipid A precursor common to both E. coli and R. leguminosarum. The 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid moiety was detected in the lipid product by mass spectrometry. The membrane enzyme required the presence of Kdo residues in the acceptor substrate for activity. The cytosolic acyl donor was purified from wild-type R. leguminosarum using the acylation of (Kdo)2-[4'-32P]-lipid IVA as the assay. Amino-terminal sequencing of the purified acyl donor revealed an exact 19-amino acid match with a partially sequenced gene (orf*) of R. leguminosarum. Orf* contains the consensus sequence, DSLD, for attachment of 4'-phosphopantetheine. When the entire orf* gene was sequenced, it was found to encode a protein of 92 amino acids. Orf* is a new kind of acyl carrier protein because it is only approximately 25% identical both to the constitutive acyl carrier protein (AcpP) and to the inducible acyl carrier protein (NodF) of R. leguminosarum. Mass spectrometry of purified active Orf* confirmed the presence of 4'-phosphopantetheine and 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid in the major species. Smaller mass peaks indicative of Orf* acylation with hydroxylated 20, 22, 24

  9. 40 CFR 180.1207 - N-acyl sarcosines and sodium N-acyl sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (surfactants) at levels not to exceed 10% in pesticide formulations containing glyphosate: Name CAS Reg. No. N... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1207 N-acyl sarcosines and sodium...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1207 - N-acyl sarcosines and sodium N-acyl sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (surfactants) at levels not to exceed 10% in pesticide formulations containing glyphosate: Name CAS Reg. No. N... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1207 N-acyl sarcosines and sodium...

  11. Insight into Coenzyme A cofactor binding and the mechanism of acyl-transfer in an acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium phytofermentans

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Laura R.; Altenbach, Kirsten; Ang, Thiau Fu; Crawshaw, Adam D.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Clarke, David J.; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The breakdown of fucose and rhamnose released from plant cell walls by the cellulolytic soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans produces toxic aldehyde intermediates. To enable growth on these carbon sources, the pathway for the breakdown of fucose and rhamnose is encapsulated within a bacterial microcompartment (BMC). These proteinaceous organelles sequester the toxic aldehyde intermediates and allow the efficient action of acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes to produce an acyl-CoA that is ultimately used in substrate-level phosphorylation to produce ATP. Here we analyse the kinetics of the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme from the fucose/rhamnose utilisation BMC with different short-chain fatty aldehydes and show that it has activity against substrates with up to six carbon atoms, with optimal activity against propionaldehyde. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with CoA and show that the adenine nucleotide of this cofactor is bound in a distinct pocket to the same group in NAD+. This work is the first report of the structure of CoA bound to an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and our crystallographic model provides important insight into the differences within the active site that distinguish the acylating from non-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. PMID:26899032

  12. 40 CFR 180.1207 - N-acyl sarcosines and sodium N-acyl sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1207 Section 180.1207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1207 N-acyl sarcosines and sodium...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1207 - N-acyl sarcosines and sodium N-acyl sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1207 Section 180.1207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1207 N-acyl sarcosines and sodium...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1207 - N-acyl sarcosines and sodium N-acyl sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sarcosinates; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1207 Section 180.1207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1207 N-acyl sarcosines and sodium...

  15. Facile synthesis of N-acyl 2-aminobenzothiazoles by NHC-catalyzed direct oxidative amidation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Premaletha, Sethulekshmy; Ghosh, Arghya; Joseph, Sumi; Yetra, Santhivardhana Reddy; Biju, Akkattu T

    2017-01-26

    A mild, general, and high yielding synthesis of N-acyl 2-aminobenzothiazoles has been demonstrated by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-organocatalyzed direct amidation of aldehydes with 2-aminobenzothiazoles proceeding via acyl azolium intermediates. The carbene generated from the triazolium salt under oxidative conditions was the key for the success of this reaction. The method was subsequently applied to the synthesis of various biologically important N-acyl 2-aminobenzothiazoles.

  16. Diametric Stereocontrol in Dynamic Catalytic Reduction of Racemic Acyl Phosphonates: Divergence from α-Keto Ester Congeners

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Michael T.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    An unexpected dichotomy was observed in the Ru-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of acyl phosphonates: reduction proceeded from the opposite face relative to that observed in the analogous reduction of α-keto esters. The first highly selective catalytic hydrogenation of acyl phosphonates was utilized in the dynamic kinetic resolution of α-aryl acyl phosphonates providing β-stereogenic α-hydroxy phosphonic acid derivatives. PMID:23297694

  17. A high-throughput screen for quorum-sensing inhibitors that target acyl-homoserine lactone synthases.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Quin H; Grove, Tyler L; Booker, Squire J; Greenberg, E Peter

    2013-08-20

    Many Proteobacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing to control specific genes. Acyl-HSL synthesis requires unique enzymes that use S-adenosyl methionine as an acyl acceptor and amino acid donor. We developed and executed an enzyme-coupled high-throughput cell-free screen to discover acyl-HSL synthase inhibitors. The three strongest inhibitors were equally active against two different acyl-HSL synthases: Burkholderia mallei BmaI1 and Yersinia pestis YspI. Two of these inhibitors showed activity in whole cells. The most potent compound behaves as a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of 0.7 µM and showed activity in a cell-based assay. Quorum-sensing signal synthesis inhibitors will be useful in attempts to understand acyl-HSL synthase catalysis and as a tool in studies of quorum-sensing control of gene expression. Because acyl-HSL quorum-sensing controls virulence of some bacterial pathogens, anti-quorum-sensing chemicals have been sought as potential therapeutic agents. Our screen and identification of acyl-HSL synthase inhibitors serve as a basis for efforts to target quorum-sensing signal synthesis as an antivirulence approach.

  18. Alteration of the specificity and regulation of fatty acid synthesis of Escherichia coli by expression of a plant medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase.

    PubMed

    Voelker, T A; Davies, H M

    1994-12-01

    The expression of a plant (Umbellularia californica) medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (BTE) cDNA in Escherichia coli results in a very high level of extractable medium-chain-specific hydrolytic activity but causes only a minor accumulation of medium-chain fatty acids. BTE's full impact on the bacterial fatty acid synthase is apparent only after expression in a strain deficient in fatty acid degradation, in which BTE increases the total fatty acid output of the bacterial cultures fourfold. Laurate (12:0), normally a minor fatty acid component of E. coli, becomes predominant, is secreted into the medium, and can accumulate to a level comparable to the total dry weight of the bacteria. Also, large quantities of 12:1, 14:0, and 14:1 are made. At the end of exponential growth, the pathway of saturated fatty acids is almost 100% diverted by BTE to the production of free medium-chain fatty acids, starving the cells for saturated acyl-ACP substrates for lipid biosynthesis. This results in drastic changes in membrane lipid composition from predominantly 16:0 to 18:1. The continued hydrolysis of medium-chain ACPs by the BTE causes the bacterial fatty acid synthase to produce fatty acids even when membrane production has ceased in stationary phase, which shows that the fatty acid synthesis rate can be uncoupled from phospholipid biosynthesis and suggests that acyl-ACP intermediates might normally act as feedback inhibitors for fatty acid synthase. As the fatty acid synthesis is increasingly diverted to medium chains with the onset of stationary phase, the rate of C12 production increases relative to C14 production. This observation is consistent with activity of the BTE on free acyl-ACP pools, as opposed to its interaction with fatty acid synthase-bound substrates.

  19. Structural Basis for Substrate Fatty Acyl Chain Specificity: Crystal Structure of Human Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    McAndrew, Ryan P.; Wang, Yudong; Mohsen, Al-Walid; He, Miao; Vockley, Jerry; Kim, Jung-Ja P.

    2008-08-26

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is a member of the family of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs). Unlike the other ACADs, which are soluble homotetramers, VLCAD is a homodimer associated with the mitochondrial membrane. VLCAD also possesses an additional 180 residues in the C terminus that are not present in the other ACADs. We have determined the crystal structure of VLCAD complexed with myristoyl-CoA, obtained by co-crystallization, to 1.91-{angstrom} resolution. The overall fold of the N-terminal {approx}400 residues of VLCAD is similar to that of the soluble ACADs including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). The novel C-terminal domain forms an {alpha}-helical bundle that is positioned perpendicular to the two N-terminal helical domains. The fatty acyl moiety of the bound substrate/product is deeply imbedded inside the protein; however, the adenosine pyrophosphate portion of the C14-CoA ligand is disordered because of partial hydrolysis of the thioester bond and high mobility of the CoA moiety. The location of Glu-422 with respect to the C2-C3 of the bound ligand and FAD confirms Glu-422 to be the catalytic base. In MCAD, Gln-95 and Glu-99 form the base of the substrate binding cavity. In VLCAD, these residues are glycines (Gly-175 and Gly-178), allowing the binding channel to extend for an additional 12{angstrom} and permitting substrate acyl chain lengths as long as 24 carbons to bind. VLCAD deficiency is among the more common defects of mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation and, if left undiagnosed, can be fatal. This structure allows us to gain insight into how a variant VLCAD genotype results in a clinical phenotype.

  20. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-thioesterase B from seeds of Chinese Spicehush (Lindera communis).

    PubMed

    Dong, Shubin; Huang, Jiacong; Li, Yannan; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Shanzhi; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-05-25

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (TE EC 3.1.2.14) are fatty acid biosynthesis key enzymes that determine fatty acid carbon chain length in most plant tissues. A full-length cDNA corresponding to one of the fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (Fat) genes, designated LcFatB, was isolated from developing Lindera communis seeds using PCR and RACE with degenerate primers based on conserved sequences of multiple TE gene sequences obtained from GenBank. The 1788 bp cDNA had an open reading frame (ORF) of 1260 bp encoding a protein of 419 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 61-73% identity to proteins in the FatB class of plant thioesterases. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that LcFatB was expressed in all tissues of L. communis, with the highest expression in the developing seeds 75days after flowering. Recombinant pET-MLcFatB was constructed using the pET-30 a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)△FadE, a strain that deleted the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (FadE). SDS-PAGE analysis of proteins isolated from pET-MLcFatB E. coli cells after induction with IPTG revealed a protein band at ~40.5kDa, corresponding to the predicted size of LcFatB mature protein. The decanoic acid and lauric acid contents of the pET-MLcFatB transformant were increased significantly. These findings suggest that an LcFatB gene from a non-traditional oil-seed tree could be used to function as a saturated acyl-ACP thioesterase and could potentially be used to modify the fatty acid composition of seed oil from L. communis or other species through transgenic approaches.

  1. Arabidopsis PIZZA Has the Capacity to Acylate Brassinosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Katja; Breuer, Christian; Kawamura, Ayako; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Hanada, Atsushi; Fujioka, Shozo; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kondou, Youichi; Matsui, Minami; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Sugimoto, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) affect a wide range of developmental processes in plants and compromised production or signalling of BRs causes severe growth defects. To identify new regulators of plant organ growth, we searched the Arabidopsis FOX (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene) collection for mutants with altered organ size and isolated two overexpression lines that display typical BR deficient dwarf phenotypes. The phenotype of these lines, caused by an overexpression of a putative acyltransferase gene PIZZA (PIZ), was partly rescued by supplying exogenous brassinolide (BL) and castasterone (CS), indicating that endogenous BR levels are rate-limiting for the growth of PIZ overexpression lines. Our transcript analysis further showed that PIZ overexpression leads to an elevated expression of genes involved in BR biosynthesis and a reduced expression of BR inactivating hydroxylases, a transcriptional response typical to low BR levels. Taking the advantage of relatively high endogenous BR accumulation in a mild bri1-301 background, we found that overexpression of PIZ results in moderately reduced levels of BL and CS and a strong reduction of typhasterol (TY) and 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS), suggesting a role of PIZ in BR metabolism. We tested a set of potential substrates in vitro for heterologously expressed PIZ and confirmed its acyltransferase activity with BL, CS and TY. The PIZ gene is expressed in various tissues but as reported for other genes involved in BR metabolism, the loss-of-function mutants did not display obvious growth phenotypes under standard growth conditions. Together, our data suggest that PIZ can modify BRs by acylation and that these properties might help modulating endogenous BR levels in Arabidopsis. PMID:23071642

  2. Separation of glutathione transferase subunits from Proteus vulgaris by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Giaming; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2003-10-01

    Cytosolic glutathione transferases of Proteus vulgaris were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different subunits were identified, and each subunit contained a different molecular mass, ranging from 26.2 kDa to 28.5 kDa; a different pI value, ranging from 8.2 to 9.4; and a different amount of protein fraction, ranging from 10% to 56%. All four subunits existed as basic proteins (pI > 7.0). From these results, we concluded that multiple forms of glutathione transferase enzymes existed in Proteus vulgaris, and four different glutathione transferase subunits were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis.

  3. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray).

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Benedict, C R

    1984-08-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [(14)C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [(14)C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant.The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg(2+) for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia.

  4. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) 1

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, S.; Benedict, Chauncey R.

    1984-01-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [14C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant. The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg2+ for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

  5. Interactions of acyl-coenzyme A with phosphatidylcholine bilayers and serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, J.G.; Hamilton, J.A. )

    1992-01-21

    Interactions of oleoyl- and octanoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) with phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Binding of acyl-CoA to small unilamellar PC vesicles and to BSA was detected by changes in {sup 13}C and {sup 31}P chemical shifts relative to the chemical shifts for aqueous acyl-CoA. PC vesicles remained intact with {le} 15 mol % oleoyl-CoA, while higher oleoyl-CoA proportions produced mixed micelles. In contrast, {sup 13}C spectra revealed rapid exchange (ms) of octanoyl-CoA between the aqueous phase and PC vesicles and a low affinity for the bilayer. Thus, the binding affinity of acyl-CoA for PC bilayers is dependent on the acyl chain length. Addition of ({sup 13}C)carboxyl-enriched oleic acid to oleoyl-CoA/BSA mixtures revealed simultaneous binding of oleic acid and oleoyl-CoA to BSA, with some perturbation of binding interactions. Thus, BSA contains multiple binding sites for oleoyl-CoA and can bind fatty acid and acyl-CoA simultaneously.

  6. Action of N-acylated ambroxol derivatives on secretion of chloride ions in human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahiro; Takemura, Yoshizumi; Niisato, Naomi; Mitsuyama, Etsuko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2009-03-13

    We report the effects of new N-acylated ambroxol derivatives (TEI-588a, TEI-588b, TEI-589a, TEI-589b, TEI-602a and TEI-602b: a, aromatic amine-acylated derivative; b, aliphatic amine-acylated derivative) induced from ambroxol (a mucolytic agent to treat human lung diseases) on Cl(-) secretion in human submucosal serous Calu-3 cells under a Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter-1 (NKCC1)-mediated hyper-secreting condition. TEI-589a, TEI-589b and TEI-602a diminished hyper-secretion of Cl(-) by diminishing the activity of NKCC1 without blockade of apical Cl(-) channel (TEI-589a>TEI-602a>TEI-589b), while any other tested compounds including ambroxol had no effects on Cl(-) secretion. These indicate that the inhibitory action of an aromatic amine-acylated derivative on Cl(-) secretion is stronger that that of an aliphatic amine-acylated derivative, and that 3-(2,5-dimethyl)furoyl group has a strong action in inhibition of Cl(-) secretion than cyclopropanoyl group. We here indicate that TEI-589a, TEI-589b and TEI-602a reduce hyper-secretion to an appropriate level in the airway, providing a possibility that the compound can be an effective drug in airway obstructive diseases including COPD by reducing the airway resistance under a hyper-secreting condition.

  7. The dependence of lipid asymmetry upon phosphatidylcholine acyl chain structure[S

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mijin; London, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Lipid asymmetry, the difference in inner and outer leaflet lipid composition, is an important feature of biomembranes. By utilizing our recently developed MβCD-catalyzed exchange method, the effect of lipid acyl chain structure upon the ability to form asymmetric membranes was investigated. Using this approach, SM was efficiently introduced into the outer leaflet of vesicles containing various phosphatidylcholines (PC), but whether the resulting vesicles were asymmetric (SM outside/PC inside) depended upon PC acyl chain structure. Vesicles exhibited asymmetry using PC with two monounsaturated chains of >14 carbons; PC with one saturated and one unsaturated chain; and PC with phytanoyl chains. Vesicles were most weakly asymmetric using PC with two 14 carbon monounsaturated chains or with two polyunsaturated chains. To define the origin of this behavior, transverse diffusion (flip-flop) of lipids in vesicles containing various PCs was compared. A correlation between asymmetry and transverse diffusion was observed, with slower transverse diffusion in vesicles containing PCs that supported lipid asymmetry. Thus, asymmetric vesicles can be prepared using a wide range of acyl chain structures, but fast transverse diffusion destroys lipid asymmetry. These properties may constrain acyl chain structure in asymmetric natural membranes to avoid short or overly polyunsaturated acyl chains. PMID:23093551

  8. Generation of fatty acids by an acyl esterase in the bioluminescent system of Photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, L.M.; Rodriguez, A.; Meighen, E.

    1984-08-25

    The fatty acid reductase complex from Photobacterium phosphoreum has been discovered to have a long chain ester hydrolase activity associated with the 34K protein component of the complex. This protein has been resolved from the other components (50K and 58K) of the fatty acid reductase complex with a purity of > 95% and found to catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA primarily to thiol acceptors with a low level of transfer to glycerol and water. Addition of the 50K protein of the complex caused a dramatic change in specificity increasing the transfer to oxygen acceptors. The acyl-CoA hydrolase activity increased almost 10-fold, and hence free fatty acids can be generated by the 34K protein when it is present in the fatty acid reductase complex. Hydrolysis of acyl-S-mercaptoethanol and acyl-1-glycerol and the ATP-dependent reduction of the released fatty acids to aldehyde for the luminescent reaction were also demonstrated for the reconstituted fatty acid reductase complex, raising the possibility that the immediate source of fatty acids for this reaction in vivo could be the membrane lipids and/or the fatty acid synthetase system.

  9. Computational Prediction of acyl-coA Binding Proteins Structure in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Raboanatahiry, Nadia Haingotiana; Lu, Guangyuan; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-coA binding proteins could transport acyl-coA esters from plastid to endoplasmic reticulum, prior to fatty acid biosynthesis, leading to the formation of triacylglycerol. The structure and the subcellular localization of acyl-coA binding proteins (ACBP) in Brassica napus were computationally predicted in this study. Earlier, the structure analysis of ACBPs was limited to the small ACBPs, the current study focused on all four classes of ACBPs. Physicochemical parameters including the size and the length, the intron-exon structure, the isoelectric point, the hydrophobicity, and the amino acid composition were studied. Furthermore, identification of conserved residues and conserved domains were carried out. Secondary structure and tertiary structure of ACBPs were also studied. Finally, subcellular localization of ACBPs was predicted. The findings indicated that the physicochemical parameters and subcellular localizations of ACBPs in Brassica napus were identical to Arabidopsis thaliana. Conserved domain analysis indicated that ACBPs contain two or three kelch domains that belong to different families. Identical residues in acyl-coA binding domains corresponded to eight amino acid residues in all ACBPs of B. napus. However, conserved residues of common ACBPs in all species of animal, plant, bacteria and fungi were only inclusive in small ACBPs. Alpha-helixes were displayed and conserved in all the acyl-coA binding domains, representing almost the half of the protein structure. The findings confirm high similarities in ACBPs between A. thaliana and B. napus, they might share the same functions but loss or gain might be possible.

  10. Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Clugston, Robin D.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Berk, Paul D.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its metabolites) are essential micronutrients that regulate many cellular processes. Greater than 70% of the body’s retinoid reserves are stored in the liver as retinyl ester (RE). Chronic alcohol consumption induces depletion of hepatic retinoid stores, and the extent of this has been correlated with advancing stages of alcoholic liver disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the mechanisms responsible for depletion of hepatic RE stores by alcohol consumption. A change in the fatty-acyl composition of RE in alcohol-fed mice was observed within two weeks after the start of alcohol consumption. Specifically, alcohol-feeding was associated with a significant decline in hepatic retinyl palmitate levels; however, total RE levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in levels of usually minorRE species, particularly retinyl oleate. Our data suggests that alcohol feeding initially stimulates a futile cycle of RE hydrolysis and synthesis, and that the change in RE acyl composition is associated with a change in the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine. The alcohol-induced change in RE acyl composition was specific to the liver, and was not seen in lung or white adipose tissue. This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:23583843

  11. Altered ceramide acyl chain length and ceramide synthase gene expression in Parkinson’s disease.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sarah K; Li, Hongyun; Muñoz, Sonia Sanz; Knoch, Bianca; Batterham, Marijka; Murphy, Karen E; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2014-04-01

    Genetic studies have provided increasing evidence that ceramide homeostasis plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is known that the relative amounts of different ceramide molecular species, as defined by their fatty acyl chain length, regulate ceramide function in lipid membranes and in signaling pathways. In the present study we used a comprehensive sphingolipidomic case-control approach to determine the effects of PD on ceramide composition in postmortem brain tissue from the anterior cingulate cortex (a region with significant PD pathology) and the occipital cortex (spared in PD), also assessing mRNA expression of the major ceramide synthase genes that regulate ceramide acyl chain composition in the same tissue using quantitative PCR. In PD anterior cingulate cortex but not occipital cortex, total ceramide and sphingomyelin levels were reduced from control levels by 53% (P < 0.001) and 42% (P < 0.001), respectively. Of the 13 ceramide and 15 sphingomyelin molecular lipid species identified and quantified, there was a significant shift in the ceramide acyl chain composition toward shorter acyl chain length in the PD anterior cingulate cortex. This PD-associated change in ceramide acyl chain composition was accompanied by an upregulation of ceramide synthase-1 gene expression, which we consider may represent a response to reduced ceramide levels. These data suggest a significant shift in ceramide function in lipid membranes and signaling pathways occurs in regions with PD pathology. Identifying the regulatory mechanisms precipitating this change may provide novel targets for future therapeutics.

  12. A fluorescent assay to quantitatively measure in vitro acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    McFie, Pamela J; Stone, Scot J

    2011-09-01

    Triacylglycerols (TG) are the major storage form of energy in eukaryotic organisms and are synthesized primarily by acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. In vitro DGAT activity has previously been quantified by measuring the incorporation of either radiolabeled fatty acyl CoA or diacylglycerol (DG) into TG. We developed a modified acyltransferase assay using a fluorescent fatty acyl CoA substrate to accurately quantify in vitro DGAT activity. In the modified assay, radioactive fatty acyl CoA is replaced with fluorescent NBD-palmitoyl CoA, which is used as a substrate by DGAT with DG to produce NBD-TG. After extraction with organic solvents and separation by thin layer chromatography, NBD-TG formation can be detected and accurately quantified using a fluorescent imaging system. We demonstrate that this method can be adapted to detect other acyltransferase activities. Because NBD-palmitoyl CoA is commercially available at a much lower cost compared with radioactive acyl CoA substrates, it is a more economical alternative to radioactive tracers. In addition, the exposure of laboratory personnel to radioactivity is greatly reduced.

  13. Carbohydrate Conformation and Lipid Condensation in Monolayers Containing Glycosphingolipid Gb3: Influence of Acyl Chain Structure

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Erik B.; Gao, Haifei; Dennison, Andrew J.C.; Chopin, Nathalie; Struth, Bernd; Arnold, Thomas; Florent, Jean-Claude; Johannes, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid found in the plasma membrane of animal cells, is the endocytic receptor of the bacterial Shiga toxin. Using x-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), lipid monolayers containing Gb3 were investigated at the air-water interface. XR probed Gb3 carbohydrate conformation normal to the interface, whereas GIXD precisely characterized Gb3’s influence on acyl chain in-plane packing and area per molecule (APM). Two phospholipids, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), were used to study Gb3 packing in different lipid environments. Furthermore, the impact on monolayer structure of a naturally extracted Gb3 mixture was compared to synthetic Gb3 species with uniquely defined acyl chain structures. XR results showed that lipid environment and Gb3 acyl chain structure impact carbohydrate conformation with greater solvent accessibility observed for smaller phospholipid headgroups and long Gb3 acyl chains. In general, GIXD showed that Gb3 condensed phospholipid packing resulting in smaller APM than predicted by ideal mixing. Gb3’s capacity to condense APM was larger for DSPC monolayers and exhibited different dependencies on acyl chain structure depending on the lipid environment. The interplay between Gb3-induced changes in lipid packing and the lipid environment’s impact on carbohydrate conformation has broad implications for glycosphingolipid macromolecule recognition and ligand binding. PMID:25185550

  14. The Making of a Sweet Modification: Structure and Function of O-GlcNAc Transferase*

    PubMed Central

    Janetzko, John; Walker, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAc transferase is an essential mammalian enzyme responsible for transferring a single GlcNAc moiety from UDP-GlcNAc to specific serine/threonine residues of hundreds of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. This modification is dynamic and has been implicated in numerous signaling pathways. An unexpected second function for O-GlcNAc transferase as a protease involved in cleaving the epigenetic regulator HCF-1 has also been reported. Recent structural and biochemical studies that provide insight into the mechanism of glycosylation and HCF-1 cleavage will be described, with outstanding questions highlighted. PMID:25336649

  15. Mapping of amino acid substitutions conferring herbicide resistance in wheat glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; Mannervik, Bengt; Silverman, Joshua A; Wright, Kathy; Regitsky, Drew; Hegazy, Usama; Purcell, Thomas J; Welch, Mark; Minshull, Jeremy; Gustafsson, Claes

    2015-03-20

    We have used design of experiments (DOE) and systematic variance to efficiently explore glutathione transferase substrate specificities caused by amino acid substitutions. Amino acid substitutions selected using phylogenetic analysis were synthetically combined using a DOE design to create an information-rich set of gene variants, termed infologs. We used machine learning to identify and quantify protein sequence-function relationships against 14 different substrates. The resulting models were quantitative and predictive, serving as a guide for engineering of glutathione transferase activity toward a diverse set of herbicides. Predictive quantitative models like those presented here have broad applicability for bioengineering.

  16. The cholesterol lowering property of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Joseph, J Mini; Ramaswamy, V K; Moorthi, M; Kumar, A Senthil

    2008-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) has been documented as a traditional treatment for cholesterol and diabetes patients. In the present study, coriander seeds incorporated into diet and the effect of the administration of coriander seeds on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats, fed with high fat diet and added cholesterol. The seeds had a significant hypolipidemic action. In the experimental group of rats (tissue) the level of total cholesterol and triglycerides increased significantly There was significant increase in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol decreased while that of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The increased activity of plasma LCAT enhanced degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect.

  17. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-03-01

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  18. The mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP) coordinates mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis with iron sulfur cluster biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Van Vranken, Jonathan G; Jeong, Mi-Young; Wei, Peng; Chen, Yu-Chan; Gygi, Steven P; Winge, Dennis R; Rutter, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (FASII) and iron sulfur cluster (FeS) biogenesis are both vital biosynthetic processes within mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP), which has a well-known role in FASII, plays an unexpected and evolutionarily conserved role in FeS biogenesis. ACP is a stable and essential subunit of the eukaryotic FeS biogenesis complex. In the absence of ACP, the complex is destabilized resulting in a profound depletion of FeS throughout the cell. This role of ACP depends upon its covalently bound 4’-phosphopantetheine (4-PP)-conjugated acyl chain to support maximal cysteine desulfurase activity. Thus, it is likely that ACP is not simply an obligate subunit but also exploits the 4-PP-conjugated acyl chain to coordinate mitochondrial fatty acid and FeS biogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17828.001 PMID:27540631

  19. Synthesis of amino acyl adenylates using the tert-butoxycarbonyl protecting group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, D. W.; Seguin, R.; Saburi, M.; Fendler, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis of amino acyl adenylates using N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-protected amino acids is reported. Anhydrous solutions containing N-tert-butoxycarbonyl alanine, phenylalanine, and methionine were combined with the anhydrous mono (tri-n-octylammonium) salt of adenosine 5'-phosphate and the resultant amino acyl adenylates were characterized by means of elemental analysis, and infrared and proton NMR spectroscopy. Amino acyl adenylate yields of up to 60% were obtained with high purity at room temperatures. The reported synthesis is considered to represent a large improvement over previous methods due to the purity of the products, normal temperature requirements, and the stability of the starting compounds, which suggests its use in investigations of prebiotic oligo- and polypeptide synthesis.

  20. Synthesis, Surface Active Properties and Cytotoxicity of Sodium N-Acyl Prolines.

    PubMed

    Sreenu, Madhumanchi; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Sujitha, Pombala; Kumar, Chityal Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Sodium N-acyl prolines (NaNAPro) were synthesized using mixture of fatty acids obtained from coconut, palm, karanja, Sterculia foetida and high oleic sunflower oils via Schotten-Baumann reaction in 58-75% yields to study the synergetic effect of mixture of hydrophobic fatty acyl functionalities like saturation, unsaturation and cyclopropene fatty acids with different chain lengths and aliphatic hetero cyclic proline head group on their surface and cytotoxicity activities. The products were characterized by chromatographic and spectral techniques. The synthesized products were evaluated for their surface active properties such as surface tension, wetting power, foaming characteristics, emulsion stability, calcium tolerance, critical micelle concentration (CMC) and thermodynamic properties. The results revealed that all the products exhibited superior surface active properties like CMC, calcium tolerance and emulsion stability as compared to the standard surfactant, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). In addition, palm, Sterculia foetida and high oleic sunflower fatty N-acyl prolines exhibited promising cytotoxicity against different tumor cell lines.

  1. Metabolic Regulation of Histone Acetyltransferases by Endogenous Acyl-CoA Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Meier, Jordan L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The finding that chromatin modifications are sensitive to changes in cellular cofactor levels potentially links altered tumor cell metabolism and gene expression. However, the specific enzymes and metabolites that connect these two processes remain obscure. Characterizing these metabolic-epigenetic axes is critical to understanding how metabolism supports signaling in cancer, and developing therapeutic strategies to disrupt this process. Here, we describe a chemical approach to define the metabolic regulation of lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) enzymes. Using a novel chemoproteomic probe, we identify a previously unreported interaction between fatty acyl-CoAs and KAT enzymes. Further analysis reveals that palmitoyl-CoA is a potent inhibitor of KAT activity and that fatty acyl-CoA precursors reduce cellular acetylation levels. These studies implicate fatty acyl-CoAs as endogenous regulators of histone acetylation, and suggest novel strategies for the investigation and metabolic modulation of epigenetic signaling. PMID:26190825

  2. Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.; Murphy IV, Frank V.; Gould, Ty A.; Jambeck, Per; Val, Dale L.; Cronan, Jr., John E.; Beck von Bodman, Susan; Churchill, Mair E.A.

    2009-04-22

    Acyl-homoserine-L-lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33 {angstrom}. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified.

  3. Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin on the gastrointestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Fujimiya, Mineko; Ataka, Koji; Asakawa, Akihiro; Chen, Chih-Yen; Kato, Ikuo; Inui, Akio

    2011-11-01

    Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin are derived from a common prohormone, preproghrelin by posttranslational processing, originating from endocrine cells in the stomach. Ghrelin exerts stimulatory effects on the motility of antrum and duodenum in both fed and fasted state of animals. On the other hand, des-acyl ghrelin exerts inhibitory effects on the motility of antrum but not on the motility of duodenum in the fasted state of animals. Obestatin exerts inhibitory effects on the motility of antrum and duodenum in the fed state but not in the fasted state of animals. NPY Y2 and Y4 receptors in the brain may mediate the action of ghrelin, CRF type 2 receptor in the brain may mediate the action of des-acyl ghrelin, whereas CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain may mediate the action of obestatin.

  4. A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-03-21

    A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

  5. Long Chain N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Enterobacter sp. Isolated from Human Tongue Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wai-Fong; Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Chan, Xin-Yue; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    We report the isolation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-producing Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surfaces of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent supernatants extract from Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 activated the biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4), suggesting production of long chain AHLs by these isolates. High resolution mass spectrometry analysis of these extracts confirmed that Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 produced a long chain N-acyl homoserine lactone, namely N-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of Enterobacter sp., strain T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and N-acyl homoserine lactones production by this bacterium. PMID:23202161

  6. Systems Analysis of Protein Fatty Acylation in Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Cells Using Chemical Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Serwa, Remigiusz A.; Abaitua, Fernando; Krause, Eberhard; Tate, Edward W.; O’Hare, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Protein fatty acylation regulates diverse aspects of cellular function and organization and plays a key role in host immune responses to infection. Acylation also modulates the function and localization of virus-encoded proteins. Here, we employ chemical proteomics tools, bio-orthogonal probes, and capture reagents to study myristoylation and palmitoylation during infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Using in-gel fluorescence imaging and quantitative mass spectrometry, we demonstrate a generalized reduction in myristoylation of host proteins, whereas palmitoylation of host proteins, including regulators of interferon and tetraspanin family proteins, was selectively repressed. Furthermore, we found that a significant fraction of the viral proteome undergoes palmitoylation; we identified a number of virus membrane glycoproteins, structural proteins, and kinases. Taken together, our results provide broad oversight of protein acylation during HSV infection, a roadmap for similar analysis in other systems, and a resource with which to pursue specific analysis of systems and functions. PMID:26256475

  7. Structural Redesigning Arabidopsis Lignins into Alkali-Soluble Lignins through the Expression of p-Coumaroyl-CoA:Monolignol Transferase PMT.

    PubMed

    Sibout, Richard; Le Bris, Philippe; Legée, Frédéric; Cézard, Laurent; Renault, Hugues; Lapierre, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Grass lignins can contain up to 10% to 15% by weight of p-coumaric esters. This acylation is performed on monolignols under the catalysis of p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A monolignol transferase (PMT). To study the impact of p-coumaroylation on lignification, we first introduced the Brachypodium distachyon Bradi2g36910 (BdPMT1) gene into Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) under the control of the constitutive maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. The resulting p-coumaroylation was far lower than that of lignins from mature grass stems and had no impact on stem lignin content. By contrast, introducing either the BdPMT1 or the Bradi1g36980 (BdPMT2) gene into Arabidopsis under the control of the Arabidopsis cinnamate-4-hydroxylase promoter boosted the p-coumaroylation of mature stems up to the grass lignin level (8% to 9% by weight), without any impact on plant development. The analysis of purified lignin fractions and the identification of diagnostic products confirmed that p-coumaric acid was associated with lignins. BdPMT1-driven p-coumaroylation was also obtained in the fah1 (deficient for ferulate 5-hydroxylase) and ccr1g (deficient for cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase) lines, albeit to a lower extent. Lignins from BdPMT1-expressing ccr1g lines were also found to be feruloylated. In Arabidopsis mature stems, substantial p-coumaroylation of lignins was achieved at the expense of lignin content and induced lignin structural alterations, with an unexpected increase of lignin units with free phenolic groups. This higher frequency of free phenolic groups in Arabidopsis lignins doubled their solubility in alkali at room temperature. These findings suggest that the formation of alkali-leachable lignin domains rich in free phenolic groups is favored when p-coumaroylated monolignols participate in lignification in a grass in a similar manner.

  8. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  9. Natural variability in acyl moieties of sugar esters produced by certain tobacco and other Solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B M; Zaitlin, Dave; Wagner, George J

    2016-10-01

    A unique feature of glandular trichomes of plants in the botanical family Solanaceae is that they produce sugar esters (SE), chemicals that have been shown to possess insecticidal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Sugar esters of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) provide pest resistance, and are important flavor precursors in oriental tobacco cultivars. Acyl moieties of SEs in Nicotiana spp., petunia, and tomato are shown to vary with respect to carbon length and isomer structure (2-12 carbon chain length; anteiso-, iso-, and straight-chain). Sugar esters and their acyl groups could serve as a model to explore the basis of phenotypic diversity and adaptation to natural and agricultural environments. However, information on the diversity of acyl composition among species, cultivars, and accessions is lacking. Herein, described is the analysis of SE acyl groups found in 21 accessions of Nicotiana obtusifolia (desert tobacco), six of Nicotiana occidentalis subsp. hesperis, three of Nicotiana alata, two of N. occidentalis, four modern tobacco cultivars, five petunia hybrids, and one accession each of a primitive potato (Solanum berthaultii) and tomato (Solanum pennellii). A total of 20 different acyl groups was observed that were represented differently among cultivars, species, and accessions. In Nicotiana species, acetate and iso- and anteiso-branched acids prevailed. Straight-chain groups (2-8 carbons) were prominent in petunias, while octanoic acid was prominent in N. alata and N. × sanderae. Two unexpected acyl groups, 8-methyl nonanoate and decanoate were found in N. occidentalis subsp. hesperis. Longer chain groups were found in the petunia, tomato, and potato species studied.

  10. The Effects of Exercise on Food Intake and Hunger: Relationship with Acylated Ghrelin and Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever-Ozen, Serife; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Bugdayci, Guler; Ozen, Guclu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a long bout of aerobic exercise on hunger and energy intake and circulating levels of leptin and acylated ghrelin. Ten healthy male subjects undertook two, 4 h trials in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trial subjects ran for 105 min at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake and the last 15 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by a 120 min rest period. In the control trial, subjects rested for 4 h. Subjects consumed a buffet test meal at 180 min during each trial. Hunger ratings, acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. No differences were found at baseline values for hunger, acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose for both trials (p > 0.05). The estimated energy expenditure of the exercise trial was 1550 ± 136 kcal. Exercise did not change subsequent absolute energy intake, but produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in relative energy intake. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0. 05) interaction effect for hunger and acylated ghrelin. In conclusion, this exercise regimen had a positive effect on reducing appetite which is related to reduced acylated ghrelin responses over time. This finding lends support for a role of exercise in weight management. Key points Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity, since it lowers the energetic balance by increasing energy expenditure. However, because any energy expended in exercise elevates the intensity of hunger and drives food consumption, it is pertinent to ask how effective exercise could be in helping people to lose weight or to prevent weight gain. The effects of exercise on hunger sensations and food intake are fairly controversial and depend on the intensity and duration of exercise. 120 min prolonged treadmill exercise with mix intensity, temporarily decreased hunger sensations, acylated ghrelin and relative energy intake. Variations in exercise intensity should

  11. Kinetics of acyl transfer reactions in organic media catalysed by Candida antarctica lipase B.

    PubMed

    Martinelle, M; Hult, K

    1995-09-06

    The acyl transfer reactions catalysed by Candida antartica lipase B in organic media followed a bi-bi ping-pong mechanism, with competitive substrate inhibition by the alcohols used as acyl acceptors. The effect of organic solvents on Vm and Km was investigated. The Vm values in acetonitrile was 40-50% of those in heptane. High Km values in acetonitrile compared to those in heptane could partly be explained by an increased solvation of the substrates in acetonitrile. Substrate solvation caused a 10-fold change in substrate specificity, defined as (Vm/Km)ethyl octanoate/(Vm/Km)octanoic acid, going from heptane to acetonitrile. Deacylation was the rate determining step for the acyl transfer in heptane with vinyl- and ethyl octanoate as acyl donors and (R)-2-octanol as acyl acceptor. With 1-octanol, a rate determining deacylation step in heptane was indicated using the same acyl donors. Using 1-octanol as acceptor in heptane, S-ethyl thiooctanoate had a 25- to 30-fold lower Vm/Km value and vinyl octanoate a 4-fold higher Vm/Km value than that for ethyl octanoate. The difference showed to be a Km effect for vinyl octanoate and mainly a Km effect for S-ethyl thiooctanoate. The Vm values of the esterification of octanoic acid with different alcohols was 10-30-times lower than those for the corresponding transesterification of ethyl octanoate. The low activity could be explained by a low pH around the enzyme caused by the acid or a withdrawing of active enzyme by nonproductive binding by the acid.

  12. Location and biosynthesis of monoterpenyl fatty acyl esters in rose petals.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Patrick J

    2006-06-01

    The upper epidermal layer of cells and the epicuticular wax surface of Lady Seton rose petals are sites of biosynthesis and accumulation, respectively, of a family of terpenyl fatty acyl esters. These esters are based mainly on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol geraniol coupled primarily to fatty acids of chain lengths 16-20 and in mass terms represent from 14% to 64% of the total monoterpenes present in the petals. The lipophilic nature of these non-volatile esters of the monoterpene alcohols contrasts with that of the lipophilic volatile parent alcohols themselves and with the hydrophilic, non-volatile, glucoside derivative of the other principal petal fragrant compounds, the phenylpropanoids, beta-phenyl ethanol and benzyl alcohol. These latter compounds are also synthesised and are resident in the petal. Biosynthetic studies confirmed that the petal upper epidermal cell layer has the capacity to incorporate mevalonic acid into the monoterpene component of the fatty acyl ester. The biosynthesis of the monoterpene component of the fatty acyl ester occurs via the mevalonic acid pathway in Lady Seton as well as in the hybrid tea rose Fragrant Cloud. In the latter flower the biosynthesis of geraniol was biosynthetically trans as was the formation of nerol and citronellol. Both geraniol and nerol were shown to be precursors of citronellol via an NADPH dependent reductase reaction. Oleic acid is assimilated into the acyl moiety of the terpenyl ester in Lady Seton isolated petal discs. It is probable that the lipophilic non-volatile terpenyl fatty acyl esters represent a stable storage form of the corresponding alcohols from their residency within the epicuticular wax layer. These acyl esters may realise, on hydrolysis, additional aroma notes from the living flower and potentially commercially significant quantities of the fragrant terpenols during oil of rose essence production.

  13. Ralstonia solanacearum RSp0194 Encodes a Novel 3-Keto-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ya-Hui; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Li, Feng; Hu, Zhe; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis (FAS), a primary metabolic pathway, is essential for survival of bacteria. Ralstonia solanacearum, a β-proteobacteria member, causes a bacterial wilt affecting more than 200 plant species, including many economically important plants. However, thus far, the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of R. solanacearum has not been well studied. In this study, we characterized two forms of 3-keto-ACP synthase III, RsFabH and RsFabW, in R. solanacearum. RsFabH, the homologue of Escherichia coli FabH, encoded by the chromosomal RSc1050 gene, catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-CoA with malonyl-ACP in the initiation steps of fatty acid biosynthesis in vitro. The RsfabH mutant lost de novo fatty acid synthetic ability, and grows in medium containing free fatty acids. RsFabW, a homologue of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA3286, encoded by a megaplasmid gene, RSp0194, condenses acyl-CoA (C2-CoA to C10-CoA) with malonyl-ACP to produce 3-keto-acyl-ACP in vitro. Although the RsfabW mutant was viable, RsfabW was responsible for RsfabH mutant growth on medium containing free fatty acids. Our results also showed that RsFabW could condense acyl-ACP (C4-ACP to C8-ACP) with malonyl-ACP, to produce 3-keto-acyl-ACP in vitro, which implies that RsFabW plays a special role in fatty acid synthesis of R. solanacearum. All of these data confirm that R. solanacearum not only utilizes acetyl-CoA, but also, utilizes medium-chain acyl-CoAs or acyl-ACPs as primers to initiate fatty acid synthesis.

  14. 40 CFR 721.7270 - 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride. 721.7270 Section 721.7270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-soya acyl derivs., chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1...., chloride (PMN P-01-646; CAS No. 391232-99-8) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7270 - 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride. 721.7270 Section 721.7270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-soya acyl derivs., chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1...., chloride (PMN P-01-646; CAS No. 391232-99-8) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7270 - 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride. 721.7270 Section 721.7270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-soya acyl derivs., chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1...., chloride (PMN P-01-646; CAS No. 391232-99-8) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  17. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) nuts: cloning, characterization and their impact on oil composition.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Sánchez-García, Alicia; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms by which macadamia nuts accumulate the unusual palmitoleic and asclepic acyl moieties, which constitute up to 20% of the fatty acids in some varieties, are still unknown. Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (EC 3.1.2.14) are intraplastidial enzymes that terminate the synthesis of fatty acids in plants and that facilitate the export of the acyl moieties to the endoplasmic reticulum where they can be used in the production of glycerolipids. Here, we have investigated the possible role of acyl-ACP thioesterase activity in the composition of macadamia kernel oil. Accordingly, two acyl-ACP thioesterases were cloned from developing macadamia kernels, one of the FatA type and the other of the FatB type. These enzymes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant thioesterases were purified, characterized kinetically and assayed with a variety of substrates, demonstrating the high specificity of macadamia FatA towards 16:1-ACP. Acyl-ACP thioesterase activity was also characterized in crude extracts from two different varieties of macadamia, Cate and Beaumont, which accumulate different amounts of n-7 fatty acids. The impact of acyl-ACP thioesterase activities on the oil composition of these kernels is discussed in the light of these results.

  18. Thermoregulation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing in the soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    PubMed

    Latour, Xavier; Diallo, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Sylvie; Morin, Danièle; Smadja, Bruno; Burini, Jean-François; Haras, Dominique; Orange, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    The psychrotolerant bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum produces four N-acyl homoserine lactones under a wide range of temperatures. Their thermoregulation differs from that of the exoenzyme production, described as being under quorum-sensing control. A mechanism involved in this thermoregulation consists of controlling N-acyl homoserine lactones synthase production at a transcriptional level.

  19. Investigation of acyl migration in mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids under aqueous basic, aqueous acidic, and dry roasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sagar; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Matei, Marius Febi; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2014-09-17

    Acyl migration in chlorogenic acids describes the process of migration of cinnamoyl moieties from one quinic acid alcohol group to another, thus interconverting chlorogenic acid regioisomers. It therefore constitutes a special case of transesterification reaction. Acyl migration constitutes an important reaction pathway in both coffee roasting and brewing, altering the structure of chlorogenic acid initially present in the green coffee bean. In this contribution we describe detailed and comprehensive mechanistic studies comparing inter- and intramolecular acyl migration involving the seven most common chlorogenic acids in coffee. We employe aqueous acidic and basic conditions mimicking the brewing of coffee along with dry roasting conditions. We show that under aqueous basic conditions intramolecular acyl migration is fully reversible with basic hydrolysis competing with acyl migration. 3-Caffeoylquinic acid was shown to be most labile to basic hydrolysis. We additionally show that the acyl migration process is strongly pH dependent with increased transesterification taking place at basic pH. Under dry roasting conditions acyl migration competes with dehydration to form lactones. We argue that acyl migration precedes lactonization, with 3-caffeoylquinic acid lactone being the predominant product.

  20. Acylation, Diastereoselective Alkylation, and Cleavage of an Oxazolidinone Chiral Auxiliary: A Multistep Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for Advanced Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas E.; Richardson, David P.; Truran, George A.; Belecki, Katherine; Onishi, Megumi

    2008-01-01

    An introduction to the concepts and experimental techniques of diastereoselective synthesis using a chiral auxiliary is described. The 4-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone chiral auxiliary developed by Evans is acylated with propionic anhydride under mild conditions using DMAP as an acyl transfer catalyst. Deprotonation with NaN(TMS)[subscript 2] at -78…

  1. Plant acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases (LPCATs) have different specificities in their forward and reverse reactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) enzymes have central roles inacyl editing of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Plant LPCAT genes were expressed in yeast and characterized biochemically in microsomal preparations of the cells. Specificities for different acyl-CoAs were similar for se...

  2. The cytotoxic effect of 2-acylated-1,4-naphthohydroquinones on leukemia/lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pedroza, Diego A; De Leon, Fernando; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Lema, Carolina; Aguilera, Renato J; Mito, Shizue

    2014-01-15

    Here, we tested seven 2-acylated-1,4-hydronaphthoquinones for their cytotoxic effects on a panel of cancer lymphoma/leukemia cells and compared to a non-cancer origin cell line. Several naphthohydroquinones exhibited selective cytotoxic effects on lymphoma/leukemia cells with lowest activity on non-cancer cells. The mode of cell death induced by an acylated naphthohydroquinone, which has a long alkyl chain, was found to be via apoptosis. Furthermore, the naphthohydroquinone provoked mitochondria depolarization and activation of its downstream effector, caspase-3, thus implicating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway as its mechanism to exert cell death.

  3. Localization of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase gene to human chromosome 1q25

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.C.Y.; Chang, W.; Chang, T.Y. ); Noll, W.W.; Nutile-McMenemy, N. ); Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. )

    1994-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters from cholesterol and long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A. It is believed that ACAT plays a key role in lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis. Recently the authors' laboratory succeeded in molecular cloning and functional expression of human macrophage ACAT cDNA. They have now mapped the ACAT gene to chromosome 1, band q25 by using fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes, and by Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrid panels.

  4. Synthesis of multi ring-fused 2-pyridones via an acyl-ketene imine cyclocondensation.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Nils; Jakobsson, Lotta; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2006-03-02

    Polycyclic ring-fused 2-pyridones (5a-e and 9a-e) have been prepared via a microwave-assisted acyl-ketene imine cyclocondensation. Starting from 3,4-dihydroisoquinolines (4a-b) or 3,4-dihydroharman (8), fused 2-pyridones could be prepared in a one-step procedure. By using either Meldrum's acid derivatives (1a-d) or 1,3-dioxine-4-ones (7a-b) as acyl-ketene sources, mono- or disubstitution of the fused 2-pyridone ring could be accomplished. As an application of the method, a formal synthesis of the indole alkaloid sempervilam was performed.

  5. Macrocyclic prolinyl acyl guanidines as inhibitors of β-secretase (BACE).

    PubMed

    Boy, Kenneth M; Guernon, Jason M; Wu, Yong-Jin; Zhang, Yunhui; Shi, Joe; Zhai, Weixu; Zhu, Shirong; Gerritz, Samuel W; Toyn, Jeremy H; Meredith, Jere E; Barten, Donna M; Burton, Catherine R; Albright, Charles F; Good, Andrew C; Grace, James E; Lentz, Kimberley A; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Thompson, Lorin A

    2015-11-15

    The synthesis, evaluation, and structure-activity relationships of a class of acyl guanidines which inhibit the BACE-1 enzyme are presented. The prolinyl acyl guanidine chemotype (7c), unlike compounds of the parent isothiazole chemotype (1), yielded compounds with good agreement between their enzymatic and cellular potency as well as a reduced susceptibility to P-gp efflux. Further improvements in potency and P-gp ratio were realized via a macrocyclization strategy. The in vivo profile in wild-type mice and P-gp effects for the macrocyclic analog 21c is presented.

  6. The cytotoxic effect of 2-acylated-1,4-naphthohydroquinones on leukemia/lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedroza, Diego A.; De Leon, Fernando; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Lema, Carolina; Aguilera, Renato J.; Mito, Shizue

    2014-01-01

    Here, we tested seven 2-acylated-1,4-hydronaphthoquinones for their cytotoxic effects on a panel of cancer lymphoma/leukemia cells and compared to a non-cancer origin cell line. Several naphthohydroquinones exhibited selective cytotoxic effects on lymphoma/leukemia cells with lowest activity on non-cancer cells. The mode of cell death induced by an acylated naphthohydroquinone, which has a long alkyl chain, was found to be via apoptosis. Furthermore, the naphthohydroquinone provoked mitochondria depolarization and activation of its downstream effector, caspase-3, thus implicating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway as its mechanism to exert cell death. PMID:24368029

  7. Kinetic resolution of acids in acylation reactions in the presence of chiral tertiary amines

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.M.; Dem'yanovich, V.M.; Khlebnikov, V.A.

    1988-07-10

    Asymmetric synthesis has now become an important method for the production of optically active compounds, and its most attractive form is asymmetric catalysis. This work was devoted to an investigation into asymmetric catalysis with chiral tertiary amines in acylation reactions. During the acylation of alcohols and amines by the action of racemic 2-phenylpropionic and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropionic acids in the presence of S-nicotine the initial acids are resolved kinetically. The (R)-2-phenylpropionic acid obtained in this way had an optical purity of 0.5-1.5%.

  8. A calcium-dependent acyltransferase that produces N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yuji; Parsons, William H.; Kamat, Siddhesh S.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2016-01-01

    More than 30 years ago, a calcium-dependent enzyme activity was described that generates N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs), which are precursors for N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) lipid transmitters, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. The identity of this calcium-dependent N-acyltransferase (Ca-NAT) has remained mysterious. Here, we use activity-based protein profiling to identify the poorly characterized serine hydrolase PLA2G4E as a mouse brain Ca-NAT and show that this enzyme generates NAPEs and NAEs in mammalian cells. PMID:27399000

  9. Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (UV-MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of N-acylated and N,O-acylated glycosylamines.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuto; Fukuyama, Yuko; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A; Cerezo, Alberto S; Matulewicz, María C

    2007-12-10

    Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF-MS) has shown to be a very useful technique for the study of the non-volatile and thermally non-stable N-acylated glycopyranosyl- and glycofuranosyl-amines. Of the several matrices tested, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was the most effective giving good spectra in the positive-ion mode. In the linear and reflectron modes, the [M+Na](+) ions appeared with high intensity. Their fragmentation patterns were investigated by post-source decay (PSD) UV-MALDI-TOF-MS showing mainly cross-ring cleavages. In addition, N,O-acylated glycopyranosyl- and glycofuranosyl-amines were also analyzed by this technique. PSD UV-MALDI-TOF-MS gave significant signals for several primary fragment ions, which were proposed but not detected, or observed with very low abundance, in electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) experiments.

  10. Insight into the carboxyl transferase domain mechanism of pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli†

    PubMed Central

    Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Maurice, Martin St.; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Wallace, John C.; Attwood, Paul V.; Cleland, W. Wallace

    2009-01-01

    The effects of mutations in the active site of the carboxyl transferase domain of R. etli pyruvate carboxylase have been determined for the forward reaction to form oxaloacetate, the reverse reaction to form MgATP, the oxamate-induced decarboxylation of oxaloacetate, the phosphorylation of MgADP by carbamoyl phosphate and the bicarbonate-dependent ATPase reaction. Additional studies with these mutants examined the effect of pyruvate and oxamate on the reactions of the biotin carboxylase domain. From these mutagenic studies, putative roles for catalytically relevant active site residues were assigned and a more accurate description of the mechanism of the carboxyl transferase domain is presented. The T882A mutant showed no catalytic activity for reactions involving the carboxyl transferase domain, but surprisingly showed a 7- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, as compared to the wild-type enzyme, for the ADP phosphorylation and bicarbonate-dependent ATPase reactions, respectively. Furthermore, the partial inhibition of the T882A catalyzed BC domain reactions by oxamate and pyruvate further supports the critical role of Thr882 in the proton transfer between biotin and pyruvate in the carboxyl transferase domain. The catalytic mechanism appears to involve the decarboxylation of carboxybiotin and proton removal from Thr882 by the resulting biotin enolate with either a concerted or subsequent transfer of a proton from pyruvate to Thr882. The resulting enolpyruvate then reacts with CO2 to form oxaloacetate and complete the reaction. PMID:19341298

  11. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1-DEPENDENT METABOLISM OF THE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a prevalent drinking water disinfection by-product, was previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) theta 1-1 (GST T1-1). In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to study the...

  12. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  13. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  14. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  15. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... genetically modified cotton, oilseed rape, and tomatoes in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminoglycoside 3â²-phospho- transferase II. 573.130 Section 573.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  16. Plasmodium spp. membrane glutathione S-transferases: detoxification units and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Lisewski, Andreas M.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane glutathione S-transferases from the class of membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG) form a superfamily of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and hydrophobic electrophiles. Evolutionarily unrelated to the cytosolic glutathione S-transferases, they are found across bacterial and eukaryotic domains, for example in mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria in which significant levels of glutathione are maintained. Species of genus Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoa that are commonly known as malaria parasites, do actively support glutathione homeostasis and maintain its metabolism throughout their complex parasitic life cycle. In humans and in other mammals, the asexual intraerythrocytic stage of malaria, when the parasite feeds on hemoglobin, grows and eventually asexually replicates inside infected red blood cells (RBCs), is directly associated with host disease symptoms and during this critical stage GSH protects the host RBC and the parasite against oxidative stress from parasite-induced hemoglobin catabolism. In line with these observations, several GSH-dependent Plasmodium enzymes have been characterized including glutathione reductases, thioredoxins, glyoxalases, glutaredoxins and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs); furthermore, GSH itself have been found to associate spontaneously and to degrade free heme and its hydroxide, hematin, which are the main cytotoxic byproducts of hemoglobin catabolism. However, despite the apparent importance of glutathione metabolism for the parasite, no membrane associated glutathione S-transferases of genus Plasmodium have been previously described. We recently reported the first examples of MAPEG members among Plasmodium spp. PMID:28357217

  17. DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory


    DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1. R A Pegram1 and M K Ross2. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 1Pharmacokinetics Branch, NHEERL, ORD, United States Environmental Protection Ag...

  18. 21 CFR 573.130 - Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.130 Aminoglycoside 3′-phospho- transferase II. The...) which catalyzes the phosphorylation of certain aminoglycoside antibiotics, including kanamycin,...

  19. Maize white seedling 3 results from disruption of homogentisate solanesyl transferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show here that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This re...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1100 - Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspartate amino transferase (AST/SGOT) test system. 862.1100 Section 862.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  10. The Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthetase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Mediates Fatty Acid Import1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    von Berlepsch, Simon; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Brodesser, Susanne; Fink, Patrick; Marin, Kay; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Gierth, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of fatty acids across biological membranes is a largely uncharacterized process, although it is essential at membranes of several higher plant organelles like chloroplasts, peroxisomes, or the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we analyzed loss-of-function mutants of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a model system to circumvent redundancy problems encountered in eukaryotic organisms. Cells deficient in the only cytoplasmic Synechocystis acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (SynAas) were highly resistant to externally provided α-linolenic acid, whereas wild-type cells bleached upon this treatment. Bleaching of wild-type cells was accompanied by a continuous increase of α-linolenic acid in total lipids, whereas no such accumulation could be observed in SynAas-deficient cells (Δsynaas). When SynAas was disrupted in the tocopherol-deficient, α-linolenic acid-hypersensitive Synechocystis mutant Δslr1736, double mutant cells displayed the same resistance phenotype as Δsynaas. Moreover, heterologous expression of SynAas in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutants lacking the major yeast fatty acid import protein Fat1p (Δfat1) led to the restoration of wild-type sensitivity against exogenous α-linolenic acid of the otherwise resistant Δfat1 mutant, indicating that SynAas is functionally equivalent to Fat1p. In addition, liposome assays provided direct evidence for the ability of purified SynAas protein to mediate α-[14C]linolenic acid retrieval from preloaded liposome membranes via the synthesis of [14C]linolenoyl-acyl carrier protein. Taken together, our data show that an acyl-activating enzyme like SynAas is necessary and sufficient to mediate the transfer of fatty acids across a biological membrane. PMID:22535424

  11. Functional reconstitution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase from multiple acyl-CoA subunits.

    PubMed

    Bazet Lyonnet, Bernardo; Diacovich, Lautaro; Gago, Gabriela; Spina, Lucie; Bardou, Fabienne; Lemassu, Anne; Quémard, Annaïk; Gramajo, Hugo

    2017-02-21

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a large number of structurally diverse lipids that have been implicated in the pathogenicity, persistence and antibiotic resistance of this organism. Most building blocks involved in the biosynthesis of all these lipids are generated by acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCase) whose subunit composition and physiological roles have not yet been clearly established. A rather controversial data in the literature refers to the exact protein composition and substrate specificity of the enzyme complex that produces the long-chain α-carboxy-acyl-CoAs; one of the substrates involved in the last step of condensation mediated by the polyketide synthase Pks13 to synthesize mature mycolic acids. Here we have successfully reconstituted the so called long-chain acyl-CoA carboxylase complex (LCC) from its purified components: the α-subunit AccA3, the ε-subunit AccE5 and the two β-subunits AccD4 and AccD5, and demonstrated that the four subunits are essential for its LCC activity. Furthermore, we also showed by substrate competition experiments and the use of a specific inhibitor of the AccD5 subunit, that its role in the carboxylation of the long acyl-CoAs, as part of the LCC complex, was structural rather than catalytic. Moreover, AccD5 was also able to carboxylate its natural substrates, acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, in the context of the LCC enzyme complex. Thus, the supercomplex formed by these four subunits has the potential to generate the main substrates, malonyl-CoA, methylmalonyl-CoA and α-carboxy-C24-26 -CoA, used as condensing units for the biosynthesis of all the lipids present in this pathogen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterologous expression of the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene from the plant Umbellularia californica mediates polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rehm, B H; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-03-01

    The acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase cDNA from the plant Umbellularia californica was functionally expressed in various recombinant Escherichia coli strains in order to establish a new metabolic route toward medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA(MCL)) biosynthesis from non-related carbon sources. Coexpression of the PHA synthase genes from Ralstonia eutropha and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or only the PHA synthase gene from P. aeruginosa, respectively, showed PHA(MCL) accumulation when the type II PHA synthase from P. aeruginosa was produced. Both wild-type E. coli and various fad mutants were investigated; and only when the beta-oxidation pathway was impaired PHA(MCL) accumulation from gluconate was observed, contributing to about 6% of cellular dry weight. Thus coexpression of type II PHA synthase gene with cDNA encoding the medium-chain acyl-ACP thioesterase from U. californica established a new PHA(MCL) biosynthesis pathway, connecting fatty acid de novo biosynthesis with fatty acid beta-oxidation, using a non-related carbon source.

  13. Fatty acid transport by vectorial acylation in mammals: roles played by different isoforms of rat long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fumin; Black, Paul N; Coleman, Rosalind A; DiRusso, Concetta C

    2006-03-01

    Mammals express multiple isoforms of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL1 and ACSL3-6) in various tissues. These enzymes are essential for fatty acid metabolism providing activated intermediates for complex lipid synthesis, protein modification, and beta-oxidation. Yeast in contrast express four major ACSLs, which have well-defined functions. Two, Faa1p and Faa4p, are specifically required for fatty acid transport by vectorial acylation. Four ACSLs from the rat were expressed in a yeast faa1delta faa4delta strain and their roles in fatty acid transport and trafficking characterized. All four restored ACS activity yet varied in substrate preference. ACSL1, 4, and 6 were able to rescue fatty acid transport activity and triglyceride synthesis. ACSL5, however, was unable to facilitate fatty acid transport despite conferring robust oleoyl-CoA synthetase activity. This is the first study evaluating the role of the mammalian ACSLs in fatty acid transport and supports a role for ACSL1, 4, and 6 in transport by vectorial acylation.

  14. Acute aerobic exercise differentially alters acylated ghrelin and perceived fullness in normal-weight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Park, Youngmin; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2013-09-01

    Adiposity alters acylated ghrelin concentrations, but it is unknown whether adiposity alters the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether adiposity [normal-weight (NW) vs. obese (Ob)] influences the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin, hunger, and fullness. Fourteen NW and 14 Ob individuals completed two trials in a randomized counterbalanced fashion, including a prior exercise trial (EX) and a no exercise trial (NoEX). During the EX trial, the participants performed 1 h of treadmill walking (55-60% peak O2 uptake) during the evening, 12 h before a 4-h standardized mixed meal test. Frequent blood samples were taken and analyzed for acylated ghrelin, and a visual analog scale was used to assess perceived hunger and fullness. In NW individuals, EX, compared with NoEX, reduced fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations by 18% (P = 0.03), and, in response to feeding, the change in acylated ghrelin (P = 0.02) was attenuated by 39%, but perceived hunger and fullness were unaltered. In Ob individuals, despite no changes in fasting or postprandial acylated ghrelin concentrations with EX, postprandial fullness was attenuated by 46% compared with NoEX (P = 0.05). In summary, exercise performed the night before a meal suppresses acylated ghrelin concentrations in NW individuals without altering perceived hunger or fullness. In Ob individuals, despite no changes in acylated ghrelin concentrations, EX reduced the fullness response to the test meal. Acylated ghrelin and perceived fullness responses are differently altered by acute aerobic exercise in NW and Ob individuals.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10055 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10055 Section 721.10055 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-03-46; CAS No. 136504-87-5) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10055 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10055 Section 721.10055 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-03-46; CAS No. 136504-87-5) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats into energy, especially during periods without food (fasting). Signs and symptoms of SCAD deficiency may ...

  2. Highly acylated (acetylated and/or p-coumaroylated) native lignins from diverse herbaceous plants.

    PubMed

    del Río, José C; Rencoret, Jorge; Marques, Gisela; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ibarra, David; Santos, J Ignacio; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Zhang, Liming; Martínez, Angel T

    2008-10-22

    The structure of lignins isolated from the herbaceous plants sisal ( Agave sisalana), kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus), abaca ( Musa textilis) and curaua ( Ananas erectifolius) has been studied upon spectroscopic (2D-NMR) and chemical degradative (derivatization followed by reductive cleavage) methods. The analyses demonstrate that the structure of the lignins from these plants is highly remarkable, being extensively acylated at the gamma-carbon of the lignin side chain (up to 80% acylation) with acetate and/or p-coumarate groups and preferentially over syringyl units. Whereas the lignins from sisal and kenaf are gamma-acylated exclusively with acetate groups, the lignins from abaca and curaua are esterified with acetate and p-coumarate groups. The structures of all these highly acylated lignins are characterized by a very high syringyl/guaiacyl ratio, a large predominance of beta- O-4' linkages (up to 94% of all linkages), and a strikingly low proportion of traditional beta-beta' linkages, which indeed are completely absent in the lignins from abaca and curaua. The occurrence of beta-beta' homocoupling and cross-coupling products of sinapyl acetate in the lignins from sisal and kenaf indicates that sinapyl alcohol is acetylated at the monomer stage and that, therefore, sinapyl acetate should be considered as a real monolignol involved in the lignification reactions.

  3. Novel fatty acid acylation of lens integral membrane protein aquaporin-0.

    PubMed

    Schey, Kevin L; Gutierrez, Danielle B; Wang, Zhen; Wei, Junhua; Grey, Angus C

    2010-11-16

    Fatty acid acylation of proteins is a well-studied co- or posttranslational modification typically conferring membrane trafficking signals or membrane anchoring properties to proteins. Commonly observed examples of protein acylation include N-terminal myristoylation and palmitoylation of cysteine residues. In the present study, direct tissue profiling mass spectrometry of bovine and human lens sections revealed an abundant signal tentatively assigned as a lipid-modified form of aquaporin-0. LC/MS/MS proteomic analysis of hydrophobic tryptic peptides from lens membrane proteins revealed both N-terminal and C-terminal peptides modified by 238 and 264 Da which were subsequently assigned by accurate mass measurement as palmitoylation and oleoylation, respectively. Specific sites of modification were the N-terminal methionine residue and lysine 238 revealing, for the first time, an oleic acid modification via an amide linkage to a lysine residue. The specific fatty acids involved reflect their abundance in the lens fiber cell plasma membrane. Imaging mass spectrometry indicated abundant acylated AQP0 in the inner cortical region of both bovine and human lenses and acylated truncation products in the lens nucleus. Additional analyses revealed that the lipid-modified forms partitioned exclusively to a detergent-resistant membrane fraction, suggesting a role in membrane domain targeting.

  4. Neural correlates of plasma acylated ghrelin level in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Nakano, Masayuki; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Egashira, Kazuteru; Matsubara, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2012-09-14

    Anhedonic symptoms, which include loss of pleasure, appetite and motivation, are key symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and are thought to depend on a neural circuit of the mesolimbic system. The neuropeptide ghrelin plays a crucial role in appetite and reward. Little is known, however, about the role of ghrelin in MDD. We examined the association between morphometric change and plasma ghrelin levels in patients with MDD. Twenty-four patients with MDD and 24 healthy control subjects were studied. Plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin was measured after a period of fasting. Using voxel-based morphometry, we found a main effect of ghrelin on the volume of several brain regions. We then compared these regional volumes in patients with MDD versus healthy subjects. We also compared brain volumes between the two groups, controlling for ghrelin level. There was no significant difference in plasma acylated ghrelin level between patients with MDD and healthy subjects. In the MDD group, ghrelin levels positively correlated with the severity of reduced appetite. Ghrelin levels negatively correlated with gray matter volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the total sample. The patients with MDD showed significantly smaller VTA gray matter volume compared to healthy subjects. Controlling for the plasma acylated ghrelin level, patients with MDD showed significantly smaller gray matter volume of right substantia nigra compared to healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that plasma acylated ghrelin is associated with neural abnormalities of the pleasure/reward system and may be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD.

  5. Effects of Starvation and Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection on Carnitine Acylation States in the Rat.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-08

    This study was performed to determine if alterations in carnitine and its acylation states could account for the decreased ketone body production...seen during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in the rat. Despite a lower ketogenic capacity, the hepatic total and free carnitine increases to the same

  6. Fatty acyl-CoA inhibition of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Faas, F H; Carter, W J; Wynn, J O

    1978-11-22

    The influence of the fatty acyl-CoA thioesters on rat liver microsomal hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity was tested in vitro to determine if the previously demonstrated inhibition of [14C]acetate incorporation into cholesterol is due to inhibition of this rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. The polyunsaturated fatty acyl-CoA thioesters caused the greatest inhibition of enzyme activity, 50 micron arachidonoyl-CoA inhibiting 67% and 5 micron inhibiting 22%. 50 micron linoleoyl-CoA inhibited 56% with the more saturated thioesters causing less inhibition. 50--100 micron free fatty acids, free CoA, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, carnitine derivatives, prostaglandins and non-specific detergents caused little or no inhibition of enzyme activity. Kinetic studies revealed the inhibition to be noncompetitive with respect to hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA with a Ki for arachidonoyl CoA of 3.10 micron. Fatty acyl-CoA inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis is due to inhibition of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity. Variation in intracellular concentrations of fatty acyl-CoA thioesters may signficantly alter cholesterol synthesis.

  7. N-Acylbenzotriazoles: neutral acylating reagents for the preparation of primary, secondary, and tertiary amides

    PubMed

    Katritzky; He; Suzuki

    2000-12-01

    Readily available N-acylbenzotriazoles 2a-q efficiently acylate aqueous ammonia and primary and secondary amines to give primary, secondary, and tertiary amides in good to excellent yields. The wide applicability of the procedure is illustrated by the preparation of (i) alpha-hydroxyamides from alpha-hydroxy acids and of (ii) perfluoroalkylated amides.

  8. Enzymatic Resolution and Separation of Secondary Alcohols Based on Fatty Esters as Acylating Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Carlos M.; Afonso, Carlos A. M.; Lourenco, Nuno M. T.

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic resolution of "rac"-1-phenylethanol using ethyl myristate as acylating agent and solvent and "Candida antarctica" lipase B (CAL-B) as biocatalyst was demonstrated with catalyst and medium reuse. Both enantiomers of 1-phenylethanol were isolated by sequential enzymatic reactions and product distillations. From the first enzymatic…

  9. Multicomponent synthesis of acylated short peptoids with antifungal activity against plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Matías D; Cirigliano, Adriana M; Cabrera, Gabriela M; Ramírez, Javier A

    2012-02-01

    In this article, we describe the synthesis of a small library of short peptoids composed of four glycine residues and acylated with a fatty acid that showed a remarkable in vitro activity against two fungal plant pathogens. Their straightforward synthesis implied two consecutive Ugi reactions and can be efficiently extended to the construction of highly diverse libraries.

  10. Endotoxin structures in the psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis contain distinctive acyl features.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Charles R; Alpuche, Giancarlo M; Landis, Corinne A; Sandman, Benjamin C

    2014-07-09

    Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide), a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2-) units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments.

  11. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance.

  12. Genome-level and biochemical diversity of the acyl-activating enzyme superfamily in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In higher plants, the superfamily of carboxyl-CoA ligases and related proteins, collectively called acyl activating enzymes (AAEs), has evolved to provide enzymes for many pathways of primary and secondary metabolism and for the conjugation of hormones to amino acids. Across the superfamily there is...

  13. An insight on acyl migration in solvent-free ethanolysis of model triglycerides using Novozym 435.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Daniel Alberto; Tonetto, Gabriela Marta; Ferreira, María Luján

    2016-02-20

    In this work, the ethanolysis of triglycerides catalyzed by immobilized lipase was studied, focusing on the secondary reaction of acyl migration. The catalytic tests were performed in a solvent-free reaction medium using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst. The selected experimental variables were biocatalyst loading (5-20mg), reaction time (30-90min), and chain length of the fatty acids in triglycerides with and without unsaturation (short (triacetin), medium (tricaprylin) and long (tripalmitin/triolein)). The formation of 2-monoglyceride by ethanolysis of triglycerides was favored by long reaction times and large biocatalyst loading with saturated short- to medium-chain triglycerides. In the case of long-chain triglycerides, the formation of this monoglyceride was widely limited by acyl migration. In turn, acyl migration increased the yield of ethyl esters and minimized the content of monoglycerides and diglycerides. Thus, the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was favored by long-chain triglycerides (which favor the acyl migration), long reaction times and large biocatalyst loading. The conversion of acylglycerides made from long-chain fatty acids with unsaturation was relatively low due to limitations in their access to the active site of the lipase.

  14. Influence of fatty acid desaturation on spontaneous acyl migration in 2-monoacylglycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of desaturation from the C9 to the C15 carbon of 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) fatty acids on spontaneous acyl migration is described. Density functional calculations for 2-monooleoylglycerol (C18:cis-delta9), 2-monolinoleoylglycerol (C18:cis-delta9,12), and 2-monolinolenoylglycerol (C18:cis...

  15. Construction of a Spirooxindole Amide Library through Nitrile Hydrozirconation-Acylation-Cyclization Cascade

    PubMed Central

    LaPorte, Matthew G.; Tsegay, Sammi; Hong, Ki Bum; Lu, Chunliang; Fang, Cheng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    A library of spirooxindoles containing varied elements of structural and stereochemical diversity has been constructed via a three step, one pot nitrile hydrozirconation-acylation-cyclization reaction sequence from common acyclic indole intermediates. The resulting library was evaluated for novelty through comparison with MLSMR and Maybridge compound collections. PMID:23731121

  16. Trail following response of larval Cactoblastis cactorum to 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The caterpillars of Cactoblastis cactorum secrete onto the surface of host cactuses droplets of an oily fluid that issues from the orifices of their paired mandibular glands. The fluid contains a series of 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones which, collectively, have been shown to elicit trail following ...

  17. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HESPERIDIN ON CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATION IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN DIABETES IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Kakadiya, Jagdish; Mulani, Haresh; Shah, Nehal

    2010-01-01

    Present study was designed to evaluate effect Hesperidin on Cardiovascular Complication in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in normal and Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced in diabetic rats. Hesperidin (100 mg/kg, p.o) was administered for 28 days in rats injected with single dose of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p, STZ) and Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p, NIC) and after isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) induced myocardial infarction in rats on 29th and 30th day. At the end of experimental period (i.e. on the day 31) serum and heart tissues sample were collected, and glucose, HbA1c and Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and High density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol ester synthetase (CES), lecithin Cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were find out. Administration of STZ–NIC in rats showed a significant (p<0.001) increased in the levels of serum glucose, glycosylated heamoglobin (HbA1c), Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) whereas the levels of High density lipoprotein (HDL) were found to be non significant but significant (p<0.001) increased in the level of heart tissues CES and significant (p<0.001, p<0.01) decreased LCAT and LPL, significantly (p<0.01) increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared to respective control groups. Treatment with Hesperidin significantly (P<0.05) decreased HbA1c, glucose, CES level and significantly (P<0.01) decreased LDL, TC, TG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and significant (P<0.01) increased LCAT and LPL level but no significantly change HDL in compared to diabetic control group. We concluded that HES (100 mg/kg) is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and reduced cardiac complication in experimentally induced myocardial infarction diabetic rats. PMID:24825971

  18. Unique acyl-carnitine profiles are potential biomarkers for acquired mitochondrial disease in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frye, R E; Melnyk, S; MacFabe, D F

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with mitochondrial disease (MD). Interestingly, most individuals with ASD and MD do not have a specific genetic mutation to explain the MD, raising the possibility of that MD may be acquired, at least in a subgroup of children with ASD. Acquired MD has been demonstrated in a rodent ASD model in which propionic acid (PPA), an enteric bacterial fermentation product of ASD-associated gut bacteria, is infused intracerebroventricularly. This animal model shows validity as it demonstrates many behavioral, metabolic, neuropathologic and neurophysiologic abnormalities associated with ASD. This animal model also demonstrates a unique pattern of elevations in short-chain and long-chain acyl-carnitines suggesting abnormalities in fatty-acid metabolism. To determine if the same pattern of biomarkers of abnormal fatty-acid metabolism are present in children with ASD, the laboratory results from a large cohort of children with ASD (n=213) who underwent screening for metabolic disorders, including mitochondrial and fatty-acid oxidation disorders, in a medically based autism clinic were reviewed. Acyl-carnitine panels were determined to be abnormal if three or more individual acyl-carnitine species were abnormal in the panel and these abnormalities were verified by repeated testing. Overall, 17% of individuals with ASD demonstrated consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Next, it was determined if specific acyl-carnitine species were consistently elevated across the individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels. Significant elevations in short-chain and long-chain, but not medium-chain, acyl-carnitines were found in the ASD individuals with consistently abnormal acyl-carnitine panels—a pattern consistent with the PPA rodent ASD model. Examination of electron transport chain function in muscle and fibroblast culture, histological and electron microscopy examination of muscle and other biomarkers of

  19. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhou, R.; Sauder, J. M.; Tonge, P. J.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-02-18

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  20. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  1. Novel Structural Components Contribute to the High Thermal Stability of Acyl Carrier Protein from Enterococcus faecalis*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Guen; Jung, Min-Cheol; Song, Heesang; Jeong, Ki-Woong; Bang, Eunjung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium that lives in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. It causes severe infections because of high antibiotic resistance. E. faecalis can endure extremes of temperature and pH. Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a key element in the biosynthesis of fatty acids responsible for acyl group shuttling and delivery. In this study, to understand the origin of high thermal stabilities of E. faecalis ACP (Ef-ACP), its solution structure was investigated for the first time. CD experiments showed that the melting temperature of Ef-ACP is 78.8 °C, which is much higher than that of Escherichia coli ACP (67.2 °C). The overall structure of Ef-ACP shows the common ACP folding pattern consisting of four α-helices (helix I (residues 3–17), helix II (residues 39–53), helix III (residues 60–64), and helix IV (residues 68–78)) connected by three loops. Unique Ef-ACP structural features include a hydrophobic interaction between Phe45 in helix II and Phe18 in the α1α2 loop and a hydrogen bonding between Ser15 in helix I and Ile20 in the α1α2 loop, resulting in its high thermal stability. Phe45-mediated hydrophobic packing may block acyl chain binding subpocket II entry. Furthermore, Ser58 in the α2α3 loop in Ef-ACP, which usually constitutes a proline in other ACPs, exhibited slow conformational exchanges, resulting in the movement of the helix III outside the structure to accommodate a longer acyl chain in the acyl binding cavity. These results might provide insights into the development of antibiotics against pathogenic drug-resistant E. faecalis strains. PMID:26631734

  2. Novel Structural Components Contribute to the High Thermal Stability of Acyl Carrier Protein from Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Guen; Jung, Min-Cheol; Song, Heesang; Jeong, Ki-Woong; Bang, Eunjung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-01-22

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium that lives in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. It causes severe infections because of high antibiotic resistance. E. faecalis can endure extremes of temperature and pH. Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a key element in the biosynthesis of fatty acids responsible for acyl group shuttling and delivery. In this study, to understand the origin of high thermal stabilities of E. faecalis ACP (Ef-ACP), its solution structure was investigated for the first time. CD experiments showed that the melting temperature of Ef-ACP is 78.8 °C, which is much higher than that of Escherichia coli ACP (67.2 °C). The overall structure of Ef-ACP shows the common ACP folding pattern consisting of four α-helices (helix I (residues 3-17), helix II (residues 39-53), helix III (residues 60-64), and helix IV (residues 68-78)) connected by three loops. Unique Ef-ACP structural features include a hydrophobic interaction between Phe(45) in helix II and Phe(18) in the α1α2 loop and a hydrogen bonding between Ser(15) in helix I and Ile(20) in the α1α2 loop, resulting in its high thermal stability. Phe(45)-mediated hydrophobic packing may block acyl chain binding subpocket II entry. Furthermore, Ser(58) in the α2α3 loop in Ef-ACP, which usually constitutes a proline in other ACPs, exhibited slow conformational exchanges, resulting in the movement of the helix III outside the structure to accommodate a longer acyl chain in the acyl binding cavity. These results might provide insights into the development of antibiotics against pathogenic drug-resistant E. faecalis strains.

  3. Cytoplasmic tail length influences fatty acid selection for acylation of viral glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Veit, M; Reverey, H; Schmidt, M F

    1996-01-01

    We report remarkable differences in the fatty acid content of thioester-type acylated glycoproteins of enveloped viruses from mammalian cells. The E2 glycoprotein of Semliki Forest virus contains mainly palmitic acid like most other palmitoylated proteins analysed so far. However, the other glycoprotein (E1) of the same virus, as well as the HEF (haemagglutinin esterase fusion) glycoprotein of influenza C virus, are unique in this respect because they are acylated primarily with stearic acid. Comparative radiolabelling of uninfected cells with different fatty acids suggests that stearate may also be the prevailing fatty acid in some cellular acylproteins. To look for further differences between palmitoylated and stearoylated glycoproteins we characterized stearoylation in more detail. We identified the acylation site of HEF as a cysteine residue located at the boundary between the transmembrane region and the cytoplasmic tail. The attachment of stearate to HEF and E1 occurs post-translationally in a pre-Golgi compartment. Thus, stearoylated and palmitoylated proteins cannot be discriminated on the basis of the fatty acid linkage site or the intracellular compartment, where acylation occurs. However, stearoylated acylproteins contain a very short, positively charged cytoplasmic tail, whereas in palmitoylated proteins this molecular region is longer. Replacing the short cytoplasmic tail of stearoylated HEF with the long influenza A virus haemagglutinin (HA) tail in an HEF-HA chimera, and subsequent vaccinia T7 expression in CV-1 cells, yielded proteins with largely palmitic acid bound. The reverse chimera, HA-HEF with a short cytoplasmic tail was not fatty acylated at all during expression, indicating that conformational or topological constraints control fatty acid transfer. PMID:8761467

  4. Sticky swinging arm dynamics: studies of an acyl carrier protein domain from the mycolactone polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Steven; Tkachenko, Olga; Thomas, Ben; Bassuni, Mona; Hong, Hui; Nietlispach, Daniel; Broadhurst, William

    2016-01-01

    Type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce polyketide natural products by passing a growing acyl substrate chain between a series of enzyme domains housed within a gigantic multifunctional polypeptide assembly. Throughout each round of chain extension and modification reactions, the substrate stays covalently linked to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. In the present study we report on the solution structure and dynamics of an ACP domain excised from MLSA2, module 9 of the PKS system that constructs the macrolactone ring of the toxin mycolactone, cause of the tropical disease Buruli ulcer. After modification of apo ACP with 4′-phosphopantetheine (Ppant) to create the holo form, 15N nuclear spin relaxation and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments suggest that the prosthetic group swings freely. The minimal chemical shift perturbations displayed by Ppant-attached C3 and C4 acyl chains imply that these substrate-mimics remain exposed to solvent at the end of a flexible Ppant arm. By contrast, hexanoyl and octanoyl chains yield much larger chemical shift perturbations, indicating that they interact with the surface of the domain. The solution structure of octanoyl-ACP shows the Ppant arm bending to allow the acyl chain to nestle into a nonpolar pocket, whereas the prosthetic group itself remains largely solvent exposed. Although the highly reduced octanoyl group is not a natural substrate for the ACP from MLSA2, similar presentation modes would permit partner enzyme domains to recognize an acyl group while it is bound to the surface of its carrier protein, allowing simultaneous interactions with both the substrate and the ACP. PMID:26920023

  5. Dopaminergic Neurons Respond to Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress by Modulating Lipid Acylation and Deacylation Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Campos, Sofía; Rodríguez Diez, Guadalupe; Oresti, Gerardo Martín; Salvador, Gabriela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Metal-imbalance has been reported as a contributor factor for the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson Disease (PD). Specifically, iron (Fe)-overload and copper (Cu) mis-compartmentalization have been reported to be involved in the injury of dopaminergic neurons in this pathology. The aim of this work was to characterize the mechanisms of membrane repair by studying lipid acylation and deacylation reactions and their role in oxidative injury in N27 dopaminergic neurons exposed to Fe-overload and Cu-supplementation. N27 dopaminergic neurons incubated with Fe (1mM) for 24 hs displayed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and elevated plasma membrane permeability. Cu-supplemented neurons (10, 50 μM) showed no evidence of oxidative stress markers. A different lipid acylation profile was observed in N27 neurons pre-labeled with [3H] arachidonic acid (AA) or [3H] oleic acid (OA). In Fe-exposed neurons, AA uptake was increased in triacylglycerols (TAG) whereas its incorporation into the phospholipid (PL) fraction was diminished. TAG content was 40% higher in Fe-exposed neurons than in controls. This increase was accompanied by the appearance of Nile red positive lipid bodies. Contrariwise, OA incorporation increased in the PL fractions and showed no changes in TAG. Lipid acylation profile in Cu-supplemented neurons showed AA accumulation into phosphatidylserine and no changes in TAG. The inhibition of deacylation/acylation reactions prompted an increase in oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial dysfunction in Fe-overloaded neurons. These findings provide evidence about the participation of lipid acylation mechanisms against Fe-induced oxidative injury and postulate that dopaminergic neurons cleverly preserve AA in TAG in response to oxidative stress. PMID:26076361

  6. The Acyl Desaturase CER17 Is Involved in Producing Wax Unsaturated Primary Alcohols and Cutin Monomers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianpeng; Zhao, Huayan; Kosma, Dylan K; Tomasi, Pernell; Dyer, John M; Li, Rongjun; Liu, Xiulin; Wang, Zhouya; Parsons, Eugene P; Jenks, Matthew A; Lü, Shiyou

    2017-02-01

    We report n-6 monounsaturated primary alcohols (C26:1, C28:1, and C30:1 homologs) in the cuticular waxes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stem, a class of wax not previously reported in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis cer17 mutant was completely deficient in these monounsaturated alcohols, and CER17 was found to encode a predicted ACYL-COENZYME A DESATURASE LIKE4 (ADS4). Studies of the Arabidopsis cer4 mutant and yeast variously expressing CER4 (a predicted fatty acyl-CoA reductase) with CER17/ADS4, demonstrated CER4's principal role in synthesis of these monounsaturated alcohols. Besides unsaturated alcohol deficiency, cer17 mutants exhibited a thickened and irregular cuticle ultrastructure and increased amounts of cutin monomers. Although unsaturated alcohols were absent throughout the cer17 stem, the mutation's effects on cutin monomers and cuticle ultrastructure were much more severe in distal than basal stems, consistent with observations that the CER17/ADS4 transcript was much more abundant in distal than basal stems. Furthermore, distal but not basal stems of a double mutant deficient for both CER17/ADS4 and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE1 produced even more cutin monomers and a thicker and more disorganized cuticle ultrastructure and higher cuticle permeability than observed for wild type or either mutant parent, indicating a dramatic genetic interaction on conversion of very long chain acyl-CoA precursors. These results provide evidence that CER17/ADS4 performs n-6 desaturation of very long chain acyl-CoAs in both distal and basal stems and has a major function associated with governing cutin monomer amounts primarily in the distal segments of the inflorescence stem.

  7. Cloning, expression and properties of porcine trachea UDP-galnac: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, Sreedhara; Swain, Ja Baris; McNear, Adrian; Mendicino, Joseph

    2004-11-01

    A UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase which catalyses the transfer of GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc to serine and threonine residues in mucin polypeptide chains was purified to homogeneity from swine trachea epithelium (Mendicino J, Sangadala S: Mol Cell Biochem 185: 135-145, 1998). Peptides obtained by proteolysis of the purified enzyme were isolated, sequenced and used to prepare degenerate oligonucleotide primers. Amplified segments of a gene encoding GalNAc transferase were synthesised using the primers and a swine trachea epithelial cDNA library. Selected cDNA fragments were then used to screen the cDNA library, and a clone containing an open reading frame encoding 559 amino acids was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence contains type II transmembrane region, three potential N-glycosylation sites as well as all of the isolated peptide sequences. The nucleotide sequence and predicted primary protein structure of the transferase were very similar to those of type T-1 GalNAc transferases. The isolated clone was transiently expressed in COS 7 cells and the recombinant enzyme, which contained an N-terminal hexa-histidine tag, was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic properties were examined. The Vmax of the recombinant enzyme, 2.08 micromol/(min mg), was nearly the same as the native enzyme, 2.12 micromol/(min mg), when assayed with partially deglycosylated mucins as glycosyl acceptors. Both enzymes showed much higher activities when assayed with peptides prepared by limited acid hydrolysis of incompletely deglycosylated Cowper's gland, swine, and human respiratory mucins and tryptic peptides isolated from deglycosylated mucin polypeptide chains. However, as noted earlier (Mendicino J, Sangadala S: Mol Cell Biochem 185: 135-145, 1998), these enzymes showed very little activity with completely deglycosylated mucin polypeptide chains. When completely deglycosylated polypeptide chains were partially glycosylated by incubation with microsome

  8. A specific acyl-ACP thioesterase implicated in medium-chain fatty acid production in immature cotyledons of Umbellularia californica.

    PubMed

    Pollard, M R; Anderson, L; Fan, C; Hawkins, D J; Davies, H M

    1991-02-01

    Umbellularia californica (California Bay) seeds accumulate 10:0 and 12:0 as principal reserve fatty acyl groups. An in vitro fatty acid synthesis system from the developing cotyledons produces chiefly 10:0 and 12:0, in approximately the same proportions as the intact tissue. The kinetics of acyl thioester and free fatty acid formation in this system suggest that a medium-chain specific acyl-acyl-carrier protein (ACP) hydrolysis mechanism is responsible for the preponderance of medium-chain products. A crude extract of the developing cotyledons exhibits hydrolytic activity toward acyl-ACPs, with marked preference for 12:0-ACP and 18:1-ACP in the test series 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 11:0, 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and 18:1-ACPs. Partial purification of the 12:0-ACP hydrolytic activity has resulted in its separation from the 18:1-ACP hydrolase(s) and the 12:0-coenzyme A hydrolase(s) that are also present, thereby demonstrating its specificity for the 12-carbon acyl chain length and the ACP derivative. During cotyledon development, as the proportion of medium-chain to other fatty acyl groups increases, the extractable yield of this activity also increases substantially. Collectively these results suggest a role for this 12-ACP thioesterase in medium-chain production in vivo.

  9. Self-structuring foods based on acid-sensitive low and high acyl mixed gellan systems to impact on satiety

    PubMed Central

    Bradbeer, Jennifer F.; Hancocks, Robin; Spyropoulos, Fotios; Norton, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro acid-induced gelation of mixed systems of two biopolymers; low acyl and high acyl gellan gum. Rheological and texture analysis showed that these mixed gels displayed textures that lay between the material properties exhibited for the low and high acyl variants. DSC analysis showed that mixtures of the low acyl and high acyl forms exhibit two separate conformational transitions at temperatures coincident with each of the individual biopolymers. Various metabolically relevant pH environments and hydrocolloid concentrations were investigated. These resulted in very different acid gelled structures, which were characterised by texture analysis. The structures of the acid gels were shown to depend upon the pH, hydrocolloid concentration and proportion of each biopolymer used during their production. A selection of these mixed gellan structures were assessed post-production in terms of their response to prolonged exposure to an acidic (pH 1), stomach-like, environment. This resulted in a significant increase in the gel strength, regardless of the biopolymer proportions. The high acyl gellan was less acid-sensitive, and subsequently no evidence of acid gelation was observed with high acyl gellan at a proportion greater than 60% of the total biopolymer. The findings presented here demonstrate that structuring as well as de-structuring of mixed gellan acid gels can be controlled in acidic environments similar to those that are present in the stomach after food consumption. PMID:24882914

  10. Restoration of Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Mouse 1R Cells After Fusion with Chick-Embryo Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bakay, Bohdan; Croce, Carlo M.; Koprowski, Hilary; Nyhan, William L.

    1973-01-01

    Fusion of the 1R mouse cell, which lacks activity of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (EC 2.4.2.8), with chick-embryo fibroblasts yielded progeny cells that survived in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine selective medium. This property and the failure of the progeny to survive in 8-azaguanine indicated that hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase activity was present. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that the enzyme was of mouse, not chick, origin. These observations are consistent with the operation of a regulator gene responsible for the absence of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase activity in the 1R cell and its presence in the progeny. Images PMID:4516198

  11. Arthrobacter strain VAI-A utilizes acyl-homoserine lactone inactivation products and stimulates quorum signal biodegradation by Variovorax paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Flagan, Suvi; Ching, Weng-Ki; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2003-02-01

    Many Proteobacteria produce acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) and employ them as dedicated cell-to-cell signals in a process known as quorum sensing. Previously, Variovorax paradoxus VAI-C was shown to utilize diverse acyl-HSLs as sole sources of energy and nitrogen. We describe here the properties of a second isolate, Arthrobacter strain VAI-A, obtained from the same enrichment culture that yielded V. paradoxus VAI-C. Although strain VAI-A grew rapidly and exponentially on a number of substrates, it grew only slowly and aberrantly (i.e., linearly) in media amended with oxohexanoyl-HSL as the sole energy source. Increasing the culture pH markedly improved the growth rate in media containing this substrate but did not abolish the aberrant kinetics. The observed growth was remarkably similar to the known kinetics of the pH-influenced half-life of acyl-HSLs, which decay chemically to yield the corresponding acyl-homoserines. Strain VAI-A grew rapidly and exponentially when provided with an acyl-homoserine as the sole energy or nitrogen source. The isolate was also able to utilize HSL as a sole source of nitrogen but not as energy for growth. V. paradoxus, known to release HSL as a product of quorum signal degradation, was examined for the ability to support the growth of Arthrobacter strain VAI-A in defined cocultures. It did. Moreover, the acyl-HSL-dependent growth rate and yield of the coculture were dramatically superior to those of the monocultures. This suggested that the original coenrichment of these two organisms from the same soil sample was not coincidental and that consortia may play a role in quorum signal turnover and mineralization. The fact that Arthrobacter strain VAI-A utilizes the two known nitrogenous degradation products of acyl-HSLs, acyl-homoserine and HSL, begins to explain why none of the three compounds are known to accumulate in the environment.

  12. S-acylation of SOD1, CCS, and a stable SOD1-CCS heterodimer in human spinal cords from ALS and non-ALS subjects

    PubMed Central

    Antinone, Sarah E.; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D.; Ostrow, Lyle W.; Roos, Raymond P.; Green, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is S-acylated (palmitoylated) in vitro and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse models, and that S-acylation increased for ALS-causing SOD1 mutants relative to wild type. Here, we use the acyl resin-assisted capture (acyl-RAC) assay to demonstrate S-acylation of SOD1 in human post-mortem spinal cord homogenates from ALS and non-ALS subjects. Acyl-RAC further revealed that endogenous copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) is S-acylated in both human and mouse spinal cords, and in vitro in HEK293 cells. SOD1 and CCS formed a highly stable heterodimer in human spinal cord homogenates that was resistant to dissociation by boiling, denaturants, or reducing agents and was not observed in vitro unless both SOD1 and CCS were overexpressed. Cysteine mutations that attenuate SOD1 maturation prevented the SOD1-CCS heterodimer formation. The degree of S-acylation was highest for SOD1-CCS heterodimers, intermediate for CCS monomers, and lowest for SOD1 monomers. Given that S-acylation facilitates anchoring of soluble proteins to cell membranes, our findings suggest that S-acylation and membrane localization may play an important role in CCS-mediated SOD1 maturation. Furthermore, the highly stable S-acylated SOD1-CCS heterodimer may serve as a long-lived maturation intermediate in human spinal cord. PMID:28120938

  13. Synthesis of acyl arbutin by an immobilized lipase and its suppressive ability against lipid oxidation in a bulk system and O/W emulsion.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mizuka; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nomura, Masato

    2009-11-01

    Acyl arbutin was synthesized through the condensation of arbutin with a saturated fatty acid (C6-18) by the immobilized lipase in a batch reaction. The conversion at 10 and 20 g/l-solvent of immobilized lipase reached 45% over 2 d, but the initial reaction rate per amount of immobilized lipase decreased at 20 g/l-solvent. The radical scavenging activity of acyl arbutin in an ethanol solution was independent of the acyl chain length, although the rate constant, k, estimated for the oxidation of methyl linoleate in a bulk system with acyl arbutin by using the Weibull equation, decreased as the acyl chain length increased. This indicates the antioxidative ability of acyl arbutin with a long acyl chain to be due to its lipophilicity. Furthermore, it is suggested that dodecanoyl arbutin mainly acted on the interface between the oil and water phases in an O/W emulsion, and effectively suppressed the oxidation induced at the interface.

  14. Identification of a diazinon-metabolizing glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Yamada, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase superfamily play key roles in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics. We report herein the identification and characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The enzyme (bmGSTu2) conjugates glutathione to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as metabolizing diazinon, one of the organophosphate insecticides. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis of transcripts demonstrated that bmGSTu2 expression was induced 1.7-fold in a resistant strain of B. mori. Mutagenesis of putative amino acid residues in the glutathione-binding site revealed that Ile54, Glu66, Ser67, and Asn68 are crucial for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTu2 and into the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides. PMID:27440377

  15. Human glutathione S-transferases. Characterization of the anionic forms from lung and placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Dao, D D; Partridge, C A; Kurosky, A; Awasthi, Y C

    1984-01-01

    Anionic glutathione S-transferases were purified from human lung and placenta. Chemical and immunochemical characterization, including polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, gave strong evidence that the anionic lung and placental enzymes are chemically similar, if not identical, proteins. The electrophoretic mobilities of both proteins were identical in conventional alkaline gels as well as in gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate. Gel filtration of the intact active enzyme established an Mr value of 45000; however, with sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under dissociating conditions a subunit Mr of 22500 was obtained. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N-terminal region of the placental enzyme revealed a single polypeptide sequence identical with that of lung. Results obtained from immunoelectrophoresis, immunotitration, double immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoresis also indicated the anionic lung and placental enzymes to be closely similar. The chemical similarity of these two proteins was further supported by protein compositional analysis and fragment analysis after chemical hydrolysis. Immunochemical comparison of the anionic lung and placental enzymes with human liver glutathione S-transferases revealed cross-reactivity with the anionic omega enzyme, but no cross-reactivity was detectable with the cationic enzymes. Comparison of the N-terminal region of the human anionic enzyme with reported sequences of rat liver glutathione S-transferases gave strong evidence of chemical similarity, indicating that these enzymes are evolutionarily related. However, computer analysis of the 30-residue N-terminal sequence did not show any significant chemical similarity to any other reported protein sequence, pointing to the fact that the glutathione S-transferases represent a unique class of proteins. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6466318

  16. Correlation Between Iron and alpha and pi Glutathione-S-Transferase Levels in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    including duodenal crypt cells and macrophages . Several well characterized mutations in this gene have been shown to increase iron levels.16 Of...genotoxic products of lipid peroxication. (1998) Biochem. J. 330:174-179. 4Townsend DM, Tew KD. “The role of glutathione-S-transferase in anti- cancer ...and ferritin.” Semin Hematol. (1998) 35:35-54. 12Iancu TC. “ Ultrastructural aspects of iron storage, transport, and metabolism.” J Neural Transm

  17. The synthesis of ethacrynic acid thiazole derivatives as glutathione S-transferase pi inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Liu, Guyue; Li, Hongcai; Yang, Xinmei; Jing, Yongkui; Zhao, Guisen

    2012-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) is a phase II enzyme which protects cells from death and detoxifies chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a weak GSTpi inhibitor. Structure modifications were done to improve the ability of EA to inhibit GSTpi activity. Eighteen EA thiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized. Compounds 9a, 9b and 9c with a replacement of carboxyl group of EA by a heterocyclic thiazole exhibited improvement over EA to inhibit GSTpi activity.

  18. Energetics of beta-oxidation. Reduction potentials of general fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein, and fatty acyl-CoA substrates.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, W G; Feinberg, B A; McFarland, J T

    1986-06-15

    We have determined reduction potentials for porcine mitochondrial general fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (GAD) and electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) using an anaerobic spectroelectrochemical titration method. Computer simulation techniques were used to analyze the absorbance data. Nernst plots of the simulated data gave E'0, 7.1, quinone/semiquinone = -0.014 V and E'0, 7.1, semiquinone/hydroquinone = -0.036 V for ETF and E'0, 7.1, quinone/semiquinone = -0.155 V and E'0, 7.1, semiquinone/hydroquinone = -0.122 V for GAD. Using these techniques we have also determined a conditional reduction potential of -0.156 V for the chromophore producing fatty acyl-CoA substrate beta-2-furylpropionyl-CoA. From this value and our previous determination of the equilibrium constant for the transhydrogenation reaction between beta-2-furylpropionyl-CoA and the oxidized substrate crotonyl-CoA (Keq = 10.4), we have determined a reduction potential of -0.126 V for the butyryl-CoA/crotonyl-CoA couple. In light of the structural similarity between butyryl-CoA and octanoyl-CoA, the optimal substrate for GAD, the reduction potential for octanoyl-CoA should be similar to that for butyryl-CoA; i.e. fatty acyl-CoA substrates and GAD are essentially isopotential. The ability of octanoyl-CoA to reduce GAD quantitatively (Keq = 9.0) poses a dilemma in light of the nearly equal reduction potentials. We postulate that the stable charge-transfer complex formed between enzyme and optimal product is significantly lower in energy than enzyme and product and thus is responsible for pulling the reaction toward completion.

  19. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD 9) is the long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in human embryonic and fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Oey, N A; Ruiter, J P N; Ijlst, L; Attie-Bitach, T; Vekemans, M; Wanders, R J A; Wijburg, F A

    2006-07-21

    We recently reported the expression and activity of several fatty acid oxidation enzymes in human embryonic and fetal tissues including brain and spinal cord. Liver and heart showed expression of both very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) mRNA. However, while mRNA expression of LCHAD could be clearly detected in the retina and spinal cord, expression of VLCAD mRNA was low to undetectable in these tissues. Nevertheless, abundant acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) activity was detected with palmitoyl-CoA as substrate in fetal central nervous tissue. These conflicting data suggested the presence of a different long-chain ACAD in human embryonic and fetal brain. In this study, using in situ hybridization as well as enzymatic studies, we identified acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD 9) as the long-chain ACAD in human embryonic and fetal central nervous tissue. Until now, no clinical signs and symptoms of central nervous system involvement have been reported in VLCAD deficiency. A novel long-chain FAO defect, i.e., ACAD 9 deficiency with only central nervous system involvement, could, if not lethal during intra uterine development, easily escape proper diagnosis, since probably no classical signs and symptoms of FAO deficiency will be observed. Screening for ACAD 9 deficiency in patients with undefined neurological symptoms and/or impairment in neurological development of unknown origin is necessary to establish if ACAD 9 deficiency exists as a separate disease entity.

  20. Characterization of Affinity-Purified Isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Chin-Soon; Tan, Irene Kit-Ping; Alias, Zazali

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GST) were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW) of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5) and GST2 (pI 6.2) with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase) and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively. PMID:24892084

  1. Euphorbia characias latex: micromorphology of rubber particles and rubber transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Delia; Pintus, Francesca; Esposito, Francesca; Loche, Danilo; Floris, Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-02-01

    We have recently characterized a natural rubber in the latex of Euphorbia characias. Following that study, we here investigated the rubber particles and rubber transferase in that Mediterranean shrub. Rubber particles, observed by scanning electron microscopy, are spherical in shape with diameter ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 μm. Washed rubber particles exhibit rubber transferase activity with a rate of radiolabeled [(14)C]IPP incorporation of 4.5 pmol min(-1)mg(-1). Denaturing electrophoresis profile of washed rubber particles reveals a single protein band of 37 kDa that is recognized in western blot analysis by antibodies raised against the synthetic peptide whose sequence, DVVIRTSGETRLSNF, is included in one of the five regions conserved among cis-prenyl chain elongation enzymes. The cDNA nucleotide sequence of E. characias rubber transferase (GenBank JX564541) and the deduced amino acid sequence appear to be highly homologous to the sequence of several plant cis-prenyltransferases.

  2. Characterization of a glycosyl transferase inactivating macrolides, encoded by gimA from Streptomyces ambofaciens.

    PubMed

    Gourmelen, A; Blondelet-Rouault, M H; Pernodet, J L

    1998-10-01

    In Streptomyces ambofaciens, the producer of the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin, an open reading frame (ORF) was found downstream of srmA, a gene conferring resistance to spiramycin. The deduced product of this ORF had high degrees of similarity to Streptomyces lividans glycosyl transferase, which inactivates macrolides, and this ORF was called gimA. The cloned gimA gene was expressed in a susceptible host mutant of S. lividans devoid of any background macrolide-inactivating glycosyl transferase activity. In the presence of UDP-glucose, cell extracts from this strain could inactivate various macrolides by glycosylation. Spiramycin was not inactivated but forocidin, a spiramycin precursor, was modified. In vivo studies showed that gimA could confer low levels of resistance to some macrolides. The spectrum of this resistance differs from the one conferred by a rRNA monomethylase, such as SrmA. In S. ambofaciens, gimA was inactivated by gene replacement, without any deleterious effect on the survival of the strain, even under spiramycin-producing conditions. But the overexpression of gimA led to a marked decrease in spiramycin production. Studies with extracts from wild-type and gimA-null mutant strains revealed the existence of another macrolide-inactivating glycosyl transferase activity with a different substrate specificity. This activity might compensate for the effect of gimA inactivation.

  3. Characterization of a Glycosyl Transferase Inactivating Macrolides, Encoded by gimA from Streptomyces ambofaciens

    PubMed Central

    Gourmelen, Anne; Blondelet-Rouault, Marie-Hélène; Pernodet, Jean-Luc

    1998-01-01

    In Streptomyces ambofaciens, the producer of the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin, an open reading frame (ORF) was found downstream of srmA, a gene conferring resistance to spiramycin. The deduced product of this ORF had high degrees of similarity to Streptomyces lividans glycosyl transferase, which inactivates macrolides, and this ORF was called gimA. The cloned gimA gene was expressed in a susceptible host mutant of S. lividans devoid of any background macrolide-inactivating glycosyl transferase activity. In the presence of UDP-glucose, cell extracts from this strain could inactivate various macrolides by glycosylation. Spiramycin was not inactivated but forocidin, a spiramycin precursor, was modified. In vivo studies showed that gimA could confer low levels of resistance to some macrolides. The spectrum of this resistance differs from the one conferred by a rRNA monomethylase, such as SrmA. In S. ambofaciens, gimA was inactivated by gene replacement, without any deleterious effect on the survival of the strain, even under spiramycin-producing conditions. But the overexpression of gimA led to a marked decrease in spiramycin production. Studies with extracts from wild-type and gimA-null mutant strains revealed the existence of another macrolide-inactivating glycosyl transferase activity with a different substrate specificity. This activity might compensate for the effect of gimA inactivation. PMID:9756764

  4. Structure, supramolecular organization and phase behavior of N-acyl-β-alanines: Structural homologues of mammalian brain constituents N-acylglycine and N-acyl-GABA.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishna, D; Swamy, Musti J

    2016-12-01

    N-Acyl-β-alanines (NABAs) are structural homologues of N-acylglycines (NAGs) and N-acyl-γ-aminobutyric acids (NAGABAs), and achiral isomers of N-acylalanines, which are all present in mammalian brain and other tissues and modulate activity of biological receptors with various functions. In the present study, we synthesized and characterized a homologous series of NABAs bearing saturated acyl chains (n=8-20) and investigated their supramolecular organization and thermotropic phase behavior. In differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies, most of the NABAs gave one or two minor transitions before the main chain-melting phase transition in the dry state as well as upon hydration with water, but gave only a single transition when hydrated with buffer (pH7.6). Transition enthalpies (ΔHt) and entropies (ΔSt), obtained from the DSC studies showed linear dependence on the chain length in the dry state and upon hydration with buffer, whereas odd-even alteration was observed when hydrated with water. The crystal structures of N-lauroyl-β-alanine (NLBA) and N-myristoyl-β-alanine (NMBA) were solved in monoclinic system in the P21/c space group. Both NLBA and NMBA were packed in tilted bilayers with head-to-head (and tail-to-tail) arrangement with tilt angles of 33.28° and 34.42°, respectively. Strong hydrogen bonding interactions between COOH groups of the molecules from opposite leaflets as well as NH⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amide groups from adjacent molecules in the same leaflet as well as dispersion interactions between the acyl chains stabilize the bilayer structure. The d-spacings calculated from powder X-ray diffraction studies showed odd-even alteration with odd-chain length compounds exhibiting higher values as compared to the even-chain length ones and the tilt angles calculated from the PXRD data are higher for the even chain NABAs. These observations are relevant to developing structure-activity relationships for these amphiphiles and understand

  5. Serum Levels of Acyl-Carnitines along the Continuum from Normal to Alzheimer's Dementia.

    PubMed

    Cristofano, Adriana; Sapere, Nadia; La Marca, Giancarlo; Angiolillo, Antonella; Vitale, Michela; Corbi, Graziamaria; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Intrieri, Mariano; Russo, Claudio; Corso, Gaetano; Di Costanzo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the serum levels of free L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and 34 acyl-L-carnitine in healthy subjects and in patients with or at risk of Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, 18 with mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type, 24 with subjective memory complaint and 46 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, and the levels of carnitine and acyl-carnitines were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of acetyl-L-carnitine progressively decreased passing from healthy subjects group (mean±SD, 5.6±1.3 μmol/L) to subjective memory complaint (4.3±0.9 μmol/L), mild cognitive impairment (4.0±0.53 μmol/L), up to Alzheimer's disease (3.5±0.6 μmol/L) group (p<0.001). The differences were significant for the comparisons: healthy subjects vs. subjective memory complaint, mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease group; and subjective memory complaint vs. Alzheimer's disease group. Other acyl-carnitines, such as malonyl-, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-, hexenoyl-, decanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, dodecenoyl-, myristoyl-, tetradecenoyl-, hexadecenoyl-, stearoyl-, oleyl- and linoleyl-L-carnitine, showed a similar decreasing trend, passing from healthy subjects to patients at risk of or with Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that serum acetyl-L-carnitine and other acyl-L-carnitine levels decrease along the continuum from healthy subjects to subjective memory complaint and mild cognitive impairment subjects, up to patients with Alzheimer's disease, and that the metabolism of some acyl-carnitines is finely connected among them. These findings also suggest that the serum levels of acetyl-L-carnitine and other acyl-L-carnitines could help to identify the patients before the phenotype conversion to Alzheimer's disease and the patients who would benefit from the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine. However, further validation on a larger number of samples in a longitudinal study is needed

  6. Serum Levels of Acyl-Carnitines along the Continuum from Normal to Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sapere, Nadia; La Marca, Giancarlo; Angiolillo, Antonella; Vitale, Michela; Corbi, Graziamaria; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Intrieri, Mariano; Russo, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the serum levels of free L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and 34 acyl-L-carnitine in healthy subjects and in patients with or at risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer’s disease, 18 with mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type, 24 with subjective memory complaint and 46 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, and the levels of carnitine and acyl-carnitines were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of acetyl-L-carnitine progressively decreased passing from healthy subjects group (mean±SD, 5.6±1.3 μmol/L) to subjective memory complaint (4.3±0.9 μmol/L), mild cognitive impairment (4.0±0.53 μmol/L), up to Alzheimer’s disease (3.5±0.6 μmol/L) group (p<0.001). The differences were significant for the comparisons: healthy subjects vs. subjective memory complaint, mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease group; and subjective memory complaint vs. Alzheimer’s disease group. Other acyl-carnitines, such as malonyl-, 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-, hexenoyl-, decanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, dodecenoyl-, myristoyl-, tetradecenoyl-, hexadecenoyl-, stearoyl-, oleyl- and linoleyl-L-carnitine, showed a similar decreasing trend, passing from healthy subjects to patients at risk of or with Alzheimer’s disease. These results suggest that serum acetyl-L-carnitine and other acyl-L-carnitine levels decrease along the continuum from healthy subjects to subjective memory complaint and mild cognitive impairment subjects, up to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, and that the metabolism of some acyl-carnitines is finely connected among them. These findings also suggest that the serum levels of acetyl-L-carnitine and other acyl-L-carnitines could help to identify the patients before the phenotype conversion to Alzheimer’s disease and the patients who would benefit from the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine. However, further validation on a larger number of samples in a longitudinal

  7. Room Temperature ICl-Induced Dehydration/Iodination of 1-Acyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles. A Selective Route to Substituted 1-Acyl-4-iodo-1H-pyrazoles

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Jesse P.; Mehta, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    A number of new functionally substituted 1-acyl-5-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles have been prepared in moderate to excellent yields from the corresponding 2-alkyn-1-ones. The resulting dihydropyrazoles undergo dehydration and iodination in the presence of ICl and Li2CO3 at room temperature to provide 1-acyl-4-iodo-1H-pyrazoles. PMID:18665643

  8. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on plasma acylation stimulating protein, leptin, and adiponectin: Relationships with metabolic outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity were determined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty two over...

  9. beta-Lactamase proceeds via an acyl-enzyme intermediate. Interaction of the Escherichia coli RTEM enzyme with cefoxitin.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Belasco, J G; Khosla, S; Knowles, J R

    1980-06-24

    The use of cefoxitin, a poor substrate of the RTEM beta-lactamase, has allowed the kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of a covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The rate of reappearance of catalytic activity in an enzyme sample diluted from an incubation with cefoxitin is nearly identical with the observed Kcat. Burst kinetics are observed with this substrate, consistent with the rate-limiting deacylation of the cefoxitinoyl-enzyme. That the reaction intermediate involves a covalent link between enzyme and substrate was shown by gel filtration after rapid denaturation of an enzyme-[14C]cefoxitin reaction at the steady state. Fourier transform infrared measurements indicate that the intermediate is an acyl-enzyme involving a hydroxyl group of the beta-lactamase. The evident relationship between the acylation-deacylation sequence of the beta-lactamases and the acylation reaction suffered by the D-Ala-D-Ala-carboxypeptidases is discussed.

  10. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in children with non-ketotic hypoglycemia and low carnitine levels.

    PubMed

    Stanley, C A; Hale, D E; Coates, P M; Hall, C L; Corkey, B E; Yang, W; Kelley, R I; Gonzales, E L; Williamson, J R; Baker, L

    1983-11-01

    Three children in two families presented in early childhood with episodes of illness associated with fasting which resembled Reye's syndrome: coma, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and fatty liver. One child died with cerebral edema during an episode. Clinical studies revealed an absence of ketosis on fasting (plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate less than 0.4 mmole/liter) despite elevated levels of free fatty acids (2.6-4.2 mmole/liter) which suggested that hepatic fatty acid oxidation was impaired. Urinary dicarboxylic acids were elevated during illness or fasting. Total carnitine levels were low in plasma (18-25 mumole/liter), liver (200-500 nmole/g), and muscle (500-800 nmole/g); however, treatment with L-carnitine failed to correct the defect in ketogenesis. Studies on ketone production from fatty acid substrates by liver tissue in vitro showed normal rates from short-chain fatty acids, but very low rates from all medium and long-chain fatty acid substrates. These results suggested that the defect was in the mid-portion of the intramitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway at the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase step. A new assay for the electron transfer flavoprotein-linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenases was used to test this hypothesis. This assay follows the decrease in electron transfer flavoprotein fluorescence as it is reduced by acyl-CoA-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase complex. Results with octanoyl-CoA as substrate indicated that patients had less than 2.5% normal activity of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The activities of short-chain and isovaleryl acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were normal; the activity of long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was one-third normal. These results define a previously unrecognized inherited metabolic disorder of fatty acid oxidation due to deficiency of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.

  11. Acyl-chain remodeling of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in de novo and salvage phosphatidylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kishino, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hiroki; Takagi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Dioctanoyl-PC (diC8PC) supported growth of a yeast mutant defective in PC synthesis. • diC8PC was converted to PC species containing longer acyl residues in the mutant. • Both acyl residues of diC8PC were replaced by longer fatty acids in vitro. • This system will contribute to the elucidation of the acyl chain remodeling of PC. - Abstract: A yeast strain, in which endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis is controllable, was constructed by the replacement of the promoter of PCT1, encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, with GAL1 promoter in a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2, encoding phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase, respectively. This mutant did not grow in the glucose-containing medium, but the addition of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (diC8PC) supported its growth. Analyses of the metabolism of {sup 13}C-labeled diC8PC ((methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC) in this strain using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that it was converted to PC species containing acyl residues of 16 or 18 carbons at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. In addition, both acyl residues of (methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC were replaced with 16:1 acyl chains in the in vitro reaction using the yeast cell extract in the presence of palmitoleoyl-CoA. These results indicate that PC containing short acyl residues was remodeled to those with acyl chains of physiological length in yeast.

  12. Defining the structure and function of acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducers.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Mair E A; Sibhatu, Hiruy M; Uhlson, Charis L

    2011-01-01

    Quorum sensing plays a central role in regulating many community-derived symbiotic and pathogenic relationships of bacteria, and as such has attracted much attention in recent years. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are important signaling molecules in the quorum sensing gene-regulatory processes found in numerous gram-negative species of bacteria that interact with eukaryotic organisms. AHLs are produced by acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. Bacteria can have multiple genes for AHL synthase enzymes, and such species are likely to produce several different types of AHLs. Determination of the types and the relative amounts of AHLs produced by AHL synthases in bacteria under varied conditions provides important insights into the mechanism of AHL synthase function and the regulation of transcriptional cascades initiated by quorum sensing signaling. This chapter describes a mass spectrometry method for determining the types and relative amounts of AHLs present in a sample.

  13. New Acylated Flavonol Glycosides and a Phenolic Profile of Pritzelago alpina, a Forgotten Edible Alpine Plant.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Elisabetta; De Mieri, Maria; Cadisch, Larissa; Abbet, Christian; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen acylated flavonoid glycosides, 1-13, including eleven new congeners, 3-13, were isolated from the aerial parts of Pritzelago alpina (Brassicaceae) by a combination of column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20, and preparative and semi-preparative HPLC. The structures were established by extensive NMR and MS experiments in combination with acid hydrolysis and sugar analysis by GC/MS. The new compounds were shown to be kaempferol and quercetin glycosides acylated for most of them by a branched short chain fatty acid or a hydroxycinnamic acid residue on the sugar portion. As shown by a HPLC-DAD analysis of a MeOH extract, these compounds are the main phenolic constituents in the aerial parts of the plant.

  14. N-Acyl-phosphoramidates as potential novel form of gemcitabine prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Baraniak, Janina; Pietkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kaczmarek, Renata; Radzikowska, Ewa; Kulik, Katarzyna; Krolewska, Karolina; Cieslak, Marcin; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Gemcitabine (dFdC) is a cytidine analog remarkably active against a wide range of solid tumors. Inside a cell, gemcitabine is phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase to yield gemcitabine monophosphate, further converted to gemcitabine di- and triphosphate. The most frequent form of acquired resistance to gemcitabine in vitro is the deoxycytidine kinase deficiency. Thus, proper prodrugs carrying the 5'-pdFdC moiety may help to overcome this problem. A series of new derivatives of gemcitabine possessing N-acyl(thio)phosphoramidate moieties were prepared and their cytotoxic properties were determined. N-Acyl-phosphoramidate derivatives of gemcitabine have similar cytotoxicity as gemcitabine itself, and have been found accessible to the cellular enzymes. The nicotinic carboxamide derivative of gemcitabine 5'-O-phosphorothioate occurred to be the best inhibitor of bacterial DNA polymerase I and human DNA polymerase α.

  15. Development of a photochemical source for the production and calibration of acyl peroxynitrate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    A dynamic system for the calibration of acyl peroxynitrate compounds (APNs) has been developed in the laboratory to reduce the difficulty, required time, and stability of laboratory produced standards for difficult to synthesize APN species. In this work we present a photochemical source for the generation of APN standards: acetyl peroxynitrate (PAN), propionyl peroxynitrate (PPN), acryloyl peroxynitrate (APAN), methacryloyl peroxynitrate (MPAN) and crotonyl peroxynitrate (CPAN). APNs are generated via photolysis of a mixture of acyl chloride (RC(O)Cl) and ketone (RC(=O)R) precursor compounds in the presence of O2 and NO2. Subsequent separation by a prep-scale gas chromatograph and detection with a total NOy instrument serves to quantify the output of the APN source. Validation of the APN products was performed using iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (I- CIMS). This method of standard production is an efficient and accurate technique for the calibration of instrumentation used to measure PAN, PPN, APAN, MPAN, and CPAN.

  16. [Antibacterial Activity of Alkylated and Acylated Derivatives of Low-Molecular Weight Chitosan].

    PubMed

    Shagdarova, B Ts; Il'ina, A V; Varlamov, V P

    2016-01-01

    A number of alkylated (quaternized) and acylated derivatives of low-molecular weight chitosan were obtained. The structure and composition of the compounds were confirmed by the results of IR and PMR spectroscopy, as well as conductometric titration. The effect of the acyl substituent and the degree of substitution of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) with the propyl fragment appended to amino groups of the C2 atom of polymer chains on antibacterial activity against typical representatives of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) was studied. The highest activity was in the case of N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride with the maximal substitution (98%). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the derivative was 0.48 µg/mL and 3.90 µg/mL for S. epidermis and E. coli, respectively.

  17. Acyl migration evaluation in monoacylglycerols from Echium plantagineum seed oil and Marinol.

    PubMed

    Rincón Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Venegas Venegas, Elena; Ramos Bueno, Rebeca; Rodríguez García, Ignacio; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

    2013-05-01

    Production of 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by selective hydrolysis of the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of Echium plantagineum seed oil and Marinol and further purification was carried out. Three purification methods, including silica gel column chromatography, liquid-liquid extraction and low-temperature crystallization were assayed. Partial acyl migration during the purification step is always observed. Acyl migration rates were similar both for the column chromatography and for the liquid-liquid extraction methods, and resulted in 1-MAG/2-MAG ratios higher than 1.0. Fatty acid (FA) profiles of 2-MAGs after enzyme hydrolysis showed that the major FAs were stearidonic acid (56.9% of total FA in 2-position) and docosahexaenoic acid (63.6% of total FA in 2-position) for E. plantagineum seed oil and Marinol, respectively.

  18. Defining the structure and function of acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducers

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Mair E.A.; Sibhatu, Hiruy M.; Uhlson, Charis L.

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing plays a central role in regulating many community derived symbiotic and pathogenic relationships of bacteria, and as such has attracted much attention in recent years. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are important signaling molecules in the quorum sensing gene regulatory processes found in numerous gram-negative species of bacteria that interact with eukaryotic organisms. AHLs are produced by acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. Bacteria can have multiple genes for AHL synthase enzymes, and such species are likely to produce several different types of AHLs. Determination of the types and the relative amounts of AHLs produced by AHL synthases in bacteria under varied conditions provides important insights into the mechanism of AHL synthase function and the regulation of transcriptional cascades initiated by quorum sensing signaling. This chapter describes a mass spectrometry method for determining the types and relative amounts of AHLs present in a sample. PMID:21031311

  19. Efficient regioselective acylation of quercetin using Rhizopus oryzae lipase and its potential as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Jahan, Firdaus; Mahajan, Richi V; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation describes the regioselective enzymatic acylation of quercetin with ferulic acid using Rhizopus oryzae lipase. Optimization of reaction parameters resulted in 93.2% yield of the ester synthesized using 750IU of lipase in cyclo-octane at a temperature of 45°C. The reaction was successfully carried out upto 25g scale. The ester synthesized was analyzed by (1)H Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The ester synthesized (quercetin ferulate) showed higher antiradical activity as compared to ascorbic acid using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. These results on enzyme-catalyzed acylation of quercetin might be used to prepare and scale-up other flavonoids derivatives.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing regulation in Yersinia pestis [corrected].

    PubMed

    LaRock, Christopher N; Yu, Jing; Horswill, Alexander R; Parsek, Matthew R; Minion, F Chris

    2013-01-01

    The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature.

  1. Effects of Nanoparticle Morphology and Acyl Chain Length on Spontaneous Lipid Transfer Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Charubin, Kamil; Liu, Ying; Heberle, Frederick A.; Katsaras, John; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C14, DMPC) in discoidal “bicelles” (0.156 h–1) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10–3 h–1). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C14 DMPC to di-C16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. Finally, the present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.

  2. Effects of Nanoparticle Morphology and Acyl Chain Length on Spontaneous Lipid Transfer Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Charubin, Kamil; ...

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C14, DMPC) in discoidal “bicelles” (0.156 h–1) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10–3 h–1). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C14 DMPC to di-C16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlationmore » spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. Finally, the present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.« less

  3. Defect/Edge-Selective Functionalization of Carbon Materials by "Direct" Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Tan, Loon-Seng; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2017-02-21

    Popularly utilized oxidation media, via nitric acid/sulfuric acid mixtures, are too corrosive and oxidizing to preserve structural integrity of highly ordered graphitic materials (carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene). Here, for the most commonly used oxidation method, the important advantages of defect/edge-selective functionalization of carbon materials (CNTs/graphene/graphite) in a polyphosphoric acid (PPA)/phosphorous pentoxide (P2 O5 ) medium are elucidated. The optimized PPA/P2 O5 medium is a mild acid that is not only less corrosive than popularly utilized oxidation media, but also has a strong capability to drive Friedel-Crafts acylation by covalently modifying carbon materials. With a broader spectrum of functional groups accessible, the PPA/P2 O5 -driven Friedel-Crafts acylation offers more options for tailoring the properties and processing of carbon materials.

  4. Acyl chain conformations in phospholipid bilayers: a comparative study of docosahexaenoic acid and saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Feller, Scott E

    2008-05-01

    A variety of experimental methods indicate unique biophysical properties of membranes containing the highly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the following we review the atomically detailed picture of DHA acyl chains structure and dynamics that has emerged from computational studies of this system in our lab. A comprehensive approach, beginning with ab-initio quantum chemical studies of model compounds representing segments of DHA and ending with large scale classical molecular dynamics simulations of DHA-containing bilayers, is described with particular attention paid to contrasting the properties of DHA with those of saturated fatty acids. Connection with experiment is made primarily through comparison with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies, particularly those that probe details of the chain structure and dynamics. Our computational results suggest that low torsional energy barriers, comparable to kT at physiological conditions, for the rotatable bonds in the DHA chain are the key to the differences observed between polyunsaturated and saturated acyl chains.

  5. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Pumpkin Short-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Oxidase with Structural Similarity to Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Luigi; Gonzali, Silvia; Alpi, Amedeo; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2000-01-01

    A novel pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase (ACOX) was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic-interaction, hydroxyapatite, affinity, and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme is a tetrameric protein, consisting of apparently identical 47-kD subunits. The protein structure of this oxidase differs from other plant and mammalian ACOXs, but is similar to the protein structure of mammalian mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACDH) and the recently identified plant mitochondrial ACDH. Subcellular organelle separation by sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the enzyme is localized in glyoxysomes, whereas no immunoreactive bands of similar molecular weight were detected in mitochondrial fractions. The enzyme selectively catalyzes the oxidation of CoA esters of fatty acids with 4 to 10 carbon atoms, and exhibits the highest activity on C-6 fatty acids. Apparently, the enzyme has no activity on CoA esters of branched-chain or dicarboxylic fatty acids. The enzyme is slightly inhibited by high concentrations of substrate and it is not inhibited by Triton X-100 at concentrations up to 0.5% (v/v). The characteristics of this novel ACOX enzyme are discussed in relation to other ACOXs and ACDHs. PMID:10806249

  6. Lipid membranes and acyl-CoA esters promote opposing effects on acyl-CoA binding protein structure and stability.

    PubMed

    Micheletto, Mariana C; Mendes, Luís F S; Basso, Luis G M; Fonseca, Raquel G; Costa-Filho, Antonio J

    2017-04-05

    Acyl-CoA Binding Proteins (ACBP) form a housekeeping family of proteins that is responsible for the buffering of long chain acyl-coenzyme A esters (LCFA-CoA) inside the cell. Even though numerous studies have focused on the characterization of different members of the ACBP family, the knowledge about the impact of both LCFA-CoA and phospholipids on ACBP structure and stability remains scarce. Besides, there are still controversies regarding the possible interaction of ACBP with biological membranes, even though this might be essential for the cargo capture and delivery. In this study, we observed that LCFA-CoA and phospholipids play opposite roles on protein stability and that the interaction with the membrane is dictated by electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, the results support the hypothesis that the LCFA-CoA delivery is driven by the increase of the negative charge on the membrane surface. The combined influence played by the different molecules on ACBP structure is discussed on the light of cargo capture/delivery giving new insights about this important process.

  7. Silencing the expression of mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase I and acyl-CoA synthetase 4 inhibits hormone-induced steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Paula; Castilla, Rocío; Castillo, Fernanda; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Mendez, Carlos F; Paz, Cristina; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2005-04-01

    Arachidonic acid and its lypoxygenated metabolites play a fundamental role in the hormonal regulation of steroidogenesis. Reduction in the expression of the mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase (MTE-I) by antisense or small interfering RNA (siRNA) and of the arachidonic acid-preferring acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS4) by siRNA produced a marked reduction in steroid output of cAMP-stimulated Leydig cells. This effect was blunted by a permeable analog of cholesterol that bypasses the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. The inhibition of steroidogenesis was overcome by addition of exogenous arachidonic acid, indicating that the enzymes are part of the mechanism responsible for arachidonic acid release involved in steroidogenesis. Knocking down the expression of MTE-I leads to a significant reduction in the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. This protein is induced by arachidonic acid and controls the rate-limiting step. Overexpression of MTE-I resulted in an increase in cAMP-induced steroidogenesis. In summary, our results demonstrate a critical role for ACS4 and MTE-I in the hormonal regulation of steroidogenesis as a new pathway of arachidonic acid release different from the classical phospholipase A2 cascade.

  8. Novel endogenous N-acyl amides activate TRPV1-4 receptors, BV-2 microglia, and are regulated in brain in an acute model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Raboune, Siham; Stuart, Jordyn M.; Leishman, Emma; Takacs, Sara M.; Rhodes, Brandon; Basnet, Arjun; Jameyfield, Evan; McHugh, Douglas; Widlanski, Theodore; Bradshaw, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    A family of endogenous lipids, structurally analogous to the endogenous cannabinoid, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (Anandamide), and called N-acyl amides have emerged as a family of biologically active compounds at TRP receptors. N-acyl amides are constructed from an acyl group and an amine via an amide bond. This same structure can be modified by changing either the fatty acid or the amide to form potentially hundreds of lipids. More than 70 N-acyl amides have been identified in nature. We have ongoing studies aimed at isolating and characterizing additional members of the family of N-acyl amides in both central and peripheral tissues in mammalian systems. Here, using a unique in-house library of over 70 N-acyl amides we tested the following three hypotheses: (1) Additional N-acyl amides will have activity at TRPV1-4, (2) Acute peripheral injury will drive changes in CNS levels of N-acyl amides, and (3) N-acyl amides will regulate calcium in CNS-derived microglia. Through these studies, we have identified 20 novel N-acyl amides that collectively activate (stimulating or inhibiting) TRPV1-4. Using lipid extraction and HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry we showed that levels of at least 10 of these N-acyl amides that activate TRPVs are regulated in brain after intraplantar carrageenan injection. We then screened the BV2 microglial cell line for activity with this N-acyl amide library and found overlap with TRPV receptor activity as well as additional activators of calcium mobilization from these lipids. Together these data provide new insight into the family of N-acyl amides and their roles as signaling molecules at ion channels, in microglia, and in the brain in the context of inflammation. PMID:25136293

  9. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaohui; Wu, Qian; Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O; Sederoff, Heike W; Qu, Rongda

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  10. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O.; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production. PMID:28212406

  11. Ultraviolet stimulated melanogenesis by human melanocytes is augmented by di-acyl glycerol but not TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Wren, F.E.; Matthews, J.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Epidermal melanocytes (MC) synthesize melanin in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The mechanisms mediating the UV-induced activation of melanogenesis are unknown but since UVR induces turnover of membrane phospholipids generating prostaglandins (PGs) and other products, it is possible that one of these might provide the activating signal. We have examined the effects of prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2, D2, F2 alpha, and di-acyl glycerol upon the UV-induced responses of cultured human MC and the Cloudman S91 melanoma cell line. The PGs had little effect on unirradiated cells and did not alter the response to UVR in either human MC or S91 melanoma cells. However, a synthetic analogue of di-acyl glycerol, 1-oleyl 2-acetyl glycerol (OAG), caused a significant (P less than 0.0001), dose-related augmentation of melanin content both in human MC (seven-fold) and S91 cells (three-fold). UVR caused a significant augmentation of the OAG-induced melanogenesis of both human MC and S91 cells. Since OAG is known to activate protein kinase C, it was possible that the observed modulation of the UVR signal could be via that pathway. Di-octanoyl glycerol, another di-acyl glycerol, which activates kinase C, caused a small (70%) increase in melanogenesis in MC which was not altered by UVR. However, 12-0 tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C, had no significant effect on either basal or UV-induced melanin synthesis in either cell type. These data suggest that the UV-induced signal activating melanogenesis could be mediated by di-acyl glycerol. Furthermore, they imply that the signal is transduced via an alternative, pathway that might be independent of protein kinase C.

  12. Acyl-CoA oxidase complexes control the chemical message produced by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxing; Feng, Likui; Chinta, Satya; Singh, Prashant; Wang, Yuting; Nunnery, Joshawna K; Butcher, Rebecca A

    2015-03-31

    Caenorhabditis elegans uses ascaroside pheromones to induce development of the stress-resistant dauer larval stage and to coordinate various behaviors. Peroxisomal β-oxidation cycles are required for the biosynthesis of the fatty acid-derived side chains of the ascarosides. Here we show that three acyl-CoA oxidases, which catalyze the first step in these β-oxidation cycles, form different protein homo- and heterodimers with distinct substrate preferences. Mutations in the acyl-CoA oxidase genes acox-1, -2, and -3 led to specific defects in ascaroside production. When the acyl-CoA oxidases were expressed alone or in pairs and purified, the resulting acyl-CoA oxidase homo- and heterodimers displayed different side-chain length preferences in an in vitro activity assay. Specifically, an ACOX-1 homodimer controls the production of ascarosides with side chains with nine or fewer carbons, an ACOX-1/ACOX-3 heterodimer controls the production of those with side chains with seven or fewer carbons, and an ACOX-2 homodimer controls the production of those with ω-side chains with less than five carbons. Our results support a biosynthetic model in which β-oxidation enzymes act directly on the CoA-thioesters of ascaroside biosynthetic precursors. Furthermore, we identify environmental conditions, including high temperature and low food availability, that induce the expression of acox-2 and/or acox-3 and lead to corresponding changes in ascaroside production. Thus, our work uncovers an important mechanism by which C. elegans increases the production of the most potent dauer pheromones, those with the shortest side chains, under specific environmental conditions.

  13. Acyl-CoA oxidase complexes control the chemical message produced by Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxing; Feng, Likui; Chinta, Satya; Singh, Prashant; Wang, Yuting; Nunnery, Joshawna K.; Butcher, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans uses ascaroside pheromones to induce development of the stress-resistant dauer larval stage and to coordinate various behaviors. Peroxisomal β-oxidation cycles are required for the biosynthesis of the fatty acid-derived side chains of the ascarosides. Here we show that three acyl-CoA oxidases, which catalyze the first step in these β-oxidation cycles, form different protein homo- and heterodimers with distinct substrate preferences. Mutations in the acyl-CoA oxidase genes acox-1, -2, and -3 led to specific defects in ascaroside production. When the acyl-CoA oxidases were expressed alone or in pairs and purified, the resulting acyl-CoA oxidase homo- and heterodimers displayed different side-chain length preferences in an in vitro activity assay. Specifically, an ACOX-1 homodimer controls the production of ascarosides with side chains with nine or fewer carbons, an ACOX-1/ACOX-3 heterodimer controls the production of those with side chains with seven or fewer carbons, and an ACOX-2 homodimer controls the production of those with ω-side chains with less than five carbons. Our results support a biosynthetic model in which β-oxidation enzymes act directly on the CoA-thioesters of ascaroside biosynthetic precursors. Furthermore, we identify environmental conditions, including high temperature and low food availability, that induce the expression of acox-2 and/or acox-3 and lead to corresponding changes in ascaroside production. Thus, our work uncovers an important mechanism by which C. elegans increases the production of the most potent dauer pheromones, those with the shortest side chains, under specific environmental conditions. PMID:25775534

  14. Arylpiperazines with N-acylated amino acids as 5-HT1A receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2006-07-01

    A library consisting of 60 arylpiperazines modified with N-acylated amino acids was prepared on BAL linker SynPhasetrade mark Lanterns and evaluated in vitro for 5-HT(1A) receptor affinity. Biological screening, followed by a simple Fujita-Ban analysis, enabled the description of structure-activity relationships and allowed the selection of some potent, high-affinity ligands for in vivo pharmacological investigations.

  15. Syntheses of Papyracillic Acids: Application of the Tandem Chain Extension-Acylation Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Jennifer R.; Zercher, Charles K.

    2012-01-01

    A synthetic approach to the papyracillic acid family of natural products has been developed. The spiroacetal core is rapidly assembled through an unprecedented zinc carbenoid-mediated tandem chain extension-acylation reaction. Subsequent functional group manipulation provided access to papyracillic acid B and 4-epi-papyracillic acid C. The successful preparation of these molecules resulted in the clarification of structural assignments of members of this family of natural products. PMID:23013246

  16. An Arabidopsis family of six acyl-CoA-binding proteins has three cytosolic members.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chye, Mee-Len

    2009-06-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene family of six members encodes acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs). These Arabidopsis ACBPs (designated ACBP1 to ACBP6) range in size from 10.4kDa to 73.1kDa and display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters, suggesting that they have different roles in plant lipid metabolism. In contrast, only the 10-kDa ACBPs have been well-characterized from other eukaryote species. Our previous studies have revealed that ACBP1 and ACBP2 are membrane-associated proteins, while ACBP3 is extracellularly-targeted. More recently, we have reported that the remaining three members in this protein family (namely ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6) are subcellularly localized to the cytosol in Arabidopsis. The subcellular localizations of ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6 in the cytosol were demonstrated using a number of different approaches incorporating biochemical fractionation, confocal microscopy of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged fusions and immunoelectron microscopy using ACBP-specific antibodies. Our results indicate that all three ACBPs in the cytosol are potential candidates for acyl-CoA binding and trafficking in plant cells. In this review, the functional redundancy and differences among the three cytosolic ACBPs are discussed by comparison of their light-regulated expression and substrate affinities to acyl-CoA esters, and from biochemical analyses on their knockout mutants and/or overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis. The transcriptionally light-induced ACBP4 and ACBP5, which encode the two largest forms of Arabidopsis ACBPs, bind oleoyl-CoA esters and likely transfer oleoyl-CoAs from the plastids (the site of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis) to the endoplasmic reticulum for the biosynthesis of non-plastidial membrane lipids in Arabidopsis.

  17. Phase behavior and nanoscale structure of phospholipid membranes incorporated with acylated C14-peptides.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Tina B; Kaasgaard, Thomas; Jensen, Morten Ø; Frokjaer, Sven; Mouritsen, Ole G; Jørgensen, Kent

    2005-10-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior and lateral structure of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers containing an acylated peptide has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on vesicles and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on mica-supported bilayers. The acylated peptide, which is a synthetic decapeptide N-terminally linked to a C14 acyl chain (C14-peptide), is incorporated into DPPC bilayers in amounts ranging from 0-20 mol %. The calorimetric scans of the two-component system demonstrate a distinct influence of the C14-peptide on the lipid bilayer thermodynamics. This is manifested as a concentration-dependent downshift of both the main phase transition and the pretransition. In addition, the main phase transition peak is significantly broadened, indicating phase coexistence. In the AFM imaging scans we found that the C14-peptide, when added to supported gel phase DPPC bilayers, inserts preferentially into preexisting defect regions and has a noticeable influence on the organization of the surrounding lipids. The presence of the C14-peptide gives rise to a laterally heterogeneous bilayer structure with coexisting lipid domains characterized by a 10 A height difference. The AFM images also show that the appearance of the ripple phase of the DPPC lipid bilayers is unaffected by the C14-peptide. The experimental results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which show that the C14-peptide has a disordering effect on the lipid acyl chains and causes a lateral expansion of the lipid bilayer. These effects are most pronounced for gel-like bilayer structures and support the observed downshift in the phase-transition temperature. Moreover, the molecular dynamics data indicate a tendency of a tryptophan residue in the peptide sequence to position itself in the bilayer headgroup region.

  18. Syntheses and Antibacterial Activity of N-Acylated Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Based on the Trimethyl Lock

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several N-acyl ciprofloxacin quinone derivatives based on a trimethyl lock structure were synthesized, and their in vitro antibacterial activity against a panel of clinically relevant bacteria was evaluated. A few new analogues displayed enhanced activity against Gram-positive species compared to the parent drug. Additionally, studies of 8-Cip, which was the most potent compound tested, indicate that it may act through a dual-action mechanism. PMID:26101578

  19. The structural basis of acyl coenzyme A-dependent regulation of the transcription factor FadR

    PubMed Central

    van Aalten, Daan M.F.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Knudsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    FadR is an acyl-CoA-responsive transcription factor, regulating fatty acid biosynthetic and degradation genes in Escherichia coli. The apo-protein binds DNA as a homodimer, an interaction that is disrupted by binding of acyl-CoA. The recently described structure of apo-FadR shows a DNA binding domain coupled to an acyl-CoA binding domain with a novel fold, but does not explain how binding of the acyl-CoA effector molecule >30 Å away from the DNA binding site affects transcriptional regulation. Here, we describe the structures of the FadR–operator and FadR– myristoyl-CoA binary complexes. The FadR–DNA complex reveals a novel winged helix–turn–helix protein–DNA interaction, involving sequence-specific contacts from the wing to the minor groove. Binding of acyl-CoA results in dramatic conformational changes throughout the protein, with backbone shifts up to 4.5 Å. The net effect is a rearrangement of the DNA binding domains in the dimer, resulting in a change of 7.2 Å in separation of the DNA recognition helices and the loss of DNA binding, revealing the molecular basis of acyl-CoA-responsive regulation. PMID:11296236

  20. Density functional theory studies on the nano-scaled composites consisted of graphene and acyl hydrazone molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, J. L.; Zhou, L.; Lv, Z. C.; Ding, C. H.; Wu, Y. H.; Bai, H. C.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, which is the first obtained single atomic layer 2D materials, has drawn a great of concern in nano biotechnology due to the unique property. On one hand, acyl hydrazone compounds belonging to the Schif bases have aroused considerable attention in medicine, pharmacy, and analytical reagent. However, few understanding about the interaction between graphene and acyl hydrazone molecules is now available. And such investigations are much crucial for the applications of these new nano-scaled composites. The current work revealed theoretical investigations on the nano-scaled composites built by acyl hydrazone molecules loaded on the surface of graphene. The relative energy, electronic property and the interaction between the counterparts of graphene/acyl hydrazone composites are investigated based on the density functional theory calculations. According to the obtained adsorption energy, the formation of the nano-scaled composite from the isolated graphene and acyl hydrazone molecule is exothermic, and thus it is energetically favorable to form these nano composites in viewpoint of total energy change. The frontier molecular orbital for the nano composite is mainly distributed at the graphene part, leading to that the energy levels of the frontier molecular orbital of the nano composites are very close to that of isolated graphene. Moreover, the counterpart interaction for the graphene/acyl hydrazone composites is also explored based on the discussions of orbital hybridization, charge redistribution and Van der Waals interaction.

  1. Formation of acylated growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 by poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and its biological activity.

    PubMed

    Na, Dong Hee; Lee, Jeong Eun; Jang, Sun Woo; Lee, Kang Choon

    2007-06-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the formation of acylated impurity resulting from a chemical reaction between the growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and the effect of peptide acylation on the in vivo biological activity of GHRP-6. The peptide acylation pattern of GHRP-6 by hydrophilic PLGA polymers with different molecular weights was characterized by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Higher levels of acylated GHRP-6 were produced with the higher molecular weight PLGA, which might be due to the slower degradation rate of the polymer. The evaluation of the biological activity in rats showed that the acylated GHRP-6 had a much lower activity than the intact GHRP-6. This finding suggests that the acylation reaction would decrease the effectiveness of the GHRP-6 formulation such as PLGA microspheres. Therefore, a strategy for stabilizing the GHRP-6 will be necessary for the development of a successful formulation of PLGA microspheres.

  2. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog.

    PubMed Central

    van de Loo, F J; Broun, P; Turner, S; Somerville, C

    1995-01-01

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with approximately 67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624314

  3. Acylated pelargonidin glycosides in the red-purple flowers of Pharbitis nil.

    PubMed

    Lu, T S; Saito, N; Yokoi, M; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    1992-01-01

    Four acylated pelargonidin glycosides and pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside were isolated from 23 red-purple cultivars of Pharbitis nil. The acylated anthocyanins were all based on pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside and were identified as the 3-O-[2-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-caffeyl)-beta-D- glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside), the 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside), the 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta- D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-caffeyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta- D-glucopyranoside); and the 3-O-[2-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(trans-4-O-(6-O-(trans-3-O-(beta-D- glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)- beta-D-glucopyranosyl)caffeyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-5-O-(beta-D- glucopyranoside). By the analysis of these anthocyanin constituents variously in 23 cultivars, it was found that the red flower colour gradually changed into more bluish colour with increasing numbers of caffeic acid residues in the acylated pelargonidin glycosides. The stabilities of these anthocyanins increased in the order of increasing caffeyl substitution.

  4. Spectral and colorimetric characteristics of metal chelates of acylated cyanidin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, G T; Robbins, R J; Collins, T M; Giusti, M M

    2017-04-15

    Colorants derived from nature are increasingly popular due to consumer demand. Anthocyanins are a class of naturally occurring pigments that produce red-purple-blue hues in nature, especially when interacting with metal ions and co-pigments. The role of various acylations of cyanidin (Cy) derivatives on color expression and stability of Al(3+) and Fe(3+) chelates in pH 6-7 were evaluated by spectrophotometry (380-700nm) and colorimetry (CIE-L(∗)a(∗)b(∗)) during dark, ambient storage (48h). Increased substitution generally increased λmax of Cy chelates: malonic acid monoacylationAcyl moieties of diacylated Cy with smaller substitution patterns resulted in greater λmax, and no pattern emerged for monoacylated cyanidin. Pigment stability was improved with increasing proportions of metal ions and acylation. Stability followed that diacylated cyanidin (p-coumaric-sinapic>ferulic-sinapic>sinapic-sinapic)>monoacylated (malonic≈sinapic>ferulic>p-coumaric).

  5. Poly specific trans-acyltransferase machinery revealed via engineered acyl-CoA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Koryakina, Irina; McArthur, John; Randall, Shan; Draelos, Matthew M; Musiol, Ewa M; Muddiman, David C; Weber, Tilmann; Williams, Gavin J

    2013-01-18

    Polyketide synthases construct polyketides with diverse structures and biological activities via the condensation of extender units and acyl thioesters. Although a growing body of evidence suggests that polyketide synthases might be tolerant to non-natural extender units, in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at probing and utilizing polyketide synthase specificity are severely limited to only a small number of extender units, owing to the lack of synthetic routes to a broad variety of acyl-CoA extender units. Here, we report the construction of promiscuous malonyl-CoA synthetase variants that can be used to synthesize a broad range of malonyl-CoA extender units substituted at the C2-position, several of which contain handles for chemoselective ligation and are not found in natural biosynthetic systems. We highlighted utility of these enzymes by probing the acyl-CoA specificity of several trans-acyltransferases, leading to the unprecedented discovery of poly specificity toward non-natural extender units, several of which are not found in naturally occurring biosynthetic pathways. These results reveal that polyketide biosynthetic machinery might be more tolerant to non-natural substrates than previously established, and that mutant synthetases are valuable tools for probing the specificity of biosynthetic machinery. Our data suggest new synthetic biology strategies for harnessing this promiscuity and enabling the regioselective modification of polyketides.

  6. Cationic amphiphiles with fatty acyl chain asymmetry of coconut oil deliver genes selectively to mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, Voshavar; Srujan, Marepally; Prabhakar, Rairala; Reddy, Rakesh C; Sreedhar, Bojja; Rentam, Kiran K R; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2011-03-16

    Recent structure-activity studies have revealed a dramatic influence of hydrophobic chain asymmetry in enhancing gene delivery efficacies of synthetic cationic amphiphiles (Nantz, M. H. et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics2010, 7, 786-794; Koynova, R. et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics2009, 6, 951-958). The present findings demonstrate for the first time that such a transfection enhancing influence of asymmetric hydrocarbon chains observed in pure synthetic cationic amphiphiles also works for cationic amphiphiles designed with natural, asymmetric fatty acyl chains of a food-grade oil. Herein, we demonstrate that cationic amphiphiles designed with the natural fatty acyl chain asymmetry of food-grade coconut oil are less cytotoxic and deliver genes selectively to mouse lung. Despite lauroyl chains being the major fatty acyl chains of coconut oil, both the in vitro and In vivo gene transfer efficiencies of such cationic amphiphiles were found to be remarkably superior (>4-fold) to those of their pure dilauroyl analogue. Mechanistic studies involving the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) revealed higher biomembrane fusibility of the cationic liposomes of the coconut amphiphiles than that of the symmetric dilauroyl analogue. AFM study revealed pronounced fusogenic nonlamellar structures of the liposomes of coconut amphiphiles. Findings in the FRET and cellular uptake study, taken together, support the notion that the higher cellular uptake resulting from the more fusogenic nature of the liposomes of coconut amphiphiles 1 are likely to play a dominant role in making the coconut amphiphiles transfection competent.

  7. Comparison of the lipid acyl chain dynamics between small and large unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, L S; Ellena, J F; Cafiso, D S

    1992-01-01

    13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation (T1) rates and 13C-1H nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) were measured in an identical fashion in two lipid preparations having dramatically different curvatures. The T1 times that were obtained at four magnetic field strengths were fit along with the NOEs to simple models for lipid molecular dynamics. The results indicate that phospholipid chain ordering and dynamics are virtually identical in small and large unilamellar vesicles at the time scales sampled by these 13C-NMR studies. The order parameters and reorientational correlation times that characterize the amplitudes and rates of internal acyl chain motions were equal within experimental error for the methylene segments in the middle of the chains. The only significant differences in order parameters and correlation times between the two vesicle types were small and appeared at the ends of the acyl chains. At the carbonyl end the order was slightly higher in small vesicles than large vesicles, and at the methyl end the order was slightly lower for small vesicles. This indicates that in the more planar systems the acyl chains exhibit a slightly flatter order profile than in more highly curved membranes. The use of the same experimental approach in both small and large vesicle systems provided a more reliable and accurate assessment of the effect of curvature on molecular order than has been previously obtained. PMID:1504247

  8. In vitro acylation of okadaic acid in the presence of various bivalves' extracts.

    PubMed

    Konoki, Keiichi; Onoda, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Cho, Yuko; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2013-01-29

    The dinoflagellate Dinophysis spp. is responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In the bivalves exposed to the toxic bloom of the dinoflagellate, dinophysistoxin 3 (DTX3), the 7-OH acylated form of either okadaic acid (OA) or DTX1, is produced. We demonstrated in vitro acylation of OA with palmitoyl CoA in the presence of protein extract from the digestive gland, but not other tissues of the bivalve Mizuhopecten yessoensis. The yield of 7-O-palmitoyl OA reached its maximum within 2 h, was the highest at 37 °C followed by 28 °C, 16 °C and 4 °C and was the highest at pH 8 in comparison with the yields at pH 6 and pH 4. The transformation also proceeded when the protein extract was prepared from the bivalves Corbicula japonica and Crassostrea gigas. The OA binding protein OABP2 identified in the sponge Halichondria okadai was not detected in the bivalve M. yessoensis, the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis and the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi, though they are known to accumulate diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins. Since DTX3 does not bind to protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, the physiological target for OA and DTXs in mammalian cells, the acylation of DSP toxins would be related to a detoxification mechanism for the bivalve species.

  9. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Van De Loo, F.J.; Broun, P.; Turner, S.; Somerville, C.

    1995-07-18

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with {approx}67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Hepatic fatty acid uptake is regulated by the sphingolipid acyl chain length

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Jae; Park, Joo-Won; Merrill, Alfred H.; Storch, Judith; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) null mice cannot synthesize very-long acyl chain (C22-C24) ceramides resulting in significant alterations in the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids. We now demonstrate that hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) levels are reduced in liver but not in adipose tissue or skeletal muscle in the CerS2 null mouse, both before and after feeding with a high fat diet (HFD), where no weight gain was observed and large hepatic nodules appeared. Uptake of both BODIPY-palmitate and [3H]-palmitate were also abrogated in hepatocytes and liver. The role of a number of key proteins involved in fatty acid uptake was examined, including FATP5, CD36/FAT, FABPpm and cytoplasmic FABP1. Levels of FATP5 and FABP1 were decreased in CerS2 null mouse liver, whereas CD36/FAT levels were significantly elevated and CD36/FAT was also mislocalized upon insulin treatment. Moreover, treatment of hepatocytes with C22-C24-ceramides down-regulated CD36/FAT levels. Infection of CerS2 null mice with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-CerS2 restored normal TG levels and corrected the mislocalization of CD36/FAT, but had no effect on the intracellular localization or levels of FATP5 or FABP1. Together, these results demonstrate that hepatic fatty acid uptake via CD36/FAT can be regulated by altering the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids. PMID:25241943

  11. Acyl-CoA thioesterase-2 facilitates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in the liver[S

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, Cynthia; Bhatia, Lavesh; Nguyen, Teresa; Lynch, Peter; Wang, Miao; Wang, Dongning; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Han, Xianlin; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Claypool, Steven M.; Seifert, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot)2 localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and hydrolyses long-chain fatty acyl-CoA into free FA and CoASH. Acot2 is expressed in highly oxi­dative tissues and is poised to modulate mitochondrial FA oxidation (FAO), yet its biological role is unknown. Using a model of adenoviral Acot2 overexpression in mouse liver (Ad-Acot2), we show that Acot2 increases the utilization of FA substrate during the daytime in ad libitum-fed mice, but the nighttime switch to carbohydrate oxidation is similar to control mice. In further support of elevated FAO in Acot2 liver, daytime serum ketones were higher in Ad-Acot2 mice, and overnight fasting led to minimal hepatic steatosis as compared with control mice. In liver mitochondria from Ad-Acot2 mice, phosphorylating O2 consumption was higher with lipid substrate, but not with nonlipid substrate. This increase depended on whether FA could be activated on the outer mitochondrial membrane, suggesting that the FA released by Acot2 could be effluxed from mitochondria then taken back up again for oxidation. This circuit would prevent the build-up of inhibitory long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters. Altogether, our findings indicate that Acot2 can enhance FAO, possibly by mitigating the accumulation of FAO intermediates within the mitochondrial matrix. PMID:25114170

  12. Structural identification of skin ceramides containing ω-hydroxy acyl chains using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhexue; Shon, Jong Cheol; Kim, Jong Yei; Cho, Yunhi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) acts as a barrier that protects organisms against the environment and from transepidermal water loss. It consists of corneocytes embedded in a matrix of lipid metabolites (ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids). Of these lipids, ceramides are sphingolipids consisting of sphingoid bases, linked to fatty acyl chains. Typical fatty acid acyl chains are composed of α-hydroxy fatty acids (A), esterified ω-hydroxy fatty acids (EO), non-hydroxy fatty acids (N), and ω-hydroxy fatty acids (O). Of these, O-type ceramides are ester-linked via their ω-hydroxyl group to proteins in the cornified envelope and can be released and extracted following mild alkaline hydrolysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of O-type ceramides using chip-based direct infusion nanoelectrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry generated the characteristic fragmentation pattern of both acyl and sphingoid units, suggesting that this method could be applied to the structural identification of O-type ceramides. Based on the MS/MS fragmentation patterns of O-type ceramides, comprehensive fragmentation schemes are proposed. In addition, we have also developed a method for identifying and profiling O-type ceramides in the mouse and guinea pig SC. This information may be used to identify O-type ceramides in the SC of animal skin.

  13. Characterization of acyl chain position in unsaturated phosphatidylcholines using differential mobility-mass spectrometry[S

    PubMed Central

    Maccarone, Alan T.; Duldig, Jackson; Mitchell, Todd W.; Blanksby, Stephen J.; Duchoslav, Eva; Campbell, J. Larry

    2014-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids (GPs) that differ in the relative position of the two fatty acyl chains on the glycerol backbone (i.e., sn-positional isomers) can have distinct physicochemical properties. The unambiguous assignment of acyl chain position to an individual GP represents a significant analytical challenge. Here we describe a workflow where phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are subjected to ESI for characterization by a combination of differential mobility spectrometry and MS (DMS-MS). When infused as a mixture, ions formed from silver adduction of each phospholipid isomer {e.g., [PC (16:0/18:1) + Ag]+ and [PC (18:1/16:0) + Ag]+} are transmitted through the DMS device at discrete compensation voltages. Varying their relative amounts allows facile and unambiguous assignment of the sn-positions of the fatty acyl chains for each isomer. Integration of the well-resolved ion populations provides a rapid method (< 3 min) for relative quantification of these lipid isomers. The DMS-MS results show excellent agreement with established, but time-consuming, enzymatic approaches and also provide superior accuracy to methods that rely on MS alone. The advantages of this DMS-MS method in identification and quantification of GP isomer populations is demonstrated by direct analysis of complex biological extracts without any prior fractionation. PMID:24939921

  14. Modifications of the acyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine terminus affecting complex-formation with vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, M.; Perkins, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    Vancomycin forms complexes with peptides terminating in d-alanyl-d-alanine that are analogous to the biosynthetic precursors of bacterial mucopeptides. The specificity of complex-formation has been studied by means of many synthetic peptides, prepared by both solid-phase and conventional methods. The following conclusions can be drawn: (a) three amide linkages are required to form a stable complex; (b) the terminal carboxyl group must be free; (c) the carboxyl terminal and subterminal residues must be either glycine or of the d-configuration; (d) the size of the side chain in these residues greatly influences the affinity for vancomycin, a methyl group being the optimum in each case; (e) the nature of the side chain in the third and fourth residues has a smaller effect on complex-formation, but an l-configuration was somewhat better than a d-configuration in the third position. In addition to acyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine, other peptides that occur in bacterial cell walls will combine with vancomycin, although less strongly, e.g. acyl-d-alanyl-d-α-amino acid (where the terminal d-residue may form the cross-link in mucopeptide structure) and acyl-l-alanyl-d-glutamylglycine (a sequence found in the mucopeptide of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and related organisms). These results throw some light on the specificity of the uptake of vancomycin by living bacteria. PMID:5124386

  15. Maleimide scavenging enhances determination of protein S-palmitoylation state in acyl-exchange methods.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Charlotte H; Turnbull, Dionne; Plain, Fiona; Fuller, William; Hemsley, Piers A

    2017-02-01

    S-palmitoylation (S-acylation) is emerging as an important dynamic post-translational modification of cysteine residues within proteins. Current assays for protein S-palmitoylation involve either in vivo labeling or chemical cleavage of S-palmitoyl groups to reveal a free cysteine sulfhydryl that can be subsequently labeled with an affinity handle (acyl-exchange). Assays for protein S-palmitoylation using acyl-exchange chemistry therefore require blocking of non-S-palmitoylated cysteines, typically using N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), to prevent non-specific detection. This in turn necessitates multiple precipitation-based clean-up steps to remove reagents between stages, often leading to variable sample loss, reduced signal, or protein aggregation. These combine to reduce the sensitivity, reliability, and accuracy of these assays, which also require a substantial amount of time to perform. By substituting these precipitation steps with chemical scavenging of NEM by 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene in an aqueous Diels-Alder 4+2 cyclo-addition reaction, it is possible to greatly improve sensitivity and accuracy while reducing the hands-on time and overall time required for the assay.

  16. Enantioselective acyl transfer catalysis by a combination of common catalytic motifs and electrostatic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mandai, Hiroki; Fujii, Kazuki; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Abe, Kenko; Mitsudo, Koichi; Korenaga, Toshinobu; Suga, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Catalysts that can promote acyl transfer processes are important to enantioselective synthesis and their development has received significant attention in recent years. Despite noteworthy advances, discovery of small-molecule catalysts that are robust, efficient, recyclable and promote reactions with high enantioselectivity can be easily and cost-effectively prepared in significant quantities (that is, >10 g) has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that by attaching a binaphthyl moiety, appropriately modified to establish H-bonding interactions within the key intermediates in the catalytic cycle, and a 4-aminopyridyl unit, exceptionally efficient organic molecules can be prepared that facilitate enantioselective acyl transfer reactions. As little as 0.5 mol% of a member of the new catalyst class is sufficient to generate acyl-substituted all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centres in quantitative yield and in up to 98:2 enantiomeric ratio (er) in 5 h. Kinetic resolution or desymmetrization of 1,2-diol can be performed with high efficiency and enantioselectivity as well. PMID:27079273

  17. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research from my lab has revealed that several higher plant species have multiple isoforms of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and therefore this trait appears highly conserved among higher plants. This level of conservation suggests that the existence of ACP isoforms is not merely the results of neutral gene duplications. We have developed techniques to examine a wider range of species. Acyl carrier proteins can be labelled very specifically and to high specific activity using H-palmitate and the E. coli enzyme acyl-ACP synthetase. Isoforms were then resolved by western blotting and native PAGE of H-palmitate labelled ACP's. Multiple isoforms of ACP were observed the leaf tissue of the monocots Avena sativa and Hordeum vulgare and dicots including Arabidopsis thallina, Cuphea wrightii, and Brassica napus. Lower vascular plants including the cycad, Dioon edule, Ginkgo biloba, the gymnosperm Pinus, the fern Anernia phyllitidis and Psilotum nudum, the most primitive known extant vascular plant, were also found to have multiple ACP isoforms as were the nonvascular liverwort, Marchantia and moss, Polytrichum. Therefore, the development of ACP isoforms occurred early in evolution. However, the uniellular alge Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella and the photosynthetic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Agmnellum have only a single elecrophotetic form of ACP. Thus, multiple forms of ACP do not occur in all photosynthetic organisms but may be associated with multicellular plants.

  18. A Lipolytic Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Secreted by Toxoplasma Facilitates Parasite Replication and Egress*

    PubMed Central

    Pszenny, Viviana; Ehrenman, Karen; Romano, Julia D.; Kennard, Andrea; Schultz, Aric; Roos, David S.; Grigg, Michael E.; Carruthers, Vern B.; Coppens, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii develops within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in mammalian cells, where it scavenges cholesterol. When cholesterol is present in excess in its environment, the parasite expulses this lipid into the PV or esterifies it for storage in lipid bodies. Here, we characterized a unique T. gondii homologue of mammalian lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a key enzyme that produces cholesteryl esters via transfer of acyl groups from phospholipids to the 3-OH of free cholesterol, leading to the removal of excess cholesterol from tissues. TgLCAT contains a motif characteristic of serine lipases “AHSLG” and the catalytic triad consisting of serine, aspartate, and histidine (SDH) from LCAT enzymes. TgLCAT is secreted by the parasite, but unlike other LCAT enzymes it is cleaved into two proteolytic fragments that share the residues of the catalytic triad and need to be reassembled to reconstitute enzymatic activity. TgLCAT uses phosphatidylcholine as substrate to form lysophosphatidylcholine that has the potential to disrupt membranes. The released fatty acid is transferred to cholesterol, but with a lower transesterification activity than mammalian LCAT. TgLCAT is stored in a subpopulation of dense granule secretory organelles, and following secretion, it localizes to the PV and parasite plasma membrane. LCAT-null parasites have impaired growth in vitro, reduced virulence in animals, and exhibit delays in egress from host cells. Parasites overexpressing LCAT show increased virulence and faster egress. These observations demonstrate that TgLCAT influences the outcome of an infection, presumably by facilitating replication and egress depending on the developmental stage of the parasite. PMID:26694607

  19. A Lipolytic Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Secreted by Toxoplasma Facilitates Parasite Replication and Egress.

    PubMed

    Pszenny, Viviana; Ehrenman, Karen; Romano, Julia D; Kennard, Andrea; Schultz, Aric; Roos, David S; Grigg, Michael E; Carruthers, Vern B; Coppens, Isabelle

    2016-02-19

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii develops within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in mammalian cells, where it scavenges cholesterol. When cholesterol is present in excess in its environment, the parasite expulses this lipid into the PV or esterifies it for storage in lipid bodies. Here, we characterized a unique T. gondii homologue of mammalian lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a key enzyme that produces cholesteryl esters via transfer of acyl groups from phospholipids to the 3-OH of free cholesterol, leading to the removal of excess cholesterol from tissues. TgLCAT contains a motif characteristic of serine lipases "AHSLG" and the catalytic triad consisting of serine, aspartate, and histidine (SDH) from LCAT enzymes. TgLCAT is secreted by the parasite, but unlike other LCAT enzymes it is cleaved into two proteolytic fragments that share the residues of the catalytic triad and need to be reassembled to reconstitute enzymatic activity. TgLCAT uses phosphatidylcholine as substrate to form lysophosphatidylcholine that has the potential to disrupt membranes. The released fatty acid is transferred to cholesterol, but with a lower transesterification activity than mammalian LCAT. TgLCAT is stored in a subpopulation of dense granule secretory organelles, and following secretion, it localizes to the PV and parasite plasma membrane. LCAT-null parasites have impaired growth in vitro, reduced virulence in animals, and exhibit delays in egress from host cells. Parasites overexpressing LCAT show increased virulence and faster egress. These observations demonstrate that TgLCAT influences the outcome of an infection, presumably by facilitating replication and egress depending on the developmental stage of the parasite.

  20. Does the detoxification of penicillin side-chain precursors depend on microsomal monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferase in Penicillium chrysogenum?

    PubMed

    Emri, Tamás; Oláh, Brigitta; Sámi, László; Pócsi, István

    2003-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH) S-conjugation of 1,2-epoxy-3-(4'-nitrophenoxy)propane was catalysed predominantly by microsomal glutathione S-transferase (mGST) in Penicillium chrysogenum. The specific mGST activity unlike the cytosolic GST (cGST) activity increased substantially when the penicillin side-chain precursor phenoxyacetic acid (POA) was included in the culture medium. Therefore, a microsomal monooxygenase (causing possible release of epoxide intermediates) and mGST-dependent detoxification pathway may exist for the side-chain precursors as an alternative to microsomal activation to acyl-CoA and subsequent transfer to beta-lactam molecules. The P. chrysogenum pahA and Aspergillus nidulans phacA gene products, which are cytochrome p450 monooxygenases and are able to hydroxylate phenylacetic acid (PA) at position 2 on the aromatic ring, are unlikely to release toxic epoxide intermediates but epoxidation of PA and POA due to the action of other microsomal monooxygenases cannot be excluded. The GSH-dependent detoxification of POA was provoked by a well-controlled transient lowering of pH (down to 5.0) at the beginning of the production phase in a fed-batch fermentation system. Both the specific GST and gammaGT activities were increased but the intracellular GSH concentrations remained unaltered unless the pH of the feed was transiently lowered below 5.0. At pH 4.6, the GSH pool was depleted rapidly but no antibiotic production was observed. Although sucrose was taken up effectively by the cells, cell death and autolysis were progressing. Therefore, the industrial exploitation of the GSH-dependent detoxification of penicillin side-chain precursors to reduce intracellular GSH-levels in order to avoid the GSH inhibition of the beta-lactam biosynthetic enzymes seems to be rather unlikely. P. chrysogenum mGST and cGST were separated using GSH-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The purified cGST possessed a homodimer (alpha(2)) tertiary structure with M(r) (, alpha

  1. Actinobacterial Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetases Involved in Steroid Side-Chain Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casabon, Israël; Swain, Kendra; Crowe, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial steroid catabolism is an important component of the global carbon cycle and has applications in drug synthesis. Pathways for this catabolism involve multiple acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetases, which activate alkanoate substituents for β-oxidation. The functions of these synthetases are poorly understood. We enzymatically characterized four distinct acyl-CoA synthetases from the cholate catabolic pathway of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 and the cholesterol catabolic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phylogenetic analysis of 70 acyl-CoA synthetases predicted to be involved in steroid metabolism revealed that the characterized synthetases each represent an orthologous class with a distinct function in steroid side-chain degradation. The synthetases were specific for the length of alkanoate substituent. FadD19 from M. tuberculosis H37Rv (FadD19Mtb) transformed 3-oxo-4-cholesten-26-oate (kcat/Km = 0.33 × 105 ± 0.03 × 105 M−1 s−1) and represents orthologs that activate the C8 side chain of cholesterol. Both CasGRHA1 and FadD17Mtb are steroid-24-oyl-CoA synthetases. CasG and its orthologs activate the C5 side chain of cholate, while FadD17 and its orthologs appear to activate the C5 side chain of one or more cholesterol metabolites. CasIRHA1 is a steroid-22-oyl-CoA synthetase, representing orthologs that activate metabolites with a C3 side chain, which accumulate during cholate catabolism. CasI had similar apparent specificities for substrates with intact or extensively degraded steroid nuclei, exemplified by 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oate and 1β(2′-propanoate)-3aα-H-4α(3″-propanoate)-7aβ-methylhexahydro-5-indanone (kcat/Km = 2.4 × 105 ± 0.1 × 105 M−1 s−1 and 3.2 × 105 ± 0.3 × 105 M−1 s−1, respectively). Acyl-CoA synthetase classes involved in cholate catabolism were found in both Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Overall, this study provides insight into the physiological roles of acyl-CoA synthetases in steroid catabolism and

  2. Three CoA Transferases Involved in the Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsunari; Yoshida, Yasuo; Nagano, Keiji; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Jun; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2016-01-01

    Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, which produces butyrate and acetyl-CoA from butyryl-CoA and acetate, is responsible for the final step of butyrate production in bacteria. This study demonstrates that in the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis this reaction is not catalyzed by PGN_1171, previously annotated as butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, but by three distinct CoA transferases, PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and spectrophotometric analyses were performed using crude enzyme extracts from deletion mutant strains and purified recombinant proteins. The experiments revealed that, in the presence of acetate, PGN_0725 preferentially utilized butyryl-CoA rather than propionyl-CoA. By contrast, this preference was reversed in PGN_1888. The only butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase activity was observed in PGN_1341. Double reciprocal plots revealed that all the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes follow a ternary-complex mechanism, in contrast to previously characterized CoA transferases. GC-MS analysis to determine the concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in culture supernatants of P. gingivalis wild type and mutant strains revealed that PGN_0725 and PGN_1888 play a major role in the production of butyrate and propionate, respectively. Interestingly, a triple deletion mutant lacking PGN_0725, PGN_1341, and PGN_1888 produced low levels of SCFAs, suggesting that the microorganism contains CoA transferase(s) in addition to these three enzymes. Growth rates of the mutant strains were mostly slower than that of the wild type, indicating that many carbon compounds produced in the SCFA synthesis appear to be important for the biological activity of this microorganism. PMID:27486457

  3. Optimization to eliminate the interference of migration isomers for measuring 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide without extensive chromatographic separation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y-J; Akinsanya, J Billy; Raghavan, Nirmala; Zhang, Donglu

    2008-01-01

    A highly selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method has been investigated for the determination of muraglitazar 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide in animal and human plasma without chromatographic separation of this naturally formed acyl glucuronide from its migration isomers. In the ion source or the collision cell, glucuronides are often prone to lose the dehydrated glucuronic acid (176 Da) and convert back into the parent drug (aglycone). The extent of loss of the glucuronide moiety can differ among glucuronides. For the naturally occurring muraglitazar 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide, or its synthetic anomer 1-O-alpha-glucuronide, the loss of the glucuronide moiety was a major fragment ion. The loss of the glucuronide moiety was greater for the 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide than the 1-O-alpha-anomer. In addition, the loss of the glucuronide moiety was insignificant (less than 0.01%) with the other glucuronide isomers (2-, 3- or 4-O, alpha or beta). Given the fact that the 1-O-alpha-anomer was a minor impurity in the muraglitazar 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide reference standard, and not either a conversion product of 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide or endogenously formed, the SRM transition corresponding to the loss of the glucuronide moiety was very specific for 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide, and practically free from interference of the other isomers under optimized collision-cell conditions. As a result, extensive chromatographic separation of 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide from its migration isomers was not required. The use of this specific SRM transition effectively reduced the separation time from 12.0 min of a long-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to 2.5 min by use of a shorter column. The standard curve performance and analysis results of 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide incubation samples showed that the short-column method could produce equivalent results to the long-column method but with a 4.5-fold improvement in sample throughput. This approach may be useful for

  4. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I. )

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from (1-14C)acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns.

  5. MIF protein are theta-class glutathione S-transferase homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Blocki, F. A.; Ellis, L. B.; Wackett, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    MIF proteins are mammalian polypeptides of approximately 13,000 molecular weight. This class includes human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a rat liver protein that has glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity (TRANSMIF), and the mouse delayed early response gene 6 (DER6) protein. MIF proteins were previously linked to GSTs by demonstrating transferase activity and observing N-terminal sequence homology with a mu-class GST (Blocki, F.A., Schlievert, P.M., & Wackett, L.P., 1992, Nature 360, 269-270). In this study, MIF proteins are shown to be structurally related to the theta class of GSTs. This is established in three ways. First, unique primary sequence patterns are developed for each of the GST gene classes. The patterns identify the three MIF proteins as theta-like transferase homologs. Second, pattern analysis indicates that GST members of the theta class contain a serine residue in place of the N-terminal tyrosine that is implicated in glutathione deprotonation and activation in GSTs of known structure (Liu, S., et al., 1992, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 4296-4299). The MIF proteins contain a threonine at this position. Third, polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant human MIF cross-react on Western blots with rat theta GST but not with alpha and mu GSTs. That MIF proteins have glutathione-binding ability may provide a common structural key toward understanding the varied functions of this widely distributed emerging gene family. Because theta is thought to be the most ancient evolutionary GST class, MIF proteins may have diverged early in evolution but retained a glutathione-binding domain. PMID:8298459

  6. Glutathione Transferase from Trichoderma virens Enhances Cadmium Tolerance without Enhancing Its Accumulation in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Ramachandran, V.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. Results Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and

  7. Glutathione-Binding Site of a Bombyx mori Theta-Class Glutathione Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. D. Tofazzal; Yamada, Naotaka; Yamamoto, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    The glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily plays key roles in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a silkworm protein belonging to a previously reported theta-class GST family. The enzyme (bmGSTT) catalyzes the reaction of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)-propane, and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Mutagenesis of highly conserved residues in the catalytic site revealed that Glu66 and Ser67 are important for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTT and into the metabolism of exogenous chemical agents. PMID:24848539

  8. Glutathion S-transferase activity and DDT-susceptibility of Malaysian mosquitos.

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Chong, W L

    1995-03-01

    Comparative DDT-susceptibility status and glutathion s-transferase (GST) activity of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was investigated to ascertain the role of this enzyme in DDT resistance. The standardised WHO dose-mortality bioassay tests were used to determine DDT susceptibility in these mosquitos, whilst GST microassay (Brogdon and Barber, 1990) was conducted to measure the activity of this enzyme in mosquito homogenate. It appeared that DDT susceptibility status of Malaysian mosquitos was not correlated with GST activity.

  9. Glutathione-S-transferase selective release of metformin from its sulfonamide prodrug.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Vernerová, Monika; Aufderhaar, Imke; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, three sulfonamide prodrugs of metformin were designed and synthesized. The bioconversion of the sulfonamide prodrugs by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was evaluated in rat and human liver S9 fractions as well as with recombinant human GST forms. One of the prodrugs (3) was bioactivated by GST and released metformin in a quantitative manner, whereas the two others were enzymatically stable. Prodrug 3 had a much higher logD value relative to metformin and it was reasonably stable in both acidic buffer and rat small intestine homogenate, which indicates that this prodrug has the potential to increase the oral absorption of metformin.

  10. Fucosylation of xyloglucan: localization of the transferase in dictyosomes of pea stem cells. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Camirand, A.; Brummell, D.; MacLachlan, G.

    1987-07-01

    Microsomal membranes from elongating regions of etiolated Pisum sativum stems were separated by rate-zonal centrifugation on Renografin gradients. The transfer of labeled fucose and xylose from GDP-(/sup 14/C) fucose and UDP-(/sup 14/C)xylose to xyloglucan occurred mainly in dictyosome-enriched fractions. No transferase activity was detected in secretory vesicle fractions. Pulse-chase experiments using pea stem slices incubated with (/sup 3/H)fucose suggest that xyloglucan chains are fucosylated and their structure completed within the dictyosomes, before being transported to the cell wall by secretory vesicles.

  11. Genetic Variations in Human Glutathione Transferase Enzymes: Significance for Pharmacology and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Josephy, P. David

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione transferase enzymes (GSTs) catalyze reactions in which electrophiles are conjugated to the tripeptide thiol glutathione. While many GST-catalyzed transformations result in the detoxication of xenobiotics, a few substrates, such as dihaloalkanes, undergo bioactivation to reactive intermediates. Many molecular epidemiological studies have tested associations between polymorphisms (especially, deletions) of human GST genes and disease susceptibility or response to therapy. This review presents a discussion of the biochemistry of GSTs, the sources—both genetic and environmental—of interindividual variation in GST activities, and their implications for pharmaco- and toxicogenetics; particular attention is paid to the Theta class GSTs. PMID:20981235

  12. Reinforcing Lipid A Acylation on the Cell Surface of Acinetobacter baumannii Promotes Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance and Desiccation Survival

    PubMed Central

    Boll, Joseph M.; Tucker, Ashley T.; Klein, Dustin R.; Beltran, Alexander M.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Davies, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging Gram-negative pathogen found in hospitals and intensive care units. In order to persist in hospital environments, A. baumannii withstands desiccative conditions and can rapidly develop multidrug resistance to conventional antibiotics. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) have served as therapeutic alternatives because they target the conserved lipid A component of the Gram-negative outer membrane to lyse the bacterial cell. However, many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including A. baumannii, fortify their outer membrane with hepta-acylated lipid A to protect the cell from CAMP-dependent cell lysis. Whereas in Escherichia coli and Salmonella, increased production of the outer membrane acyltransferase PagP results in formation of protective hepta-acylated lipid A, which reinforces the lipopolysaccharide portion of the outer membrane barrier, A. baumannii does not carry a gene that encodes a PagP homolog. Instead, A. baumannii has evolved a PagP-independent mechanism to synthesize protective hepta-acylated lipid A. Taking advantage of a recently adapted A. baumannii genetic recombineering system, we characterized two putative acyltransferases in A. baumannii designated LpxLAb (A. baumannii LpxL) and LpxMAb (A. baumannii LpxM), which transfer one and two lauroyl (C12:0) acyl chains, respectively, during lipid A biosynthesis. Hepta-acylation of A. baumannii lipid A promoted resistance to vertebrate and polymyxin CAMPs, which are prescribed as last-resort treatment options. Intriguingly, our analysis also showed that LpxMAb-dependent acylation of lipid A is essential for A. baumannii desiccation survival, a key resistance mechanism for survival in hospital environments. Compounds that inhibit LpxMAb-dependent hepta-acylation of lipid A could act synergistically with CAMPs to provide innovative transmission prevention strategies and treat multidrug-resistant infections. PMID:25991684

  13. Kinetic and Structural Basis for Acyl-Group Selectivity and NAD(+) Dependence in Sirtuin-Catalyzed Deacylation.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jessica L; Dittenhafer-Reed, Kristin E; Kudo, Norio; Thelen, Julie N; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru; Denu, John M

    2015-05-19

    Acylation of lysine is an important protein modification regulating diverse biological processes. It was recently demonstrated that members of the human Sirtuin family are capable of catalyzing long chain deacylation, in addition to the well-known NAD(+)-dependent deacetylation activity [Feldman, J. L., Baeza, J., and Denu, J. M. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 31350-31356]. Here we provide a detailed kinetic and structural analysis that describes the interdependence of NAD(+)-binding and acyl-group selectivity for a diverse series of human Sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT3 and SIRT6. Steady-state and rapid-quench kinetic analyses indicated that differences in NAD(+) saturation and susceptibility to nicotinamide inhibition reflect unique kinetic behavior displayed by each Sirtuin and depend on acyl substrate chain length. Though the rate of nucleophilic attack of the 2'-hydroxyl on the C1'-O-alkylimidate intermediate varies with acyl substrate chain length, this step remains rate-determining for SIRT2 and SIRT3; however, for SIRT6, this step is no longer rate-limiting for long chain substrates. Cocrystallization of SIRT2 with myristoylated peptide and NAD(+) yielded a co-complex structure with reaction product 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose, revealing a latent hydrophobic cavity to accommodate the long chain acyl group, and suggesting a general mechanism for long chain deacylation. Comparing two separately determined co-complex structures containing either a myristoylated peptide or 2'-O-myristoyl-ADP-ribose indicates there are conformational changes at the myristoyl-ribose linkage with minimal structural differences in the enzyme active site. During the deacylation reaction, the fatty acyl group is held in a relatively fixed position. We describe a kinetic and structural model to explain how various Sirtuins display unique acyl substrate preferences and how different reaction kinetics influence NAD(+) dependence. The biological implications are discussed.

  14. Reversal of hypermethylation and reactivation of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene by curcumin in breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Umesh; Sharma, Ujjawal; Rathi, Garima

    2017-02-01

    One of the mechanisms for epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes is hypermethylation of cytosine residue at CpG islands at their promoter region that contributes to malignant progression of tumor. Therefore, activation of tumor suppressor genes that have been silenced by promoter methylation is considered to be very attractive molecular target for cancer therapy. Epigenetic silencing of glutathione S-transferase pi 1, a tumor suppressor gene, is involved in various types of cancers including breast cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes can be reversed by several molecules including natural compounds such as polyphenols that can act as a hypomethylating agent. Curcumin has been found to specifically target various tumor suppressor genes and alter their expression. To check the effect of curcumin on the methylation pattern of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in dose-dependent manner. To check the reversal of methylation pattern of hypermethylated glutathione S-transferase pi 1, MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was treated with different concentrations of curcumin for different time periods. DNA and proteins of treated and untreated cell lines were isolated, and methylation status of the promoter region of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 was analyzed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, and expression of this gene was analyzed by immunoblotting using specific antibodies against glutathione S-transferase pi 1. A very low and a nontoxic concentration (10 µM) of curcumin treatment was able to reverse the hypermethylation and led to reactivation of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 protein expression in MCF-7 cells after 72 h of treatment, although the IC50 value of curcumin was found to be at 20 µM. However, curcumin less than 3 µM of curcumin could not alter the promoter methylation pattern of glutathione S-transferase pi 1. Treatment of breast cancer MCF-7 cells with curcumin causes

  15. Proteomic Analysis of a Poplar Cell Suspension Culture Suggests a Major Role of Protein S-Acylation in Diverse Cellular Processes

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vaibhav; Weber, Joseph R.; Malm, Erik; Fouke, Bruce W.; Bulone, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    S-acylation is a reversible post-translational modification of proteins known to be involved in membrane targeting, subcellular trafficking, and the determination of a great variety of functional properties of proteins. The aim of this work was to identify S-acylated proteins in poplar. The use of an acyl-biotin exchange method and mass spectrometry allowed the identification of around 450 S-acylated proteins, which were subdivided into three major groups of proteins involved in transport, signal transduction, and response to stress, respectively. The largest group of S-acylated proteins was the protein kinase superfamily. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-activating protein receptors, band 7 family proteins and tetraspanins, all primarily related to intracellular trafficking, were also identified. In addition, cell wall related proteins, including cellulose synthases and other glucan synthases, were found to be S-acylated. Twenty four of the identified S-acylated proteins were also enriched in detergent-resistant membrane microdomains, suggesting S-acylation plays a key role in the localization of proteins to specialized plasma membrane subdomains. This dataset promises to enhance our current understanding of the various functions of S-acylated proteins in plants. PMID:27148305

  16. Familial lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency complicated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and peripheral neuropathy. The first reported cases in the Far East.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, A; Naito, C; Teramoto, T; Kato, H; Kako, M; Kariya, T; Shimizu, T; Oka, H; Oda, T

    1978-01-01

    Three Japanese patients with lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency, the offspring of a consanguineous marriage, are described. In addition to the characteristic clinical and laboratory findings of the disease, our patients had hitherto unreported manifestations, namely unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, peripheral neuropathy and marked hypocholesterolemia. Although the mechanism of the unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is not clear, the role of impaired hepatic bilirubin uridine-diphosphate-glucuronyl transferase activity combined with another unknown factor(s) was postulated. Non-random assortment was observed between LCAT deficiency and haptoglobin types, as previously reported. The discovery of Japanese patients with LCAT deficiency indicates that the distribution of this hereditary metabolic disorder is not confined to the Western hemisphere.

  17. ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE2 and 3 Are Responsible for Making Omega-7 Fatty Acids in the Arabidopsis Aleurone1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Fiona M.; Munoz-Azcarate, Olaya; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids (ω-7s) are specifically enriched in the aleurone of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. We found significant natural variation in seed ω-7 content and used a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross population to fine-map a major quantitative trait loci to a region containing ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE1 (AAD1) and AAD3. We found that AAD3 expression is localized to the aleurone where mutants show an approximately 50% reduction in ω-7 content. By contrast, AAD1 is localized to the embryo where mutants show a small reduction in ω-9 content. Enzymatic analysis has previously shown that AAD family members possess both stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP Δ9 desaturase activity, including the predominant isoform SUPPRESSOR OF SALICYLIC ACID INSENSITIVE2. However, aad3 ssi2 aleurone contained the same amount of ω-7s as aad3. Within the AAD family, AAD3 shares the highest degree of sequence similarity with AAD2 and AAD4. Mutant analysis showed that AAD2 also contributes to ω-7 production in the aleurone, and aad3 aad2 exhibits an approximately 85% reduction in ω-7s. Mutant analysis also showed that FATTY ACID ELONGASE1 is required for the production of very long chain ω-7s in the aleurone. Together, these data provide genetic evidence that the ω-7 pathway proceeds via Δ9 desaturation of palmitoyl-ACP followed by elongation of the product. Interestingly, significant variation was also identified in the ω-7 content of Brassica napus aleurone, with the highest level detected being approximately 47% of total fatty acids. PMID:27462083

  18. Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice with Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (LCAD) or Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Keith B.; Liu, Jian; Tian, Liqun; Barnes, Stephen; Yang, Qinglin; Wood, Philip A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common finding in human patients with inborn errors of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Mice with either very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD−/−) or long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD−/−) develop cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy, initially measured using heart/body weight ratios, was manifested most severely in LCAD−/− male mice. VLCAD−/− mice, as a group, showed a mild increase in normalized cardiac mass (8.8% hypertrophy compared to all wild-type [WT] mice). In contrast, LCAD−/− mice as a group showed more severe cardiac hypertrophy (32.2% increase compared to all WT mice). Based on a clear male predilection, we investigated the role of dietary plant estrogenic compounds commonly found in mouse diets due to soy or alfalfa components providing natural phytoestrogens or isoflavones in cardioprotection of LCAD−/− mice. Male LCAD−/− mice fed an isoflavone-free test diet had more severe cardiac hypertrophy (58.1% hypertrophy compared to WT mice fed the same diet. There were no significant differences in the female groups fed any of the diets. Echocardiography measurement performed on male LCAD deficient mice fed a standard diet at ~3 months of age confirmed the substantial cardiac hypertrophy in these mice compared with WT controls. Left ventricular wall thickness of interventricular septum and posterior wall was remarkably increased in LCAD−/− mice compared with that of WT controls. Accordingly, the calculated LV mass after normalization to body weight was increased about 40% in the LCAD−/− mice compared with WT mice. In summary, we found that metabolic cardiomyopathy, expressed as hypertrophy, developed in mice due to either VLCAD deficiency or LCAD deficiency; however, LCAD deficiency was the most profound and appeared to be attenuated either by endogenous estrogen in females or phytoestrogens in the diet as isoflavones in males. PMID:19736549

  19. Profiles of fatty acids and 7-O-acyl okadaic acid esters in bivalves: can bacteria be involved in acyl esterification of okadaic acid?

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The presence of 7-O-acyl okadaic acid (OA) esters was studied by LC-MS in the digestive glands of blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) from Albufeira lagoon, located 20km south of Lisbon. The profile of free and total fatty acids (FA) was analysed using a similar LC separation with a reversed phase C8 column and mass spectrometry detection. In mussel the free FA profile was reflected in the FA esterified to OA, being palmitic acid for instance the most abundant in both cases. In cockle, 7-O-acyl esters with palmitic acid were almost absent and esters with a C16:0 isomer were dominant, followed by esters with C15:1 and C15:0. The cockle free FA profile was similar to mussel, and in accordance with literature findings in bivalves. After hydrolysis, a major difference in the FA profile occurred in both species, presenting a high percentage of a C16:0 isomer. The isomer found in general lipids and bound to OA seemed to be related, presenting similar relative retention times (RRT) to C16:0, differing from expected RRT of monomethyl-branched isomers (iso- or anteiso-). A tentative identification was made with the multimethyl-branched isoprenoid, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid (TMTD). TMTD is a product of phytol degradation. This was also suspected when the proportion of this compound in relation to palmitic acid was reduced in vivo in mussels fed a chlorophyll-free diet. Extensive esterification of OA by, among others, phytol-degrading bacteria is discussed as a plausible hypothesis in cockle, but not in mussel, due to the relatively high specific proportion of odd-numbered and branched FA.

  20. Structure of Human O-GlcNAc Transferase and its Complex with a Peptide Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    M Lazarus; Y Nam; J Jiang; P Sliz; S Walker

    2011-12-31

    The essential mammalian enzyme O-linked {beta}-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (O-GlcNAc transferase, here OGT) couples metabolic status to the regulation of a wide variety of cellular signalling pathways by acting as a nutrient sensor. OGT catalyses the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to serines and threonines of cytoplasmic, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins, including numerous transcription factors, tumour suppressors, kinases, phosphatases and histone-modifying proteins. Aberrant glycosylation by OGT has been linked to insulin resistance, diabetic complications, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Despite the importance of OGT, the details of how it recognizes and glycosylates its protein substrates are largely unknown. We report here two crystal structures of human OGT, as a binary complex with UDP (2.8 {angstrom} resolution) and as a ternary complex with UDP and a peptide substrate (1.95 {angstrom}). The structures provide clues to the enzyme mechanism, show how OGT recognizes target peptide sequences, and reveal the fold of the unique domain between the two halves of the catalytic region. This information will accelerate the rational design of biological experiments to investigate OGT's functions; it will also help the design of inhibitors for use as cellular probes and help to assess its potential as a therapeutic target.

  1. Glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 risk polymorphism and increased bilateral thalamus mean diffusivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Gravina, Paolo; Bello, Mario Lo; Bernardini, Sergio; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage in brain cells is one of the factors hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1*B polymorphism, a genotype associated with a higher risk of oxidative damage, is associated with increased frequency of schizophrenia diagnosis. Thus, here we studied Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1 polymorphism and diffusion tensor imaging-mean diffusivity (MD) data on deep grey matter brain structures in 56 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) schizophrenia. Clinical diagnosis and psychopathological symptom severity were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-P) and the Scales for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS). Results confirmed that patients with schizophrenia who were carriers of the GSTA1 *B risk allele had an increased MD in bilateral thalami and increased severity of auditory and global hallucinations in comparison with non-B carriers. Thus, oxidative stress associated factors may be implicated in specific mechanisms of schizophrenia such as altered microstructure of the thalami and specific psychopathological features of auditory hallucinations.

  2. Glucose-induced expression of MIP-1 genes requires O-GlcNAc transferase in monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chikanishi, Toshihiro; Fujiki, Ryoji; Hashiba, Waka; Sekine, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kato, Shigeaki

    2010-04-16

    O-glycosylation has emerged as an important modification of nuclear proteins, and it appears to be involved in gene regulation. Recently, we have shown that one of the histone methyl transferases (MLL5) is activated through O-glycosylation by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Addition of this monosaccharide is essential for forming a functional complex. However, in spite of the abundance of OGT in the nucleus, the impact of nuclear O-glycosylation by OGT remains largely unclear. To address this issue, the present study was undertaken to test the impact of nuclear O-glycosylation in a monocytic cell line, THP-1. Using a cytokine array, MIP-1{alpha} and -1{beta} genes were found to be regulated by nuclear O-glycosylation. Biochemical purification of the OGT interactants from THP-1 revealed that OGT is an associating partner for distinct co-regulatory complexes. OGT recruitment and protein O-glycosylation were observed at the MIP-1{alpha} gene promoter; however, the known OGT partner (HCF-1) was absent when the MIP-1{alpha} gene promoter was not activated. From these findings, we suggest that OGT could be a co-regulatory subunit shared by functionally distinct complexes supporting epigenetic regulation.

  3. STT3, a highly conserved protein required for yeast oligosaccharyl transferase activity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, R; Knauer, R; Burda, P; Stagljar, I; te Heesen, S; Lehle, L; Aebi, M

    1995-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification, and is essential for viability in eukaryotic cells. A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains by the oligosaccharyl transferase (OTase) complex. Based on the synthetic lethal phenotype of double mutations affecting the assembly of the lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide and the OTase activity, we have performed a novel screen for mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with altered N-linked glycosylation. Besides novel mutants deficient in the assembly of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (alg mutants), we identified the STT3 locus as being required for OTase activity in vivo. The essential STT3 protein is approximately 60% identical in amino acid sequence to its human homologue. A mutation in the STT3 locus affects substrate specificity of the OTase complex in vivo and in vitro. In stt3-3 cells very little glycosyl transfer occurs from incomplete lipid-linked oligosaccharide, whereas the transfer of full-length Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 is hardly affected as compared with wild-type cells. Depletion of the STT3 protein results in loss of transferase activity in vivo and a deficiency in the assembly of OTase complex. Images PMID:7588624

  4. Riboswitch control of induction of aminoglycoside resistance acetyl and adenyl-transferases.

    PubMed

    He, Weizhi; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Jun; Jia, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Wenxia; Jiang, Hengyi; Chen, Dongrong; Murchie, Alastair I H

    2013-08-01

    The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by human pathogens poses a significant threat to public health. The mechanisms that control the proliferation and expression of antibiotic resistance genes are not yet completely understood. The aminoglycosides are a historically important class of antibiotics that were introduced in the 1940s. Aminoglycoside resistance is conferred most commonly through enzymatic modification of the drug or enzymatic modification of the target rRNA through methylation or through the overexpression of efflux pumps. In our recent paper, we reported that expression of the aminoglycoside resistance genes encoding the aminoglycoside acetyl transferase (AAC) and aminoglycoside adenyl transferase (AAD) enzymes was controlled by an aminoglycoside-sensing riboswitch RNA. This riboswitch is embedded in the leader RNA of the aac/aad genes and is associated with the integron cassette system. The leader RNA can sense and bind specific aminoglycosides such that the binding causes a structural transition in the leader RNA, which leads to the induction of aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance. Specific aminoglycosides induce reporter gene expression mediated by the leader RNA. Aminoglycoside RNA binding was measured directly and, aminoglycoside-induced changes in RNA structure monitored by chemical probing. UV cross-linking and mutational analysis identified potential aminoglycoside binding sites on the RNA.

  5. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase from dwarf pine needles (Pinus mugo Turra).

    PubMed

    Schröder, P; Rennenberg, H

    1992-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity conjugating xenobiotics with glutathione (GSH) was found in extracts from needles of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra). In vivo incubation of needle segments with the herbicide fluorodifen at 25 degrees C resulted in conversion of the xenobiotic to water-soluble products at initial rates of 0.7 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). At 15 degrees C, the initial rate of product formation was decreased to 0.1 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). In vitro conjugation studies with chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) as model substrates gave apparent K(m) values of 0.5 mM GSH and 1.14 mM CDNB in the GSH/CDNB system and 0.3 mM GSH and 0.44 mM DCNB in the GSH/DCNB system. The pH optimum was between 7.7 and 7.9 for both the GSH/CDNB and the GSH/DCNB systems. The temperature optimum for these model substrates was between 30 and 35 degrees C, and only minute amounts of enzyme activity were detected at 15 degrees C. The activation energy in the temperature range of 15 to 30 degrees C was 46 kJ mol(-1). Dwarf pine glutathione S-transferase exhibited an approximate molecular weight of 52 kD.

  6. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyl Transferase 2: A Promising Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chunhui; Qi, Jia; Deng, Quanwen; Chen, Rihong; Zhai, Duanyang; Yu, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers all over the world. It is essential to search for more effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods for CRC. Abnormal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism has been considered as a characteristic of cancer cells. In this study, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) as well as p53-mediated cancer signaling pathways were investigated in patients with colorectal cancer. The CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 95 untreated colorectal cancer patients and were stained for expression of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2) and p53. The survival rate was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted as well. Our data demonstrated that expression of NMNAT2 and p53 was significantly higher in CRC tissues, while NMNAT2 expression is in correlation with the invasive depth of tumors and TNM stage. Significant positive correlation was found between the expression of NMNAT2 and the expression of p53. However, NMNAT2 expression was not a statistically significant prognostic factor for overall survival. In conclusion, our results indicated that NMNAT2 might participate in tumorigenesis of CRC in a p53-dependent manner and NMNAT2 expression might be a potential therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27218101

  7. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  8. A strategy to discover inhibitors of Bacillus subtilis surfactin-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Yasgar, Adam; Foley, Timothy L; Jadhav, Ajit; Inglese, James; Burkart, Michael D; Simeonov, Anton

    2010-02-01

    Surfactin-type phosphopantetheinyl transferases (Sfp-PPTases) are responsible for modifying type I polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthases of prokaryotes and have been implicated in the activation of a variety of pathogen-associated virulence factors. As such, inhibitors of this enzyme class represent enticing leads for antibiotic development and can serve as tools in studies of bacterial metabolism. Currently, no small molecule inhibitors of Sfp-PPTase are known, highlighting the need for efficient methods for PPTase inhibitor identification and development. Herein, we present the design and implementation of a robust and miniaturized high-throughput kinetic assay for inhibitors of Sfp-PPTase using the substrate combination of rhodamine-labeled coenzyme A and Black Hole Quencher-2 labeled consensus acceptor peptide YbbR. Upon PPTase-catalyzed transfer of the rhodamine-labeled phosphopantetheinyl arm onto the acceptor peptide, the fluorescent donor and quencher are covalently joined and the fluorescence signal is reduced. This assay was miniaturized to a low 4 microL volume in 1536-well format and was used to screen the library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC(1280)). Top inhibitors identified by the screen were further characterized in secondary assays, including protein phosphopantetheinylation detected by gel electrophoresis. The present assay enables the screening of large compound libraries against Sfp-PPTase in a robust and automated fashion and is applicable to designing assays for related transferase enzymes.

  9. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli originated MCR-1, a phosphoethanolamine transferase for Colistin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Menglong; Guo, Jiubiao; Cheng, Qipeng; Yang, Zhiqiang; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Chen, Sheng; Hao, Quan

    2016-01-01

    MCR-1 is a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) transferase that modifies the pEtN moiety of lipid A, conferring resistance to colistin, which is an antibiotic belonging to the class of polypeptide antibiotics known as polymyxins and is the last-line antibiotic used to treat multidrug resistant bacterial infections. Here we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of MCR-1 (MCR-1-ED), which is originated in Escherichia coli (E. coli). MCR-1-ED was found to comprise several classical β-α-β-α motifs that constitute a “sandwich” conformation. Two interlaced molecules with different phosphorylation status of the residue T285 could give rise to two functional statuses of MCR-1 depending on the physiological conditions. MCR-1, like other known pEtN transferases, possesses an enzymatic site equipped with zinc binding residues. Interestingly, two zinc ions were found to mediate intermolecular interactions between MCR-1-ED molecules in one asymmetric unit and hence concatenation of MCR-1, allowing the protein to be oligomer. Findings of this work shall provide important insight into development of effective and clinically useful inhibitors of MCR-1 or structurally similar enzymes. PMID:27958270

  10. Copper-Induced Inactivation of Camel Liver Glutathione S-Transferase.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwar; Malik, Ajamaluddin; Jagirdar, Haseeb; Rabbani, Nayyar; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Ismael, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes and play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics and protection against oxidative stress. Camel liver glutathione transferase (cGST) was recently isolated and characterized in our lab. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of monovalent, divalent, and trivalent cations on its activity and stability. Cu(++) was found to be the potent inhibitor of GST activity which loses complete activity at 0.5-mM concentration. Other metal ions did not inhibit GST even at higher concentration of 2 mM. GST incubated with Cu(++) (0.1 mM) resulted decrease in free sulfhydryl groups by 55%, whereas other metal ions did not show any effect on free thiol content. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed formation of GST aggregates instantly in the presence of Cu(++), which further increased in molecular size with increase in time of incubation. DTT treatment resulted in de-aggregation of GST oligomers to its monomeric form. However, the GST activity was not recovered completely after de-aggregation. Cu(++) was found to inhibit GST activity by accelerating the inter- and intra-disulfide bond formation. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) results showed that Cu(++)-catalyzed air oxidation of sulfhydryl groups leads to minor conformational changes in the GST.

  11. Miners compensated for pneumoconiosis and glutathione s-transferases M1 and T1 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Anna; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Prager, Hans-Martin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of quartz-containing dust produces reversible inflammatory changes in lungs resulting in irreversible fibrotic changes termed pneumoconiosis. Due to the inflammatory process in the lungs, highly reactive substances are released that may be detoxified by glutathione S-transferases. Therefore, 90 hard coal miners with pneumoconiosis as a recognized occupational disease (in Germany: Berufskrankheit BK 4101) were genotyped for glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) according to standard methods. Furthermore, occupational exposure and smoking habits were assessed by questionnaire. Changes in a chest x-ray were classified according to ILO classification 2000. Of the investigated hard coal miners 43% were GSTM1 negative whereas 57% were GSTM1 positive. The arithmetic mean of the age at time of investigation was 74.2 yr (range: 42-87 yr). Seventy-four percent of the hard coal miners reported being ever smokers, while 26% denied smoking. All hard coal miners provided pneumoconiosis-related changes in the chest x-ray. The observed frequency of GSTM1 negative hard coal miners was not different from frequencies reported for general Caucasian populations and in agreement with findings reported for Chinese coal miners. In contrast, in a former study, 16 of 19 German hard coal miners (84%) with urinary bladder cancer displayed a GSTM1 negative genotype. The outcome of this study provides evidence that severely occupationally exposed Caucasian hard coal miners do not present an elevated level of GSTM1 negative individuals.

  12. Functional Diversification of Fungal Glutathione Transferases from the Ure2p Class

    PubMed Central

    Thuillier, Anne; Ngadin, Andrew A.; Thion, Cécile; Billard, Patrick; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric; Morel, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints. PMID:22164343

  13. Structure of a lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase suggests how conformational changes govern substrate binding.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Anandhi; Evans, Genevieve L; Condic-Jurkic, Karmen; O'Mara, Megan L; John, Constance M; Phillips, Nancy J; Jarvis, Gary A; Wills, Siobhan S; Stubbs, Keith A; Moraes, Isabel; Kahler, Charlene M; Vrielink, Alice

    2017-02-28

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria have increased the prevalence of fatal sepsis in modern times. Colistin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) antibiotic that permeabilizes the bacterial outer membrane (OM) and has been used to treat these infections. The OM outer leaflet is comprised of endotoxin containing lipid A, which can be modified to increase resistance to CAMPs and prevent clearance by the innate immune response. One type of lipid A modification involves the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the 1 and 4' headgroup positions by phosphoethanolamine transferases. Previous structural work on a truncated form of this enzyme suggested that the full-length protein was required for correct lipid substrate binding and catalysis. We now report the crystal structure of a full-length lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase from Neisseria meningitidis, determined to 2.75-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously uncharacterized helical membrane domain and a periplasmic facing soluble domain. The domains are linked by a helix that runs along the membrane surface interacting with the phospholipid head groups. Two helices located in a periplasmic loop between two transmembrane helices contain conserved charged residues and are implicated in substrate binding. Intrinsic fluorescence, limited proteolysis, and molecular dynamics studies suggest the protein may sample different conformational states to enable the binding of two very different- sized lipid substrates. These results provide insights into the mechanism of endotoxin modification and will aid a structure-guided rational drug design approach to treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

  14. Identification of 3-Sulfinopropionyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Desulfinases within the Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, Marc; Demming, Rebecca Michaela; Krewing, Marco; Rose, Judith; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, the essential role of 3-sulfinopropionyl coenzyme A (3SP-CoA) desulfinase acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acd) in Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7T (AcdDPN7) during degradation of 3,3′-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) was elucidated. DTDP is a sulfur-containing precursor substrate for biosynthesis of polythioesters (PTEs). AcdDPN7 showed high amino acid sequence similarity to acyl-CoA dehydrogenases but was unable to catalyze a dehydrogenation reaction. Hence, it was investigated in the present study whether 3SP-CoA desulfinase activity is an uncommon or a widespread property within the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. Therefore, proteins of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily from Advenella kashmirensis WT001, Bacillus cereus DSM31, Cupriavidus necator N-1, Escherichia coli BL21, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, Ralstonia eutropha H16, Variovorax paradoxus B4, Variovorax paradoxus S110, and Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 were expressed in E. coli strains. All purified acyl-CoA dehydrogenases appeared as homotetramers, as revealed by size exclusion chromatography. AcdS110, AcdB4, AcdH16, and AcdKT2440 were able to dehydrogenate isobutyryl-CoA. AcdKT2440 additionally dehydrogenated butyryl-CoA and valeryl-CoA, whereas AcdDSM31 dehydrogenated only butyryl-CoA and valeryl-CoA. No dehydrogenation reactions were observed with propionyl-CoA, isovaleryl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, and glutaryl-CoA for any of the investigated acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Only AcdTBEA6, AcdN-1, and AcdLB400 desulfinated 3SP-CoA and were thus identified as 3SP-CoA desulfinases within the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, although none of these three Acds dehydrogenated any of the tested acyl-CoA thioesters. No appropriate substrates were identified for AcdBL21 and AcdWT001. Spectrophotometric assays provided apparent Km and Vmax values for active substrates and indicated the applicability of phylogenetic analyses to predict the substrate range of

  15. Identification of 3-sulfinopropionyl coenzyme A (CoA) desulfinases within the Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Marc; Demming, Rebecca Michaela; Krewing, Marco; Rose, Judith; Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    In a previous study, the essential role of 3-sulfinopropionyl coenzyme A (3SP-CoA) desulfinase acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acd) in Advenella mimigardefordensis strain DPN7(T) (AcdDPN7) during degradation of 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP) was elucidated. DTDP is a sulfur-containing precursor substrate for biosynthesis of polythioesters (PTEs). AcdDPN7 showed high amino acid sequence similarity to acyl-CoA dehydrogenases but was unable to catalyze a dehydrogenation reaction. Hence, it was investigated in the present study whether 3SP-CoA desulfinase activity is an uncommon or a widespread property within the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. Therefore, proteins of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily from Advenella kashmirensis WT001, Bacillus cereus DSM31, Cupriavidus necator N-1, Escherichia coli BL21, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, Ralstonia eutropha H16, Variovorax paradoxus B4, Variovorax paradoxus S110, and Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 were expressed in E. coli strains. All purified acyl-CoA dehydrogenases appeared as homotetramers, as revealed by size exclusion chromatography. AcdS110, AcdB4, AcdH16, and AcdKT2440 were able to dehydrogenate isobutyryl-CoA. AcdKT2440 additionally dehydrogenated butyryl-CoA and valeryl-CoA, whereas AcdDSM31 dehydrogenated only butyryl-CoA and valeryl-CoA. No dehydrogenation reactions were observed with propionyl-CoA, isovaleryl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, and glutaryl-CoA for any of the investigated acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. Only AcdTBEA6, AcdN-1, and AcdLB400 desulfinated 3SP-CoA and were thus identified as 3SP-CoA desulfinases within the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, although none of these three Acds dehydrogenated any of the tested acyl-CoA thioesters. No appropriate substrates were identified for AcdBL21 and AcdWT001. Spectrophotometric assays provided apparent Km and Vmax values for active substrates and indicated the applicability of phylogenetic analyses to predict the substrate range of

  16. Synthesis and characterization of O-acylated-ω-hydroxy fatty acids as skin-protecting barrier lipids.

    PubMed

    Pérez, B; Dahlgaard, S E; Bulsara, P; Rawlings, A V; Jensen, M M; Dong, M; Glasius, M; Clarke, M J; Guo, Z

    2017-03-15

    A series of O-acylated-ω-hydroxy fatty acids (Acyl acids) of up to 34 carbons were synthesized and characterized through DSC, FTIR and Langmuir isotherm measurements to identify potential replacements to petrolatum, a highly used occlusive technology that if unrefined, it can potentially be classified as carcinogenic. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that long acyl acids engender orthorhombic packing; packing behavior that is predominant in the lipid matrix of healthy stratum corneum, the outmost layer of the skin. In addition, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Langmuir isotherm studies suggested that the length of the hydrocarbon chain and the position of the ester bond influence the molecular organization of the acyl acids. For instance, 16-(tetradecanoyloxy)hexadecanoic acid (30 carbons) displayed a higher melting point (mp=68°C) than 10-(stearoyloxy)decanoic acid (28 carbons; mp=63°C) and 10-(tetradecanoyloxy)decanoic acid (24 carbons; mp=55°C) according to DSC. Moreover, Langmuir isotherm studies showed that mixtures of acyl acid with distearoylphosphatidylcholine improved packing behavior. Finally, Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) measurements showed that the compounds in fact decrease WVTR compared to untreated control (P<0.001) which demonstrates the potential of these ingredients as occlusive technologies to combat skin barrier diseases.

  17. Purification of Pseudomonas putida acyl coenzyme A ligase active with a range of aliphatic and aromatic substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Valverde, M; Reglero, A; Martinez-Blanco, H; Luengo, J M

    1993-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) ligase (acyl-CoA synthetase [ACoAS]) from Pseudomonas putida U was purified to homogeneity (252-fold) after this bacterium was grown in a chemically defined medium containing octanoic acid as the sole carbon source. The enzyme, which has a mass of 67 kDa, showed maximal activity at 40 degrees C in 10 mM K2PO4H-NaPO4H2 buffer (pH 7.0) containing 20% (wt/vol) glycerol. Under these conditions, ACoAS showed hyperbolic behavior against acetate, CoA, and ATP; the Kms calculated for these substrates were 4.0, 0.7, and 5.2 mM, respectively. Acyl-CoA ligase recognizes several aliphatic molecules (acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, hexanoic, heptanoic, and octanoic acids) as substrates, as well as some aromatic compounds (phenylacetic and phenoxyacetic acids). The broad substrate specificity of ACoAS from P. putida was confirmed by coupling it with acyl-CoA:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum to study the formation of several penicillins. Images PMID:8476289

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of imidazole-catalyzed acylation of cellulose in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Haq; Pires, Paulo Augusto R; El Seoud, Omar A

    2013-02-15

    Cellulose acylation by anhydrides (ethanoic to hexanoic) plus tosyl chloride, TsCl, or imidazole in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution has been studied. Contrary to a previous claim, TsCl does not catalyze acylation. For the diazole-catalyzed reaction, N-acylimidazole is the acylating agent. Third order rate constants (k(3); 40-70 °C) have been calculated from conductivity data and split, by using information from model compounds, into contributions from the primary- (k(3;Prim(OH))) and secondary- (k(3;Sec(OH))) hydroxyl groups of cellulose. Values of k(3,Prim(OH))/k(3,Sec(OH)) are >1, and increase linearly as a function of increasing the number of carbon atoms of the acyl group. Rate constants and the degree of biopolymer substitution decrease on going from ethanoic- to butanoic-, then increase for pentanoic- and hexanoic anhydride, due to enthalpy/entropy compensation. Relative to the uncatalyzed reaction, the diazole-mediated one is associated with smaller enthalpy- and larger entropy of activation, due to difference of the acylating agent.

  19. Acyl chain preference and inhibitor identification of Moraxella catarrhalis LpxA: Insight through crystal structure and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Shivendra; Kesari, Pooja; Yadav, Ravi; Dev, Aditya; Narwal, Manju; Kumar, Pravindra

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important surface component and a potential virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative bacteria. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) enzyme catalyzes the first reaction of LPS biosynthesis, reversible transfer of R-3-hydroxy-acyl moiety from donor R-3-hydroxy-acyl-acyl carrier protein to the 3' hydroxyl position of UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine. LpxA enzyme's essentiality in bacterial survival and absence of any homologous protein in humans makes it a promising target for anti-bacterial drug development. Herein, we present the crystal structure of Moraxella catarrhalis LpxA (McLpxA). We propose that L171 is responsible for limiting the acyl chain length in McLpxA to 10C or 12C. The study reveals the plausible interactions between the highly conserved clusters of basic residues at the C-terminal end of McLpxA and acidic residues of acyl carrier protein (ACP). Furthermore, the crystal structure of McLpxA was used to screen potential inhibitors from NCI open database using various computational approaches viz. pharmacophore mapping, virtual screening and molecular docking. Molecules Mol212032, Mol609399 and Mol152546 showed best binding affinity with McLpxA among all screened molecules. These molecules mimic the substrate-LpxA binding interactions.

  20. Downregulation of carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase by miRNAs 132 and 212 amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Soni, Mufaddal S; Rabaglia, Mary E; Bhatnagar, Sushant; Shang, Jin; Ilkayeva, Olga; Mynatt, Randall; Zhou, Yun-Ping; Schadt, Eric E; Thornberry, Nancy A; Muoio, Deborah M; Keller, Mark P; Attie, Alan D

    2014-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) 132 and 212 are differentially upregulated in response to obesity in two mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to obesity-induced diabetes. Here we show the overexpression of miRNAs 132 and 212 enhances insulin secretion (IS) in response to glucose and other secretagogues including nonfuel stimuli. We determined that carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT; Slc25a20) is a direct target of these miRNAs. CACT is responsible for transporting long-chain acyl-carnitines into the mitochondria for β-oxidation. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CACT in β-cells led to the accumulation of fatty acyl-carnitines and enhanced IS. The addition of long-chain fatty acyl-carnitines promoted IS from rat insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) as well as primary mouse islets. The effect on INS-1 cells was augmented in response to suppression of CACT. A nonhydrolyzable ether analog of palmitoyl-carnitine stimulated IS, showing that β-oxidation of palmitoyl-carnitine is not required for its stimulation of IS. These studies establish a link between miRNA-dependent regulation of CACT and fatty acyl-carnitine-mediated regulation of IS.