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Sample records for ad cases compared

  1. A comparative note on tunneling in AdS and in its boundary matrix dual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, B.; Mukherji, Sudipta; Sahay, Anurag; Sarkar, Swarnendu

    2012-05-01

    For charged black hole, within the grand canonical ensemble, the decay rate from thermal AdS to the black hole at a fixed high temperature increases with the chemical potential. We check that this feature is well captured by a phenomenological matrix model expected to describe its strongly coupled dual. This comparison is made by explicitly constructing the kink and bounce solutions around the de-confinement transition and evaluating the matrix model effective potential on the solutions.

  2. Humor and Comparatives in Ads for High- and Low-Involvement Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bob T. W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of humor in advertising, comparative advertising, and consumer involvement with the product. Finds that humorous ads are more eye catching but less impressive and less sufficient in information than nonhumorous ads. Finds the performance of comparative ads is generally negative and especially so in the high…

  3. Ad-Hoc Queries over Document Collections - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löser, Alexander; Lutter, Steffen; Düssel, Patrick; Markl, Volker

    We discuss the novel problem of supporting analytical business intelligence queries over web-based textual content, e.g., BI-style reports based on 100.000's of documents from an ad-hoc web search result. Neither conventional search engines nor conventional Business Intelligence and ETL tools address this problem, which lies at the intersection of their capabilities. "Google Squared" or our system GOOLAP.info, are examples of these kinds of systems. They execute information extraction methods over one or several document collections at query time and integrate extracted records into a common view or tabular structure. Frequent extraction and object resolution failures cause incomplete records which could not be joined into a record answering the query. Our focus is the identification of join-reordering heuristics maximizing the size of complete records answering a structured query. With respect to given costs for document extraction we propose two novel join-operations: The multi-way CJ-operator joins records from multiple relationships extracted from a single document. The two-way join-operator DJ ensures data density by removing incomplete records from results. In a preliminary case study we observe that our join-reordering heuristics positively impact result size, record density and lower execution costs.

  4. The Effect of Comparatively-Framed versus Similarity-Framed E-Cigarette and Snus Print Ads on Young Adults’ Ad and Product Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the effects of comparative-framing [C-F; ads highlighting differences between the advertised product and conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products] versus similarity-framing (S-F; ads highlighting congruence with conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products) in e-cigarette and snus ads on young adult smokers’ and non-smokers’ ad- and product-related perceptions. Methods One thousand fifty one (1,051) young adults (18–24 years; 76% women; 50% smokers) from existing consumer panels were recruited in a within-subjects quasi-experiment. Each participant viewed 4 online advertisements, varied by tobacco product type (e-cigarette or snus) and ad framing (C-F or S-F). The dependent measures for this study were ad-related (ad perceptions, ad credibility) and product-related perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions, product appeal, and product use intentions). Results Former and current smokers rated C-F ads as more persuasive than S-F ads, as evidenced by favorable ad perceptions and high product use intentions. Former and current smokers also rated e-cigarette ads with more favorable ad perceptions, low absolute and comparative risk perceptions, high product appeal, and high product use intentions as compared to snus ads. However, the effect sizes of the significant differences are less than.2, indicating small magnitude of difference between the study variables. Conclusions Unless FDA regulates e-cig and snus advertising, there is a potential of decreasing risk perceptions and increasing use of e-cigs among young adults. Further research on implicit/explicit comparative claims in e-cigarettes and snus advertisements that encourage risk misperceptions is recommended. PMID:28042597

  5. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising. PMID:8265756

  6. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising.

  7. Comparing the Effects of Four Instructional Treatments on EFL Students' Achievement in Writing Classified Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The current study set out to compare the effect of traditional and non-traditional instructional treatments; i.e. explicit, implicit, task-based and no-instruction approaches on students' abilities to learn how to write classified ads. 72 junior students who have all taken a course in Reading Journalistic Texts at the Payame-Noor University…

  8. Police officer competence in handling Alzheimer's cases: The roles of AD knowledge, beliefs, and exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Xiang; Brown, Hillary; Winfree, L Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the level of police officer competence for providing assistance during interactions with patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to reveal the roles their knowledge of AD, beliefs of AD, and previous exposure to patients with AD play in influencing these competence levels. Data were collected from police officers in two Phoenix metropolitan-area police departments through focus group discussions and survey. Four focus groups comprised of 27 police officers discussed their perceptions of AD and challenges of dealing with individuals with AD. Building on the findings from the focus groups, an online survey ( n = 228) examined police officer AD knowledge, as well as their experience and competence in the handling of AD cases. Police participants had fair knowledge of AD with an average 71.8% accuracy rate. More AD knowledge ( B = 0.29) and higher levels of education ( B = 0.85) were associated with higher levels of competence of recognizing AD-related behaviors. Low levels of discomfort interacting with AD patients ( B = -0.75) and having a family member of dementia ( B = 1.32) were related to higher levels of competence of reacting appropriately to an AD patient. The findings suggest that information about the best practices for dealing with community residents with AD needs to be made available to police officers. To ensure a dementia-friendly environment, aging service providers need to reach out to local law enforcement departments and provide training that promotes AD knowledge, decreases AD-related stigma, and increases competence of handing dementia cases in a way that fits the policing culture.

  9. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  10. Effective forces between macroions: The cases of asymmetric macroions and added salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, E.; Löwen, H.; Trigger, S.

    1998-05-01

    The distance-resolved effective forces between two spherical, highly charged colloidal macroions are calculated by computer simulation within the primitive model of strongly asymmetric electrolytes. In particular we consider the case of two asymmetric macroions, i.e., two particles with different charges and different radii, as well as the case of added salt ions. Different parameter sets corresponding to typical experimental samples are investigated. The results are compared with the predictions of traditional linear screening theory of Derjaguin and Landau [Acta Physicochim. URSS 14, 633 (1941)] and of Verwey and Overbeek [Theory of the Stability of Lyophobic Colloids (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1948)]. For moderate charge asymmetries we find a semiquantitative agreement and verify different scaling laws obtained from Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory justifying the DLVO description of binary mixtures and of charge- and size-polydisperse macroion samples. However for very large asymmetry, particularly for the mixture of charged and uncharged colloid particles, we obtain a nonzero repulsive interaction contrarily to DLVO theory.

  11. Clinical utility of the informant AD8 as a dementia case finding instrument in primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Chan, Qun Lin; Xu, Xin; Shaik, Muhammad Amin; Chong, Steven Shih Tsze; Hui, Richard Jor Yeong; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian; Dong, YanHong

    2016-01-01

    The informant AD8 has excellent discriminant ability for dementia case finding in tertiary healthcare settings. However, its clinical utility for dementia case finding at the forefront of dementia management, primary healthcare, is unknown. Therefore, we recruited participants from two primary healthcare centers in Singapore and measured their performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and a local formal neuropsychological battery, in addition to the AD8. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between demographic factors and dementia. Area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to establish the optimal cut-off points for dementia case finding. Of the 309 participants recruited, 243 (78.7%) had CDR = 0, 22 (7.1%) CDR = 0.5, and 44 (14.2%) CDR ≥1. Age was strongly associated with dementia, and the optimal age for dementia case finding in primary healthcare settings was ≥75 years. In this age group, the AD8 has excellent dementia case finding capability and was superior to the MMSE and equivalent to the MoCA [AD8 AUC (95% CI): 0.95 (0.91-0.99), cut-off: ≥3, sensitivity: 0.90, specificity: 0.88, PPV: 0.79 and NPV: 0.94; MMSE AUC (95% CI): 0.87 (0.79-0.94), p = 0.04; MoCA AUC (95% CI): 0.88 (0.82-0.95), p = 0.06]. In conclusion, the AD8 is well suited for dementia case finding in primary healthcare settings.

  12. Evaluating the Importance of Image-related Text for Ad-hoc and Case-based Biomedical Article Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Matthew S; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R

    2010-11-13

    Images and their associated text are an essential source of information in biomedical articles. However, their use in providing evidence for clinical case descriptions has yet to be evaluated in the context of information retrieval. Given the complexity of case-based document retrieval, understanding the importance of images and image-related text is critical for future research into text- and content-based approaches to this problem. In this study, we compare the extent to which image-related text is useful in facilitating document retrieval for both case-based information requests and ad-hoc clinical questions in the domain of family practice. We show that case-based document retrieval is significantly improved with the use of image-related text whereas retrieval for clinical questions is largely unaffected. This suggests that visual evidence is more relevant for the case descriptions used in our study than the clinical questions.

  13. Comparing the new generation accelerator driven subcritical reactor system (ADS) to traditional critical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemah, Elif; Akkaya, Recep; Tokgöz, Seyit Rıza

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the accelerator driven subcritical reactors have taken great interest worldwide. The Accelerator Driven System (ADS) has been used to produce neutron in subcritical state by the external proton beam source. These reactors, which are hybrid systems, are important in production of clean and safe energy and conversion of radioactive waste. The ADS with the selection of reliability and robust target materials have been the new generation of fission reactors. In addition, in the ADS Reactors the problems of long-lived radioactive fission products and waste actinides encountered in the fission process of the reactor during incineration can be solved, and ADS has come to the forefront of thorium as fuel for the reactors.

  14. On the Practices and Challenges of Measuring Higher Education Value Added: The Case of Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Mariño, Julián P.; Molina Mantilla, Adriana; Morales Forero, Andrés; Wiley, Edward E.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the nature of higher education are leading towards increased interest in the assessment of student learning. This study considers an attempt to apply value-added models for the purposes of comparing student learning across institutions, taking care to discuss special considerations inherent to the application of these models to higher…

  15. The Comparative Labor Market Role of Newspaper Help Wanted Ads and Public Employment Service Job Listings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Miriam; Sugarman, Marged

    A 1-year study of 12 U.S. labor market areas compared job listings in the help wanted ads of local newspapers to job orders in the local public employment services to help determine what the role of the public employment service should be. The study gathered two types of data. One type was used to compare the "stock," or inventory, of…

  16. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: The multilevel case

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Forum Contributions 97-0766 and 97-0933. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. A previous contribution (97-1073) covered the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all resided at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. This contribution covers the more general case wherein those top-most LGNs may reside at different PNNI hierarchy levels. Both of the SNL contributions consider flat ad hoc network architectures in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the pre-configured level of its top-most LGN.

  17. AdVEGF-All6A+ Preconditioning of Murine Ischemic Skin Flaps Is Comparable to Surgical Delay

    PubMed Central

    Gersch, Robert P.; Fourman, Mitchell S.; Phillips, Brett T.; Nasser, Ahmed; McClain, Steve A.; Khan, Sami U.; Dagum, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical flap delay is commonly used in preconditioning reconstructive flaps to prevent necrosis. However, staged procedures are not ideal. Pharmacologic up-regulation of angiogenic and arteriogenic factors before flap elevation poses a nonsurgical approach to improve flap survival. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control (n = 16), surgical delay (Delay), AdNull, AdEgr-1, and AdVEGF (n ≥ 9/group) groups. Delay rats had a 9 cm × 3 cm cranial based pedicle skin flap incised 10 days prior to elevation. Adenoviral groups received 28 intradermal injections (109 pu/animal total) throughout the distal two thirds of the flap 1 week prior to elevation. At postoperative day (POD) 0 flaps were elevated and silicone sheeting was placed between flap and wound bed. Perfusion analysis in arbitrary perfusion units of the ischemic middle third of the flap using laser Doppler imaging was conducted preoperatively and on POD 0, 3, and 7. Clinical and histopathologic assessments of the skin flaps were performed on POD 7. Results: AdVEGF (50.8 ± 10.9 APU) and AdEgr-1 (39.3 ± 10.6 APU) perfusion levels were significantly higher than controls (16.5 ± 4.2 APU) on POD 7. Delay models were equivalent to controls (25.9 ± 6.8 APU). AdVEGF and Delay animals showed significantly more viable surface area on POD 7 (14.4 ± 1.3 cm2, P < 0.01 and 12.4 ± 1.2 cm2, P < 0.05, respectively) compared with Controls (8.7 ± 0.7 cm2). Conclusions: AdVEGF preconditioning resulted in flap survival comparable to surgical delay. Adenoviral preconditioning maintained perfusion levels postoperatively while surgical delay did not. PMID:26495207

  18. Adding New Dimensions to Case Study Evaluations: The Case of Evaluating Comprehensive Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Davis, Darnella

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the adaptation of the case study method to assessing increasingly complex, comprehensive reform initiatives that highlight the blurring of the boundaries between phenomenon and context and the concurrence of multiple interventions. Completed studies of two education reform programs illustrate the ongoing challenges of…

  19. Comparative Study of ADS and FR in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Wydler, Peter; Van Den Durpel, Luc

    2002-07-01

    Several nuclear fuel cycle options may be envisaged in the long term to further improve the sustainability of nuclear energy. Fully closed fuel cycles for actinides can reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of the high-level waste by a hundred-fold compared with current once-through fuel cycles. The OECD/NEA completed a nuclear energy systems study in order to compare the role of accelerator-driven systems and fast reactors in such closed fuel cycles and this with respect to reactor properties, fuel cycle requirements, economic aspects and R and D-needs. (authors)

  20. Comparative studies of glycine added potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals grown by conventional and Sankaranaryanan-Ramasamy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boopathi, K.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.; Manyum, Prapun

    2013-03-01

    Glycine added potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique, slow cooling along with seed rotation and Sankaranaryanan-Ramasamy (SR) method. The size of the grown crystal in slow cooling method was 35 × 25 × 20 mm3 and in SR method it was 20 mm in diameter and 110 mm in length. The grown crystals were subjected to powder X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, thermal analysis, Vickers microhardness, dielectric, laser damage threshold, higher resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and nonlinear optical (NLO) studies. All the grown crystals have good transparency in the entire visible region. In order to determine mechanical strength of crystal, Vickers micro-hardness measurement was carried out. Dielectric study reveals higher dielectric constant and low dielectric loss for SR method grown crystal. High laser damage threshold was observed in SR method grown glycine added KDP crystal compared to SR method grown pure KDP crystal. The second harmonic efficiency of the glycine added KDP is increased compared to pure KDP.

  1. How One School Implements and Experiences Ohio's Value-Added Model: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattrochi, David

    2009-01-01

    Ohio made value-added law in 2003 and incorporated value-added assessment to its operating standards for teachers and administrators in 2006. Value-added data is used to determine if students are making a year's growth at the end of each school year. Schools and districts receive a rating of "Below Growth, Met Growth, or Above Growth" on…

  2. Use of "Ad Hominem" Argument in Political Discourse: The Battalino Case from the Impeachment Trial of President Clinton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Examines argument from the televised impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton concerning the similarity of the Clinton case to the Linda Battalino case and asks if the argument does or does not represents an "ad hominem" argument. Provides an introduction to the viewpoint of informal logic and a summary of the various forms of…

  3. Defining the worst case scenario for the Makran Subduction Zone: the 1008 AD tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Goesta

    2016-04-01

    correlated to the 1008 AD earthquake and tsunami inundation. The boulder deposits as well as the archaeological remains testify for a maximum tsunami runup of 15m, exceeding by far the inundation as observed in 1945. We define this as the worst case scenario for the Makran Subduction Zone. However, the return period is rather large (>500 years).

  4. Tobacco alkaloids reduction by casings added/enzymatic hydrolysis treatments assessed through PLSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shunshun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Song, Shiqing; Hayat, Khizar; Eric, Karangwa; Majeed, Hamid

    2016-03-01

    Based on encouraged development of potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) by the US Institute of Medicine, casings (glucose and peptides) added treatments (CAT) and enzymatic (protease and xylanase) hydrolysis treatments (EHT) were developed to study their effect on alkaloids reduction in tobacco and cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) and further investigate the correlation between sensory attributes and alkaloids. Results showed that the developed treatments reduced nicotine by 14.5% and 24.4% in tobacco and cigarette MS, respectively, indicating that both CAT and EHT are potentially effective for developing lower-risk cigarettes. Sensory and electronic nose analysis confirmed the significant influence of treatments on sensory and cigarette MS components. PLSR analysis demonstrated that tobacco alkaloids were positively correlated to the off-taste, irritation and impact attributes, and negatively correlated to the aroma and softness attributes. Additionally, nicotine and anabasine from tobacco leaves positively contributed to the impact attribute, while they negatively contributed to the aroma attribute (P<0.05). Meanwhile, most alkaloids in cigarette MS positively contributed to the impact and irritation attributes (P<0.05). Hence, this study paved a way to better understand the correlation between tobacco alkaloids and sensory attributes.

  5. The Schooling Experience of Adolescent Boys with AD/HD: An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Kathryn; Mercer, K. Louise; Carrington, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the experience of schooling of six adolescent boys diagnosed with AD/HD from the perspectives of the boys, their mothers and their teachers. The study utilised social constructionism as the theoretical orientation and the Dynamic Developmental Theory (DDT) of AD/HD as the explanatory framework. Utilising a multiple,…

  6. Value-Added Dairy Products from Grass-Based Dairy Farms: A Case Study in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qingbin; Parsons, Robert; Colby, Jennifer; Castle, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    On-farm processing of value-added dairy products can be a way for small dairy farms to diversify production and increase revenue. This article examines characteristics of three groups of Vermont farmers who have grass-based dairy farms--those producing value-added dairy products, those interested in such products, and those not interested in such…

  7. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  8. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    PubMed

    Schyns, Joep F; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  9. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5×5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996–2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco’s water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco’s national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  10. The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Boss, E.; Chai, F.

    2007-05-01

    matter to the modeled properties. Coupling explicit optics to an ecosystem model provides several advantages in generating: (1) a more accurate subsurface light-field, which is important for light sensitive biogeochemical processes such as photosynthesis and photo-oxidation, (2) added constraints on model parameters that help to reduce uncertainties in ecosystem model simulations, and (3) model output which is comparable to basic remotely-sensed properties. In addition, the coupling of biogeochemical models and optics paves the road for future assimilation of ocean color and in-situ measured optical properties into the models.

  11. Expression profiles of cytokines in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, compared to the brains of non-demented patients with and without increasing AD pathology

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Kaori; Horio, Juri; Satoh, Haruhisa; Sue, Lucia; Beach, Thomas; Arita, Seizaburo; Tooyama, Ikuo; Konishi, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is involved in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Our major focus was to clarify whether neuroinflammation plays important roles in AD pathogenesis, particularly prior to the manifestation of overt dementia. We analyzed cytokine expression profiles of the brain, with focus on non-demented patients with increasing AD pathology, referred to as high pathology control (HPC) patients, who provide an intermediate subset between AD and normal control subjects, referred to as low pathology control (LPC) patients. With real-time PCR techniques, we found significant differences in interleukin (IL)-1β, 10, 13, 18, and 33, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α converting enzyme (TACE), and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 mRNA expression ratios between HPC and AD patients, while no significant differences in the expression ratios of any cytokine tested here were observed between LPC and HPC patients. The cytokine mRNA expression ratios were determined as follows: first, cytokine mRNA levels were normalized to mRNA levels of a housekeeping gene, peptidyl-prolyl isomerase A (PPIA), which showed the most stable expression among ten housekeeping genes tested here; then, the normalized data of cytokine levels in the temporal cortex were divided by those in the cerebellum, which is resistant to AD pathology. Subsequently, the expression ratios of the temporal cortex to cerebellum were compared among LPC, HPC and AD patient groups. Our results indicate that cytokines are more mobilized and implicated in the later AD stage when a significant cognitive decline occurs and develops than in the developmental course of AD pathology prior to the manifestation of overt dementia. PMID:21368376

  12. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jing; Pan, Yuqiang; Shi, Jing; Guo, Yan; Yan, Zengguang; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Meng

    2015-01-01

    In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni) salts: NiCl2, NiSO4, Ni(II)-citrate, Ni(CH3COO)2, and Ni(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO4 < Ni(CH3COO)2 < Ni(II)-citrate < NiCl2 < Ni(II)-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) were 3148 mg·kg−1 for NiSO4, 1315 mg·kg−1 for NiCl2, and 89 mg·kg−1 for Ni(II)-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II)-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered. PMID:26633435

  13. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Pan, Yuqiang; Shi, Jing; Guo, Yan; Yan, Zengguang; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Meng

    2015-11-30

    In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni) salts: NiCl₂, NiSO₄, Ni(II)-citrate, Ni(CH₃COO)₂, and Ni(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate), on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO₄ < Ni(CH₃COO)₂ < Ni(II)-citrate < NiCl₂ < Ni(II)-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) were 3148 mg·kg(-1) for NiSO₄, 1315 mg·kg(-1) for NiCl₂, and 89 mg·kg(-1) for Ni(II)-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II)-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered.

  14. Developing comparative criminology and the case of China: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhong

    2007-02-01

    Although comparative criminology has made significant development during the past decade or so, systematic empirical research has only developed along a few topics. Comparative criminology has never occupied a central position in criminology. This article analyzes the major theoretical and methodological impediments in the development of comparative criminology. It stresses a need to shift methodology from a conventional primary approach that uses the nation as the unit of analysis to an in-depth case study method as a primary methodological approach. The article maintains that case study method can overcome the limitation of its descriptive tradition and become a promising methodological approach for comparative criminology.

  15. Information Technology Diffusion: A Comparative Case Study of Intranet Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    Information Technology Diffusion: A Comparative Case Study of Intranet Adoption George A. Zolla Jr. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943...unfreezing”. Cooper and Zmud [4] defined IT implementation as “an organizational effort directed toward diffusing appropriate information technology within a...1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Information Technology Diffusion: A Comparative Case Study of Intranet Adoption 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  16. Quality and the Rise of Value-Added in Education: The Case of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Martin; McNamara, Gerry; O'Hara, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the rise of value-added as a measure of quality in education. As a point of departure, the paper begins with an analysis of the rise of the concept of quality in education and discusses how, at times, various contradictory determinants of quality have managed to influence the evaluation and assessment frameworks of most…

  17. The Dubious Utility of the Value-Added Concept in Higher Education: The Case of Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunker, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Using data on CPA exam pass rates and various institutional variables, this research examines the potential usefulness of the value-added concept in accounting higher education. For a sample of 548 US colleges and universities, predicted pass rates were computed from regression equations relating observed pass rates to institutional variables. The…

  18. Value Added: A Case Study in the Mismatch between Education Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on value added research indicates that, by using data from student perceptions, classroom observations, and test score growth, one can obtain credible evidence of the relative effectiveness of a set of teachers who teach similar children under similar conditions. Recent careful research on school effects indicates that committed…

  19. Reformers, Batting Averages, and Malpractice: The Case for Caution in Value-Added Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The essay considers two analogies that help to reveal the limitations of value-added modeling: the first, a comparison with batting averages, shows that the model's reliability is quite limited even though year-to-year correlation figures may seem impressive; the second, a comparison between medical malpractice and so-called educational…

  20. What Do We Know about Using Value-Added to Compare Teachers Who Work in Different Schools? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This brief considers the problem of using value-added scores to compare teachers who work in different schools. The author focuses on whether such comparisons can be regarded as fair, or, in statistical language, "unbiased." An unbiased measure does not systematically favor teachers because of the backgrounds of the students they are…

  1. The added value of eye-tracking in diagnosing dyscalculia: a case study.

    PubMed

    van Viersen, Sietske; Slot, Esther M; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van't Noordende, Jaccoline E; Leseman, Paul P M

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared eye movements and performance of a 9-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 10), in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R (2)) and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to ~10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.

  2. The added value of eye-tracking in diagnosing dyscalculia: a case study

    PubMed Central

    van Viersen, Sietske; Slot, Esther M.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; van't Noordende, Jaccoline E.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared eye movements and performance of a 9-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 10), in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R2) and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to ~10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures. PMID:24098294

  3. Examination-Related Anxiety in Students Diagnosed with AD/HD and the Case for an Allocation of Extra Time: Perspectives of Teachers, Mothers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra; Houghton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This study details the perspectives of Western Australian teachers, students and mothers on the case for an allocation of extra exam time to students diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). Eighteen teachers of students with AD/HD (14 high and four primary), 15 students with AD/HD (10 high and 5 primary), and their mothers…

  4. The Carnuntum case - an earthquake catastrophe around 350 A.D.?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerl, Christa; Loecker, Klaus; Steffelbauer, Ilja; Totschnig, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Carnuntum was a Roman legionary camp established to protect the Pannonian limes and is the most important and the best researched Roman site in Austria. Under Trajan (98-117 A.D.) Carnuntum became the residence of the governor of the province of Pannonia superior. The site is located close to Petronell and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg in Lower Austria, about 40 kilometers east of Vienna, at the riverbank of the Danube. In 1989 Kandler introduced the hypothesis of a possible earthquake catastrophe in Carnuntum. He stated, that for the middle of the fourth century A.D. archaeological evidence shows that the area was severely affected by a damaging event, which destroyed buildings. These were found in various areas of the Roman city of Carnuntum (Kandler, 1989; Decker et al, 2006). In the following years numerous authors of different disciplines dealt with the probability of an earthquake around 350 A.D in the area of Carnuntum. Decker et al. (2006) concluded in their study that this earthquake seems to be the largest event documented so far, which can be related to the Vienna Basin fault system. Furthermore they stated that the interpretation of the Carnuntum earthquake scenario is therefore regarded a valuable supplement to the time window covered by earthquake catalogues, even though the data only provides an isolated point on the time line. The authors interpreted the damages in Carnuntum as the result of an earthquake in the middle of the fourth century A.D. In their opinion the most probable scenario is an earthquake, with a local intensity of 9°EMS-98, which hit the Roman town. They supposed a segment of the Vienna Basin strike-slip fault system as the most likely source of the earthquake, which passes 8 km NW of Carnuntum. In the present paper the state of the art will be investigated which means to show the chronology of the earthquake hypothesis as a first attempt. The comparison of the pros and cons will initially bring transparency into the ongoing argumentation

  5. Enhancing Students' Approaches to Learning: The Added Value of Gradually Implementing Case-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown the difficulty of enhancing students' approaches to learning, in particular the deep approach, through student-centred teaching methods such as problem- and case-based learning. This study investigates whether mixed instructional methods combining case-based learning and lectures have the power to enhance students'…

  6. A comparative analysis of two conserved motifs in bacterial poly(A) polymerase and CCA-adding enzyme.

    PubMed

    Just, Andrea; Butter, Falk; Trenkmann, Michelle; Heitkam, Tony; Mörl, Mario; Betat, Heike

    2008-09-01

    Showing a high sequence similarity, the evolutionary closely related bacterial poly(A) polymerases (PAP) and CCA-adding enzymes catalyze quite different reactions--PAP adds poly(A) tails to RNA 3'-ends, while CCA-adding enzymes synthesize the sequence CCA at the 3'-terminus of tRNAs. Here, two highly conserved structural elements of the corresponding Escherichia coli enzymes were characterized. The first element is a set of amino acids that was identified in CCA-adding enzymes as a template region determining the enzymes' specificity for CTP and ATP. The same element is also present in PAP, where it confers ATP specificity. The second investigated region corresponds to a flexible loop in CCA-adding enzymes and is involved in the incorporation of the terminal A-residue. Although, PAP seems to carry a similar flexible region, the functional relevance of this element in PAP is not known. The presented results show that the template region has an essential function in both enzymes, while the second element is surprisingly dispensable in PAP. The data support the idea that the bacterial PAP descends from CCA-adding enzymes and still carries some of the structural elements required for CCA-addition as an evolutionary relic and is now fixed in a conformation specific for A-addition.

  7. Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon; Elran-Barak, Roni

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. The study findings identify characteristics of the programs, the host organizations, and the social and political environment, which differentiated programs that are sustained from those that are not. The findings reaffirm…

  8. The added value of a surveillance human biomonitoring program: The case of FLEHS in Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Reynders, Hans; Colles, Ann; Morrens, Bert; Mampaey, Maja; Coertjens, Dries; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Chovanova, Hana; Winderickx, Wim; Van Campenhout, Karen

    2016-09-20

    Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers. In this article we look back on more than 15 years of investments of the Flemish government in HBM and reflect on how this large scaled and challenging HBM-initiative contributed to shaping the environmental health policy in Flanders. We used the FLEHS I (2002-2006) and II (2007-2011) results on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the resulting policy actions as an example to illustrate the added value of HBM for policy making. Policy measures for POPs, including source-related regulation (e.g. further optimization and tightening of existing Flemish legislation on open fires), investment in monitoring networks and communication and awareness campaigns, are presented and the added value for environmental health policy is discussed. We also reflect on how HBM can support science and innovation in the environmental monitoring context. Finally, we describe what society can gain from HBM in terms of opportunities for (1) feeding the political and societal debate, (2) stimulating community involvement and (3) empowering participants and citizens. All together, the gained insights and phased action plan showed that next to compliance with high scientific standards, results of the Flemish human biomonitoring campaign could be translated in targeted policy actions even for chemicals that have since long been regulated.

  9. The 365 AD tsunami imprint on the coasts of southwestern Crete - Sougia and Palaiochora case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Vera; Baika, Kalliopi; Tzigounaki, Anastasia; Tsigkou, Aggeliki; Fischer, Peter; Reicherter, Klaus; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Vött, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The southwestern coast of Crete, one of the most seismically active regions in Europe, is supposed to have been uplifted by up to 9 m during the mega-earthquake that struck the eastern Mediterranean world on July 21, 365 AD. An associated tsunami event is known to have caused thousands of fatalities and destroyed many coastal settlements and infrastructure between the Levante in the east and the Adriatic Sea in the northwest. Since this event, the entire southwestern coast of Crete has experienced strong erosion so that near-coast geological archives showing relevant Holocene sedimentary records are rare. So far, distinct palaeotsunami fingerprints from coastal archives in this region were unknown. A multi-proxy study including sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological and microfaunal methods was conducted at Sougia, within an ancient harbour basin, and around the promontory of Palaiochora. Detailed multi-electrode geoelectrical studies and several near-coast vibracores helped to detect promising local sedimentary archives. In addition, prominent elevated shorelines, evidenced by notches and algal rims, were measured with DGPS. Sedimentary archives found at Sougia and Palaiochora revealed distinct sedimentological, geochemical and geomorphological traces of high-energy inundation from the marine side. At Sougia, we found a sheet of allochthonous marine sand, partly cemented, intersecting silt-dominated harbour deposits. At Palaiochora, we found high-energy channels eroded in the local bedrock and filled with marine-borne sand and gravel on top of the Palaiochora isthmus, today some 400 m inland. Based on geochemical and microfaunal fingerprints and on sedimentary features, high-energy deposits are interpreted as tsunamites. 14C-AMS- and OSL dating approaches revealed that the tsunami sequences from both Sougia and Palaiochora were deposited during the 365 AD tsunami event. We also present and discuss conceptual tsunami landfall scenarios for both study sites.

  10. HEFCE's People Management Self-Assessment Tool: Ticking Boxes or Adding Value? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This article examines one specific organisational development tool in depth and uses a case study to investigate whether using the tool is more than a tick-box exercise and really can add value and help organisations to develop and improve. The People Management Self-Assessment Tool (SAT) is used to examine higher education institutions' (HEIs)…

  11. Enduring Fluoride Health Hazard for the Vesuvius Area Population: The Case of AD 79 Herculaneum

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Pierpaolo; Giordano, Michele; Giustino, Stefano; Guarino, Fabio M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The study of ancient skeletal pathologies can be adopted as a key tool in assessing and tracing several diseases from past to present times. Skeletal fluorosis, a chronic metabolic bone and joint disease causing excessive ossification and joint ankylosis, has been only rarely considered in differential diagnoses of palaeopathological lesions. Even today its early stages are misdiagnosed in endemic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings Endemic fluorosis induced by high concentrations of fluoride in water and soils is a major health problem in several countries, particularly in volcanic areas. Here we describe for the first time the features of endemic fluorosis in the Herculaneum victims of the 79 AD eruption, resulting from long-term exposure to high levels of environmental fluoride which still occur today. Conclusions/Significance Our observations on morphological, radiological, histological and chemical skeletal and dental features of this ancient population now suggest that in this area fluorosis was already endemic in Roman times. This evidence merged with currently available epidemiologic data reveal for the Vesuvius area population a permanent fluoride health hazard, whose public health and socio-economic impact is currently underestimated. The present guidelines for fluoridated tap water might be reconsidered accordingly, particularly around Mt Vesuvius and in other fluoride hazard areas with high natural fluoride levels. PMID:21698155

  12. Coherent information of one-mode Gaussian channels—the general case of non-zero added classical noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brádler, Kamil

    2015-03-01

    We prove that whenever the coherent information of a one-mode Gaussian (OMG) channel is non-zero its supremum is achieved for the infinite input power. This is a well established fact for zero added classical noise, whereas the non-zero case has not been studied in detail. The presented analysis fills the gap for three canonical classes of OMG channels: the lossy, amplifying and additive classical noise channel class. For the remaining OMG channel classes the coherent information is known to vanish.

  13. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA.

  14. Adding metoclopramide to paroxetine induced extrapyramidal symptoms and hyperprolactinemia in a depressed woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Igata, Ryohei; Hori, Hikaru; Atake, Kiyokazu; Katsuki, Asuka; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with major depressive disorder and prescribed paroxetine 20 mg/day. In around May 2013, the patient experienced gastric discomfort, so metoclopramide was prescribed. Beginning on June 4, 2013, the patient was given metoclopramide, 10 mg intravenously, twice per week. On the seventh day after beginning metoclopramide, facial hot flushes, increased sweating, muscle rigidity, and galactorrhea were noted. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) rapidly subsided in response to an intramuscular injection of biperiden. Blood biochemical tests revealed an elevated serum prolactin level of 44 ng/mL. After stopping metoclopramide, EPS disappeared. Serum prolactin level decreased to 15 ng/mL after 4 weeks. In our case, although no adverse reactions had previously occurred following the administration of metoclopramide, the patient developed EPS and hyperprolactinemia following the administration of this antiemetic in combination with paroxetine. Paroxetine and metoclopramide are mainly metabolized by CYP2D6, and they are inhibitors for CYP2D6. We report a case with EPS and hyperprolactinemia whose plasma paroxetine and metoclopramide level rapidly increased after the addition of metoclopramide. Our experience warrants the issuing of a precaution that adverse reactions may arise following the coadministration of metoclopramide and paroxetine even at their respective standard dose levels. PMID:27621638

  15. Black hole non-modal linear stability: the Schwarzschild (A)dS cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotti, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The non-modal linear stability of the Schwarzschild black hole established in Dotti (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 191101) is generalized to the case of a non-negative cosmological constant Λ. Two gauge invariant combinations G ± of perturbed scalars made out of the Weyl tensor and its first covariant derivative are found such that the map [{h}α β ]\\to ({G}-([{h}α β ]),{G}+([{h}α β ])) with domain the set of equivalent classes [{h}α β ] under gauge transformations of solutions of the linearized Einstein’s equation, is invertible. The way to reconstruct a representative of [{h}α β ] in terms of ({G}-,{G}+) is given. It is proved that, for an arbitrary perturbation consistent with the background asymptote, {G}+ and {G}- are bounded in the the outer static region. At large times, the perturbation decays leaving a linearized Kerr black hole around the Schwarzschild or Schwarschild de Sitter background solution. For negative cosmological constant it is shown that there are choices of boundary conditions at the time-like boundary under which the Schwarzschild anti de Sitter black hole is unstable. The root of Chandrasekhar’s duality relating odd and even modes is exhibited, and some technicalities related to this duality and omitted in the original proof of the {{Λ }}=0 case are explained in detail.

  16. Recurrent myoepithelial carcinoma of the submandibular gland treated by rAd-p53 combined with radiotherapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiangxun; Wang, Hongyan; Shi, Qingming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the case of a patient with recurrent myoepithelial carcinoma of the submandibular gland without progression for five years following treatment. A 71-year-old male patient presented to hospital with a painless swelling in the region of the right submandibular gland, and received a radical neck dissection on January 29, 2008. A nodule of ~7×4×2 cm was identified at the site of the right submandibular gland, and the pathological results revealed a diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma of the right submandibular gland with no lymph node metastasis. However, this case developed local recurrence with wide-spread metastasis in the lungs. Between April and October 2008, the patient underwent several treatment regimens and demonstrated no improvement following 6 cycles of chemotherapy. From then on, the patient was treated with recombinant adenoviral-p53 (rAd-p53) combined with radiotherapy using a 6 millivolt medical linear accelerator. The foci were relieved and the cancer demonstrated no signs of progression during the 5-year follow-up. rAd-p53 combined with radiotherapy was useful for treating myoepithelial carcinoma of the submandibular gland. PMID:27446369

  17. The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Boss, E.; Chai, F.

    2007-10-01

    simulations, and (3) model output which is comparable to basic remotely-sensed properties. In addition, the coupling of biogeochemical models and optics paves the road for future assimilation of ocean color and in-situ measured optical properties into the models.

  18. The added value of system robustness analysis for flood risk management illustrated by a case on the IJssel River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mens, M. J. P.; Klijn, F.

    2015-02-01

    Decision makers in fluvial flood risk management increasingly acknowledge that they have to prepare for extreme events. Flood risk is the most common basis on which to compare flood risk-reducing strategies. To take uncertainties into account the criteria of robustness and flexibility are advocated as well. This paper discusses the added value of robustness as an additional decision criterion compared to single-value flood risk only. We do so by quantifying flood risk and system robustness for alternative system configurations of the IJssel River valley in the Netherlands. We found that robustness analysis has added value in three respects: (1) it does not require assumptions on current and future flood probabilities, since flood consequences are shown as a function of discharge; (2) it shows the sensitivity of the system to varying discharges; and (3) it supports a discussion on the acceptability of flood damage. We conclude that robustness analysis is a valuable addition to flood risk analysis in support of long-term decision-making on flood risk management.

  19. Toward an experimental account of argumentation: the case of the slippery slope and the ad hominem arguments

    PubMed Central

    Lillo-Unglaube, Marco; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Navarrete, Gorka; Bravo, Claudio Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is a crucial component of our lives. Although in the absence of rational debate our legal, political, and scientific systems would not be possible, there is still no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Furthermore, classical theories of argumentation are normative (i.e., the acceptability of an argument is determined by a set of norms or logical rules), which sometimes creates a dissociation between the theories and people’s behavior. We think the current challenge for psychology is to bring together the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation. In this article, we exemplify this point by analyzing two cases of argumentative structures experimentally studied in the context of cognitive psychology. Specifically, we focus on the slippery slope argument and the ad hominem argument under the frameworks of Bayesian and pragma-dialectics approaches, respectively. We think employing more descriptive and experimental accounts of argumentation would help Psychology to bring closer the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation with the final goal of establishing an integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. PMID:25566112

  20. Toward an experimental account of argumentation: the case of the slippery slope and the ad hominem arguments.

    PubMed

    Lillo-Unglaube, Marco; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Navarrete, Gorka; Bravo, Claudio Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is a crucial component of our lives. Although in the absence of rational debate our legal, political, and scientific systems would not be possible, there is still no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Furthermore, classical theories of argumentation are normative (i.e., the acceptability of an argument is determined by a set of norms or logical rules), which sometimes creates a dissociation between the theories and people's behavior. We think the current challenge for psychology is to bring together the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation. In this article, we exemplify this point by analyzing two cases of argumentative structures experimentally studied in the context of cognitive psychology. Specifically, we focus on the slippery slope argument and the ad hominem argument under the frameworks of Bayesian and pragma-dialectics approaches, respectively. We think employing more descriptive and experimental accounts of argumentation would help Psychology to bring closer the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation with the final goal of establishing an integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation.

  1. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  2. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  3. Excess conductivity analysis in YBa2Cu3O7-d added with SiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires: Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, A. L.; Almessiere, M. A.; Salem, M. Ben; Azzouz, F. Ben

    2016-07-01

    The effect of nanosized silicon oxide nanoparticles (denoted NP-SiO2) and nanowires (denoted NW-SiO2) additions during the final processing stage on electrical fluctuation conductivity of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123 for brevity) in the mean field region has been reported. Series of samples were synthesized in air using a standard solid-state reaction technique by adding nanosized entities up to 0.5 wt.%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity properties have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrical measurements. TEM investigations show the presence of inhomogeneities embedded in the superconducting matrix along with the presence of columnar defects in the case of SiO2 nanoparticles added samples, however nanowires tend to agglomerate by entangling with each other in the intergrain regions. The fluctuation conductivity was analyzed as a function of reduced temperature using the Aslamazov-Larkin model. Using the Lawrence-Doniach equations, the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) number (NG) and equations, the coherence length, the effective layer thickness, the lower critical field Bc1(0), the upper critical field Bc2(0) and the critical current density Jc(0) were estimated. It was found that the addition of an optimum concentration of SiO2 nanomaterials, that depends on the shape, effectively controlled the microstructure, the grains coupling and hence improved the physical properties of Y-123 compound.

  4. Effects of Comparing Contrasting Cases on Learning from Subsequent Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelle, Julian; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In an experiment, prior to processing instructional explanations N = 75 students received either (a) contrasting cases plus comparison prompts, (b) contrasting cases plus provided comparisons (i.e., model answers to the comparison prompts), or (c) no preparation intervention. We found that the learners with preparation intervention learned more…

  5. Comparing routes of reporting in elder sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly; Gregorian, Sarah B

    2008-01-01

    An exploratory study of 284 cases of alleged elder sexual abuse revealed fairly equal numbers of reports to the criminal justice system (CJS) and to Adult Protective Services (APS). Comparison of these two routes of reporting indicated the following: Suspected victims reported to APS were more likely to reside in their own homes, not receive rape exams, and have cognitive disabilities. Their alleged offenders were typically spouse/partners or family members age 40 or older. Victims reported to CJS were more frequently abused in institutions, received rape exams, and were victimized by offenders under age 40 who also committed nonsexual crimes. In cases reported to the CJS, alleged offenders were less likely than those in the APS cases to be identified, but once identified, were more likely to be arrested, referred for prosecution, and convicted, or to plea bargain their case.

  6. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  7. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  8. Increased satiety after intake of a chocolate milk drink compared with a carbonated beverage, but no difference in subsequent ad libitum lunch intake.

    PubMed

    Harper, Angela; James, Anita; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2007-03-01

    The rising rate of obesity has been blamed on increased consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks, such as carbonated sodas, which fail to satisfy hunger. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect on appetite and energy intake of a sugar-sweetened beverage (cola) and a chocolate milk drink, matched for energy content and volume. It was hypothesised that chocolate milk may be more satiating because of its protein content. Twenty-two healthy young men (age 23 (SD 1 x 8) years) of normal weight (BMI 22 x 2 (SD 1 x 5) kg/m2) were recruited to the randomised cross-over study. Visual analogue scales were used to record subjective appetite ratings every 30 min on each of two test days. A drink of 500 ml cola or chocolate milk (900 kJ) was ingested 30 min before an ad libitum lunch. Satiety and fullness were significantly greater (P=0 x 0007, P=0 x 0004, respectively) 30 min after chocolate milk than after cola. Ratings of prospective consumption and hunger were significantly greater after cola than after chocolate milk, both immediately after preload intake (P=0 x 008, P=0 x 01, respectively) and 30 min afterwards (P=0 x 004, P=0 x 01, respectively). There was no significant difference (P=0 x 42) in ad libitum lunch intake after ingestion of chocolate milk (3145 (SD 1268) kJ) compared with cola (3286 (SD 1346) kJ). The results support the hypothesis that sweetened soft drinks are different from milk products in their impact on short-term hunger and satiety, although differences in subjective appetite scores were not translated into differences in energy intake.

  9. Dietary mercury exposure resulted in behavioral differences in mice contaminated with fish-associated methylmercury compared to methylmercury chloride added to diet.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  10. Building a Collaborative Governance System: A Comparative Case Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    This thesis uses a classic case study framework to examine the governance development process from 1999 to 2015 among the City of Phoenix, City of...to 2015 among the City of Phoenix, City of Mesa and additional parties. Three distinct phases in the governance development process were identified...111 APPENDIX C. LETTER TO CITY OF MESA ................................................ 113 APPENDIX D. LETTER FROM CITY OF MESA

  11. Using Value-Added Data for School Self-Evaluation: A Case Study of Practice in Inner-City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates how value-added research undertaken at the local education authority (LEA) is used directly by heads and teachers in their efforts to raise standards in schools. It draws on a decade of experience of supporting schools in the effective use of performance data for school self-improvement. The article highlights the various…

  12. Adding Soft-Skills to the Hard Target of Adequacy: The Case for Rearticulation Based on a Multifocal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoeppel, Robert C.; Brewer, Curtis A.; Lindle, Jane Clark; First, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the definition of adequacy by adding soft skills as a measure of school productivity. The singular focus on academic standards inherent in education policy has prevented scholars from seeing the concept of adequacy through myriad perspectives and has contributed to a resegregation of schools. Education policy…

  13. Teaching Organic Synthesis: A Comparative Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In this course, students encounter reactions and mechanisms in the context of landmark syntheses of biologically important molecules. Students closely examine pairs of syntheses of related or identical molecules to facilitate their appreciation for synthetic strategy. They then write short, creative papers that critically compare the two synthetic…

  14. Comparative Study of Edge Detectors in case of Echocardiographic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Kalpana; Dewal, M. L.; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we compare different edge detectors based on peak signal to noise ratio on Echocardiographic images. Edge detection is a critical element in image processing, since edges contain a major function of image information. The function of edge detection is to identify the boundaries of homogeneous regions in an image based on properties such as intensity and texture.We have taken Perwitt edge detector, Robarts edge detector, LoG edge detector, Canny edge detector, and Sobel edge detector for this comparison and study.

  15. Use of synthesized data to support complex ad-hoc queries in an enterprise information warehouse: a diabetes use case.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Patrick; Erdal, Selnur; Santangelo, Jennifer; Liu, Jianhua; Schuster, Dara; Kamal, Jyoti

    2008-11-06

    The Ohio State University Medical Center (OSUMC) Information Warehouse (IW) is a comprehensive data warehousing facility incorporating operational, clinical, and biological data sets from multiple enterprise system. It is common for users of the IW to request complex ad-hoc queries that often require significant intervention by data analyst. In response to this challenge, we have designed a workflow that leverages synthesized data elements to support such queries in an more timely, efficient manner.

  16. From Comparative Education to Comparative Pedagogy: A Physical Education Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…

  17. Comparing the Leadership Styles of Two Heads of Department at Carnelian School: Comparative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parascandalo, Marthese

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to compare and contrast the Leadership Styles of two Heads of Department who work at Carnelian Secondary School (anonymized). It augments a previous paper (Parascandalo 2011) which examined the role of the middle leader in secondary schools in educational literature. The investigation by means of two…

  18. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  19. Effects of Comparing Contrasting Cases and Inventing on Learning from Subsequent Instructional Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelle, Julian; Berthold, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Comparing contrasting cases is a promising means to prepare learners for future learning from related direct instruction. The most prevalent type of preparation intervention used in this "case comparison approach" is providing contrasting cases together with comparison prompts. However, if the contrasting cases are complex learners might…

  20. Is a Good Teacher a Good Teacher for All? Comparing Value-Added of Teachers with Their English Learners and Non-English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Soland, James; Fox, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Districts, states, and researchers are using value-added models with increasing frequency to evaluate educational policies and programs, as well as teachers and other educators individually. Despite their prevalence, little research assesses whether value-added measures (VAM) are consistent across student subgroups. Are teachers who are effective…

  1. Comparing the PPAT Drawings of Boys with AD/HD and Age-Matched Controls Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munley, Maripat

    2002-01-01

    Explores whether children with AD/HD respond differently to a specific art directive. Using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale to evaluate the drawings, results indicate three elements that would most accurately predict the artists into the AD/HD group: color prominence, details of objects and environments, and line quality. (Contains 29…

  2. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  3. ArthropodaCyc: a CycADS powered collection of BioCyc databases to analyse and compare metabolism of arthropods.

    PubMed

    Baa-Puyoulet, Patrice; Parisot, Nicolas; Febvay, Gérard; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Vellozo, Augusto F; Gabaldón, Toni; Calevro, Federica; Charles, Hubert; Colella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Arthropods interact with humans at different levels with highly beneficial roles (e.g. as pollinators), as well as with a negative impact for example as vectors of human or animal diseases, or as agricultural pests. Several arthropod genomes are available at present and many others will be sequenced in the near future in the context of the i5K initiative, offering opportunities for reconstructing, modelling and comparing their metabolic networks. In-depth analysis of these genomic data through metabolism reconstruction is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the biology of arthropods, thereby allowing the development of new strategies to control harmful species. In this context, we present here ArthropodaCyc, a dedicated BioCyc collection of databases using the Cyc annotation database system (CycADS), allowing researchers to perform reliable metabolism comparisons of fully sequenced arthropods genomes. Since the annotation quality is a key factor when performing such global genome comparisons, all proteins from the genomes included in the ArthropodaCyc database were re-annotated using several annotation tools and orthology information. All functional/domain annotation results and their sources were integrated in the databases for user access. Currently, ArthropodaCyc offers a centralized repository of metabolic pathways, protein sequence domains, Gene Ontology annotations as well as evolutionary information for 28 arthropod species. Such database collection allows metabolism analysis both with integrated tools and through extraction of data in formats suitable for systems biology studies.Database URL: http://arthropodacyc.cycadsys.org/.

  4. Efficacy and safety of pioglitazone added to alogliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaku, K; Katou, M; Igeta, M; Ohira, T; Sano, H

    2015-12-01

    A phase IV, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had inadequate glycaemic control, despite treatment with alogliptin in addition to diet and/or exercise therapy. Subjects with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations of 6.9-10.5% were randomized to receive 16 weeks' double-blind treatment with pioglitazone 15 mg, 30 mg once daily or placebo added to alogliptin 25 mg once daily. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c from baseline at the end of treatment period (week 16). Both pioglitazone 15 and 30 mg combination therapy resulted in a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than alogliptin monotherapy [-0.80 and -0.90% vs 0.00% (the least squares mean using analysis of covariance model); p < 0.0001, respectively]. The overall incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were similar among the treatment groups. Pioglitazone/alogliptin combination therapy was effective and generally well tolerated in Japanese subjects with T2DM and is considered to be useful in clinical settings.

  5. Single arc volumetric modulated arc therapy for complex brain gliomas: is there an advantage as compared to intensity modulated radiotherapy or by adding a partial arc?

    PubMed

    Davidson, M T M; Masucci, G L; Follwell, M; Blake, S J; Xu, W; Moseley, D J; Sanghera, P; Wong, C S; Perry, J; Tsao, M; Sahgal, A

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) offers advantages over intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for complex brain gliomas and evaluate the role of an additional partial arc. Twelve patients with glioma involving critical organs at risk (OAR) were selected [six low grade brainstem glioma (BG) and six glioblastoma (GB) cases]. BGs were prescribed 54 Gy/30 fractions (frx), and GB treated to 50 Gy/30 frx to a lower dose PTV (PTV50) with a simultaneous integrated boost delivering a total dose of 60 Gy/30 frx to a higher dose PTV (PTV60). VMAT was planned with a single arc (VMAT1) and with an additional coplanar partial arc spanning 90° (VMAT2). We observed VMATI improving the PTV equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for BG cases (p=0.027), improving the V95 for the PTV50 in GB cases (p=0.026) and resulting in more conformal GB plans (p=0.008) as compare to IMRT. However, for the GB PTV60, IMRT achieved favorable V95 over VMAT1 and VMAT2 (0.0046 and 0.008, respectively). The GB total integral dose (ID) was significantly lower with VMAT1 and VMAT2 (p=0.049 and p=0.006, respectively). Both VMAT1 and VMAT2 reduced the ID, however, only at the 5 Gy threshold for BG cases (p=0.011 and 0.005, respectively). VMAT achieved a lower spinal cord maximum dose and EUD for BG cases and higher optic nerve doses, otherwise no significant differences were observed. VMAT1 yielded the fastest treatment times and least MU. We conclude that VMAT offers faster treatment delivery for complex brain tumors while maintaining similar dosimetric qualities to IMRT. Selective dosimetric advantages in terms of spinal cord sparing and lowering the ID are observed favoring the use of an additional coplanar partial arc.

  6. Comparative Case Study of Two Biomedical Research Collaboratories

    PubMed Central

    Teasley, Stephanie D; Bhatnagar, Rishi

    2005-01-01

    Background Working together efficiently and effectively presents a significant challenge in large-scale, complex, interdisciplinary research projects. Collaboratories are a nascent method to help meet this challenge. However, formal collaboratories in biomedical research centers are the exception rather than the rule. Objective The main purpose of this paper is to compare and describe two collaboratories that used off-the-shelf tools and relatively modest resources to support the scientific activity of two biomedical research centers. The two centers were the Great Lakes Regional Center for AIDS Research (HIV/AIDS Center) and the New York University Oral Cancer Research for Adolescent and Adult Health Promotion Center (Oral Cancer Center). Methods In each collaboratory, we used semistructured interviews, surveys, and contextual inquiry to assess user needs and define the technology requirements. We evaluated and selected commercial software applications by comparing their feature sets with requirements and then pilot-testing the applications. Local and remote support staff cooperated in the implementation and end user training for the collaborative tools. Collaboratory staff evaluated each implementation by analyzing utilization data, administering user surveys, and functioning as participant observers. Results The HIV/AIDS Center primarily required real-time interaction for developing projects and attracting new participants to the center; the Oral Cancer Center, on the other hand, mainly needed tools to support distributed and asynchronous work in small research groups. The HIV/AIDS Center’s collaboratory included a center-wide website that also served as the launch point for collaboratory applications, such as NetMeeting, Timbuktu Conference, PlaceWare Auditorium, and iVisit. The collaboratory of the Oral Cancer Center used Groove and Genesys Web conferencing. The HIV/AIDS Center was successful in attracting new scientists to HIV/AIDS research, and members

  7. Comparable effect of aliskiren or a diuretic added on an angiotensin II receptor blocker on augmentation index in hypertension: a multicentre, prospective, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Toru; Murakami, Takashi; Sakuragi, Satoru; Doi, Masayuki; Nanba, Seiji; Mima, Atsushi; Tominaga, Youkou; Oka, Takafumi; Kajikawa, Yutaka; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background The effects of antihypertensive drug combination therapy on central blood pressure (BP) and augmentation index (AI) have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of the direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, or a diuretic added to an angiotensin II receptor blocker on AI in patients with essential hypertension. Methods A 24-week, prospective, multicentre, randomised, open-label study enrolled 103 patients already treated with valsartan. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either valsartan with aliskiren (V+A), or valsartan with trichlormethiazide (V+T). The primary outcome was the change in AI derived from radial artery tonometry. Secondary outcome measures included systolic and diastolic BP, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, which reflects arterial stiffness) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine concentration. Results After 24 weeks, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly reduced in both groups to a broadly comparable extent. There was no significant difference in AI at the end of the study between the V+A group and the V+T group (between-group difference: −2.3%, 95% CI −6.9% to 2.2%, p=0.31). Central BP at the end of the study also did not differ between the two groups (p=0.62). There was no significant difference in the CAVI between the groups at the end of the study. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine concentration was significantly lower in the V+A group than in the V+T group (p<0.01), suggesting that V+A attenuated oxidative stress more than V+T. Conclusion The combination of valsartan and aliskiren had an effect on AI comparable with that of the combination of valsartan and trichlormethiazide. UMIN Clinical Trial Registration number UMIN000005726.

  8. Case Studies Comparing System Advisor Model (SAM) Results to Real Performance Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A.; Sather, N.

    2012-06-01

    NREL has completed a series of detailed case studies comparing the simulations of the System Advisor Model (SAM) and measured performance data or published performance expectations. These case studies compare PV measured performance data with simulated performance data using appropriate weather data. The measured data sets were primarily taken from NREL onsite PV systems and weather monitoring stations.

  9. Adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block for amputation of lower limb in high-risk patient-a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Guang; Ding, Yan-Ling; Han, Ai-Ping; Hu, Chang-Qing; Hao, Shi; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Yong-Wang; Liu, Hu; Han, Zhe; Guo, De-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The ischemia necrosis of limb frequently requires surgery of amputation. Lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block is an ideal intra-operative anesthetic and post-operative antalgic technique for patients of amputation, especially for high-risk patients who have severe cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, the duration of analgesia of peripheral nerve block is hardly sufficient to avoid the postoperative pain and the usage of opioids. In this case, a 79-year-old man, with multiple cerebral infarcts, congestive heart failure, atrial flutter and syncope, was treated with an above knee amputation because of ischemia necrosis of his left lower limb. Dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg was added to 0.33% ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block in this case for intra-operative anesthesia and post-operative analgesia. The sensory function was blocked fully for surgery and the duration of analgesia maintained 26 hours with haemodynamic stability and moderate sedation. The patient did not complain pain and require any supplementary analgesics after surgery. This case showed that adding 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block may be a feasible and safe technique for high-risk patients for lower limb surgery of amputation.

  10. Adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block for amputation of lower limb in high-risk patient-a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Guang; Ding, Yan-Ling; Han, Ai-Ping; Hu, Chang-Qing; Hao, Shi; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Yong-Wang; Liu, Hu; Han, Zhe; Guo, De-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The ischemia necrosis of limb frequently requires surgery of amputation. Lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block is an ideal intra-operative anesthetic and post-operative antalgic technique for patients of amputation, especially for high-risk patients who have severe cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, the duration of analgesia of peripheral nerve block is hardly sufficient to avoid the postoperative pain and the usage of opioids. In this case, a 79-year-old man, with multiple cerebral infarcts, congestive heart failure, atrial flutter and syncope, was treated with an above knee amputation because of ischemia necrosis of his left lower limb. Dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg was added to 0.33% ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block in this case for intra-operative anesthesia and post-operative analgesia. The sensory function was blocked fully for surgery and the duration of analgesia maintained 26 hours with haemodynamic stability and moderate sedation. The patient did not complain pain and require any supplementary analgesics after surgery. This case showed that adding 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block may be a feasible and safe technique for high-risk patients for lower limb surgery of amputation. PMID:26550393

  11. Added dietary vegetables and fruits improved coat quality of capybara in Seoul Zoo, Republic of Korea: A case study.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyungeun; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2017-01-01

    Adequate levels of dietary vitamin C are necessary for capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocharis) because they cannot synthesize the vitamin endogenously. Beginning in 2013, hair and weight loss, as well as general dermatitis, were observed in all individual capybaras (n = 4) in a mixed exhibit at Seoul Zoo. Seven additional vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits that increased dietary vitamin C concentration from ∼300-400 to >600 mg/kg dry matter were added to the diet since January 2015. Within 6 months, capybaras' skin and coats improved considerably, with hair becoming thicker and glossier. Animals visually appeared healthier and gained weight. In conclusion, hair loss, dermatitis, and weight loss in capybara can be improved by feeding enough fresh green leaves, vegetables, and fruits. Although vitamin C is considered a major factor for alleviation of poor body condition observed, increased status of other nutrients (i.e., vitamin B6 ) provided by the diet change may also have contributed to the improvements seen in the capybara. Zoo Biol. 36:50-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Antidiabetic Drug Regimens Added to Metformin Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sobieraj, Diana M.; White, C. Michael; Saulsberry, Whitney J.; Kohn, Christine G.; Doleh, Yunes; Zaccaro, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When first line therapy with metformin is insufficient for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the optimal adjunctive therapy is unclear. We assessed the efficacy and safety of adjunctive antidiabetic agents in patients with inadequately controlled T2D on metformin alone. Materials and Methods A search of MEDLINE and CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, regulatory websites was performed. We included randomized controlled trials of 3–12 months duration, evaluating Food and Drug Administration or European Union approved agents (noninsulin and long acting, once daily basal insulins) in patients experiencing inadequate glycemic control with metformin monotherapy (≥1500 mg daily or maximally tolerated dose for ≥4 weeks). Random-effects network meta-analyses were used to compare the weighted mean difference for changes from baseline in HbA1c, body weight (BW) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and the risk of developing hypoglycemia, urinary (UTI) and genital tract infection (GTI). Results Sixty-two trials evaluating 25 agents were included. All agents significantly reduced HbA1c vs. placebo; albeit not to the same extent (range, 0.43% for miglitol to 1.29% for glibenclamide). Glargine, sulfonylureas (SUs) and nateglinide were associated with increased hypoglycemia risk vs. placebo (range, 4.00–11.67). Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, miglitol and empagliflozin/linagliptin significantly reduced BW (range, 1.15–2.26kg) whereas SUs, thiazolindinediones, glargine and alogliptin/pioglitazone caused weight gain (range, 1.19–2.44kg). SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin/linagliptin, liraglutide and sitagliptin decreased SBP (range, 1.88–5.43mmHg). No therapy increased UTI risk vs. placebo; however, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with an increased risk of GTI (range, 2.16–8.03). Conclusions Adding different AHAs to metformin was associated with varying effects on HbA1c, BW, SBP, hypoglycemia, UTI and GTI

  13. Early AD pathology in a [C-11]PiB-negative case: a PiB-amyloid imaging, biochemical, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ikonomovic, Milos D; Abrahamson, Eric E; Price, Julie C; Hamilton, Ronald L; Mathis, Chester A; Paljug, William R; Debnath, Manik L; Cohen, Anne D; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; DeKosky, Steven T; Lopez, Oscar L; Klunk, William E

    2012-03-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are detectable in the brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB); however, the sensitivity of this technique is not well understood. In this study, we examined Aβ pathology in an individual who had clinical diagnoses of probable dementia with Lewy bodies and possible Alzheimer's disease (AD) but with no detectable [C-11]PiB PET retention ([C-11]PiB(-)) when imaged 17 months prior to death. Brain samples were processed in parallel with region-matched samples from an individual with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD and a positive [C-11]PiB PET scan ([C-11]PiB(+)) when imaged 10 months prior to death. In the [C-11]PiB(-) case, Aβ plaques were sparse, occupying less than 2% cortical area, and were weakly labeled with 6-CN-PiB, a highly fluorescent derivative of PiB. In contrast, Aβ plaques occupied up to 12% cortical area in the [C-11]PiB(+) case, and were intensely labeled with 6-CN-PIB. The [C-11]PiB(-) case had low levels of [H-3]PiB binding (< 100 pmol/g) and Aβ1-42 (< 500 pmol/g) concentration except in the frontal cortex where Aβ1-42 values (788 pmol/g) approached cortical values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case (800-1, 700 pmol/g). In several cortical regions of the [C-11]PiB(-) case, Aβ1-40 levels were within the range of cortical Aβ1-40 values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case. Antemortem [C-11]PiB DVR values correlated well with region-matched postmortem measures of Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40 in the [C-11]PiB(+), and with Aβ1-42 only in the [C-11]PiB(-) case. The low ratios of [H-3]PiB binding levels to Aβ concentrations and 6-CN-PiB to Aβ plaque loads in the [C-11]PiB(-) case indicate that Aβ pathology in the brain may be associated with low or undetectable levels of [C-11]PiB retention. Studies in greater numbers of [C-11]PiB PET autopsy cases are needed to define the Aβ concentration and [H-3]PiB binding levels required to produce a positive [C-11]PiB PET signal.

  14. Geospatial modeling approach to monument construction using Michigan from A.D. 1000–1600 as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Howey, Meghan C. L.; Palace, Michael W.; McMichael, Crystal H.

    2016-01-01

    Building monuments was one way that past societies reconfigured their landscapes in response to shifting social and ecological factors. Understanding the connections between those factors and monument construction is critical, especially when multiple types of monuments were constructed across the same landscape. Geospatial technologies enable past cultural activities and environmental variables to be examined together at large scales. Many geospatial modeling approaches, however, are not designed for presence-only (occurrence) data, which can be limiting given that many archaeological site records are presence only. We use maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), which works with presence-only data, to predict the distribution of monuments across large landscapes, and we analyze MaxEnt output to quantify the contributions of spatioenvironmental variables to predicted distributions. We apply our approach to co-occurring Late Precontact (ca. A.D. 1000–1600) monuments in Michigan: (i) mounds and (ii) earthwork enclosures. Many of these features have been destroyed by modern development, and therefore, we conducted archival research to develop our monument occurrence database. We modeled each monument type separately using the same input variables. Analyzing variable contribution to MaxEnt output, we show that mound and enclosure landscape suitability was driven by contrasting variables. Proximity to inland lakes was key to mound placement, and proximity to rivers was key to sacred enclosures. This juxtaposition suggests that mounds met local needs for resource procurement success, whereas enclosures filled broader regional needs for intergroup exchange and shared ritual. Our study shows how MaxEnt can be used to develop sophisticated models of past cultural processes, including monument building, with imperfect, limited, presence-only data. PMID:27330115

  15. Taking a Case Method Capstone Course Online: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, T. Grandon; Mullarkey, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    A capstone course is normally offered at the end of a program of study with the goal of helping students synthesize what they have learned in the courses preceding it. The paper describes such a course--an undergraduate capstone course for MIS majors--that was built around case discussions and projects and originally offered in a face-to-face…

  16. Case Problems for Problem-Based Pedagogical Approaches: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; Dass, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of 51 case problems used in five problem-based pedagogical models was conducted to examine whether there are differences in their characteristics and the implications of such differences on the selection and generation of ill-structured case problems. The five pedagogical models were: situated learning, goal-based scenario,…

  17. Frictions between Formal Education Policy and Actual School Choice: Case Studies in an International Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on comparative case studies of secondary schools in England, the Netherlands and Scotland. The authors conclude that although opportunities for school choice are offered in a formal sense in each of the locations studied, in certain cases choice is not particularly encouraged. In order to explain this disparity between…

  18. Creativity and innovation by empowering the customer: The case of Mulino Bianco. Part II: The digital customer value added

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujor, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    Internet Toolkit and Web 2.0. by means of which customers are being invited to participate in competitions, being asked to design and share their concepts / views for new products, or to get involved in by voting those ideas they best like and would love to find them on markets. The aim of this paper is to explore and identify the involvement of stakeholders in Mullino Bianco's product development or improvement through creativity and innovation. As methodology approach, a case study about Mulino Bianco was done, and the foreseen result is highlighting the Nel Mulino Che Vorrei platform's features for consumer's engagement in the value creation and co-creation.

  19. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children’s health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools. PMID:27527197

  20. Adding Natural Areas to Social Indicators of Intra-Urban Health Inequalities among Children: A Case Study from Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Dagmar; Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda

    2016-08-04

    Research suggests that there is a relationship between the health of urban populations and the availability of green and water spaces in their daily environment. In this paper, we analyze the potential intra-urban relationships between children's health determinants and outcomes and natural areas in Berlin, Germany. In particular, health indicators such as deficits in viso-motoric development in children are related to environmental indicators such as the natural area cover, natural area per capita and distance to natural areas; however, these indicators are also correlated with social determinants of health. The methodological approach used in this study included bivariate and multivariate analyses to explore the relations between health inequalities and social, socio-economic, and land use parameters. The results on a sub-district level indicated that there was a correlation between natural areas and social health determinants, both of which displayed a certain intra-urban spatial pattern. In particular, a lower percentage of natural area cover was correlated with deficits in viso-motoric development. However, results with percentage of natural area cover and per capita natural area with childhood overweight were not conclusive. No significant correlation was found for percentage of natural area cover and overweight, while significant negative correlation values were found between overweight and per capita natural area. This was identified particularly in the districts that had lower social conditions. On the other hand, the districts with the highest social conditions had the comparatively lowest levels of complete measles immunization. This study may facilitate public health work by identifying the urban areas in which the strengthening of health resources and actions should be prioritized and also calls for the inclusion of natural areas among the social health indicators included in intra-urban health inequality tools.

  1. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  2. A comparative, randomized, controlled study on clinical efficacy and dental staining reduction of a mouthwash containing Chlorhexidine 0.20% and Anti Discoloration System (ADS)

    PubMed Central

    Marrelli, Massimo; Amantea, Massimiliano; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction A good control of bacterial plaque is an essential factor for the success of periodontal therapy, therefore it is the main objective that the clinician together with the patient must get to have a healthy periodontium. The plaque control with mouthwashes is the most important home therapy as it helps to reduce the formation of plaque between the mechanical removal with a toothbrush. Aim Authors analyzed the clinical data from a trial carried out with 3 different mouthwashes containing 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX). In addition, the ADS (Anti Discoloration System - Curaden Healthcare) was tested in comparison with the other mouthwashes without this system. Materials and methods We tested antiplaque activity showed by 3 of the most commercialized mouthwashes, moreover, we tested the ability in reducing the dental staining related to the oral assumption of Chlorhexidine. Discussion and conclusion Our results demonstrated the clinical efficacy of the 3 mouthwashes with CHX. Particularly performing was the anti discoloration system (Curaden Healthcare), with a clinical detection of dental stainings significantly less than the others tested. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of ADS system in the reduction of tooth staining, without a loss of antiplaque activity with respect to the competing mouthwashes containing CHX. PMID:26330902

  3. Professionalism: A Comparative Case Study of Teachers, Nurses, and Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair, Mary Antony

    2016-01-01

    While there are numerous calls to enhance the professionalism of teachers, there is little empirical research in the United States that examines educators' understanding of the concept. This comparative case study compared the conceptualisation of professionalism by faculty and students in a college of education vis-à-vis the conceptualisation of…

  4. Facilitated versus Non-Facilitated Online Case Discussions: Comparing Differences in Problem Space Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The facilitator plays a key role in guiding students' efforts during case discussions. However, few studies have compared differences in learning outcomes for students participating in facilitated versus non-facilitated discussions. In this research, we used "problem space coverage" as a learning measure to compare outcomes between…

  5. Saxagliptin added to a submaximal dose of sulphonylurea improves glycaemic control compared with uptitration of sulphonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chacra, A R; Tan, G H; Apanovitch, A; Ravichandran, S; List, J; Chen, R

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Assess the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin added to a submaximal sulphonylurea dose vs. uptitration of sulphonylurea monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycaemic control with sulphonylurea monotherapy. Methods and patients: A total of 768 patients (18–77 years; HbA1c screening ≥ 7.5 to ≤ 10.0%) were randomised and treated with saxagliptin 2.5 or 5 mg in combination with glyburide 7.5 mg vs. glyburide 10 mg for 24 weeks. Blinded uptitration glyburide was allowed in the glyburide-only arm to a maximum total daily dose of 15 mg. Efficacy analyses were performed using ANCOVA and last-observation-carried-forward methodology. Results: At week 24, 92% of glyburide-only patients were uptitrated to a total glyburide dose of 15 mg/day. Saxagliptin 2.5 and 5 mg provided statistically significant adjusted mean decreases from baseline to week 24 vs. uptitrated glyburide, respectively, in HbA1c (−0.54%, −0.64% vs. +0.08%; both p < 0.0001) and fasting plasma glucose (−7, −10 vs. +1 mg/dl; p = 0.0218 and p = 0.002). The proportion of patients achieving an HbA1c < 7% was greater for saxagliptin 2.5 and 5 mg vs. uptitrated glyburide (22.4% and 22.8% vs. 9.1%; both p < 0.0001). Postprandial glucose area under the curve was reduced for saxagliptin 2.5 and 5 mg vs. uptitrated glyburide (−4296 and −5000 vs. +1196 mg·min/dl; both p < 0.0001). Adverse event occurrence was similar across all groups. Reported hypoglycaemic events were not statistically significantly different for saxagliptin 2.5 (13.3%) and 5 mg (14.6%) vs. uptitrated glyburide (10.1%). Conclusion: Saxagliptin added to submaximal glyburide therapy led to statistically significant improvements vs. uptitration of glyburide alone across key glycaemic parameters and was generally well tolerated. PMID:19614786

  6. The Use of a School Value-Added Model for Educational Improvement: A Case Study from the Portuguese Primary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia; Couto, Alcino Pinto

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of a value-added approach for promoting school improvement. It presents yearly value-added estimates, analyses their stability over time, and discusses the contribution of this methodological approach for promoting school improvement programmes in the Portuguese system of evaluation. The value-added model is applied…

  7. Selection of comparative cases in land appraisal based on cloud model and gray relevancy theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Liu, Yanfang; Liu, Wei; Song, Xinying; Xu, Xiongjie

    2008-10-01

    There is a traditional approach named market comparative method, which is used to appraise land price by putting a focus on comparing cases. A review of the developing history of this method highlights some persistent challenges. In this paper, this existing approach is extended through coupling the cloud model, a data-mining technique, with gray relevancy theory. This approach allows the construction of quantitative measurement according to qualitative concept (attribute), simulating human cognizing process. This novel method admits hierarchical describing and exploration of the relationship and proximity between district factors and individual factors. By 1-D cloud generator, we obtain several rules in terms of linguistic atom which confirm the number of overlap cloud. Each rule corresponds to a rule's rear that achieves uncertainty ratiocination. In order to prove applicability of this method, it is applied to the selection of comparative cases in land appraisal of Wuhan City. Experimental results show most cases can be correctly discriminated and the better comparative cases are acceptable. Compared with other approaches, this method has better performance in land appraisal.

  8. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  9. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  10. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  11. Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan

    2007-07-24

    We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.

  12. Testing Visual Information Retrieval Methodologies Case Study: Comparative Analysis of Textual, Icon, Graphical, and "Spring" Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Emile; Lewis, Michael; Olsen, Kai A.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of visual information retrieval systems focuses on an approach for testing novel interfaces that uses bottom-up, stepwise testing to allow evaluation of a visualization itself, rather than restricting evaluation to the system instantiating it. Presents a case study of undergraduates that compares a new visualization technique to more…

  13. Volume I A Comparative Case Study Exploring How Federal Probation Officers Experience Different Distance Education Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caufield, Eileen Claire

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of federal probation officers' perceived value of different distance education formats, the learning strategies they used to facilitate their learning, and the degree to which learner autonomy varied among the probation officers. This comparative case study sought to answer the following three…

  14. The Impact of Whole Language on Four Elementary School Libraries: Results from a Comparative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Sandra

    This paper reports the findings of a comparative case study designed to describe how the implementation of whole language, an educational philosophy influencing many of today's elementary schools, evolved in four school libraries in Virginia. The study examined the impact of whole language in terms of its effect on the library program and the…

  15. Exploring Governance in Two Chains of Academy Schools: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salokangas, Maija; Chapman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although the number and size of academy chains in England is still increasing, the implications of these arrangements at a local level remain under-researched. This article reports findings from a comparative case study focusing on governance arrangements and sponsor involvement in two chains of academies. The findings suggest that the policy and…

  16. Connecting the Past to the Present in the Middle-Level Classroom: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This comparative case study examines the manner in which 2 middle-level social studies teachers established connections between the past and the present within their curriculums. The teachers who participated in this project worked in different school districts: one teaching a 7th-grade U.S. History curriculum and the other teaching a 6th-grade…

  17. Learning in the Making: A Comparative Case Study of Three Makerspaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Kimberly M.; Halverson, Erica Rosenfeld; Litts, Breanne K.; Brahms, Lisa; Jacobs-Priebe, Lynette; Owens, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Through a comparative case study, Sheridan and colleagues explore how makerspaces may function as learning environments. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and analysis of artifacts, videos, and other documents, the authors describe features of three makerspaces and how participants learn and develop through complex design and making…

  18. Non-Credit Community Arts Programs: A Comparative Case Study of Three Programs within Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Toro, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of "Non-credit community arts programs: A comparative case study of three programs within research universities" is to examine the perceptions of the various stakeholders of non-credit community arts programs to determine the perceived benefits received by all stakeholders from the non-credit program, the university, and its…

  19. The Role of Universities in Strengthening Local Capabilities for Innovation--A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westnes, Petter; Hatakenaka, Sachi; Gjelsvik, Martin; Lester, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a comparative case study of the role played by local universities and public research organizations in the development of local capabilities for innovation in two key gateways to the North Sea oil and gas province: the Stavanger region on the southwest coast of Norway and the Aberdeen region in northeast Scotland. These two…

  20. The added value of dynamical downscaling in a climate change scenario simulation:A case study for European Alps and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Since anthropogenic climate change is a rather important factor for the future human life all over the planet and its effects are not globally uniform, climate information at regional or local scales become more and more important for an accurate assessment of the potential impact of climate change on societies and ecosystems. High resolution information with suitably fine-scale for resolving complex geographical features could be a critical factor for successful linkage between climate models and impact assessment studies. However, scale mismatch between them still remains major problem. One method for overcoming the resolution limitations of global climate models and for adding regional details to coarse-grid global projections is to use dynamical downscaling by means of a regional climate model. In this study, the ECHAM5/MPI-OM (1.875 degree) A1B scenario simulation has been dynamically downscaled by using two different approaches within the framework of RegCM3 modeling system. First, a mosaic-type parameterization of subgrid-scale topography and land use (Sub-BATS) is applied over the European Alpine region. The Sub-BATS system is composed of 15 km coarse-grid cell and 3 km sub-grid cell. Second, we developed the RegCM3 one-way double-nested system, with the mother domain encompassing the eastern regions of Asia at 60 km grid spacing and the nested domain covering the Korean Peninsula at 20 km grid spacing. By comparing the regional climate model output and the driving global model ECHAM5/MPI-OM output, it is possible to estimate the added value of physically-based dynamical downscaling when for example impact studies at hydrological scale are performed.

  1. The comparative toxicology and major organ pathology of fatal methadone and heroin toxicity cases.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan; Torok, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the comparative toxicology and systemic disease of cases of death due to methadone and heroin toxicity, 1193 coronial cases of opioid overdose that occurred in New South Wales, Australia between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2007 were inspected. These comprised 193 cases in which cause of death involved methadone toxicity (METH) and 1000 cases in which cause of death involved heroin toxicity in the absence of methadone (HER). METH cases were significantly more likely to have benzodiazepines (63.7% vs. 32.2%), and less likely to have alcohol (23.6% vs. 42.7%) detected. METH cases were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with pre-existing systemic pathology (94.3% vs. 79.9%), and multiple organ system pathology (68.8% vs. 41.4%). Specifically, METH cases were more likely to have cardiac (58.9% vs. 34.5%), pulmonary (53.6% vs. 30.9%), hepatic (80.7% vs. 62.8%) and renal (25.0% vs. 9.5%) disease. Given the notable differences in toxicology and disease patterns, great caution appears warranted in prescribing benzodiazepines to methadone users, and regular physical examinations of methadone treatment patients would appear clinically warranted.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy and added value of dual-energy subtraction radiography compared to standard conventional radiography using computed tomography as standard of reference

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Katharina; Baessler, Marco; Baumueller, Stephan; Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate diagnostic performance of dual-energy subtraction radiography (DESR) for interpretation of chest radiographs compared to conventional radiography (CR) using computed tomography (CT) as standard of reference. Material and methods A total of 199 patients (75 female, median age 67) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved clinical trial. All patients were scanned in posteroanterior and lateral direction with dual-shot DE-technique. Chest CT was performed within ±72 hours. The system provides three types of images: bone weighted-image, soft tissue weighted-image, herein termed as DESR-images, and a standard image, termed CR-image (marked as CR-image). Images were evaluated by two radiologists for presence of inserted life support lines, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, infectious consolidation, interstitial lung changes, tumor, skeletal alterations, soft tissue alterations, aortic or tracheal calcification and pleural thickening. Inter-observer agreement between readers and diagnostic performance were calculated. McNemar’s test was used to test for significant differences. Results Mean inter-observer agreement throughout the investigated parameters was higher in DESR images compared to CR-images (kDESR = 0.935 vs. kCR = 0.858). DESR images provided significantly increased sensitivity compared to CR-images for the detection of infectious consolidations (42% vs. 62%), tumor (46% vs. 57%), interstitial lung changes (69% vs. 87%) and aortic or tracheal calcification (25 vs. 73%) (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in sensitivity for the detection of inserted life support lines, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, skeletal alterations, soft tissue alterations or pleural thickening (p>0.05). Conclusion DESR increases significantly the sensibility without affecting the specificity evaluating chest radiographs, with emphasis on the detection of interstitial lung diseases. PMID:28301584

  3. Annular pancreas concurrent with pancreaticobiliary maljunction presented with symptoms until adult age: case report with comparative data on pediatric cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Annular pancreas (AP) concurrent with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBMJ), an unusual coexisted congenital anomaly, often presented symptoms and subjected surgical treatment at the early age of life. We reported the first adult case of concurrent AP with PBMJ presented with symptoms until his twenties, and performed a literature review to analyze the clinicopathological features of such cases comparing with its pediatric counterpart. Case presentation The main clinical features of this case were abdominal pain and increased levels of plasma amylase as well as liver function test. A complete type of annular pancreas with duodenal stenosis was found, and dilated common bile duct with high confluence of pancreaticobiliary ducts was also observed. Meanwhile, extremely high levels of bile amylase were detected both in common bile duct and gallbladder. The patient received duodenojejunostomy (side-to-side anastomosis) as well as choledochojejunostomy (Roux-en-Y anastomosis), adnd was discharged in a good condition. Conclusion AP concurrent with PBMJ usually presents as duodenal obstruction in infancy, while manifests as pancreatitis in adulthood. Careful long-term follow-up is required for children with AP considering its association with PBMJ which would induce various intractable pathologic conditions in the biliary tract and pancreas. PMID:24156788

  4. Neuropathological changes in essential tremor: 33 cases compared with 21 controls.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Faust, Phyllis L; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G; Honig, Lawrence S; Rajput, Alex; Robinson, Christopher A; Rajput, Ali; Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E; Ross, G Webster; Borden, Sarah; Moskowitz, Carol B; Lawton, Arlene; Hernandez, Nora

    2007-12-01

    Despite its being one of the most commonly observed neurological disorders, neuropathological studies of essential tremor (ET) are rare. There have been surprisingly few autopsy studies and even fewer case-control comparisons. The primary objective was to describe and quantify the pathological changes in 33 ET and 21 control brains. A secondary objective was to correlate clinical and pathological features. We examined autopsy tissue from the Essential Tremor Centralized Brain Repository. Eight (24.2%) of the 33 ET brains had Lewy bodies in the brainstem, mainly in the locus ceruleus. However, the majority of ET brains (25/33, 75.8%) had no Lewy bodies, but had pathological changes in the cerebellum. The mean number of Purkinje cells per 100x field was reduced in ET cases without Lewy bodies (6.6 +/- 2.4 versus 9.6 +/- 3.4, P < 0.01), and there were approximately 7x more Purkinje cell torpedoes per section (12.6 +/- 7.9 versus 1.7 +/- 1.4, P < 0.001) compared to controls. ET cases without Lewy bodies also had degeneration of the dentate nucleus (two cases). Other findings in ET cases were Purkinje cell heterotopias and dendrite swellings. Lewy body ET cases were older than ET cases without Lewy bodies. Several trends were observed in ET cases without Lewy bodies, including a younger age of onset of tremor and higher proportions with gait difficulty and family history of ET. The pathological changes of ET seem to be heterogeneous and degenerative. The majority have cerebellar changes without Lewy bodies; a smaller proportion has brainstem Lewy bodies. The clinical differences between cases with versus without Lewy bodies require additional study.

  5. Added value of semi-quantitative breast-specific gamma imaging in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions compared to mammography, ultrasound and 3-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seymer, A; Keinrath, P; Holzmannhofer, J; Pirich, C; Hergan, K; Meissnitzer, M W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively analyse the diagnostic value of semi-quantitative breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions compared with that of mammography (MG), breast ultrasound and MRI of the breast. Methods: Within a 15-month period, 67 patients with 92 breast lesions rated as Category IV or V according to the breast imaging reporting and data system detected with MG and/or ultrasound were included into the study. After the injection of 740–1110 MBq of Technetium-99m (99mTc) SestaMIBI intravenously, scintigrams were obtained in two projections comparable to MG. The BSGI was analysed visually and semi-quantitatively by calculating a relative uptake factor (X). With the exception of two patients with cardiac pacemakers, all patients underwent 3-T breast MRI. Biopsy results were obtained as the reference standard in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values, accuracy and area under the curve were calculated for each modality. Results: Among the 92 lesions, 67 (72.8%) were malignant. 60 of the 67 cancers of any size were detected by BSGI with an overall sensitivity of 90%, only exceeded by ultrasound with a sensitivity of 99%. The sensitivity of BSGI for lesions <1 cm declined significantly to 60%. Overall specificity of ultrasound was only 20%. Specificity, accuracy and positive-predictive value were the highest for BSGI (56%, 80% and 85%, respectively). X was significantly higher for malignant lesions (mean, 4.27) and differed significantly between ductal types (mean, 4.53) and the other histopathological entities (mean, 3.12). Conclusion: Semi-quantitative BSGI with calculation of the relative uptake factor (X) can help to characterize breast lesions. BSGI negativity may obviate the need for biopsy of breast lesions >1 cm with low or intermediate prevalence for malignancy. Advances in knowledge: Compared with morphological imaging modalities, specificity, positive

  6. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  7. Treatment with Tacrolimus and Sirolimus Reveals No Additional Adverse Effects on Human Islets In Vitro Compared to Each Drug Alone but They Are Reduced by Adding Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Kloster-Jensen, Kristine; Sahraoui, Afaf; Vethe, Nils Tore; Korsgren, Olle; Bergan, Stein; Foss, Aksel; Scholz, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus and sirolimus are important immunosuppressive drugs used in human islet transplantation; however, they are linked to detrimental effects on islets and reduction of long-term graft function. Few studies investigate the direct effects of these drugs combined in parallel with single drug exposure. Human islets were treated with or without tacrolimus (30 μg/L), sirolimus (30 μg/L), or a combination thereof for 24 hrs. Islet function as well as apoptosis was assessed by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and Cell Death ELISA. Proinflammatory cytokines were analysed by qRT-PCR and Bio-Plex. Islets exposed to the combination of sirolimus and tacrolimus were treated with or without methylprednisolone (1000 μg/L) and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines was investigated. We found the following: (i) No additive reduction in function and viability in islets existed when tacrolimus and sirolimus were combined compared to the single drug. (ii) Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines mRNA and protein levels in islets took place. (iii) Methylprednisolone significantly decreased the proinflammatory response in islets induced by the drug combination. Although human islets are prone to direct toxic effect of tacrolimus and sirolimus, we found no additive effects of the drug combination. Short-term exposure of glucocorticoids could effectively reduce the proinflammatory response in human islets induced by the combination of tacrolimus and sirolimus. PMID:26885529

  8. Added value of molecular assay Xpert MTB/RIF compared to sputum smear microscopy to assess the risk of tuberculosis transmission in a low-prevalence country.

    PubMed

    Opota, O; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Mazza-Stalder, J; Tissot, F; Greub, G; Jaton, K

    2016-07-01

    Airborne precautions are required at hospital admission for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolation is maintained until 3 serially collected sputum smears are acid-fast bacilli negative, a time- and labor-intensive method with limited sensitivity and specificity, which has a great impact on patient flow management. We evaluated the possibility of replacing the result of microscopy by the semiquantitative result of the molecular point-of-care test Xpert MTB/RIF to assess patients' transmission risk to quickly guide airborne isolation decisions in low-endemic countries. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF, used as a first-line test, was compared to the results of microscopy for specimens (n=242) collected from May 2010 to December 2014 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 91.5% (65/71) and 99.6% (170/171), respectively, vs. 64.8% (46/71) and 94.2% (161/171) for microscopy. Samples with negative Xpert MTB/RIF were all smear negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative predictive value, 100%). The semiquantitative results of Xpert MTB/RIF-high, medium, low or very low-were found to correlate with acid-fast bacilli detection: positive predictive value of 100% (6/6), 96.5% (27/28), 52.2% (12/23) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively. Finally, when including clinical criteria, we identified 11 smear-negative but Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients with a significant transmission potential. In conclusion, our data support the introduction of an Xpert MTB/RIF-based strategy as a replacement of smear microscopy for a faster and more accurate management of tuberculosis patients' transmission risk in a low-prevalence country.

  9. Comparative effects of added sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, or potassium bicarbonate in the drinking water of broilers, and feed restriction, on the development of the ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shlosberg, A; Bellaiche, M; Berman, E; Ben David, A; Deeb, N; Cahaner, A

    1998-09-01

    A hypothesis that the ionic composition of drinking water might affect development of the ascites syndrome in broilers was investigated in two trials. The first trial comprised four groups of 650 male chicks. A control treatment was normal tap water and the other three treatments comprised the addition to the tap water of 1,000 mg/L sodium as NaCl, 5,000 mg/L NH4Cl, or 5,000 mg/L KHCO3, supplied from age 2 to 47 d. At Day 28, equally sized subsets of these groups were moved to individual cages, where they received a severe exposure to ambient cold. The development of the ascites syndrome was monitored by measurements of hematocrit and arterial blood oxygen saturation (PaO2) by oximetry, body weight, and examination of dead birds for cause of death. Mortality from ascites in cold-exposed birds from Days 28 to 47 was 28, 48, 40, and 16% in the tap water, NaCl, NH4Cl, and KHCO3 groups, respectively; only the NaCl mortality was significantly different from the tap water mortality. The KHCO3 treatment increased PaO2 (compared with tap water treatment) at Day 28 by 5.5% and at Day 35 by 10.5%, but not at Day 42. The KHCO3 caused a reduction in body weight, which was 13% less than the tap water group at Day 42, probably due to a chronic toxicity. The second trial specifically examined the same parameters with lower water levels of KHCO3 (3,000 and 1,000 mg/L), in comparison to a 10% feed restriction protocol, in order to clarify whether the increased PaO2 was due to a specific effect of the KHCO3 or was a metabolic manifestation of a reduced growth rate. The 3,000 mg/L KHCO3 treatment had no effect on PaO2, but the 1,000 mg/L treatment augmented PaO2 by 5.3% at Day 35 (but not at Days 28 or 42), without reducing the final body weight. The feed restriction group showed an elevated PaO2 of 5.4% at Day 35 (but not at Days 28 or 42), with no reduction in the final body weight. The inclusion of 1,000 mg/L of KHCO3 into the drinking water of broilers or a temporary 10% feed

  10. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Calba, Clémentine; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Vanholme, Luc; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Context and Objective Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) surveillance in Belgium is essential to maintain the officially free status and to preserve animal and public health. An evaluation of the system is thus needed to ascertain the surveillance provides a precise description of the current situation in the country. The evaluation should assess stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations about the system due to the fact that the acceptability has an influence on the levels of sensitivity and timeliness of the surveillance system. The objective of the study was to assess the acceptability of the bTB surveillance in Belgium, using participatory tools and the OASIS flash tool (‘analysis tool for surveillance systems’). Methods For the participatory process, focus group discussions and individual interviews were implemented with representatives involved with the system, both from cattle and wildlife part of the surveillance. Three main tools were used: (i) relational diagrams associated with smileys, (ii) flow diagrams associated with proportional piling, and (iii) impact diagrams associated with proportional piling. A total of six criteria were assessed, among which five were scored on a scale from -1 to +1. For the OASIS flash tool, one full day meeting with representatives from stakeholders involved with the surveillance was organised. A total of 19 criteria linked to acceptability were scored on a scale from 0 to 3. Results and Conclusion Both methods highlighted a medium acceptability of the bTB surveillance. The main elements having a negative influence were the consequences of official notification of a bTB suspect case in a farm, the low remuneration paid to private veterinarians for execution of intradermal tuberculin tests and the practical difficulties about the containment of the animals. Based on the two evaluation processes, relevant recommendations to improve the surveillance were made. Based on the comparison between the two evaluation processes, the

  11. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ADJUSTABLE TRANSFEMORAL PROSTHETIC INTERFACE ACCOMMODATING VOLUME FLUCTUATION: CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Highsmith, M Jason

    2016-09-01

    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation.

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ADJUSTABLE TRANSFEMORAL PROSTHETIC INTERFACE ACCOMMODATING VOLUME FLUCTUATION: CASE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Highsmith, M. Jason

    2016-01-01

    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation. PMID:28066526

  13. Comparing U.S. Army suicide cases to a control sample: initial data and methodological lessons.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Cynthia L; Reger, Mark A; Smolenski, Derek J; Fullerton, Nicole R

    2014-10-01

    Identification of risk and protective factors for suicide is a priority for the United States military, especially in light of the recent steady increase in military suicide rates. The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report contains comprehensive data on suicides for active duty military personnel, but no analogous control data is available to permit identification of factors that differentially determine suicide risk. This proof-of-concept study was conducted to determine the feasibility of collecting such control data. The study employed a prospective case-control design in which control cases were randomly selected from a large Army installation at a rate of four control participants for every qualifying Army suicide. Although 111 Army suicides were confirmed during the study period, just 27 control soldiers completed the study. Despite the small control sample, preliminary analyses comparing suicide cases to controls identified several factors more frequently reported for suicide cases, including recent failed intimate relationships, outpatient mental health history, mood disorder diagnosis, substance abuse history, and prior self-injury. No deployment-related risk factors were found. These data are consistent with existing literature and form a foundation for larger control studies. Methodological lessons learned regarding study design and recruitment are discussed to inform future studies.

  14. Frictions Between Formal Education Policy and Actual School Choice: Case Studies in an International Comparative Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teelken, Christine; Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on comparative case studies of secondary schools in England, the Netherlands and Scotland. The authors conclude that although opportunities for school choice are offered in a formal sense in each of the locations studied, in certain cases choice is not particularly encouraged. In order to explain this disparity between formal education policy and actual school choice, they identified seven areas of friction which determine school choice. This approach allowed a more detailed and accurate view of the operation of school choice on a local, day-to-day basis. Active or passive discouragement of choice became apparent in factors such as availability of transport and information; bureaucratic procedures; strictly enforced admission criteria; and lack of educational diversity.

  15. 'Unnatural Fornication' Cases under State-Socialism: A Hungarian-Slovenian Comparative Social-Historical Approach.

    PubMed

    Takács, Judit; Kuhar, Roman; Tóth, Tamás P

    2016-12-21

    This comparative social-historical study examines different versions of state-socialist body politics manifested in Hungary and Slovenia mainly during the 1950s by using archive material of 'unnatural fornication' court cases. By analyzing the available Hungarian "természet elleni fajtalanság" and Slovenian "nenaravno občevanje" court cases we can shed light on how the defendants were treated by the police and the judiciary. On the basis of these archive data that have never been examined before from these angles, we can construct an at least partial picture of the practices and consequences of state surveillance of same-sex attracted men during state-socialism. The article explores the functioning of state-socialist social control mechanisms directed at non-normative sexualities that had long lasting consequences on the social representation of homosexuality in both countries.

  16. Comparing the usefulness of the 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classification: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Horstick, Olaf; Jaenisch, Thomas; Martinez, Eric; Kroeger, Axel; See, Lucy Lum Chai; Farrar, Jeremy; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2014-09-01

    The 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classifications were compared in a systematic review with 12 eligible studies (4 prospective). Ten expert opinion articles were used for discussion. For the 2009 WHO classification studies show: when determining severe dengue sensitivity ranges between 59-98% (88%/98%: prospective studies), specificity between 41-99% (99%: prospective study) - comparing the 1997 WHO classification: sensitivity 24.8-89.9% (24.8%/74%: prospective studies), specificity: 25%/100% (100%: prospective study). The application of the 2009 WHO classification is easy, however for (non-severe) dengue there may be a risk of monitoring increased case numbers. Warning signs validation studies are needed. For epidemiological/pathogenesis research use of the 2009 WHO classification, opinion papers show that ease of application, increased sensitivity (severe dengue) and international comparability are advantageous; 3 severe dengue criteria (severe plasma leakage, severe bleeding, severe organ manifestation) are useful research endpoints. The 2009 WHO classification has clear advantages for clinical use, use in epidemiology is promising and research use may at least not be a disadvantage.

  17. Comparing the Usefulness of the 1997 and 2009 WHO Dengue Case Classification: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Horstick, Olaf; Jaenisch, Thomas; Martinez, Eric; Kroeger, Axel; See, Lucy Lum Chai; Farrar, Jeremy; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2014-01-01

    The 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classifications were compared in a systematic review with 12 eligible studies (4 prospective). Ten expert opinion articles were used for discussion. For the 2009 WHO classification studies show: when determining severe dengue sensitivity ranges between 59–98% (88%/98%: prospective studies), specificity between 41–99% (99%: prospective study) - comparing the 1997 WHO classification: sensitivity 24.8–89.9% (24.8%/74%: prospective studies), specificity: 25%/100% (100%: prospective study). The application of the 2009 WHO classification is easy, however for (non-severe) dengue there may be a risk of monitoring increased case numbers. Warning signs validation studies are needed. For epidemiological/pathogenesis research use of the 2009 WHO classification, opinion papers show that ease of application, increased sensitivity (severe dengue) and international comparability are advantageous; 3 severe dengue criteria (severe plasma leakage, severe bleeding, severe organ manifestation) are useful research endpoints. The 2009 WHO classification has clear advantages for clinical use, use in epidemiology is promising and research use may at least not be a disadvantage. PMID:24957540

  18. The comparative efficacy of antecedent exercise and methylphenidate: a single-case randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, J M; Allison, D B

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the comparative efficacy of antecedent exercise, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and placebo in the reduction of hyperactive behaviour in a pre-school boy. A single-case alternating treatments experimental design was employed for a total of 82 days. The dependent variable was the Conners' Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire. Antecedent exercise failed to reduce hyperactive behaviour. Methylphenidate produced significantly less hyperactive behaviour than both placebo and antecedent exercise (P = 0.0238). Neither methylphenidate nor antecedent exercise produced notable side-effects as measured by the Monitoring of Side-Effects Scale. These data add to a sparse literature on the effects of antecedent exercise and methylphenidate amongst pre-school children.

  19. Comparative Study of Elastic Network Model and Protein Contact Network for Protein Complexes: The Hemoglobin Case

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Luisa; Liang, Zhongjie; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The overall topology and interfacial interactions play key roles in understanding structural and functional principles of protein complexes. Elastic Network Model (ENM) and Protein Contact Network (PCN) are two widely used methods for high throughput investigation of structures and interactions within protein complexes. In this work, the comparative analysis of ENM and PCN relative to hemoglobin (Hb) was taken as case study. We examine four types of structural and dynamical paradigms, namely, conformational change between different states of Hbs, modular analysis, allosteric mechanisms studies, and interface characterization of an Hb. The comparative study shows that ENM has an advantage in studying dynamical properties and protein-protein interfaces, while PCN is better for describing protein structures quantitatively both from local and from global levels. We suggest that the integration of ENM and PCN would give a potential but powerful tool in structural systems biology. PMID:28243596

  20. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  1. Saharan and Arabian Dust Aerosols: A Comparative Case Study of Lidar Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sabbah, Ismail; Sorribas, Mar; Adame, José Antonio; Cuevas, Emilio; Sharifi, Faisal Al; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a first comparative study of the Lidar Ratio (LR) values obtained for dust particles in two singular dust-influenced regions: the Canary Islands (Spain, close to the African coast in the North Atlantic Ocean), frequently affected by Saharan dust intrusions, and the Kuwait area (Arabian Peninsula) as usually influenced by Arabian dust storms. Synergetic lidar and sun-photometry measurements are carried out in two stations located in these particular regions for that purpose. Several dusty cases were observed during 2014 in both stations and, just for illustration, two specific dusty case studies have been selected and analyzed to be shown in this work. In general, mean LR values of 54 sr and 40 sr were obtained in these studies cases for Saharan and Arabian dust particles, respectively. Indeed, these results are in agreement with other studies performed for dust particles arriving from similar desert areas. In particular, the disparity found in Saharan and Arabian dust LR values can be based on the singular composition of the suspended dust aerosols over each station. These results can be useful for CALIPSO extinction retrievals, where a single LR value (40 sr) is assumed for pure dust particles independently on the dust source region.

  2. Diagnostic time in digital pathology: A comparative study on 400 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vodovnik, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous validation studies in digital pathology confirmed its value as a diagnostic tool. However, a longer time to diagnosis than traditional microscopy has been seen as a significant barrier to the routine use of digital pathology. As a part of our validation study, we compared a digital and microscopic diagnostic time in the routine diagnostic setting. Materials and Methods: One senior staff pathologist reported 400 consecutive cases in histology, nongynecological, and fine needle aspiration cytology (20 sessions, 20 cases/session), over 4 weeks. Complex, difficult, and rare cases were excluded from the study to reduce the bias. A primary diagnosis was digital, followed by traditional microscopy, 6 months later, with only request forms available for both. Microscopic slides were scanned at ×20, digital images accessed through the fully integrated laboratory information management system (LIMS) and viewed in the image viewer on double 23” displays. A median broadband speed was 299 Mbps. A diagnostic time was measured from the point slides were made available to the point diagnosis was made or additional investigations were deemed necessary, recorded independently in minutes/session and compared. Results: A digital diagnostic time was 1841 and microscopic 1956 min; digital being shorter than microscopic in 13 sessions. Four sessions with shorter microscopic diagnostic time included more cases requiring extensive use of magnifications over ×20. Diagnostic time was similar in three sessions. Conclusions: A diagnostic time in digital pathology can be shorter than traditional microscopy in the routine diagnostic setting, with adequate and stable network speeds, fully integrated LIMS and double displays as default parameters. This also related to better ergonomics, larger viewing field, and absence of physical slide handling, with effects on both diagnostic and nondiagnostic time. Differences with previous studies included a design, image size, number

  3. Liars and Ghosts in the House of Congress: Frank's "Ad Hominem" Arguments in the Case against the Defense of Marriage Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynn E.

    2000-01-01

    Offers a critical analysis of Rep. Barney Frank's speech delivered in the House of Representatives concerning the "Defense of Marriage Act." Argues that Frank attempts to persuade colleagues by advancing two "ad hominem" arguments, one of which could potentially shift the focus from the need to defend marriages from same-sex…

  4. Cost-Effective Cloud Computing: A Case Study Using the Comparative Genomics Tool, Roundup

    PubMed Central

    Kudtarkar, Parul; DeLuca, Todd F.; Fusaro, Vincent A.; Tonellato, Peter J.; Wall, Dennis P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative genomics resources, such as ortholog detection tools and repositories are rapidly increasing in scale and complexity. Cloud computing is an emerging technological paradigm that enables researchers to dynamically build a dedicated virtual cluster and may represent a valuable alternative for large computational tools in bioinformatics. In the present manuscript, we optimize the computation of a large-scale comparative genomics resource—Roundup—using cloud computing, describe the proper operating principles required to achieve computational efficiency on the cloud, and detail important procedures for improving cost-effectiveness to ensure maximal computation at minimal costs. Methods Utilizing the comparative genomics tool, Roundup, as a case study, we computed orthologs among 902 fully sequenced genomes on Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud. For managing the ortholog processes, we designed a strategy to deploy the web service, Elastic MapReduce, and maximize the use of the cloud while simultaneously minimizing costs. Specifically, we created a model to estimate cloud runtime based on the size and complexity of the genomes being compared that determines in advance the optimal order of the jobs to be submitted. Results We computed orthologous relationships for 245,323 genome-to-genome comparisons on Amazon’s computing cloud, a computation that required just over 200 hours and cost $8,000 USD, at least 40% less than expected under a strategy in which genome comparisons were submitted to the cloud randomly with respect to runtime. Our cost savings projections were based on a model that not only demonstrates the optimal strategy for deploying RSD to the cloud, but also finds the optimal cluster size to minimize waste and maximize usage. Our cost-reduction model is readily adaptable for other comparative genomics tools and potentially of significant benefit to labs seeking to take advantage of the cloud as an alternative to local computing

  5. = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    For all types of = 4 anti-de Sitter (AdS) supersymmetry in three dimensions, we construct manifestly supersymmetric actions for Abelian vector multiplets and explain how to extend the construction to the non-Abelian case. Manifestly = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) actions are explicitly given in the cases of (2,2) and critical (4,0) AdS supersymmetries. The = 4 vector multiplets and the corresponding actions are then reduced to (2,0) AdS superspace, in which only = 2 supersymmetry is manifest. Using the off-shell structure of the = 4 vector multiplets, we provide complete = 4 SYM actions in (2,0) AdS superspace for all types of = 4 AdS supersymmetry. In the case of (4,0) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the resulting = 2 action contains a Chern-Simons term proportional to q/r, where r is the radius of AdS 3 and q is the R-charge of a chiral scalar superfield. The R-charge is a linear inhomogeneous function of X, an expectation value of the = 4 Cotton superfield. Thus our results explain the mysterious structure of = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories on S 3 discovered in arXiv:1401.7952. In the case of (3,1) AdS supersymmetry, which has no Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action contains both a Chern-Simons term and a chiral mass-like term. In the case of (2,2) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action has no Chern-Simons and chiral mass-like terms.

  6. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  7. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  8. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  9. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  10. Bias and efficiency of multiple imputation compared with complete-case analysis for missing covariate values.

    PubMed

    White, Ian R; Carlin, John B

    2010-12-10

    When missing data occur in one or more covariates in a regression model, multiple imputation (MI) is widely advocated as an improvement over complete-case analysis (CC). We use theoretical arguments and simulation studies to compare these methods with MI implemented under a missing at random assumption. When data are missing completely at random, both methods have negligible bias, and MI is more efficient than CC across a wide range of scenarios. For other missing data mechanisms, bias arises in one or both methods. In our simulation setting, CC is biased towards the null when data are missing at random. However, when missingness is independent of the outcome given the covariates, CC has negligible bias and MI is biased away from the null. With more general missing data mechanisms, bias tends to be smaller for MI than for CC. Since MI is not always better than CC for missing covariate problems, the choice of method should take into account what is known about the missing data mechanism in a particular substantive application. Importantly, the choice of method should not be based on comparison of standard errors. We propose new ways to understand empirical differences between MI and CC, which may provide insights into the appropriateness of the assumptions underlying each method, and we propose a new index for assessing the likely gain in precision from MI: the fraction of incomplete cases among the observed values of a covariate (FICO).

  11. Comparative Analysis of Houses Built from Insulating Concrete Formwork - case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mačková, Daniela; Spišáková, Marcela

    2015-11-01

    More and more, people are looking to build and live in different ways. They want houses with a high standard of living and reasonable production and maintenance costs. However, they also want to build a way that does not adversely affect their quality of life. Currently, the using of modern methods of construction (MMC) expands consistently year on year. MMC include prefabricated products made in the factory and also new methods of building that are site-based and they are regarded as a means of achieving higher quality, reducing time spent onsite, increasing safety and overcoming skills shortages in the industry. Aim of this paper is to analyze and compare, trough case study, technical, cost and technological parameters of house built by modern method of construction (from insulating concrete formwork) and by traditional method (from brick system). The subject of case study is house modeled in two variants of insulating concrete formwork and a variant bricks and ceiling system. In conclusion, there is selected optimal method and system for house construction through multicriteria optimization.

  12. Environmental performance of construction waste: Comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, O; Pasqualino, J C; Castells, F

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate environmental impacts of construction wastes in terms of the LIFE 98 ENV/E/351 project. Construction wastes are classified in accordance with the Life Program Environment Directive of the European Commission. Three different scenarios to current waste management from a case study in Catalonia (Spain) have been compared: landfilling, recycling and incineration, and these scenarios were evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. The recommendations of the Catalan Waste Catalogue and the European Waste Catalogue have been taken into account. Also, the influence of transport has been evaluated. Results show that in terms of the Global Warming Potential, the most environmentally friendly treatment was recycling, followed by incineration and lastly landfilling. According to the influence of treatment plants location on the GWP indicator, we observe that incineration and recycling of construction wastes are better than landfilling, even for long distances from the building site to the plants. This is true for most wastes except for the stony types, than should be recycled close to the building site. In summary, data from construction waste of a Catalan case study was evaluated using the well established method of LCA to determine the environmental impacts.

  13. A Comparative Case Study of Risk, Resiliency, and Coping Among Injured National Guard.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Lisa A; Huebner, Angela J; Hirschfeld, Mara K; Sankar, Sudha; Blow, Adrian J; Guty, Danielle; Kees, Michelle; Ketner, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    An injury during deployment disrupts family and life functioning. The purpose of the present study was to provide an in-depth examination of three injured National Guard soldiers showing how differential experiences of navigating multiple systems to obtain treatment for injury resulted in different adjustment trajectories for these soldiers and their families. A comparative case study examined three families where a soldier's injury was a central theme of family adjustment. Qualitative data were drawn from interviews conducted conjointly with both the soldier and spouse to provide an in-depth perspective of adjustment, meaning, and resource utilization patterns. In addition, survey data were collected at three time points in the deployment cycle (predeployment, 90 days post, and 1 year). These data were integrated into the case analysis, including mental health, marital relationship, treatment history, and characteristics of resilience. Study findings suggest that a delay in diagnosis, wait time for treatment, and the lack of comprehensive formal and financial support for a soldier following nonhostile injury lead to a pileup of stressors that are detrimental to the soldier's physical and mental health, financial stability, and family well-being. Further study is needed to understand how these system level issues impede resilience among National Guard families.

  14. Environmental performance of construction waste: Comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, O.; Pasqualino, J.C.; Castells, F.

    2010-04-15

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate environmental impacts of construction wastes in terms of the LIFE 98 ENV/E/351 project. Construction wastes are classified in accordance with the Life Program Environment Directive of the European Commission. Three different scenarios to current waste management from a case study in Catalonia (Spain) have been compared: landfilling, recycling and incineration, and these scenarios were evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. The recommendations of the Catalan Waste Catalogue and the European Waste Catalogue have been taken into account. Also, the influence of transport has been evaluated. Results show that in terms of the Global Warming Potential, the most environmentally friendly treatment was recycling, followed by incineration and lastly landfilling. According to the influence of treatment plants location on the GWP indicator, we observe that incineration and recycling of construction wastes are better than landfilling, even for long distances from the building site to the plants. This is true for most wastes except for the stony types, than should be recycled close to the building site. In summary, data from construction waste of a Catalan case study was evaluated using the well established method of LCA to determine the environmental impacts.

  15. Comparing Visual and Statistical Analysis in Single-Case Studies Using Published Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Magadalena; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) can be applied to short, single-case study designs and whether those applications produce results consistent with visual analysis (VA). This paper examines the extent to which ITSA can be applied to single-case study designs and compares the results based on two methods: ITSA and VA, using papers published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in 2010. The study was made possible by the development of software called UnGraph® which facilitates the recovery of raw data from the graphs. ITSA was successfully applied to 94% of the examined graphs with the number of observations ranging from 8 to 136. Moderate to high lag 1 autocorrelations (> .50) were found for 46% of the data series. Effect sizes similar to group-level Cohen’s d were identified based on the tertile distribution. Effects ranging from 0.00 to 0.99 were classified as small, those ranging from 1.00 to 2.49 as medium, and large effect sizes were defined as 2.50 or greater. Comparison of the conclusions from VA and ITSA had a low level of agreement (Kappa = .14, accounting for the agreement expected by chance). The results demonstrate that ITSA can be broadly implemented in applied behavior analysis research. These two methods should be viewed as complimentary and used concurrently. PMID:26609876

  16. Image Ads and Issue Ads in U.S. Presidential Advertising: Using Videostyle To Explore Stylistic Differences in Televised Political Ads From 1952 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Anne; Kaid, Lynda Lee

    2002-01-01

    Explores the differences in techniques, strategies, narratives, and symbols used in 1,213 television issue ads and image ads from 13 U.S. presidential campaigns. Concludes that although the majority of both types of ads were positive, negative appeals dominated a higher percentage of issue ads as compared with image ads. (SG)

  17. Role of ADS in the back-end of the fuel cycle strategies and associated design activities: The case of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Nishihara, Kenji; Sugawara, Takanori; Kurata, Yuji; Takei, Hayanori; Saito, Shigeru; Sasa, Toshinobu; Obayashi, Hironari

    2011-08-01

    Reduction of burden caused by radioactive waste management is one of the most critical issues for the sustainable utilization of nuclear power. The Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) technology provides the possibility to reduce the amount of the radiotoxic inventory of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) dramatically and to extend the repository capacity. The accelerator-driven system (ADS) is regarded as a powerful tool to effectively transmute minor actinides (MAs) in the "double-strata" fuel cycle strategy. The ADS has a potential to flexibly manage MA in the transient phase from light water reactors (LWRs) to fast breeder reactors (FBRs), and can co-exist with FBR symbiotically and complementarily to enhance the reliability and the safety of the commercial FBR cycle. The concept of ADS in JAEA is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled, tank-type subcritical reactor with the power of 800 MWth driven by a 30 MW superconducting LINAC. By such an ADS, 250 kg of MA can be transmuted annually, which corresponds to the amount of MA produced in 10 units of LWR with 1 GWe. The design study was performed mainly for the subcritical reactor and the spallation target with a beam window. In Japan, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has implemented the check and review (C&R) on P&T technology from 2008 to 2009. In the C&R, the benefit of P&T technology, the current status of the R&D, and the way forward to promote it were discussed.

  18. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  19. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder analyzed with array comparative genome hybridization method. Case report].

    PubMed

    Duga, Balázs; Czakó, Márta; Komlósi, Katalin; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Sümegi, Katalin; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Márton; Melegh, Béla

    2014-10-05

    One of the most common psychiatric disorders during childhood is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which affects 5-6% of children worldwide. Symptoms include attention deficit, hyperactivity, forgetfulness and weak impulse control. The exact mechanism behind the development of the disease is unknown. However, current data suggest that a strong genetic background is responsible, which explains the frequent occurrence within a family. Literature data show that copy number variations are very common in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The authors present a patient with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who proved to have two approximately 400 kb heterozygous microduplications at 6p25.2 and 15q13.3 chromosomal regions detected by comparative genomic hybridization methods. Both duplications affect genes (6p25.2: SLC22A23; 15q13.3: CHRNA7) which may play a role in the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This case serves as an example of the wide spectrum of indication of the array comparative genome hybridization method.

  20. English Language Arts and Science Courses in a Virtual School: A Comparative Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tustin, Rachel Sarah

    Virtual K-12 schools have rapidly become a popular choice for parents and students in the last decade. However, little research has been done on the instructional practices used in virtual courses. As reflected in the central research question, the purpose of this study was to explore how teachers provided instruction for Grade 7-10 students in both English language arts and science courses in a virtual school in a southern state. The conceptual framework was based on Piaget's theory of cognitive development and Garrison, Anderson, and Siemens' research on instructional design. The units of analysis in this qualitative, comparative case study were four virtual courses; the data were collected from teacher and student questionnaires, threaded student discussions, student work samples, and archival records. The first level of data analysis involved coding and categorization using the constant comparative method, and the second level involved examining the data for patterns, themes, and relationships to determine key findings. Results indicated that a standardized virtual course design supported teacher use of direct instruction and summative assessments and some individualized instruction to deliver course content, including adjusting the course pace, conducting individual telephone conferences, and providing small group instruction using Blackboard Elluminate. Opportunities for student interaction and inquiry learning were limited. This study is expected to contribute to positive social change by providing educators and policymakers with an awareness of the critical need for further study of research-based instructional practices in K-12 virtual courses that would improve student learning.

  1. Three dimensional nonlinear magnetic AdS solutions through topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Momennia, M.; Panahiyan, S.

    2015-09-01

    Inspired by large applications of topological defects in describing different phenomena in physics, and considering the importance of three dimensional solutions in AdS/CFT correspondence, in this paper we obtain magnetic anti-de Sitter solutions of nonlinear electromagnetic fields. We take into account three classes of nonlinear electrodynamic models; first two classes are the well-known Born-Infeld like models including logarithmic and exponential forms and third class is known as the power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics. We investigate the effects of these nonlinear sources on three dimensional magnetic solutions. We show that these asymptotical AdS solutions do not have any curvature singularity and horizon. We also generalize the static metric to the case of rotating solutions and find that the value of the electric charge depends on the rotation parameter. Finally, we consider the quadratic Maxwell invariant as a correction of Maxwell theory and we investigate the effects of nonlinearity as a correction. We study the behavior of the deficit angle in presence of these theories of nonlinearity and compare them with each other. We also show that some cases with negative deficit angle exists which are representing objects with different geometrical structure. We also show that in case of the static only magnetic field exists whereas by boosting the metric to rotating one, electric field appears too.

  2. The contribution of HGAL/GCET2 in immunohistological algorithms: a comparative study in 424 cases of nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Bacchi, Lívia M; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2012-11-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can be subclassified into at least two molecular subgroups by gene expression profiling: germinal center B-cell like and activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Several immunohistological algorithms have been proposed as surrogates to gene expression profiling at the level of protein expression, but their reliability has been an issue of controversy. Furthermore, the proportion of misclassified cases of germinal center B-cell subgroup by immunohistochemistry, in all reported algorithms, is higher compared with germinal center B-cell cases defined by gene expression profiling. We analyzed 424 cases of nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with the panel of markers included in the three previously described algorithms: Hans, Choi, and Tally. To test whether the sensitivity of detecting germinal center B-cell cases could be improved, the germinal center B-cell marker HGAL/GCET2 was also added to all three algorithms. Our results show that the inclusion of HGAL/GCET2 significantly increased the detection of germinal center B-cell cases in all three algorithms (P<0.001). The proportions of germinal center B-cell cases in the original algorithms were 27%, 34%, and 19% for Hans, Choi, and Tally, respectively. In the modified algorithms, with the inclusion of HGAL/GCET2, the frequencies of germinal center B-cell cases were increased to 38%, 48%, and 35%, respectively. Therefore, HGAL/GCET2 protein expression may function as a marker for germinal center B-cell type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Consideration should be given to the inclusion of HGAL/GCET2 analysis in algorithms to better predict the cell of origin. These findings bear further validation, from comparison to gene expression profiles and from clinical/therapeutic data.

  3. Adding a Time-Series Design Element to the Success Case Method to Improve Methodological Rigor: An Application for Nonprofit Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coryn, Chris L. S.; Schroter, Daniela C.; Hanssen, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Brinkerhoff's Success Case Method (SCM) was developed with the specific purpose of assessing the impact of organizational interventions (e.g., training and coaching) on business goals by analyzing extreme groups using case study techniques and storytelling. As an efficient and cost-effective method of evaluative inquiry, SCM is attractive in other…

  4. Comparative fly species composition on indoor and outdoor forensic cases in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Syamsa, Rizal Abdullah; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Firdaus Mohd Salleh; Hidayatulfathi, Othman; Shahrom, Abd Wahid

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification. Five families, seven genera and nine species of flies were identified from human remains. The results of the study showed Chrysomya megacephala (Calliphoridae) maggots occurred on corpses with the highest frequency (70.6%), followed by Ch. rufifacies (Calliphoridae) (44.1%), sarcophagid fly (Sarcophagidae) (38.2%), Synthesiomya nudiseta (Muscidae) (20.6%), Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) (14.7%), Lucilia cuprina (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Ch. nigripes (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Eristalis spp. (Syrphidae) (5.9%) and Hydrotaea spinigera (Muscidae) (2.9%). The greatest fly diversity occurred on remains recovered indoors (eight species) compared to outdoors (three species). Whilst, single and double infestations were common for both indoor and outdoor cases, multiple infestation of up to six species was observed in one of the indoor cases. Although large numbers of fly species were found on human remains, the predominant species were still those of Chrysomya, while S. nudiseta was found only on human remains recovered from indoors. The present study provides additional knowledge in the context of Malaysian forensic entomology and the distribution of forensically important flies which is of relevance to forensic science.

  5. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  6. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  7. A comparative public health and budget impact analysis of pneumococcal vaccines: The French case

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yiling; Gervais, Frédéric; Gauthier, Aline; Baptiste, Charles; Martinon, Prescilla; Bresse, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced to French infants and toddlers. A change has been witnessed in the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in adults: the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of serotypes covered by PCV decreased, and serotypes not covered by PCV increased. This study aimed to quantify the public health and budget impact of pneumococcal vaccination strategies in at-risk adults in France over 5 years. A previously published population-based Markov model was adapted to the French situation. At-risk adults received either PPV23 (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; for the immunocompetent) or PCV13 (for the immunosuppressed). The strategy was compared to PCV13 alone. Uncertainty was addressed using extreme scenario analyses. Between 2014 and 2018, vaccination with PPV23/PCV13 led to a higher reduction in terms of IPD and non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia cases avoided in most scenarios analyzed when compared to PCV13 alone. For budget impact, none of the scenarios was in favor of PCV13. Under conservative coverage assumptions, the total incremental budget impact ranged from € 39.8 million to € 69.3 million if PCV13 were to replace PPV23 in the immunocompetent. With the epidemiological changes of pneumococcal diseases and the broader serotype coverage of PPV23, the current program remains an optimal strategy from public health perspective. Given the additional budget required for the use of PCV13 alone and its uncertain public health benefits, vaccination with PPV23 remains the preferred strategy. PMID:26267239

  8. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  9. Introducing comparative analysis to the LEED system: A case forrational and regional application

    SciTech Connect

    Eijadi, David; Vaidya, Prausad; Reinertsen, James; Kumar, Satish

    2002-06-01

    The LEED(TM) system awards points for prescriptive andperformance based environmental strategies; rightly giving more weight todecisions affecting building operations, since environmental impacts overthe life of a building exceed the one-time environmental impacts affectedby the building s construction. The environmental benefits of LEED(TM)strategies are considered implicit and the point system is not a metricof environmental performance. Thus, guideline strategies that achieve thesame points may not have analogous environmental performance. This paperdraws from our LEED(TM) project experience as certified consultants to anumber of design teams. We applied analysis to those experiences andargue that -The relative environmental value of the same LEED(TM)strategy may vary by geographical region and by building type. -Scoringsuccessive LEED(TM) points beyond a 'standard practice design'significantly increases design effort and capital costs for construction.-Without comparative analysis of the costs of alternate LEED(TM)strategies and their corresponding environmental benefit, designers willnot necessarily invest capital in strategies that most profoundlyminimize the environmental impacts of a building. -For design teams andowners interested in the least expensive LEED(TM) certification, gamingthe point system could drive investment away from sound environmentalperformance strategies such as energy efficiency. Using these arguments,this paper makes a case to enhance the LEED(TM) system by -CategorizingLEED(TM) strategies by their direct or indirect value towardsEnvironmental Benefit, Healthy Buildings (Places), and Profitability.-Reformulating prescriptive requirements into performance basedrequirements wherever possible. -Customizing LEED(TM) guidelines byregion.

  10. Perspectives on the policy 'black box': a comparative case study of orthopaedics services in England.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Hugh; Millar, Ross; Goodwin, Nick; Powell, Martin

    2014-10-01

    There has been much recent debate on the impact of competition on the English National Health Service (NHS). However, studies have tended to view competition in isolation and are controversial. This study examines the impact of programme theories associated with the health system reforms, which sought to move from a dominant target-led 'central control' programme theory, to one based on 'market forces', on orthopaedics across six case-study local health economies. It draws on a realistic evaluation approach to open up the policy 'black box' across different contexts using a mixed methods approach: analysis of 152 interviews with key informants and analysis of waiting times and admissions. We find that the urban health economies were more successful in reaching the access targets than the rural health economies, although the gap in performance closed over time. Most interviewees were aware of the policies to increase choice and competition, but their role appeared comparatively weak. Local commissioners' ability to influence demand appeared limited with providers' incentives dominating service delivery. Looking forward, it is clear that the role of competition in the NHS has to be considered alongside, rather than in isolation from, other policy mechanisms.

  11. Comparing Simulation Results with Traditional PRA Model on a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhegang Ma; Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    A previous study used RELAP and RAVEN to conduct a boiling water reactor station black-out (SBO) case study in a simulation based environment to show the capabilities of the risk-informed safety margin characterization methodology. This report compares the RELAP/RAVEN simulation results with traditional PRA model results. The RELAP/RAVEN simulation run results were reviewed for their input parameters and output results. The input parameters for each simulation run include various timing information such as diesel generator or offsite power recovery time, Safety Relief Valve stuck open time, High Pressure Core Injection or Reactor Core Isolation Cooling fail to run time, extended core cooling operation time, depressurization delay time, and firewater injection time. The output results include the maximum fuel clad temperature, the outcome, and the simulation end time. A traditional SBO PRA model in this report contains four event trees that are linked together with the transferring feature in SAPHIRE software. Unlike the usual Level 1 PRA quantification process in which only core damage sequences are quantified, this report quantifies all SBO sequences, whether they are core damage sequences or success (i.e., non core damage) sequences, in order to provide a full comparison with the simulation results. Three different approaches were used to solve event tree top events and quantify the SBO sequences: “W” process flag, default process flag without proper adjustment, and default process flag with adjustment to account for the success branch probabilities. Without post-processing, the first two approaches yield incorrect results with a total conditional probability greater than 1.0. The last approach accounts for the success branch probabilities and provides correct conditional sequence probabilities that are to be used for comparison. To better compare the results from the PRA model and the simulation runs, a simplified SBO event tree was developed with only four

  12. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  13. Detecting Precontact Anthropogenic Microtopographic Features in a Forested Landscape with Lidar: A Case Study from the Upper Great Lakes Region, AD 1000-1600

    PubMed Central

    Howey, Meghan C. L.; Sullivan, Franklin B.; Tallant, Jason; Kopple, Robert Vande; Palace, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Forested settings present challenges for understanding the full extent of past human landscape modifications. Field-based archaeological reconnaissance in forests is low-efficiency and most remote sensing techniques are of limited utility, and together, this means many past sites and features in forests are unknown. Archaeologists have increasingly used light detection and ranging (lidar), a remote sensing tool that uses pulses of light to measure reflecting surfaces at high spatial resolution, to address these limitations. Archaeology studies using lidar have made significant progress identifying permanent structures built by large-scale complex agriculturalist societies. Largely unaccounted for, however, are numerous small and more practical modifications of landscapes by smaller-scale societies. Here we show these may also be detectable with lidar by identifying remnants of food storage pits (cache pits) created by mobile hunter-gatherers in the upper Great Lakes during Late Precontact (ca. AD 1000–1600) that now only exist as subtle microtopographic features. Years of intensive field survey identified 69 cache pit groups between two inland lakes in northern Michigan, almost all of which were located within ~500 m of a lakeshore. Applying a novel series of image processing techniques and statistical analyses to a high spatial resolution DTM we created from commercial-grade lidar, our detection routine identified 139 high potential cache pit clusters. These included most of the previously known clusters as well as several unknown clusters located >1500 m from either lakeshore, much further from lakeshores than all previously identified cultural sites. Food storage is understood to have emerged regionally as a risk-buffering strategy after AD 1000 but our results indicate the current record of hunter-gatherer cache pit food storage is markedly incomplete and this practice and its associated impact on the landscape may be greater than anticipated. Our study also

  14. Detecting Precontact Anthropogenic Microtopographic Features in a Forested Landscape with Lidar: A Case Study from the Upper Great Lakes Region, AD 1000-1600.

    PubMed

    Howey, Meghan C L; Sullivan, Franklin B; Tallant, Jason; Kopple, Robert Vande; Palace, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Forested settings present challenges for understanding the full extent of past human landscape modifications. Field-based archaeological reconnaissance in forests is low-efficiency and most remote sensing techniques are of limited utility, and together, this means many past sites and features in forests are unknown. Archaeologists have increasingly used light detection and ranging (lidar), a remote sensing tool that uses pulses of light to measure reflecting surfaces at high spatial resolution, to address these limitations. Archaeology studies using lidar have made significant progress identifying permanent structures built by large-scale complex agriculturalist societies. Largely unaccounted for, however, are numerous small and more practical modifications of landscapes by smaller-scale societies. Here we show these may also be detectable with lidar by identifying remnants of food storage pits (cache pits) created by mobile hunter-gatherers in the upper Great Lakes during Late Precontact (ca. AD 1000-1600) that now only exist as subtle microtopographic features. Years of intensive field survey identified 69 cache pit groups between two inland lakes in northern Michigan, almost all of which were located within ~500 m of a lakeshore. Applying a novel series of image processing techniques and statistical analyses to a high spatial resolution DTM we created from commercial-grade lidar, our detection routine identified 139 high potential cache pit clusters. These included most of the previously known clusters as well as several unknown clusters located >1500 m from either lakeshore, much further from lakeshores than all previously identified cultural sites. Food storage is understood to have emerged regionally as a risk-buffering strategy after AD 1000 but our results indicate the current record of hunter-gatherer cache pit food storage is markedly incomplete and this practice and its associated impact on the landscape may be greater than anticipated. Our study also

  15. Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one characterised by a pair of poles colliding and moving away from the imaginary frequency axis with increasing deformation. In the limit of infinite deformation all scalar operators have identical quasinormal spectra. We compare and contrast our strongly coupled de Sitter QFT results with strongly coupled thermal correlators from AdS black holes.

  16. Typical or atypical progressive supranuclear palsy: a comparative clinicopathologic study of three Chinese cases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming-Wei; Liu, Jia; Arzberger, Thomas; Wang, Lu-Ning; Wang, Zhen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an atypical parkinsonism, which is the third most common geriatric neurodegenerative disease. We reported three pathology-confirmed Chinese PSP cases with special focus on the pathological accumulations of tau, a-synuclein and A-beta in the three PSP brains. Cases 1 and 2 initiated with extrapyramidal signs and gait disorders, while case 3 suffered behavioral abnormalities with cognitive decline at the beginning. In neuropathology, PSP-changes such as tau-positive tufed astrocytes, oligdendrocytes with the tau-positive coiled-body and threads and globose NFTs were widely seen in the basal ganglia, isocortex and allocortex, as well as in brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. In addition, numerous AGs were found in the hippocampus of cases 1 & 2, while Aβ amyloid depositions were found in hippocampus and leptomeningeal vessels of case 1 and in neocortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus and amygdale of case 3. Vessel infarcts were observed in cases 1. Cortical laminar III necrosis in case 1 suggested the ischemic damage. Cervical spinal cords in cases 2 & 3 were obtained with tau-positive globose NFTs, tufted astrocytes and neuropil threads were respectively found in the neurons of anterior horn and surrounding white matters. In summary, pathological examination is crucial for the ambiguous cases to exclude other neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, cervical spinal cord should be routinely examined in the PSP autopsy.

  17. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Georgia L; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-04-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries-Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi-as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers.

  18. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar's Dry Forest Reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Charlie J; Raxworthy, Christopher J; Metcalfe, Kristian; Raselimanana, Achille P; Smith, Robert J; Davies, Zoe G

    2015-01-01

    There are insufficient resources available to manage the world's existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar's dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i) species richness; ii) an index based on species' Red List status; iii) irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning); and, iv) a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI), which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can require access to

  19. Drinking Water Quality Governance: A Comparative Case Study of Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Amjad, Urooj; Dalcanale, Fernanda; Bartram, Jamie; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Human health is greatly affected by inadequate access to sufficient and safe drinking water, especially in low and middle-income countries. Drinking water governance improvements may be one way to better drinking water quality. Over the past decade, many projects and international organizations have been dedicated to water governance; however, water governance in the drinking water sector is understudied and how to improve water governance remains unclear. We analyze drinking water governance challenges in three countries—Brazil, Ecuador, and Malawi—as perceived by government, service providers, and civil society organizations. A mixed methods approach was used: a clustering model was used for country selection and qualitative semi-structured interviews were used with direct observation in data collection. The clustering model integrated political, economic, social and environmental variables that impact water sector performance, to group countries. Brazil, Ecuador and Malawi were selected with the model so as to enhance the generalizability of the results. This comparative case study is important because similar challenges are identified in the drinking water sectors of each country; while, the countries represent diverse socio-economic and political contexts, and the selection process provides generalizability to our results. We find that access to safe water could be improved if certain water governance challenges were addressed: coordination and data sharing between ministries that deal with drinking water services; monitoring and enforcement of water quality laws; and sufficient technical capacity to improve administrative and technical management of water services at the local level. From an analysis of our field research, we also developed a conceptual framework that identifies policy levers that could be used to influence governance of drinking water quality on national and sub-national levels, and the relationships between these levers. PMID:25798068

  20. Systemic Shifts in Instructional Technology: Findings of a Comparative Case Study of Two University Mathematics Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt; Buteau, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of an international case study in which researchers examined two mathematics departments (Canada/UK) in which the sustained use of technology was strategically established in a mathematics degree program. This case study forms part of a larger research initiative which involved an extensive literature review…

  1. Biochar provides a safe and value-added solution for hyperaccumulating plant disposal: A case study of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengsen; Gao, Bin; Li, Yuncong; Ok, Yong Sik; Shen, Chaofeng; Xue, Shengguo

    2017-02-27

    In this work, an innovative approach using biochar technology for hyperaccumulator disposal was developed and evaluated. The heavy metal enriched P. acinosa biomass (PBM) was pyrolyzed to produce biochar (PBC). Both PBM and PBC were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystal phases, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface topography, and analyzed for elemental composition and mobility. The results revealed that whewellite, a dominant crystal form in biomass, was decomposed to calcite after pyrolysis. Elemental analysis indicated that 91-99% total non-volatile elements in the biomass were retained in the biochar. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results revealed that 94.6% and 0.15% of total Mn was extracted for biomass and biochar, respectively. This suggests that mobility and bioavailability of Mn in biochar was much lower relative to pristine biomass. Batch sorption experiment showed that excellent removal of aqueous silver, lead, cadmium, and copper ions can be achieved with PBC. Findings from this work indicated that biochar technology can provide a value-added solution for hyperaccumulator disposal.

  2. Individualized Treatment from Theory to Practice: The Private Case of Adding LH during GnRH Antagonist-based Stimulation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kol, Shahar

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the proportion of patients whose pituitary glands respond with a sharp decrease in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels when exposed to a conventional dose of 0.25 mg gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in a prospective, single-center, non-randomized, proof-of-concept study. Fifty women eligible for in vitro fertilization (IVF) received recFSH (Gonal-F) from day 2 or 3 of menstrual period. Basal estradiol, progesterone, and LH were measured on the same day and 4–5 days later—immediately before GnRH antagonist 0.25 mg administration, and 24 hours after its administration. Responders were defined as “normal” if 24 hours after the first GnRH antagonist injection, LH level was ≥50% of the pre-injection level and as “over-suppressed” if it was <50% of the pre-injection level. Twelve patients (26% of the total) were “over-suppressed” with a mean LH level of 37% of the level 24 hours earlier. These patients also demonstrated a significant decrease in estradiol rise during the first 24 hours after initial antagonist administration. This effect was reversed for the rest of the stimulation period during which recLH (Luveris, 150 IU/day) was added to the “over-suppressed.” If proven advantageous in terms of pregnancy rate, this approach to individualized treatment would be easy to implement. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials. gov Identifier: NCT01936077. PMID:25452708

  3. Transition from effusive to explosive phases in andesite eruptions — A case-study from the AD1655 eruption of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Thomas; Cronin, Shane J.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Stewart, Robert B.; Smith, Ian E. M.

    2007-03-01

    The extrusion of viscous andesite lava forming domes can terminate in explosive activity. To understand the driving forces behind this behaviour, a study of an AD1655 eruption episode at Mt. Taranaki was carried out. We propose that simple changes in magmatic conditions of a single hydrous melt during ascent caused sudden changes in explosivity and gave rise to pumice with highly variable vesicularities and colour. Fractionation of hornblende + plagioclase + clinopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxide at the onset of magma ascent, and step-wise crystallisation of plagioclase ± clinopyroxene in different parts of a single melt within the conduit was controlled by rates of initial rise, capping by an impermeable lava dome, and differential rates of vesiculation and volatile exsolution. This resulted in a vertical stratification in the conduit, comprising a viscous, hypocrystalline lava cap, that overlay alternating zones of grey, brown and grey magma-foams. Horizontal gradients in geochemistry in the conduit are also indicated by different clast textures. The eruption consisted of an initial extrusive phase followed by three pulses of sub-plinian activity. Each phase or pulse, corresponded to individual layers within the conduit. Ejecta included block-and-ash flow deposits, three pyroclastic pumice-flow deposits of alternating grey, brown and grey pumice, as well as fallout deposits dominated by grey pumice. The brown magma foam contained more microlites, had a more-evolved matrix glass, and a higher temperature than the grey magma foams above and below. Its eruption destabilised the sub-plinian eruption column because it was more degassed. It fragmented less efficiently than the grey magma foams due to its lower viscosity, preventing pressure build-up in bubbles. Incomplete mixing at interfaces between brown and grey magma phases gave rise to banded pumices.

  4. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  5. The Comparative Method of Language Acquisition Research: A Mayan Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and…

  6. The Massive Wave Equation in Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, C. M.

    2013-07-01

    We consider the massive wave equation on asymptotically AdS spaces. We show that the timelike F behaves like a finite timelike boundary, on which one may impose the equivalent of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions for a range of (negative) mass parameter which includes the conformally coupled case. We demonstrate well posedness for the associated initial-boundary value problems at the H 1 level of regularity. We also prove that higher regularity may be obtained, together with an asymptotic expansion for the field near F. The proofs rely on energy methods, tailored to the modified energy introduced by Breitenlohner and Freedman. We do not assume the spacetime is stationary, nor that the wave equation separates.

  7. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  8. The added value of a portable gamma camera for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, M; Paredes, P; Sieira, R; Vidal-Sicart, S; Marti, C; Pons, F

    2014-01-01

    The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is still subject to debate although some studies have reported its feasibility. The main reason for this debate is probably due to the high false-negative rate for floor-of-mouth tumors per se. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a T1N0 floor-of-mouth squamous cell carcinoma who underwent the sentinel lymph node procedure. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging were performed for lymphatic mapping with a conventional gamma camera. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified at right Ib, left IIa and Ia levels. However, these sentinel lymph nodes were difficult to detect intraoperatively with a gamma probe owing to the activity originating from the injection site. The use of a portable gamma camera made it possible to localize and excise all the sentinel lymph nodes. This case demonstrates the usefulness of this tool to improve sentinel lymph node detecting in floor-of-mouth tumors, especially those close to the injection area.

  9. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  10. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  11. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas; Woerd, Ellen van der E-mail: ellen@itf.fys.kuleuven.be

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  12. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  13. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  14. Past climate variability inferred from statistical processing of documentary data: a case study on extreme meteorological events in western central France from 1500 to 2000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Clément; Chaumillon, Eric; Audé, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-01

    about past climate changes since 1500 AD. Temperature-related events show a significant negative correlation (R2 = -0.49, p = 0) with δ14C curve (Reimer et al., 2004), whereas precipitation-related events show a significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.66, p = 0) with the same curve. As an example, recurrent flood and rainfall events occurred from 1630 to 1720 and from 1800 to 1830, which corresponds to the Maunder and Dalton periods of minimum solar activity respectively. Spectral analysis carried out on the 4 classes of events revealed several cycles in the data, in particular a 11 year cycle that corresponds to the Schwabe cycle, and a 85 year cycle that might be related to Gleissberg cycle. The last 150 years display unusual conditions with increasing storms, gales and droughts. The documentary data analysed in the present study might provide interesting information about the consequences of human-induced global warming on extreme meteorological events. They would also be useful as a source of information about local climate variations. References: Audé J.L., 2006. Chronique du climat en Poitou-Charentes Vendée. Lonali Editions, France, 152 pp. Leijonhufvud L., Wilson R., Moberg A. 2008. The Holocene 18(2), 333-343 Planton S., Déqué M., Chauvin F., Terray L., 2008. Comptes Rendus Geosciences, 340 (9-10), 564-574. Reimer P.J. et al., 2004. Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Rodrigo F.S., 2008. Climatic Change 87, 471-487. Sánchez E., Gallardo C., Gaertner M.A, Arribas A., Castro M., 2004. Global and Planetary Change 44, 163-180. Wheeler D., 2006. Archives 31, 119-132.

  15. Grammar Deconstructed: Constructions and the Curious Case of the Comparative Correlative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Heather Lee

    2013-01-01

    Comparative correlatives, like "the longer you stay out in the rain, the colder you'll get," are prolific in the world's languages (i.e., there is no evidence of a language that lacks comparative correlatives). Despite this observation, the data do not present a readily apparent syntax. What is the relationship between the two clauses?…

  16. Cold War and the Politics of Comparative Education: The Case of Divided Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Theodor

    This paper deals with the political role and the political self-definition of researchers in the field of comparative education in East and West Germany in the post World War II period. The study addresses some of the general assumptions made about comparative education bridging the gap between cultures but asserts that none of these assumptions…

  17. Separate, but Not Equal: A Qualitative Case Study Comparing Traditional and Homebound Instruction Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonteix, Kimberly Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study explored the perceptions and beliefs of teachers of students in Grade 9 and 10, at a high school in south-central New Jersey, who taught traditional classroom courses that incorporated technology, regarding their lived experiences delivering homebound instruction for the same curriculum. Technology used in the…

  18. Spaces of Contest for Religious Education Reform in Comparative Perspectives: Scotland and Malawi as Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matemba, Yonah

    2013-01-01

    Educational reforms, particularly in a contested subject such as Religious Education (RE), have unsettled boundaries principally because actors demand or expect different outcomes of these reforms. In the cases of Scotland and Malawi the present paper examines how different stakeholders have engaged with RE reforms. It thus ascertains whether, if…

  19. Educational Documentation, Research and Decision-Making: National Case Studies. Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokicka, Wanda, Ed.

    In 1997, The International Bureau of Education (IBE) launched a series of case studies on the processes involved in the use of educational information and research. These studies describe how recent educational research has been disseminated and how educational reforms may have benefited, or not benefited, from insights gained through research.…

  20. School-Church/Synagogue Partnerships: A Comparative Case Study of Religious Capital Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplowitz, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The context for this study is the increased focus on school-community partnerships in the United States. With limited research having been conducted on high-achieving schools, this is a case study of one of America's top 100 high schools, a Jewish day school; this article reports on its school-synagogue partnership. Like most research on…

  1. Higher Education Policy in Authoritarian Regimes: Comparative Perspectives on the Chilean Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel

    A Chilean case study of higher education under an authoritarian regime is presented. The study restricts itself to the most prevalent sub-type of the authoritarian regime which is "bureaucratic-authoritarianism" (BA). The BA designation refers to regimes which exert considerable repressive control over societies that have undergone…

  2. The "Russian Doll" Approach: Developing Nested Case-Studies to Support International Comparative Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    International comparison is complicated by the use of different terms, classification methods, policy frameworks and system structures, not to mention different languages and terminology. Multi-case studies can assist in the understanding of the influence wielded by cultural, social, economic, historical and political forces upon educational…

  3. Acculturation Theory and Linguistic Fossilization: A Comparative Case Study. CLCS Occasional Paper No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushioda, Ema

    A study explored the relevance of acculturation theory to language fossilization in the advanced stages of second language learning. Case studies of two native Japanese speakers with long experience living in an English-speaking environment are examined. First, the model of acculturation is outlined: it proposes that socio-psychological factors,…

  4. Secondary Science Students' Beliefs about Class Discussions: A Case Study Comparing and Contrasting Academic Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimentel, Diane Silva; McNeill, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    The dialogue that occurs in science classrooms has been the subject of research for many decades. Most studies have focused on the actual discourse that occurs and the role of the teacher in guiding the discourse. This case study explored the neglected perspective of secondary science students and their beliefs about their role in class…

  5. Sexual Dimorphism in Tuberculosis Incidence: Children Cases Compared to Adult Cases in Tuscany from 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Stival, Alessia; Chiappini, Elena; Montagnani, Carlotta; Orlandini, Elisa; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries, men seem to be more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) than women, but only few studies have investigated the reasons of this gender incidence difference. The effect of sexual hormones on immunity is possible. Methods Data from children and adults, living in Tuscany, hospitalized for TB in all the thirty-one regional hospitals from January 1st 1997 to December 31st 2011, were analyzed using the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. Results During the study period, 10,744 patients were hospitalized with TB diagnosis, precisely 279 (2.6%) children [0–14 years], 205 (1.9%) adolescents [15–18 years] and 10,260 (95.5%) adults [≥18 years]. The male population ranged from 249 patients (51.4%) in children and adolescents, to 6,253 (60.9%) in adults. Pulmonary TB was the most common form both in children and adults. Men were more likely than women to have pulmonary TB after puberty, while no significant differences were found between males and females in the hospitalized children. The male gender also resulted the most affected for the extra-pulmonary disease sites, excluding the lymphatic system, during the reproductive age. Conclusions Our findings suggest a possible role of sexual hormones in the development of TB. No significant male-female difference was found in TB incidence among children, while a sex ratio significantly different from 1∶1 emerged among reproductive age classes. An increased incidence difference also persisted in older men, suggesting that male-biased risk factors could influence TB progression. Some limitations of the study are the sample size, the method of discharge diagnosis which could be deficient in accuracy in some cases, the increasing number of immigrants and the lack of possible individual risk factors (smoke and alcohol). Further studies are needed to investigate the possible hormone-driven immune mechanisms determining the sexual dimorphism in TB. PMID:25255233

  6. Moral Education and the Primary School Curriculum: A Comparative Review of Case Studies of Selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persaud, Ganga

    Data from four separate case studies examining socialization and moral education in the elementary schools of Jamaica, Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela are compared and analyzed. The analysis is intended to help national officials, university personnel, and community leaders interpret what is happening in relation to moral values and the…

  7. Partners or Adversaries: A Comparative Case Study of Higher-Education Systems and State-Level Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toman, Janelle Krause; Card, Karen Aldred

    2010-01-01

    The accountability focus in higher education historically has been directed at the institutional level. The purpose of this comparative case study, however, was to look at state-level accountability. The research focused on the processes used in Tennessee, Minnesota, and South Dakota. Interviews were conducted with higher education administrators…

  8. What Shapes Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences? A Comparative Case Study of Students' Motives and Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This comparative case study explored the motives and goals of two American students participating in short-term study abroad (SA). Findings, interpreted from an activity theory perspective, demonstrated that despite similar language-learning histories and demographic characteristics, the students were learning French and participating in SA for…

  9. Models of Transformative Learning for Social Justice: Comparative Case Studies of Non-Formal Development Education in Britain and Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents comparative case studies of non-formal development education by non-profit organisations in two European countries. The study aimed to explore the extent to which such activities provide opportunities for transformative learning. The research was qualitative and began with interviews with educators across 14 organisations in…

  10. Created in Context: A Comparative Case Study of the Use of Music in Two Reggio Emilia-Inspired Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Vanessa L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative case study was to investigate the use of music in two Reggio-inspired preschools in the United States. I used purposeful sampling to select two sites that represented contrasting sociocultural contexts: one urban school serving a Latino population from low socioeconomic backgrounds and one suburban early childhood…

  11. Mining Data from Weibo to WeChat: A Comparative Case Study of MOOC Communities on Social Media in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with an overview on China's MOOC phenomenon and social media, and then reports a comparative, multiple case study on three selected MOOC communities that have emerged on social media in China. These representative MOOC communities included: (a) MOOC Academy, the largest MOOC community in China, (b) Zhejiang University of…

  12. Comparing the Principle-Based SBH Maieutic Method to Traditional Case Study Methods of Teaching Media Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study at a Northwest university compared two methods of teaching media ethics, a class taught with the principle-based SBH Maieutic Method (n = 25) and a class taught with a traditional case study method (n = 27), with a control group (n = 21) that received no ethics training. Following a 16-week intervention, a one-way…

  13. A "Tale of Two Cities:" A Comparative Case Study of Community Engagement and Costs in Two Levy Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, W. Kyle; Johnson, Paul A.; Petroff, Ruth Ann

    2011-01-01

    Using Anderson's (1998) framework for authentic community engagement and Levin and McEwan's (2001) "ingredients method," this comparative case study analyzed contrasting approaches to levy campaigns undertaken by two suburban school districts and the associated costs of the campaigns. We found that District A ran a campaign that…

  14. A Comparative Case Study of Developing Leaders through a Doctoral Program: A Study of One Academic Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Sheryl Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative case study was to determine how one academic institution could address the leadership gap facing organizations today, through a traditional, classroom doctoral program in Organizational Leadership. Data was gathered utilizing mixed methods methodology that included a survey questionnaire, focus group information,…

  15. An Examination into the Factors Leading to Superintendent Longevity in Urban, Southern California School Districts: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remland, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Within a modern context, superintendents walk a fine line in today's reform minded, accountability centered, sociopolitical setting. To many, the position of public school superintendent is perceived as a job where failure is inevitable. The purpose of this comparative case study was to understand the factors that contribute to superintendent…

  16. Implementation Fidelity of a Program Designed to Promote Personal and Social Responsibility through Physical Education: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual, Carmina; Escarti, Amparo; Llopis, Ramon; Gutierrez, Melchor; Marin, Diana; Wright, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative comparative case study was to examine the implementation fidelity of a program designed to deliver the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model (Hellison, 2003) through physical education and its relationship with short-term outcomes for elementary school students. The research questions were: (a)…

  17. Program Outcomes Assessment in Higher Education Hospitality Management Programs: A Qualitative Comparative Case Study of Learning Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, comparative case study was to determine the extent to which learning and improvement cultures were perceived to be linked to the traditional and non-traditional accreditation and Program Outcomes Assessment paradigms in use in two university hospitality programs. The findings of this study revealed that the…

  18. Adding a combination of hydroxycitrate and lipoic acid (METABLOC™) to chemotherapy improves effectiveness against tumor development: experimental results and case report.

    PubMed

    Guais, Adeline; Baronzio, GianFranco; Sanders, Edward; Campion, Frédéric; Mainini, Carlo; Fiorentini, Giammaria; Montagnani, Francesco; Behzadi, Mahsa; Schwartz, Laurent; Abolhassani, Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Altered metabolism of cancer first highlighted by Otto Warburg has a long history. Although ignored for a considerable amount of time, it is now receiving substantial attention. We recently published results obtained with a combination of two drugs, lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate, targeting metabolic enzymes particularly affected in cancer: ATP citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. This treatment was as efficient as chemotherapy in the three mouse cancer models that were tested. In this work, we asked if our drug combination could be used in conjunction with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy, in particular cisplatin, to improve basic protocol efficacy. A combination of lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate was administered to mice implanted with syngeneic cancer cells, LL/2 lung carcinoma and MBT-2 bladder carcinoma, concommitantly with classical chemotherapy (cisplatin or methotrexate). We demonstrate that the triple combination lipoic acid + hydroxycitrate + cisplatin or methotrexate is more efficient than cisplatin or methotrexate used individually or the combination of lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate administered alone. Of particular note are the results obtained in the treatment of an 80 year-old female who presented with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas accompanied by liver metastases. A treatment course using gemcitabine plus α-lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate gave highly promising results. The in vivo data, coupled with the case study results, suggest a possible advantage in using a treatment targeted at cancer metabolism in association with classical chemotherapy.

  19. Beyond Test Scores: Adding Value to Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At a time when teacher quality has emerged as a key factor in student learning, a statistical technique that determines the "value added" that teachers bring to student achievement is getting new scrutiny. Value-added measures compare students' growth in achievement to their expected growth, based on prior achievement and demographic…

  20. Coccidioidomycosis in Biopsies with Presumptive Diagnosis of Malignancy in Dogs: Report of Three Cases and Comparative Discussion of Published Reports.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Romero, Rafael; Silva-Pérez, Rolando Antonio; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Ramírez-Hernández, Cecilia; Marino-Martínez, Iván Alberto; Barbosa-Quintana, Álvaro; López-Mayagoitia, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a respiratory fungal infection with occasional systemic dissemination. The disseminated coccidioidomycosis is considered a multifaceted disease. In medicine, disseminated coccidioidomycosis is included within a group of infectious diseases that have been referred as the great imitators. In many cases, malignancies are included in the presumptive diagnosis. In veterinary medicine, disseminated coccidioidomycosis is common in dogs. Nonetheless, despite of being a diagnostic dilemma, disseminated coccidioidomycosis is underestimated and frequently not included into differentials, even in endemic zones. Herein, we describe three cases of granulomatous inflammation caused by Coccidioides spp. which were masquerading malignancies in dogs (0.39 %). The presumptive diagnoses in these cases were osteosarcoma, lymphoma and neurofibroma, respectively. A PCR assay employing tissues in paraffin blocks resulted positive for C. posadasii in one of these cases. A comparative discussion on the ambiguous clinic-pathological presentation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis in dogs and humans is included.

  1. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  2. [Comparative analysis on meteorological condition for persistent haze cases in summer and winter in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiao-Nong; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ying-Chun; Liu, Wei-Dong; Du, Jia; Zhao, Ling-Hui

    2014-06-01

    Summer is another peak season for haze besides winter in Beijing area, which is different from that in South China. The data of microwave radiometer, profiler, sounding, AWS, NCEP (NCAR) and air pollution monitors were used in the analysis of two haze cases which occurred in winter and summer, respectively. Both cases lasted for 6 days. This research focused on the difference in the mechanism of the formation and persistence of haze cases in various seasons. In winter, north-westerly flow dominated Beijing at upper-levels and a few of shallow troughs passed by during persistent haze development. The main meteorological reasons for lower visibility in 6 days were: there was an inversion in the boundary layer all the time; wind was weak at surface and moisture went up gradually. The change of inversion height and humidity day and night led to the diurnal variation of PM2.5 concentration and visibility. The surface wind speed kept lower because the weak cold air could not often hit the surface during the haze case. In addition, three factors played key roles in the inversion formation in boundary layer. One was that the rapid decrease in the surface temperature after sunset due to the radiation. At the same time, there was some warm advection at upper boundary layer. The third one attributed to the temperature increase after the air flowing over the mountains and down. However, in summer, regional transportation of aerosol, sustained convective stability and high air saturation were very important factors for the haze formation. Under the sub-tropic high control, the wind direction at lower troposphere was south. The PM2.5 concentration went up when the speed of south wind increased. The south flow caused by both synoptic scale systems and mountain-valley breeze near Beijing transported the aerosol northward from higher polluted area. There was no inversion in the summer haze case. But, the convective inhibition was kept over 200 J x kG(-1). As the result, it was not

  3. The comparative method of language acquisition research: a Mayan case study.

    PubMed

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and is especially useful in drawing attention to variation in contexts of use across languages. This article uses the Comparative Method to analyze the acquisition of verb suffixes in two Mayan languages: K'iche' and Yucatec. Mayan status suffixes simultaneously mark distinctions in verb transitivity, verb class, mood, and clause position. Two-year-old children acquiring K'iche' and Yucatec Maya accurately produce the status suffixes on verbs, in marked distinction to the verbal prefixes for aspect and agreement. We find evidence that the contexts of use for the suffixes differentially promote the children's production of cognate status suffixes in K'iche' and Yucatec.

  4. Effectiveness of integrating case studies in online and face-to-face instruction of pathophysiology: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Suha M; Asi, Yara M; Hamed, Kastro M

    2013-06-01

    Due to growing demand from students and facilitated by innovations in educational technology, institutions of higher learning are increasingly offering online courses. Subjects in the hard sciences, such as pathophysiology, have traditionally been taught in the face-to-face format, but growing demand for preclinical science courses has compelled educators to incorporate online components into their classes to promote comprehension. Learning tools such as case studies are being integrated into such courses to aid in student interaction, engagement, and critical thinking skills. Careful assessment of pedagogical techniques is essential; hence, this study aimed to evaluate and compare student perceptions of the use of case studies in face-to-face and fully online pathophysiology classes. A series of case studies was incorporated into the curriculum of a pathophysiology class for both class modes (online and face to face). At the end of the semester, students filled out a survey assessing the effectiveness of the case studies. Both groups offered positive responses about the incorporation of case studies in the curriculum of the pathophysiology class. This study supports the argument that with proper use of innovative teaching tools, such as case studies, online pathophysiology classes can foster a sense of community and interaction that is typically only seen with face-to-face classes, based on student responses. Students also indicated that regardless of class teaching modality, use of case studies facilitates student learning and comprehension as well as prepares them for their future careers in health fields.

  5. A Comparative Taphonomic Analysis of 24 Trophy Skulls from Modern Forensic Cases().

    PubMed

    Yucha, Josephine M; Pokines, James T; Bartelink, Eric J

    2017-02-01

    Cranial remains retained from fallen enemies are commonly referred to as "trophy skulls," and many such crania were acquired as souvenirs by U.S. servicemembers during WWII and the Vietnam conflict. These remains increasingly have become the subject of forensic anthropological analysis as their possessors, typically veterans or their relatives, try to discard or repatriate them. The present research uses a qualitative analytical approach to review 24 cases of reported trophy skulls (14 previously unpublished cases and 10 from the literature) to determine which perimortem and postmortem characteristics are most useful for generating a taphonomic profile. Overall, the taphonomic signature of trophy remains includes traits relating to acquisition and preparation, ornamental display, and subsequent curation. Contextual evidence and the biological profile also are considered when determining the possible origin of human cranial remains as a trophy skull. Thorough taphonomic analysis will aid in identifying these types of remains as trophy skulls.

  6. Implementation of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Construction: A Comparative Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlinson, Steve; Collins, Ronan; Tuuli, Martin M.; Jia, Yunyan

    2010-05-01

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach is increasingly adopted in coordination of construction projects, with a number of parties providing BIM services and software solutions. However, the empirical impact of BIM on construction industry has yet to be investigated. This paper explores the interaction between BIM and the construction industry during its implementation, with a specific focus on the empirical impacts of BIM on the design and construction processes and professional roles during the process. Two cases were selected from recent construction projects coordinated with BIM systems: the Venetian Casino project in Macau and the Cathy Pacific Cargo Terminal project in Hong Kong. The former case illustrates how the conflicts emerged during the design process and procurement were addressed by adopting a BIM approach. The latter demonstrates how the adoption of BIM altered the roles of architect, contractor, and sub-contractors involved in the project. The impacts of BIM were critically reviewed and discussed.

  7. Integrating Technologies into Mathematics: Comparing the Cases of Square Roots and Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissane, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Two decades ago, in an award-winning paper, Dan Kennedy (1995) likened learning mathematics to climbing a tree, for which there was only one way to climb: up a large and solid trunk. In the limited time that is available, many students give up the climb, impede others, fall off the trunk, or fail to climb the tree sufficiently well. In the case of…

  8. Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.

  9. A note on vectorial AdS5/CFT4 duality for spin- j boundary theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Joung, Euihun; Lal, Shailesh

    2016-12-01

    The vectorial holographic correspondences between higher-spin theories in AdS5 and free vector models on the boundary are extended to the cases where the latter is described by free massless spin- j field. The dual higher-spin theory in the bulk does not include gravity and can only be defined on rigid AdS5 background with S 4 boundary. We discuss various properties of these rather special higher-spin theories and calculate their one-loop free energies. We show that the result is proportional to the same quantity for spin- j doubleton treated as if it is a AdS5 field. Finally, we consider even more special case where the boundary theory itself is given by an infinite tower of massless higher-spin fields.

  10. Key challenges in simulated patient programs: An international comparative case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The literature on simulated or standardized patient (SP) methodology is expanding. However, at the level of the program, there are several gaps in the literature. We seek to fill this gap through documenting experiences from four programs in Australia, Canada, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We focused on challenges in SP methodology, faculty, organisational structure and quality assurance. Methods We used a multiple case study method with cross-case synthesis. Over eighteen months during a series of informal and formal interactions (focused meetings and conference presentations) we documented key characteristics of programs and drew on secondary document sources. Results Although programs shared challenges in SP methodology they also experienced differences. Key challenges common to programs included systematic quality assurance and the opportunity for research. There were differences in the terminology used to describe SPs, in their recruitment and training. Other differences reflected local conditions and demands in organisational structure, funding relationships with the host institution and national trends, especially in assessments. Conclusion This international case study reveals similarities and differences in SP methodology. Programs were highly contextualised and have emerged in response to local, institutional, profession/discipline and national conditions. Broader trends in healthcare education have also influenced development. Each of the programs experienced challenges in the same themes but the nature of the challenges often varied widely. PMID:21943295

  11. Comparative life cycle assessments: The case of paper and digital media

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Justin G. Kozak, Robert A.

    2014-02-15

    The consumption of the written word is changing, as media transitions from paper products to digital alternatives. We reviewed the life cycle assessment (LCA) research literature that compared the environmental footprint of digital and paper media. To validate the role of context in influencing LCA results, we assessed LCAs that did not compare paper and print, but focused on a product or component that is part of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector. Using a framework that identifies problems in LCA conduct, we assessed whether the comparative LCAs were accurate expressions of the environmental footprints of paper and print. We hypothesized that the differences between the product systems that produce paper and digital media weaken LCA's ability to compare environmental footprints. We also hypothesized that the characteristics of ICT as an industrial sector weaken LCA as an environmental assessment methodology. We found that existing comparative LCAs offered problematic comparisons of paper and digital media for two reasons — the stark material differences between ICT products and paper products, and the unique characteristics of the ICT sector. We suggested that the context of the ICT sector, best captured by the concept of “Moore's Law”, will continuously impede the ability of the LCA methodology to measure ICT products. -- Highlights: • We review the LCA research that compares paper and digital media. • We contrast the comparative LCAs with LCAs that examine only digital products. • Stark differences between paper and digital media weakens LCA findings. • Digital products in general challenge the LCA method's reliability. • Continuous innovation and global nature of digital products impedes LCA methodology.

  12. Applying fuzzy logic to comparative distribution modelling: a case study with two sympatric amphibians.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A Márcia; Real, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    We modelled the distributions of two toads (Bufo bufo and Epidalea calamita) in the Iberian Peninsula using the favourability function, which makes predictions directly comparable for different species and allows fuzzy logic operations to relate different models. The fuzzy intersection between individual models, representing favourability for the presence of both species simultaneously, was compared with another favourability model built on the presences shared by both species. The fuzzy union between individual models, representing favourability for the presence of any of the two species, was compared with another favourability model based on the presences of either or both of them. The fuzzy intersections between favourability for each species and the complementary of favourability for the other (corresponding to the logical operation "A and not B") were compared with models of exclusive presence of one species versus the exclusive presence of the other. The results of modelling combined species data were highly similar to those of fuzzy logic operations between individual models, proving fuzzy logic and the favourability function valuable for comparative distribution modelling. We highlight several advantages of fuzzy logic over other forms of combining distribution models, including the possibility to combine multiple species models for management and conservation planning.

  13. Applying Fuzzy Logic to Comparative Distribution Modelling: A Case Study with Two Sympatric Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, A. Márcia; Real, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    We modelled the distributions of two toads (Bufo bufo and Epidalea calamita) in the Iberian Peninsula using the favourability function, which makes predictions directly comparable for different species and allows fuzzy logic operations to relate different models. The fuzzy intersection between individual models, representing favourability for the presence of both species simultaneously, was compared with another favourability model built on the presences shared by both species. The fuzzy union between individual models, representing favourability for the presence of any of the two species, was compared with another favourability model based on the presences of either or both of them. The fuzzy intersections between favourability for each species and the complementary of favourability for the other (corresponding to the logical operation “A and not B”) were compared with models of exclusive presence of one species versus the exclusive presence of the other. The results of modelling combined species data were highly similar to those of fuzzy logic operations between individual models, proving fuzzy logic and the favourability function valuable for comparative distribution modelling. We highlight several advantages of fuzzy logic over other forms of combining distribution models, including the possibility to combine multiple species models for management and conservation planning. PMID:22629142

  14. Nature and nurture: a case of transcending haematological pre-malignancies in a pair of monozygotic twins adding possible clues on the pathogenesis of B-cell proliferations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marcus C; Nyvold, Charlotte G; Roug, Anne S; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Villesen, Palle; Nederby, Line; Hokland, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We describe a comprehensive molecular analysis of a pair of monozygotic twins, who came to our attention when one experienced amaurosis fugax and was diagnosed with JAK2+ polycythaemia vera. He (Twin A) was also found to have an asymptomatic B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). Although JAK2-, Twin B was subsequently shown to have a benign monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). Flow cytometric and molecular analyses of the B-cell compartments revealed different immunoglobulin light and heavy chain usage in each twin. We hypothesized that whole exome sequencing could help delineating the pattern of germline B-cell disorder susceptibility and reveal somatic mutations potentially contributing to the differential patterns of pre-malignancy. Comparing bone marrow cells and T cells and employing in-house engineered integrative analysis, we found aberrations in Twin A consistent with a myeloid neoplasm, i.e. in TET2, RUNX1, PLCB1 and ELF4. Employing the method for detecting high-ranking variants by extensive annotation and relevance scoring, we also identified shared germline variants in genes of proteins interacting with B-cell receptor signalling mediators and the WNT-pathway, including IRF8, PTPRO, BCL9L, SIT1 and SIRPB1, all with possible implications in B-cell proliferation. Similar patterns of IGHV-gene usage to those demonstrated here have been observed in inherited acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Collectively, these findings may help in facilitating identification of putative master gene(s) involved in B-cell proliferations in general and MBL and B-CLL in particular.

  15. Comparative life cycle assessment of biodiesel from algae and jatropha: a case study of India.

    PubMed

    Ajayebi, Atta; Gnansounou, Edgard; Kenthorai Raman, Jegannathan

    2013-12-01

    Algae and jatropha, two types of promising and unconventional biomass, are investigated in this study for large-scale production of biodiesel. The aim is to evaluate the potential advantages and the magnitude of closeness of life cycle balances between these two biodiesel pathways compared to fossil diesel, by taking into account possible uncertainties. The geographical location of this study is India with a prospect of utilizing available wastelands in southern regions. The results indicate that the environmental performance of algal biodiesel is comparable to that of jatropha biodiesel. Both show significant GHG emission and fossil energy depletion reductions which are in the range of 36-40 and 10-25% respectively compared to fossil diesel in the studied geographic context.

  16. Comparative estimation of the reproduction number for pandemic influenza from daily case notification data.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2007-02-22

    The reproduction number, R, defined as the average number of secondary cases generated by a primary case, is a crucial quantity for identifying the intensity of interventions required to control an epidemic. Current estimates of the reproduction number for seasonal influenza show wide variation and, in particular, uncertainty bounds for R for the pandemic strain from 1918 to 1919 have been obtained only in a few recent studies and are yet to be fully clarified. Here, we estimate R using daily case notifications during the autumn wave of the influenza pandemic (Spanish flu) in the city of San Francisco, California, from 1918 to 1919. In order to elucidate the effects from adopting different estimation approaches, four different methods are used: estimation of R using the early exponential-growth rate (Method 1), a simple susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model (Method 2), a more complex SEIR-type model that accounts for asymptomatic and hospitalized cases (Method 3), and a stochastic susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) with Bayesian estimation (Method 4) that determines the effective reproduction number Rt at a given time t. The first three methods fit the initial exponential-growth phase of the epidemic, which was explicitly determined by the goodness-of-fit test. Moreover, Method 3 was also fitted to the whole epidemic curve. Whereas the values of R obtained using the first three methods based on the initial growth phase were estimated to be 2.98 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.73, 3.25), 2.38 (2.16, 2.60) and 2.20 (1.55, 2.84), the third method with the entire epidemic curve yielded a value of 3.53 (3.45, 3.62). This larger value could be an overestimate since the goodness-of-fit to the initial exponential phase worsened when we fitted the model to the entire epidemic curve, and because the model is established as an autonomous system without time-varying assumptions. These estimates were shown to be robust to parameter uncertainties, but the

  17. Salter Harris Fractures of the Distal Femur: Learning Points From Two Cases Compared.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Sean M; Hamilton, Steven W; Barker, Simon L

    2013-01-01

    Salter Harris-type injuries of the distal femur should be treated as a dislocation of the knee and therefore as a medical emergency. Senior medical staff should be involved early, ankle-brachial index ratio should be measured in all patients and the clinician should have a high index of suspicion for a vascular injury. Ideally reduction, stabilization, and vascular repair, if necessary, should be carried out within 6 hours of the initial event. There should be a low threshold for fasciotomies. These 2 cases demonstrate the importance of having a high index of suspicion for vascular injury and the need for continued reassessment.

  18. Molecular Dynamics simulations of platinum plasma sputtering. : A comparative case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brault, Pascal; Chuon, Sotheara; Bauchire, Jean-Marc

    2016-05-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulations are carried out for investigating atomic processes of platinum sputtering. Sputtered Pt atom energy distribution functions are determined at different sputtering argon ionenergies: 100, 500 and 1000 eV. Calculated energy distribution functions show a cross-over from Thompson theory to binary collision model when increasing argon ion energy and Pt atom sputtered energy. Implanted argon ion number is depending on its kinetic energy, while it is not the case in binary collision approximation. Finally sputtering yields are greater for Thompson theory than for binary collision model at low energy, but converge to the close values at high energy.

  19. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Simulation Modalities: A Case Study of Peripheral Intravenous Catheterization Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Brydges, Ryan; Carnahan, Heather; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    While the ultimate goal of simulation training is to enhance learning, cost-effectiveness is a critical factor. Research that compares simulation training in terms of educational- and cost-effectiveness will lead to better-informed curricular decisions. Using previously published data we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of three…

  20. Organizational Culture at High Schools in TRNC: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silman, Fatos; Ozmatyatli, Icim Ozenli; Birol, Cem; Caglar, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the organizational culture in two TRNC schools by using influencing factors of metaphors, physical environment, values, norms, rituals, language, legends and reward systems. To obtain data, a triangulation of participant interviews, observations and written sources were used. Results appear to display that the…

  1. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  2. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  3. Strengthening Parent-Community Member Relations on Agency Boards: Comparative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Meg A.; Keys, Christopher B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comparative study of the boards of three community agencies, the forces that influence the quality of parent-community member relations are examined. Results indicate that an organization's ability to manage intergroup tension is influenced by organizational history of intergroup relations, group identification, and organizational…

  4. COMPARING THE UTILITY OF MULTIMEDIA MODELS FOR HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL EXPOSURE ANALYSIS: TWO CASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of models are available for exposure assessment; however, few are used as tools for both human and ecosystem risks. This discussion will consider two modeling frameworks that have recently been used to support human and ecological decision making. The study will compare ...

  5. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  6. Transfer Credit Evaluations at New York State Colleges: Comparative Case Studies of Process Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Alexander Paul

    2012-01-01

    For the nearly one third of students who transfer from 1 college to another, transfer credit represents time and money. Unfortunately, many colleges provide degree-specific transfer credit evaluations only after students financially commit to attend the institution. The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyze, and compare early and late…

  7. Coming to Journalism: A Comparative Case Study of Postgraduate Students in Dublin and Amman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Boyle, Neil; Knowlton, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a pilot study of postgraduate journalism students in Dublin and Amman. The study compared professional outlooks and social characteristics of students in both contexts and examined institutional settings. The study finds that journalism students in Dublin and Amman have very similar views on the profession,…

  8. Organizational Attributes and Learning beyond the Boundaries: Comparative Case Studies of Two High-Tech Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Jing; Wu, Sizong; Li, Jun

    2008-01-01

    This study compares two high-tech firms in terms of their differences in organizational characteristics and learning activities beyond the boundaries. It finds that the larger company continuously develops new technology to achieve long-term survival through a balance between exploration and exploitation while the smaller enterprise grows quickly…

  9. Wallerstein's World-Systems Analysis in Comparative Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Knezevic, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1970s, using his world-systems analysis, Immanuel Wallerstein has developed a wide-ranging framework for the social sciences, with potential applications for comparative educational research. In this paper we outline key aspects of Wallerstein's theorising, and then analyse the uptake, understandings, and applications of his analysis in…

  10. A Case Study of Title I Comparability in Three California School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxton, Clarisse; de los Reyes, Iliana Brodziak; Chambers, Jay; Levin, Jesse; Cruz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is due for reauthorization, and Senator Tom Harkin and Congressman Chakkah Fattah have both proposed revisions to the comparability provision of the federal Title I program. Harkin's proposed legislation requires the use of per pupil expenditures, including actual teacher salaries, to demonstrate…

  11. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  12. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  13. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  14. Thermodynamics and Stability of Five Dimensional AdS Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider five dimensional AdS Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and calculate thermodynamical variables such as entropy, specific heat and free energy. In that case we can obtain stability conditions of the black hole and fix black hole charge and mass for phase transition.

  15. [Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang

    2011-07-01

    The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.

  16. Comparing Adhesive Bonding and LAMP Joining Technology in Case of Hybrid Material Combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovits, T.; Bauernhuber, A.

    As plastics are utilized more and more frequently in our devices, it becomes necessary that they can be adequately joined to other materials, like metals. Bonding different materials was carried so far out primarily by adhesives, however, novel technologies, like laser assisted metal-plastic joining are showing benefits against current technologies. In the course of this study, the authors joined PMMA plastic to structural steel by adhesives and by laser assisted metal-plastic joining. Mechanical tests were carried out to compare the two different technologies, and to be able to position the LAMP joining within the field of joining technologies. Results show clearly the advantages of laser transmission joining as compared to adhesives.

  17. Paying the right price for pharmaceuticals: a case study of why the comparator matters.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Jean M; Richardson, Jeff R J

    2011-08-01

    This article considers the pricing policy for pharmaceuticals in Australia, which is widely seen as having achieved low drug prices. However, compared to New Zealand, the evidence implies that Australia might have improved its performance significantly if it had proactively sought market best pricing. The Australian record suggests that the information sought by authorities may not be sufficient for optimal pricing and that the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals may be neither necessary nor sufficient for achieving this goal.

  18. Comparing mirror neuron system activity between sporadic and familial cases of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sayantanava; Nizamie, S Haque; Goyal, Nishant; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Kavoor, Anjana Rao

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder, and has often been subtyped on the basis of family history of psychotic disorders. Compared to those without, a positive family history is associated with an earlier age of onset, greater structural brain abnormalities and poorer clinical course. Given recent emphasis on mirror neuron system (MNS) in attempting to explain psychopathology in schizophrenia; present analysis tried to tease out differences in MNS functioning between these two groups. With ethical approval, 10 consenting right-handed patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10-DCR; M=8; Drug-naïve=2) were recruited and divided into two groups of five each (M=4, F=1): those with (age 29.40±5.85 years, duration of illness 50.80±30.84 months) and without (age 29.60±5.77 years, duration of illness 43.20±43.76 months) family history of schizophrenic illness (group difference p>0.05). MNS activity was assessed using event-related desynchronization of EEG Mu waves in response to biological motion on 192-channel EEG Neurofax EEG-1100K. On comparison, while patients had significantly lower mu suppression compared to controls (p<0.001); two schizophrenia groups did not differ between themselves, neither on MNS activity nor on psychopathology (p>0.05). Present study replicates finding of a dysfunctional MNS in schizophrenia patients, and represents a preliminary attempt at comparing two groups of symptomatic schizophrenia patients. In both these groups, MNS dysfunctions were comparable, and commensurate with respect to psychopathology. Thus, MNS dysfunction in schizophrenia might either be inherited or acquired. However, this abnormality forms a common base, and ultimate vulnerability marker, for development of psychopathology during active disease states.

  19. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of simulation modalities: a case study of peripheral intravenous catheterization training.

    PubMed

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Brydges, Ryan; Carnahan, Heather; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-05-01

    While the ultimate goal of simulation training is to enhance learning, cost-effectiveness is a critical factor. Research that compares simulation training in terms of educational- and cost-effectiveness will lead to better-informed curricular decisions. Using previously published data we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of three simulation-based programs. Medical students (n = 15 per group) practiced in one of three 2-h intravenous catheterization skills training programs: low-fidelity (virtual reality), high-fidelity (mannequin), or progressive (consisting of virtual reality, task trainer, and mannequin simulator). One week later, all performed a transfer test on a hybrid simulation (standardized patient with a task trainer). We used a net benefit regression model to identify the most cost-effective training program via paired comparisons. We also created a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve to visually represent the probability that one program is more cost-effective when compared to its comparator at various 'willingness-to-pay' values. We conducted separate analyses for implementation and total costs. The results showed that the progressive program had the highest total cost (p < 0.001) whereas the high-fidelity program had the highest implementation cost (p < 0.001). While the most cost-effective program depended on the decision makers' willingness-to-pay value, the progressive training program was generally most educationally- and cost-effective. Our analyses suggest that a progressive program that strategically combines simulation modalities provides a cost-effective solution. More generally, we have introduced how a cost-effectiveness analysis may be applied to simulation training; a method that medical educators may use to investment decisions (e.g., purchasing cost-effective and educationally sound simulators).

  20. Importance of using regional and national data in comparative bioaccumulation studies: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Rawa, A.; Peterson, S.C.; Eich, C.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an investigation to determine whether site-related contaminants are bioaccumulating in fish from Puffer Pond (located at the Sudbury US Army Training Annex, Massachusetts), filet and whole body preparations from yellow perch, chain pickerel, and brown bullhead were analyzed for mercury and other contaminants and compared with levels in the same fish species from Ministers Pond, a nearby off-site ``background`` pond. The mean concentration of mercury was higher in pickerel from Puffer Pond (0.61 {micro}g/g versus 0.50 {micro}g/g). Mercury was also found to be higher an average in perch from Puffer Pond (0.38 {micro}g/g versus 0.24 {micro}g/g) suggesting potential site-related contamination. Results were subsequently compared to Massachusetts clean water reference data, to USEPA national background mercury data, and to nationwide USFWS contaminant biomonitoring program mercury data. Average mercury concentrations were 0.47 {micro}g/g, 0.34 {micro}g/g, and 0.11 {micro}g/g, respectively. The variety of fish species, analytical methods, and times and locations of capture make direct comparison uncertain, but the data provide additional perspective. Specifically, Puffer Pond fish, with a mean mercury concentration of 0.36 {micro}g/g, and Ministers Pond fish, with a mean concentration of 0.37 {micro}g/g, exhibit mercury levels within the range of national and regional background mercury levels. Mercury was not found at detectable concentrations in surface water or sediment of either pond. Bioaccumulation of mercury in Puffer Pond and clean water bodies in Massachusetts is likely related to the low-pH of the water and atmospheric deposition of mercury from global and regional sources rather than from site-related sources. This study emphasizes the importance of consulting regional and national data when drawing conclusions from comparative bioaccumulation studies.

  1. Comparing the Effectiveness of a Clinical Registry and a Clinical Data Warehouse for Supporting Clinical Trial Recruitment: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua; Bigger, J Thomas; Busacca, Linda; Wilcox, Adam; Getaneh, Asqual

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a case study comparing the relative efficiency of using a Diabetes Registry or a Clinical Data Warehouse to recruit participants for a diabetes clinical trial, TECOS. The Clinical Data Warehouse generated higher positive predictive accuracy (31% vs. 6.6%) and higher participant recruitment than the Registry (30 vs. 14 participants) in a shorter time period (59 vs. 74 working days). We identify important factors that increase clinical trial recruitment efficiency and lower cost. PMID:21347102

  2. Comparing the effectiveness of a clinical registry and a clinical data warehouse for supporting clinical trial recruitment: a case study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua; Bigger, J Thomas; Busacca, Linda; Wilcox, Adam; Getaneh, Asqual

    2010-11-13

    This paper reports a case study comparing the relative efficiency of using a Diabetes Registry or a Clinical Data Warehouse to recruit participants for a diabetes clinical trial, TECOS. The Clinical Data Warehouse generated higher positive predictive accuracy (31% vs. 6.6%) and higher participant recruitment than the Registry (30 vs. 14 participants) in a shorter time period (59 vs. 74 working days). We identify important factors that increase clinical trial recruitment efficiency and lower cost.

  3. The i-LIMB hand and the DMC plus hand compared: a case report.

    PubMed

    Otr, Olga Van Der Niet; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Bongers, Raoul M; Bouwsema, Hanneke; Van Der Sluis, Corry K

    2010-06-01

    The i-LIMB hand is a novel upper limb myoelectric prosthetic hand with several joints in the fingers and thumb. This study aimed to determine whether this new device had more functionality than a more conventional myoelectric prosthetic hand with only a single joint between the thumb and two fingers. Therefore, a 45-year-old man with a wrist disarticulation used the i-LIMB hand and the widely used Dynamic Mode Control hand (DMC plus hand) in a test procedure that covered all functional levels of the International Classification of Function (ICF). Functional outcomes of the i-LIMB seemed to be lower than or equal to the DMC plus hand. The patient's satisfaction tended to be in favor of the i-LIMB. Compared to the DMC plus hand, the i-LIMB was more reliable when holding objects but had a lack of power and was less robust. We concluded that the i-LIMB hand has limited additional functionality compared to the DMC plus hand.

  4. Clinicopathological features of infiltrating lobular carcinomas comparing with infiltrating ductal carcinomas: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common type of invasive breast cancers and it has been reported to have some unique biologic and epidemiologic characteristics. Methods Clinicopathological features of 95 patients with ILC, their relapse free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were retrospectively investigated and compared with those of 3,621 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) between January 1984 and December 2005. Results ILC constitutes 2.3% of all invasive breast cancers. There were no difference between the ILC and the IDC-NOS groups regarding age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, and treatment modalities except hormone therapy. The ILC group showed more estrogen receptor expression, less HER-2 expression and higher bilaterality. RFS and OS of the ILC patients were similar to those of the IDC. IDC-NOS metastasized more frequently to the lung and bone, whereas, ILC to the bone and ovary. Conclusions The incidence of ILC was relatively low in Korean breast cancer patients. Comparing to IDC-NOS ILC showed some different features such as higher estrogen receptor expression, less HER-2 expression, higher bilaterality and preferred metastatic sites of bone and ovary. Contralateral cancers and bone and ovary evaluation should be considered when monitoring ILC patients. PMID:20423478

  5. Methods for calculating activity budgets compared: a case study using orangutans.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark E; Vogel, Erin R; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; van Noordwijk, Maria A

    2009-04-01

    The results of comparisons of behavioral data between individuals, age-sex classes, seasons, sites and possibly even species may depend on sample size and the computational method used. To establish whether these are valid concerns, we compared results for percentage time spent feeding on major food types (fruit, leaves, flowers, invertebrates, bark, pith and other) for two orangutan populations in Sabangau (24 months) and Tuanan (29 months), Indonesian Borneo. Both the minimum follow limit included in analyses and the computational method used produced small, but statistically significant, differences in the results obtained, and the differences were more common for food types eaten less frequently. In addition, using different computational methods produced more significant differences than did including different minimum follow lengths in analyses. The computational method used also influenced the results of tests for differences in diet composition between age-sex classes. Thus, the method used can influence the results obtained and, hence, it is important to state explicitly the minimum follow limit included and computational method used to compile averages, and to ensure standardization in methods when comparing data between age-sex classes, time periods, field sites or species.

  6. The case for the rope-pump in Africa: a comparative performance analysis.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P A; Drouin, T

    2006-12-01

    The conventional handpump is the most popular technology choice for improved potable water supplies in rural sub-Saharan Africa. To date, however, it has failed to deliver satisfactory levels of sustainability, largely due to inadequate maintenance capacity. An alternative option to standardised imported handpumps is the locally manufactured rope-pump, which is considerably cheaper and easier to maintain but has been rejected in the past due to fears of impaired water quality. This paper presents the key aspects of a study in northern Ghana which compared the performance of rope-pumps with that of conventional handpumps, to determine whether or not the rope-pump provides a viable alternative for community water supplies across the subcontinent. User interviews, sanitary surveys, water quality analyses and technical performance measurements were used to develop a comparative performance analysis for the two pump types. The findings of the study indicated that the rope-pump out-performed the conventional handpump on the majority of counts and that, contrary to widespread perceptions, there was no significant difference between pump types with respect to the impact on microbiological water quality. Consequently, the rope-pump provides a significant technological opportunity to improve water supply sustainability in Africa.

  7. Usability in product development practice; an exploratory case study comparing four markets.

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, Jasper; van Driel, Liesbeth; van Eijk, Daan

    2015-03-01

    This study explored how usability was dealt with in four product development organizations active in different sectors: high-end automotive, professional printers and copiers, office coffee makers and fast moving consumer goods. The primary differentiators of the selected cases were whether they were targeting businesses or consumers and the degree of product complexity. Interviews with 19 product development practitioners were conducted, focussing on three topics: 1) the product development process and the integration of user involvement, 2) multidisciplinary teamwork, and 3) organizational attitude towards usability. Based on the interviews, context descriptions of the companies were created and barriers and enablers for usability were identified. To verify the findings and to discuss remaining issues a feedback workshop was held in which the primary contact from each company participated. The results indicate that differences in product-market combination lead to differences in organizational attitude towards usability. The prioritization of usability in an organization seems to be influenced by the degree of product complexity (complex products are more prone to suffer from usability issues) and whether developers think that usability is a purchase consideration for their clients. The product-market combination a company targets also affects the methods for user-centred design that a company can apply and that are relevant. What methods for user-centred design are used also seems to be influenced by the attitude towards usability: if usability is considered more important, methods that require more resources can be applied.

  8. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; Jacobson, Jacob; Xie, Guanghui; Ovard, Leslie; Wright, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  9. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; ...

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively,more » for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.« less

  10. Secondary science students' beliefs about class discussions: a case study comparing and contrasting academic tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Pimentel, Diane; McNeill, Katherine L.

    2016-08-01

    The dialogue that occurs in science classrooms has been the subject of research for many decades. Most studies have focused on the actual discourse that occurs and the role of the teacher in guiding the discourse. This case study explored the neglected perspective of secondary science students and their beliefs about their role in class discussions. The study participants (N = 45) were students in one of the three differentially tracked chemistry classes taught by the same teacher. Findings about the differences that exist among students from different academic tracks are reported. While it seems that epistemological beliefs focusing on content are common for the students in this study, the students' social framing in the different tracks is important to consider when teachers attempt to transition to more dialogic forms of discourse. Some key findings of this study are (a) students' beliefs that science is a body of facts to be learned influenced the factors they deemed important for whole-class discussion, (b) students from the lower-level track who typically were associated with lower socioeconomic status were more likely to view their role as passive, and (c) students' comfort level with the members of the class seemed to influence their decisions to participate in class discussions.

  11. The generalization of charged AdS black hole specific volume and number density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Liang; He, Miao; Fang, Chao; Sun, Dao-Quan; Deng, Jian-Bo

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, by proposing a generalized specific volume, we restudy the P- V criticality of charged AdS black holes in the extended phase space. The results show that most of the previous conclusions can be generalized without change, but the ratio {\\tilde{ρ }}_c should be 3 {\\tilde{α }}/16 in general case. Further research on the thermodynamical phase transition of black hole leads us to a natural interpretation of our assumption, and more black hole properties can be generalized. Finally, we study the number density for charged AdS black hole in higher dimensions, the results show the necessity of our assumption.

  12. Socioeconomic inequality and road traffic accidents in Thailand: comparing cases treated in government hospitals inside and outside of Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Yongchaitrakul, Teerachai; Juntakarn, Chantip; Prasartritha, Thavat

    2012-05-01

    The study aims to report annual demographic characteristics and to compare the differences of socioeconomic inequality, type of motor vehicles, and seating relating to major bone injuries among hospitals in and outside Bangkok. Six public hospitals in Bangkok and six regional hospitals in the provinces were studied over a one year period (2008-2009). There were 3,650 cases: 3,596 injured patients and 54 deaths. Patients with a lower education level accounted for the largest number of cases, both in the provinces (46.3%) and Bangkok (17.1%). Their incomes were less than THB 10,000/yearly. Total number of motorcycle cases (3,360) was higher (11.6:1) than 290 cases of motor vehicles. Pickup cars were used more commonly. Riding a motorcycle was likely to be fatal. The front seat was the most common involvement. Passengers occupying the middle and rear seat of the motorcycle were involved in 16.0% and 1.0% cases, respectively. Long bone and joints were the most common injuries. The results strongly confirmed the striking contribution of motorcycles and pickups to road traffic accidents. People with a low educational level, in conjunction with low income, and in areas outside of Bangkok were more at risk. Specific education on road safety should be delivered, preferably in primary schools.

  13. Comparative analyses of canine distemper viral isolates from clinical cases of canine distemper in vaccinated dogs.

    PubMed

    Lan, N T; Yamaguchi, R; Inomata, A; Furuya, Y; Uchida, K; Sugano, S; Tateyama, S

    2006-06-15

    Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of three isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV) isolated from three dogs with a vaccination history were compared with the same analyses of vaccine virus isolated from a vaccine used for dogs. The three dogs showed clinical signs of a recent major type of CD in Japan, including oculonasal discharge and diarrhea, and pathological findings including non-suppurative encephalitis, pneumonia, mild gastroenteritis and lymphoid depletion. Inclusion bodies were in the stomach without inflammation and encephalitis was without clinical signs. One of the highest titers of CDV in different organs of the three dogs was commonly systemic lymphatic organs, including the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsils. New isolates of CDV joined to the clades of the Asia 1 group that is far from the vaccine group. These results surely indicate that wild strains of CDV from dogs with a vaccination history were not reversed vaccine virus, and that the dogs showed characteristics of recent CD in Japan.

  14. Collective Sexual Violence in Bosnia and Sierra Leone: A Comparative Case Study Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ten Bensel, Tusty; Sample, Lisa L

    2015-10-08

    Social scientists have long studied the patterns, motivations, and recidivism rates of sexual offenders; however, the majority of prior research has examined rape, where victims are assaulted by a single offender in isolated events. Often overlooked are sexually violent assaults committed during armed conflicts, which often exhibit group-level sexual offending. This oversight could be a result of perceived notions that sexual violence during conflict is a rare or regrettable event; however, it has been documented consistently throughout history. The purpose of this study was to improve our understanding of sexual violence during war by comparing and contrasting preconflict characteristics, conflict framing, and justifications for sexual violence in the Bosnian and Sierra Leone armed conflicts. This greater understanding can then be used to identify factors that may contribute to the collectivization of sexual violence during war.

  15. Comparative approaches to measuring food access in urban areas: the case of Portland, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Andrea L; Bania, Neil; Leete, Laura

    2011-01-01

    GIS methods are used to construct measures of food access for neighbourhoods in the Portland, Oregon, US metropolitan area and the sensitivity of such measures to methodological variation is examined. The level of aggregation of data inputs is varied and the effect of using both Euclidean and street network distances is tested. It is found that, regardless of the level of geographical disaggregation, distance-based measures generate approximately the same conclusions about the distribution of food access in the area. It is also found that, while the relationship between street network and Euclidean distances varies with population density, measures computed with either construct generate the same relative patterns of food access. These findings suggest that results from food access studies employing disparate methodologies can often be compared.

  16. Assessing monthly average solar radiation models: a comparative case study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sonmete, Mehmet H; Ertekin, Can; Menges, Hakan O; Hacıseferoğullari, Haydar; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    Solar radiation data are required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists, and hydrologists for many applications such as solar heating, cooking, drying, and interior illumination of buildings. In order to achieve this, numerous empirical models have been developed all over the world to predict solar radiation. The main objective of this study is to examine and compare 147 solar radiation models available in the literature for the prediction of monthly solar radiation at Ankara (Turkey) based on selected statistical measures such as percentage error, mean percentage error, root mean square error, mean bias error, and correlation coefficient. Our results showed that Ball et al. (Agron J 96:391-397, 2004) model and Chen et al. (Energy Convers Manag 47:2859-2866, 2006) model performed best in the estimation of solar radiation on a horizontal surface for Ankara.

  17. Comparing local and commercial breeds on functional traits and profitability: the case of Reggiana dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gandini, G; Maltecca, C; Pizzi, F; Bagnato, A; Rizzi, R

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fertility, longevity, milkability, and profitability of cows from the Reggiana and Holstein breeds in northern Italy. Profitability was gauged for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. Calving to first service interval, days open, and calving interval were significantly shorter in Reggiana than in Holstein cows. Reggiana cows conceived approximately one estrus cycle before Holstein and had a calving interval 33 d shorter. Holstein cows released a significantly higher quantity of milk per unit of time (1.81 vs. 1.28 kg/min). Reggiana cows had longer expected total and productive lives than Holstein cows, by 5.8 and 10.0 mo, respectively. Replacement rate was 26% higher in the Holstein. Standard 305-d milk production was 5,360 and 7,870 kg in Reggiana and Holstein, respectively. Comparing breeds on annual milk and meat production, instead of standard 305-d milk yield, changed marginally the difference in annual profitability between the Reggiana and Holstein, from -696 euros to -679 euros per cow per year. Including feeding, milking, replacement, and insemination costs reduced the gap between breeds by 32%, from -679 euros, measured on annual milk and meat production, to -460 euros. These differences in profitability assumed a pricing scenario referring to milk sold to the dairy industry where protein and fat contents are valued but not the breed origin of milk. Incentive payments to farmers of endangered cattle compensated partially (22%) the lower income from Reggiana cows. When Reggiana milk production was sold as branded Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, Reggiana cows were more profitable than Holstein cows by 1,953 euros per cow per year.

  18. [Medico-legal opinions in penal cases provided by clinicians and forensic medicine specialists--comparative analysis].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Nowak, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    From the practice of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice it appears that in criminal cases the level of medico-legal opinions provided by experts appointed by the district court or 'ad hoc' is very low. The analysis of the chosen files shoved a divergence of opinions given to the adopted motions as well as numerous offences to regulations in the nature of a consultative error. In the paper the authors have made an attempt to appraise causes of the above mentioned problems such as: 1. the lack of medico-legal knowledge and experience in court experts. 2. excessive ease of registration to the panel of court experts and the lack of processes which verify the qualifications of experts. 3. the lack of judicial control over expert's opinions and common acceptance of their work. 4. ignorance of the obligatory penal law. 5. ignorance of the basic rules for giving medico-legal opinions (legal consequences, casual nexus). 6. excessive but groundless self-confidence in experts. 7. the lack of a correct way of thinking and conclusion making. The aim of the paper was to pay close attention to the absolute need of verification of court experts' qualifications and work.

  19. Comparing alternative approaches to establishing regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants: DBCP as a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Pease, W; Vandenberg, J; Hooper, K

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares four alternative approaches for deriving regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants by applying them to the available data on the human spermatotoxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). The alternatives examined include the Proposition 65 approach (application of a mandatory 1000-fold uncertainty factor to a no-observed-adverse-effect level [NOAEL]), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approach (application of flexible uncertainty factors to a NOAEL), the Benchmark Dose approach (application of flexible uncertainty factors to a dose associated with a known level of change in a reproductive parameter), and the Quantitative Risk Estimation approach (using low-dose linear extrapolation and a model of the relationship between sperm count and infertility). Applied to DBCP, these approaches do not produce substantially different estimates of allowable exposure levels. However, the approaches do have different data requirements and provide different amounts of information on reproductive hazards to risk managers and the public. Neither the Proposition 65 nor the EPA approach provides information about the extent of health risk remaining at a regulatory level. In contrast, the Benchmark Dose approach can provide estimates of the magnitude of sperm count reduction at a regulatory level, and the Quantitative Risk Estimation approach can provide estimates of exposure-induced infertility. PMID:2040244

  20. Matched case-control analysis comparing oncologic outcomes between preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Chul; Park, In Ja; Kim, Chan Wook; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate patterns of recurrence and oncologic outcomes after recurrence between preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods Records of patients with stage II or III locally advanced rectal cancer seen between January 2000 and December 2010 were analyzed. The outcomes for patients undergoing preoperative CRT followed by radical resection (n = 466) were compared with outcomes of patients matched for sex, age, and stage who had surgery and then postoperative CRT (n = 466). Recurrence rates and sites, treatment of recurrence, and oncologic outcomes after recurrence were investigated. The rate of sphincter preservation and permanent stoma formation were also evaluated. Results Recurrence occurred in 124 and 140 patients in the pre- and postoperative CRT groups, respectively. The local and systemic recurrence rates were 3.6% and 20.8%, respectively, in the preoperative CRT group and 3.0% and 25.3%, respectively, in the postoperative CRT group (P = 0.245). Time to recurrence was longer in the postoperative CRT group (19 months vs. 24.2 months, P = 0.029). The overall rates of sphincter preservation (sphincter preservation operation and postoperative permanent stoma formation) did not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.381). The 5-year overall survival rate after recurrence did not differ between the two groups (25.6% vs. 18.6%, P = 0.051). Conclusion Preoperative and postoperative CRT are both safe and suitable treatment methods for rectal cancer, so the choice can be tailored to the patient's situation. PMID:28382292

  1. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  2. Comparative mitogenomic analysis reveals cryptic species: A case study in Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Meng, Xue Ping; Chu, Ka Hou; Zhao, Na Na; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1846 is a commercially important marine bivalve belonging to the family Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In this study, the M. chinensis mitochondrial genomic features are analyzed. The genome has 34 genes on the same strand, lacking atp8 and both trnS (trnS1 and trnS2) as compared with the typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The A+T content of M. chinensis mitochondrial genome is 63.72%, which is slightly lower than that of M. veneriformis (67.59%) and Coelomactra antiquata (64.33% and 64.14% for the samples from Ri Zhao, Shandong Province, and Zhang Zhou, Fujian Province, China, respectively) in the same family. There are 22 NCRs in the M. chinensis mitochondrial genome, accounting for 12.91% of the genome length. The longest NCR (1,075bp in length) is located between trnT and trnQ. A TRS (127bp×8.15) accounts for 96.3% (1,035/1,075) of this NCR. The occurrence of TRS in NCR is shared by the two Mactra mitochondrial genomes, but is not found in the two Coelomactra mitochondrial genomes. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 12 PCGs of 25 bivalve mitochondrial genomes shows that all seven genera (Mactra, Coelomactra, Paphia, Meretrix, Solen, Mytilus, and Crassostrea) constitute monophyletic groups with very high support values. Pairwise genetic distance analyses indicate that the genetic distance of C. antiquata from the two localities is 0.084, which is greater than values between congeneric species, such as those in Mactra, Mytilus, Meretrix, and Crassostrea. The results show that the C. antiquata from the two localities represent cryptic species.

  3. Shear-wave velocity profiling according to three alternative approaches: A comparative case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Moro, G.; Keller, L.; Al-Arifi, N. S.; Moustafa, S. S. R.

    2016-11-01

    The paper intends to compare three different methodologies which can be used to analyze surface-wave propagation, thus eventually obtaining the vertical shear-wave velocity (VS) profile. The three presented methods (currently still quite unconventional) are characterized by different field procedures and data processing. The first methodology is a sort of evolution of the classical Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) here accomplished by jointly considering Rayleigh and Love waves (analyzed according to the Full Velocity Spectrum approach) and the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR). The second method is based on the joint analysis of the HVSR curve together with the Rayleigh-wave dispersion determined via Miniature Array Analysis of Microtremors (MAAM), a passive methodology that relies on a small number (4 to 6) of vertical geophones deployed along a small circle (for the common near-surface application the radius usually ranges from 0.6 to 5 m). Finally, the third considered approach is based on the active data acquired by a single 3-component geophone and relies on the joint inversion of the group-velocity spectra of the radial and vertical components of the Rayleigh waves, together with the Radial-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (RVSR). The results of the analyses performed while considering these approaches (completely different both in terms of field procedures and data analysis) appear extremely consistent thus mutually validating their performances. Pros and cons of each approach are summarized both in terms of computational aspects as well as with respect to practical considerations regarding the specific character of the pertinent field procedures.

  4. On the relationship between metrics to compare greenhouse gases - the case of IGTP, GWP and SGTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, C.; Johansson, D. J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Metrics for comparing greenhouse gases are analyzed, with a particular focus on the integrated temperature change potential (IGTP) following a call from IPCC to investigate this metric. It is shown that the global warming potential (GWP) and IGTP are asymptotically equal when the time horizon approaches infinity when standard assumptions about a constant background atmosphere are used. The difference between IGTP and GWP is estimated for different greenhouse gases using an upwelling diffusion energy balance model with different assumptions on the climate sensitivity and the parameterization governing the rate of ocean heat uptake. It is found that GWP and IGTP differ by some 10% for CH4 (for a time horizon of less than 500 yr), and that the relative difference between GWP and IGTP is less for gases with a longer atmospheric life time. Further, it is found that the relative difference between IGTP and GWP increases with increasing rates of ocean heat uptake and increasing climate sensitivity since these changes increase the inertia of the climate system. Furthermore, it is shown that IGTP is equivalent to the sustained global temperature change potential (SGTP) under standard assumptions when estimating GWPs. We conclude that while it matters little for abatement policy whether IGTP, SGTP or GWP is used when making trade-offs, it is more important to decide whether society should use a metric based on time integrated effects such as GWP, a "snapshot metric" as GTP, or metrics where both economics and physical considerations are taken into account. Of equal importance is the question of how to choose the time horizon, regardless of the chosen metric. For both these overall questions, value judgments are needed.

  5. Pyogenic, tuberculous, and brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis: a descriptive and comparative study of 219 cases

    PubMed Central

    Colmenero, J; Jimenez-Mejias, M; Sanchez-Lora, F; Reguera, J; Palomino-Nicas, J; Martos, F; Heras, J; Pachon, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe a large series of patients with vertebral osteomyelitis (VO), and to compare the clinical, biological, radiological, and prognostic features of pyogenic (PVO), tuberculous (TVO), and brucellar vertebral osteomyelitis (BVO).
METHODS—A retrospective multicentre study, which included 219 adult patients with VO with confirmed aetiology, who were diagnosed between 1983 and 1995 in two tertiary care centres. Of these patients, 105 (48%) had BVO, 72 (33%) PVO, and 42 (19%) TVO.
RESULTS—One hundred and forty eight (67.6%) patients were male and 71 (32.4%) female. The mean (SD) age was 50.4 (16.4) years (range 14-84) and the mean (SD) duration of symptoms before the diagnosis was 14 (16.8) weeks. In 127 patients (57.9%) the vertebral level involved was lumbar, in 70 (31.9%) thoracic, and in 16 (7.3%) cervical. One hundred and nineteen patients (54.4%) received only medical treatment and 100 (45.6%) required both medical and surgical treatment. The presence of diabetes mellitus, intravenous drug abuse, underlying chronic debilitating diseases or immunosuppression, previous infections, preceeding bacteraemia, recent vertebral surgery, leucocytosis, neutrophilia, and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were significantly associated to PVO. A prolonged clinical course, thoracic segment involvement, absence of fever, presence of spinal deformity, neurological deficit, and paravertebral or epidural masses, were significantly more frequent in the group of TVO. The need for surgical treatment and the presence of severe functional sequelae were more frequent in the groups of PVO and TVO.
CONCLUSION—There are significant clinical, biological, radiological, and prognostic differences between BVO, PVO, and TVO. These differences can point to the causal agent and orient the initial empirical medical treatment while awaiting a final microbiological diagnosis.

 PMID:9496149

  6. Comparing methods of analysing datasets with small clusters: case studies using four paediatric datasets.

    PubMed

    Marston, Louise; Peacock, Janet L; Yu, Keming; Brocklehurst, Peter; Calvert, Sandra A; Greenough, Anne; Marlow, Neil

    2009-07-01

    Studies of prematurely born infants contain a relatively large percentage of multiple births, so the resulting data have a hierarchical structure with small clusters of size 1, 2 or 3. Ignoring the clustering may lead to incorrect inferences. The aim of this study was to compare statistical methods which can be used to analyse such data: generalised estimating equations, multilevel models, multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Four datasets which differed in total size and in percentage of multiple births (n = 254, multiple 18%; n = 176, multiple 9%; n = 10 098, multiple 3%; n = 1585, multiple 8%) were analysed. With the continuous outcome, two-level models produced similar results in the larger dataset, while generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) produced divergent estimates using the smaller dataset. For the dichotomous outcome, most methods, except generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GH 'xtlogit' in Stata) gave similar odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals within datasets. For the continuous outcome, our results suggest using multilevel modelling. We conclude that generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) should be used with caution when the dataset is small. Where the outcome is dichotomous and there is a relatively large percentage of non-independent data, it is recommended that these are accounted for in analyses using logistic regression with adjusted standard errors or multilevel modelling. If, however, the dataset has a small percentage of clusters greater than size 1 (e.g. a population dataset of children where there are few multiples) there appears to be less need to adjust for clustering.

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Suburethral and Transobturator Sling in 209 Cases with Stress Urinary Incontinence in 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Prakash; D’Costa, Sylvia; Shirkande, Preeti; Kumar, Shilpi; Patil, Mangala

    2009-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of suburethral and transobturator sling in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence in 209 cases from 2002 to 2010. The criteria evaluated were success, failure, complications, operating time, ease of the procedure, availability and cost effectivity of the sling. Design and Setting: A retrospective comparative study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre for female urinary incontinence. Material and Methods: A total of 209 patients (females from 27 to 79 years of age) with proven stress urinary incontinence were treated by suburethral transvaginal tape (TVT) type of slings in 101 cases and transobturator Monarc type of sling in 108 cases at the National Institute of Endoscopic Surgery and Urinary Incontinence Center, Mumbai, India, from March 2002 to June 2010. The maximum follow up was for 8 years. Results: The TVT type of slings had higher complication rate like needle entering the bladder, retention of urine necessitating to cut the tape in the center and had a success rate of 94.5% compared to Monarc/Trivedi obturator tape (TrOT) type of sling with outside-in technique, which had a negligible complication (less than 1%), pain in groin or leg movement that reduced in 6 weeks and a success rate of 95%. Specially, the Indian design Trivedi’s stress urinary incontinence tape (TSUIT) and TrOT with reusable needles, the cost was only 15–20% of the international brands. PMID:22442522

  8. Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A case series of 5 patients in North Indian population with comparative analysis of literature

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Jeevan; Verma, Nitin; Kaur, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Indian scenario, Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS]) has been rarely reported. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings and major and minor criteria in five cases of NBCCS in North Indian population have been presented along with a discussion of the role of gene mutation analysis in early diagnosis of syndrome. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic findings of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in 5 patients were compared with other reports in Indian population and with reports of this syndrome in other parts of the world. Results: The most common features seen were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (100%), calcifications of falx cerebri (60%), palmar-plantar pits (80%), rib anomalies (80%), macroencephaly (60%), ocular hypertelorism (80%), and frontal bossing (60%) in our series. Retained deciduous teeth seen in 80% patients whose association has not been previously reported has been presented. None of our patients had basal cell carcinoma, syndactyly or polydactyly, pectus deformity, bridging of sella turcica, pigmented nevi, or family history of this syndrome in contrast to such findings in other Indian patients. Medulloblastoma has not been reported in any Indian patient so far compared to this finding in other studies conducted worldwide. Conclusions: Combining the features of 48 patients in 38 cases of NBCCS being published in Indian literature with five cases of our series and on comparison with other studies in the world, a wide disparity in different ethnic groups and a wide variation in presentation of syndrome within the same population is suggested. PMID:26604574

  9. CASE [Council for the Advancement and Support of Education] Insurance. A Booklet for CASE members Who Are Considering Adding an Insurance Program to Their Alumni Services. The First in a Series of Alumni Service Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for the Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    This brochure was prepared because of increasing CASE member interest in the possibility of offering life, health, and automobile insurance programs to alumni as a source of additional income to alumni associations and schools. Ideas and approaches to consider before establishing such programs are offered, but neither specific programs nor legal…

  10. Perinatal outcome of twins compared to singletons of the same gestational age: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Petit, Nathalie; Cammu, Hendrik; Martens, Guy; Papiernik, Emile

    2011-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the perinatal outcome of first- and second-born twins compared to singletons, born at the same gestational age. To that end we conducted a case-control study in Flanders (Northern Belgium). During a 10-year period (01.01.1999-31.12.2008), the entire twin population - 11,154 first- and 11,118 second-born twins (cases) - was compared to 22,228 singletons (controls) with respect to fetal and neonatal (0-27 days) mortality. Only case and control infants of ≥ 500 grams were included, which explained the unequal number of first- and second-born twins. Mothers and their infants of cases and of controls were derived from the Flemish perinatal database and were matched for maternal age and parity, gestational age and gender of the offspring. The main outcome measures were fetal and neonatal mortality according to gestational age. The frequency of fetal death was statistically significantly less frequent in preterm born twins than in singletons, except at term where the reverse was seen in second-born twins compared to controls. After adjustment for congenital malformations, the results stayed unchanged. Below 28 weeks gestation, singletons had a significantly lower neonatal mortality rate than twins that persisted after adjustment for congenital malformations: the first-born twin versus singleton OR 1.71 (1.17-2.51) and second-born versus singleton OR 2.09 (1.43-3.05). Between 28 and 32 weeks, the second-born twin showed a survival advantage over the control singleton. Between 32 and 36 6/7 weeks both twins had a significantly higher survival rate than the corresponding singleton controls. However, after adjustment for congenital malformations, the aforementioned differences between 28 and 36 6/7 weeks disappeared. When at term, twins and singletons had a comparable, though very low, neonatal death rate. These results confirm previous published data. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the neonatal death rate was lower for twins between 32

  11. Correlated patterns of neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in frontal variant of Alzheimer disease and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia: a comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Zhou, Yu-Ying; Lu, Da; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hui-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Although the neuropathologic changes and diagnostic criteria for the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) are well-established, the clinical symptoms vary largely. Symptomatically, frontal variant of AD (fv-AD) presents very similarly to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), which creates major challenges for differential diagnosis. Here, we report two patients who present with progressive cognitive impairment, early and prominent behavioral features, and significant frontotemporal lobe atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging, consistent with an initial diagnosis of probable bvFTD. However, multimodal functional neuroimaging revealed neuropathological data consistent with a diagnosis of probable AD for one patient (pathology distributed in the frontal lobes) and a diagnosis of probable bvFTD for the other patient (hypometabolism in the bilateral frontal lobes). In addition, the fv-AD patient presented with greater executive impairment and milder behavioral symptoms relative to the bvFTD patient. These cases highlight that recognition of these atypical syndromes using detailed neuropsychological tests, biomarkers, and multimodal neuroimaging will lead to greater accuracy in diagnosis and patient management.

  12. WE-F-201-03: Evaluate Clinical Cases Using Commercially Available Systems and Compare to TG-43 Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, L.

    2015-06-15

    With the recent introduction of heterogeneity correction algorithms for brachytherapy, the AAPM community is still unclear on how to commission and implement these into clinical practice. The recently-published AAPM TG-186 report discusses important issues for clinical implementation of these algorithms. A charge of the AAPM-ESTRO-ABG Working Group on MBDCA in Brachytherapy (WGMBDCA) is the development of a set of well-defined test case plans, available as references in the software commissioning process to be performed by clinical end-users. In this practical medical physics course, specific examples on how to perform the commissioning process are presented, as well as descriptions of the clinical impact from recent literature reporting comparisons of TG-43 and heterogeneity-based dosimetry. Learning Objectives: Identify key clinical applications needing advanced dose calculation in brachytherapy. Review TG-186 and WGMBDCA guidelines, commission process, and dosimetry benchmarks. Evaluate clinical cases using commercially available systems and compare to TG-43 dosimetry.

  13. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics From Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) with moderate to profound levels of impairment. The effect size metrics included percent of data points exceeding the median (PEM), percent of nonoverlapping data (PND), improvement rate difference (IRD), percent of all nonoverlapping data (PAND), Phi, nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP), and Taunovlap. Results showed that among the seven effect size metrics, PAND, Phi, IRD, and PND were more effective in quantifying intervention effects for the data sample (N = 285 phase or condition contrasts). Results are discussed with respect to issues concerning extracting and calculating effect sizes, visual analysis, and SCD intervention research in IDD. PMID:27119210

  14. Shear Wave Elastography May Add a New Dimension to Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules: Case Series with Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Slapa, Rafal Z.; Piwowonski, Antoni; Jakubowski, Wieslaw S.; Bierca, Jacek; Szopinski, Kazimierz T.; Slowinska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Migda, Bartosz; Mlosek, R. Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Although elastography can enhance the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, its diagnostic performance is not ideal at present. Further improvements in the technique and creation of robust diagnostic criteria are necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of strain elastography and a new generation of elasticity imaging called supersonic shear wave elastography (SSWE) in differential evaluation of thyroid nodules. Six thyroid nodules in 4 patients were studied. SSWE yielded 1 true-positive and 5 true-negative results. Strain elastography yielded 5 false-positive results and 1 false-negative result. A novel finding appreciated with SSWE, were punctate foci of increased stiffness corresponding to microcalcifications in 4 nodules, some not visible on B-mode ultrasound, as opposed to soft, colloid-inspissated areas visible on B-mode ultrasound in 2 nodules. This preliminary paper indicates that SSWE may outperform strain elastography in differentiation of thyroid nodules with regard to their stiffness. SSWE showed the possibility of differentiation of high echogenic foci into microcalcifications and inspissated colloid, adding a new dimension to thyroid elastography. Further multicenter large-scale studies of thyroid nodules evaluating different elastographic methods are warranted. PMID:22685685

  15. Biosimilars clinical development program: confirmatory clinical trials: a virtual/simulated case study comparing equivalence and non-inferiority approaches.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark P

    2011-09-01

    As part of long term commitment of the Biologicals and Vaccines Committee (B&V) of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Association (IFPMA) to provide expert input to the WHO on their recently finalized GUIDELINES ON EVALUATION OF SIMILAR BIOTHERAPEUTIC PRODUCTS (SBPs), and in response to WHO's request, the IFPMA B&V prepared a clinical case study at a recent WHO workshop in Seoul, Korea. The case study, presented by Mark Fletcher on behalf of B&V, involved a model scenario for a clinical efficacy trial to support the approval of a Similar Biotherapeutic Product (SBP) as part of the required comparative clinical program against a Reference Biotherapeutic Product (RBP). A key goal was to understand and illustrate key clinical and statistical principles, and considerations described in the WHO Guidance for regulatory authorities when designing and implementing WHO guidelines and post-approval regulatory oversight for SBPs. Using this model SBP/RBP pair, an interactive discussion was carried out among the workshop participants on the pros and cons of using equivalence vs. non-inferiority designs to assess the two products' similarity. Through discussion of the case, the complexity of demonstrating similar efficacy and safety of a SBP vs. RBP for biotherapeutic products is outlined and discussed in the context of the key principles laid out in the recently published WHO GUIDELINES ON EVALUATION OF SIMILAR BIOTHERAPEUTIC PRODUCTS (SBPs). The exercise illustrates the need for a case-by-case approach when interpreting clinical data from SBP dossiers to adequately assure similar efficacy and safety of SBPs for any studied indication.

  16. Comparing Magnetic Resonance Imaging and High-Resolution Dynamic Ultrasonography for Diagnosis of Plantar Plate Pathology: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Donegan, Ryan J; Stauffer, Anthony; Heaslet, Michael; Poliskie, Michael

    Plantar plate pathology has gained noticeable attention in recent years as an etiology of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint pain. The heightened clinical awareness has led to the need for more effective diagnostic imaging accuracy. Numerous reports have established the accuracy of both magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of plantar plate pathology. However, no conclusions have been made regarding which is the superior imaging modality. The present study reports a case series directly comparing high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A multicenter retrospective comparison of magnetic resonance imaging versus high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography to evaluate plantar plate pathology with surgical confirmation was conducted. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for magnetic resonance imaging were 60%, 100%, 100%, and 33%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy compared with the intraoperative findings was 66%. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for high-resolution dynamic ultrasound imaging were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy compared with the intraoperative findings was 100%. The p value using Fisher's exact test for magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography was p = .45, a difference that was not statistically significant. High-resolution dynamic ultrasonography had greater accuracy than magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate pathology, although the difference was not statistically significant. The present case series suggests that high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography can be considered an equally accurate imaging modality for plantar plate pathology at a potential cost savings compared with magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography warrants further investigation in

  17. Implementation fidelity of a program designed to promote personal and social responsibility through physical education: a comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Carmina; Escartí, Amparo; Llopis, Ramon; Gutíerrez, Melchor; Marín, Diana; Wright, Paul M

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative comparative case study was to examine the implementation fidelity of a program designed to deliver the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model (Hellison, 2003) through physical education and its relationship with short-term outcomes for elementary school students. The research questions were: (a) was the program implemented with fidelity, and (b) did better fidelity yield better student outcomes. Thus, we conducted a study on the implementation process used by two teachers who delivered the same program in two physical education classes in two different elementary schools in Spain. Data sources included observations and interviews with teachers and nonparticipant observers. Findings indicated that fidelity of implementation in Case 1 was higher and most children in those classes acquired the first three of five TPSR responsibility levels. Implementation fidelity in Case 2 was weaker and achievement of responsibility goals was minimal (only the first of five levels) and less stable for those students. This study is the first to directly examine the connection between TPSR implementation fidelity and student outcomes.

  18. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    images can be extracted from articles, we will attempt to "astroreference" those images in order allow for their overlay on the sky. "Astroreferencing" is the analog of "georeferencing," where coordinate information is used to overlay information on maps. Our first pass at astroreferencing will be made using the astrometry.net program, in collaboration with one of its creators. If enough optically-visible stars are present in an image, astrometry.net can place it where it goes on the sky. Only a small fraction of ADS holdings contain images solvable by astrometry.net, but for the articles which do, reviving the data in this way holds tremendous value-especially in the case of historically important observations. Lastly, we will also astroreference images by text-mining to extract "metadata" buried in the figure captions and text. As it is built, the ADSASS will effectively create dynamic data layers of astrotags and astroreferenced images. Users will be able to explore these layers using a wide variety of free all-sky data viewers. Our group and our collaborators have been involved in the development of the WorldWide Telescope and Aladin programs, so we will use those to develop examples of how we intend for the ADSASS to be used. But, we plan to ensure that the data feed represented by the ADSASS will be ingestible by any program capable of understanding sky coordinates and all-sky views. Our proposal can only give a glimpse into the wealth of science it will enable, which includes everything from observation-planning to data discovery to studying the sky distributions of classes of objects. Just as it would have been hard to predict the full and amazing impact of GIS and GPS on society, it is similarly hard to gauge the full impact of the NASA ADSASS. The ADS on its own is already the envy of other sciences as a unified research tool, with the advent of the ADSASS, NASA will have led the way to the future once again.

  19. Constructing narratives of heroism and villainy: case study of Myriad's BRACAnalysis® compared to Genentech's Herceptin®

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of Herceptin® is welcomed as a major advance in breast cancer treatment, while Myriad's development of BRACAnalysis® is a widely used diagnostic. However useful and successful this product is, its presence in the public eye is tainted by predominantly negative press about gene patenting and business practices. Discussion While retrospection invites a sharp contrast between Genentech's triumphal narrative of scientific achievement and Myriad's public image as a controversial monopolist, a comparative history of these companies' products reveals two striking consistencies: patents and public discontent. Despite these similarities, time has reduced the narrative to that of hero versus villain: Genentech is lauded - at least for the final outcome of the Herceptin® story - as a corporate good citizen, Myriad as a ruthless mercenary. Since patents undergird both products yet the narratives are so different, the stories raise the question: why have patents taken the fall as the scapegoat in current biotechnology policy debate? Summary A widely publicized lawsuit and accompanying bad press have cast Myriad as a villain in the evolving narrative of biotechnology. While the lawsuit suggests that this villainy is attributable to Myriad's intellectual property, we suggest through a comparative case study that, at least in the Myriad case, it is not simply about the patents but also other business strategies the company chose to pursue. Patents were a necessary but not sufficient cause of controversy. PMID:23369278

  20. Comparing a single case to a control group - Applying linear mixed effects models to repeated measures data.

    PubMed

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    In neuropsychological research, single-cases are often compared with a small control sample. Crawford and colleagues developed inferential methods (i.e., the modified t-test) for such a research design. In the present article, we suggest an extension of the methods of Crawford and colleagues employing linear mixed models (LMM). We first show that a t-test for the significance of a dummy coded predictor variable in a linear regression is equivalent to the modified t-test of Crawford and colleagues. As an extension to this idea, we then generalized the modified t-test to repeated measures data by using LMMs to compare the performance difference in two conditions observed in a single participant to that of a small control group. The performance of LMMs regarding Type I error rates and statistical power were tested based on Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that starting with about 15-20 participants in the control sample Type I error rates were close to the nominal Type I error rate using the Satterthwaite approximation for the degrees of freedom. Moreover, statistical power was acceptable. Therefore, we conclude that LMMs can be applied successfully to statistically evaluate performance differences between a single-case and a control sample.

  1. Optimization of accelerated charged particle beam for ADS energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Paraipan, M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis and optimization of energy efficiency for proton and ion beams in ADS systems is performed via simulation using a GEANT4 code with account for energy consumption for different accelerator types. It is demonstrated that for light nuclei, beginning from 7Li, with energies above 1 GeV/nucleon, ion beams are considerably (several times) more efficient than the 1-3 GeV proton beam. The possibility of achieving energy deposition equivalent to 1 GeV protons in a quasi-infinite uranium target with higher efficiency (and twice as small accelerator size) in the case of acceleration of light ions is substantiated.

  2. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  3. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  4. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.M.; Rogers, R.A.; Sepulveda, R.; Kunzendorf, P.; Bellmann, B.; Ernst, H.; Creutzenberg, O.; Phillips, J.I.

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  5. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  6. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  7. Stable time patterns of railway suicides in Germany: comparative analysis of 7,187 cases across two observation periods (1995–1998; 2005–2008)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of fatalities on the European Union (EU) railways are suicides, representing about 60% of all railway fatalities. The aim of this study was to compare time patterns of suicidal behaviour on railway tracks in Germany between two observation periods (1995–1998 and 2005–2008) in order to investigate their stability and value in railway suicide prevention. Methods Cases were derived from the National Central Registry of person accidents on the German railway network (STABAG). The association of daytime, weekday and month with the mean number of suicides was analysed applying linear regression. Potential differences by observation period were assessed by adding observation period and the respective interaction terms into the linear regression. A 95% confidence interval for the mean number of suicides was computed using the t distribution. Results A total of 7,187 railway suicides were recorded within both periods: 4,102 (57%) in the first period (1995–1998) and 3,085 (43%) in the second (2005–2008). The number of railway suicides was highest on Mondays and Tuesdays in the first period with an average of 3.2 and 3.5 events and of 2.6 events on both days in the second period. In both periods, railway suicides were more common between 6:00 am and noon, and between 6:00 pm and midnight. Seasonality was only prominent in the period 1995–1998. Conclusions Over the course of two observation periods, the weekday and circadian patterns of railway suicides remained stable. Therefore, these patterns should be an integral part of railway suicide preventive measures, e.g. gatekeeper training courses. PMID:24498876

  8. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  9. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  10. A method to find N = 1 AdS4 vacua in type IIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solard, Gautier

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we are looking for N = 1, AdS4 sourceless vacua in type IIB. While several examples exist in type IIA, there exists only one example of such vacua in type IIB. Thanks to the framework of generalized geometry we were able to devise a semi-algorithmical method to look for sourceless vacua. We present this method, which can easily be generalized to more complex cases, and give two new vacua in type IIB.

  11. AdS/CFT beyond the unitarity bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Scalars in AdS d+1 with squared masses in the Breitenlohner-Freedman window - {d^{{2}}}/{4} ≤slant {m^{{2}}} < - {d^{{2}}}/{4} + {1} (in units with the AdS scale ℓ set to 1) are known to enjoy a variety of boundary conditions. For larger masses {m^{{2}}} > - {d^{{2}}}/{4} + {1} , unitarity bounds in possible dual CFTs suggest that such general boundary conditions should lead to ghosts. We show that this is not always the case as, for conformally-invariant boundary conditions in Poincaré AdS that would naively violate unitarity bounds, the system is generically ghost-free. Conflicts with unitarity bounds are avoided due to the presence of unexpected pure gauge modes and an associated infrared divergence. The expected ghosts appear when the IR divergence is removed either by deforming these boundary conditions or considering global AdS.

  12. The Study of Dynamic Potentials of Highly Excited Vibrational States of DCP: From Case Analysis to Comparative Study with HCP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aixing; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yibao

    2016-08-22

    The dynamic potentials of highly excited vibrational states of deuterated phosphaethyne (DCP) in the D-C and C-P stretching coordinates with anharmonicity and Fermi coupling are studied in this article and the results show that the D-C-P bending vibration mode has weak effects on D-C and C-P stretching modes under different Polyad numbers (P number). Furthermore, the dynamic potentials and the corresponding phase space trajectories of DCP are given, as an example, in the case of P = 30. In the end, a comparative study between deuterated phosphaethyne (DCP) and phosphaethyne (HCP) with dynamic potential is done, and it is elucidated that the uncoupled mode makes the original horizontal reversed symmetry breaking between the dynamic potential of HCP ( q 3 ) and DCP ( q 1 ), but has little effect on the vertical reversed symmetry, between the dynamic potential of HCP ( q 2 ) and DCP ( q 3 ).

  13. The Study of Dynamic Potentials of Highly Excited Vibrational States of DCP: From Case Analysis to Comparative Study with HCP

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aixing; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yibao

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic potentials of highly excited vibrational states of deuterated phosphaethyne (DCP) in the D–C and C–P stretching coordinates with anharmonicity and Fermi coupling are studied in this article and the results show that the D-C-P bending vibration mode has weak effects on D–C and C–P stretching modes under different Polyad numbers (P number). Furthermore, the dynamic potentials and the corresponding phase space trajectories of DCP are given, as an example, in the case of P = 30. In the end, a comparative study between deuterated phosphaethyne (DCP) and phosphaethyne (HCP) with dynamic potential is done, and it is elucidated that the uncoupled mode makes the original horizontal reversed symmetry breaking between the dynamic potential of HCP (q3) and DCP (q1), but has little effect on the vertical reversed symmetry, between the dynamic potential of HCP (q2) and DCP (q3). PMID:27556452

  14. Sources of dissolved mine drainage and atmospheric transported lead: a comparative case study in Japan and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Göran; Satake, Kenichi

    2009-12-15

    A comparative case study in Naganobori Japan and Falun Sweden of runoff water from copper mines shows that the water and its particulates, filtered with a cutoff of 0.45 microm, have different lead isotope ratios pointing to different origins for the lead. While the larger particles have a lead ratio indicative of the atmospheric anthropogenic pollution the soluble lead has that of the copper ores. The domestic atmospheric lead ratio in Japan is homogeneous and characteristic of emissions from the incineration of waste. Lead pollution transported from the Asian continent by westerly winds can be distinguished from the Japanese pollution by its more thorogenic lead ratios, in for example analyses of copper moss from Naganobori.

  15. Implementation of Symptom Protocols for Nurses Providing Telephone‐Based Cancer Symptom Management: A Comparative Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Esther; Ballantyne, Barbara; Tarasuk, Joy; Skrutkowski, Myriam; Carley, Meg; Chapman, Kim; Kuziemsky, Craig; Kolari, Erin; Sabo, Brenda; Saucier, Andréanne; Shaw, Tara; Tardif, Lucie; Truant, Tracy; Cummings, Greta G.; Howell, Doris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The pan‐Canadian Oncology Symptom Triage and Remote Support (COSTaRS) team developed 13 evidence‐informed protocols for symptom management. Aim To build an effective and sustainable approach for implementing the COSTaRS protocols for nurses providing telephone‐based symptom support to cancer patients. Methods A comparative case study was guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework. Three cases were created for three Canadian oncology programs that have nurses providing telephone support. Teams of researchers and knowledge users: (a) assessed barriers and facilitators influencing protocol use, (b) adapted protocols for local use, (c) intervened to address barriers, (d) monitored use, and (e) assessed barriers and facilitators influencing sustained use. Analysis was within and across cases. Results At baseline, >85% nurses rated protocols positively but barriers were identified (64‐80% needed training). Patients and families identified similar barriers and thought protocols would enhance consistency among nurses teaching self‐management. Twenty‐two COSTaRS workshops reached 85% to 97% of targeted nurses (N = 119). Nurses felt more confident with symptom management and using the COSTaRS protocols (p < .01). Protocol adaptations addressed barriers (e.g., health records approval, creating pocket versions, distributing with telephone messages). Chart audits revealed that protocols used were documented for 11% to 47% of patient calls. Sustained use requires organizational alignment and ongoing leadership support. Linking Evidence to Action Protocol uptake was similar to trials that have evaluated tailored interventions to improve professional practice by overcoming identified barriers. Collaborating with knowledge users facilitated interpretation of findings, aided protocol adaptation, and supported implementation. Protocol implementation in nursing requires a tailored approach. A multifaceted intervention approach increased nurses’ use

  16. Geometry and supersymmetry of heterotic warped flux AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-07-01

    We classify the geometries of the most general warped, flux AdS backgrounds of heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We show under some mild assumptions that there are no AdS n backgrounds with n ≠ 3. Moreover the warp factor of AdS3 backgrounds is constant, the geometry is a product AdS 3 × M 7 and such solutions preserve, 2, 4, 6 and 8 supersymmetries. The geometry of M 7 has been specified in all cases. For 2 supersymmetries, it has been found that M 7 admits a suitably restricted G 2 structure. For 4 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(3) structure and can be described locally as a circle fibration over a 6-dimensional KT manifold. For 6 and 8 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(2) structure and can be described locally as a S 3 fibration over a 4-dimensional manifold which either has an anti-self dual Weyl tensor or a hyper-Kähler structure, respectively. We also demonstrate a new Lichnerowicz type theorem in the presence of α' corrections.

  17. Photon-added coherent states in parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivakumar, S.

    2011-03-15

    Photon-added coherent states have been realized in optical parametric down-conversion by Zavatta et al. [Science 306, 660 (2004)]. In this report, it is established that the states generated in the process are ideal photon-added coherent states. It is shown that the scheme can generate higher-order photon-added coherent states. A comparative study of the down-conversion process and atom-cavity interaction in generating the photon-added coherent states is presented.

  18. Familial Case of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disorder Detected by Oligoarray Comparative Genomic Hybridization: Genotype-to-Phenotype Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kariminejad, Roxana; Hosseini, Kaveh; Moshtagh, Azadeh; Abbassi, Gole Maryam; Sadatian, Neda; Bazrgar, Masood; Kariminejad, Ariana; Kariminejad, Mohamad Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked recessive hypomyelinating leukodystrophy characterized by nystagmus, spastic quadriplegia, ataxia, and developmental delay. It is caused by mutation in the PLP1 gene. Case Description. We report a 9-year-old boy referred for oligoarray comparative genomic hybridization (OA-CGH) because of intellectual delay, seizures, microcephaly, nystagmus, and spastic paraplegia. Similar clinical findings were reported in his older brother and maternal uncle. Both parents had normal phenotypes. OA-CGH was performed and a 436 Kb duplication was detected and the diagnosis of PMD was made. The mother was carrier of this 436 Kb duplication. Conclusion. Clinical presentation has been accepted as being the mainstay of diagnosis for most conditions. However, recent developments in genetic diagnosis have shown that, in many congenital and sporadic disorders lacking specific phenotypic manifestations, a genotype-to-phenotype approach can be conclusive. In this case, a diagnosis was reached by universal genomic testing, namely, whole genomic array. PMID:28133555

  19. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  20. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  1. Adding Albedo and Atmospheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal, we reported on a laboratory activity in which students used a derivation from the Stefan-Boltzmann law to calculate planetary temperatures and compare them to measured values from various (mostly online) sources. The calculated temperatures matched observed values very well with the exceptions of Venus and…

  2. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  3. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  4. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  5. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  6. Hairy black holes and the endpoint of AdS4 charged superradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Masachs, Ramon

    2017-02-01

    We construct hairy black hole solutions that merge with the anti-de Sitter (AdS4) Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of superradiance. These hairy black holes have, for a given mass and charge, higher entropy than the corresponding AdS4-Reissner-Nordström black hole. Therefore, they are natural candidates for the endpoint of the charged superradiant instability. On the other hand, hairy black holes never dominate the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. The zero-horizon radius of the hairy black holes is a soliton (i.e. a boson star under a gauge transformation). We construct our solutions perturbatively, for small mass and charge, so that the properties of hairy black holes can be used to testify and compare with the endpoint of initial value simulations. We further discuss the near-horizon scalar condensation instability which is also present in global AdS4-Reissner-Nordström black holes. We highlight the different nature of the near-horizon and superradiant instabilities and that hairy black holes ultimately exist because of the non-linear instability of AdS.

  7. ``Short'' spinning strings and structure of quantum AdS5×S5 spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, M.; Giombi, S.; Macorini, G.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2012-09-01

    Using information from the marginality conditions of vertex operators for the AdS5×S5 superstring, we determine the structure of the dependence of the energy of quantum string states on their conserved charges and the string tension ˜λ. We consider states on the leading Regge trajectory in the flat space limit which carry one or two (equal) spins in AdS5 or S5 and an orbital momentum in S5, with Konishi multiplet states being particular cases. We argue that the coefficients in the energy may be found by using a semiclassical expansion. By analyzing the examples of folded spinning strings in AdS5 and S5, as well as three cases of circular two-spin strings, we demonstrate the universality of transcendental (zeta-function) parts of few leading coefficients. We also show the consistency with target space supersymmetry with different states belonging to the same multiplet having the same nontrivial part of the energy. We suggest, in particular, that a rational coefficient (found by Basso for the folded string using Bethe Ansatz considerations and which, in general, is yet to be determined by a direct two-loop string calculation) should, in fact, be universal.

  8. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  9. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  10. Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; ...

    2016-01-25

    Here, we develop a new method for decomposing blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we also consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existingmore » results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.« less

  11. Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2016-01-25

    Here, we develop a new method for decomposing blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we also consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existing results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.

  12. Supersymmetric AdS5 solutions of type IIB supergravity without D3 branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzens, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the most general bosonic supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity whose metrics are warped products of five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS5) with a five-dimensional Riemannian manifold M 5, where the five-form flux vanishes, while all remaining fluxes are allowed to be non-vanishing consistent with SO(4,2) symmetry. This completes the program of classifying all supersymmetric solutions of ten and eleven-dimensional supergravity with an AdS5 factor. We investigate the supersymmetry conditions in some special cases, and demonstrate how these are satisfied by a solution originally found in [13], utilising the method of non-Abelian T-duality.

  13. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  14. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  15. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  16. A comparative study of fire weather indices in a semiarid south-eastern Europe region. Case of study: Murcia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; Díaz-Palmero, José María; Cabezas-Cerezo, Juan de Dios

    2017-03-11

    Forest fires are an important distortion in forest ecosystems, linked to their development and whose effects proceed beyond the destruction of ecosystems and material properties, especially in semiarid regions. Prevention of forest fires has to lean on indices based on available parameters that quantify fire risk ignition and spreading. The present study was conducted to compare four fire weather indices in a semiarid region of 11,314km(2) located in southern Spain, characterised as being part of the most damaged area by fire in the Iberian Peninsula. The studied period comprises 3033 wildfires in the region during 15years (2000-2014), of which 80% are >100m(2) and 14% >1000m(2), resulting around 40km(2) of burnt area in this period. The indices selected have been Angström Index, Forest Fire Drought Index, Forest Moisture Index and Fire Weather Index. Likewise, four selection methods have been applied to compare the results of the studied indices: Mahalanobis distance, percentile method, ranked percentile method and Relative Operating Characteristic curves (ROC). Angström index gives good results in the coastal areas with higher temperatures, low rainfall and wider range of variations while Fire Weather Index has better results in inland areas with higher rainfall, dense forest mass and fewer changes in meteorological conditions throughout the year. ROC space rejects all the indices except Fire Weather Index with good performance all over the region. ROC analysis ratios can be used to assess the success (or lack thereof) of fire indices; thus, it benefits operational wildfire predictions in semiarid regions similar to that of the case study.

  17. Paradoxes and asymmetries of transnational networks: a comparative case study of Mexico's community-based AIDS organizations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2008-02-01

    This article examines whether transnational networks reconfigure state-civil society relationships in ways that lead to civil society empowerment and increased organizational capacity to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mexico. Using a comparative case study, I identify the types of transnational networks and exchanges that both help and hinder community-based HIV/AIDS organizations (CBOs) that provide AIDS prevention and treatment services in Tijuana and Mexico City. Data derive from over 50 formal interviews, organizational documents and archival records, and observation. I argue that the form and function of transnational networks is shaped by the geo-political context of local organizational fields and that, in turn, transnational networks provide innovative opportunities for civil society-state partnerships that favor some local organizations over others. Ultimately, I take apart the prevailing assumption that transnational networks are inherently good, and show how they can (re)produce inter-organizational stratification at the local level. The conclusions of this research are helpful to international health practitioners and social scientists seeking to understand how civil society's participation in transnational networks can both challenge and reproduce existing community-state power regimes and health inequities.

  18. Added value of using a cocktail of F-18 sodium fluoride and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography/computed tomography for detecting bony metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hung-Pin; Hu, Chin; Yu, Chang-Ching; Huang, Tsung-Chi; Peng, Nan-Jing

    2015-04-01

    Current nuclear imaging of the skeletal system is achieved using technetium-99m (Tc-99m) methylene diphosphonate (MDP), F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF), or F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, comparisons of these are rare in the literature. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with suspicious lung cancer due to main symptoms of dyspnea, nonproductive cough, and pleural pain. Tc-99m MDP whole-body bone scan (WBBS) showed multiple bony metastases. Five days later, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images using both F-18 NaF and a cocktail of F-18 NaF and F-18 FDG were obtained on the same day 2 hours apart. The former showed more foci and precisely showed bony lesions compared to those obtained using Tc-99m MDP WBBS. However, the latter demonstrated more extensive radiotracer uptake, especially in osteolytic lesions, and additional soft tissue lesions in the left axillary and surpraclavicular nodes as well as the left pleura. Surgical biopsy was performed in left axillary nodes, and the metastatic carcinoma was found to be of breast origin. This case demonstrated that a cocktail of F-18 NaF and F-18 FDG could be useful in PET/CT for not only detecting more skeletal lesions but also guiding biopsies accurately to the affected tissue.

  19. Limitations of cadaveric organ donation on judicial cases and problems confronted in autopsy: Istanbul data in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Arslan, M N; Esen Melez, I; Melez, D O; Cavlak, M; Gur, A

    2014-04-01

    Organ transplantation is one of the most important services of modern medicine to the humanity. In judicial death cases the interaction between judicial needs and transplantation needs is inevitable and both should be provided in a short time before the decomposition of the body. Thus, the description of this interaction and the algorithm which should be carried out to manage these cases are important. Aim of this study is to determine the problems confronted in forensic autopsies and to determine what to do for both judicial processes' and cadaveric organ donations' not becoming limited due to each other. With these aims, autopsy case archive of the Council of Forensic Medicine Istanbul Morgue Department was reviewed, between the years 2009 and 2011, to reveal the number of organ donors among autopsy cases and also to find out the judicial problems confronted during autopsies. Among 12,016 judicial death cases referred to Istanbul Morgue Department in 3 years, 35 cases were found to have undergone cadaveric solid organ harvesting procedure and 307 cases cornea-only harvesting procedure. Manner of deaths for organ donor cases were blunt trauma due to traffic accident in 20 cases, firearm injury in 3 cases, stabbing in 2 cases, suspicious criminal battery in 4 cases and fatal falls in 5 cases. Only 1 case was suspected to have died due to high dose insulin administration. Through the whole data presented in this study, it can be concluded that consulting with the Forensic Medicine Expert not only for the autopsies but also during the clinical process of a judicial case, who is a candidate to be an organ donor, is absolutely important. The early contribution of the Forensic Medicine Expert would provide help to plan both the judicial process and the transplantation process which needs urgent decisions. A Forensic Medicine Expert may be an organ harvest team member performing initial investigations on the cause of death and collecting some of the toxicological

  20. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  1. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  2. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  3. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  4. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  5. 37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...

  6. Are integrated HIV services less stigmatizing than stand-alone models of care? A comparative case study from Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Fakudze, Phelele; Kikuvi, Joshua; Simelane, Dudu; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Integrating HIV with primary health services has the potential to reduce HIV-related stigma through delivering care in settings disassociated with HIV. This study investigated the relationship between integrated care and felt stigma. The study design was a comparative case study of four models of HIV care in Swaziland, ranging from fully integrated to fully stand-alone HIV care. Methods An exit survey (N=602) measured differences in felt stigma across model of care; the primary outcome “perception of HIV status exposure through clinic attendance” was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. In-depth interviews (N=22) explored whether and how measured differences in stigma experiences were related to service integration. Results There were significant differences in perceived status exposure across models of care. After adjustment for potential confounding between sites, those at a partially integrated site and a partially stand-alone site had greater odds of perceived status exposure than those at the fully stand-alone site (aOR 3.33, 95% CI 1.98–5.60; and aOR 11.84, 95% CI 6.89–20.36, respectively). There was no difference between the fully stand-alone and the fully integrated clinic. Qualitative data suggested that many clients at HIV-only sites felt greater confidentiality knowing that those around them were positive, and support was gained from other HIV care clients. Confidentiality was maintained in various ways, even in stand-alone sites, through separate waiting areas for HIV testing and HIV treatment, and careful clinic and room labelling. Conclusions The relationship between model of care and stigma was complex, and the hypothesis that stigma is higher at stand-alone sites did not hold true in this high prevalence setting. Policy-makers should ensure that service integration does not increase stigma, in particular within partially integrated models of care. PMID:23336726

  7. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar’s Dry Forest Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Charlie J.; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Metcalfe, Kristian; Raselimanana, Achille P.; Smith, Robert J.; Davies, Zoe G.

    2015-01-01

    There are insufficient resources available to manage the world’s existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar’s dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i) species richness; ii) an index based on species’ Red List status; iii) irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning); and, iv) a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI), which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can require access

  8. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  9. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  10. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  11. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  12. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  13. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  14. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  15. AdS black holes, the bulk-boundary dictionary, and smearing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichenauer, Stefan; Rosenhaus, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    In Lorentzian AdS/CFT there exists a mapping between local bulk operators and nonlocal conformal field theory (CFT) operators. In global anti-de Sitter (AdS) this mapping can be found through use of bulk equations of motion and allows the nonlocal CFT operator to be expressed as a local operator smeared over a range of positions and times. We argue that such a construction is not possible if there are bulk normal modes with exponentially small near boundary imprint. We show that the AdS-Schwarzschild background is such a case, with the horizon introducing modes with angular momentum much larger than frequency, causing them to be trapped by the centrifugal barrier. More generally, we argue that any barrier in the radial effective potential which prevents null geodesics from reaching the boundary will lead to modes with vanishingly small near boundary imprint, thereby obstructing the existence of a smearing function. While one may have thought the bulk-boundary dictionary for low curvature regions, such as the exterior of a black hole, should be as in empty AdS, our results demonstrate otherwise.

  16. Non-split and split deformations of {{AdS}}_{5}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-12-01

    The η deformation of the {{AdS}}5× {S}5 superstring depends on a non-split r matrix for the superalgebra {psu}(2,2| 4). Much of the investigation into this model has considered one particular choice, however there are a number of inequivalent alternatives. This is also true for the bosonic sector of the theory with {su}(2,2), the isometry algebra of {{AdS}}5, admitting one split and three non-split r matrices. In this article we explore these r matrices and the corresponding geometries. We investigate their contraction limits, comment on supergravity backgrounds and demonstrate their relation to gauged-WZW deformations. We then extend the three non-split cases to {{AdS}}5× {S}5 and compute four separate bosonic two-particle tree-level S-matrices based on inequivalent BMN-type light-cone gauges. The resulting S-matrices, while different, are related by momentum-dependent one-particle changes of basis.

  17. Comparative analysis of changes in MR imaging of pre and post intrauterine progesterone implants in adenomyosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashottar, S.; Singh, A.K.; Debnath, J.; Muralidharan, C.G.; Singh, R.K.; Kumar, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the evaluation and management of adenomyosis. In this study, we first diagnosed the adenomyosis on MRI and then we analyzed the MRI changes in the uterus in pre and post intrauterine progesterone implants cases. Method All the patients with clinical diagnosis of menorrhagia or dysmenorrhea were screened by Ultrasonography (USG) of the pelvis. Patients with heterogeneous echo texture of the uterus were then evaluated by the MRI of the pelvis. All patients with MRI findings suggestive of adenomyosis formed the study group. Result On MRI study 60 patients were diagnosed as adenomyosis, 68.33% had diffuse adenomyosis and 31.66% had focal adenomyosis. 83% of diagnosed adenomyosis cases had high intensity signal foci which were seen in 75% cases of diffuse adenomyosis and 100% cases of focal adenomyosis. 50 diagnosed adenomyosis cases were then reviewed after 03 months, 06 months and 12 months to see for any change in the MRI findings in the post intrauterine implant cases. On follow up MRI after post progesterone intrauterine implant, 50% of the cases showed reduction in the high intensity signals, 10% of the cases showed mild reduction in the junctional zone thickness with no significant change in the uterine size. Conclusions It is inferred that MR imaging is not only helpful in diagnosing but also helpful in monitoring the effects of hormonal therapy in adenomyosis. PMID:25859077

  18. The generalized added mass revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray

    2007-05-01

    The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.

  19. Phase Transition of AdS Black Holes with Non Linear Source in the Holographic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moumni, H. El

    2017-02-01

    In this work we investigate the phase transition of AdS black hole solution in the presence of a generalized Maxwell theory, namely power Maxwell invariant (PMI). This phase structure is probed by the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. We show that the both observables exhibit a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case of the thermal entropy. By checking the Maxwell's equal area law for different space dimension n and nonlinearity parameter s we confirm this result.

  20. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  1. The Cost-Effectiveness of Two Forms of Case Management Compared to a Control Group for Persons with Dementia and Their Informal Caregivers from a Societal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Eekhout, Iris; Joling, Karlijn J.; van Mierlo, Lisa D.; Meiland, Franka J. M.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article was to compare the costs and cost-effectiveness of the two most prominent types of case management in the Netherlands (intensive case management and linkage models) against no access to case management (control group) for people with already diagnosed dementia and their informal caregivers. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted from a societal perspective embedded within a two year prospective, observational, controlled, cohort study with 521 informal caregivers and community-dwelling persons with dementia. Case management provided within one care organization (intensive case management model, ICMM), case management where care was provided by different care organizations within one region (Linkage model, LM), and a group with no access to case management (control) were compared. The economic evaluation related incremental costs to incremental effects regarding neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI), psychological health of the informal caregiver (GHQ-12), and quality adjusted life years (QALY) of the person with dementia and informal caregiver. Results Inverse-propensity-score-weighted models showed no significant differences in clinical or total cost outcomes between the three groups. Informal care costs were significantly lower in the ICMM group compared to both other groups. Day center costs were significantly lower in the ICMM group compared to the control group. For all outcomes, the probability that the ICMM was cost-effective in comparison with LM and the control group was larger than 0.97 at a threshold ratio of 0 €/incremental unit of effect. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that the ICMM is cost-effective compared to the control group and the LM. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution since this study was not a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27655234

  2. Introduction to the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nąstase, Horaǧiu

    2015-09-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Background: 1. Elements of quantum field theory and gauge theory; 2. Basics of general relativity. Anti-de Sitter space; 3. Basics of supersymmetry; 4. Basics of supergravity; 5. Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction; 6. Black holes and p-branes; 7. String theory actions and spectra; 8. Elements of conformal field theory; 9. D-branes; Part II. Basics of AdS/CFT for N = 4 SYM vs AdS5 × S5: 10. The AdS/CFT correspondence: motivation, definition and spectra; 11. Witten prescription and 3-point correlator calculations; 12. Holography in Lorentzian signature: Poincaré and global; 13. Solitonic objects in AdS/CFT; 14. Quarks and the Wilson loop; 15. Finite temperature and N = 4 SYM plasmas; 16. Scattering processes and gravitational shockwave limit; 17. The pp-wave correspondence; 18. Spin chains; Part III. AdS/CFT Developments and Gauge-Gravity Dualities: 19. Other conformal cases; 20. The 3 dimensional ABJM model vs. AdS4 × CP3; 21. Gravity duals; 22. Holographic renormalization; 23. RG flow between fixed points; 24. Phenomenological gauge-gravity duality I: AdS/QCD; 25. Phenomenological gauge-gravity duality II: AdS/CMT; 26. Gluon scattering: the Alday-Maldacena prescription; 27. Holographic entanglement entropy: the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription.

  3. Holographic estimation of multiplicity and the collision of membranes in modified AdS5 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Pozdeeva, E. O.; Pozdeeva, T. O.

    2013-07-01

    The quark-gluon plasma formed as a result of heavy-ion collisions is currently investigated actively both theoretically and experimentally. According to the holographic approach, forming a quark-gluon plasma in the four-dimensional world is associated with creating black holes in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The multiplicity of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions is then determined by the entropy of the five-dimensional black hole, which is estimated by the area of the trapped surface. In this approach, we can model the dependence of the entropy on the energy of the colliding ions and thus the dependence of the multiplicity on the energy, and we can also compare the theoretical results with experimental data. To obtain a variety of model dependences on the energy, we consider the formation of black holes in modified AdS spaces, namely, in AdS spaces with different b factors. We find dynamics of the change of the trapped surface area depending on the energy for each investigated space.

  4. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  5. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  6. Comparative morphology of the egg cases of Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae) from southern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, C; Kyne, P M; Bennett, M B

    2013-07-01

    Descriptions of the egg cases of three catsharks, Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani, are provided from 65 egg cases obtained from fishing surveys carried out on the continental shelf of southern Queensland, Australia. Egg cases of A. analis, A. rubiginosus and F. boardmani have the same basic morphology; they are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened and yellow and brown-tan in colour. The shape of the posterior border in terms of horn length and tendril thickness is the specific characteristic discriminating these three catsharks: enclosed horns in F. boardmani, short horns and tendrils in A. rubiginosus and long, coiled tendrils in A. analis. A non-parametric statistical approach was used as an exploratory tool for egg case identification in which six proportional measurements were sufficient to discriminate between species. Three egg cases of F. boardmani were recovered from the stomachs of three A. rubiginosus, which provided the first evidence of catshark-catshark predator-prey interaction.

  7. One-loop tests of the supersymmetric higher spin AdS4/CFT3 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yi; Sezgin, Ergin; Zhu, Yaodong

    2017-01-01

    We compute one-loop free energy for D =4 Vasiliev higher spin gravities based on Konstein-Vasiliev algebras h u (m ;n |4 ) , h o (m ;n |4 ) , or h u s p (m ;n |4 ) and subject to higher spin-preserving boundary conditions, which are conjectured to be dual to the U (N ) , O (N ) or U S p (N ) singlet sectors, respectively, of free conformal field theories (CFTs) on the boundary of AdS4 . Ordinary supersymmetric higher spin theories appear as special cases of Konstein-Vasiliev theories, when the corresponding higher spin algebra contains O S p (N |4 ) as a subalgebra. In AdS4 with an S3 boundary, we use a regularization scheme for individual spins that employs their character such that the subsequent sum over all spins is finite, thereby avoiding the need for additional regularization. We find that the contribution of the infinite tower of bulk fermions vanishes. As a result, the free energy is the sum of those which arise in type A and type B models with internal symmetries, the known mismatch between the bulk and boundary free energies for type B model persists, and ordinary supersymmetric higher spin theories exhibit the mismatch as well. The only models that have a match are type A models with internal symmetries, corresponding to n =0 . The matching requires identification of the inverse Newton constant GN-1 with N plus a proper integer as was found previously for special cases. In AdS4 with an S1×S2 boundary, the bulk one-loop free energies match those of the dual free CFTs for arbitrary m and n . We also show that a supersymmetric double-trace deformation of free CFT based on O S p (1 |4 ) does not contribute to the O (N0) free energy, as expected from the bulk.

  8. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  9. A comparative study of different PGA attenuation and error models: Case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    In order to evaluate the horizontal peak ground acceleration (HPGA) during earthquakes, the author studies the respective efficiency of two existing attenuation models [Mébarki, A., 2003a, Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. November 12-13, (CD-ROM), Mébarki A., 2004. Modèle d'atténuation sismique: prédiction probabiliste des pics d'accélération, RFGC — Revue Française de Génie Civil, Hermès Ed., 8 (9-10), 1071-1086]. A comparative study of their performances is done in the case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan). The reported PGA (Peak Ground Accelerations) values correspond to hypocentral distances ranging from 15 up to 180 km with observed acceleration peaks ranging from (0.04 g) up to (1.16 g). The author considers two kinds of probabilistic distributions for the error model in order to describe the uncertainty and the variability that affect the values of the PGA: a Gamma distribution and a Log-normal distribution. The adopted error models assume that the variability of the PGA is such that its coefficient of variation is equal to 55% [Mébarki, A., 2003a. Risques sismiques: aléas, vulnérabilité et aide à la décision par cartes SIG. Proceedings of International Conference on "Risks, Vulnerability and Reliability in Construction. Towards a reduction of disasters". ISBN: 9961-891-01-5, pp. 82-97. Algiers, October 11-12, Mébarki, A., 2003b. Proposal of a parametric attenuation model and comparison with some worldwide earthquakes. VII o Congreso Venezolano de Sismologia y Ingenieria Sísmica, Barquisimeto, Venezuela

  10. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with a PDGFRA mutation masquerading as gastric plexiform fibromyxoma: A comparative clinicopathological study of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Jingjing; Jiang, Guozhong; Ma, Yihui; Qi, Jingwen; Li, Wencai; Zhang, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    Gastric plexiform fibromyxoma (PF) is a rare mesenchymal tumor with a histologically distinctive multinodular pattern, dissimilar to conventional gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The current study presents one case of gastric PF, and one case of GIST with a platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) mutation mimicking PF, and discusses their differential diagnoses. The two patients were a 51-year-old male with PF and a 47-year-old female with GIST, each of whom presented with an occupying lesion in the gastric antrum. Histologically, the two cases shared a rare and approximately unanimous morphological pattern of a prominent multinodular and plexiform figuration in the gastric wall, including mucoid matrix, short spindle cells and small caliber vascular elements, and areas of stromal tumor cells exhibited an epithelioid appearance. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the PF tumor cells were positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), but negative for mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (KIT), GIST-1 (DOG1), cluster of differentiation (CD) 34, S-100, desmin and cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The case of GIST expressed KIT and DOG1, but was negative for SMA, CD34, S-100, desmin and AE1/AE3. In addition, the GIST case, which was observed to harbor a D842V mutation in exon 18 of PDGFRA, was demonstrated to be genetically distinct from PF. The cases presented in the current study were uncommon in that GIST exhibited a plexiform appearance that mimicked the histology of the rare PF tumor; therefore, GIST must be considered and discounted first when determining a differential diagnosis for a gastrointestinal mesenchymal neoplasm. PMID:28356974

  11. AdS/CFT connection between Boltzmann and Einstein equations: Kinetic theory and pure gravity in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2010-04-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence defines a sector with universal strongly coupled dynamics in the field theory as the dual of pure gravity in AdS described by Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant. We explain here, from the field-theoretic viewpoint how the dynamics in this sector gets determined by the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We first show that the Boltzmann equation has very special solutions which could be functionally completely determined in terms of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We call these solutions conservative solutions. We indicate why conservative solutions should also exist when we refine this kinetic description to go closer to the exact microscopic theory or even move away from the regime of weak coupling so that no kinetic description could be employed. We argue that these conservative solutions form the universal sector dual to pure gravity at strong coupling and large N. Based on this observation, we propose a regularity condition on the energy-momentum tensor so that the dual solution in pure gravity has a smooth future horizon. We also study if irreversibility emerges only at long time scales of observation, unlike the case of the Boltzmann equation.

  12. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  13. Making a stronger case for comparative research to investigate the behavioral and neurological bases of three-dimensional navigation.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Daniele; Bingman, Verner P

    2013-10-01

    The rich diversity of avian natural history provides exciting possibilities for comparative research aimed at understanding three-dimensional navigation. We propose some hypotheses relating differences in natural history to potential behavioral and neurological adaptations possessed by contrasting bird species. This comparative approach may offer unique insights into some of the important questions raised by Jeffery et al.

  14. The exceptional generalised geometry of supersymmetric AdS flux backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmore, Anthony; Petrini, Michela; Waldram, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We analyse generic AdS flux backgrounds preserving eight supercharges in D = 4 and D = 5 dimensions using exceptional generalised geometry. We show that they are described by a pair of globally defined, generalised structures, identical to those that appear for flat flux backgrounds but with different integrability conditions. We give a number of explicit examples of such "exceptional Sasaki-Einstein" backgrounds in type IIB supergravity and M-theory. In particular, we give the complete analysis of the generic AdS5 M-theory backgrounds. We also briefly discuss the structure of the moduli space of solutions. In all cases, one structure defines a "generalised Reeb vector" that generates a Killing symmetry of the background corresponding to the R-symmetry of the dual field theory, and in addition encodes the generic contact structures that appear in the D = 4 M-theory and D = 5 type IIB cases. Finally, we investigate the relation between generalised structures and quantities in the dual field theory, showing that the central charge and R-charge of BPS wrapped-brane states are both encoded by the generalised Reeb vector, as well as discussing how volume minimisation (the dual of a- and F-maximisation) is encoded.

  15. Warping, extra dimensions, and a slice of AdSd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kristian L.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the Randall-Sundrum framework we consider a number of phenomenologically relevant model-building questions on a slice of compactified AdSd for d>5. Such spaces are interesting as they enable one to realize the weak scale via warping. We perform the Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction for gravitons and bulk vectors in these spaces, and for the case of AdS6 consider the KK spectrum of gauge scalars. We further obtain the KK towers for bulk fermions on a slice of AdS7 and AdS9 and show that the Randall-Sundrum approach to flavor generalizes to these spaces with the localization of chiral zero-mode fermions controlled by their bulk Dirac mass parameters. However, for the phenomenologically interesting case where the transverse radius is R-1˜TeV, we show that bulk standard model fields are not viable due to a resulting volume suppression of the gauge-coupling constants. A similar suppression occurs for the case of UV localization. Thus it seems that the standard model fields should be confined to the infrared brane in such spaces. Sterile fields and extended gauge sectors may propagate in the bulk, with the gauge-coupling volume suppression experienced by the latter motivating a weak coupling to standard model fields. We also discuss some issues regarding the effective 4D theory description in these spaces.

  16. A PILOT STUDY COMPARING THE BLOCK SYSTEM AND THE INTERMITTENT SYSTEM OF SCHEDULING SPEECH CORRECTION CASES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEAVER, JOHN B.; WOLLERSHEIM, JANET P.

    TO DETERMINE THE MOST EFFICIENT USES OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SPEECH CORRECTIONIST'S SKILLS AND TIME, A STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INTERMITTENT SYSTEM AND THE BLOCK SYSTEM OF SCHEDULING SPEECH CASES. WITH THE INTERMITTENT SYSTEM THE CORRECTIONIST IS ASSIGNED TO A NUMBER OF SCHOOLS AND GENERALLY SEES CHILDREN TWICE A…

  17. Comparative Case Study as Social Impact Assessment: Possibilities and Limitations for Anticipating Social Change in the Far North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Jodie; Parkins, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is increasingly an accepted component of environmental impact assessment and project evaluation throughout North America. Tools and methodologies utilized to conduct such assessments vary greatly and continue to evolve with time and experience. This paper follows the evolution of case study methods in social impact…

  18. Formative Postgraduate Assessment: A Comparative Case Study Using a University in the USA and One in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich-Nel, Hesta; Mac Kinnon, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate formative postgraduate assessment from an international perspective while acknowledging the two countries' differing cultures and environments. Using a case study approach, data were collected from research supervisors of postgraduate work at a university in the United States (USA) and a university in…

  19. Higher proportion of G2P[4] rotaviruses in vaccinated hospitalized cases compared with unvaccinated hospitalized cases, despite high vaccine effectiveness against heterotypic G2P[4] rotaviruses.

    PubMed

    Matthijnssens, J; Zeller, M; Heylen, E; De Coster, S; Vercauteren, J; Braeckman, T; Van Herck, K; Meyer, N; Pirçon, J-Y; Soriano-Gabarro, M; Azou, M; Capiau, H; De Koster, J; Maernoudt, A-S; Raes, M; Verdonck, L; Verghote, M; Vergison, A; Van Damme, P; Van Ranst, M

    2014-10-01

    The overall vaccine effectiveness of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine in an observational, prospective, multicentre, hospital-based case-control study in Belgium (RotaBel) was 90%. However, rotavirus genotype and co-infecting pathogens are important parameters to take into account when assessing vaccine effectiveness. In this study we specifically investigated the effect of rotavirus genotypes and co-infecting pathogens on vaccine effectiveness of the monovalent vaccine. In addition, we also investigated the effect of co-infecting pathogens on disease severity. From February 2008 to June 2010 stool samples of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases of a random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals were collected and subsequently genotyped. Fisher's exact tests were performed to investigate the relationships between rotavirus genotype, co-infecting pathogens and disease severity. The vaccine effectiveness of a full series of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine against hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by G1P[8] rotavirus strains was 95% (95% CI 77.5-98.7). Against G2P[4], the vaccine effectiveness was 85% (95% CI: 63.7-93.8). G4P[8]- and G3P[8]-specific vaccine effectiveness was 90% (95% CI 19.2-98.7) and 87% (95% CI -5.2 to 98.4), respectively. A post-hoc analysis showed that the genotype distribution was significantly related to the vaccination status (p <0.001), whereby G2P[4] strains were proportionally more prevalent in vaccinated cases than in unvaccinated cases. No statistical associations were found between co-infection status and vaccination status, Vesikari severity score or rotavirus genotype. The high vaccine effectiveness against the individual genotypes implies robust protection of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine against hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the major human rotavirus genotypes. The prevalence of G2P[4] requires continued monitoring.

  20. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  1. Naturally-Emerging Technology-Based Leadership Roles in Three Independent Schools: A Social Network-Based Case Study Using Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velastegui, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This hypothesis-generating case study investigates the naturally emerging roles of technology brokers and technology leaders in three independent schools in New York involving 92 school educators. A multiple and mixed method design utilizing Social Network Analysis (SNA) and fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (FSQCA) involved gathering…

  2. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  3. How Teacher Selection Practices in a High-Resource, Low-Need Suburban School District Compare with Best Practice Research: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Adam Steven

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop best practice standards for hiring public school teachers. This standard was developed from the available literature on recruiting, screening, selecting, and hiring high-quality teachers. The targeted and actual hiring processes of a case study district were compared to this teacher hiring standard.…

  4. A Qualitative Case Study Comparing a Computer-Mediated Delivery System to a Face-to-Face Mediated Delivery System for Teaching Creative Writing Fiction Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Mindy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to compare the pedagogical and affective efficiency and efficacy of creative prose fiction writing workshops taught via asynchronous computer-mediated online distance education with creative prose fiction writing workshops taught face-to-face in order to better understand their operational pedagogy and…

  5. Did They Sell Their Soul to the Devil? Some Comparative Case-Studies on Academic Entrepreneurs in the Life Sciences in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasi, Giancarlo; Squazzoni, Flaminio; Tosio, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at eight comparative case-studies on academic entrepreneurs in life sciences conducted in Europe in 2008. The interviewees were selected from the KEINS database that lists all academic inventors from Italy, France, Sweden and the Netherlands who have one or more patent applications registered at the European Patent Office,…

  6. Proximal 10q duplication in a child with severe central hypotonia characterized by array-comparative genomic hybridization: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    MANOLAKOS, EMMANOUIL; VETRO, ANNALISA; GARAS, ANTONIOS; THOMAIDIS, LORETTA; KEFALAS, KONSTANTINOS; KITSOS, GEORGE; ZIEGLER, MONIKA; LIEHR, THOMAS; ZUFFARDI, ORSETTA; PAPOULIDIS, IOANNIS

    2014-01-01

    Proximal 10q duplication is a well-defined but rare genetic syndrome. Duplication of proximal segments of the long arm of chromosome 10 results in a pattern of malformations, which are distinct from those of the more common distal 10q trisomy syndrome. The present study describes the case of a boy with phenotypic abnormalities (severe central hypotonia, mild ataxia, moderate developmental delay and mild dysmorphic features), due to duplication of chromosome region, 10q11.21→q11.22, which was characterized by the array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique. The phenotypic findings were compared with those in eight additional similar published cases. Major similarities have emerged, suggesting a likely minimal critical region. However, only detailed characterization of additional cases may provide firm conclusions. PMID:24669257

  7. p-Adic AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, Steven S.; Knaute, Johannes; Parikh, Sarthak; Samberg, Andreas; Witaszczyk, Przemek

    2017-01-01

    We construct a p-adic analog to AdS/CFT, where an unramified extension of the p-adic numbers replaces Euclidean space as the boundary and a version of the Bruhat-Tits tree replaces the bulk. Correlation functions are computed in the simple case of a single massive scalar in the bulk, with results that are strikingly similar to ordinary holographic correlation functions when expressed in terms of local zeta functions. We give some brief discussion of the geometry of p-adic chordal distance and of Wilson loops. Our presentation includes an introduction to p-adic numbers.

  8. A Comparison of Problem Behavior Profiles in Turkish Children with AD/HD and Non-AD/HD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is an increasing number of studies describing the symptoms of ADHD among school-age children in western cultures. Yet, studies on children with ADHD living in non-western cultures are limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare problem behavior profiles of Turkish children with AD/HD and non-AD/HD children. Method:…

  9. AdS5 solutions from M5-branes on Riemann surface and D6-branes sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bah, Ibrahima

    2015-09-01

    We describe the gravity duals of four-dimensional N=1 superconformal field theories obtained by wrapping M5-branes on a punctured Riemann surface. The internal geometry, normal to the AdS 5 factor, generically preserves two U(1)s, with generators ( J +, J -), that are fibered over the Riemann surface. The metric is governed by a single potential that satisfies a version of the Monge-Ampère equation. The spectrum of N=1 punctures is given by the set of supersymmetric sources of the potential that are localized on the Riemann surface and lead to regular metrics near a puncture. We use this system to study a class of punctures where the geometry near the sources corresponds to M-theory description of D6-branes. These carry a natural ( p, q) label associated to the circle dual to the killing vector pJ + + qJ - which shrinks near the source. In the generic case the world volume of the D6-branes is AdS 5 × S 2 and they locally preserve N=2 supersymmetry. When p = - q, the shrinking circle is dual to a flavor U(1). The metric in this case is non-degenerate only when there are co-dimension one sources obtained by smearing M5-branes that wrap the AdS 5 factor and the circle dual the superconformal R-symmetry. The D6-branes are extended along the AdS 5 and on cups that end on the co-dimension one branes. In the special case when the shrinking circle is dual to the R-symmetry, the D6-branes are extended along the AdS 5 and wrap an auxiliary Riemann surface with an arbitrary genus. When the Riemann surface is compact with constant curvature, the system is governed by a Monge-Ampère equation.

  10. Meta-Analysis of Incremental Rehearsal Using Phi Coefficients to Compare Single-Case and Group Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kanive, Rebecca; Parker, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study meta-analyzed single-case design (SCD) and group research regarding incremental rehearsal (IR). We used phi to meta-analyze data from 19 IR studies. Data from the SCD studies resulted in a nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) score of 98.9% (95% CI = 97.6-100%), which resulted in a weighted phi of 0.77 (95% CI = 0.69-0.83). The group…

  11. Do Fewer Resources Mean Less Influence? A Comparative Historical Case Study of Military Influence in a Time of Austerity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Historical Case Study of Military Influence in a Time of Austerity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...a crucible for educating future leaders in the analysis, evaluation, and refinement of professional expertise in war, strategy, operations, national...security, resource management, and responsible command. The U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center acquires, conserves, and exhibits historical

  12. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  13. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  14. Courtship American Style: Newspaper Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated an increasing social phenomenon--newspaper advertising for dating or marital partners--in terms of the bargaining process involved. Content analysis of personal ads in a popular "respectable" singles newspaper revealed a pattern of offers and requests reminiscent of a heterosexual stock market. (Author)

  15. A Comparative study of Personality as a common pathway in HIV Sero-positive and Alcohol dependent cases on Five Factor Model

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kalpana; Singh, Amool R.; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the personality traits of alcohol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and to compare them with normal controls. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 100 consecutive patients with alcohol dependence and HIV each and a control group of 100 normal cases without any physical or psychiatric illness. A score of 2 or less on the General Health Questionnaire was taken as cutoff, and the participants were included in the study with written informed consent. All participants were assessed with the NEO personality inventory revised and sensation-seeking scale (SSS). Results: There were significant differences among the study group on all the five factors, i.e., neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), conscientiousness (C), openness to experience (O), and agreeableness (A). On factor “N,” HIV and alcohol group scored significantly more as compared to normal group. Odds ratio revealed high neuroticism to be a risk factor in alcohol-dependent and HIV cases (P < 0.05). The normal group scored significantly higher on factor “E” as compared to HIV and alcohol cases. High scores on factor “E” and “C” have a protective. Odds ratio found low score of factor “C” as a risk factor; however, “O” did not emerge as a risk factor. The logistic regression revealed that high scores on “N” and “E” and low “A” score had a significant association with alcohol dependence (P < 0.05). Among HIV cases, high score on “N” and “E” and low “C” score emerged significant. Alcohol cases scored significantly more on boredom susceptibility (BS) on SSS as compared to HIV and normal controls. On disinhibition (DIS), HIV cases and alcohol cases scored significantly higher as compared to normal group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: High “N” scores on NEO personality inventory are significantly associated with alcohol dependence and HIV while high scores on “E” and “C” have a

  16. Reducing Added Sugars in the Food Supply Through a Cap-and-Trade Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effect of a simulated cap-and-trade policy to reduce added sugar in the food supply. Methods. Using nationally representative data on added-sugar content and consumption, we constructed a mathematical model of a cap-and-trade policy and compared its health implications to those of proposals to tax sugar sweetened beverages or added sugars. Results. Capping added-sugar emissions into the food supply by food manufacturers at a rate of 1% per year would be expected to reduce the prevalence of obesity by 1.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9, 2.4; a 4.6% decline) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 21.7 cases per 100 000 people (95% CI = 12.9, 30.6; a 4.2% decline) over 20 years, averting approximately $9.7 billion in health care spending. Racial and ethnic minorities would be expected to experience the largest declines. By comparison, equivalent price penalties through excise taxes would be expected to generate smaller health benefits. Conclusions. A cap-and-trade policy to reduce added-sugar intake may reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes to a greater extent than currently-proposed excise taxes. PMID:25365146

  17. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  18. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n <= 4 and 2 ⌊n/2 ⌋ + 1 k supersymmetries for 4 < n <= 7 , k ∈N> 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  19. On jordanian deformations of AdS5 and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-10-01

    We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that can be obtained from the η-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the η-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which implies that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which do correspond to supergravity solutions.

  20. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  1. How study designs influence comparative effectiveness outcomes: the case of oral versus long-acting injectable antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Alphs, Larry; Schooler, Nina; Lauriello, John

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews key methodological considerations for clinical trials that utilize explanatory and pragmatic trial designs and relates these contrasting approaches to the interpretation of results from comparisons of oral versus long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Explanatory randomized controlled trials (RCTs) generally measure the efficacy of a treatment in a homogeneous population with intensive, frequent, and often clinical trial-specific assessments. In contrast, pragmatic trials measure effectiveness in routine clinical practice and frequently aim to inform choices between treatments. Comparative effectiveness outcomes with pragmatic designs in naturalistic settings for schizophrenia treatments are of increasing interest to healthcare providers because outcomes of treatment (both efficacy and safety) may vary significantly when identified in an explanatory setting compared with a naturalistic pragmatic setting. Indeed, it has been suggested that the inconsistent outcomes observed in trials comparing oral and LAI antipsychotic medications may be a function of the use of explanatory or pragmatic trial designs. In practice, clinical trial designs are seldom purely explanatory or pragmatic. To identify the predominant orientation of a trial, one must consider multiple features. This paper reviews the relative impact of these features when comparing LAI and oral antipsychotic treatments and makes recommendations for improving these comparative designs.

  2. Reflections on International Comparative Education Survey Methodology: A Case Study of the European Survey on Language Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on the methodology used in international comparative education surveys by conducting a systematic review of the European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC). The ESLC was administered from February to March 2011, with final results released in June 2012. The survey tested approximately 55,000 students across 14 European…

  3. Developing Instruments to Assess and Compare the Quality of Engineering Education: The Case of China and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardanova, Elena; Loyalka, Prashant; Chirikov, Igor; Liu, Lydia; Li, Guirong; Wang, Huan; Enchikova, Ekaterina; Shi, Henry; Johnson, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about differences in the quality of engineering education within and across countries because of the lack of valid instruments that allow for the assessment and comparison of engineering students' skill gains. The purpose of our study is to develop and validate instruments that can be used to compare student skill gains…

  4. Quality Assurance in an International Higher Education Area: A Summary of a Case-Study Approach and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhard, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Transparency and comparability of higher education institutions especially in terms of their academic programmes and research activities are important issues for today's working environment. This paper is an overview of a recently completed PhD thesis which outlines examples of selected Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development…

  5. Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change: C - Case Study of India. Asian Population Studies Series No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This report, the third in a series of five reports of the Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change, describes a study of the two states of India (Punjaband and Orissa) which attempted to clarify the relationship between population pressure and agricultural change through a time series analysis. This study: (1) outlines trends…

  6. The Emergent Terrains of "Higher Education Regionalism": How and Why Higher Education Is an Interesting Case for Comparative Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Meng-Hsuan; Ravinet, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of regional political initiatives in the higher education sector symbolizes one of the many aspects of the changing global higher education landscape. Remarkably, these processes have generally escaped comparative scrutiny by scholars researching higher education policy cooperation or regional integration. In this article, we…

  7. "It's Harder Than We Thought It Would Be": A Comparative Case Study of Expert-Novice Experimentation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Nagarajan, Anandi; Day, Roger S.

    2002-01-01

    Compares a group of expert cancer researchers with four groups of fourth year medical students (the "novice" groups) engaged in the task of designing a clinical trial to test a new cancer drug using a computer-based modeling tool, the Oncology Thinking Cap. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. A Comparative Case Study on School Management Practices in Two Schools in the United States and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silman, Fatos; Simsek, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing administrative processes in two schools, one in the United States and one in Turkey, in light of the two distinct administrative paradigms: the Anglo-Saxon and Napoleonic traditions. The study showed that in the Turkish school, which is thought to be an example of the Napoleonic administrative tradition, school…

  9. Exploring the Contribution of Professional Staff to Student Outcomes: A Comparative Study of Australian and UK Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll; Regan, Julie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the second stage of a comparative study between two higher education institutions: one in Australia and the other in the United Kingdom, which explored the contributions of professional staff to student outcomes. The first stage acted as a scoping exercise to ascertain how the contributions of professional staff to student…

  10. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  11. Acute cerebrovascular incident in a young woman: Venous or arterial stroke? – Comparative analysis based on two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Katarzyna; Zimny, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edyta; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Cerebrovascular diseases are the most common neurological disorders. Most of them are arterial strokes, mainly ischemic, less often of hemorrhagic origin. Changes in the course of cerebral venous thrombosis are less common causes of acute cerebrovascular events. Clinical and radiological presentation of arterial and venous strokes (especially in emergency head CT) may pose a diagnostic problem because of great resemblance. However, the distinction between arterial and venous stroke is important from a clinical point of view, as it carries implications for the treatment and determinates patient’s prognosis. Case Report In this article, we present cases of two young women (one with an acute venous infarction, the second with an arterial stroke) who presented with similar both clinical and radiological signs of acute vascular incident in the cerebral cortex. We present main similarities and differences between arterial and venous strokes regarding the etiology, clinical symptoms and radiological appearance in various imaging techniques. Conclusions We emphasize that thorough analysis of CT (including cerebral vessels), knowledge of symptoms and additional clinical information (e.g. risk factors) may facilitate correct diagnosis and allow planning further diagnostic imaging studies. We also emphasize the importance of MRI, especially among young people, in the differential diagnosis of venous and arterial infarcts. PMID:24505227

  12. Influence of education on the pattern of cognitive deterioration in AD patients: the cognitive reserve hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Le Carret, Nicolas; Auriacombe, Sophie; Letenneur, Luc; Bergua, Valérie; Dartigues, Jean-François; Fabrigoule, Colette

    2005-03-01

    The cognitive reserve hypothesis proposes that a high educational level could delay the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) although neuropathologic changes develop in the brain. Therefore, some studies have reported that when the clinical signs of the disease emerge, high-educated patients may decline more rapidly than low-educated patients because the neuropathology is more advanced. However, these studies have only investigated the decline of global cognition or an isolated cognitive process. To study the differential deterioration pattern of several cognitive processes according to education, the performance of 20 AD patients with a high educational level and a low educational level were compared with the performance of 20 control subjects on a neuropsychological battery. The results showed that cognitive deterioration of AD patients is different according to education, although the global performance was similar in AD patients. The high-educated patients exhibited greater impairment of abstract thinking whereas the low-educated patients showed greater impairment of memory and attentional function. This confirms that some cognitive processes, such as abstract thinking, decline more rapidly in high-educated patients whereas others seem to evolve more slowly if compared to low-educated patients. In this latter case, high-educated patients may still benefit from cognitive reserve after the diagnosis of the dementia.

  13. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  14. Exploring the bulk in AdS /CFT : A covariant approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2017-03-01

    I propose a general, covariant way of defining when one region is "deeper in the bulk" than another. This definition is formulated outside of an event horizon (or in the absence thereof) in generic geometries; it may be applied to both points and surfaces, and it may be used to compare the depth of bulk points or surfaces relative to a particular boundary subregion or relative to the entire boundary. Using the recently proposed "light-cone cut" formalism, the comparative depth between two bulk points can be determined from the singularity structure of Lorentzian correlators in the dual field theory. I prove that, by this definition, causal wedges of progressively larger regions probe monotonically deeper in the bulk. The definition furthermore matches expectations in pure AdS and in static AdS black holes with isotropic spatial slices, where a well-defined holographic coordinate exists. In terms of holographic renormalization group flow, this new definition of bulk depth makes contact with coarse graining over both large distances and long time scales.

  15. Comparing approaches to spatially explicit ecosystem service modeling: a case study from the San Pedro River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius J.; Winthrop, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of ecosystem service modeling tools has grown in recent years, quantitative comparative studies of these tools have been lacking. In this study, we applied two leading open-source, spatially explicit ecosystem services modeling tools – Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) – to the San Pedro River watershed in southeast Arizona, USA, and northern Sonora, Mexico. We modeled locally important services that both modeling systems could address – carbon, water, and scenic viewsheds. We then applied managerially relevant scenarios for urban growth and mesquite management to quantify ecosystem service changes. InVEST and ARIES use different modeling approaches and ecosystem services metrics; for carbon, metrics were more similar and results were more easily comparable than for viewsheds or water. However, findings demonstrate similar gains and losses of ecosystem services and conclusions when comparing effects across our scenarios. Results were more closely aligned for landscape-scale urban-growth scenarios and more divergent for a site-scale mesquite-management scenario. Follow-up studies, including testing in different geographic contexts, can improve our understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these and other ecosystem services modeling tools as they move closer to readiness for supporting day-to-day resource management.

  16. Taxonaut: an application software for comparative display of multiple taxonomies with a use case of GBIF Species API

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Species API of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) provides public access to taxonomic data aggregated from multiple data sources. Each data source follows its own classification which can be inconsistent with classifications from other sources. Even with a reference classification e.g. the GBIF Backbone taxonomy, a comprehensive method to compare classifications in the data aggregation is essential, especially for non-expert users. New information A Java application was developed to compare multiple taxonomies graphically using classification data acquired from GBIF’s ChecklistBank via the GBIF Species API. It uses a table to display taxonomies where each column represents a taxonomy under comparison, with an aligner column to organise taxa by name. Each cell contains the name of a taxon if the classification in that column contains the name. Each column also has a cell showing the hierarchy of the taxonomy by a folder metaphor where taxa are aligned and synchronised in the aligner column. A set of those comparative tables shows taxa categorised by relationship between taxonomies. The result set is also available as tables in an Excel format file. PMID:27932916

  17. Combining and comparing morphometric shape descriptors with a molecular phylogeny: the case of fruit type evolution in Bornean Lithocarpus (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Cannon, C H; Manos, P S

    2001-01-01

    Fruit type in the genus Lithocarpus (Fagaceae) includes both classic oak acorns and novel modifications. Bornean taxa with modified fruits can be separated into two sections (Synaedrys and Lithocarpus) based on subtle shape differences. By following strict criteria for homology and representation, this variation in shape can be captured and the sections distinguished by using elliptic Fourier or eigenshape analysis. Phenograms of fruit shape, constructed by using restricted maximum likelihood techniques and these morphometric descriptors, were incorporated into combined and comparative analyses with molecular sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, using branch-weighted matrix representation. The combined analysis strongly suggested independent derivation of the novel fruit type in the two sections from different acornlike ancestors, while the comparative analysis indicated frequent decoupling between the molecular and morphological changes as inferred at well-supported nodes. The acorn fruit type has undergone little modification between ingroup and outgroup, despite large molecular distance. Greater morphological than molecular change was inferred at critical transitions between acorn and novel fruit types, particularly for section Lithocarpus. The combination of these two different types of data improved our understanding of the macroevolution of fruit type in this difficult group, and the comparative analysis highlighted the significant incongruities in evolutionary pattern between the two datasets.

  18. Added mass in human swimmers: age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Caspersen, Cecilie; Berthelsen, Petter A; Eik, Mari; Pâkozdi, Csaba; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik

    2010-08-26

    In unstationary swimming (changing velocity), some of the water around the swimmer is set in motion. This can be thought of as an added mass (M(a)) of water. The purpose of this study was to find added mass on human swimmers and investigate the effect of shape and body size. Thirty subjects were connected to a 2.8m long bar with handles, attached with springs (stiffness k = 318 N/m) and a force cell. By oscillating this system vertically and registering the period of oscillations it was possible to find the added mass of the swimmer, given the known masses of the bar and swimmer. Relative added mass (M(a)%) for boys, women and men were, respectively, 26.8 +/- 2.9%, 23.6 +/- 1.6% and 26.8 +/- 2.3% of the subjects total mass. This study reported significantly lower added mass (p < 0.001) and relative added mass (p < 0.002) for women compared to men, which indicate that the possible body shape differences between genders may be an important factor for determining added mass. Boys had significantly lower (p < 0.001) added mass than men. When added mass was scaled for body size there were no significant differences (p = 0.996) between boys and men, which indicated that body size is an important factor that influences added mass. The added mass in this study seems to be lower and within a smaller range than previously reported (Klauck, 1999; Eik et al., 2008). It is concluded that the added mass in human swimmers, in extended gliding position, is approximately 1/4 of the subjects' body mass.

  19. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  20. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence. PMID:23798838

  1. Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.

  2. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  3. Comparing the Effects of Rest and Massage on Return to Homeostasis Following Submaximal Aerobic Exercise: a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Portia B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postexercise massage can be used to help promote recovery from exercise on the cellular level, as well as systemically by increasing parasympathetic activity. No studies to date have been done to assess the effects of massage on postexercise metabolic changes, including excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of massage recovery and resting recovery on a subject’s heart rate variability and selected metabolic effects following a submaximal treadmill exercise session. Methods One healthy 24-year-old female subject performed 30 minutes of submaximal treadmill exercise prior to resting or massage recovery sessions. Metabolic data were collected throughout the exercise sessions and at three 10 minute intervals postexercise. Heart rate variability was evaluated for 10 minutes after each of two 30-minute recovery sessions, either resting or massage. Results Heart rate returned to below resting levels (73 bpm) with 30 and 60 minutes of massage recovery (72 bpm and 63 bpm, respectively) compared to 30 and 60 minutes of resting recovery (77 bpm and 74 bpm, respectively). Heart rate variability data showed a more immediate shift to the parasympathetic state following 30 minutes of massage (1.152 LF/HF ratio) versus the 30-minute resting recovery (6.91 LF/HF ratio). It took 60 minutes of resting recovery to reach similar heart rate variability levels (1.216 LF/HF) found after 30 minutes of massage. Ventilations after 30 minutes of massage recovery averaged 7.1 bpm compared to 17.9 bpm after 30 minutes of resting recovery. Conclusions No differences in EPOC were observed through either the resting or massage recovery based on the metabolic data collected. Massage was used to help the subject shift into parasympathetic activity more quickly than rest alone following a submaximal exercise session. PMID:26977215

  4. Issues in high-throughput comparative modelling: a case study using the ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Winn, P J; Battey, J N D; Schleinkofer, K; Banerjee, A; Wade, R C

    2005-02-01

    Sequences of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBC or E2) family were used as a test set to investigate issues associated with the high-throughput comparative modelling of protein structures. A semi-automatic method was initially developed with particular emphasis on producing models of a quality suitable for structural comparison. Structural and sequence features of the E2 family were used to improve the sequence alignment and the quality of the structural templates. Initially, failure to correct for subtle structural inconsistencies between templates lead to problems in the comparative analysis of the UBC electrostatic potentials. Modelling of known UBC structures using Modeller 4.0 showed that multiple templates produced, on average, no better models than the use of just one template, as judged by the root-mean-squared deviation between the comparative model and crystal structure backbones. Using four different quality-checking methods, for a given target sequence, it was not possible to distinguish the model most similar to the experimental structure. The UBC models were thus finally modelled using only the crystal structure template with the highest sequence identity to the target to be modelled, and producing only one model solution. Quality checking was used to reject models with obvious structural anomalies (e.g., bad side-chain packing). The resulting models have been used for a comparison of UBC structural features and of their electrostatic potentials. The work was extended through the development of a fully automated pipeline that identifies E2 sequences in the sequence databases, aligns and models them, and calculates the associated electrostatic potential.

  5. Non-extended phase space thermodynamics of Lovelock AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jie-Xiong; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2015-05-01

    Recently, extended phase space thermodynamics of Lovelock AdS black holes has been of great interest. To provide insight from a different perspective and gain a unified phase transition picture, the non-extended phase space thermodynamics of -dimensional charged topological Lovelock AdS black holes is investigated in detail in the grand canonical ensemble. Specifically, the specific heat at constant electric potential is calculated and the phase transition in the grand canonical ensemble is discussed. To probe the impact of the various parameters, we utilize the control variate method and solve the phase transition condition equation numerically for the cases . There are two critical points for the case , while there is only one for the other cases. For , there exists no phase transition point. To figure out the nature of the phase transition in the grand canonical ensemble, we carry out an analytic check of the analog form of the Ehrenfest equations proposed by Banerjee et al. It is shown that Lovelock AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble undergo a second-order phase transition. To examine the phase structure in the grand canonical ensemble, we utilize the thermodynamic geometry method and calculate both the Weinhold metric and the Ruppeiner metric. It is shown that for both analytic and graphical results that the divergence structure of the Ruppeiner scalar curvature coincides with that of the specific heat. Our research provides one more example that Ruppeiner metric serves as a wonderful tool to probe the phase structures of black holes.

  6. Using landscape topology to compare continuous metaheuristics: a framework and case study on EDAs and ridge structure.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Gallagher, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we extend a previously proposed randomized landscape generator in combination with a comparative experimental methodology to study the behavior of continuous metaheuristic optimization algorithms. In particular, we generate two-dimensional landscapes with parameterized, linear ridge structure, and perform pairwise comparisons of algorithms to gain insight into what kind of problems are easy and difficult for one algorithm instance relative to another. We apply this methodology to investigate the specific issue of explicit dependency modeling in simple continuous estimation of distribution algorithms. Experimental results reveal specific examples of landscapes (with certain identifiable features) where dependency modeling is useful, harmful, or has little impact on mean algorithm performance. Heat maps are used to compare algorithm performance over a large number of landscape instances and algorithm trials. Finally, we perform a meta-search in the landscape parameter space to find landscapes which maximize the performance between algorithms. The results are related to some previous intuition about the behavior of these algorithms, but at the same time lead to new insights into the relationship between dependency modeling in EDAs and the structure of the problem landscape. The landscape generator and overall methodology are quite general and extendable and can be used to examine specific features of other algorithms.

  7. An osteological revisitation of autopsies: comparing anthropological findings on exhumed skeletons to their respective autopsy reports in seven cases.

    PubMed

    Cappella, A; Castoldi, E; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2014-11-01

    Forensic anthropologists and pathologists are more and more requested to answer questions on bone trauma. However limitations still exist concerning the proper interpretation of bone fractures and bone lesions in general. Access to known skeletal populations which derive from cadavers (victims of violent deaths) who underwent autopsy and whose autopsy reports are available are obvious sources of information on what happens to bone trauma when subjected to taphonomic variables, such as burial, decomposition, postmortem chemical and mechanical insults; such skeletal collections are still however quite rare. This study presents the results of the comparative analysis between the autopsy findings on seven cadavers (six of which victims of blunt, sharp or gunshot wounds) and those of the anthropological assessment performed 20 years later on the exhumed dry bones (part of the Milano skeletal collection). The investigation allowed us to verify how perimortem sharp, blunt and gunshot lesions appear after a long inhumation period, whether they are still recognizable, and how many lesions are no longer detectable or were not detectable at all compared to the autopsy report. It also underlines the importance of creating skeletal collections with known information on cause of death and trauma.

  8. Comparing the utility of image algebra operations for characterizing landscape changes: the case of the Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Alphan, Hakan

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare various image algebra procedures for their efficiency in locating and identifying different types of landscape changes on the margin of a Mediterranean coastal plain, Cukurova, Turkey. Image differencing and ratioing were applied to the reflective bands of Landsat TM datasets acquired in 1984 and 2006. Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) differencing were also applied. The resulting images were tested for their capacity to detect nine change phenomena, which were a priori defined in a three-level classification scheme. These change phenomena included agricultural encroachment, sand dune afforestation, coastline changes and removal/expansion of reed beds. The percentage overall accuracies of different algebra products for each phenomenon were calculated and compared. The results showed that some of the changes such as sand dune afforestation and reed bed expansion were detected with accuracies varying between 85 and 97% by the majority of the algebra operations, while some other changes such as logging could only be detected by mid-infrared (MIR) ratioing. For optimizing change detection in similar coastal landscapes, underlying causes of these changes were discussed and the guidelines for selecting band and algebra operations were provided.

  9. Robust estimates of divergence times and selection with a poisson random field model: a case study of comparative phylogeographic data.

    PubMed

    Amei, Amei; Smith, Brian Tilston

    2014-01-01

    Mutation frequencies can be modeled as a Poisson random field (PRF) to estimate speciation times and the degree of selection on newly arisen mutations. This approach provides a quantitative theory for comparing intraspecific polymorphism with interspecific divergence in the presence of selection and can be used to estimate population genetic parameters. Although the original PRF model has been extended to more general biological settings to make statistical inference about selection and divergence among model organisms, it has not been incorporated into phylogeographic studies that focus on estimating population genetic parameters for nonmodel organisms. Here, we modified a recently developed time-dependent PRF model to independently estimate genetic parameters from a nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data set of 22 sister pairs of birds that have diverged across a biogeographic barrier. We found that species that inhabit humid habitats had more recent divergence times and larger effective population sizes than those that inhabit drier habitats, and divergence time estimated from the PRF model were similar to estimates from a coalescent species-tree approach. Selection coefficients were higher in sister pairs that inhabited drier habitats than in those in humid habitats, but overall the mitochondrial DNA was under weak selection. Our study indicates that PRF models are useful for estimating various population genetic parameters and serve as a framework for incorporating estimates of selection into comparative phylogeographic studies.

  10. AdS and ds Entropy from String Junctions or the Function of Junction Conjunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Eva

    Flux compactifications of string theory exhibiting the possibility of discretely tuning the cosmological constant to small values have been constructed. The highly tuned vacua in this discretuum have curvature radii which scale as large powers of the flux quantum numbers, exponential in the number of cycles in the compactiflcation. By the arguments of Susskind/Witten (in the AdS case) and Gibbons/Hawking (in the dS case), we expect correspondingly large entropies associated with these vacua. If they are to provide a dual description of these vacua on their Coulomb branch, branes traded for the flux need to account for this entropy at the appropriate energy scale. In this note, we argue that simple string junctions and webs ending on the branes can account for this large entropy, obtaining a rough estimate for junction entropy that agrees with the existing rough estimates for the spacing of the discretuum. In particular, the brane entropy can account for the (A)dS entropy far away from string scale correspondence limits.

  11. Volume Computation of a Stockpile - a Study Case Comparing GPS and Uav Measurements in AN Open Pit Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeva, P. L.; Filipova, S. L.; Filipov, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    The following paper aims to test and evaluate the accuracy of UAV data for volumetric measurements to the conventional GNSS techniques. For this purpose, an appropriate open pit quarry has been chosen. Two sets of measurements were performed. Firstly, a stockpile was measured by GNSS technologies and later other terrestrial GNSS measurements for modelling the berms of the quarry were taken. Secondly, the area of the whole quarry including the stockpile site was mapped by a UAV flight. Having considered how dynamic our world is, new techniques and methods should be presented in numerous fields. For instance, the management of an open pit quarry requires gaining, processing and storing a large amount of information which is constantly changing with time. Fast and precise acquisition of measurements regarding the process taking place in a quarry is the key to an effective and stable maintenance. In other words, this means getting an objective evaluations of the processes, using up-to-date technologies and reliable accuracy of the results. Often legislations concerning mine engineering state that the volumetric calculations are to present ±3% accuracy of the whole amount. On one hand, extremely precise measurements could be performed by GNSS technologies, however, it could be really time consuming. On the other hand, UAV photogrammetry presents a fast, accurate method for mapping large areas and calculating stockpiles volumes. The study case was performed as a part of a master thesis.

  12. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some comparative case studies in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four matched pairs of high-uptake and low-uptake schools by salient school factors. Case studies of these eight schools indicate that students employ selection strategies related to their career aspirations, their sense of identity and tactics, and their prior experience. The school factors influencing subject choice relate to school management, student support and guidance, and student empowerment. The most notable differences between students in high-uptake and low-uptake schools are that students in high-uptake schools appear to make a proactive choice in relation to career aspirations, rather than a reactive choice on the basis of past experience. Schools with a high uptake offer a diverse science curriculum in the final two years of compulsory study, set higher examination entry requirements for further study and, crucially, provide a range of opportunities for students to interact with the world of work and to gain knowledge and experience of science-related careers.

  13. An investigation of reduced western disturbance activity over Northwest India in November - December 2015 compared to 2014 - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Soumik; Bieniek, Peter A.; Deoras, Akshay

    2017-02-01

    In November-December of 2015, Northwestern India received very low precipitation due to anomalously low Western Disturbances (WDs) activity. The resulting lack of sufficient precipitation and soil moisture hampered the growth of winter crops leading to significant agricultural losses. Relatively stable weather in the absence of precipitation and WDs contributed to extremely high air pollution in New Delhi and also significantly degraded the air quality in many cities of Northwestern India leading to severe health issues. Despite the fact that WDs play a very important role in India's winter weather, limited research has been done to investigate the causes of their inter-annual variability. A case study using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, CMAP precipitation and NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature data is evaluated in this paper to better understand the atmospheric drivers of WDs in order to help fill the gap in knowledge. Results show that elevated Sea Surface Temperatures over the North Indian Ocean likely lead to atmospheric circulation anomalies that led to branching and weakening of the subtropical jet stream and weakening of vertical wind shear over Northwestern India. These conditions created an unfavorable environment for the propagation of WDs. However, there was an intensification of vertical wind shear over mid-latitude Eurasia along with increased storm activity. This weakened the Eurasian anticyclone resulting in warmer surface air temperatures over the midlatitudes that led to a redistribution of the meridional temperature gradient.

  14. AdS4/CFT3 squashed, stretched and warped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, Igor R.; Klose, Thomas; Murugan, Arvind

    2009-03-01

    We use group theoretic methods to calculate the spectrum of short multiplets around the extremum of Script N = 8 gauged supergravity potential which possesses Script N = 2 supersymmetry and SU(3) global symmetry. Upon uplifting to M-theory, it describes a warped product of AdS4 and a certain squashed and stretched 7-sphere. We find quantum numbers in agreement with those of the gauge invariant operators in the Script N = 2 superconformal Chern-Simons theory recently proposed to be the dual of this M-theory background. This theory is obtained from the U(N) × U(N) theory through deforming the superpotential by a term quadratic in one of the superfields. To construct this model explicitly, one needs to employ monopole operators whose complete understanding is still lacking. However, for the U(2) × U(2) gauge theory we make a proposal for the form of the monopole operators which has a number of desired properties. In particular, this proposal implies enhanced symmetry of the U(2) × U(2) ABJM theory for k = 1,2; it makes its similarity to and subtle difference from the BLG theory quite explicit.

  15. Predictors of early mortality in systemic sclerosis: a case-control study comparing early versus late mortality in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Derk, Chris T; Huaman, Gonzalo; Littlejohn, Jayne; Otieno, Franklin; Jimenez, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    To compare the characteristics of patients with systemic sclerosis who died within 2 years of diagnosis to those who died after 2 years of diagnosis. A retrospective chart review of all medical records of deceased systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients who had been followed at our institution from 1985 to 2007 was performed. We identified 87 deceased SSc patients within this period. From the 87 deceased individuals, 20 had died within 2 years after they were diagnosed, and 67 had died after 2 years of their diagnosis. Patients who died within 2 years of diagnosis were more likely to be anticentromere antibody negative when compared to the patients who died after 2 years (17/20 vs. 48/67, P = 0.03). The time from the first appearance of non-Raynaud's symptoms to diagnosis was significantly shorter in the group who died within 2 years than in the group who died after 2 years of diagnosis (11.8 ± 10.3 vs. 60.7 ± 64.9 months, P = 0.002). According to the Medsger severity score, there was more severe muscle (0.82 ± 1.13 vs. 1.8 ± 1.28, P = 0.0014) and heart (0.86 ± 1.37 vs. 2.1 ± 1.71, P = 0.0013) involvement at the initial evaluation in patients who died before 2 years of diagnosis when compared to the group of patients who died after 2 years of diagnosis. The time from the first symptoms to treatment initiation was significantly shorter in patients who died early (9.43 ± 6.3 vs. 38.3 ± 54.4 months, P = 0.05). The interval between treatment initiation and death was also significantly shorter (15.1 ± 9.48 vs. 60.7 ± 49.7 months, P = 0.001), reflecting greater severity of disease. Patients who died within the first 2 years of SSc diagnosis were typically anticentromere negative and had significant muscle and cardiac involvement. The time from the first appearance of non-Raynaud phenomenon symptoms to death was much shorter in the patients who died within 2 years of diagnosis, suggesting a very fulminant form of systemic sclerosis.

  16. Exercise: An Alternative Approach to the Treatment of AD/HD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Steve; Copans, Stuart A.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the increase of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) cases in America and Canada may be due in part to decreased levels of children's physical activity. Research has shown that exercise helps to lessen the symptoms of AD/HD. Claims that the use of regular exercise programs in school and at home is beneficial for AD/HD…

  17. Comparing the Hematopoetic Syndrome Time Course in the NHP Animal Model to Radiation Accident Cases From the Database Search.

    PubMed

    Graessle, Dieter H; Dörr, Harald; Bennett, Alexander; Shapiro, Alla; Farese, Ann M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Meineke, Viktor

    2015-11-01

    Since controlled clinical studies on drug administration for the acute radiation syndrome are lacking, clinical data of human radiation accident victims as well as experimental animal models are the main sources of information. This leads to the question of how to compare and link clinical observations collected after human radiation accidents with experimental observations in non-human primate (NHP) models. Using the example of granulocyte counts in the peripheral blood following radiation exposure, approaches for adaptation between NHP and patient databases on data comparison and transformation are introduced. As a substitute for studying the effects of administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in human clinical trials, the method of mathematical modeling is suggested using the example of G-CSF administration to NHP after total body irradiation.

  18. A comparative analysis of conventional and SurePath liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology: A study of 140 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jyotsna; Toi, Pampa Ch; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sundareshan, Malliga; Habeebullah, Syed

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of Papanicolaou (Pap) test in cervical cancer screening need not be overemphasized. While most Western countries have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC), which is considered superior, many developing countries are still using the conventional Pap smear (CPS) technique. Objective: To compare the staining and cytomorphological features on conventional versus liquid-based cervicovaginal smears. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty cervicovaginal smears prepared by the standard conventional and LBC techniques were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting cervicovaginal smears. Twelve parameters were studied, compared, and statistically analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 129/140 (92%) of CPSs and 130/140 (93%) LBC smears were satisfactory. LBC had a significantly shorter screening time (2.0 ± 0.08 vs 4.0 ± 0.65) and better representative material than that of CPS (50% vs 42%). Neutrophils were significantly more in CPS than LBC (96% vs 92%) with a P value <0.05 while hemorrhagic background and red blood cells (RBCs) were more prominent in CPS. LBC showed significant artifactual changes in squamous epithelial cells. Epithelial abnormalities ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were seen in 3% (4) and 2% (2) of CPSs and LBCs, respectively. Organisms were better picked up in CPS (99% in CPS vs 73% LBC) with a value of P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Although a shorter screening time and cleaner background are the major advantages of LBC, CPS is not inferior to LBC. Considering the high cost, rather than the advantages associated with LBC, we feel that CPS is a better option for developing countries. PMID:27279683

  19. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  20. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  1. Holographic cusped Wilson loops in q-deformed AdS5 × S5 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Hui-Huang; Wu, Jun-Bao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a minimal surface in q-deformed AdS5×S5 with a cusp boundary is studied in detail. This minimal surface is dual to a cusped Wilson loop in dual field theory. We find that the area of the minimal surface has both logarithmic squared divergence and logarithmic divergence. The logarithmic squared divergence cannot be removed by either Legendre transformation or the usual geometric subtraction. We further make an analytic continuation to the Minkowski signature, taking the limit such that the two edges of the cusp become light-like, and extract the anomalous dimension from the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence. This anomalous dimension goes back smoothly to the results in the undeformed case when we take the limit that the deformation parameter goes to zero. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105154, 11222549, 11275207), K. C. Wong Education Foundation and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS

  2. Charge loss (or the lack thereof) for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of evaporating charged black holes is complicated to model in general, but is nevertheless important since the hints to the Information Loss Paradox and its recent firewall incarnation may lie in understanding more generic geometries than that of Schwarzschild spacetime. Fortunately, for sufficiently large asymptotically flat Reissner-Nordström black holes, the evaporation process can be modeled via a system of coupled linear ordinary differential equations, with charge loss rate governed by Schwinger pair-production process. The same model can be generalized to study the evaporation of AdS Reissner-Nordström black holes with flat horizon. It was recently found that such black holes always evolve towards extremality since charge loss is inefficient. This property is completely opposite to the asymptotically flat case in which the black hole eventually loses its charges and tends towards Schwarzschild limit. We clarify the underlying reason for this different behavior.

  3. Classical string solutions in the AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgang, Andrew W.

    This dissertation studies the properties of fields generated by moving charged particles in a strongly interacting gauge theory. In classical electro-magnetism, calculating the fields produced by moving charges is straight forward, but in a strongly interacting non-abelian theory, such as QCD, this not the case due to large quantum effects and the theory being non-linear. Recently, the AdS/CFT correspondence made these calculations feasible, though still non-trivial. Interestingly from a physics point of view, the fields produced by the moving charges are represented by a string. Solving for the string's changing shape is possible due to a nice mathematical application of integrability techniques involving Riemann Theta functions. The first case of consideration is a quark and anti-quark rotating about their center of mass. Such a configuration is described by a rigidly rotating open string with endpoints in the boundary of AdS5. Various cases of angular motion of the quark/anti-quark pair in the boundary is analyzed using an associated 1-d integrable Neumann-Rosochatius system. A solution is found from which the energy and angular momenta of the configuration, ie, the field between the charged particles, is calculated after being properly regularized. The work continues by investigating open strings with endpoints in the boundary of AdS that follow more generic trajectories. Utilizing integrability techniques, the equations of motion are solved when the string moves in AdS3. The Pohlmeyer reduction reduces the equations of motion to a generalized Sinh-Gordon equation from which three cases are studied: the Liouville, Sinh-Gordon, and Cosh-Gordon equations. Solutions to the Sinh and Cosh-Gordon equations are written in terms of Riemann Theta functions and numerical examples of these solutions are presented.

  4. Feature Tracking-Derived Peak Systolic Strain Compared to Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Troponin-Positive Myocarditis: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Justin; Nielsen, James C; Sengupta, Partho P; Sanz, Javier; Srivastava, Shubhika; Uppu, Santosh

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses myocardial involvement in myocarditis (MYO). Current techniques are qualitative, subjective, and prone to interpretation error. Feature tracking (FT) analyzes myocardial strain using CMR and has not been examined in MYO. We hypothesize that regional left ventricular (LV) strain is abnormal in MYO. Regional strain by FT was compared to late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and troponin leak as measures of myocardial involvement. This single-center, retrospective CMR study reviewed patients with clinical MYO and structurally normal hearts who underwent CMR at our institution. Young adults with normal cardiac anatomy, function, and absent LGE served as controls. MYO patients with documented troponin leak and normal global ejection fraction (EF > 50 %) were included in comparison. FT determined regional myocardial peak systolic strain (pkS) in longitudinal and circumferential distributions. T tests compared strain values between cases and controls. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined pkS values with highest sensitivity and specificity for concurrent troponin leak and LGE. FT was performed on 57 patients: 37 MYO and 20 controls. Twenty-eight cases with normal EF, and 20 control patients were included in final analysis. Nearly all cases with normal function demonstrated abnormal regional pkS (27/28, 96 %). Cases had significantly diminished pkS when compared to controls in all regions except the longitudinal 2C distribution. FT-derived longitudinal and circumferential pkS is sensitive and specific in identifying myocardial involvement, namely the presence of troponin leak and LGE. FT may be a useful adjunctive, objective measure of myocardial involvement in patients with MYO and normal LV function.

  5. Partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between water and particles compared to bioaccumulation in mussels: a harbour case.

    PubMed

    Hellou, Jocelyne; Steller, Sean; Leonard, Jim; Langille, Morgan A; Tremblay, Diane

    2005-03-01

    Water and particles from three sites located in Halifax Harbour, near and further away from combined municipal sewage effluents (CMSE) were analysed for parental and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (par and alkPAH). Bioavailability of PAH was compared for inter-tidal mussels collected at the same sites in April and November. The PAH fingerprint determined over 9 sampling times covering a period of 19 months differed more between phases (water and particles) and seasons, than between sites. In the spring, more alkPAH associated with diesel and gasoline were detected in the soluble phase, along with more bioaccumulation of alkPAH in inter-tidal mussels. A broader number of parPAH were detected in mussels collected in the fall. The mean sum of dissolved alkPAH concentrations was higher in water at the site closer to raw CMSE than at the other two sites and particles of that site. However, lowest bioconcentration factors (BCF) were determined in mussels of this more contaminated site. Similar biota-particle accumulation factors (BPAF) were determined for parPAH in mussels from the three sites, all lower than the BCF of alkPAH. The study indicates that sewage treatment plants will reduce the amount of parPAH especially larger than fluoranthene and pyrene from being deposited in the harbour; that alk naphthalenes and fluorenes present in water will continue to be discharged; that the disturbance of sediments can make particle-bound PAH available to mussels.

  6. Combining and Comparing Astrometric Data from Different Epochs: A Case Study with Hipparcos and Nano-JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalik, D.; Lindegren, L.; Hobbs, D.; Lammers, U.; Yamada, Y.

    2012-09-01

    The Hipparcos mission (1989-1993) resulted in the first space-based stellar catalogue including measurements of positions, parallaxes and annual proper motions accurate to about one milli-arcsecond. More space astrometry missions will follow in the near future. The ultra-small Japanese mission Nano-JASMINE (launch in late 2013) will determine positions and annual proper motions with some milli-arcsecond accuracy. In mid 2013 the next-generation ESA mission Gaia will deliver some tens of micro-arcsecond accurate astrometric parameters. Until the final Gaia catalogue is published in early 2020 the best way of improving proper motion values is the combination of positions from different missions separated by long time intervals. Rather than comparing positions from separately reduced catalogues, we propose an optimal method to combine the information from the different data sets by making a joint astrometric solution. This allows to obtain good results even when each data set alone is insufficient for an accurate reduction. We demonstrate our method by combining Hipparcos and simulated Nano-JASMINE data in a joint solution. We show a significant improvement over the conventional catalogue combination.

  7. Energy input in conventional and organic paddy rice production in Missouri and Italy: A comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Marco; Johnson, Thomas G; Vittuari, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The expected decline in availability of fossil fuels over the next several decades, either because of resource depletion or because of limits on carbon emissions, is leading to a keen interest in finding more sustainable energy sources. For this reason, it is useful to assess the energy footprint of alternative agricultural systems for crops and animal production and to identify potential transition scenarios to systems largely based on renewable energy. The present work aims to assess for the first time a comparative analysis of energy inputs in rice production systems in Southern Europe (Piemonte, Italy) and in North America (Missouri, USA). A total of twelve rice farms, either conventional or organic, were selected, collecting detailed data on direct (fuel and electricity) and indirect (machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds) energy inputs. While energy input of conventional farms ranged from 3.5 to 7 MJ/kg paddy rice, organic farming could reduce inputs by more than 50% with only 8% yield decrease. A significant reduction in fuel or electricity use can be achieved also with no till and surface irrigation. The use of renewable energy sources, as already practiced by some farms, could more than cover their electrical energy requirements.

  8. Impact of Cryoballoon Ablation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-related Heart Failure due to Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation. A Comparative Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Maagh, Petra; Plehn, Gunnar; Christoph, Arnd; Oernek, Ahmet; Meissner, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) represents a turning point in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Pulmonary Vein Isolation (PVI) with Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation (RFCA) is accepted to be successful in restoring sinus rhythm (SR) in HCM patients. The efficacy of cryoballoon (CB) therapy in HCM patients has not been studied so far. Methods: 166 patients with AF underwent PVI with CB technology in our single center between 1/2012 and 12/2015. To evaluate the efficacy of the CB therapy in HCM patients, we compared their clinical outcome with those in “Non-HCM” AF patients in a 3 and 6 months follow-up. Results: Out of 166 AF patients (65.7% paroxysmal AF, PAF), 4 patients had HCM and PAF (young males < 50 years). During the blanking period, 26 patients (15.8%) suffered from AF recurrence (11.0% PAF), including all HCM patients. The 6 months follow up of “Non-HCM” AF patients showed acceptable results (80% stable SR), whereas the HCM patients remained AF. In Conclusion: Even if the CB provides advantages, the single device cannot be recommended in HCM patients because of early AF recurrences. Anyway, because of the specific hemodynamic changes in HCM patients with AF, ablation should be sought in an early state of its occurrence, then, however, preferably with RFCA. PMID:27647995

  9. Comparative Accuracy Evaluation of Fine-Scale Global and Local Digital Surface Models: The Tshwane Case Study I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breytenbach, A.

    2016-10-01

    Conducted in the City of Tshwane, South Africa, this study set about to test the accuracy of DSMs derived from different remotely sensed data locally. VHR digital mapping camera stereo-pairs, tri-stereo imagery collected by a Pléiades satellite and data detected from the Tandem-X InSAR satellite configuration were fundamental in the construction of seamless DSM products at different postings, namely 2 m, 4 m and 12 m. The three DSMs were sampled against independent control points originating from validated airborne LiDAR data. The reference surfaces were derived from the same dense point cloud at grid resolutions corresponding to those of the samples. The absolute and relative positional accuracies were computed using well-known DEM error metrics and accuracy statistics. Overall vertical accuracies were also assessed and compared across seven slope classes and nine primary land cover classes. Although all three DSMs displayed significantly more vertical errors where solid waterbodies, dense natural and/or alien woody vegetation and, in a lesser degree, urban residential areas with significant canopy cover were encountered, all three surpassed their expected positional accuracies overall.

  10. [Comparative analysis of two different methods for risk assessment of groundwater pollution: a case study in Beijing plain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-na; He, Jiang-tao; Ma, Wen-jie; Xu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater contamination risk assessment has important meaning to groundwater contamination prevention planning and groundwater exploitation potentiality. Recently, UN assessment system and WP assessment system have become the focuses of international research. In both systems, the assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: intrinsic vulnerability, aquifer storage, groundwater quality, groundwater resource protection zone and contamination load. But, the five factors were built up in different ways. In order to expound the difference between the UN and WP assessment systems, and explain the main reasons, the UN and WP assessment systems were applied to Beijing Plain, China. The maps constructed from the UN and WP risk assessment systems were compared. The results showed that both kinds of groundwater contamination risk assessment maps were in accordance with the actual conditions and were similar in spatial distribution trends. However, there was quite significant different in the coverage area at the same level. It also revealed that during the system construction process, the structural hierarchy, relevant overlaying principles and classification method might have effects on the groundwater contamination risk assessment map. UN assessment system and WP assessment system were both suitable for groundwater contamination risk assessment of the plain, however, their emphasis was different.

  11. The place of occupational therapy in rehabilitation strategies of complex regional pain syndrome: Comparative study of 60 cases.

    PubMed

    Rome, L

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the value of combining occupational therapy (OT) with physical therapy (PT) for the rehabilitation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and to measure its effectiveness on activities of daily life. Sixty patients with CRPS type 1 were recruited and interviewed between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. Thirty patients had undergone PT and thirty had undergone PT+OT. They were administered the short-form of the "Assessment of Life Habits" questionnaire (v.3.0 LIFE-H) created in Canada. This questionnaire consists of 16 items exploring activities of daily living, which were used to compare the effectiveness of the two rehabilitation protocols. The results of each test were submitted to the Wilcoxon test. After confirming the complexity of CRPS in terms of its etiology, clinical signs and progression, rehabilitation was effective, especially for pain. The patients who received PT+OT had on average 10% better dressing and undressing function, 25% better for meal preparation, and 20% better on personal care than those who underwent PT only. In CRPS, OT combined with PT brings a real benefit in restoring the essential activities of daily life. This strategy could be implemented as soon the diagnosis confirmed and continued for a very long time. It helps to avoid the risk of dependence on third parties.

  12. Expression profiles for macrophage alternative activation genes in AD and in mouse models of AD

    PubMed Central

    Colton, Carol A; Mott, Ryan T; Sharpe, Hayley; Xu, Qing; Van Nostrand, William E; Vitek, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Background Microglia are associated with neuritic plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD) and serve as a primary component of the innate immune response in the brain. Neuritic plaques are fibrous deposits composed of the amyloid beta-peptide fragments (Abeta) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Numerous studies have shown that the immune cells in the vicinity of amyloid deposits in AD express mRNA and proteins for pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to the hypothesis that microglia demonstrate classical (Th-1) immune activation in AD. Nonetheless, the complex role of microglial activation has yet to be fully explored since recent studies show that peripheral macrophages enter an "alternative" activation state. Methods To study alternative activation of microglia, we used quantitative RT-PCR to identify genes associated with alternative activation in microglia, including arginase I (AGI), mannose receptor (MRC1), found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1), and chitinase 3-like 3 (YM1). Results Our findings confirmed that treatment of microglia with anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 induces a gene profile typical of alternative activation similar to that previously observed in peripheral macrophages. We then used this gene expression profile to examine two mouse models of AD, the APPsw (Tg-2576) and Tg-SwDI, models for amyloid deposition and for cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) respectively. AGI, MRC1 and YM1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the Tg-2576 mouse brains compared to age-matched controls while TNFα and NOS2 mRNA levels, genes commonly associated with classical activation, increased or did not change, respectively. Only TNFα mRNA increased in the Tg-SwDI mouse brain. Alternative activation genes were also identified in brain samples from individuals with AD and were compared to age-matched control individuals. In AD brain, mRNAs for TNFα, AGI, MRC1 and the chitinase-3 like 1 and 2 genes (CHI3L1; CHI3L2) were significantly increased

  13. Secure ADS-B authentication system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viggiano, Marc J (Inventor); Valovage, Edward M (Inventor); Samuelson, Kenneth B (Inventor); Hall, Dana L (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A secure system for authenticating the identity of ADS-B systems, including: an authenticator, including a unique id generator and a transmitter transmitting the unique id to one or more ADS-B transmitters; one or more ADS-B transmitters, including a receiver receiving the unique id, one or more secure processing stages merging the unique id with the ADS-B transmitter's identification, data and secret key and generating a secure code identification and a transmitter transmitting a response containing the secure code and ADSB transmitter's data to the authenticator; the authenticator including means for independently determining each ADS-B transmitter's secret key, a receiver receiving each ADS-B transmitter's response, one or more secure processing stages merging the unique id, ADS-B transmitter's identification and data and generating a secure code, and comparison processing comparing the authenticator-generated secure code and the ADS-B transmitter-generated secure code and providing an authentication signal based on the comparison result.

  14. Baldcypress tree ring elemental concentrations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee from AD 1795 to AD 1820

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdale, R.; Hall, G.

    1995-11-01

    Many two hundred year old baldcypress trees in Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, lived through the great New Madrid earthquakes of 1811--1812. This study was undertaken to determine if the elemental composition of baldcypress tree rings showed any systematic variation through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820. Multiple cores were collected from two Reelfoot Lake baldcypress trees and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Individual yearly rings and five-year ring segments were analyzed to determine their elemental compositions. The cores were analyzed for Li through U but only Ba, Ce, Cs, Cu, I, La, Mg, Mn, Nd, Rb, Sm, Sr, and Zn were found to be in appropriate concentrations for this study. Of these elements only Ce, I, La, Nd, Rb, and Sm showed any systematic changes within individual cores. Comparison of three cores taken from one tree reveal that tree-ring elemental concentrations and changes in tree-ring elemental concentration through time are very different among the cores. When comparing the elemental concentrations of tree rings for the same years in the two different trees neither elemental concentrations nor changes in elemental concentration through time were similar. We conclude that the elemental concentrations in the tree rings of the two baldcypress trees analyzed in this study show no systematic change through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820.

  15. The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (Λ < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].

  16. Sagittal balance of the pelvis-spine complex and lumbar degenerative diseases. A comparative study about 85 cases

    PubMed Central

    Jund, Jérôme; Noseda, Olivier; Roussouly, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the spino-pelvic alignment in a population of 85 patients with a lumbar degenerative disease. Several previous publications reported the analysis of spino-pelvic alignment in the normal and low back pain population. Data suggested that patients with lumbar diseases have variations of sagittal alignment such as less distal lordosis, more proximal lumbar lordosis and a more vertical sacrum. Nevertheless most of these variations have been reported without reference to the pelvis shape which is well-known to strongly influence spino-pelvic alignment. The objective of this study was to analyse spino-pelvic parameters, including pelvis shape, in a population of 85 patients with a lumbar degenerative disease and compare these patients with a control group of normal volunteers. We analysed three different lumbar degenerative diseases: disc herniation (DH), n = 25; degenerative disc disease (DDD), n = 32; degenerative spondylolisthesis (DSPL), n = 28. Spino-pelvic alignment was analysed pre-operatively on full spine radiographs. Spino-pelvic parameters were measured as following: pelvic incidence, sacral slope, pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, spino-sacral angle and positioning of C7 plumb line. For each group of patients the sagittal profile was compared with a control population of 154 asymptomatic adults that was the subject of a previous study. In order to understand variations of spino-pelvic parameters in the patients’ population a stratification (matching) according to the pelvic incidence was done between the control group and each group of patients. Concerning first the pelvis shape, patients with DH and those with DDD demonstrated to have a mean pelvic incidence equal to 49.8° and 51.6°, respectively, versus 52° for the control group (no significant difference). Only young patients, less than 45 years old, with a disc disease (DH or DDD) demonstrated to have a pelvic incidence significantly lower (48.3°) than

  17. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database facilitates identification and understanding of chemical-gene-disease associations: arsenic as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Allan P; Murphy, Cynthia G; Rosenstein, Michael C; Wiegers, Thomas C; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of many chronic diseases involves interactions between environmental factors and genes that modulate physiological processes. Understanding interactions between environmental chemicals and genes/proteins may provide insights into the mechanisms of chemical actions, disease susceptibility, toxicity, and therapeutic drug interactions. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; ) provides these insights by curating and integrating data describing relationships between chemicals, genes/proteins, and human diseases. To illustrate the scope and application of CTD, we present an analysis of curated data for the chemical arsenic. Arsenic represents a major global environmental health threat and is associated with many diseases. The mechanisms by which arsenic modulates these diseases are not well understood. Methods Curated interactions between arsenic compounds and genes were downloaded using export and batch query tools at CTD. The list of genes was analyzed for molecular interactions, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, KEGG pathway annotations, and inferred disease relationships. Results CTD contains curated data from the published literature describing 2,738 molecular interactions between 21 different arsenic compounds and 1,456 genes and proteins. Analysis of these genes and proteins provide insight into the biological functions and molecular networks that are affected by exposure to arsenic, including stress response, apoptosis, cell cycle, and specific protein signaling pathways. Integrating arsenic-gene data with gene-disease data yields a list of diseases that may be associated with arsenic exposure and genes that may explain this association. Conclusion CTD data integration and curation strategies yield insight into the actions of environmental chemicals and provide a basis for developing hypotheses about the molecular mechanisms underlying the etiology of environmental diseases. While many reports describe the molecular response to arsenic, CTD

  18. Comparative Performance Analysis of Intel Xeon Phi, GPU, and CPU: A Case Study from Microscopy Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, George; Kurc, Tahsin; Kong, Jun; Cooper, Lee; Saltz, Joel

    2014-05-01

    We study and characterize the performance of operations in an important class of applications on GPUs and Many Integrated Core (MIC) architectures. Our work is motivated by applications that analyze low-dimensional spatial datasets captured by high resolution sensors, such as image datasets obtained from whole slide tissue specimens using microscopy scanners. Common operations in these applications involve the detection and extraction of objects (object segmentation), the computation of features of each extracted object (feature computation), and characterization of objects based on these features (object classification). In this work, we have identify the data access and computation patterns of operations in the object segmentation and feature computation categories. We systematically implement and evaluate the performance of these operations on modern CPUs, GPUs, and MIC systems for a microscopy image analysis application. Our results show that the performance on a MIC of operations that perform regular data access is comparable or sometimes better than that on a GPU. On the other hand, GPUs are significantly more efficient than MICs for operations that access data irregularly. This is a result of the low performance of MICs when it comes to random data access. We also have examined the coordinated use of MICs and CPUs. Our experiments show that using a performance aware task strategy for scheduling application operations improves performance about 1.29× over a first-come-first-served strategy. This allows applications to obtain high performance efficiency on CPU-MIC systems - the example application attained an efficiency of 84% on 192 nodes (3072 CPU cores and 192 MICs).

  19. Comparative Performance Analysis of Intel Xeon Phi, GPU, and CPU: A Case Study from Microscopy Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, George; Kurc, Tahsin; Kong, Jun; Cooper, Lee; Saltz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    We study and characterize the performance of operations in an important class of applications on GPUs and Many Integrated Core (MIC) architectures. Our work is motivated by applications that analyze low-dimensional spatial datasets captured by high resolution sensors, such as image datasets obtained from whole slide tissue specimens using microscopy scanners. Common operations in these applications involve the detection and extraction of objects (object segmentation), the computation of features of each extracted object (feature computation), and characterization of objects based on these features (object classification). In this work, we have identify the data access and computation patterns of operations in the object segmentation and feature computation categories. We systematically implement and evaluate the performance of these operations on modern CPUs, GPUs, and MIC systems for a microscopy image analysis application. Our results show that the performance on a MIC of operations that perform regular data access is comparable or sometimes better than that on a GPU. On the other hand, GPUs are significantly more efficient than MICs for operations that access data irregularly. This is a result of the low performance of MICs when it comes to random data access. We also have examined the coordinated use of MICs and CPUs. Our experiments show that using a performance aware task strategy for scheduling application operations improves performance about 1.29× over a first-come-first-served strategy. This allows applications to obtain high performance efficiency on CPU-MIC systems - the example application attained an efficiency of 84% on 192 nodes (3072 CPU cores and 192 MICs). PMID:25419088

  20. Conversation about Serostatus decreases risk of acquiring HIV: results from a case control study comparing MSM with recent HIV infection and HIV negative controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practices (KABP) of persons with recent HIV infection compared to controls with negative HIV test result provide information on current risk patterns and can help to re-focus HIV prevention strategies. Methods From March 2008 through May 2010, persons newly diagnosed with HIV (cases) and HIV-negative controls were recruited by physicians in Germany. To distinguish recent (< 5 months) from longstanding (> 5 months) infection, dried blood spots from people newly diagnosed with HIV were tested with the BED IgG-capture ELISA. Cases and controls completed a KABP-questionnaire. We compared cases with recent infection and controls among men having sex with men (MSM) regarding reported risk behaviour in the previous 6 months. To detect differences, unadjusted Odds Ratios (OR) were calculated and multivariate analysis was performed. Results Cases and controls did not differ in terms of knowledge on transmission risks, HIV testing frequency, partnership status, or regarding the frequency of any unprotected sex with partners known to be HIV-positive or assumed to be HIV-negative. Cases more often reported a shorter duration of partnership (< 6 months) with a primary partner than controls (OR = 3.9; p = 0.003) and indicated lower rates of condom use outside of primary relationships, with acquaintances (OR = 2.5; p = 0.01), and with persons met online (OR = 4.5; p = 0.04). Unprotected sex with persons of unknown HIV-serostatus was more often indicated by cases than controls (OR = 3.0; p = 0.003). Having a conversation about HIV serostatus before having sex was associated with a lower risk of infection (OR = 0.2; p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis “being always safe” (always using a condom when having sex in different situations outside of a relationship) and talking about serostatus before sex (OR = 0.23; p = 0.004; OR = 0.14; p = 0.014) were negatively

  1. Reply to Comment by Laprise on 'the Added Value to Global Model Projections of Climate Change by Dynamical Downscaling: a Case Study over the Continental U.S. Using the GISS-ModelE2 and WRF Models'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew Todd; Racherla, Pavan; Milly, George Peter

    2014-01-01

    have now evaluated those for the regional temperature trends used in our study to evaluate the added value of WRF and thus can analyze data as to the magnitude of the trends with respect to internal variability.

  2. Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, L.; McFarlane, S.; Sivaraman, C.

    2014-06-01

    The ndrop_mfrsr value-added product (VAP) provides an estimate of the cloud droplet number concentration of overcast water clouds retrieved from cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) instrument and liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the microwave radiometer (MWR). When cloud layer information is available from vertically pointing lidar and radars in the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product, the VAP also provides estimates of the adiabatic LWP and an adiabatic parameter (beta) that indicates how divergent the LWP is from the adiabatic case. quality control (QC) flags (qc_drop_number_conc), an uncertainty estimate (drop_number_conc_toterr), and a cloud layer type flag (cloud_base_type) are useful indicators of the quality and accuracy of any given value of the retrieval. Examples of these major input and output variables are given in sample plots in section 6.0.

  3. Stability analysis of f( R)-AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Taeyoon; Myung, Yun Soo; Son, Edwin J.

    2011-10-01

    We study the stability of the f( R)-AdS (Schwarzschild-AdS) black hole obtained from f( R) gravity. In order to resolve the difficulty of solving fourth-order linearized equations, we transform f( R) gravity into scalar-tensor theory by introducing two auxiliary scalars. In this case, the linearized curvature scalar becomes a dynamical scalaron, showing that all linearized equations are second order. Using the positivity of gravitational potentials and S-deformed technique allows us to guarantee the stability of f( R)-AdS black hole if the scalaron mass squared satisfies the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. This is confirmed by computing quasinormal frequencies of the scalaron for the f( R)-AdS black hole.

  4. Acute vertebral fracture after spinal fusion: a case report illustrating the added value of single-source dual-energy computed tomography to magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with spinal Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Putzier, M; Pumberger, M; Hermann, K G; Diekhoff, T

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is degraded by metal-implant-induced artifacts when used for the diagnostic assessment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with instrumented spinal fusion. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) offers a promising supplementary imaging tool in these patients. This case report describes an 85-year-old woman who presented with a suspected acute vertebral fracture after long posterior lumbar interbody fusion. This is the first report of a vertebral fracture that showed bone marrow edema on DECT; however, edema was missed by an MRI STIR sequence owing to metal artifacts. Bone marrow assessment using DECT is less susceptible to metal artifacts than MRI, resulting in improved visualization of vertebral edema in the vicinity of fused vertebral bodies.

  5. AD, the ALICE diffractive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Abraham Villatoro

    2017-03-01

    ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a complement to its Heavy-Ion physics program, ALICE started during Run 1 of LHC an extensive program dedicated to the study of proton-proton diffractive processes. In order to optimize its trigger efficiencies and purities in selecting diffractive events, the ALICE Collaboration installed a very forward AD detector during the Long Shut Down 1 of LHC. This new forward detector system consists of two stations made of two layers of scintillator pads, one station on each side of the interaction point. With this upgrade, ALICE has substantially increased its forward physics coverage, including the double rapidity gap based selection of central production, as well as the measurements of inclusive diffractive cross sections.

  6. [Deletion on the short arm of chromosome 18 syndrome diagnosed by array comparative genomic hybridization. Presentation of one case with a mild phenotype].

    PubMed

    Pachajoa, Harry

    2016-12-01

    Deletion on the short arm of chromosome 18 is an infrequent syndrome and it is characterized by the following features: mental retardation, growth retardation, craniofacial malformations such as large ears, microcephaly, and short neck. The phenotypical spectrum is a wide range of abnormalities including minor congenital abnormalities to holoprosencephaly. We present a case of a 10 year old girl who is found to have a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 18 (18p11.32-p11.21), by conventional cytogenetic analysis and comparative genomic hybridization.

  7. Multiple drug therapy--a comparative study with 2 tier and 3 tier combination of rifampicin, clofazimine, DDS, INAH and thiacetazone in lepromatous cases.

    PubMed

    Kundu, S K; Ghosh, S; Hazra, S; Chaudhury, S

    1981-04-01

    A comparative study with 2 tier and 3 tier combination of Rifampicin, Clofazimine, DDS, INAH and Thiacetazone was conducted on fifty lepromatous leprosy cases for varying periods. Assessment showed that 2 tier combination of clofazimine and DDS produced good results but the cost stood in the way; whereas 3 tier combination of DDS, thiacetazone and INAH also yielded good results with much less expenses to be incurred by the patients. Whether therapy with this 3 tier combination could be continued for a longer period with sustained improvement is yet to be assessed by further studies for a considerable period.

  8. Holographic antiferromagnetic quantum criticality and AdS2 scaling limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Run-Qiu; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2015-08-01

    A holographic description on the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by the magnetic field and the criticality in the vicinity of the quantum critical point have been investigated numerically recently. In this paper, we show that the properties of QPT in this holographic model are governed by a CFT dual to the emergent AdS2 in the IR region, which confirms that the dual boundary theory is a strong coupling theory with dynamic exponent z =2 and logarithmic corrections appearing. We also compare them with the results from the Hertz model by solving the RG equation at its upper critical dimension and with some experimental data from pyrochlores Er2 -2 xY2 xTi2 O7 and BiCoPO5 .

  9. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and its Receptors in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Brain Regions: Differential Findings in AD with and without Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dekens, Doortje W.; Naudé, Petrus J.W.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Eisel, Ulrich L.M.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Co-existing depression worsens Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a newly identified (neuro)inflammatory mediator in the pathophysiologies of both AD and depression. This study aimed to compare NGAL levels in healthy controls, AD without depression (AD–D), and AD with co-existing depression (AD+D) patients. Protein levels of NGAL and its receptors, 24p3R and megalin, were assessed in nine brain regions from healthy controls (n = 19), AD–D (n = 19), and AD+D (n = 21) patients. NGAL levels in AD–D patients were significantly increased in brain regions commonly associated with AD. In the hippocampus, NGAL levels were even further increased in AD+D subjects. Unexpectedly, NGAL levels in the prefrontal cortex of AD+D patients were comparable to those in controls. Megalin levels were increased in BA11 and amygdala of AD+D patients, while no changes in 24p3R were detected. These findings indicate significant differences in neuroimmunological regulation between AD patients with and without co-existing depression. Considering its known effects, elevated NGAL levels might actively promote neuropathological processes in AD with and without depression. PMID:27716662

  10. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  11. Presurgical orthopaedic nasoalveolar molding in cleft lip and palate infants: a comparative evaluation of cases done with and without nasal stents.

    PubMed

    Punga, Rohit; Sharma, S M

    2013-09-01

    Addressing the craniofacial anomaly of cleft lip and palate presurgically has been done since more than 50 years now, with a constant improvisation of the treatment protocols from time to time. The present study deals with a modification of the technique devised 16 years ago. The effect of nasal stents attached to a pre-surgical naso-alveolar molding (PNAM) appliance on the nasal morphology achieved prior to primary surgical correction of the cleft lip was to be evaluated. Twenty subjects, infants with cleft lip and palate, less than 2 months of age were selected for presurgical nasoalveolar molding treatment. Impressions were recorded, casts made and PNAM appliance fabricated. Ten infants were given the appliance without nasal stents and to the other ten appliances nasal stents were added. The patients were recalled every 2-3 weeks and a series of 9 measurements were recorded every visit along with adjustments made to the appliance for desirable effects on the lip, alveolus and nose. This was carried out till the patient was taken up for lip repair. The final measurements obtained at the end of the presurgical treatment were recorded. Mann-Whitney test, between study and control group showed that the increase in the columella length was statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.033) in the study group as compared to the control group. Also the increase of the nasal tip projection (mean = 1.30 mm) in the study group was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.006) as compared to the control group. We concluded that nasal stents attached to the alveolar molding appliance, yield significant improvement of the nasal morphology and better nasal aesthetics presurgically.

  12. A non-transgenic mouse model (icv-STZ mouse) of Alzheimer's disease: similarities to and differences from the transgenic model (3xTg-AD mouse).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxing; Liang, Zhihou; Blanchard, Julie; Dai, Chun-Ling; Sun, Shenggang; Lee, Moon H; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be divided into sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD). Most AD cases are sporadic and result from multiple etiologic factors, including environmental, genetic, and metabolic factors, whereas FAD is caused by mutations in the presenilins or amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein (APP) genes. A commonly used animal model for AD is the 3xTg-AD transgenic mouse model, which harbors mutated presenilin 1, APP, and tau genes and thus represents a model of FAD. There is an unmet need in the field to characterize animal models representing different AD mechanisms, so that potential drugs for SAD can be evaluated preclinically in these animal models. A mouse model generated by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of streptozocin (STZ), the icv-STZ mouse, shows many aspects of SAD. In this study, we compared the non-cognitive and cognitive behaviors as well as biochemical and immunohistochemical alterations between the icv-STZ mouse and the 3xTg-AD mouse. We found that both mouse models showed increased exploratory activity as well as impaired learning and spatial memory. Both models also demonstrated neuroinflammation, altered synaptic proteins and insulin/IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) signaling, and increased hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain. The most prominent brain abnormality in the icv-STZ mouse was neuroinflammation, and in the 3xTg-AD mouse it was elevation of hyperphosphorylated tau. These observations demonstrate the behavioral and neuropathological similarities and differences between the icv-STZ mouse and the 3xTg-AD mouse models and will help guide future studies using these two mouse models for the development of AD drugs.

  13. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.

  14. Biofuel: A Comparative Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    program (DoE, 2010). During this time, the program collected 3,000 types of microalgae . Plant Source Oil yield (L/ha/yr) Soybeans 446 Rapeseeds...autotrophic microalgae production. Applied Energy, 88(10), 3524–3531. Department of Defense (DoD). (2011). Opportunities for DoD use of alternative and...Tran, K.-Q., & Giselrød, H. R. (2008). Towards sustainable production of biofuels from microalgae . International Journal of Molecular Science, 9

  15. The New York Times ad.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were

  16. A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing the suitability of KTP laser tonsillectomy with conventional dissection tonsillectomy for day case surgery.

    PubMed

    Kothari, P; Patel, S; Brown, P; Obara, L; O'Malley, S

    2002-10-01

    Tonsillectomy using a KTP laser has been performed increasingly but is not a routinely practised technique in the UK. In the USA, tonsillectomy is often performed as a day case procedure but, here in the UK, it is still standard practice to admit patients for overnight stay. We present the largest prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial to date (151 patients) comparing KTP laser with standard dissection tonsillectomy and assess the suitability of both procedures for day case surgery. We found that there was significantly less peroperative haemorrhage if tonsillectomy was performed using the KTP laser, but it did cause more postoperative pain, more depression in mood and a higher rate of both reactionary and secondary haemorrhage, which was not significant when compared with conventional dissection. There was no difference in operating time, and over 40% of patients in each group needed overnight admission. We conclude that KTP laser tonsillectomy offers no benefit apart from less intraoperative bleeding over standard dissection tonsillectomy. Discharge from hospital after tonsillectomy was found to be unpredictable. Tonsillectomy is therefore an unsuitable procedure for planned surgery through a day unit, but approximately 58% of patients could be discharged on the same day from an extended day surgery unit, and the rest have one night in hospital.

  17. Four cases of atopic dermatitis complicated by Sjögren's syndrome: link between dry skin and autoimmune anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Kitaba, Shun; Matsui, Saki; Iimuro, Eriko; Nishioka, Megumi; Kijima, Akiko; Umegaki, Noriko; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2011-09-01

    We report four adult cases of atopic dermatitis (AD) complicated by Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for AD and SS. All cases showed persistent itchy dry skin and eczematous lesions complicated by sicca symptoms including dry eyes and dry mouth with moderate joint pain. One case manifested annular erythema and another manifested widespread discoid erythema. To investigate the underlying cause of dry skin in these cases, sweating function was evaluated using a quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) in which the axon reflex is stimulated by acetylcholine iontophoresis. The sweating latency time was significantly prolonged in eczematous skin of AD and AD/SS compared to normal controls. Axon reflex (AXR) sweat volume was also significantly reduced in AD (normal and eczematous skin) and AD/SS (normal and eczema) compared to normal control. In contrast, the direct sweat volume of lesional or non-lesional AD skin induced by direct stimulation with acetylcholine was only slightly reduced compared to that in normal controls, but not in SS and lesional skin of AD/SS patients. These results suggest that the impaired sweat response in AD is attributable to an abnormal sudomotor axon reflex, which is accelerated and modulated when complicated by SS resulting in dry skin in the present cases.

  18. Intracellular Signaling and Desmoglein 2 Shedding Triggered by Human Adenoviruses Ad3, Ad14, and Ad14P1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber

  19. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  20. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...

  1. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...

  2. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  3. Anastomotic dehiscence (AD) in colorectal cancer surgery: mechanical anastomosis versus manual anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Oprescu, C; Beuran, M; Nicolau, AE; Negoi, I; Venter, MD; Morteanu, S; Oprescu-Macovei, AM

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Anastomotic dehiscence (AD) is the “Achilles heel" for resectional colorectal pathology and is the most common cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. AD incidence is 3-8%; mortality rate due to AD two decades ago was around 60% and at present is 10% [4-6]. This paper analyzes the incidence of AD after colorectal resection performed both in emergency and elective situations, depending on the way it is done: manually or mechanically. Methods: Retrospective, single-center, observational study of patients operated in the period from 1st of January 2009 to 31th of December 2011 for malignant colorectal pathology in the Emergency Clinical Hospital of Bucharest. We evaluated the incidence of digestive fistulas according to the segment of digestive tract and time from hospital admission, to the way the anastomosis was achieved (mechanical vs. Manual), to the complexity of intervention, to the transfusion requirements pre/intra or postoperative, to the past medical history of patients (presence of colorectal inflammatory diseases: ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), to the average length of hospital stay and time of postoperative resumption of bowel transit. Results: We included 714 patients who had surgery between 1st of January 2009 and 31th of December 2011. 15.26% (109/714) of the cases were operated in emergency conditions. Of the 112 cases of medium and lower rectum, 76 have “benefited" from preoperative radiotherapy with a fistula rate of 22.36% (17/76). The incidence of anastomotic dehiscence in the group with preoperative radiotherapy and mechanical anastomosis was 64.7% (11/17) versus 35.3% (6/17) incidence recorded in the group with manual anastomosis. Colorectal inflammatory diseases have been found as a history of pathology in 41 patients - incidence of fistulas in this group was of 12.2% (5/41), compared to only 6.83% (46/673) incidence seen in patients without a history of such disease. For the group with bowel inflammatory

  4. Learning and Motivational Characteristics of Boys with AD/HD and/or Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Moon, Sidney M.; Hall, Arlene M.; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2001-01-01

    A study compared the academic and learning characteristics of three students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD), three gifted students, and three gifted students with AD/HD. Giftedness conferred benefits related to specific talents but did not offer protection from the negative outcomes of AD/HD, such as inattention and…

  5. AdS Chern-Simons gravity induces conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aros, Rodrigo; Díaz, Danilo E.

    2014-04-01

    The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional conformal gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as the dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauge-fixed, tractorlike) five-dimensional anti-de Sitter connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program readily admits a generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.

  6. Thick domain walls in AdS black hole spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Moderski, Rafal; Rogatko, Marek

    2006-08-15

    Equations of motion for a real self-gravitating scalar field in the background of a black hole with negative cosmological constant were solved numerically. We obtain a sequence of static axisymmetric solutions representing thick domain wall cosmological black hole systems, depending on the mass of black hole, cosmological parameter and the parameter binding black hole mass with the width of the domain wall. For the case of extremal cosmological black hole the expulsion of scalar field from the black hole strongly depends on it.

  7. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  8. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  9. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... página en español Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads Related Items Weight Loss Challenge Diet Ads and ... control Information Network .  The Truth Behind Weight Loss Ads Claims to watch out for include: Lose weight ...

  10. Distinct cerebral perfusion patterns in FTLD and AD

    PubMed Central

    Hu, W.T.; Wang, Z.; Lee, V.M.-Y.; Trojanowski, J.Q.; Detre, J.A.; Grossman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the utility of distinguishing between patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) using quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging with arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI. Methods: Forty-two patients with FTLD and 18 patients with AD, defined by autopsy or CSF-derived biomarkers for AD, and 23 matched controls were imaged with a continuous ASL method to quantify CBF maps covering the entire brain. Results: Patients with FTLD and AD showed distinct patterns of hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion. Compared with controls, patients with FTLD showed significant hypoperfusion in regions of the frontal lobe bilaterally, and hyperperfusion in posterior cingulate and medial parietal/precuneus regions. Compared with controls, patients with AD showed significant hypoperfusion in the medial parietal/precuneus and lateral parietal cortex, and hyperperfusion in regions of the frontal lobe. Direct comparison of patient groups showed significant inferior, medial, and dorsolateral frontal hypoperfusion in FTLD, and significant hypoperfusion in bilateral lateral temporal-parietal and medial parietal/precuneus regions in AD. Conclusions: Doubly dissociated areas of hypoperfusion in FTLD and AD are consistent with areas of significant histopathologic burden in these groups. ASL is a potentially useful biomarker for distinguishing patients with these neurodegenerative diseases. GLOSSARY Aβ42 = β-amyloid1-42; AD = Alzheimer disease; ASL = arterial spin labeling; bvFTD = behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia; cASL = continuous arterial spin labeling; CBS = corticobasal syndrome; CBF = cerebral blood flow; dACC = dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; dlPFC = dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; FDR = false detection rate; FTLD = frontotemporal lobar degeneration; GM = gray matter; iFC = inferior frontal cortex; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MNI = Montreal Neurological Institute; mTC = middle temporal cortex; OFC

  11. Global Coverage from Ad-Hoc Constellations in Rideshare Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Armin; Mercury, Michael; Brown, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A promising area of small satellite development is in providing higher temporal resolution than larger satellites. Traditional constellations have required specific orbits and dedicated launch vehicles. In this paper we discuss an alternative architecture in which the individual elements of the constellation are launched as rideshare opportunities. We compare the coverage of such an ad-hoc constellation with more traditional constellations. Coverage analysis is based on actual historical data from rideshare opportunities. Our analysis includes ground coverage and temporal revisits for Polar, Tropics, Temperate, and Global regions, comparing ad-hoc and Walker constellation.

  12. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  13. Historical Literature in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.

    1997-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.

  14. Comparative Case Study of Diffusion of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Two Clinical Settings: Empirically Supported Treatment Status Is Not Enough.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joan M; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was compared with a second VA setting in which it was not adopted. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 mental health clinicians at the first site, and 19 at the second. Critical selling points for EMDR were a highly regarded champion, the observability of effects with patients, and personally experiencing its effects during a role training session. Compatibility with existing psychotherapist practices and values further allowed the therapy to become embedded in the organizational culture. At the second site, a sense that EMDR was not theoretically coherent or compelling overwhelmed other considerations, including its empirical status. Comparative studies contrasting settings in which innovative therapies are implemented versus those in which they were rejected may aid in refining theories of and strategies for dissemination.

  15. Comparative outcome of revascularization in bilateral, non-vital, immature maxillary anterior teeth supplemented with or without platelet rich plasma: A case series.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Shah, Naseem; Logani, Ajay

    2013-11-01

    Loss of pulp vitality in an immature permanent tooth arrests root development. This leads to tooth with open apex and weak lateral dentinal walls. Management of such necrotic teeth with immature roots poses several treatment challenges. The documented study was performed to evaluate and compare apexogenesis induced by revascularization, with and without platelet rich plasma (PRP) in non-vital, immature anterior teeth. Three patients having bilateral, non-vital, immature maxillary central incisors with apical periodontitis were recruited after institutional ethical clearance. Subsequent to chemo-mechanical preparation, revascularization with and without PRP was randomly induced in either of the tooth. The cases were followed-up clinically and radiographically at 6 and 12 months. There was a marked difference in periapical healing, apical closure and dentinal wall thickening of teeth treated by revascularization with PRP.

  16. The financial benefits of acute inpatient palliative medicine: an inter-institutional comparative analysis by all patient refined-diagnosis related group and case mix index.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar P; Walsh, Declan; LeGrand, Susan B; Lagman, Ruth L; Harrison, Betty; Rybicki, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Financial comparisons of acute care hospital services are possible using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services case mix index (CMI) and All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG) data. We compared The Cleveland Clinic's Inpatient Palliative Medicine (CCIPM) acute care unit's CMI and APR-DRG data with national and peer institution data. Total mean charges per admission to the CCIPM unit were 7,800 dollars lower than at other peer institutions despite an equivalent severity of illness and longer length of stay and higher mortality in the CCIPM unit. The lower charges were due primarily to lower laboratory and pharmaceutical charges. We conclude that an acute inpatient palliative medicine unit operating within a comprehensive integrated palliative medicine program is cost-effective in providing specialized care for people with advanced disease.

  17. Couples therapy for women survivors of child sexual abuse who are in addictions recovery: a comparative case study of treatment process and outcome.

    PubMed

    Trute, B; Docking, B; Hiebert-Murphy, D

    2001-01-01

    Treatment for women who are survivors of child sexual abuse and who have a history of substance abuse has largely involved gender-specific interventions. This study examines the use of conjoint couple therapy with a cohort of women who were survivors of child sexual abuse and who are in addiction recovery and with their partners. A comparative case study analysis incorporated standardized clinical measures with client and therapist interviews. Brief conjoint therapy was found to assist couples in the specific relationship skill areas of communication and mutual problem solving. Further, substantive gains were found in the realm of affective relations. The women reported an increase in support from their male partners, and the men reported a decrease in negative emotional atmosphere in the relationship.

  18. Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics.

    PubMed

    Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Smith, Emma J; MacHunter, Barbara; Harrington, Glenda; Theobald, Vanessa; Hall, Carina M; Hornstra, Heidie M; McRobb, Evan; Podin, Yuwana; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul; Kaestli, Mirjam; Currie, Bart J

    2015-11-25

    Melioidosis is a disease of humans and animals that is caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Once thought to be confined to certain locations, the known presence of B. pseudomallei is expanding as more regions of endemicity are uncovered. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and even with antibiotic administration, the mortality rate is as high as 40% in some regions that are endemic for the infection. Despite high levels of recombination, phylogenetic reconstruction of B. pseudomallei populations using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revealed surprisingly robust biogeographic separation between isolates from Australia and Asia. To date, there have been no confirmed autochthonous melioidosis cases in Australia caused by an Asian isolate; likewise, no autochthonous cases in Asia have been identified as Australian in origin. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis of 455 B. pseudomallei genomes to confirm the unprecedented presence of an Asian clone, sequence type 562 (ST-562), in Darwin, northern Australia. First observed in Darwin in 2005, the incidence of melioidosis cases attributable to ST-562 infection has steadily risen, and it is now a common strain in Darwin. Intriguingly, the Australian ST-562 appears to be geographically restricted to a single locale and is genetically less diverse than other common STs from this region, indicating a recent introduction of this clone into northern Australia. Detailed genomic and epidemiological investigations of new clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates in the Darwin region and ST-562 isolates from Asia will be critical for understanding the origin, distribution, and dissemination of this emerging clone in northern Australia.

  19. Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma J.; MacHunter, Barbara; Harrington, Glenda; Theobald, Vanessa; Hall, Carina M.; Hornstra, Heidie M.; McRobb, Evan; Podin, Yuwana; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul; Kaestli, Mirjam; Currie, Bart J.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease of humans and animals that is caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Once thought to be confined to certain locations, the known presence of B. pseudomallei is expanding as more regions of endemicity are uncovered. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and even with antibiotic administration, the mortality rate is as high as 40% in some regions that are endemic for the infection. Despite high levels of recombination, phylogenetic reconstruction of B. pseudomallei populations using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revealed surprisingly robust biogeographic separation between isolates from Australia and Asia. To date, there have been no confirmed autochthonous melioidosis cases in Australia caused by an Asian isolate; likewise, no autochthonous cases in Asia have been identified as Australian in origin. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis of 455 B. pseudomallei genomes to confirm the unprecedented presence of an Asian clone, sequence type 562 (ST-562), in Darwin, northern Australia. First observed in Darwin in 2005, the incidence of melioidosis cases attributable to ST-562 infection has steadily risen, and it is now a common strain in Darwin. Intriguingly, the Australian ST-562 appears to be geographically restricted to a single locale and is genetically less diverse than other common STs from this region, indicating a recent introduction of this clone into northern Australia. Detailed genomic and epidemiological investigations of new clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates in the Darwin region and ST-562 isolates from Asia will be critical for understanding the origin, distribution, and dissemination of this emerging clone in northern Australia. PMID:26607593

  20. AdS monopole black hole and phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Shoichiro; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2016-12-01

    We study the Einstein-SO(3)Yang-Mills-Higgs system with a negative cosmological constant and find the monopole black hole solutions as well as the trivial Reissner-Nordström black hole. We discuss thermodynamical stability of the monopole black hole in an isolated system. We expect a phase transition between those two black holes when the mass of a black hole increases or decreases. The type of phase transition depends on the cosmological constant Λ , as well as the vacuum expectation value v and the coupling constant λ of the Higgs field. Keeping λ small, we find there are two critical values of the cosmological constant, Λcr(1 )(v ) and Λcr (2 )(v ), which depend on v . If Λcr (1 )(v )<Λ (<0 ) , we find the first order transition, whereas if Λcr (2 )(v )<Λ <Λcr (1 )(v ) , the transition becomes second order. For the case of Λb(v )<Λ <Λ(2 )(v ), we again find the first order irreversible transition from the monopole black hole to the extreme Reissner-Nordström black hole. Beyond Λb(v ), no monopole black hole exists. We also discuss thermodynamical properties of the monopole black hole in a thermal bath system.