Science.gov

Sample records for ad hominem attacks

  1. Scientific feuds, polemics, and ad hominem arguments in basic and special-interest genetics.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Elof Axel

    Scientific disputes are commonly presented and settled in journal publications. Most are resolved by a weighing of evidence and new findings. In some cases the arguments are personal and in the form of ad hominem attacks on the personality or integrity of an author of a journal article. Many famous scientists (e.g., Galileo, Newton, and Hooke) used ad hominem arguments in responding to their critics. William Bateson, W.F.R. Weldon, William Castle, and H.J. Muller used ad hominem arguments in their publications until the end of World War I, when editorial policy of journals changed. Motivating some of the attacks are philosophic differences (such as holistic or reductionist approaches to science), ideological differences (such as Marxist or Capitalist outlooks), politics (such as Cold War depictions by East and West on fallout from nuclear testing), or conflicts of interest (which can be professional or financial such as the debates over nontraditional and orthodox medicine or over tobacco smoking and health). Most of the time, the disputes are motivated by honest disagreements over the interpretation of the data. A recent surge (2009-2016) of ad hominem attacks by Edward Calabrese has appeared disparaging H. J. Muller, E. B. Lewis, other twentieth-century contributors to radiation genetics, and the National Academy of Sciences. They address the mutational effects of low-dose radiation exposure. Calabrese's attacks have led to responses by geneticists in the field of mutagenesis, by agencies criticized by Calabrese, and by students and colleagues of those who have been accused of deception by Calabrese. This article reviews some of the history of ad hominem arguments in science and the background to the attacks by Calabrese. I argue that Calabrese's characterization of Muller and his supporters is unjust, misleading, and hurtful. I also propose some methods for dealing with or preventing ad hominem attacks in professional journals.

  2. Discounting Testimony with the Argument Ad Hominem and a Bayesian Congruent Prior Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Jaydeep-Singh; Oaksford, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When directed to ignore evidence of a witness's previous bad character because of a violation of the rules of evidence, are jurors' beliefs still affected? The intuition is that they will be because in everyday argumentation, fallacies, like the ad hominem, are effective argumentative strategies. An ad hominem argument (against the person)…

  3. "13 Angry Men": Dale Bumper's "Ad Hominem" Impeachment Trial of President Clinton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brovero, Adrienne F.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes Senator Bumpers' argument in the Clinton impeachment proceedings as a bias type of "ad hominem" argument. Notes specifically Bumpers' argument that the House Managers were not fulfilling their proper roles in the proceedings. Claims Bumpers' bias position was reasonable in the argumentative context in which it took place. (NH)

  4. Discounting testimony with the argument ad hominem and a Bayesian congruent prior model.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Jaydeep-Singh; Oaksford, Mike

    2015-09-01

    When directed to ignore evidence of a witness's previous bad character because of a violation of the rules of evidence, are jurors' beliefs still affected? The intuition is that they will be because in everyday argumentation, fallacies, like the ad hominem, are effective argumentative strategies. An ad hominem argument (against the person) undermines a conclusion by questioning the character of the proposer. This intuition divides current theories of argumentation. According to pragmadialectical theory (e.g., Van Eemeren & Grootendorst, 2004), procedural rules exactly like the rules of evidence are part of our cognitive resources for evaluating arguments. If one of these rules is violated, an argument should be treated as a fallacy and so it should not alter someone's belief in the conclusion. Some recent experiments investigating how reasonable these arguments are perceived to be seem to support this account (van Eemeren, Garssen, & Meuffels, 2009). These experiments are critiqued from the perspective of the relevance (Walton, 2009, 2010) and epistemic (Hahn & Oaksford, 2006, 2007; Oaksford & Hahn, 2004) approaches to argumentation. An experiment investigates the predictions of these approaches for a graded belief change version of van Eemeren et al.'s (2009) experiment, and the results are modeled using a Bayesian congruent prior model. These results cannot be explained by the pragmadialectical approach and show that in everyday argument people are extremely sensitive to the epistemic relevance of evidence. Moreover, it seems highly unlikely that this can be switched off in more formal contexts such as the courtroom.

  5. Use of "Ad Hominem" Argument in Political Discourse: The Battalino Case from the Impeachment Trial of President Clinton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Examines argument from the televised impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton concerning the similarity of the Clinton case to the Linda Battalino case and asks if the argument does or does not represents an "ad hominem" argument. Provides an introduction to the viewpoint of informal logic and a summary of the various forms of…

  6. Liars and Ghosts in the House of Congress: Frank's "Ad Hominem" Arguments in the Case against the Defense of Marriage Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Lynn E.

    2000-01-01

    Offers a critical analysis of Rep. Barney Frank's speech delivered in the House of Representatives concerning the "Defense of Marriage Act." Argues that Frank attempts to persuade colleagues by advancing two "ad hominem" arguments, one of which could potentially shift the focus from the need to defend marriages from same-sex…

  7. Toward an experimental account of argumentation: the case of the slippery slope and the ad hominem arguments

    PubMed Central

    Lillo-Unglaube, Marco; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Navarrete, Gorka; Bravo, Claudio Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is a crucial component of our lives. Although in the absence of rational debate our legal, political, and scientific systems would not be possible, there is still no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Furthermore, classical theories of argumentation are normative (i.e., the acceptability of an argument is determined by a set of norms or logical rules), which sometimes creates a dissociation between the theories and people’s behavior. We think the current challenge for psychology is to bring together the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation. In this article, we exemplify this point by analyzing two cases of argumentative structures experimentally studied in the context of cognitive psychology. Specifically, we focus on the slippery slope argument and the ad hominem argument under the frameworks of Bayesian and pragma-dialectics approaches, respectively. We think employing more descriptive and experimental accounts of argumentation would help Psychology to bring closer the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation with the final goal of establishing an integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. PMID:25566112

  8. Toward an experimental account of argumentation: the case of the slippery slope and the ad hominem arguments.

    PubMed

    Lillo-Unglaube, Marco; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Navarrete, Gorka; Bravo, Claudio Fuentes

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is a crucial component of our lives. Although in the absence of rational debate our legal, political, and scientific systems would not be possible, there is still no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Furthermore, classical theories of argumentation are normative (i.e., the acceptability of an argument is determined by a set of norms or logical rules), which sometimes creates a dissociation between the theories and people's behavior. We think the current challenge for psychology is to bring together the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation. In this article, we exemplify this point by analyzing two cases of argumentative structures experimentally studied in the context of cognitive psychology. Specifically, we focus on the slippery slope argument and the ad hominem argument under the frameworks of Bayesian and pragma-dialectics approaches, respectively. We think employing more descriptive and experimental accounts of argumentation would help Psychology to bring closer the cognitive and normative accounts of argumentation with the final goal of establishing an integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation.

  9. From Malicious Eyes: A Method for Concise Representation of Ad-Hoc Networks and Efficient Attack Survivability Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    a modification of OSPF that is optimized for mobile ad-hoc networks . OSPFv3MDR uses IPv6 addressing. Topology. In attempts to achieve a suitable...From Malicious Eyes: A Method for Concise Representation of Ad-Hoc Networks and Efficient Attack Survivability Analysis by Jaime C. Acosta...White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002-5501 ARL-TR-6035 July 2012 From Malicious Eyes: A Method for Concise Representation of Ad-Hoc Networks

  10. A Black Hole Attack Model for Reactive Ad-Hoc Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Technology Conference. IEEE, 2003. pp. 2286-2290. [BhS09] N. Bhalaji, and A. Shanmugam. "Association Between Nodes to Combat Blackhole Attack in DSR...2012. 102 [PSA09] A. Prathapani, L. Santhanam, and P. Agrawal. "Intelligent Honeypot Agent for Blackhole Attack Detection in Wireless Mesh

  11. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST - elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD - heart attack; Coronary artery disease - heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  12. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  13. Genetic attack on neural cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido

    2006-03-15

    Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.

  14. When women attack.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Davis, Catasha; Coppini, David; Kim, Young Mie; Knisely, Sandra; McLeod, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The common assumption that female candidates on the campaign trail should not go on the attack, because such tactics contradict gender stereotypes, has not received consistent support. We argue that in some circumstances gender stereotypes will favor female politicians going negative. To test this proposition, this study examines how gender cues affect voter reactions to negative ads in the context of a political sex scandal, a context that should prime gender stereotypes that favor females. Using an online experiment involving a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 599), we manipulate the gender and partisan affiliation of a politician who attacks a male opponent caught in a sex scandal involving sexually suggestive texting to a female intern. Results show that in the context of a sex scandal, a female candidate going on the attack is evaluated more positively than a male. Moreover, while female participants viewed the female sponsor more favorably, sponsor gender had no effect on male participants. Partisanship also influenced candidate evaluations: the Democratic female candidate was evaluated more favorably than her Republican female counterpart.

  15. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Sep 19,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  16. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000166.htm Pericarditis - after heart attack To use the sharing features on this page, ... occur in the days or weeks following a heart attack . Causes Two types of pericarditis can occur after ...

  17. Flashbulb memories of Paris attacks

    PubMed Central

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Wawrziczny, Emilie; Antoine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Flashbulb memories are detailed and vivid memories of attributes of the reception context of surprising and emotionally arousing public events. Patient concerns and diagnosis: This paper offers a fine-grained view of flashbulb memories in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interventions: The patient underwent a directed interview about the 13 November 2015 attacks in Paris. Outcomes: Unlike her memory about the date and month of the attacks, the patient provided accurate information about the year, time and places they occurred. The patient also provided accurate information about how she first became aware of the attacks, where she was, with whom, what she was doing, and what time it was when she learned about them. As for the affective characteristics of these memories, she tended to have high ratings of vividness and rehearsal. Negative emotional states and great surprise and novelty were also reported. Lessons: By assessing the impact of flashbulb memories in this patient with AD, this paper offers a unique view into how such memories may trigger a considerable recall of context as well much subjective reliving. PMID:27861395

  18. Seven Deadliest Network Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Borkin, Michael; Kraus, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting networks? Then you need "Seven Deadliest Network Attacks". This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to networks, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks detailed in this book include: Denial of Service; War Dialing; Penetration 'Testing'; Protocol Tunneling; Spanning Tree Attacks; Man-in-the-Middle; and, Password Replay. Knowledge is power, find out about the most dominant attacks currently waging war on computers and networks globally. Discover the best ways to defend against these vicious attacks; step-by-step instruction shows you how. Institute countermeasures, don't be caught defenseless again, learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable.

  19. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live active, ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry about ...

  20. What Is a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? Español A heart attack happens when the flow ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  1. Performance Evaluation of AODV with Blackhole Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dara, Karuna

    2010-11-01

    A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a temporary network set up by a wireless mobile computers moving arbitrary in the places that have no network infrastructure. These nodes maintain connectivity in a decentralized manner. Since the nodes communicate with each other, they cooperate by forwarding data packets to other nodes in the network. Thus the nodes find a path to the destination node using routing protocols. However, due to security vulnerabilities of the routing protocols, mobile ad-hoc networks are unprotected to attacks of the malicious nodes. One of these attacks is the Black Hole Attack against network integrity absorbing all data packets in the network. Since the data packets do not reach the destination node on account of this attack, data loss will occur. In this paper, we simulated the black hole attack in various mobile ad-hoc network scenarios using AODV routing protocol of MANET and have tried to find a effect if number of nodes are increased with increase in malicious nodes.

  2. Traumatic tiger attack.

    PubMed

    Chum, Marvin; Ng, Wai Pui

    2011-11-01

    Attacks on humans by large cats are uncommon occurrences and thus the principles of managing such injuries are not well documented. The authors here report the case of an 11-year-old boy who was mauled by a privately owned tiger. The attack resulted in multiple cranial lacerations and fractures, dissection of the internal carotid artery, and persistent neurological deficits. This case outlines the multiple sources of injury and pathology that can result from such an attack. Discussion is focused on the pattern of injury seen in large feline attacks and the treatment approach.

  3. Situational awareness of a coordinated cyber attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudit, Moises; Stotz, Adam; Holender, Michael

    2005-03-01

    As technology continues to advance, services and capabilities become computerized, and an ever increasing amount of business is conducted electronically the threat of cyber attacks gets compounded by the complexity of such attacks and the criticality of the information which must be secured. A new age of virtual warfare has dawned in which seconds can differentiate between the protection of vital information and/or services and a malicious attacker attaining their goal. In this paper we present a novel approach in the real-time detection of multistage coordinated cyber attacks and the promising initial testing results we have obtained. We introduce INFERD (INformation Fusion Engine for Real-time Decision-making), an adaptable information fusion engine which performs fusion at levels zero, one, and two to provide real-time situational assessment and its application to the cyber domain in the ECCARS (Event Correlation for Cyber Attack Recognition System) system. The advantages to our approach are fourfold: (1) The complexity of the attacks which we consider, (2) the level of abstraction in which the analyst interacts with the attack scenarios, (3) the speed at which the information fusion is presented and performed, and (4) our disregard for ad-hoc rules or a priori parameters.

  4. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  5. Exercisers May Have Better Shot of Surviving Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... the University of Copenhagen. "Animal studies suggest that myocardial infarctions [heart attacks] are smaller and less likely to ... see if exercise was linked with less serious myocardial infarctions in people," she added in a journal news ...

  6. Making MANET secured against malicious attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kush, Ashwani; Taneja, Sunil; Kush, Shagun

    2011-12-01

    A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is characterized by mobile nodes, multihop wireless connectivity, infrastructureless environment and dynamic topology. A recent trend in Ad Hoc network routing is the reactive ondemand philosophy where routes are established only when required. Stable Routing is of major concern in Ad hoc routing. Security and Power efficiency are the major concerns in this field. This paper is an effort to use security to achieve more reliable routing. The ad hoc environment is accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. The proposed scheme is intended to incorporate security aspect on existing protocols. The study will help in making protocol more robust against attacks to achieve stable routing in routing protocols.

  7. Supply Chain Attack Framework and Attack Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Malware is embedded in a replacement server motherboard (e.g., in the flash memory) in order to alter server functionality from that intended. Attack...Slashdot: Dell Ships Infected Motherboards July 21, 2010(c/o Rick Dove) Threat: An adversary with access to hardware procurement, maintenance, or upgrade...control can embed malware in a critical component server motherboard . Vulnerabilities: The control processes and mechanisms for hardware

  8. Stroke following rottweiler attack.

    PubMed

    Miller, S J; Copass, M; Johansen, K; Winn, H R

    1993-02-01

    A previously healthy 50-year-old man suffered a major right cerebral infarction shortly after receiving head and neck bites in an attack by two rottweilers. Arteriography revealed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, an intimal flap and pseudoaneurysm in the high right internal carotid artery just proximal to the skull base, and an obstructed right vertebral artery. The powerful jaw mechanism of rottweilers and other large mastiff-type dogs makes their bites particularly destructive. The predilection of these animals for attacking the head and upper body makes occult crush injury to the extracranial cerebral vessels an important diagnostic consideration following such attacks.

  9. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  10. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  11. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  12. A fatal leopard attack.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr

    2010-05-01

    A rare case of a big cat fatal attack is presented. A male leopard that had escaped from its unlocked cage attacked a 26-year-old male zoo worker. The man sustained penetrating injuries to the neck with consequent external bleeding. The man died while being transported to the hospital as a result of the injuries sustained. The wounds discovered on the victim's body corresponded with the known methods of leopard attacks and with findings on the carcasses of animals killed by leopards in the wild. The conclusion of the medicolegal investigation was that the underlying cause of death was a bite wound to the neck which lacerated the left internal jugular vein, the two main branches of the left external carotid artery, and the cervical spine. The cause of death was massive external bleeding. Special attention is paid to the general pattern of injuries sustained from big cat attacks.

  13. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  14. New sensitivity analysis attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Choubassi, Maha; Moulin, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    The sensitivity analysis attacks by Kalker et al. constitute a known family of watermark removal attacks exploiting a vulnerability in some watermarking protocols: the attacker's unlimited access to the watermark detector. In this paper, a new attack on spread spectrum schemes is designed. We first examine one of Kalker's algorithms and prove its convergence using the law of large numbers, which gives more insight into the problem. Next, a new algorithm is presented and compared to existing ones. Various detection algorithms are considered including correlation detectors and normalized correlation detectors, as well as other, more complicated algorithms. Our algorithm is noniterative and requires at most n+1 operations, where n is the dimension of the signal. Moreover, the new approach directly estimates the watermark by exploiting the simple geometry of the detection boundary and the information leaked by the detector.

  15. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  16. Exploring Windows Domain-Level Defenses Against Authentication Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences}; Curtis, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the security resilience of the current Windows Active Directory (AD) environments to Pass-the-Hash and Pass- the-Ticket credential theft attacks. While doing this, we discovered a way to trigger the removal of all previously issued authentication credentials for a client, thus preventing their use by attackers. After triggered, the user is forced to contact the domain administrators and to authenticate to the AD to continue. This could become the basis for a response that arrests the spread of a detected attack. Operating in a virtualized XenServer environment, we were able to carefully determine and recreate the conditions necessary to cause this response.

  17. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  18. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  19. Fatal crocodile attack.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out.

  20. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…

  1. Application distribution model and related security attacks in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikaein, Navid; Kanti Datta, Soumya; Marecar, Irshad; Bonnet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model for application distribution and related security attacks in dense vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) and sparse VANET which forms a delay tolerant network (DTN). We study the vulnerabilities of VANET to evaluate the attack scenarios and introduce a new attacker`s model as an extension to the work done in [6]. Then a VANET model has been proposed that supports the application distribution through proxy app stores on top of mobile platforms installed in vehicles. The steps of application distribution have been studied in detail. We have identified key attacks (e.g. malware, spamming and phishing, software attack and threat to location privacy) for dense VANET and two attack scenarios for sparse VANET. It has been shown that attacks can be launched by distributing malicious applications and injecting malicious codes to On Board Unit (OBU) by exploiting OBU software security holes. Consequences of such security attacks have been described. Finally, countermeasures including the concepts of sandbox have also been presented in depth.

  2. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack Symptoms in Women Updated:Jan 10,2017 Heart Attack Signs in Women Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or ...

  3. An Attack Surface Metric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Introduction Measurement of security, both qualitatively and quantitatively, has been a long standing challenge to the research community , and is of...our approach to related work in Section 2. We introduce the entry point and exit point framework in Section 3. We present the definitions of...ignores the specific system configuration that gave rise to the vulnerability, and it does not capture a system’s future attackability. Our approach

  4. Replacement Attack: A New Zero Text Watermarking Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashardoost, Morteza; Mohd Rahim, Mohd Shafry; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of zero watermarking methods that are suggested for the authentication of textual properties is to increase the fragility of produced watermarks against tampering attacks. On the other hand, zero watermarking attacks intend to alter the contents of document without changing the watermark. In this paper, the Replacement attack is proposed, which focuses on maintaining the location of the words in the document. The proposed text watermarking attack is specifically effective on watermarking approaches that exploit words' transition in the document. The evaluation outcomes prove that tested word-based method are unable to detect the existence of replacement attack in the document. Moreover, the comparison results show that the size of Replacement attack is estimated less accurate than other common types of zero text watermarking attacks.

  5. Modeling Partial Attacks with Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Amerson; Bond, Mike; Clulow, Jolyon

    The automated and formal analysis of cryptographic primitives, security protocols and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) up to date has been focused on discovering attacks that completely break the security of a system. However, there are attacks that do not immediately break a system but weaken the security sufficiently for the adversary. We term these attacks partial attacks and present the first methodology for the modeling and automated analysis of this genre of attacks by describing two approaches. The first approach reasons about entropy and was used to simulate and verify an attack on the ECB|ECB|OFB triple-mode DES block-cipher. The second approach reasons about possibility sets and was used to simulate and verify an attack on the personal identification number (PIN) derivation algorithm used in the IBM 4758 Common Cryptographic Architecture.

  6. Improving Attack Graph Visualization through Data Reduction and Attack Grouping

    SciTech Connect

    John Homer; Ashok Varikuti; Xinming Ou; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-09-01

    Various tools exist to analyze enterprise network systems and to produce attack graphs detailing how attackers might penetrate into the system. These attack graphs, however, are often complex and difficult to comprehend fully, and a human user may find it problematic to reach appropriate configuration decisions. This paper presents methodologies that can 1) automatically identify portions of an attack graph that do not help a user to understand the core security problems and so can be trimmed, and 2) automatically group similar attack steps as virtual nodes in a model of the network topology, to immediately increase the understandability of the data. We believe both methods are important steps toward improving visualization of attack graphs to make them more useful in configuration management for large enterprise networks. We implemented our methods using one of the existing attack-graph toolkits. Initial experimentation shows that the proposed approaches can 1) significantly reduce the complexity of attack graphs by trimming a large portion of the graph that is not needed for a user to understand the security problem, and 2) significantly increase the accessibility and understandability of the data presented in the attack graph by clearly showing, within a generated visualization of the network topology, the number and type of potential attacks to which each host is exposed.

  7. DNS Rebinding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    action [From 2] The same origin policy is also called Single Origin or Same Site Policy. It was originally released with Netscape Navigator 2.0 and...success Netscape 8.2.1 Windows XP / SP2 success Opera 9.0.2 Windows 2000 / SP4 success Table 6. Satoh’s attack results using Adobe Flash Player...dns/dns-rebinding.pdf. Retrieved May 2009. [4] D. Dean, E. W. Felten, and D. S. Wallach “Java Security: From HotJava to Netscape and Beyond

  8. How Is a Heart Attack Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Treated? Early treatment for a heart attack can ... or years after the procedure. Other Treatments for Heart Attack Other treatments for heart attack include: Medicines Medical ...

  9. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  10. TCPL: A Defense against wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, K. E. Naresh; Waheed, Mohd. Abdul; Basappa, K. Kari

    2010-10-26

    Do In this paper presents recent advances in technology have made low-cost, low-power wireless sensors with efficient energy consumption. A network of such nodes can coordinate among themselves for distributed sensing and processing of certain data. For which, we propose an architecture to provide a stateless solution in sensor networks for efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. This type of architecture is known as Tree Cast. We propose a unique method of address allocation, building up multiple disjoint trees which are geographically inter-twined and rooted at the data sink. Using these trees, routing messages to and from the sink node without maintaining any routing state in the sensor nodes is possible. In this paper, we introduce the wormhole attack, a severe attack in ad hoc networks that is particularly challenging to defend against. The wormhole attack is possible even if the attacker has not compromised any hosts and even if all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality. In the wormhole attack, an attacker records packets (or bits) at one location in the network, tunnels them to another location, and retransmits them there into the network. The wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless networks, especially against many sensor network routing protocols and location-based wireless security systems. For example, most existing ad hoc network routing protocols, without some mechanism to defend against the wormhole attack, would be unable to find routes longer than one or two hops, severely disrupting communication. We present a new, general mechanism, called packet leashes, for detecting and thus defending against wormhole attacks, and we present a specific protocol, called TIK, that implements leashes.

  11. Decision Support for Attack Submarine Commanders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    AD-AO95 892 DECISION SCIENCE CONSORTIUM INC FALLS CHURCH VA F./e 12/2 DECISION SUPPORT FOR ATTACK SUBMARINE COMMANDERS. (U) OCT 80 M S COHEN, R V...BROWN N00014-80-C-0046 UNCLASSIFIED TR-8S-11 ML DECISIN IEN$CE CUIVSURTiUM, MrC. DECISION SUPPORT FOR A TTA CK SUBMARINE COMMANDERS Marvin S . Cohen and...on reverse) DDI ,o..ŕ 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OISOLCTZ Unclassified S /N 0102-014-6601 1 SECURITY CLASIFICATION OF TNIS PAGE (10bon DW& tateo* 01

  12. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  13. Dog pack attack: hunting humans.

    PubMed

    Avis, S P

    1999-09-01

    Dog bite-related fatalities, although unusual, accounted for 304 deaths in the United States between 1979 and 1996 and 6 fatalities in Canada between 1994 and 1996. Fatal dog pack attacks and attacks involving human predation are less common. The following describes a dog pack attack on a family of four involving 2 fatalities with predation of the victims. Factors previously identified that contribute to pack attacks and predation, including prior group hunting, social feeding, territorial defense, lack of human interaction, and prey stimuli, are discussed.

  14. Degree-based attacks and defense strategies in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehezkel, Aviv; Cohen, Reuven

    2012-12-01

    We study the stability of random scale-free networks to degree-dependent attacks. We present analytical and numerical results to compute the critical fraction pc of nodes that need to be removed for destroying the network under this attack for different attack parameters. We study the effect of different defense strategies, based on the addition of a constant number of links on network robustness. We test defense strategies based on adding links to either low degree, middegree or high degree nodes. We find using analytical results and simulations that the middegree nodes defense strategy leads to the largest improvement to the network robustness against degree-based attacks. We also test these defense strategies on an internet autonomous systems map and obtain similar results.

  15. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  16. Scenario Graphs and Attack Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-14

    46 6.1 Vulnerability Analysis of a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6.2 Sandia Red Team Attack Graph...asymptotic bound. The test machine was a 1Ghz Pentium III with 1GB of RAM, running Red Hat Linux 7.3. Figure 4.1(a) plots running time of the implemen...host scanning tools network information vulnerability Attack Graph network Red

  17. Gout attacks and lunar cycle.

    PubMed

    Mikulecký, M; Rovenský, J

    2000-07-01

    The aim was to search for periodical fluctuations in daily occurrence of gout attacks during the synodic lunar cycle. 126 gout attacks were recorded between 1972 and 1994 at known calendar dates. The synodic plexogram, displaying the number of attacks for each day of the cycle, was processed by cosinor regression. A pronounced cycling was found, with highest peaks under the new and full moon (syzygigies). Thus, the maximal occurrence of attacks coincides with the peaking lunisolar tidal effect. Similar relation of attacks to synodic moon was seen in bronchial asthma of children, and a reciprocal one in paroxysmal tachyarrhythmia. Differing pathogenetic backgrounds of these diseases substantiate the observed differences in their putative reactions on the changing cosmogeophysical environment.

  18. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Attack? Updated:Sep 16,2016 Begin the quiz Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary ... in Women “Can you recognize a heart attack?” Quiz • Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack ...

  19. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  20. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  1. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  2. Allergens might trigger migraine attacks.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Hesna; Karabulut, Hayriye; Doganay, Beyza; Acar, Baran

    2017-03-01

    Migraine is a common primary headache disorder. The mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. Environmental changes and a number of other factors could induce migraine attacks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of migraine attacks and allergens. Migraine patients without aura, and healthy individuals similar in age and gender without a history of headache and allergy were prospectively included in the study. The duration of migraine, the frequency of migraine attacks, the medication history, and the symptoms during attacks were questioned. Migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained. Allergen extracts including dust, fungi, insect, animal epithelium, pollens, and food allergens were applied for allergy tests. 49 migraine patients and 49 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in terms of age and gender. The median migraine disease duration, the number of attacks in a month, and the duration of attacks were, respectively, 5.5 years (1-44), 4 (1-10) day/month, and 24 (4-72) h. The mean MIDAS grade was 2.45 ± 0.14 (1-4), and mean VAS score was 7.89 ± 0.27 (4-10). The positivity of allergy tests was 55.1 % (27/49) in the migraine group and 32.7 % (16/49) in the control group (p < 0.05). The allergy tests were positive for house dust, red birch, hazel tree, olive tree, nettle, and wheat. The frequency of migraine attacks was higher in allergy-test-positive patients than in negative ones in the migraine group (p = 0.001). The migraine patients who had frequent attacks should be examined for allergies.

  3. High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK IN A VERY LOW TURBULENCE LEVEL AIR STREAM by B.L.Hunt and P.C.Dexter 17 WIND AND WATER TUNNEL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERACTION OF...FIGURE 1. TYPICAL FIGffTER FOREBODY LENGTHS It baa been convincingly shown in small-scale wind tunnel and water tunnel experiments that the apfro...attack taken during a water tunnel test. jn asymmetric vor~ox pattern io clearly ubewn. LOW ANGLE OF ATTACKC HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK (SYMMETRIC

  4. Impact modeling and prediction of attacks on cyber targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Aram; Michalk, Brian; Alford, Lee; Henney, Chris; Gilbert, Logan

    2010-04-01

    In most organizations, IT (information technology) infrastructure exists to support the organization's mission. The threat of cyber attacks poses risks to this mission. Current network security research focuses on the threat of cyber attacks to the organization's IT infrastructure; however, the risks to the overall mission are rarely analyzed or formalized. This connection of IT infrastructure to the organization's mission is often neglected or carried out ad-hoc. Our work bridges this gap and introduces analyses and formalisms to help organizations understand the mission risks they face from cyber attacks. Modeling an organization's mission vulnerability to cyber attacks requires a description of the IT infrastructure (network model), the organization mission (business model), and how the mission relies on IT resources (correlation model). With this information, proper analysis can show which cyber resources are of tactical importance in a cyber attack, i.e., controlling them enables a large range of cyber attacks. Such analysis also reveals which IT resources contribute most to the organization's mission, i.e., lack of control over them gravely affects the mission. These results can then be used to formulate IT security strategies and explore their trade-offs, which leads to better incident response. This paper presents our methodology for encoding IT infrastructure, organization mission and correlations, our analysis framework, as well as initial experimental results and conclusions.

  5. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Understand Your Risks to Prevent a Heart Attack Updated:Sep 16,2016 Knowledge is power, so ... medication. This content was last reviewed June 2016. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  6. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented? Lowering your risk factors for coronary ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  7. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    2005 FEB 2005 Selective Availability Anti- Spoofing Module (SAASM)/ GPS Anti-Jam Production Award N/A MAR 2005 SEP 2005 MAR 2005 Change Explanations...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  8. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  9. Duloxetine-related panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Sabljić, Vladimir; Rakun, Radmir; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    Side-effects arising on the grounds of antidepressant administration pose as a substantial obstacle hindering successful depressive disorder treatment. Side-effects, especially those severe or those manifested through dramatic clinical presentations such as panic attacks, make the treatment far more difficult and shake patients' trust in both the treatment and the treating physician. This case report deals with a patient experiencing a moderately severe depressive episode, who responded to duloxetine treatment administered in the initial dose of 30 mg per day with as many as three panic attacks in two days. Upon duloxetine withdrawal, these panic attacks ceased as well. The patient continued tianeptine and alprazolam treatment during which no significant side-effects had been seen, so that she gradually recovered. Some of the available literature sources have suggested the possibility of duloxetine administration to the end of generalised anxiety disorder and panic attack treatment. However, they are outnumbered by the contributions reporting about duloxetine-related anxiety, aggressiveness and panic attacks. In line with the foregoing, further monitoring of each and every duloxetine-administered patient group needs to be pursued so as to be able to evaluate treatment benefits and weigh them against risks of anxiety or panic attack onset.

  10. Analytical Characterization of Internet Security Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellke, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Internet security attacks have drawn significant attention due to their enormously adverse impact. These attacks includes Malware (Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horse), Denial of Service, Packet Sniffer, and Password Attacks. There is an increasing need to provide adequate defense mechanisms against these attacks. My thesis proposal deals with analytical…

  11. Capturing the uncertainty in adversary attack simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Brooks, Traci N.; Berry, Robert Bruce

    2008-09-01

    This work provides a comprehensive uncertainty technique to evaluate uncertainty, resulting in a more realistic evaluation of PI, thereby requiring fewer resources to address scenarios and allowing resources to be used across more scenarios. For a given set of dversary resources, two types of uncertainty are associated with PI for a scenario: (1) aleatory (random) uncertainty for detection probabilities and time delays and (2) epistemic (state of knowledge) uncertainty for the adversary resources applied during an attack. Adversary esources consist of attributes (such as equipment and training) and knowledge about the security system; to date, most evaluations have assumed an adversary with very high resources, adding to the conservatism in the evaluation of PI. The aleatory uncertainty in PI is ddressed by assigning probability distributions to detection probabilities and time delays. A numerical sampling technique is used to evaluate PI, addressing the repeated variable dependence in the equation for PI.

  12. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-07

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments.

  13. Eyespots divert attacks by fish

    PubMed Central

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish’ own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602

  14. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  15. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  16. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  17. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability. PMID:27588941

  18. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    by distributing a large amount of private goods to the selectorate—the cronies—can be termed kleptocracies . Many govern- ments do indeed resemble...where the high-private goods kleptocracy is a good model. Furthermore, while not an example of crony attack to affect policy change (as opposed to...information about those nearest to the leader. The relationships part is only the start. Kleptocracies , like orga- nized crime leaders, are clever

  19. The effect of asymmetric attack on trim angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Ballistic range tests were conducted to determine the effect of an asymmetrically ablated heat shield on the trim angle of attack of an entry vehicle. The tests, which were in support of Project Galileo, were conducted in atmospheric air at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 2.0. For the results for the configuration that was tested, the deduced trim angle varied between 13 deg and 21 deg.

  20. Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164010.html Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues Monkey study may ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have learned where the Zika virus attacks the body in monkeys. In their ...

  1. Beware Heart Attack Risk from Shoveling Snow

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163566.html Beware Heart Attack Risk From Shoveling Snow Canadian study finds cases ... why men are more likely to suffer a heart attack after a heavy snowfall, researchers report. In a ...

  2. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  3. Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0309 TITLE: Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate...Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate Cancer Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0309 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel R...leading to the lytic death of PSA- producing prostate cancer cells as well as a significant bystander effect and killing of non-PSA producing cancer

  4. Network Attack Reference Data Set

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    services they offer. When the attacker attempts to access system services in order to determine which are available, the scan is called a “ portscan ”. Network...Scans The following portscans were crafted using simPortScan.cc (Appendix B.2). Filename: scan V TCP fast seq small.tcp Source: Crafted...Stealthy Portscans . Journal of Computer Security, 10, 105–136. 6. Yegneswaran, V., Barford, P., and Ullrich, J. (2003). Internet Intrusions: Global

  5. Biomechanics of knife stab attacks.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, E K; Nicol, A C; Lane, J V; Gray, T G

    1999-10-25

    Equipment, materials and methods for the measurement of the biomechanical parameters governing knife stab attacks have been developed and data have been presented that are relevant to the improvement of standards for the testing of stab-resistant materials. A six-camera Vicon motion analysis system was used to measure velocity, and derive energy and momentum during the approach phase of the attack and a specially developed force-measuring knife was used to measure three-dimensional forces and torque during the impact phase. The body segments associated with the knife were modelled as a series of rigid segments: trunk, upper arm, forearm and hand. The velocities of these segments, together with knowledge of the mass distribution from biomechanical tables, allowed the calculation of the individual segment energy and momentum values. The instrumented knife measured four components of load: axial force (along the length of the blade), cutting force (parallel to the breadth of the blade), lateral force (across the blade) and torque (twisting action) using foil strain gauges. Twenty volunteers were asked to stab a target with near maximal effort. Three styles of stab were used: a short thrust forward, a horizontal style sweep around the body and an overhand stab. These styles were chosen based on reported incidents, providing more realistic data than had previously existed. The 95th percentile values for axial force and energy were 1885 N and 69 J, respectively. The ability of current test methods to reproduce the mechanical parameters measured in human stab attacks has been assessed. It was found that current test methods could reproduce the range of energy and force values measured in the human stab attacks, although the simulation was not accurate in some respects. Non-axial force and torque values were also found to be significant in the human tests, but these are not reproduced in the standard mechanical tests.

  6. Terror attacks influence driving behavior in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2004-01-01

    Terror attacks in Israel produce a temporary lull in light accidents followed by a 35% spike in fatal accidents on Israeli roads 3 days after the attack. Our results are based on time-series analysis of Israeli traffic flows, accidents, and terror attacks from January 2001 through June 2002. Whereas prior studies have focused on subjective reports of posttraumatic stress, our study shows a population-level behavioral response to violent terror attacks. PMID:15448203

  7. The Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallesh, Nayantara; Wright, Matthew

    Statistical disclosure is a well-studied technique that an attacker can use to uncover relations between users in mix-based anonymity systems. Prior work has focused on finding the receivers to whom a given targeted user sends. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of statistical disclosure in finding all of a users' contacts, including those from whom she receives messages. To this end, we propose a new attack called the Reverse Statistical Disclosure Attack (RSDA). RSDA uses observations of all users sending patterns to estimate both the targeted user's sending pattern and her receiving pattern. The estimated patterns are combined to find a set of the targeted user's most likely contacts. We study the performance of RSDA in simulation using different mix network configurations and also study the effectiveness of cover traffic as a countermeasure. Our results show that that RSDA outperforms the traditional SDA in finding the user's contacts, particularly as the amounts of user traffic and cover traffic rise.

  8. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  9. Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques Maria Alexandrovna Gorlatova The scientific or...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Review of Existing Wormhole Attack Discovery Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Review of Existing Wormhole Attack

  10. On Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Denial of service (DoS) attacks and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are probably the most ferocious threats in the Internet, resulting in tremendous economic and social implications/impacts on our daily lives that are increasingly depending on the well-being of the Internet. How to mitigate these attacks effectively and efficiently…

  11. Cyberprints: Identifying Cyber Attackers by Feature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of attributing cyber attacks is one of increasing importance. Without a solid method of demonstrating the origin of a cyber attack, any attempts to deter would-be cyber attackers are wasted. Existing methods of attribution make unfounded assumptions about the environment in which they will operate: omniscience (the ability to gather,…

  12. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  13. Forebody tangential blowing for control at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, I.; Rock, S.; Roberts, L.

    1991-01-01

    A feasibility study to determine if the use of tangential leading edge blowing over the forebody could produce effective and practical control of the F-18 HARV aircraft at high angles of attack was conducted. A simplified model of the F-18 configuration using a vortex-lattice model was developed to obtain a better understanding of basic aerodynamic coupling effects and the influence of forebody circulation on lifting surface behavior. The effect of tangential blowing was estimated using existing wind tunnel data on normal forebody blowing and analytical studies of tangential blowing over conical forebodies. Incorporation of forebody blowing into the flight control system was investigated by adding this additional yaw control and sideforce generating actuator into the existing F-18 HARV simulation model. A control law was synthesized using LQG design methods that would schedule blowing rates as a function of vehicle sideslip, angle of attack, and roll and yaw rates.

  14. Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-503 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year...N/A Feb 2005 Feb 2005 Feb 2005 Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM)/GPS Anti-Jam Production Award N/A Mar 2005 Mar 2005 Mar 2005

  15. Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Heart Attack WARNING SIGNS OF HEART ATTACK, STROKE & CARDIAC ARREST HEART ATTACK WARNING SIGNS CHEST DISCOMFORT ... nausea or lightheadedness. Learn more about heart attack STROKE WARNING SIGNS Spot a stroke F.A.S.T.: - ...

  16. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack? Not all heart attacks begin with the sudden, ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  17. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack Updated:Oct 4,2016 Sometimes a heart attack ... Disease Go Red For Women Types of aneurysms Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  18. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  19. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  20. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  1. Shoulder injuries from attacking motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki

    1997-03-01

    Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.

  2. Percolation of localized attack on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shuai; Huang, Xuqing; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-02-01

    The robustness of complex networks against node failure and malicious attack has been of interest for decades, while most of the research has focused on random attack or hub-targeted attack. In many real-world scenarios, however, attacks are neither random nor hub-targeted, but localized, where a group of neighboring nodes in a network are attacked and fail. In this paper we develop a percolation framework to analytically and numerically study the robustness of complex networks against such localized attack. In particular, we investigate this robustness in Erdős-Rényi networks, random-regular networks, and scale-free networks. Our results provide insight into how to better protect networks, enhance cybersecurity, and facilitate the design of more robust infrastructures.

  3. Cement composition and sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Natalya; Zayed, Abla . E-mail: zayed@eng.usf.edu

    2007-04-15

    Four cements were used to address the effect of tricalcium silicate content of cement on external sulfate attack in sodium sulfate solution. The selected cements had similar fineness and Bogue-calculated tricalcium aluminate content but variable tricalcium silicates. Durability was assessed using linear expansion and compressive strength. Phases associated with deterioration were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical phase content of the as-received cements was studied by X-ray diffraction using two methods: internal standard and Rietveld analysis. The results indicate that phase content of cements determined by X-ray mineralogical analysis correlates better with the mortar performance in sulfate environment than Bogue content. Additionally, it was found that in cements containing triclacium aluminate only in the cubic form, the observed deterioration is affected by tricalcium silicate content. Morphological similarities between hydration products of high tricalcium aluminate and high tricalcium silicate cements exposed to sodium sulfate environment were also observed.

  4. Detecting Denial of Service Attacks in Tor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Norman; Krizanc, Danny; Liberatore, Marc

    Tor is currently one of the more popular systems for anonymizing near real-time communications on the Internet. Recently, Borisov et al. proposed a denial of service based attack on Tor (and related systems) that significantly increases the probability of compromising the anonymity provided. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for detecting such attacks and examine the effectiveness of the obvious approach to evading such detection. We implement a simplified version of the detection algorithm and study whether the attack may be in progress on the current Tor network. Our preliminary measurements indicate that the attack was probably not implemented during the period we observed the network.

  5. Cougar attacks on humans: a case report.

    PubMed

    McKee, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Cougar attacks on humans are increasing. Presented is a case report of a nonfatal 2-year-old male cougar attack on an 8-year-old girl in British Columbia. Discussions of wound management, rabies postexposure prophylaxis (RPEP), and the possible psychologic ramifications of such an attack are presented. Also reviewed are recommendations on actions that may be helpful in preventing an attack following a sudden encounter with a cougar. Humans must learn to coexist with cougars, which present a small but real threat to people.

  6. DMP: detouring using multiple paths against jamming attack for ubiquitous networking system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mihui; Chae, Kijoon

    2010-01-01

    To successfully realize the ubiquitous network environment including home automation or industrial control systems, it is important to be able to resist a jamming attack. This has recently been considered as an extremely threatening attack because it can collapse the entire network, despite the existence of basic security protocols such as encryption and authentication. In this paper, we present a method of jamming attack tolerant routing using multiple paths based on zones. The proposed scheme divides the network into zones, and manages the candidate forward nodes of neighbor zones. After detecting an attack, detour nodes decide zones for rerouting, and detour packets destined for victim nodes through forward nodes in the decided zones. Simulation results show that our scheme increases the PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) and decreases the delay significantly in comparison with rerouting by a general routing protocol on sensor networks, AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector), and a conventional JAM (Jammed Area Mapping) service with one reroute.

  7. DMP: Detouring Using Multiple Paths against Jamming Attack for Ubiquitous Networking System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mihui; Chae, Kijoon

    2010-01-01

    To successfully realize the ubiquitous network environment including home automation or industrial control systems, it is important to be able to resist a jamming attack. This has recently been considered as an extremely threatening attack because it can collapse the entire network, despite the existence of basic security protocols such as encryption and authentication. In this paper, we present a method of jamming attack tolerant routing using multiple paths based on zones. The proposed scheme divides the network into zones, and manages the candidate forward nodes of neighbor zones. After detecting an attack, detour nodes decide zones for rerouting, and detour packets destined for victim nodes through forward nodes in the decided zones. Simulation results show that our scheme increases the PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) and decreases the delay significantly in comparison with rerouting by a general routing protocol on sensor networks, AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector), and a conventional JAM (Jammed Area Mapping) service with one reroute. PMID:22319316

  8. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  9. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  10. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  11. 47 CFR 76.1612 - Personal attack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal attack. 76.1612 Section 76.1612 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1612 Personal attack. (a) When, during origination cablecasting...

  12. Preventive attack in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Prebeck, S.R.

    1993-05-28

    The decline of the Soviet Union upset the world`s balance of power and opened the door to third world proliferation since the superpowers no longer have tight control over their client-states. This increase in proliferation raised the issue of how the United States (US) should respond to a third world nation that is acquiring nuclear weapons. Should the United States depend on preventive attacks to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons. This is not a new issue. Proliferation and preventive war have both been issues since the end of World War II. The United States considered a preventive attack against the Soviet Union in the postwar years. The Soviet Union considered preventive attacks against the People`s Republic of China in 1969. Israel conducted a preventive attack in 1981 against the Osiraq nuclear reactor in Iraq. Preventive attacks are politically untenable and are not militarily possible. Without perfect political conditions, it is unacceptable for the only remaining superpower to attack a second-rate power. It is militarily impossible for the United States to guarantee the removal of all nuclear weapons in a single preventive attack. This study concludes that the United States should not depend on preventive attacks to stop proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  13. The cost of attack in competing networks.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, B; Horvatic, D; Lipic, T; Perc, M; Buldú, J M; Stanley, H E

    2015-11-06

    Real-world attacks can be interpreted as the result of competitive interactions between networks, ranging from predator-prey networks to networks of countries under economic sanctions. Although the purpose of an attack is to damage a target network, it also curtails the ability of the attacker, which must choose the duration and magnitude of an attack to avoid negative impacts on its own functioning. Nevertheless, despite the large number of studies on interconnected networks, the consequences of initiating an attack have never been studied. Here, we address this issue by introducing a model of network competition where a resilient network is willing to partially weaken its own resilience in order to more severely damage a less resilient competitor. The attacking network can take over the competitor's nodes after their long inactivity. However, owing to a feedback mechanism the takeovers weaken the resilience of the attacking network. We define a conservation law that relates the feedback mechanism to the resilience dynamics for two competing networks. Within this formalism, we determine the cost and optimal duration of an attack, allowing a network to evaluate the risk of initiating hostilities.

  14. The cost of attack in competing networks

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, B.

    2015-01-01

    Real-world attacks can be interpreted as the result of competitive interactions between networks, ranging from predator–prey networks to networks of countries under economic sanctions. Although the purpose of an attack is to damage a target network, it also curtails the ability of the attacker, which must choose the duration and magnitude of an attack to avoid negative impacts on its own functioning. Nevertheless, despite the large number of studies on interconnected networks, the consequences of initiating an attack have never been studied. Here, we address this issue by introducing a model of network competition where a resilient network is willing to partially weaken its own resilience in order to more severely damage a less resilient competitor. The attacking network can take over the competitor's nodes after their long inactivity. However, owing to a feedback mechanism the takeovers weaken the resilience of the attacking network. We define a conservation law that relates the feedback mechanism to the resilience dynamics for two competing networks. Within this formalism, we determine the cost and optimal duration of an attack, allowing a network to evaluate the risk of initiating hostilities. PMID:26490628

  15. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    PubMed

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A M; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.

  16. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G.; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground. PMID:26731567

  17. Terrorist Attacks Escalate in Frequency and Fatalities Preceding Highly Lethal Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  18. On the Routing Protocol Influence on the Resilience of Wireless Sensor Networks to Jamming Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Del-Valle-Soto, Carolina; Mex-Perera, Carlos; Monroy, Raul; Nolazco-Flores, Juan Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we compare a recently proposed routing protocol, the multi-parent hierarchical (MPH) protocol, with two well-known protocols, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) and dynamic source routing (DSR). For this purpose, we have developed a simulator, which faithfully reifies the workings of a given protocol, considering a fixed, reconfigurable ad hoc network given by the number and location of participants, and general network conditions. We consider a scenario that can be found in a large number of wireless sensor network applications, a single sink node that collects all of the information generated by the sensors. The metrics used to compare the protocols were the number of packet retransmissions, carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) inner loop retries, the number of nodes answering the queries from the coordinator (sink) node and the energy consumption. We tested the network under ordinary (without attacks) conditions (and combinations thereof) and when it is subject to different types of jamming attacks (in particular, random and reactive jamming attacks), considering several positions for the jammer. Our results report that MPH has a greater ability to tolerate such attacks than DSR and AODV, since it minimizes and encapsulates the network segment under attack. The self-configuring capabilities of MPH derived from a combination of a proactive routes update, on a periodic-time basis, and a reactive behavior provide higher resilience while offering a better performance (overhead and energy consumption) than AODV and DSR, as shown in our simulation results. PMID:25825979

  19. Adaptive cyber-attack modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Dougherty, Edward T.

    2006-05-01

    The pervasiveness of software and networked information systems is evident across a broad spectrum of business and government sectors. Such reliance provides an ample opportunity not only for the nefarious exploits of lone wolf computer hackers, but for more systematic software attacks from organized entities. Much effort and focus has been placed on preventing and ameliorating network and OS attacks, a concomitant emphasis is required to address protection of mission critical software. Typical software protection technique and methodology evaluation and verification and validation (V&V) involves the use of a team of subject matter experts (SMEs) to mimic potential attackers or hackers. This manpower intensive, time-consuming, and potentially cost-prohibitive approach is not amenable to performing the necessary multiple non-subjective analyses required to support quantifying software protection levels. To facilitate the evaluation and V&V of software protection solutions, we have designed and developed a prototype adaptive cyber attack modeling system. Our approach integrates an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of Bayesian belief network (BN) attack models with an on-line model instantiation, adaptation and knowledge acquisition scheme. Off-line model construction is supported via a knowledge elicitation approach for identifying key domain requirements and a process for translating these requirements into a library of BN-based cyber-attack models. On-line attack modeling and knowledge acquisition is supported via BN evidence propagation and model parameter learning.

  20. Protecting complex infrastructures against multiple strategic attackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructures are analysed subject to defence by a strategic defender and attack by multiple strategic attackers. A framework is developed where each agent determines how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human and symbolic values, which generally vary across agents. Investment expenditure functions for each agent can be linear in the investment effort, concave, convex, logistic, can increase incrementally, or can be subject to budget constraints. Contest success functions (e.g., ratio and difference forms) determine the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the relative investments of the defender and attackers on each target, and on characteristics of the contest. Targets can be in parallel, in series, interlinked, interdependent or independent. The defender minimises the expected damage plus the defence expenditures. Each attacker maximises the expected damage minus the attack expenditures. The number of free choice variables equals the number of agents times the number of targets, or lower if there are budget constraints. Each agent is interested in how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Alternative optimisation programmes are discussed, together with repeated games, dynamic games and incomplete information. An example is provided for illustration.

  1. Smart Grid Integrity Attacks: Characterizations and Countermeasures

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen; Pramod Khargonekar; Kameshwar Poolla

    2011-10-01

    Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.

  2. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  3. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  4. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  5. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? ... to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ...

  6. Who Is at Risk for a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for a Heart Attack? Certain risk factors make it more likely that ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  7. When You Visit Your Doctor After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... inbox ! When You Visit Your Doctor - After a Heart Attack After a Heart Attack Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Have you ... body? Did you have this pain before your heart attack? What brings it on? How frequently do you ...

  8. After Cancer, Higher Risk of Severe Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... this type of heart attack, called ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). One in 10 had a history of ... that cancer survivors had a higher rate of heart attack, not all of those attacks proved fatal. In ...

  9. Proactive Alleviation Procedure to Handle Black Hole Attack and Its Version.

    PubMed

    Babu, M Rajesh; Dian, S Moses; Chelladurai, Siva; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan

    2015-01-01

    The world is moving towards a new realm of computing such as Internet of Things. The Internet of Things, however, envisions connecting almost all objects within the world to the Internet by recognizing them as smart objects. In doing so, the existing networks which include wired, wireless, and ad hoc networks should be utilized. Moreover, apart from other networks, the ad hoc network is full of security challenges. For instance, the MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is susceptible to various attacks in which the black hole attacks and its versions do serious damage to the entire MANET infrastructure. The severity of this attack increases, when the compromised MANET nodes work in cooperation with each other to make a cooperative black hole attack. Therefore this paper proposes an alleviation procedure which consists of timely mandate procedure, hole detection algorithm, and sensitive guard procedure to detect the maliciously behaving nodes. It has been observed that the proposed procedure is cost-effective and ensures QoS guarantee by assuring resource availability thus making the MANET appropriate for Internet of Things.

  10. Proactive Alleviation Procedure to Handle Black Hole Attack and Its Version

    PubMed Central

    Babu, M. Rajesh; Dian, S. Moses; Chelladurai, Siva; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan

    2015-01-01

    The world is moving towards a new realm of computing such as Internet of Things. The Internet of Things, however, envisions connecting almost all objects within the world to the Internet by recognizing them as smart objects. In doing so, the existing networks which include wired, wireless, and ad hoc networks should be utilized. Moreover, apart from other networks, the ad hoc network is full of security challenges. For instance, the MANET (mobile ad hoc network) is susceptible to various attacks in which the black hole attacks and its versions do serious damage to the entire MANET infrastructure. The severity of this attack increases, when the compromised MANET nodes work in cooperation with each other to make a cooperative black hole attack. Therefore this paper proposes an alleviation procedure which consists of timely mandate procedure, hole detection algorithm, and sensitive guard procedure to detect the maliciously behaving nodes. It has been observed that the proposed procedure is cost-effective and ensures QoS guarantee by assuring resource availability thus making the MANET appropriate for Internet of Things. PMID:26495430

  11. Prediction of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Fighter Wings at High Angles of Attack.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    method coupled with iterative routines for wake location, viscous effects and vortex flows. Applications of the techniques to a number of...AD-A145 1@7 PREDICTION OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FIGHTER i/2 WIINGS AT HIGH ANGLES OF ATTACK(U) ANALYTICAL METHODS INC REDMOND WA B MASKEW ET...ATTACK I B. !4askew T.S. Vaidyanathan J.K. Nathman F.A. Dvorak Analytical Methods , Inc. 2047 - 152nd Avenue N.E. Redmond, Washington 98052 CONTRACT

  12. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Attack Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Attack Symptoms Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... NHLBI has uncovered some of the causes of heart diseases and conditions, as well as ways to prevent ...

  13. Evaluation of the Single Keybit Template Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    27 v Page 3.5 Measures of Performance...17 MOP Measures of Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 x...include en- cryption standards, leakage models, correlation, classification theory, previous tem- plate attacks and measures of performance. 2.1

  14. On localization attacks against cloud infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Sistani, Mohammad Ali

    2013-05-01

    One of the key characteristics of cloud computing is the device and location independence that enables the user to access systems regardless of their location. Because cloud computing is heavily based on sharing resource, it is vulnerable to cyber attacks. In this paper, we investigate a localization attack that enables the adversary to leverage central processing unit (CPU) resources to localize the physical location of server used by victims. By increasing and reducing CPU usage through the malicious virtual machine (VM), the response time from the victim VM will increase and decrease correspondingly. In this way, by embedding the probing signal into the CPU usage and correlating the same pattern in the response time from the victim VM, the adversary can find the location of victim VM. To determine attack accuracy, we investigate features in both the time and frequency domains. We conduct both theoretical and experimental study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such an attack.

  15. Identifying and Analyzing Web Server Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, Christian; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Komisarczuk, Peter; Muschevici, Radu; Welch, Ian D.

    2008-08-29

    Abstract: Client honeypots can be used to identify malicious web servers that attack web browsers and push malware to client machines. Merely recording network traffic is insufficient to perform comprehensive forensic analyses of such attacks. Custom tools are required to access and analyze network protocol data. Moreover, specialized methods are required to perform a behavioral analysis of an attack, which helps determine exactly what transpired on the attacked system. This paper proposes a record/replay mechanism that enables forensic investigators to extract application data from recorded network streams and allows applications to interact with this data in order to conduct behavioral analyses. Implementations for the HTTP and DNS protocols are presented and their utility in network forensic investigations is demonstrated.

  16. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-14

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  17. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  18. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  19. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes ... People with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure and high ...

  20. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  1. Heart Attack - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic) النوبة القلبية - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Heart Attack Srčani udar - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Heart Attack 心脏病发作 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ...

  2. Severe attacks by dogs: characteristics of the dogs, the victims, and the attack settings.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen incidents involving dog bites fitting the description "severe" were identified among 5,711 dog bite incidents reported to health departments in five South Carolina counties (population 750,912 in 1980) between July 1, 1979, and June 30, 1982. A "severe" attack was defined as one in which the dog "repeatedly bit or vigorously shook its victim, and the victim or the person intervening had extreme difficulty terminating the attack." Information from health department records was clarified by interviews with animal control officers, health and police officials, and persons with firsthand knowledge of the events. Investigation disclosed that the dogs involved in the 16 severe attacks were reproductively intact males. The median age of the dogs was 3 years. A majority of the attacks were by American Staffordshire terriers, St. Bernards, and cocker spaniels. Ten of the dogs had been aggressive toward people or other dogs before the incident that was investigated. Ten of the 16 victims of severe attacks were 10 years of age or younger; the median age of all 16 victims was 8 years. Twelve of the victims either were members of the family that owned the attacking dog or had had contact with the dog before the attack. Eleven of the victims were bitten on the head, neck, or shoulders. In 88 percent of the cases, the attacks took place in the owner's yard or home, or in the adjoining yard. In 10 of the 16 incidents, members of the victims' families witnessed the attacks. The characteristics of these attacks, only one of which proved fatal, were similar in many respects to those that have been reported for other dog bite incidents that resulted in fatalities. On the basis of this study, the author estimates that a risk of 2 fatalities per 1,000 reported dog bites may exist nationwide. Suggestions made for the prevention of severe attacks focus on changing the behavior of both potential canine attackers and potential victims.

  3. Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing-Zheng; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2013-06-01

    The security proofs of continuous-variable quantum key distribution are based on the assumptions that the eavesdropper can neither act on the local oscillator nor control Bob's beam splitter. These assumptions may be invalid in practice due to potential imperfections in the implementations of such protocols. In this paper, we consider the problem of transmitting the local oscillator in a public channel and propose a wavelength attack which allows the eavesdropper to control the intensity transmission of Bob's beam splitter by switching the wavelength of the input light. Specifically we target continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems that use the heterodyne detection protocol using either direct or reverse reconciliation. Our attack is proved to be feasible and renders all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure, even if they have monitored the intensity of the local oscillator. To prevent our attack on commercial systems, a simple wavelength filter should be randomly added before performing monitoring detection.

  4. Know the Warning Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... No. 22 Know the Warning Signs of a Heart Attack What is a heart attack? Aheart attack happens when the blood vessels that ... hurting your heart muscle. Another name for a heart attack is myocardial infarction, or MI. If you have ...

  5. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  6. Attack-tolerant networked control system: an approach for detection the controller stealthy hijacking attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta Yaseen, Amer; Bayart, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new approach will be introduced as a development for the attack-tolerant scheme in the Networked Control System (NCS). The objective is to be able to detect an attack such as the Stuxnet case where the controller is reprogrammed and hijacked. Besides the ability to detect the stealthy controller hijacking attack, the advantage of this approach is that there is no need for a priori mathematical model of the controller. In order to implement the proposed scheme, a specific detector for the controller hijacking attack is designed. The performance of this scheme is evaluated be connected the detector to NCS with basic security elements such as Data Encryption Standard (DES), Message Digest (MD5), and timestamp. The detector is tested along with networked PI controller under stealthy hijacking attack. The test results of the proposed method show that the hijacked controller can be significantly detected and recovered.

  7. Systematic Poisoning Attacks on and Defenses for Machine Learning in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari-Kermani, Mehran; Sur-Kolay, Susmita; Raghunathan, Anand; Jha, Niraj K

    2015-11-01

    Machine learning is being used in a wide range of application domains to discover patterns in large datasets. Increasingly, the results of machine learning drive critical decisions in applications related to healthcare and biomedicine. Such health-related applications are often sensitive, and thus, any security breach would be catastrophic. Naturally, the integrity of the results computed by machine learning is of great importance. Recent research has shown that some machine-learning algorithms can be compromised by augmenting their training datasets with malicious data, leading to a new class of attacks called poisoning attacks. Hindrance of a diagnosis may have life-threatening consequences and could cause distrust. On the other hand, not only may a false diagnosis prompt users to distrust the machine-learning algorithm and even abandon the entire system but also such a false positive classification may cause patient distress. In this paper, we present a systematic, algorithm-independent approach for mounting poisoning attacks across a wide range of machine-learning algorithms and healthcare datasets. The proposed attack procedure generates input data, which, when added to the training set, can either cause the results of machine learning to have targeted errors (e.g., increase the likelihood of classification into a specific class), or simply introduce arbitrary errors (incorrect classification). These attacks may be applied to both fixed and evolving datasets. They can be applied even when only statistics of the training dataset are available or, in some cases, even without access to the training dataset, although at a lower efficacy. We establish the effectiveness of the proposed attacks using a suite of six machine-learning algorithms and five healthcare datasets. Finally, we present countermeasures against the proposed generic attacks that are based on tracking and detecting deviations in various accuracy metrics, and benchmark their effectiveness.

  8. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-02-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  9. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-06-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  10. Quantifying Mixed Uncertainties in Cyber Attacker Payoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Samrat; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Tipireddy, Ramakrishna; Oster, Matthew R.; Saha, Sudip

    2015-04-15

    Representation and propagation of uncertainty in cyber attacker payoffs is a key aspect of security games. Past research has primarily focused on representing the defender’s beliefs about attacker payoffs as point utility estimates. More recently, within the physical security domain, attacker payoff uncertainties have been represented as Uniform and Gaussian probability distributions, and intervals. Within cyber-settings, continuous probability distributions may still be appropriate for addressing statistical (aleatory) uncertainties where the defender may assume that the attacker’s payoffs differ over time. However, systematic (epistemic) uncertainties may exist, where the defender may not have sufficient knowledge or there is insufficient information about the attacker’s payoff generation mechanism. Such epistemic uncertainties are more suitably represented as probability boxes with intervals. In this study, we explore the mathematical treatment of such mixed payoff uncertainties.

  11. Death due to attack from chow dog.

    PubMed

    Bux, R C; McDowell, J D

    1992-12-01

    It is estimated that between one and four million persons per year are bitten by dogs in the United States. While most injuries associated with the bites are minor, serious sequelae, and even death, may occur. Most victims of fatal dog attacks are children < 1 year of age or elderly women. The most frequent cause of death is hemorrhage and shock from major vessel damage. A case is reported in which an elderly woman was attacked by her pet Chow dog. The victim received multiple superficial abrasions, contusions, and lacerations from the dog attack. A large perforation of the right external pudendal vein and three perforations of the left superficial femoral vein resulted in exsanguination and death. Fractures of the left 2nd through 4th ribs with underlying pulmonary contusion were also found.

  12. Responding to chemical attack. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R.W.

    1991-02-11

    In view of Iraq's stated intention of using chemical weapons in the Persian Gulf War, the Coalition forces must be prepared to respond. Iraq is capable of conducting such an attack. While the use of chemical weapons may not be militarily significant, the political effect of the use and the response to it may be very significant. Responses including the use of chemical and nuclear weapons are assessed in terms of their legality, political cost, and military effectiveness and found unacceptable. Reliance on diplomatic protests and on post-war criminal sanctions are judged ineffective. A response in the form of increased conventional attack on the Iraqi chemical infrastructure is recommended because that response will preserve the present Coalition, effectively counter the chemical attack, contribute to regional stability, and enhance the reputation of the United States for lawfulness and dependability.

  13. Distance Bounding Protocols: Authentication Logic Analysis and Collusion Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    than preventing or deterring, collusion attacks. We show that colluding verifiers who are capable of implementing wormhole attacks can defeat even...away. We will illustrate this using (a) standard collusion and also (b) wormhole in Figure 2. A wormhole attack is one in which a fast link is set up...be- tween the victims and an attacker who is outside of the normal range. The wormhole attack may appear to be an overkill for this problem since

  14. Discovering Collaborative Cyber Attack Patterns Using Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Haitao; Yang, Shanchieh Jay

    This paper investigates collaborative cyber attacks based on social network analysis. An Attack Social Graph (ASG) is defined to represent cyber attacks on the Internet. Features are extracted from ASGs to analyze collaborative patterns. We use principle component analysis to reduce the feature space, and hierarchical clustering to group attack sources that exhibit similar behavior. Experiments with real world data illustrate that our framework can effectively reduce from large dataset to clusters of attack sources exhibiting critical collaborative patterns.

  15. Predation: Prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack.

    PubMed

    Palleroni, Alberto; Miller, Cory T; Hauser, Marc; Marler, Peter

    2005-04-21

    Several plumage types are found in feral pigeons (Columba livia), but one type imparts a clear survival advantage during attacks by the swiftest of all predators--the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Here we use quantitative field observations and experiments to demonstrate both the selective nature of the falcon's choice of prey and the effect of plumage coloration on the survival of feral pigeons. This plumage colour is an independently heritable trait that is likely to be an antipredator adaptation against high-speed attacks in open air space.

  16. A treatment for the acute migraine attack.

    PubMed

    Adam, E I

    1987-01-01

    A compound analgesic/anti-emetic formulation was significantly effective in reducing the severity of acute attacks of migraine, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of 34 patients referred to a migraine clinic. The preparation contained paracetamol (acetaminophen) 500 mg, codeine phosphate 8 mg, buclizine hydrochloride 6.25 mg and dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate 10 mg. The dosage was two tablets taken as early as possible in the acute attack. No specific factors could be identified which influenced response to treatment. Patients with a long history of migraine (more than 10 years) responded as well as those with a recent onset of the condition.

  17. Identifying inference attacks against healthcare data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jaideep; Shafiq, Basit; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    Health care data repositories play an important role in driving progress in medical research. Finding new pathways to discovery requires having adequate data and relevant analysis. However, it is critical to ensure the privacy and security of the stored data. In this paper, we identify a dangerous inference attack against naive suppression based approaches that are used to protect sensitive information. We base our attack on the querying system provided by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, though it applies in general to any medical database providing a query capability. We also discuss potential solutions to this problem. PMID:24303279

  18. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  19. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  20. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  1. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  2. Preventing and Profiling Malicious Insider Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    personality predispositions. The aim of this report is to determine what personality factors , personality predispositions and motivators may...Butavicius, M. (2009). Human Factors and Information Security: Individual, Culture and Security Environment . Manuscript submitted for publication...previous research on malicious insiders with particular emphasis on the social and psychological factors that may have influenced the attacker and their

  3. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection.

  4. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  5. Triage of casualties after nuclear attack.

    PubMed

    Pledger, H G

    1986-09-20

    Casualties from a nuclear attack on the United Kingdom would overwhelm the health services, and health workers would be faced with many more people seeking help than could be offered treatment. Discussion is needed to determine which methods of medical and non-medical triage would be acceptable and feasible.

  6. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  7. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  8. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  9. Gas in Attack and Gas in Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1919-07-01

    celluloid eye pieces and, at a somewhat later date, with an expira - tory valve c In a ga~i attack the sack was pulled over the head and tucked...the field. PROTECTION IN WAR IS RELATIVE ONLY. ‘%. Napoleon is credited with saying/In order to make an omelet, it is necessary, to break some eggs

  10. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  11. Categorizing Network Attacks Using Pattern Classification Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    attacks into predefined categories such as Flooding Denial of Service, Distributed Denial of Service, Nukers, and Portscans . Such categorization decreases...Detection of Stealthy Portscans . Tech- nical Report, Silicon Defense, 2000. [Stevens94] Stevens, W. Richard. TCP/IP Illustrated Volume 1 . Reading: Addison

  12. Responses to the September 11, 2001 Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    This editorial introduces a special section devoted to chronicling the responses of art therapists after the September 11th attacks. The section contains 10 articles from therapists in New York City, New Jersey, Long Island, Washington, DC, and California. Articles include stories of the reactions of the therapists as well as their work with…

  13. Panic attacks after treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anil; Soni, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The association between neuroleptics and anxiety is unclear: neuroleptics have been used to treat anxiety though may also themselves be anxiogenic. We present the case of a man who developed new onset panic attacks after treatment with zuclopenthixol decanoate, a commonly administered depot antipsychotic. We review the literature on the association between antipsychotics and anxiety and present possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

  14. Improvement of Hungarian Joint Terminal Attack Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    Forward Looking Infrared GLTD Ground Laser Target Designator HDF Hungarian Defense Force JFO Joint Fires Observer JTAC Joint Terminal Attack Controller......FLIR at least. Laser capability is another important material requirement for CAS aircraft. Laser systems contain two important components. A low

  15. Intrusion-Tolerant Replication under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Much of our critical infrastructure is controlled by large software systems whose participants are distributed across the Internet. As our dependence on these critical systems continues to grow, it becomes increasingly important that they meet strict availability and performance requirements, even in the face of malicious attacks, including those…

  16. Survival of child after lion attack

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Chavez, Mario; Molina, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Background: Injuries to humans caused by attacks from large predators are very rare, especially in the United States, Europe, or Latin America. A few cases were reported on accidents in zoos or animal farms, being very uncommon in children. The purposes of this report include describing the case of a child who sustained an attack by a lion named “Bang-Bang”, which resulted in injuries to the head, chest, and abdomen, as well as the subsequent neurosurgical treatment and providing a review of the literature. Case Description: We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was attacked by a lion during a circus show. The patient underwent an emergent neurosurgical procedure, including parietal craniectomy, cleaning, and extensive surgical debridement of the wounds. Despite open severe head trauma with brain damage as well as thorax and abdomen trauma, the child survived, with minimal neurological sequelae. Conclusions: Human injury resulting from encounters with nondomesticated animals is increasingly rising throughout the world. This case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild mammals held in captivity. Unusual wild animal attacks and the complex injuries that result may pose a challenge to surgeons practicing in resource-limited settings. In this sense, the best treatment in the mentioned case is the prevention of human injuries by these animals. In addition, to attend to these infrequent cases, the authors emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best cosmetic and functional results. PMID:23869277

  17. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  18. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  19. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  20. Error and attack vulnerability of temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanovski, S.; Scellato, S.; Leontiadis, I.

    2012-06-01

    The study of real-world communication systems via complex network models has greatly expanded our understanding on how information flows, even in completely decentralized architectures such as mobile wireless networks. Nonetheless, static network models cannot capture the time-varying aspects and, therefore, various temporal metrics have been introduced. In this paper, we investigate the robustness of time-varying networks under various failures and intelligent attacks. We adopt a methodology to evaluate the impact of such events on the network connectivity by employing temporal metrics in order to select and remove nodes based on how critical they are considered for the network. We also define the temporal robustness range, a new metric that quantifies the disruption caused by an attack strategy to a given temporal network. Our results show that in real-world networks, where some nodes are more dominant than others, temporal connectivity is significantly more affected by intelligent attacks than by random failures. Moreover, different intelligent attack strategies have a similar effect on the robustness: even small subsets of highly connected nodes act as a bottleneck in the temporal information flow, becoming critical weak points of the entire system. Additionally, the same nodes are the most important across a range of different importance metrics, expressing the correlation between highly connected nodes and those that trigger most of the changes in the optimal information spreading. Contrarily, we show that in randomly generated networks, where all the nodes have similar properties, random errors and intelligent attacks exhibit similar behavior. These conclusions may help us in design of more robust systems and fault-tolerant network architectures.

  1. Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Danger Theory-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  2. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  3. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  4. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  5. FLoc: Dependable Link Access for Legitimate Traffic in Flooding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-23

    Constant Bit Rate (CBR), Shrew [14], and covert [15] attacks) and by comparing the FLoc results with those of other approaches (e.g., Pushback [5...Bit Rate (CBR) attack (Fig. 10 6(b)), and a Shrew attack (Fig. 6(c)) [6]. The aim of the high- population TCP attack is to reduce the bandwidth of...and are rate-limited accordingly. In the Shrew attack, each attack source sends 2.0 Mbps traffic only during 0.25RTT seconds within an interval of

  6. FLoc : Dependable Link Access for Legitimate Traffic in Flooding Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-23

    Constant Bit Rate (CBR), Shrew [14], and covert [15] attacks) and by comparing the FLoc results with those of other approaches (e.g., Pushback [5...Bit Rate (CBR) attack (Fig. 10 6(b)), and a Shrew attack (Fig. 6(c)) [6]. The aim of the high- population TCP attack is to reduce the bandwidth of...MTDs and are rate-limited accordingly. In the Shrew attack, each attack source sends 2.0 Mbps traffic only during 0.25RTT seconds within an interval of

  7. Vulnerability of impulse attack-free four random phase mask cryptosystems to chosen-plaintext attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

    2016-03-01

    An attack-free four random phase mask cryptosystem is breached in the paper. The decryption key of the system can be easily accessed by the opponent by using a new type of powerful three-dimensional phase retrieval method. Our result, to the best of our knowledge, is the first work to show this security flaw in the attack-free four random phase mask cryptosystem. Meanwhile, a set of numerical simulations is provided to demonstrate the robustness of the presented method.

  8. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  9. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  10. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  11. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  12. Optimal Attack Strategy in Random Scale-Free Networks Based on Incomplete Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Wu, Jun; Li, Yong; Deng, Hong-Zhong; Tan, Yue-Jin

    2011-06-01

    We introduce an attack model based on incomplete information, which means that we can obtain the information from partial nodes. We investigate the optimal attack strategy in random scale-free networks both analytically and numerically. We show that the attack strategy can affect the attack effect remarkably and the OAS can achieve better attack effect than other typical attack strategies. It is found that when the attack intensity is small, the attacker should attack more nodes in the “white area" in which we can obtain attack information; when the attack intensity is greater, the attacker should attack more nodes in the “black area" in which we can not obtain attack information. Moreover, we show that there is an inflection point in the curve of optimal attack proportion. For a given magnitude of attack information, the optimal attack proportion decreases with the attack intensity before the inflection point and then increases after the inflection point.

  13. High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162666.html High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk Unusual symptoms include upper back or jaw ... be at increased risk of having a "silent" heart attack, a new study hints. Chest pain is one ...

  14. Nonlinear optical cryptosystem resistant to standard and hybrid attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Aloka

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nonlinear optical cryptosystem that is resistant to amplitude-phase retrieval attacks, known-plaintext attack and chosen-plaintext attack. A squaring operation is introduced in the encryption path, which thwarts the iterative attacks. This nonlinear operation tends to amplify the error in the estimation during an iterative attack. The decryption process requires the use of a square-root operation. Thus, in the reverse path also, the attacks encounter the nonlinear square-root operation. These two nonlinearities make the iterative attacks unstable, thereby leading to non-convergence of the mean square error (MSE). Our technique is also resistant to hybrid attacks. The technique is general and is shown to work on a variety of images of the type grayscale and binary. Numerical simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed cryptosystem.

  15. How Will I Recover from My Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Your Risk for Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms & Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Defects Care & Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects Congenital Heart Defects Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart ...

  16. 5 Ways Women Can Cut Their Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163609.html 5 Ways Women Can Cut Their Heart Attack Risk Heart disease is leading cause of death ... than in men. Know the symptoms of a heart attack -- which differ from those in men -- and include ...

  17. Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke Also known as aspirin primary prevention. ... if I’m taking aspirin to prevent another heart attack or stroke? The information discussed in Who may ...

  18. Calcium Buildup in Young Arteries May Signal Heart Attack Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Calcium Buildup in Young Arteries May Signal Heart Attack Risk Even small amount in 30s, 40s appears ... their arteries are already at risk of a heart attack, a new study finds. Among those 32 to ...

  19. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. Is this true? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M. ... calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart attack. Other doctors believe that calcium supplements have little ...

  20. Trans Fat Bans May Have Cut Heart Attack, Stroke Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164605.html Trans Fat Bans May Have Cut Heart Attack, Stroke Rate Pending FDA regulations should remove nearly ... Could the contents of your cupcake affect your heart attack risk? It seems so, according to a new ...

  1. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  2. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Hilland, D.; Phipps, G.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  3. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  4. Replication Does Survive Information Warfare Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    warfare, storage jamming, unauthorized modification, Trojan horse 1 INTRODUCTION Ammann, Jajodia, McCollum, and Blaustein define information warfare as the...information warfare, and we adopt the latter term. To provide context, Amman et al. specifically do not consider Trojan horses within the database system...called internal jammers (McDermott and Goldschalg, 1996b)), but instead consider a wide range of attacks other than Trojan horses . Both groups agree that

  5. Fighting Through a Logistics Cyber Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    cumulative cost of cyber-attacks was more than the combined global black market cost of cocaine, heroin and marijuana. These alarming figures raised...of operations required to support the war fighter and its heavy reliance on unclassified networks. This research focuses on The Global Air...documents to investigate the policies in place that provide guidance for the strategies and tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) that counter

  6. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally, Javier; Gomez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A novel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks carried out with synthetically reconstructed iris images is presented. The method uses different characteristics of real iris images to differentiate them from the synthetic ones, thereby addressing important security flaws detected in state-of-the-art commercial systems. Experiments are carried out on the publicly available Biosecure Database and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed security enhancing approach.

  7. Computer Network Attack: An Operational Tool?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Spectrum of Conflict, Cyber Warfare , Preemptive Strike, Effects Based Targeting. 15. Abstract: Computer Network Attack (CNA) is defined as...great deal of attention as the world’s capabilities in cyber - warfare grow. 11 Although addressing the wide ranging legal aspects of CNA is beyond the...the notion of cyber - warfare has not yet developed to the point that international norms have been established.15 These norms will be developed in

  8. America under attack: ACHE affiliates respond.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Ellen G

    2002-01-01

    In the midst of the horror and uncertainty that swept over America on September 11, the healthcare sector helped to keep our nation firmly anchored. Within moments of the terrorist attacks, healthcare organizations in New York, Washington, D.C., and the surrounding areas responded swiftly, calmly, and effectively. Many of these hospitals are led by ACHE affiliates. Following are their accounts of that day, lessons they learned, and plans for the future.

  9. Strategic Attack of National Electrical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    subsystem the step-up transformers are the most lu­ crative targets. According to a study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), the step-up...the Army Air Forces, to analyze the dete­ rioration of the German economy through bombing and determine the “date when deterioration will have...German economy , and steel production essential to war production, these industries would only be slightly affected by an attack on power facilities

  10. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  11. Enhancing network robustness against malicious attacks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, An; Liu, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    In a recent work [Schneider et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], the authors proposed a simple measure for network robustness under malicious attacks on nodes. Using a greedy algorithm, they found that the optimal structure with respect to this quantity is an onion structure in which high-degree nodes form a core surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree. However, in real networks the failure can also occur in links such as dysfunctional power cables and blocked airlines. Accordingly, complementary to the node-robustness measurement (R(n)), we propose a link-robustness index (R(l)). We show that solely enhancing R(n) cannot guarantee the improvement of R(l). Moreover, the structure of an R(l)-optimized network is found to be entirely different from that of an onion network. In order to design robust networks that are resistant to a more realistic attack condition, we propose a hybrid greedy algorithm that takes both the R(n) and R(l) into account. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks mixed with both nodes and links failure. Finally, some economical constraints for swapping the links in real networks are considered, and significant improvement in both aspects of robustness is still achieved.

  12. Enhancing network robustness against malicious attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, An; Liu, Weiping

    2012-06-01

    In a recent work [Schneider , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1009440108 108, 3838 (2011)], the authors proposed a simple measure for network robustness under malicious attacks on nodes. Using a greedy algorithm, they found that the optimal structure with respect to this quantity is an onion structure in which high-degree nodes form a core surrounded by rings of nodes with decreasing degree. However, in real networks the failure can also occur in links such as dysfunctional power cables and blocked airlines. Accordingly, complementary to the node-robustness measurement (Rn), we propose a link-robustness index (Rl). We show that solely enhancing Rn cannot guarantee the improvement of Rl. Moreover, the structure of an Rl-optimized network is found to be entirely different from that of an onion network. In order to design robust networks that are resistant to a more realistic attack condition, we propose a hybrid greedy algorithm that takes both the Rn and Rl into account. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks mixed with both nodes and links failure. Finally, some economical constraints for swapping the links in real networks are considered, and significant improvement in both aspects of robustness is still achieved.

  13. Security of quantum cryptography against individual attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsky, Boris A.; Rao, Ramesh; Sun, Pang-Chen; Fainman, Y.

    1998-04-01

    An attempt to eavesdrop on a quantum cryptographic channel reveals itself through errors it inevitably introduces into the transmission. We investigate the relationship between the induced error rate and the maximum amount of information the eavesdropper can extract, in both the two-state B92 [B92 refers to the work of C. H. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121 (1992)] and the four-state BB84 [BB84 refers to the work of C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India (IEEE, New York, 1984), pp. 175-179] quantum cryptographic protocols. In each case, the optimal eavesdropping method that on average yields the most information for a given error rate is explicitly constructed. Analysis is limited to eavesdropping strategies where each bit of the quantum transmission is attacked individually and independently from other bits. Subject to this restriction, however, we believe that all attacks not forbidden by physical laws are covered. Unlike previous work, the eavesdropper's advantage is measured in terms of Renyi (rather than Shannon) information, and with respect only to bits received error-free by Bob (rather than all bits). This alters both the maximum extractable information and the optimal eavesdropping attack. The result can be used directly at the privacy amplification stage of the protocol to accomplish secure communication over a noisy channel.

  14. Major dog attack injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, N E; Chochinov, H; Fraser, V

    1983-10-01

    Children are frequently admitted to a hospital with injuries sustained as a result of being attacked by a dog. Over a 5-year period (1977 to 1981), 57 such patients have been treated at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital. Half of the dog attack victims were 5 years or younger with injuries occurring more often in boys (55%). The majority of patients (95%) sustained puncture wounds and lacerations to the face (77%) and extremities (23%). In three of the cases, the dog attack victims presented with peritonitis secondary to bowel perforation and were treated successfully. A fourth child died as a result of his injuries prior to reaching the hospital. In the past, much attention has been focused on soft tissue injuries and their cosmetic repair. It is also important to recognize that the small child is particularly vulnerable to dog maulings from which the injuries sustained may be life threatening or lethal. Prevention seems to be the only rational approach to solving this problem.

  15. What Can We Learn?--The Algonquin Bear Attack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes a bear attack in Algonquin Park in Lake Opeongo (Canada) in which a man and woman were killed. Hypothesizes that the bear deliberately preyed on its victims and concludes that the bear was physically normal. Despite this isolated attack, the chance of being attacked by a black bear when camping is virtually nonexistent. (KS)

  16. Early Warning and Prediction of Interest Attacks and Exploits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS THESIS Brian P. Zeitz... EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED iv AFIT/GIA/ENG/05-06 EARLY WARNING AND PREDICTION OF INTERNET ATTACKS AND EXPLOITS

  17. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  18. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  19. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  20. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that determine whether a terrorist

  1. Attack or retreat: contrasted defensive tactics used by Cyprian honeybee colonies under attack from hornets.

    PubMed

    Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Rortais, Agnès; Sueur, Jérôme; Arnold, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    This study describes the tactics used by Cyprian honeybees (Apis mellifera cypria) to defend their colonies against hornet (Vespa orientalis orientalis) attacks. We use simulated hornet attacks and a combination of video recordings and image analysis to reveal, for the first time, contrasted intra-subspecies defensive tactics that operate at the colony level during predation. In some colonies, when attacked, the numbers of guards at the hive entrance increases rapidly to attack, engulf, and kill invading hornets. In other colonies, guards avoid conflicts with hornets by retreating gradually and by forming a defensive line of honeybees at the hive entrance. Retreater colonies have propolis walls at the hive entrances with small apertures that are too narrow to allow the hornet to access the hive and that therefore reinforces entrance protection. On the contrary, attacker colonies have propolis walls with large openings through which the hornet can pass; these bees block the hornet's access by intensively guarding the hive entrance. We experimentally destroy propolis walls to test whether colonies consistently rebuild walls with the same intrinsic characteristics and we also monitor the survival rate of each anti-predator tactic after massive natural predation by hornets.

  2. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  3. Efficient certificate-based signcryption secure against public key replacement attacks and insider attacks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature.

  4. Efficient Certificate-Based Signcryption Secure against Public Key Replacement Attacks and Insider Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Signcryption is a useful cryptographic primitive that achieves confidentiality and authentication in an efficient manner. As an extension of signcryption in certificate-based cryptography, certificate-based signcryption preserves the merits of certificate-based cryptography and signcryption simultaneously. In this paper, we present an improved security model of certificate-based signcryption that covers both public key replacement attack and insider security. We show that an existing certificate-based signcryption scheme is insecure in our model. We also propose a new certificate-based signcryption scheme that achieves security against both public key replacement attacks and insider attacks. We prove in the random oracle model that the proposed scheme is chosen-ciphertext secure and existentially unforgeable. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme outperforms all the previous certificate-based signcryption schemes in the literature. PMID:24959606

  5. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.

  6. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  7. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  8. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  9. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  10. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  11. Calculation of the flow on a blunted cone at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubard, S. C.; Rakich, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    A new technique for calculating the entire flow-field on spherically blunted circular cones at high angles of attack and high Reynolds numbers is described. The calculations are based on a single-layer system of three-dimensional parabolic equations which are approximations to the full steady Navier-Stokes equations. Initial conditions at the sphere-cone tangency plane are provided by using an inviscid time-dependent solution added to a viscous nonsimilar boundary layer solution. Calculated results are compared with experimental heat transfer and pressure data for a 15 deg half-angle cone with a 1-in. spherical nose at 15 deg angle of attack. The free-stream Mach number is 10.6, and the free-stream Reynolds number is 1,200,000 per foot. Excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental data for both pressure and heat transfer is obtained.

  12. Protecting Database Centric Web Services against SQL/XPath Injection Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laranjeiro, Nuno; Vieira, Marco; Madeira, Henrique

    Web services represent a powerful interface for back-end database systems and are increasingly being used in business critical applications. However, field studies show that a large number of web services are deployed with security flaws (e.g., having SQL Injection vulnerabilities). Although several techniques for the identification of security vulnerabilities have been proposed, developing non-vulnerable web services is still a difficult task. In fact, security-related concerns are hard to apply as they involve adding complexity to already complex code. This paper proposes an approach to secure web services against SQL and XPath Injection attacks, by transparently detecting and aborting service invocations that try to take advantage of potential vulnerabilities. Our mechanism was applied to secure several web services specified by the TPC-App benchmark, showing to be 100% effective in stopping attacks, non-intrusive and very easy to use.

  13. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  14. Understanding How They Attack Your Weaknesses: CAPEC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    exploits ■ Capture the attacker’s perspective to aid software developers, acquirers and operators in improving the assurance profile of their software...development and secure operations The HS SEDI FFRDC is managed and operated by The MITRE Corporation for DHS. 5 Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and...patterns into an integrated enumeration that can be i l d ff i l l d b h icons stent y an e ect ve y everage y t e commun ty – Gives you an attacker’s

  15. Profiler-2000: Attacking the Insider Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    s/ JOSEPH CAMERA, Chief Information & Intelligence Exploitation Division Information Directorate REPORT...Approaches to undermining anomaly detectors………………………………9 3.3 Detection coverage of an anomaly detector………………………………….10 3.4 Deploying Exploits and Sensors...13 3.5 Where and how an attack manifests in the data……………………………...13 3.6 Manipulating the manifestation; modifying exploits

  16. Cyber Attack! Crime or Act of War?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-13

    all of the other domains. A plans officer pointed out that if we used this scheme of defense in land warfare, an ― invasion of New Jersey would have...Tonkin (1965) or the 9/11 attacks (2001). Most do not require it as the facts on the ground make the action obvious such as Iraq‘s invasion of Kuwait...1990), Japan‘s bombing of Pearl Harbor (1941), and the North Korean invasion of South Korea (1950). Regardless if there is a formal investigation or

  17. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  18. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  19. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  20. Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.

  1. The generalized added mass revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray

    2007-05-01

    The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.

  2. Gemcitabine-induced gouty arthritis attacks.

    PubMed

    Bottiglieri, Sal; Tierson, Neil; Patel, Raina; Mo, Jae-Hyun; Mehdi, Syed

    2013-09-01

    In this case report, we review the experience of a patient who presented with early stage pancreatic cancer (Stage IIb) who underwent a Whipple procedure and adjuvant chemoradiation. The patient's past medical history included early stage colon cancer in remission, post-traumatic-stress-disorder, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, gout, and pre-diabetes. Chemotherapy initially consisted of weekly gemcitabine. The patient developed acute gouty attacks after his second dose of gemcitabine, which brought him to the emergency room for emergent treatment on several occasions. Gemcitabine was held and treatment began with fluorouracil and concurrent radiation. After completion of his chemoradiation with fluorouracil, he was again treated with weekly gemcitabine alone. As soon as the patient started gemcitabine chemotherapy the patient developed gouty arthritis again, requiring discontinuation of chemotherapy. The patient received no additional treatment until his recent recurrence 8 months later where gemcitabine chemotherapy was again introduced with prophylactic medications consisting of allopurinol 100 mg by mouth daily and colchicine 0.6 mg by mouth daily throughout gemcitabine chemotherapy, and no signs of gouty arthritis occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing gout attacks associated with gemcitabine therapy. There is limited data available describing the mechanism that gouty arthritis may be precipitated from gemcitabine chemotherapy. Further monitoring and management may be required in patients receiving gemcitabine chemotherapy with underlying gout.

  3. Marine microalgae attack and feed on metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Terje; Poulsen, Louise K; Moldrup, Morten; Daugbjerg, Niels; Juel Hansen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Free-living microalgae from the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium are known to form massive blooms in eutrophic coastal waters worldwide and are often associated with fish kills. Natural bloom populations, recently shown to consist of the two mixotrophic and toxic species Karlodinium armiger and Karlodinium veneficum have caused fast paralysis and mortality of finfish and copepods in the laboratory, and have been associated with reduced metazooplankton biomass in-situ. Here we show that a strain of K. armiger (K-0688) immobilises the common marine copepod Acartia tonsa in a density-dependent manner and collectively ingests the grazer to promote its own growth rate. In contrast, four strains of K. veneficum did not attack or affect the motility and survival of the copepods. Copepod immobilisation by the K. armiger strain was fast (within 15 min) and caused by attacks of swarming cells, likely through the transfer and action of a highly potent but uncharacterised neurotoxin. The copepods grazed and reproduced on a diet of K. armiger at densities below 1000, cells ml−1, but above 3500 cells ml−1 the mixotrophic dinoflagellates immobilised, fed on and killed the copepods. Switching the trophic role of the microalgae from prey to predator of copepods couples population growth to reduced grazing pressure, promoting the persistence of blooms at high densities. K. armiger also fed on three other metazoan organisms offered, suggesting that active predation by mixotrophic dinoflagellates may be directly involved in causing mortalities at several trophic levels in the marine food web. PMID:22513533

  4. Marine microalgae attack and feed on metazoans.

    PubMed

    Berge, Terje; Poulsen, Louise K; Moldrup, Morten; Daugbjerg, Niels; Juel Hansen, Per

    2012-10-01

    Free-living microalgae from the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium are known to form massive blooms in eutrophic coastal waters worldwide and are often associated with fish kills. Natural bloom populations, recently shown to consist of the two mixotrophic and toxic species Karlodinium armiger and Karlodinium veneficum have caused fast paralysis and mortality of finfish and copepods in the laboratory, and have been associated with reduced metazooplankton biomass in-situ. Here we show that a strain of K. armiger (K-0688) immobilises the common marine copepod Acartia tonsa in a density-dependent manner and collectively ingests the grazer to promote its own growth rate. In contrast, four strains of K. veneficum did not attack or affect the motility and survival of the copepods. Copepod immobilisation by the K. armiger strain was fast (within 15 min) and caused by attacks of swarming cells, likely through the transfer and action of a highly potent but uncharacterised neurotoxin. The copepods grazed and reproduced on a diet of K. armiger at densities below 1000, cells ml(-1), but above 3500 cells ml(-1) the mixotrophic dinoflagellates immobilised, fed on and killed the copepods. Switching the trophic role of the microalgae from prey to predator of copepods couples population growth to reduced grazing pressure, promoting the persistence of blooms at high densities. K. armiger also fed on three other metazoan organisms offered, suggesting that active predation by mixotrophic dinoflagellates may be directly involved in causing mortalities at several trophic levels in the marine food web.

  5. Error and attack tolerance of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Réka; Jeong, Hawoong; Barabási, Albert-László

    2000-07-01

    Many complex systems display a surprising degree of tolerance against errors. For example, relatively simple organisms grow, persist and reproduce despite drastic pharmaceutical or environmental interventions, an error tolerance attributed to the robustness of the underlying metabolic network. Complex communication networks display a surprising degree of robustness: although key components regularly malfunction, local failures rarely lead to the loss of the global information-carrying ability of the network. The stability of these and other complex systems is often attributed to the redundant wiring of the functional web defined by the systems' components. Here we demonstrate that error tolerance is not shared by all redundant systems: it is displayed only by a class of inhomogeneously wired networks, called scale-free networks, which include the World-Wide Web, the Internet, social networks and cells. We find that such networks display an unexpected degree of robustness, the ability of their nodes to communicate being unaffected even by unrealistically high failure rates. However, error tolerance comes at a high price in that these networks are extremely vulnerable to attacks (that is, to the selection and removal of a few nodes that play a vital role in maintaining the network's connectivity). Such error tolerance and attack vulnerability are generic properties of communication networks.

  6. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  7. Simulation of Attacks for Security in Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node’s software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work. PMID:27869710

  8. Simulation of Attacks for Security in Wireless Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo

    2016-11-18

    The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node's software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work.

  9. Minimizing Expected Maximum Risk from Cyber-Attacks with Probabilistic Attack Success

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer H.; Nandi, Apurba; Medal, Hugh; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-07-16

    The goal of our work is to enhance network security by generating partial cut-sets, which are a subset of edges that remove paths from initially vulnerable nodes (initial security conditions) to goal nodes (critical assets), on an attack graph given costs for cutting an edge and a limited overall budget.

  10. Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits, and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: An 8-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affleck, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed heart attack victims (N=287) seven weeks and eight years after their attack. Explored interrelations among causal attributions for the attack, survivor morbidity, and heart attack recurrence. Found that patients who cited benefits from their misfortune seven weeks after the first attack were less likely to have another attack and had…

  11. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  12. Managing burn victims of suicide bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Harvey; Yew, Woon Si; Song, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Terror attacks in Southeast Asia were almost nonexistent until the 2002 Bali bomb blast, considered the deadliest attack in Indonesian history. Further attacks in 2003 (Jakarta), 2004 (Jakarta), and 2005 (Bali) have turned terrorist attacks into an ever-present reality. Methods The authors reviewed medical charts of victims evacuated to the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre during three suicide attacks involving Bali (2002 and 2005) and the Jakarta Marriott hotel (2003). Problems faced, lessons learnt, and costs incurred are discussed. A burns disaster plan drawing on lessons learnt from these attacks is presented. Results Thirty-one patients were treated at the SGH Burns Centre in three attacks (2002 Bali attack [n = 15], 2003 Jakarta attack [n = 14], and 2005 Bali attack [n = 2]). For the 2002 Bali attack, median age was 29 years (range 20 to 50 years), median percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) was 29% (range 5% to 55%), and median abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6 (range 3 to 10). Eight of 15 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. For the 2003 Jakarta attack, median age was 35 years (range 24 to 56 years), median percentage of TBSA was 10% (range 2% to 46%), and median ABSI was 4 (range 3 to 9). A large number of patients had other injuries. Problems faced included manpower issues, lack of bed space, shortage of blood products, and lack of cadaver skin. Conclusion The changing nature of terror attacks mandates continued vigilance and disaster preparedness. The multidimensional burns patient, complicated by other injuries, is likely to become increasingly common. A burns disaster plan with emphasis on effective command, control, and communication as well as organisation of health care personnel following a 'team concept' will do much to ensure that the sudden onset of a crisis situation at an unexpected time does not overwhelm hospital manpower and resources. PMID:17274813

  13. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  14. Extended Password Recovery Attacks against APOP, SIP, and Digest Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we propose password recovery attacks against challenge-response authentication protocols. Our attacks use a message difference for a MD5 collision attack proposed in IEICE 2008. First, we show how to efficiently find a message pair that collides with the above message difference. Second, we show that a password used in authenticated post office protocol (APOP) can be recovered practically. We also show that the password recovery attack can be applied to a session initiation protocol (SIP) and digest authentication. Our attack can recover up to the first 31 password characters in a short time and up to the first 60 characters faster than the naive search method. We have implemented our attack and confirmed that 31 characters can be successfully recovered.

  15. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  16. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  17. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  18. Identification of cooling tower wood attack and methods of control

    SciTech Connect

    Song, P.; Trulear, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Biological and chemical attack can greatly accelerate the deterioration of cooling tower wood. The damage, once inflicted, is irreversible and often results in premature and costly wood replacement. Biological attack is more serious than chemical, and is difficult to detect. Control of both types is essential for good tower maintenance A review of wood structures, types of attack and methods of control are presented. Effects of alkaline cooling water operation on wood deterioration are also discussed.

  19. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1983-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  20. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  1. On Cybersecurity, Crowdsourcing, and Social Cyber-Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    reaching hordes of interested mischief makers who are comfortably anonymous and hard to track. Social cyber -attack as a means to bully and trick...ON CYBERSECURITY, CROWDSOURCING, AND SOCIAL CYBER -ATTACK By Rebecca Goolsby, Ph.D., Office of Naval Research Civil unrest and social media have...must take into account the growing potential for cyber -attack using social media, where hoax messages are incorporated into a stream of otherwise

  2. ATTACK WARNING: Better Management Required to Resolve NORAD Integration Deficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    WAHNGO D.C.9’𔄃- 2030-710 Accession Number: 1923 Publication Date: Jul 07, 1989 Title: Attack Warning : Better Management Required to Resolve NORAD...Office, GAO, Washington, DC 20548 Report Number: GAO/IMTEC-89- 26 Descriptors, Keywords: Surveillance Warning Communication Attack Methodology Evaluation...Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment System’s data processing and communications capabilities. Our review focused on the Air Force’s

  3. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    DOEpatents

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  4. Secure Adaptive Topology Control for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Ching-Tsung; Li, Yu-Wei; Wen, Chih-Yu; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secure decentralized clustering algorithm for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. The algorithm operates without a centralized controller, operates asynchronously, and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. Based on the cluster-based topology, secure hierarchical communication protocols and dynamic quarantine strategies are introduced to defend against spam attacks, since this type of attacks can exhaust the energy of sensor nodes and will shorten the lifetime of a sensor network drastically. By adjusting the threshold of infected percentage of the cluster coverage, our scheme can dynamically coordinate the proportion of the quarantine region and adaptively achieve the cluster control and the neighborhood control of attacks. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is feasible and cost effective for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22205866

  5. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  6. Orthostatic panic attacks among Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Hinton, Ladson; Tran, Minh; Nguyen, Men; Nguyen, Lim; Hsia, Curtis; Pollack, Mark H

    2007-12-01

    Viewed historically and cross-culturally, orthostatic-induced dizziness, i.e., dizziness caused by standing up from a sitting or a lying position, forms a key aspect of many syndromes: irritable heart (American Civil War), effort syndrome (World War I and World War II), chronic fatigue syndrome (contemporary USA), Gulf War syndrome (contemporary USA), and orthostatic dysregulation (contemporary Japan). Among Vietnamese refugees attending a psychiatric clinic, this study documents a high rate of orthostatic panic (OP), as well as certain processes seemingly generating these panic attacks, viz., flashbacks and culturally specific catastrophic cognitions. Case examples are used to demonstrate OP's phenomenology and relevance to clinical care. To illustrate the mechanisms producing OP, we adduce the multiplex model of panic generation. Culturally appropriate care of Vietnamese refugees should include assessment and treatment of OP.

  7. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  8. Inorganic nanoparticles engineered to attack bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristen P; Wang, Lei; Benicewicz, Brian C; Decho, Alan W

    2015-11-07

    Antibiotics were once the golden bullet to constrain infectious bacteria. However, the rapid and continuing emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) among infectious microbial pathogens has questioned the future utility of antibiotics. This dilemma has recently fueled the marriage of the disparate fields of nanochemistry and antibiotics. Nanoparticles and other types of nanomaterials have been extensively developed for drug delivery to eukaryotic cells. However, bacteria have very different cellular architectures than eukaryotic cells. This review addresses the chemistry of nanoparticle-based antibiotic carriers, and how their technical capabilities are now being re-engineered to attack, kill, but also non-lethally manipulate the physiologies of bacteria. This review also discusses the surface functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles with small ligand molecules, polymers, and charged moieties to achieve drug loading and controllable release.

  9. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, Nikola

    2008-06-01

    Trans-resveratrol ( trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  10. Emergency response to an anthrax attack

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Lawrence M.; Craft, David L.; Kaplan, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model to compare various emergency responses in the event of an airborne anthrax attack. The system consists of an atmospheric dispersion model, an age-dependent dose–response model, a disease progression model, and a set of spatially distributed two-stage queueing systems consisting of antibiotic distribution and hospital care. Our results underscore the need for the extremely aggressive and timely use of oral antibiotics by all asymptomatics in the exposure region, distributed either preattack or by nonprofessionals postattack, and the creation of surge capacity for supportive hospital care via expanded training of nonemergency care workers at the local level and the use of federal and military resources and nationwide medical volunteers. The use of prioritization (based on disease stage and/or age) at both queues, and the development and deployment of modestly rapid and sensitive biosensors, while helpful, produce only second-order improvements. PMID:12651951

  11. On the offensive against brain attack

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, D.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Healthcare Technologies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has undertaken a stroke initiative whose purpose is to provide the medical community with the tools that will allow doctors to diagnose and treat stroke as aggressively as they do heart attack. A multidisciplinary team of stroke-initiative researchers is collaborating with academic medical centers and private companies to move these tools from the research and development stage through clinical trials, regulatory approval, and manufacture so that they can benefit many thousands of people who have strokes each year. Tools the team has developed fall into four categories: microsensors for brain and clot characterization, a catheter-based system using laser energy to break up clots in the blood vessels of the brain, laser-tissue interaction models in support of laser {open_quotes}clot busting,{close_quotes} and microtools for treating the aneurysms that cause hemorrhagic stroke.

  12. Windows NT Attacks for the Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    Neptune and Smurf. These attacks are fully documented in [10]. In addition, two denial-of-service attacks, CrashIIS and DoSNuke, were developed to...in the Netscape browser. NetBus and NetCat use trojan programs to establish back doors on the victim system. PPMacro inserts malicious macro code...detecting the attack. 51 7.2 Netbus R-s-U Description The attacker uses a trojan program to install and run the Netbus server, version 1.7, on

  13. Feasible attack on detector-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kejin; Liu, Hongwei; Ma, Haiqiang; Yang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Yongmei; Xiao, Jinghua; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-03-27

    Recently, to bridge the gap between security of Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) and a high key rate, a novel protocol, the so-called detector-device-independent QKD (DDI-QKD), has been independently proposed by several groups and has attracted great interest. A higher key rate is obtained, since a single photon bell state measurement (BSM) setup is applied to DDI-QKD. Subsequently, Qi has proposed two attacks for this protocol. However, the first attack, in which Bob's BSM setup is assumed to be completely a "black box", is easily prevented by using some additional monitoring devices or by specifically characterizing the BSM. The second attack, which combines the blinding attack and the detector wavelength-dependent efficiency, is not explicitly discussed, and its feasibility is not experimentally confirmed. Here, we show that the second attack is not technically viable because of an intrinsically wavelength-dependent property of a realistic beam splitter, which is an essential component in DDI-QKD. Moreover, we propose a feasible attack that combines a well-known attack-detector blinding attack with intrinsic imperfections of single-photon detectors. The experimental measurement and proof-of-principle test results confirm that our attack can allow Eve to get a copy of quantum keys without being detected and that it is feasible with current technology.

  14. Panic attacks during sleep: a hyperventilation-probability model.

    PubMed

    Ley, R

    1988-09-01

    Panic attacks during sleep are analysed in terms of a hyperventilation theory of panic disorder. The theory assumes that panic attacks during sleep are a manifestation of severe chronic hyperventilation, a dysfunctional state in which renal compensation has led to a relatively steady state of diminished bicarbonate. Reductions in respiration during deep non-REM sleep lead to respiratory acidosis which triggers hyperventilatory hypocapnea and subsequent panic. A probability model designed to predict when during sleep panic attacks are likely to occur is supported by relevant data from studies of sleep and panic attacks. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  15. Finite Energy and Bounded Attacks on Control System Sensor Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Melin, Alexander M; Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A

    2014-01-01

    Control system networks are increasingly being connected to enterprise level networks. These connections leave critical industrial controls systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Most of the effort in protecting these cyber-physical systems (CPS) has been in securing the networks using information security techniques and protection and reliability concerns at the control system level against random hardware and software failures. However, besides these failures the inability of information security techniques to protect against all intrusions means that the control system must be resilient to various signal attacks for which new analysis and detection methods need to be developed. In this paper, sensor signal attacks are analyzed for observer-based controlled systems. The threat surface for sensor signal attacks is subdivided into denial of service, finite energy, and bounded attacks. In particular, the error signals between states of attack free systems and systems subject to these attacks are quantified. Optimal sensor and actuator signal attacks for the finite and infinite horizon linear quadratic (LQ) control in terms of maximizing the corresponding cost functions are computed. The closed-loop system under optimal signal attacks are provided. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to a power network with distributed LQ controllers.

  16. Techniques for Judging Intent Behind Network Based Cyber Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J M

    2004-01-28

    This project developed a prototype system that can rapidly differentiate between undirected cyber attacks, and those that have a more specific and concerning intent behind them. The system responds to important cyber attacks in a tactically significant way as the attack is proceeding. It is also creates a prioritized list for the human analysts allowing them to focus on the threats mostly likely to be of interest. In the recent years the volume of attacks over the internet has increased exponentially, as they have become more and more automated. The result of this is that real threats are harder and harder to distinguish from the general threat. It is possible with our current systems to identify network packets that originated from thousands of IP addresses as probing a site like LLNL in a single day. Human analysis of these threats does not result in information that can be used for tactical response because most of the attacks are short and over before the human starts the analysis. Only a very small percentage of attacks can even be evaluated manually due to the volume. This project developed methods, and prototyped tools, that can identify attacks, slow the attack down and aid in the process of prioritizing detections. The project demonstrated that such methods exist, and that practical implementations exist for modern computers and networks. We call the tools created D.I.A.G. or Determining Internet Attackers Goals.

  17. Crack-cocaine users as victims of physical attack.

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, H. A.; Falck, R. S.; Wang, J.; Carlson, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluates the correlates of physical attack among people who use crack cocaine in Dayton, Ohio. Using a retrospective and prospective natural history design, data from baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews were used to calculate the prevalence of physical attack and the annual rate of physical attack suffered by 440 not-in-treatment crack-cocaine users. Logistic regression was used to determine the correlates of physical attack. The lifetime prevalence of physical attack was 63.0%; the annual rate was 36.8%. At baseline, daily crack users were more likely to report a previous attack since they began using crack (odds ratio [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.77). Longer duration of crack use was also associated with experiencing an attack (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14). Between baseline and 12-month follow-up, the odds of men being attacked were significantly less than those for women (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.99). Physical attack is widespread among crack-cocaine users, and does not vary by ethnicity. Injuries often result in the need for medical care. Over the short term, women are at increased risk. Accessible and effective drug abuse treatment is needed to diminish the harm this population suffers. PMID:10800295

  18. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas; Woerd, Ellen van der E-mail: ellen@itf.fys.kuleuven.be

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  19. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  20. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  1. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  2. A Puzzle of Vestibular Physiology in a Meniere's Disease Acute Attack

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Marta; Manrique-Huarte, Raquel; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present for the first time the functional evaluation of each of the vestibular receptors in the six semicircular canals in a patient diagnosed with Meniere's disease during an acute attack. A 54-year-old lady was diagnosed with left Meniere's disease who during her regular clinic review suffers an acute attack of vertigo, with fullness and an increase of tinnitus in her left ear. Spontaneous nystagmus and the results in the video head-impulse test (vHIT) are shown before, during, and after the attack. Nystagmus was initially left beating and a few minutes later an upbeat component was added. No skew deviation was observed. A decrease in the gain of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) and the presence of overt saccades were observed when the stimuli were in the plane of the left superior semicircular canal. At the end of the crisis nystagmus decreased and vestibuloocular reflex returned to almost normal. A review of the different possibilities to explain these findings points to a hypothetical utricular damage. PMID:26167320

  3. Words Mean Things: The Case for Information System Attack and Control System Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    databases , reservation system, documents, web pages…”ix On the other hand, infrastructure control systems interact with the physical world, and...Week and Space Technology, 4 September 2002, 3, EBSCOhost (accessed 8 September 2008). xxvii Barnes, Julian E., “Hacking Could Become Weapon in...September 2002, EBSCOhost (accessed 8 September 2008). Gibson, Tim, “What You Should Know About Attacking Computer Networks

  4. Stability and control characteristics of a three-surface advanced fighter configuration at angles of attack up to 45 deg. [conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.90, at angles of attack up to 45 deg for the lower Mach numbers, and at angles of sideslip up to 15 deg. The model variations under study included adding a canard surface and deflecting horizontal tails, ailerons, and rudders.

  5. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  6. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  7. Courtship American Style: Newspaper Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated an increasing social phenomenon--newspaper advertising for dating or marital partners--in terms of the bargaining process involved. Content analysis of personal ads in a popular "respectable" singles newspaper revealed a pattern of offers and requests reminiscent of a heterosexual stock market. (Author)

  8. The Use of Rockets as Military Weapons at the Siege of Kai Fung Foo in 1232 A.D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    One of the earliest recorded instances of the use of rockets was as military weapons against the Mongols by the Chinese at the siege of Kai Fung Foo in 1232 A.D. An arrow with a tube of gunpowder produced an arrow of flying fire. The Mongol attackers fled in terror, even though the rockets were inaccurate and relatively harmless.

  9. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  10. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n <= 4 and 2 ⌊n/2 ⌋ + 1 k supersymmetries for 4 < n <= 7 , k ∈N> 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  11. The Massive Wave Equation in Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, C. M.

    2013-07-01

    We consider the massive wave equation on asymptotically AdS spaces. We show that the timelike F behaves like a finite timelike boundary, on which one may impose the equivalent of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions for a range of (negative) mass parameter which includes the conformally coupled case. We demonstrate well posedness for the associated initial-boundary value problems at the H 1 level of regularity. We also prove that higher regularity may be obtained, together with an asymptotic expansion for the field near F. The proofs rely on energy methods, tailored to the modified energy introduced by Breitenlohner and Freedman. We do not assume the spacetime is stationary, nor that the wave equation separates.

  12. On jordanian deformations of AdS5 and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-10-01

    We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that can be obtained from the η-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the η-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which implies that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which do correspond to supergravity solutions.

  13. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  14. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  15. Public Figure Attacks in the United States, 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J Reid; Amman, Molly

    2016-09-01

    An archival descriptive study of public figure attackers in the United States between 1995 and 2015 was undertaken. Fifty-six incidents were identified, primarily through exhaustive internet searches, composed of 58 attackers and 58 victims. A code book was developed which focused upon victims, offenders, pre-attack behaviors including direct threats, attack characteristics, post-offense and other outcomes, motivations and psychological abstracts. The average interrater agreement for coding of bivariate variables was 0.835 (intraclass correlation coefficient). The three most likely victim categories were politicians, judges, and athletes. Attackers were males, many with a psychiatric disorder, most were grandiose, and most had both a violent and nonviolent criminal history. The known motivations for the attacks were often angry and personal, the most common being dissatisfaction with a judicial or other governmental process (23%). In only one case was the primary motivation to achieve notoriety. Lethality risk during an attack was 55%. Collateral injury or death occurred in 29% of the incidents. Only 5% communicated a direct threat to the target beforehand. The term "publicly intimate figure" is introduced to describe the sociocultural blurring of public and private lives among the targets, and its possible role in some attackers' perceptions and motivations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

    PubMed

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-12-09

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  17. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    PubMed Central

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  18. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  19. Cube-Type Algebraic Attacks on Wireless Encryption Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    15. NUMBER OF PAGES 99 14 . SUBJECT TERMS Wireless Security, Cryptanalysis, Boolean Functions, Algebraic Attacks, Correlation Attacks, Cube...Correspondence of the Finite Field....... 12 3. Boolean Function .................................................................. 14 4. Hamming...a a a a     ; continue in that fashion up to the element where there is repetition ( 7a ). 14 3. Boolean Function Definition 2.6: A Boolean

  20. Are Risk Assessments of a Terrorist Attack Coherent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments examined 3 types of violations of coherence criteria in risk assessments of a terrorist attack. First, the requirement that extensionally equivalent descriptions be assigned the same probability (i.e., additivity) was violated. Unpacking descriptions of an attack into subtypes led to an increase in assessed risk. Second,…

  1. Detecting Distributed SQL Injection Attacks in a Eucalyptus Cloud Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebert, Alan; Barnejee, Bikramjit; Solano, Juan; Solano, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    The cloud computing environment offers malicious users the ability to spawn multiple instances of cloud nodes that are similar to virtual machines, except that they can have separate external IP addresses. In this paper we demonstrate how this ability can be exploited by an attacker to distribute his/her attack, in particular SQL injection attacks, in such a way that an intrusion detection system (IDS) could fail to identify this attack. To demonstrate this, we set up a small private cloud, established a vulnerable website in one instance, and placed an IDS within the cloud to monitor the network traffic. We found that an attacker could quite easily defeat the IDS by periodically altering its IP address. To detect such an attacker, we propose to use multi-agent plan recognition, where the multiple source IPs are considered as different agents who are mounting a collaborative attack. We show that such a formulation of this problem yields a more sophisticated approach to detecting SQL injection attacks within a cloud computing environment.

  2. Is There Anybody There? A Psychodynamic View of Panic Attack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizq, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    Presents a process analysis of a psychodynamic intervention for a client with panic attacks. Discusses how a psychodynamic understanding of the complex etiology of the client's panic attacks that ultimately produced improved coping skills and a subjective sense of improvement for her. Process analysis is used to illustrate the theoretical base,…

  3. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks: Local Swelling at Multiple Sites.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C Erik

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may also involve multiple anatomical sites simultaneously. A detailed description of such multi-location attacks is currently lacking. This study investigated the occurrence, severity and clinical course of HAE attacks with multiple anatomical locations. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. Visual analog scale scores filled out by the patients for various symptoms at various locations and investigator symptoms scores during the attack were analysed. Data of 219 eligible attacks in 119 patients was analysed. Thirty-three patients (28%) had symptoms at multiple locations in anatomically unrelated regions at the same time during their first attack. Up to five simultaneously affected locations were reported. The observation that severe HAE attacks often affect multiple sites in the body suggests that HAE symptoms result from a systemic rather than from a local process as is currently believed.

  4. Sequential defense against random and intentional attacks in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Cheng, Shin-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Network robustness against attacks is one of the most fundamental researches in network science as it is closely associated with the reliability and functionality of various networking paradigms. However, despite the study on intrinsic topological vulnerabilities to node removals, little is known on the network robustness when network defense mechanisms are implemented, especially for networked engineering systems equipped with detection capabilities. In this paper, a sequential defense mechanism is first proposed in complex networks for attack inference and vulnerability assessment, where the data fusion center sequentially infers the presence of an attack based on the binary attack status reported from the nodes in the network. The network robustness is evaluated in terms of the ability to identify the attack prior to network disruption under two major attack schemes, i.e., random and intentional attacks. We provide a parametric plug-in model for performance evaluation on the proposed mechanism and validate its effectiveness and reliability via canonical complex network models and real-world large-scale network topology. The results show that the sequential defense mechanism greatly improves the network robustness and mitigates the possibility of network disruption by acquiring limited attack status information from a small subset of nodes in the network.

  5. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  6. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  7. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  8. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  9. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to...

  10. Examining Willingness to Attack Critical Infrastructure Online and Offline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Thomas J.; Kilger, Max

    2012-01-01

    The continuing adoption of technologies by the general public coupled with the expanding reliance of critical infrastructures connected through the Internet has created unique opportunities for attacks by civilians and nation-states alike. Although governments are increasingly focusing on policies to deter nation-state level attacks, it is unclear…

  11. For Heart Attack Survivors, a Risk of Suicide?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162414.html For Heart Attack Survivors, a Risk of Suicide? Study findings underscore ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People who've suffered a heart attack or unstable angina may face a higher-than- ...

  12. New Attacks on Animal Researchers Provoke Anger and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on firebomb attacks at the homes of two animal researchers which have provoked anger and unease. The firebomb attacks, which set the home of a neuroscientist at the University of California at Santa Cruz aflame and destroyed a car parked in the driveway of another university researcher's home, have left researchers and…

  13. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  14. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  15. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  16. The Roman Catholic Church, the Holocaust, and the demonization of the Jews: Response to "Benjamin and us: Christanity, its Jews, and history" by Jeanne Favret-Saada.

    PubMed

    Kertzer, David I

    2014-01-01

    Following eleven years' work, in 1998 a high-level Vatican commission instituted by Pope John Paul II offered what has become the official position of the Roman Catholic Church denying any responsibility for fomenting the kind of demonization of the Jews that made the Holocaust possible. In a 2001 book, The popes against the Jews, I demonstrated that in fact the church played a major role in leading Catholics throughout Europe to view Jews as an existential threat. Yet defenders of the church position continue to deny the historical evidence and to launch ferocious ad hominem attacks against scholars who have researched the subject. The anti-Semitism promulgated by the church can be seen as part of the long battle it waged against modernity, with which the Jews were identified.

  17. The Integrity of Science: Identifying Logical Fallacies, Deceitful Tactics, and Abuse of the Public Trust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    Science, government, and society interact in diverse and complex ways, but good scientific information and advice are vital for making sound policy decisions. Recent efforts to discredit or distort science for political agendas raise difficult questions for the scientific community. As a result, there is growing distrust of scientists long held in esteem by the public and a growing misuse of science critical for public policy. This paper will categorize and define more than 20 different kinds of problems that challenge the integrity of science, including logical fallacies, such as Arguments from Ideology, Personal Incredulity, or Ignorance; and deceitful tactics, such as ad hominem attacks, "straw man" mischaracterizations, scientific misconduct, and misuse of facts. Examples from the geophysical sciences and its intersection with the public policy arena will be presented, together with suggestions for strengthening the public trust.

  18. The Roman Catholic Church, the Holocaust, and the demonization of the Jews

    PubMed Central

    Kertzer, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Following eleven years’ work, in 1998 a high-level Vatican commission instituted by Pope John Paul II offered what has become the official position of the Roman Catholic Church denying any responsibility for fomenting the kind of demonization of the Jews that made the Holocaust possible. In a 2001 book, The popes against the Jews, I demonstrated that in fact the church played a major role in leading Catholics throughout Europe to view Jews as an existential threat. Yet defenders of the church position continue to deny the historical evidence and to launch ferocious ad hominem attacks against scholars who have researched the subject. The anti-Semitism promulgated by the church can be seen as part of the long battle it waged against modernity, with which the Jews were identified. PMID:27011787

  19. Weak laws against acid attacks on women: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2012-01-01

    Acid attacks, especially on women, have seen an alarming growth in India over the last decade. While these attacks can be attributed to various factors such as the social weakness of women in a male-dominated society, the situation is exacerbated by the general neglect of the lawmakers. As acid is inexpensive and easily available, it serves as an ideal weapon for the perpetrators. Further, as this offence is bailable in certain situations, the punishment does not act as a sufficient deterrent in most cases. This paper describes the horrendous effects that acid attacks have on the victims physically, psychologically and socially. It also examines the contemporary laws governing acid attacks on victims and offenders. Ideas for a better legal approach will also be examined with special reference to acid attacks as a crime, and the validity of specific legal provisions for female victims.

  20. A Taxonomy of Attacks on the DNP3 Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    East, Samuel; Butts, Jonathan; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) is the predominant SCADA protocol in the energy sector - more than 75% of North American electric utilities currently use DNP3 for industrial control applications. This paper presents a taxonomy of attacks on the protocol. The attacks are classified based on targets (control center, outstation devices and network/communication paths) and threat categories (interception, interruption, modification and fabrication). To facilitate risk analysis and mitigation strategies, the attacks are associated with the specific DNP3 protocol layers they exploit. Also, the operational impact of the attacks is categorized in terms of three key SCADA objectives: process confi- dentiality, process awareness and process control. The attack taxonomy clarifies the nature and scope of the threats to DNP3 systems, and can provide insights into the relative costs and benefits of implementing mitigation strategies.

  1. Expected losses, insurability, and benefits from reducing vulnerability to attacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Nozick, Linda Karen; Carlson, Rolf Erik; Turnquist, Mark Alan

    2004-03-01

    A model of malicious attacks against an infrastructure system is developed that uses a network representation of the system structure together with a Hidden Markov Model of an attack at a node of that system and a Markov Decision Process model of attacker strategy across the system as a whole. We use information systems as an illustration, but the analytic structure developed can also apply to attacks against physical facilities or other systems that provide services to customers. This structure provides an explicit mechanism to evaluate expected losses from malicious attacks, and to evaluate changes in those losses that would result from system hardening. Thus, we provide a basis for evaluating the benefits of system hardening. The model also allows investigation of the potential for the purchase of an insurance contract to cover the potential losses when safeguards are breached and the system fails.

  2. Attacks on Bluetooth Security Architecture and Its Countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Mian Muhammad Waseem; Kausar, Firdous; Wahla, Muhammad Arif

    WPANs compliment the traditional IEEE 802.11 wireless networks by facilitating the clients with flexibility in network topologies, higher mobility and relaxed configuration/hardware requirements. Bluetooth, a WPAN technology, is an open standard for short-range radio frequency (RF) communication. However, it is also susceptible to typical security threats found in wireless LANs. This paper discuses some of the attack scenarios against the bluetooth network such as hostile intrusion, active Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack using unit key and various forms of denial of service (DoS) attacks. These threats and attacks compromise the confidentiality and availability of bluetooth data and services. This paper proposes an improved security architecture for bluetooth device which provides protection against the above mentioned attacks.

  3. The Application of Baum-Welch Algorithm in Multistep Attack

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxue; Zhao, Dongmei; Liu, Jinxing

    2014-01-01

    The biggest difficulty of hidden Markov model applied to multistep attack is the determination of observations. Now the research of the determination of observations is still lacking, and it shows a certain degree of subjectivity. In this regard, we integrate the attack intentions and hidden Markov model (HMM) and support a method to forecasting multistep attack based on hidden Markov model. Firstly, we train the existing hidden Markov model(s) by the Baum-Welch algorithm of HMM. Then we recognize the alert belonging to attack scenarios with the Forward algorithm of HMM. Finally, we forecast the next possible attack sequence with the Viterbi algorithm of HMM. The results of simulation experiments show that the hidden Markov models which have been trained are better than the untrained in recognition and prediction. PMID:24991642

  4. IVs to Skip for Immunizing WEP against FMS Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    The WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is a part of IEEE 802.11 standard designed for protecting over-the-air communication. While almost all of the WLAN (Wireless LAN) cards and the APs (Access Points) support WEP, a serious key recovery attack (aka FMS attack) was identified by Fluhrer et al. The FMS attack can basically be prevented by skipping IVs (Initial Values) used in the attack, but naive skip methods reveal information on the WEP key since most of them depend on the WEP key and the patterns of the skipped IV reveal it. In order to skip IVs safely, the skip patterns must be chosen carefully. In this paper, we review the attack conditions (6) and (7), whose success probability is the highest, 0.05, amongst all known conditions to guess one key-byte from one packet. Then we identify their safe skip patterns.

  5. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public. PMID:25884659

  6. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  7. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  8. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles.

  9. Assessment and treatment of nocturnal panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Craske, Michelle G; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2005-06-01

    Nocturnal panic (NP), waking from sleep in a state of panic, is a common occurrence among patients with panic disorder, with 44-71% reporting at least one such attack. NP is a non-REM event that is distinct from sleep terrors, sleep apnea, nightmares or dream-induced arousals. This review outlines recent advances in the characterization of NP, as well as current approaches to the assessment and treatment of NP. In contrast to earlier work, more recent studies suggest that patients with NP do not differ from patients without NP on sleep architecture, sleep physiology, self-reported sleep quality and severity of panic disorder. However, more precise measurement of physiological precipitants and features is warranted. Assessment of NP focuses on ruling out other explanations for NP, with differential diagnosis based on interviews, sleep polysomnography and ambulatory recording of sleep. Psychological treatment (cognitive-behavioral therapy) targets misappraisals of anxiety sensations, hyperventilatory response, and conditioned reactions to internal, physical cues. Recent evidence supports the efficacy of this approach, however, controlled studies on pharmacological agents in the treatment of NP are lacking. Research is needed to examine the effects of combined cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications, compared to medication alone in the treatment of NP.

  10. Pre-Attack Symptomatology and Temperament as Predictors of Children's Responses to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Smith, Kimberlee I.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the psychological response of children following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, DC and to examine prospective predictors of children's post-attack responses. Method: Children's responses were assessed in a community sample of children in Seattle, Washington,…

  11. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  12. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  13. Detecting and isolating malicious nodes in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fanzhi; Jassim, Sabah

    2007-04-01

    Malicious nodes can seriously impair the performance of wireless ad hoc networks as a result of different actions such as packet dropping. Secure routes are shortest paths on which every node on the route is trusted even if unknown. Secure route discovery requires the adoption of mechanisms of associating trust to nodes. Most existing secure route discovery mechanisms rely on shared keys and digital signature. In the absence of central nodes that act as certification authority, such protocols suffer from heavy computational burden and are vulnerable to malicious attacks. In this paper we shall review existing techniques for secure routing and propose to complement route finding with creditability scores. Each node would have a credit list for its neighbors. Each node monitors its neighbors' pattern of delivering packets and regularly credits are reviewed and updated accordingly. Unlike most existing schemes the focus of our work is based on post route discovery stage, i.e. when packets are transmitted on discovered routes. The level of trust in any route will be based on the credits associated with the neighbors belonging to the discovered route. We shall evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme by modifying our simulation system so that each node has a dynamic changing "credit list" for its neighbors' behavior. We shall conduct a series of simulations with and without the proposed scheme and compare the results. We will demonstrate that the proposed mechanism is capable of isolating malicious nodes and thereby counteracting black hole attacks.

  14. Optimal response to attacks on the open science grids.

    SciTech Connect

    Altunay, M.; Leyffer, S.; Linderoth, J. T.; Xie, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Cybersecurity is a growing concern, especially in open grids, where attack propagation is easy because of prevalent collaborations among thousands of users and hundreds of institutions. The collaboration rules that typically govern large science experiments as well as social networks of scientists span across the institutional security boundaries. A common concern is that the increased openness may allow malicious attackers to spread more readily around the grid. We consider how to optimally respond to attacks in open grid environments. To show how and why attacks spread more readily around the grid, we first discuss how collaborations manifest themselves in the grids and form the collaboration network graph, and how this collaboration network graph affects the security threat levels of grid participants. We present two mixed-integer program (MIP) models to find the optimal response to attacks in open grid environments, and also calculate the threat level associated with each grid participant. Given an attack scenario, our optimal response model aims to minimize the threat levels at unaffected participants while maximizing the uninterrupted scientific production (continuing collaborations). By adopting some of the collaboration rules (e.g., suspending a collaboration or shutting down a site), the model finds optimal response to subvert an attack scenario.

  15. Localized attacks on spatially embedded networks with dependencies.

    PubMed

    Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-03-11

    Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may depend on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of spatially embedded networks with dependencies under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on spatially embedded systems with dependencies. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures-even of finite fraction-if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on spatially embedded network systems with dependencies and may be useful for designing more resilient systems.

  16. Localized attacks on spatially embedded networks with dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Berezin, Yehiel; Bashan, Amir; Danziger, Michael M.; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Many real world complex systems such as critical infrastructure networks are embedded in space and their components may depend on one another to function. They are also susceptible to geographically localized damage caused by malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here, we study a general model of spatially embedded networks with dependencies under localized attacks. We develop a theoretical and numerical approach to describe and predict the effects of localized attacks on spatially embedded systems with dependencies. Surprisingly, we find that a localized attack can cause substantially more damage than an equivalent random attack. Furthermore, we find that for a broad range of parameters, systems which appear stable are in fact metastable. Though robust to random failures—even of finite fraction—if subjected to a localized attack larger than a critical size which is independent of the system size (i.e., a zero fraction), a cascading failure emerges which leads to complete system collapse. Our results demonstrate the potential high risk of localized attacks on spatially embedded network systems with dependencies and may be useful for designing more resilient systems. PMID:25757572

  17. Falsification Attacks against WPA-TKIP in a Realistic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todo, Yosuke; Ozawa, Yuki; Ohigashi, Toshihiro; Morii, Masakatu

    In this paper, we propose two new falsification attacks against Wi-Fi Protected Access Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (WPA-TKIP). A previous realistic attack succeeds only for a network that supports IEEE 802.11e QoS features by both an access point (AP) and a client, and it has an execution time of 12-15min, in which it recovers a message integrity code (MIC) key from an ARP packet. Our first attack reduces the execution time for recovering a MIC key. It can recover the MIC key within 7-8min. Our second attack expands its targets that can be attacked. This attack focuses on a new vulnerability of QoS packet processing, and this vulnerability can remove the condition that the AP supports IEEE 802.11e. In addition, we discovered another vulnerability by which our attack succeeds under the condition that the chipset of the client supports IEEE 802.11e even if the client disables this standard through the OS. We demonstrate that chipsets developed by several kinds of vendors have the same vulnerability.

  18. Attack resilience of the evolving scientific collaboration network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Tse, Chi K

    2011-01-01

    Stationary complex networks have been extensively studied in the last ten years. However, many natural systems are known to be continuously evolving at the local ("microscopic") level. Understanding the response to targeted attacks of an evolving network may shed light on both how to design robust systems and finding effective attack strategies. In this paper we study empirically the response to targeted attacks of the scientific collaboration networks. First we show that scientific collaboration network is a complex system which evolves intensively at the local level--fewer than 20% of scientific collaborations last more than one year. Then, we investigate the impact of the sudden death of eminent scientists on the evolution of the collaboration networks of their former collaborators. We observe in particular that the sudden death, which is equivalent to the removal of the center of the egocentric network of the eminent scientist, does not affect the topological evolution of the residual network. Nonetheless, removal of the eminent hub node is exactly the strategy one would adopt for an effective targeted attack on a stationary network. Hence, we use this evolving collaboration network as an experimental model for attack on an evolving complex network. We find that such attacks are ineffectual, and infer that the scientific collaboration network is the trace of knowledge propagation on a larger underlying social network. The redundancy of the underlying structure in fact acts as a protection mechanism against such network attacks.

  19. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  20. AdS4/CFT3 squashed, stretched and warped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, Igor R.; Klose, Thomas; Murugan, Arvind

    2009-03-01

    We use group theoretic methods to calculate the spectrum of short multiplets around the extremum of Script N = 8 gauged supergravity potential which possesses Script N = 2 supersymmetry and SU(3) global symmetry. Upon uplifting to M-theory, it describes a warped product of AdS4 and a certain squashed and stretched 7-sphere. We find quantum numbers in agreement with those of the gauge invariant operators in the Script N = 2 superconformal Chern-Simons theory recently proposed to be the dual of this M-theory background. This theory is obtained from the U(N) × U(N) theory through deforming the superpotential by a term quadratic in one of the superfields. To construct this model explicitly, one needs to employ monopole operators whose complete understanding is still lacking. However, for the U(2) × U(2) gauge theory we make a proposal for the form of the monopole operators which has a number of desired properties. In particular, this proposal implies enhanced symmetry of the U(2) × U(2) ABJM theory for k = 1,2; it makes its similarity to and subtle difference from the BLG theory quite explicit.

  1. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  2. Recurrence of Panic Attacks after Influenza Vaccination: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Sang-Won; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Human influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. The influenza vaccination is recommended annually, but several adverse effects related to allergic reactions have been reported. Panic attacks are also known to occur, but no case of a panic attack adverse effect has been reported in South Korea. We present two cases of panic disorder patients whose symptoms were aggravated by the influenza vaccination. We assumed that dysregulation of T-lymphocytes in panic disorder patients could have a role in activating various kinds of cytokines and chemokines, which then can lead to panic attack aggravation. PMID:27776395

  3. Unusual fatal dog attack in Dunedin, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Healey, D L; Kieser, J A

    2005-12-01

    A case of a fatal dog attack on a middle aged woman is presented. The offending dog was her own Bull-mastiff, which had previously shown signs of aggression towards her. Most of the injuries were found on the victim's face, neck and skull. A noteworthy feature of this attack was that the victim was known to suffer from Huntington disease. It is postulated that the involuntary movements, progressive dementia and increased moodiness characteristic of the disease may have had a significant role in triggering the attack.

  4. Comparison of X-31 Flight and Ground-Based Yawing Moment Asymmetries at High Angles of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.; Croom, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Significant yawing moment asymmetries were encountered during the high-angle-of-attack envelope expansion of the two X-31 aircraft. These asymmetries caused position saturations of the thrust-vectoring vanes and trailing-edge flaps during some stability-axis rolling maneuvers at high angles of attack. The two test aircraft had different asymmetry characteristics, and ship two has asymmetries that vary as a function of Reynolds number. Several aerodynamic modifications have been made to the X-31 forebody with the goal of minimizing the asymmetry. These modifications include adding transition strips on the forebody and noseboom, using two different length strakes, and increasing nose bluntness. Ultimately, a combination of forebody strakes, nose blunting, and noseboom transition strips reduced the yawing moment asymmetry enough to fully expand the high-angle-of-attack envelope. Analysis of the X-31 flight data is reviewed and compared to wind-tunnel and water-tunnel measurements. Several lessons learned are outlined regarding high-angle-of-attack configuration design and ground testing.

  5. The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (Λ < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].

  6. Turning the Tables: Using Wireless Communication Against an Attacker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinovic, Ivan; Schmitt, Jens B.

    In this paper, we propose a system leveraging the peculiarities of the wireless medium, such as the broadcast nature of wireless communication and the unpredictability of indoor signal propagation to achieve effective protection against attacks based on the injection of fake data in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Using a real-world WSN deployment and a realistic implementation of an attacker, we analyze this protection scheme and demonstrate that neither position change, transmission power manipulation, nor complete knowledge of wireless parameters can help an attacker to successfully attack the network. As a result, this work demonstrates how the chaotic nature of radio communication, which is often considered a disadvantage in regard to security objectives, can be exploited to enhance protection and support implementation of lightweight security mechanisms.

  7. Vulnerability of complex networks under path-based attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Cun-Lai; Cui, Wei

    2015-02-01

    We investigate vulnerability of complex networks including model networks and real-world networks subject to path-based attacks. Specifically, we remove approximately the longest simple path from a network iteratively until there are no paths left in the network. We propose two algorithms, the random augmenting approach (RPA) and the Hamilton-path based approach (HPA), for finding the approximately longest simple path in a network. Results demonstrate that steps of longest-path attacks increase with network density linearly for random networks, while exponentially increasing for scale-free networks. The more homogeneous the degree distribution is, the more fragile the network, which is different from the previous results of node or edge attacks. HPA is generally more efficient than RPA in the longest-path attacks of complex networks. These findings further help us understand the vulnerability of complex systems, better protect complex systems, and design more tolerant complex systems.

  8. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kaliappan, Jayakumar; Thiagarajan, Revathi; Sundararajan, Karpagam

    2015-01-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU), there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate. PMID:26295058

  9. Supersonic flow around circular cones at angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio

    1951-01-01

    The properties of conical flow without axial symmetry are analyzed. The flow around cones of circular cross section at small angles of attack is determined by correctly considering the effect of the entropy gradients in the flow.

  10. Mite-Proof Bedding May Help Curb Asthma Attacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Curb Asthma Attacks: Study Kids whose mattresses and pillows were encased had less severe flare-ups, researchers ... asthma and dust mite allergy. Their mattresses and pillows were encased with mite-proof or placebo covers. ...

  11. An unusual case of predation: dog pack or cougar attack?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Gabriel M; Palacios, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Injuries produced by animals are capable of leaving severe patterns and in some cases may result in the death of the attacked individual. Law enforcement authorities may come to erroneous conclusions about the source of the bites based on their awareness of animals present and similarities of the injuries to the untrained eye, with dreadful consequences. Expertise of a carnivore biologist and an odontologist that indentifies the particularities of bite marks may be useful for identifying the attacking species. We present the investigation of a fatal dog pack attack involving a 43-year-old man in Bell Ville (Argentina) where the evidence provided by a forensic dentist and a biologist was categorical for establishing the animal species involved. Because of the unusual characteristics of the wounds and the initial hypothesis made by local authorities of a cougar attack, habits and specific patterns of both dog pack and cougar predation on humans are discussed.

  12. The countermeasures against the blinding attack in quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jindong; Wang, Hong; Qin, Xiaojuan; Wei, Zhengjun; Zhang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the single photon detectors (SPDs) based on the avalanche photodiode (APD) can be blinded and controlled by the bright light and short trigger pulses. Eavesdropper can get the full information without causing additional quantum bit error rate. Hence, in order to guarantee the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, some countermeasures, by changing the characteristic of the SPD or monitoring the parameters of the detector, are presented by some research groups. In this paper, we provide a new and effective countermeasure against the blinding attack based on improving the optical scheme of the decoding unit in the QKD system rather than only considering the characteristic of the SPD. In our proposal we use a coupler with asymmetric splitting ratio to distinguish the detection characteristic of the SPD with blinding attack from that without blinding attack. The detailed analysis shows that the proposed scheme is feasible to defense the blinding attack.

  13. Distributed Secure Coordinated Control for Multiagent Systems Under Strategic Attacks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi; Wen, Guanghui; Hu, Guoqiang

    2016-04-12

    This paper studies a distributed secure consensus tracking control problem for multiagent systems subject to strategic cyber attacks modeled by a random Markov process. A hybrid stochastic secure control framework is established for designing a distributed secure control law such that mean-square exponential consensus tracking is achieved. A connectivity restoration mechanism is considered and the properties on attack frequency and attack length rate are investigated, respectively. Based on the solutions of an algebraic Riccati equation and an algebraic Riccati inequality, a procedure to select the control gains is provided and stability analysis is studied by using Lyapunov's method.. The effect of strategic attacks on discrete-time systems is also investigated. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of theoretical analysis.

  14. After-gate attack on a quantum cryptosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiechers, C.; Lydersen, L.; Wittmann, C.; Elser, D.; Skaar, J.; Marquardt, Ch; Makarov, V.; Leuchs, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to control the detection events in quantum key distribution systems that use gated single-photon detectors. We employ bright pulses as faked states, timed to arrive at the avalanche photodiodes outside the activation time. The attack can remain unnoticed, since the faked states do not increase the error rate per se. This allows for an intercept-resend attack, where an eavesdropper transfers her detection events to the legitimate receiver without causing any errors. As a side effect, afterpulses, originating from accumulated charge carriers in the detectors, increase the error rate. We have experimentally tested detectors of the system id3110 (Clavis2) from ID Quantique. We identify the parameter regime in which the attack is feasible despite the side effect. Furthermore, we outline how simple modifications in the implementation can make the device immune to this attack.

  15. Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gisin, N.; Fasel, S.; Kraus, B.; Zbinden, H.; Ribordy, G.

    2006-02-15

    General Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems, i.e., attacks on Alice or Bob's system via the quantum channel, are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today's technology and conclude that all systems must implement active counter measures. In particular, all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter measures can be efficient, provided that enough additional privacy amplification is applied to the data. We present a practical way to reduce the maximal information gain that an adversary can gain using Trojan-horse attacks. This does reduce the security analysis of the two-way plug-and-play implementation to those of the standard one-way systems.

  16. Sleep attacks and antiparkinsonian drugs: a pilot prospective pharmacoepidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Montastruc, J L; Brefel-Courbon, C; Senard, J M; Bagheri, H; Ferreira, J; Rascol, O; Lapeyre-Mestre, M

    2001-01-01

    A prospective survey was performed to characterize the prevalence of sleep attacks and to evaluate precipitating factors in a group of 236 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Sleep attacks were reported by 72 patients (30.5%). Multivariate analysis showed a marked association between the occurrence of sudden sleep episodes and first autonomic failure, followed by treatment with ropinirole and bromocriptine. The present work underlines the major contributing role of autonomic failure followed by dopamine agonists in the occurrence of such an event. Because a relationship between sleep attacks and not only ropinirole but also bromocriptine treatment was described, the present work suggests that sleep attacks are a common side effect of all dopamine agonists.

  17. Resistance maximization principle for defending networks against virus attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the defending of networks against virus attack. We define the resistance of a network to be the maximum number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible from random walk, from which random walk cannot escape. We show that for any network G, R(G) =H1(G) -H2(G) , where R(G) is the resistance of G, H1(G) and H2(G) are the one- and two-dimensional structural information of G, respectively, and that resistance maximization is the principle for defending networks against virus attack. By using the theory, we investigate the defending of real world networks and of the networks generated by the preferential attachment and the security models. We show that there exist networks that are defensible by a small number of controllers from cascading failure of any virus attack. Our theory demonstrates that resistance maximization is the principle for defending networks against virus attacks.

  18. Chemical processes induced by OH attack on nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Mikinori

    Recent studies concerning the chemical processes in nucleic acids starting with OH attack to produce free radicals and ending with the formation of stable products were reviewed. Using nucleosides, nucleotides and homopolynucleotides as model compounds, and DNA itself, free radicals produced by OH attack on nucleic acids have been mainly studied by a method combining ESR, spin trapping and high-performance liquid chromatography. For identification of final products in both base and sugar moieties of nucleic acids, mass and NMR spectroscopies combined with gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography are usually employed. Kinetic measurements of structural alterations in the polynucleotides and DNA after OH attack have been made by a method combining electron-pulse irradiation and laser-light scattering. From these studies, the chemical reaction processes from the generation of free radicals in nucleic acids by OH attack, through the formation of unstable intermediates, to the formation of final products can be described.

  19. Heartburn or Chest Pain: When Is It Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Heartburn Severe heartburn and heart attack can be hard to tell apart. Understand how they typically differ, and learn when to get immediate help. By Mayo Clinic Staff You' ...

  20. New records of Pipunculidae attacking proconiine sharpshooter (Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Proconiini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five records of Pipunculidae (Diptera) attacking proconiine sharpshooters (Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are documented here for the first time. Eudorylas alternatus (Cresson) is documented as a parasitoid of Cuerna obtusa Oman and Beamer, and Oncometopia orbona (Fabricius) is recorded as being at...

  1. Quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Gao, Ming; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of physical unclonable functions (PUFs), PUF-based quantum authentication systems have been proposed for security purposes, and recently, proof-of-principle experiment has been demonstrated. As a further step toward completing the security analysis, we investigate quantum cloning attacks against PUF-based quantum authentication systems and prove that quantum cloning attacks outperform the so-called challenge-estimation attacks. We present the analytical expression of the false-accept probability by use of the corresponding optimal quantum cloning machines and extend the previous results in the literature. In light of these findings, an explicit comparison is made between PUF-based quantum authentication systems and quantum key distribution protocols in the context of cloning attacks. Moreover, from an experimental perspective, a trade-off between the average photon number and the detection efficiency is discussed in detail.

  2. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior. PMID:25550978

  3. Pathological findings of a fatal leopard seal attack.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Guy N

    2007-03-01

    A unique case of a fatal leopard seal attack against an adult human female is presented. The death occurred in Rothera, Antarctica when the female was snorkeling while undertaking scientific research. The principle injuries occurred, during life, to the facial areas prior to the act of drowning. The method of attack of leopard seals against their natural prey is discussed and related to the findings on the deceased.

  4. Attacks on fixed-apparatus quantum-key-distribution schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Michel; Gelles, Ran; Mor, Tal

    2014-07-01

    We consider quantum-key-distribution implementations in which the receiver's apparatus is fixed and does not depend on his choice of basis at each qubit transmission. We show that, although theoretical quantum key distribution is proven secure, such implementations are totally insecure against a strong eavesdropper that has one-time (single) access to the receiver's equipment. The attack we present here, the "fixed-apparatus attack," causes a potential risk to the usefulness of several recent implementations.

  5. Defensive Cyber Battle Damage Assessment Through Attack Methodology Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-25

    attributes. timestomp Winter.jpg -z "Monday 1/01/2001 01:01:01 AM" 142 Bibliography [Ame04] Amenaza , (2004, May), "Understanding Risk...Through Attack Tree Analysis," Amenaza Technologies Limited, [Online], Accessed 9 Dec 2010, http://www.amenaza.com/downloads/docs...Methodology.pdf. [Ame05] Amenaza , (2005, Nov), "Fundamentals of Capabilities-based Attack Tree Analysis," Amenaza Technologies Limited, [Online

  6. MULTOPS: A Data-Structure for Bandwidth Attack Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Computer Systems, 18(3):263–297, August 2000. [Net00] Netscape . Leading Web sites under attack, February 2000. Available at http: //technews.netscape.com...to crash. This can have serious consequences for Web companies which rely on their online availability to do business. This paper intro- duces a data...packets. Another attack works by generating a huge amount of normal traffic by, for example, running a JavaScript pro- gram in a browser that pops up

  7. Successful attack on permutation-parity-machine-based neural cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, Luís F.; Ruttor, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    An algorithm is presented which implements a probabilistic attack on the key-exchange protocol based on permutation parity machines. Instead of imitating the synchronization of the communicating partners, the strategy consists of a Monte Carlo method to sample the space of possible weights during inner rounds and an analytic approach to convey the extracted information from one outer round to the next one. The results show that the protocol under attack fails to synchronize faster than an eavesdropper using this algorithm.

  8. British media attacks on homeopathy: are they justified?

    PubMed

    Vithoulkas, George

    2008-04-01

    Homeopathy is being attacked by the British media. These attacks draw support from irresponsible and unjustified claims by certain teachers of homeopathy. Such claims include the use of 'dream' and 'imaginative' methods for provings. For prescribing some such teachers attempt to replace the laborious process of matching symptom picture and remedy with spurious theories based on 'signatures', sensations and other methods. Other irresponsible claims have also been made. These "new ideas" risk destroying the principles, theory, and practice of homeopathy.

  9. [Apate terebrans (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) attacking neem trees in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rodolfo M; dos Anjos, Norivaldo; Mourão, Sheila A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and records the attack of adults Apate terebrans (Pallas) to a neem plantation located in Guarani, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in March 2007. The damage was characterized by a hole in the trunk, from where the shot-hole-borer enters constructing tunnels and feeding on the wood. This is the first record of A. terebrans attacking neem trees in Brazil.

  10. Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks with Dynamic Resource Pricing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    capacity • Reducing the amount of resources consumed • Monitoring traffic volume • Tracing attack packets though the Internet Detecting subverted...attempt to reduce the amount of resources consumed during a DDoS attack. NetBSD will accelerate its timeouts of partially opened TCP connections at times...should be nearly comparable to a system that does not use the payment mechanisms. There is prior work on how pricing can be used to influence consumer

  11. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.

  12. Captive tiger attack: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Henry J; Cullinane, Daniel C; Sawyer, Mark D; Zietlow, Scott P

    2007-05-01

    Tigers, as well as other large predators, are being held in private settings with increasing frequency. Unregulated private "zoos" are cropping up in many rural and suburban settings across the country. The number of attacks from captive predators also is on the rise. This case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild animals held in captivity. Treatment principals and wounding patterns of large cat attacks are emphasized.

  13. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Stan, Rydell; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb). This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  14. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  15. Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva; Stan, Rydell

    2008-08-07

    The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe and Russia. Five different modes of attack (T) are possible: (1) Covert irradiation of an individual in order to deliver a high individual dose; (2) Covert irradiation of a group of persons delivering a large collective dose; (3) Contamination of food or drink; (4) Generation of radioactive aerosols or solutions; (5) Combination of Ra-226 with conventional explosives (Dirty Bomb).This paper assesses the risk (R) of such criminal acts in terms of: (a) Probability of terrorist motivation deploying a certain attack mode T; (b) Probability of success by the terrorists for the selected attack mode T; (c) Primary damage consequence (C) to the attacked target (activity, dose); (d) Secondary damage consequence (C') to the attacked target (psychological and socio-economic effects); (e) Probability that the consequences (C, C') cannot be brought under control, resulting in a failure to manage successfully the emergency situation due to logistical and/or technical deficits in implementing adequate countermeasures. Extensive computer modelling is used to determine the potential impact of such a criminal attack on directly affected victims and on the environment.

  16. Larval defense against attack from parasitoid wasps requires nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jessica L; Tsubouchi, Asako; Tracey, W Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are a fierce predator of Drosophila larvae. Female Leptopilina boulardi (LB) wasps use a sharp ovipositor to inject eggs into the bodies of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The wasp then eats the Drosophila larva alive from the inside, and an adult wasp ecloses from the Drosophila pupal case instead of a fly. However, the Drosophila larvae are not defenseless as they may resist the attack of the wasps through somatosensory-triggered behavioral responses. Here we describe the full range of behaviors performed by the larval prey in immediate response to attacks by the wasps. Our results suggest that Drosophila larvae primarily sense the wasps using their mechanosensory systems. The range of behavioral responses included both "gentle touch" like responses as well as nociceptive responses. We found that the precise larval response depended on both the somatotopic location of the attack, and whether or not the larval cuticle was successfully penetrated during the course of the attack. Interestingly, nociceptive responses are more likely to be triggered by attacks in which the cuticle had been successfully penetrated by the wasp. Finally, we found that the class IV neurons, which are necessary for mechanical nociception, were also necessary for a nociceptive response to wasp attacks. Thus, the class IV neurons allow for a nociceptive behavioral response to a naturally occurring predator of Drosophila.

  17. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E.; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores. PMID:26838467

  18. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-02-03

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.

  19. Modeling attacker-defender interactions in information networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Michael Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The simplest conceptual model of cybersecurity implicitly views attackers and defenders as acting in isolation from one another: an attacker seeks to penetrate or disrupt a system that has been protected to a given level, while a defender attempts to thwart particular attacks. Such a model also views all non-malicious parties as having the same goal of preventing all attacks. But in fact, attackers and defenders are interacting parts of the same system, and different defenders have their own individual interests: defenders may be willing to accept some risk of successful attack if the cost of defense is too high. We have used game theory to develop models of how non-cooperative but non-malicious players in a network interact when there is a substantial cost associated with effective defensive measures. Although game theory has been applied in this area before, we have introduced some novel aspects of player behavior in our work, including: (1) A model of how players attempt to avoid the costs of defense and force others to assume these costs; (2) A model of how players interact when the cost of defending one node can be shared by other nodes; and (3) A model of the incentives for a defender to choose less expensive, but less effective, defensive actions.

  20. Enhancing community integrity of networks against multilevel targeted attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijia; Gong, Maoguo; Cai, Qing; Jiao, Licheng

    2013-08-01

    The community structure and the robustness are two important properties of networks for analyzing the functionality of complex systems. The community structure is crucial to understand the potential functionality of complex systems, while the robustness is indispensable to protect the functionality of complex systems from malicious attacks. When a network suffers from an unpredictable attack, its structural integrity would be damaged. Earlier studies focused on the integrity of the node structure or the edge structure when a network suffers from a single-level malicious attack on the nodes or the edges. In this study, we model the attack on the network as a two-level targeted one. Then, we propose a community robustness index to evaluate the integrality of the community structure when the network suffers from the modeled attack. The proposed index plays an important role in analyzing the ability of the real systems to resist unpredictable failures. Finally, based on the proposed community robustness index, a greedy algorithm is devised to mitigate the network attack. Experiments on three real network systems show that with minor changes in links the community robustness of networks can be greatly improved. The results also demonstrate that the community structures in the optimized networks remain practically unchanged compared with the original ones.

  1. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  2. Quantum hacking: attacking practical quantum key distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bing; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2007-09-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) can, in principle, provide unconditional security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Unfortunately, a practical QKD system may contain overlooked imperfections and violate some of the assumptions in a security proof. Here, we report two types of eavesdropping attacks against a practical QKD system. The first one is "time-shift" attack, which is applicable to QKD systems with gated single photon detectors (SPDs). In this attack, the eavesdropper, Eve, exploits the time mismatch between the open windows of the two SPDs. She can acquire a significant amount of information on the final key by simply shifting the quantum signals forwards or backwards in time domain. Our experimental results in [9] with a commercial QKD system demonstrate that, under this attack, the original QKD system is breakable. This is the first experimental demonstration of a feasible attack against a commercial QKD system. This is a surprising result. The second one is "phase-remapping" attack [10]. Here, Eve exploits the fact that a practical phase modulator has a finite response time. In principle, Eve could change the encoded phase value by time-shifting the signal pulse relative to the reference pulse.

  3. Psychological distress and prejudice following terror attacks in France.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2017-03-16

    Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p < 0.02), as were probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (11.9% vs. 14.1%; χ2 (1) = 4.15, p < 0.04). In structural equation analyses, sex, age, geographic proximity, media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony.

  4. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face.

  5. AD, the ALICE diffractive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Abraham Villatoro

    2017-03-01

    ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a complement to its Heavy-Ion physics program, ALICE started during Run 1 of LHC an extensive program dedicated to the study of proton-proton diffractive processes. In order to optimize its trigger efficiencies and purities in selecting diffractive events, the ALICE Collaboration installed a very forward AD detector during the Long Shut Down 1 of LHC. This new forward detector system consists of two stations made of two layers of scintillator pads, one station on each side of the interaction point. With this upgrade, ALICE has substantially increased its forward physics coverage, including the double rapidity gap based selection of central production, as well as the measurements of inclusive diffractive cross sections.

  6. Being, thinking, creating: when war attacks the setting and the transference counter-attacks.

    PubMed

    Khair Badawi, Marie-Thérèse; Badawi, Marie-Thérèse Khair

    2011-04-01

    When trauma enters into the reality of the analyst and of the analysand, when it attacks the setting, what becomes of the analyst's role? How can transformations be brought about? With reference to three clinical situations, the author attempts to explore how the articulation between transference and countertransference - the inter-relation - structures the situation; the analyst must remain in his or her role as analyst through managing to create and to reflect upon the clinical aspects of that situation when faced with the unpredictability of what war brings in its wake. It then becomes possible to see how the work of the negative can be confined to the outer limits of the setting.

  7. Secure and Fair Cluster Head Selection Protocol for Enhancing Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Paramasivan, B.; Kaliappan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP. PMID:25143986

  8. A Threshold-Adaptive Reputation System on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsiao-Chien; Lo, Nai-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Chen

    In recent years huge potential benefits from novel applications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) have been discussed extensively. However, without robust security mechanisms and systems to provide safety shell through the MANET infrastructure, MANET applications can be vulnerable and hammered by malicious attackers easily. In order to detect misbehaved message routing and identify malicious attackers in MANET, schemes based on reputation concept have shown their advantages in this area in terms of good scalability and simple threshold-based detection strategy. We observed that previous reputation schemes generally use predefined thresholds which do not take into account the effect of behavior dynamics between nodes in a period of time. In this paper, we propose a Threshold-Adaptive Reputation System (TARS) to overcome the shortcomings of static threshold strategy and improve the overall MANET performance under misbehaved routing attack. A fuzzy-based inference engine is introduced to evaluate the trustiness of a node's one-hop neighbors. Malicious nodes whose trust values are lower than the adaptive threshold, will be detected and filtered out by their honest neighbors during trustiness evaluation process. The results of network simulation show that the TARS outperforms other compared schemes under security attacks in most cases and at the same time reduces the decrease of total packet delivery ratio by 67% in comparison with MANET without reputation system.

  9. Secure and fair cluster head selection protocol for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  10. A multiple linear regression analysis of hot corrosion attack on a series of nickel base turbine alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine an equation for estimating hot corrosion attack for a series of Ni base cast turbine alloys. The U transform (i.e., 1/sin (% A/100) to the 1/2) was shown to give the best estimate of the dependent variable, y. A complete second degree equation is described for the centered" weight chemistries for the elements Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, W, Cb, Ta, and Co. In addition linear terms for the minor elements C, B, and Zr were added for a basic 47 term equation. The best reduced equation was determined by the stepwise selection method with essentially 13 terms. The Cr term was found to be the most important accounting for 60 percent of the explained variability hot corrosion attack.

  11. Ancestry Analysis in the 11-M Madrid Bomb Attack Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Christopher; Prieto, Lourdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Salas, Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Álvarez-Dios, José; Alonso, Antonio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Brión, María; Montesino, Marta; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, María Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP) assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48). Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs) that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The results

  12. Factors governing risk of cougar attacks on humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David; Logan, Kenneth; Sweanor, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s wildlife managers in the United States and Canada have expressed increasing concern about the physical threat posed by cougars (Puma concolor) to humans. We developed a conceptual framework and analyzed 386 human–cougar encounters (29 fatal attacks, 171 instances of nonfatal contact, and 186 close-threatening encounters) to provide information relevant to public safety. We conceived of human injury and death as the outcome of 4 transitions affected by different suites of factors: (1) a human encountering a cougar: (2) given an encounter, odds that the cougar would be aggressive; (3) given aggression, odds that the cougar would attack; and (4) given an attack, odds that the human would die. We developed multivariable logistic regression models to explain variation in odds at transitions three and four using variables pertaining to characteristics of involved people and cougars. Young (≤ 2.5 years) or unhealthy (by weight, condition, or disease) cougars were more likely than any others to be involved in close (typically <5 m) encounters that threatened the involved person. Of cougars in close encounters, females were more likely than males to attack, and of attacking animals, adults were more likely than juveniles to kill the victim (32% versus 9% fatality, respectively). During close encounters, victims who used a weapon killed the involved cougar in 82% of cases. Other mitigating behaviors (e.g., yelling, backing away, throwing objects, increasing stature) also substantially lessened odds of attack. People who were moving quickly or erratically when an encounter happened (running, playing, skiing, snowshoeing, biking, ATV-riding) were more likely to be attacked and killed compared to people who were less active (25% versus 8% fatality). Children (≤ 10 years) were more likely than single adults to be attacked, but intervention by people of any age reduced odds of a child’s death by 4.6×. Overall, cougar attacks on people in Canada and the

  13. The New York Times ad.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were

  14. Attacks, applications, and evaluation of known watermarking algorithms with Checkmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwald, Peter; Pereira, Shelby

    2002-04-01

    The Checkmark benchmarking tool was introduced to provide a framework for application-oriented evaluation of watermarking schemes. In this article we introduce new attacks and applications into the existing Checkmark framework. In addition to describing new attacks and applications, we also compare the performance of some well-known watermarking algorithms (proposed by Bruyndonckx,Cox, Fridrich, Dugad, Kim, Wang, Xia, Xie, Zhu and Pereira) with respect to the Checkmark benchmark. In particular, we consider the non-geometric application which contains tests that do not change the geometry of image. This attack constraint is artificial, but yet important for research purposes since a number of algorithms may be interesting, but would score poorly with respect to specific applications simply because geometric compensation has not been incorporated. We note, however, that with the help of image registration, even research algorithms that do not have counter-measures against geometric distortion -- such as a template or reference watermark -- can be evaluated. In the first version of the Checkmark benchmarking program, application-oriented evaluation was introduced, along with many new attacks not already considered in the literature. A second goal of this paper is to introduce new attacks and new applications into the Checkmark framework. In particular, we introduce the following new applications: video frame watermarking, medical imaging and watermarking of logos. Video frame watermarking includes low compression attacks and distortions which warp the edges of the video as well as general projective transformations which may result from someone filming the screen at a cinema. With respect to medical imaging, only small distortions are considered and furthermore it is essential that no distortions are present at embedding. Finally for logos, we consider images of small sizes and particularly compression, scaling, aspect ratio and other small distortions. The challenge

  15. Intracellular Signaling and Desmoglein 2 Shedding Triggered by Human Adenoviruses Ad3, Ad14, and Ad14P1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber

  16. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  17. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...

  18. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...

  19. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  20. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  1. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  2. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... página en español Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads Related Items Weight Loss Challenge Diet Ads and ... control Information Network .  The Truth Behind Weight Loss Ads Claims to watch out for include: Lose weight ...

  3. Capacity and optimal collusion attack channels for Gaussian fingerprinting games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Moulin, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    In content fingerprinting, the same media covertext - image, video, audio, or text - is distributed to many users. A fingerprint, a mark unique to each user, is embedded into each copy of the distributed covertext. In a collusion attack, two or more users may combine their copies in an attempt to "remove" their fingerprints and forge a pirated copy. To trace the forgery back to members of the coalition, we need fingerprinting codes that can reliably identify the fingerprints of those members. Researchers have been focusing on designing or testing fingerprints for Gaussian host signals and the mean square error (MSE) distortion under some classes of collusion attacks, in terms of the detector's error probability in detecting collusion members. For example, under the assumptions of Gaussian fingerprints and Gaussian attacks (the fingerprinted signals are averaged and then the result is passed through a Gaussian test channel), Moulin and Briassouli1 derived optimal strategies in a game-theoretic framework that uses the detector's error probability as the performance measure for a binary decision problem (whether a user participates in the collusion attack or not); Stone2 and Zhao et al. 3 studied average and other non-linear collusion attacks for Gaussian-like fingerprints; Wang et al. 4 stated that the average collusion attack is the most efficient one for orthogonal fingerprints; Kiyavash and Moulin 5 derived a mathematical proof of the optimality of the average collusion attack under some assumptions. In this paper, we also consider Gaussian cover signals, the MSE distortion, and memoryless collusion attacks. We do not make any assumption about the fingerprinting codes used other than an embedding distortion constraint. Also, our only assumptions about the attack channel are an expected distortion constraint, a memoryless constraint, and a fairness constraint. That is, the colluders are allowed to use any arbitrary nonlinear strategy subject to the above

  4. Learn What a Heart Attack Feels Like--It Could Save Your Life

    MedlinePlus

    Learn What a Heart Attack Feels Like— It Could Save Your Life. This fact sheet tells you about heart attack signs. It also tells you what to do ... your life. 1. Know the signs of a heart attack. 2. Understand that heart attacks are not all ...

  5. Adult attachment style and childhood interpersonal trauma in non-epileptic attack disorder.

    PubMed

    Holman, Natalie; Kirkby, Antonia; Duncan, Susan; Brown, Richard J

    2008-03-01

    Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) poses a significant clinical problem but is poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding the development and maintenance of NEAD and the contribution of childhood abuse and neglect to these processes. A cross-sectional design was used to study attachment style and early traumatic experiences in individuals with NEAD (N=17) compared to those with epilepsy (N=26). A significant difference in predominant attachment style between the two groups was found, with fearful attachment occurring more frequently in the NEAD group. Abuse and neglect were also significantly more common in the NEAD patients. Both early traumatic experiences and fearful attachment added significantly to the predictive power of a logistic regression equation after controlling for anxiety and dysthymia. The findings suggest a link between disturbed attachment and NEAD and have clinical implications for therapeutic intervention with this group.

  6. Vulnerability of complex networks under three-level-tree attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yao-hui; Han, Ji-hong; Lin, Yi; Liu, Lin

    2016-11-01

    We investigate vulnerability of complex networks including model networks and real world networks subject to three-level-tree attack. Specifically, we remove three different three-level-tree structures: RRN (Random Root Node), MaxDRN (Max Degree Root Node) and MinDRN (Min Degree Root Node) from a network iteratively until there is no three-level-tree left. Results demonstrate that random network is more robust than scale-free network against three tree attacks, and the robustness of random network decreases as the < k > increases. And scale-free network shows different characteristics in different tree attack modes. The robustness of scale-free is not affected by the < k > parameters for RRN, but increases as the < k > increases for MinDRN. The important thing is that MaxDRN is the most effective in the three tree attack modes, especially for scale-free network. These findings supplement and extend the previous attack results on nodes and edges, and can thus help us better explain the vulnerability of different networks, and provide an insight into more tolerant real complex systems design.

  7. Risk of Wheezing Attacks in Infants With Transient Tachypnea Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Golshantafti, Mohammad; Yavari, Tahereh; Afrand, Mohammadhosain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common reason of respiratory distress in the newborn is transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). There are some reports saying that TTN is associated with increased frequencies of wheezing attacks. Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the risk factors associated with TTN and to determine the association between TTN and the development of wheezing syndromes in early life. Materials and Methods: In a historical cohort study, we recorded the characteristics of 70 infants born at the Shohadaye Kargar Hospital in Yazd between March 2005 and March 2009 and who were hospitalized because of TTN in the neonatal intensive-care unit. We called their parents at least four years after the infants were discharged from the hospital and asked about any wheezing attacks. Seventy other infants with no health problems during the newborn period were included in the study as the control group. Results: The rate of wheezing attacks in newborns with TTN was more than patients with no TTN diagnosis (P = 0.014). TTN was found to be an independent risk factor for later wheezing attacks (relative risk [RR] = 2.8). Conclusions: The most obvious finding of this study was that TTN was an independent risk factor for wheezing attacks. So long-term medical care is suggested for these patients who may be at risk, because TTN may not be as transient as has been previously thought. PMID:26848370

  8. Marital history and survival after a heart attack.

    PubMed

    Dupre, Matthew E; Nelson, Alicia

    2016-12-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n = 2197). We found that adults who were never married (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73), currently divorced (OR = 1.70), or widowed (OR = 1.34) were at significantly greater risk of dying after a heart attack than adults who were continuously married; and the risks were not uniform over time. We also found that the risk of dying increased by 12% for every additional marital loss and decreased by 7% for every one-tenth increase in the proportion of years married. After accounting for more than a dozen socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioral, and physiological factors, we found that current marital status remained the most robust indicator of survival following a heart attack. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of life course inequalities in chronic disease and directions for future research.

  9. Impact of Degree Heterogeneity on Attack Vulnerability of Interdependent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiwen; Wu, Yafang; Ma, Yilin; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhongke; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-09-01

    The study of interdependent networks has become a new research focus in recent years. We focus on one fundamental property of interdependent networks: vulnerability. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of topological properties upon interdependent networks under random attacks, the effect of degree heterogeneity on structural vulnerability of interdependent networks under intentional attacks, however, is still unexplored. In order to deeply understand the role of degree distribution and in particular degree heterogeneity, we construct an interdependent system model which consists of two networks whose extent of degree heterogeneity can be controlled simultaneously by a tuning parameter. Meanwhile, a new quantity, which can better measure the performance of interdependent networks after attack, is proposed. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that degree heterogeneity can significantly increase the vulnerability of both single and interdependent networks. Moreover, it is found that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Enhancing coupling strength between networks can greatly increase the fragility of both networks against targeted attacks, which is most evident under the case of max-max assortative coupling. Current results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity of complex real-world systems.

  10. Deterring watermark collusion attacks using signal processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemma, Aweke N.; van der Veen, Michiel

    2007-02-01

    Collusion attack is a malicious watermark removal attack in which the hacker has access to multiple copies of the same content with different watermarks and tries to remove the watermark using averaging. In the literature, several solutions to collusion attacks have been reported. The main stream solutions aim at designing watermark codes that are inherently resistant to collusion attacks. The other approaches propose signal processing based solutions that aim at modifying the watermarked signals in such a way that averaging multiple copies of the content leads to a significant degradation of the content quality. In this paper, we present signal processing based technique that may be deployed for deterring collusion attacks. We formulate the problem in the context of electronic music distribution where the content is generally available in the compressed domain. Thus, we first extend the collusion resistance principles to bit stream signals and secondly present experimental based analysis to estimate a bound on the maximum number of modified versions of a content that satisfy good perceptibility requirement on one hand and destructive averaging property on the other hand.

  11. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  12. Impact of Degree Heterogeneity on Attack Vulnerability of Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shiwen; Wu, Yafang; Ma, Yilin; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhongke; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    The study of interdependent networks has become a new research focus in recent years. We focus on one fundamental property of interdependent networks: vulnerability. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of topological properties upon interdependent networks under random attacks, the effect of degree heterogeneity on structural vulnerability of interdependent networks under intentional attacks, however, is still unexplored. In order to deeply understand the role of degree distribution and in particular degree heterogeneity, we construct an interdependent system model which consists of two networks whose extent of degree heterogeneity can be controlled simultaneously by a tuning parameter. Meanwhile, a new quantity, which can better measure the performance of interdependent networks after attack, is proposed. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that degree heterogeneity can significantly increase the vulnerability of both single and interdependent networks. Moreover, it is found that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Enhancing coupling strength between networks can greatly increase the fragility of both networks against targeted attacks, which is most evident under the case of max-max assortative coupling. Current results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity of complex real-world systems. PMID:27609483

  13. Robustness of Controllability for Networks Based on Edge-Attack

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Sen; Wang, Xuwen; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Qilang; Wang, Binghong

    2014-01-01

    We study the controllability of networks in the process of cascading failures under two different attacking strategies, random and intentional attack, respectively. For the highest-load edge attack, it is found that the controllability of Erdős-Rényi network, that with moderate average degree, is less robust, whereas the Scale-free network with moderate power-law exponent shows strong robustness of controllability under the same attack strategy. The vulnerability of controllability under random and intentional attacks behave differently with the increasing of removal fraction, especially, we find that the robustness of control has important role in cascades for large removal fraction. The simulation results show that for Scale-free networks with various power-law exponents, the network has larger scale of cascades do not mean that there will be more increments of driver nodes. Meanwhile, the number of driver nodes in cascading failures is also related to the edges amount in strongly connected components. PMID:24586507

  14. Automatic analysis of attack data from distributed honeypot network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, MIroslav; Rezac, Filip; Partila, Pavol; Tomala, Karel

    2013-05-01

    There are many ways of getting real data about malicious activity in a network. One of them relies on masquerading monitoring servers as a production one. These servers are called honeypots and data about attacks on them brings us valuable information about actual attacks and techniques used by hackers. The article describes distributed topology of honeypots, which was developed with a strong orientation on monitoring of IP telephony traffic. IP telephony servers can be easily exposed to various types of attacks, and without protection, this situation can lead to loss of money and other unpleasant consequences. Using a distributed topology with honeypots placed in different geological locations and networks provides more valuable and independent results. With automatic system of gathering information from all honeypots, it is possible to work with all information on one centralized point. Communication between honeypots and centralized data store use secure SSH tunnels and server communicates only with authorized honeypots. The centralized server also automatically analyses data from each honeypot. Results of this analysis and also other statistical data about malicious activity are simply accessible through a built-in web server. All statistical and analysis reports serve as information basis for an algorithm which classifies different types of used VoIP attacks. The web interface then brings a tool for quick comparison and evaluation of actual attacks in all monitored networks. The article describes both, the honeypots nodes in distributed architecture, which monitor suspicious activity, and also methods and algorithms used on the server side for analysis of gathered data.

  15. Myocardial perfusion imaging study of CO(2)-induced panic attack.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Gastão L F; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Santulli, Gaetano; Mesquita, Claudio T; Cosci, Fiammetta; Silva, Adriana C; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-01-15

    Chest pain is often seen alongside with panic attacks. Moreover, panic disorder has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and even a trigger for acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary artery disease may have myocardial ischemia in response to mental stress, in which panic attack is a strong component, by an increase in coronary vasomotor tone or sympathetic hyperactivity setting off an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption. Indeed, coronary artery spasm was presumed to be present in cases of cardiac ischemia linked to panic disorder. These findings correlating panic disorder with coronary artery disease lead us to raise questions about the favorable prognosis of chest pain in panic attack. To investigate whether myocardial ischemia is the genesis of chest pain in panic attacks, we developed a myocardial perfusion study through research by myocardial scintigraphy in patients with panic attacks induced in the laboratory by inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide. In conclusion, from the data obtained, some hypotheses are discussed from the viewpoint of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease present in mental stress response.

  16. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-07-14

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes.

  17. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes. PMID:26184224

  18. Historical Literature in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.

    1997-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.

  19. Precipitation of asthma attacks in Melanesian adults by sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, C M; Toun, A K; Hudson, B J

    1992-09-01

    Seven Melanesian asthmatic patients were challenged with substances that have been shown to precipitate asthma attacks in asthma patients in developed countries. Patients were challenged in a double-blind fashion using placebo and active substances. The active substances were tartrazine, sodium metabisulphite, aspirin and betel nut. All 7 patients were challenged with tartrazine and sodium metabisulphite; 5 were challenged with aspirin also, but only 2 were challenged with betel nut. Asthma attacks were precipitated by sodium metabisulphite in 3 patients. No other substances precipitated asthma. As sodium metabisulphite is a common food additive, these results suggest that processed foods introduced into developing countries may have an important role in precipitating asthma attacks in susceptible persons.

  20. Gray Matter Is Targeted in First-Attack Multiple Sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xie, Fang; Bergquist, Jonas P.; Vecsei, Lazlo'; Zadori, Denes; Camp, David G.; Holland, Bart K.; Smith, Richard D.; Coyle, Patricia K.

    2013-09-10

    The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  1. A Model of Biological Attacks on a Realistic Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, Kathleen M.; Fridsma, Douglas; Casman, Elizabeth; Altman, Neal; Chen, Li-Chiou; Kaminsky, Boris; Nave, Demian; Yahja, Alex

    The capability to assess the impacts of large-scale biological attacks and the efficacy of containment policies is critical and requires knowledge-intensive reasoning about social response and disease transmission within a complex social system. There is a close linkage among social networks, transportation networks, disease spread, and early detection. Spatial dimensions related to public gathering places such as hospitals, nursing homes, and restaurants, can play a major role in epidemics [Klovdahl et. al. 2001]. Like natural epidemics, bioterrorist attacks unfold within spatially defined, complex social systems, and the societal and networked response can have profound effects on their outcome. This paper focuses on bioterrorist attacks, but the model has been applied to emergent and familiar diseases as well.

  2. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum.

    PubMed

    Albahar, Marwan

    2017-01-05

    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  3. Acute kidney injury after massive attack of Africanised bees

    PubMed Central

    Bridi, Ramaiane A; Balbi, Andre Luis; Neves, Precil M; Ponce, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-documented complication of massive attack by Africanised bees and can be observed 48–72 h after the accident. We report a case of Africanised bees attack followed by severe and lethal AKI. A 56-year-old man was admitted to emergency department after a massive attack of Africanised bees (>1000 bee stings). He was unconscious, presenting with hypotension and tachycardia. Mechanical ventilation, volume expansion and care for anaphylaxis were instituted. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) and after 48 h he developed rhabdomyolysis, oliguria, increased creatinine levels, hyperkalaemia and refractory acidosis. A diagnosis of AKI secondary to rhabdomyolysis and shock was made. The patient was treated with a prolonged course of haemodialysis. However, he progressed to refractory shock and died 5 days after admission. PMID:24618864

  4. Gray Matter Is Targeted in First-Attack Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xie, Fang; Bergquist, Jonas; Vécsei, László; Zadori, Denes; Camp, David G.; Holland, Bart K.; Smith, Richard D.; Coyle, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation. PMID:24039694

  5. Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, Craig; Ikanda, Dennis; Kissui, Bernard; Kushnir, Hadas

    2005-08-18

    Large carnivores inspire opposition to conservation efforts owing to their impact on livestock and human safety. Here we analyse the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in Tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in Africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 Tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308. Attacks have increased dramatically during this time: they peak at harvest time each year and are most frequent in areas with few prey apart from bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), the most common nocturnal crop pest. Our findings provide an important starting point for devising strategies to reduce the risk to rural Tanzanians of lion attacks.

  6. Countermeasure against tailored bright illumination attack for DPS-QKD.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Toshimori; Fujiwara, Mikio; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Sasaki, Masahide

    2013-02-11

    We propose a countermeasure against the so-called tailored bright illumination attack for differential-phase-shift QKD (DPS-QKD). By monitoring a rate of coincidence detection at a pair of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs) which is connected at each of the output ports of Bob's Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Alice and Bob can detect and defeat this kind of attack. We also experimentally confirmed the feasibility of this countermeasure using our 1 GHz-clocked DPS-QKD system. In the emulation of the attack, we achieved much lower power of the bright illumination light compared with the original demonstration by using a pulse stream instead of broad pulses.

  7. Platelet activation as a marker of heart attack.

    PubMed

    Blann, Andrew D; Draper, Zoe

    2011-05-12

    A key component of the pathology of myocardial infarction (i.e. heart attack) is platelet-rich thrombosis within the coronary arteries. In many cases this occurs despite the use of anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin, and this, alongside other evidence, prompts the search for novel markers of platelet activity, such as levels of platelet product soluble P selectin in the plasma. However, by themselves, high levels of soluble P-selectin are of insufficient sensitivity and specificity to contribute to the management of the chest pain that may be a heart attack. Conversely, the current report shows that low levels of soluble P selectin contribute to the diagnosis of myocardial infarction because, as low levels are so rarely found in this condition, heart attack can be ruled out. If confirmed, this will be a major step forward in the management of acute chest pain.

  8. Aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    An introduction to, and a broad overiew of, the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack are provided. Items include: (1) some important fundamental phenomena which determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airplanes at high angles of attack; (2) static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics near the stall; (3) aerodynamics of the spin; (4) test techniques used in stall/spin studies; (5) applications of aerodynamic data to problems in flight dynamics in the stall/spin area; and (6) the outlook for future research in the area. Although stalling and spinning are flight dynamic problems of importance to all aircraft, including general aviation aircraft, commercial transports, and military airplanes, emphasis is placed on military configurations and the principle aerodynamic factors which influence the stability and control of such vehicles at high angles of attack.

  9. [Fauna attacks in French Guiana: retrospective 4-year analysis].

    PubMed

    Mimeau, E; Chesneau, P

    2006-02-01

    The rich, diversified fauna of French Guiana has an infamous reputation for its aggressiveness. A retrospective analysis of the records the SAMU emergency service in Guiana showed that less than 1% of phone calls received between 1998 and 2001 involved fauna attacks. Most of these calls involved flying hymenoptera (36.9%), snakes (15.6 %), dogs (13.8%), and scorpions (9.8%). In 69 of 666 cases, the attack was severe enough to warrant dispatching a SMUR intensive mobile care unit. These cases involved poisonous snake bites (n=35), flying hymenoptera stings (n=24) and scorpion stings (n=5). Although this study presents numerous confounding factors, its findings indicate that the risk of fauna attacks in French Guiana may be overestimated.

  10. Defending networks against denial-of-service attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Gellman, Michael; Loukas, George

    2004-11-01

    Denial of service attacks, viruses and worms are common tools for malicious adversarial behavior in networks. Experience shows that over the last few years several of these techniques have probably been used by governments to impair the Internet communications of various entities, and we can expect that these and other information warfare tools will be used increasingly as part of hostile behavior either independently, or in conjunction with other forms of attack in conventional or asymmetric warfare, as well as in other forms of malicious behavior. In this paper we concentrate on Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDoS) where one or more attackers generate flooding traffic and direct it from multiple sources towards a set of selected nodes or IP addresses in the Internet. We first briefly survey the literature on the subject, and discuss some examples of DDoS incidents. We then present a technique that can be used for DDoS protection based on creating islands of protection around a critical information infrastructure. This technique, that we call the CPN-DoS-DT (Cognitive Packet Networks DoS Defence Technique), creates a self-monitoring sub-network surrounding each critical infrastructure node. CPN-DoS-DT is triggered by a DDoS detection scheme, and generates control traffic from the objects of the DDoS attack to the islands of protection where DDOS packet flows are destroyed before they reach the critical infrastructure. We use mathematical modelling, simulation and experiments on our test-bed to show the positive and negative outcomes that may result from both the attack, and the CPN-DoS-DT protection mechanism, due to imperfect detection and false alarms.

  11. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical facilities to date; and (4

  12. VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.

  13. Grievous Temporal and Occipital Injury Caused by a Bear Attack

    PubMed Central

    Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Thada, Smitha Rani; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Bear attacks are reported from nearly every part of the world. The chance of a human encountering a bear increases as the remote bear territory diminishes. The sloth bear is one of the three species of bears found in India, which inhabits the forests of India and its neighboring countries. Here we describe a teenager who came to us with a critical injury involving the face, temporal and occipital bones inflicted by a sloth bear attack. He underwent a temporal exploration, facial nerve decompression, pinna reconstruction, and occipital bone repair to save him from fatality. PMID:24396623

  14. Jaguar Attack on a Child: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Iserson, Kenneth V.; Francis, Adama M.

    2015-01-01

    Jaguar attacks on humans rarely occur in the wild. When they do, they are often fatal. We describe a jaguar attack on a three-year-old girl near her home deep in a remote area of the Guyanese jungle. The patient had a complex but, relatively, rapid transport to a medical treatment facility for her life-threatening injuries. The child, who suffered typical jaguar-inflicted injury patterns and survived, is highlighted. We review jaguar anatomy, environmental status, hunting and killing behaviors, and discuss optimal medical management, given the resource-limited treatment environment of this international emergency medicine case. PMID:25834674

  15. Patrol Detection for Replica Attacks on Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Min; Shi, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Replica attack is a critical concern in the security of wireless sensor networks. We employ mobile nodes as patrollers to detect replicas distributed in different zones in a network, in which a basic patrol detection protocol and two detection algorithms for stationary and mobile modes are presented. Then we perform security analysis to discuss the defense strategies against the possible attacks on the proposed detection protocol. Moreover, we show the advantages of the proposed protocol by discussing and comparing the communication cost and detection probability with some existing methods. PMID:22163752

  16. Jaguar attack on a child: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Francis, Adama M

    2015-03-01

    Jaguar attacks on humans rarely occur in the wild. When they do, they are often fatal. We describe a jaguar attack on a three-year-old girl near her home deep in a remote area of the Guyanese jungle. The patient had a complex but, relatively, rapid transport to a medical treatment facility for her life-threatening injuries. The child, who suffered typical jaguar-inflicted injury patterns and survived, is highlighted. We review jaguar anatomy, environmental status, hunting and killing behaviors, and discuss optimal medical management, given the resource-limited treatment environment of this international emergency medicine case.

  17. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ökcü, Özgür; Aydıner, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T- P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions.

  18. Static Einstein-Maxwell Black Holes with No Spatial Isometries in AdS Space.

    PubMed

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen

    2016-11-25

    We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully nonlinear, D=4, Einstein-Maxwell-anti-de Sitter (AdS) equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. In sharp contrast to the uniqueness results for a Minkowski electrovacuum, the existence of these black holes shows that single, equilibrium, black hole solutions in an AdS electrovacuum admit an arbitrary multipole structure.

  19. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed.

  20. Boundary conditions for conformally coupled scalar in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    We consider conformally coupled scalar with ɸ4 coupling in AdS4 and study its various boundary conditions on AdS boundary. We have obtained perturbative solutions of equation of motion of the conformally coupled scalar with power expansion order by order in ɸ4 coupling λ up to λ2 order. In its dual CFT, we get 2, 4 and 6 point functions by using this solution with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions via AdS/CFT dictionary. We also consider marginal deformation on AdS boundary and get its on-shell and boundary effective actions.

  1. Attack Methodology Analysis: Emerging Trends in Computer-Based Attack Methodologies and Their Applicability to Control System Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston

    2005-06-01

    Threat characterization is a key component in evaluating the threat faced by control systems. Without a thorough understanding of the threat faced by critical infrastructure networks, adequate resources cannot be allocated or directed effectively to the defense of these systems. Traditional methods of threat analysis focus on identifying the capabilities and motivations of a specific attacker, assessing the value the adversary would place on targeted systems, and deploying defenses according to the threat posed by the potential adversary. Too many effective exploits and tools exist and are easily accessible to anyone with access to an Internet connection, minimal technical skills, and a significantly reduced motivational threshold to be able to narrow the field of potential adversaries effectively. Understanding how hackers evaluate new IT security research and incorporate significant new ideas into their own tools provides a means of anticipating how IT systems are most likely to be attacked in the future. This research, Attack Methodology Analysis (AMA), could supply pertinent information on how to detect and stop new types of attacks. Since the exploit methodologies and attack vectors developed in the general Information Technology (IT) arena can be converted for use against control system environments, assessing areas in which cutting edge exploit development and remediation techniques are occurring can provide significance intelligence for control system network exploitation, defense, and a means of assessing threat without identifying specific capabilities of individual opponents. Attack Methodology Analysis begins with the study of what exploit technology and attack methodologies are being developed in the Information Technology (IT) security research community within the black and white hat community. Once a solid understanding of the cutting edge security research is established, emerging trends in attack methodology can be identified and the gap between

  2. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  3. Sleep Deprivation Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattasali, Tapalina; Chaki, Rituparna; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-02-01

    Deployment of sensor network in hostile environment makes it mainly vulnerable to battery drainage attacks because it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery power of sensor nodes. Among different types of security threats, low power sensor nodes are immensely affected by the attacks which cause random drainage of the energy level of sensors, leading to death of the nodes. The most dangerous type of attack in this category is sleep deprivation, where target of the intruder is to maximize the power consumption of sensor nodes, so that their lifetime is minimized. Most of the existing works on sleep deprivation attack detection involve a lot of overhead, leading to poor throughput. The need of the day is to design a model for detecting intrusions accurately in an energy efficient manner. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework based on distributed collaborative mechanism for detecting sleep deprivation torture in wireless sensor network efficiently. Proposed model uses anomaly detection technique in two steps to reduce the probability of false intrusion.

  4. Angle of Attack Modulation for Mars Entry Terminal State Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.; Cerimele, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of atmospheric entry, descent, and landing (EDL), one of the most foreboding destinations in the solar system is Mars due in part to its exceedingly thin atmosphere. To benchmark best possible scenarios for evaluation of potential Mars EDL system designs, a study is conducted to optimize the entry-to-terminal-state portion of EDL for a variety of entry velocities and vehicle masses, focusing on the identification of potential benefits of enabling angle of attack modulation. The terminal state is envisioned as one appropriate for the initiation of terminal descent via parachute or other means. A particle swarm optimizer varies entry flight path angle, ten bank profile points, and ten angle of attack profile points to find maximum-final-altitude trajectories for a 10 30 m ellipsled at 180 different combinations of values for entry mass, entry velocity, terminal Mach number, and minimum allowable altitude. Parametric plots of maximum achievable altitude are shown, as are examples of optimized trajectories. It is shown that appreciable terminal state altitude gains (2.5-4.0 km) over pure bank angle control may be possible if angle of attack modulation is enabled for Mars entry vehicles. Gains of this magnitude could prove to be enabling for missions requiring high-altitude landing sites. Conclusions are also drawn regarding trends in the bank and angle of attack profiles that produce the optimal trajectories in this study, and directions for future work are identified.

  5. Hydrogen attack - Influence of hydrogen sulfide. [on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliezer, D.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted on 12.5-mm-thick SAE 1020 steel (plain carbon steel) plate to assess hydrogen attack at room temperature after specimen exposure at 525 C to hydrogen and a blend of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen at a pressure of 3.5 MN/sq m for exposure times up to 240 hr. The results are discussed in terms of tensile properties, fissure formation, and surface scales. It is shown that hydrogen attack from a high-purity hydrogen environment is severe, with the formation of numerous methane fissures and bubbles along with a significant reduction in the room-temperature tensile yield and ultimate strengths. However, no hydrogen attack is observed in the hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide blend environment, i.e. no fissure or bubble formation occurred and the room-temperature tensile properties remained unchanged. It is suggested that the observed porous discontinuous scale of FeS acts as a barrier to hydrogen entry, thus reducing its effective equilibrium solubility in the iron lattice. Therefore, hydrogen attack should not occur in pressure-vessel steels used in many coal gasification processes.

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2012-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  7. The Tokyo subway sarin attack--lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Okumura, T; Hisaoka, T; Yamada, A; Naito, T; Isonuma, H; Okumura, S; Miura, K; Sakurada, M; Maekawa, H; Ishimatsu, S; Takasu, N; Suzuki, K

    2005-09-01

    The sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system is reviewed from a clinical toxicology perspective. Based on the lessons learned from this attack, the following areas should be addressed on a global scale. First, an adequate supply of protective equipment is required, including level B protective equipment with a pressure demand breathing apparatus. In addition, a system should be established that enables a possible cause to be determined based on symptoms, physical findings, general laboratory tests, and a simple qualitative analysis for poisonous substances. If an antidote is needed, the system should enable it to be administered to the victims as quickly as possible. Preparation for a large-scale chemical attack by terrorists requires the prior establishment of a detailed decontamination plan that utilizes not only mass decontamination facilities but also public facilities in the area. A system should be established for summarizing, evaluating, and disseminating information on poisonous substances. Finally, a large-scale scientific investigation of the Tokyo sarin attack should be conducted to examine its long-term and subclinical effects and the effects of exposure to asymptomatic low levels of sarin.

  8. A Defender-Attacker Optimization of Port Radar Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    security; optimization; attacker-defender “And thence discover how with most advantage They may vex us with shot, or with assault.” Shakespeare , KingHenryVI...ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990. [23] H. von Stackelberg, The theory of the market economy, William Hodge, London, UK, 1952. [24] J. Benders

  9. [Epileptic attacks in cerebral arterial pathology. Clinical findings].

    PubMed

    Rohmer, F; Collard, M; Kurtz, D; Warter, J M; Coquillat, G

    1975-09-01

    The authors analyse, with reference to 107 cases, the incidence of epileptic attacks in different types of non-traumatic arterial pathology of the brain. They describe their various clinical and evolutive aspects and attempt to isolate those peculiar to critical manifestations of this type occurring in the course of cerebral vascular accidents.

  10. Fraud in Academic Publishing: Researchers Under Cyber-Attacks.

    PubMed

    Dadkhah, Mehdi; Borchardt, Glenn; Maliszewski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Day by day, researchers receive new suspicious e-mails in their inboxes. Many of them do not have sufficient information about these types of e-mails, and may become victims of cyber-attacks. In this short communication, we review current cyber threats in academic publishing and try to present general guidelines for authors.

  11. Attacks on the Freedom To Learn. 1986-1987 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    People for the American Way, Washington, DC.

    Documenting a cumulative attack on the freedom to learn, which strikes at the heart of public education, this report describes how censorship has grown since 1982, highlighting trends that have emerged over five years, the actors, the challenges, and the results. Following an introduction, the report documents the state of censorship for…

  12. Toward Exposing Timing-Based Probing Attacks in Web Applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian; Chen, Yue; Shi, Futian; Jia, Yaoqi; Liang, Zhenkai

    2017-02-25

    Web applications have become the foundation of many types of systems, ranging from cloud services to Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the large amount of sensitive data processed by web applications, user privacy emerges as a major concern in web security. Existing protection mechanisms in modern browsers, e.g., the same origin policy, prevent the users' browsing information on one website from being directly accessed by another website. However, web applications executed in the same browser share the same runtime environment. Such shared states provide side channels for malicious websites to indirectly figure out the information of other origins. Timing is a classic side channel and the root cause of many recent attacks, which rely on the variations in the time taken by the systems to process different inputs. In this paper, we propose an approach to expose the timing-based probing attacks in web applications. It monitors the browser behaviors and identifies anomalous timing behaviors to detect browser probing attacks. We have prototyped our system in the Google Chrome browser and evaluated the effectiveness of our approach by using known probing techniques. We have applied our approach on a large number of top Alexa sites and reported the suspicious behavior patterns with corresponding analysis results. Our theoretical analysis illustrates that the effectiveness of the timing-based probing attacks is dramatically limited by our approach.

  13. Bear attack--A unique fatality in Finland.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, Fabio; Rainio, Juha; Pascali, Vincenzo; Lalu, Kaisa

    2007-11-15

    Fatalities due to animal bites, the vast majority of which are associated with dogs and big cats, are relatively uncommon and rarely described in the literature. Especially rare are fatal bear attacks on humans. We herein present a forensic investigation of a fatal assault, involving numerous bites on a 42-year-old man in Finland by an European brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos).

  14. Protecting water and wastewater infrastructure from cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panguluri, Srinivas; Phillips, William; Cusimano, John

    2011-12-01

    Multiple organizations over the years have collected and analyzed data on cyber attacks and they all agree on one conclusion: cyber attacks are real and can cause significant damages. This paper presents some recent statistics on cyber attacks and resulting damages. Water and wastewater utilities must adopt countermeasures to prevent or minimize the damage in case of such attacks. Many unique challenges are faced by the water and wastewater industry while selecting and implementing security countermeasures; the key challenges are: 1) the increasing interconnection of their business and control system networks, 2) large variation of proprietary industrial control equipment utilized, 3) multitude of cross-sector cyber-security standards, and 4) the differences in the equipment vendor's approaches to meet these security standards. The utilities can meet these challenges by voluntarily selecting and adopting security standards, conducting a gap analysis, performing vulnerability/risk analysis, and undertaking countermeasures that best meets their security and organizational requirements. Utilities should optimally utilize their limited resources to prepare and implement necessary programs that are designed to increase cyber-security over the years. Implementing cyber security does not necessarily have to be expensive, substantial improvements can be accomplished through policy, procedure, training and awareness. Utilities can also get creative and allocate more funding through annual budgets and reduce dependence upon capital improvement programs to achieve improvements in cyber-security.

  15. Hypergame theory applied to cyber attack and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, James Thomas; Cybenko, George

    2010-04-01

    This work concerns cyber attack and defense in the context of game theory--specifically hypergame theory. Hypergame theory extends classical game theory with the ability to deal with differences in players' expertise, differences in their understanding of game rules, misperceptions, and so forth. Each of these different sub-scenarios, or subgames, is associated with a probability--representing the likelihood that the given subgame is truly "in play" at a given moment. In order to form an optimal attack or defense policy, these probabilities must be learned if they're not known a-priori. We present hidden Markov model and maximum entropy approaches for accurately learning these probabilities through multiple iterations of both normal and modified game play. We also give a widely-applicable approach for the analysis of cases where an opponent is aware that he is being studied, and intentionally plays to spoil the process of learning and thereby obfuscate his attributes. These are considered in the context of a generic, abstract cyber attack example. We demonstrate that machine learning efficacy can be heavily dependent on the goals and styles of participant behavior. To this end detailed simulation results under various combinations of attacker and defender behaviors are presented and analyzed.

  16. Technosocial Modeling of IED Threat Scenarios and Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Brothers, Alan J.; Coles, Garill A.; Young, Jonathan; Wolf, Katherine E.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Niesen, David A.; Madsen, John M.; Henderson, Cynthia L.

    2009-03-23

    This paper describes an approach for integrating sociological and technical models to develop more complete threat assessment. Current approaches to analyzing and addressing threats tend to focus on the technical factors. This paper addresses development of predictive models that encompass behavioral as well as these technical factors. Using improvised explosive device (IED) attacks as motivation, this model supports identification of intervention activities 'left of boom' as well as prioritizing attack modalities. We show how Bayes nets integrate social factors associated with IED attacks into general threat model containing technical and organizational steps from planning through obtaining the IED to initiation of the attack. The social models are computationally-based representations of relevant social science literature that describes human decision making and physical factors. When combined with technical models, the resulting model provides improved knowledge integration into threat assessment for monitoring. This paper discusses the construction of IED threat scenarios, integration of diverse factors into an analytical framework for threat assessment, indicator identification for future threats, and future research directions.

  17. The Changing Nature of Suicide Attacks: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie

    2006-01-01

    To comprehend the developments underlying the suicide attacks of recent years, we suggest that the organizational approach, which until recently was used to explain this phenomenon, should be complemented with a social network perspective. By employing a social network analysis of Palestinian suicide networks, the authors found that, in contrast…

  18. [The hospital care of victims of terrorist attacks].

    PubMed

    Bouhaddou, Assena; Nion, Nathalie; Riou, Bruno; Blandeau, Fanny; Moreau, Pilar; Guemache, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of victims of terrorist attacks in a trauma centre requires the putting in place of plans, training and simulation exercises. Previous experiences have highlighted the areas which require improvement. As exceptional health situations are unpredictable, it is essential to always be vigilant and prepared for an unforeseen event.

  19. Focus Groups with Children after the World Trade Center Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S.; Pollio, David E.; Wallace, Nancy E.; Smith, Rebecca; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung

    2007-01-01

    Focus groups with 23 New York City children examined their reactions to the September 11 terrorist attacks, their parents' reactions, and their expectations about the future. We identified an initial set of six topics; these topics were reviewed and assigned to a final set of thematic categories--understanding the events and motives, emotional…

  20. Limit Asthma Attacks Caused by Colds or Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attack. References Bailey W, et al. Trigger control to enhance asthma management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 19, ... Flu and people with asthma. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... and Management of Asthma. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. ...

  1. Risk assessment for physical and cyber attacks on critical infrastructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Bryan J.; Sholander, Peter E.; Phelan, James M.; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2005-08-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies. Existing risk assessment methodologies consider physical security and cyber security separately. As such, they do not accurately model attacks that involve defeating both physical protection and cyber protection elements (e.g., hackers turning off alarm systems prior to forced entry). This paper presents a risk assessment methodology that accounts for both physical and cyber security. It also preserves the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay and respond, while accounting for the possibility that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the results of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology provides a means for ranking those assets most at risk from malevolent attacks. Because the methodology is automated the analyst can also play 'what if with mitigation measures to gain a better understanding of how to best expend resources towards securing the facilities. It is simple enough to be applied to large infrastructure facilities without developing highly complicated models. Finally, it is applicable to facilities with extensive security as well as those that are less well-protected.

  2. Parent-Reported Predictors of Adolescent Panic Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A.; Lagle, Kristy; Killen, Joel D.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks. Method: Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder…

  3. Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.; Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Rastello, M. L.

    2003-09-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.

  4. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  5. X-31 high angle of attack control system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Peter; Seamount, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    The design goals for the X-31 flight control system were: (1) level 1 handling qualities during post-stall maneuvering (30 to 70 degrees angle-of-attack); (2) thrust vectoring to enhance performance across the flight envelope; and (3) adequate pitch-down authority at high angle-of-attack. Additional performance goals are discussed. A description of the flight control system is presented, highlighting flight control system features in the pitch and roll axes and X-31 thrust vectoring characteristics. The high angle-of-attack envelope clearance approach will be described, including a brief explanation of analysis techniques and tools. Also, problems encountered during envelope expansion will be discussed. This presentation emphasizes control system solutions to problems encountered in envelope expansion. An essentially 'care free' envelope was cleared for the close-in-combat demonstrator phase. High angle-of-attack flying qualities maneuvers are currently being flown and evaluated. These results are compared with pilot opinions expressed during the close-in-combat program and with results obtained from the F-18 HARV for identical maneuvers. The status and preliminary results of these tests are discussed.

  6. Endangered Education: How Corporate Polluters Are Attacking Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohart, Barbara; Manilov, Marianne; Schwarz, Tamara

    This report claims that an attack has been waged on environmental education to derail the re-authorization of the National Environmental Education Act and to de-stabilize and de-fund environmental education in the United States. Presented in the media as a grassroots movement, stories have appeared in local, state, and national media that…

  7. Revising School Attack Protections since 9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, prompted federal officials to step up campaigns to make schools safe. After visiting Ground Zero at New York City's World Trade Center, Education Secretary Rodney Paige sent each chief state school officer suggestions for managing school crises. Many states also have school safety plans in place. New…

  8. Microbially induced organic acid underdeposit attack in a gas pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, O.C.; Bromel, M.C. )

    1990-04-01

    A leaking undersea carbon-steel gas pipeline was investigated, and attack was confined to low areas where water had accumulated.Analyses showed that pitting, which occurred under deposits, was caused by organic acids generated by bacteria. The metabolic activities of anaerobic sporeformers produce these acids. Alkyl amine carboxylic acid and metronidizole were effective deterrents at low concentrations.

  9. Animal biowarfare research: historical perspective and potential future attacks.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jung-Yong; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo

    2012-12-01

    A biological attack on livestock or poultry could result in the loss of valuable animals, costs related to the containment of outbreaks and the disposal of carcasses, lost trade and other economic effects involving suppliers, transporters, distributors and restaurants; however, it is not possible to secure all livestock, and livestock are much less well guarded than human targets. Thus, the vulnerability of the livestock industry to the introduction of biological agents varies for the following reasons: (i) the majority of lethal and contagious biological agents are environmentally resilient, endemic in foreign countries and harmless to humans, making it easier for terrorists to acquire, handle and deploy these pathogens, (ii) with animals concentrated in fewer production facilities and frequently transported between these facilities, a single pathogen introduction could cause widespread infection and (iii) the extent of human travel around the globe makes it difficult to exclude exotic animal diseases as possible biological agents. Historically, many governments have developed and planned to use biological agents for direct attacks on livestock or poultry. In the past, developed nations have actively developed biological weapons to target animals. The potential spectrum of bioterrorism ranges from isolated acts against individuals by individuals to tactical and strategic military attacks and state-sponsored international terrorism intended to cause mass casualties in animals, humans or both. This review provides an overview of the past development and use of biological weapons and describes potential future attacks.

  10. Effect of attack angle on flow characteristic of centrifugal fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Dou, H. S.; Wei, Y. K.; Chen, X. P.; Chen, Y. N.; Cao, W. B.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation is performed for the performance and internal flow of a centrifugal fan with different operating conditions using steady three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the RNG k-e turbulent model. The performance curves, the contours of static pressure, total pressure, radial velocity, relative streamlines and turbulence intensity at different attack angles are obtained. The distributions of static pressure and velocity on suction surface and pressure surface in the same impeller channel are compared for various attack angles. The research shows that the efficiency of the centrifugal fan is the highest when the attack angle is 8 degree. The main reason is that the vortex flow in the impeller is reduced, and the jet-wake pattern is weakened at the impeller outlet. The pressure difference between pressure side and suction side is smooth and the amplitude of the total pressure fluctuation is low along the circumferential direction. These phenomena may cause the loss reduced for the attack angle of about 8 degree.

  11. Exercise Following a Heart Attack: Some Special Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fardy, Paul S.

    This paper presents information on the effectiveness of exercise programs for heart attack victims. Some of the observations come from unpublished results of a two year experiment of the National Exercise and Heart Disease Project. The paper first establishes that a group exercise program with trained supervision is advantageous for people with…

  12. Delimiting Democratic Debate: The Fordham Institute's Attack on Democratic Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    Reflecting on the current debate on how to teach about the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, this article examines Thomas B. Fordham Institute's Terrorists, Despots, and Democracy: What Our Children Need to Know, one of the several publications produced by the Fordham Institute that…

  13. Vulnerabilities in GSM technology and feasibility of selected attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voznak, M.; Prokes, M.; Sevcik, L.; Frnda, J.; Toral-Cruz, Homer; Jakovlev, Sergej; Fazio, Peppino; Mehic, M.; Mikulec, M.

    2015-05-01

    Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is the most widespread technology for mobile communications in the world and serving over 7 billion users. Since first publication of system documentation there has been notified a potential safety problem's occurrence. Selected types of attacks, based on the analysis of the technical feasibility and the degree of risk of these weaknesses, were implemented and demonstrated in laboratory of the VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. These vulnerabilities were analyzed and afterwards possible attacks were described. These attacks were implemented using open-source tools, software programmable radio USRP (Universal Software RadioPeripheral) and DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial) receiver. GSM security architecture is being scrutinized since first public releases of its specification mainly pointing out weaknesses in authentication and ciphering mechanisms. This contribution also summarizes practically proofed and used scenarios that are performed using opensource software tools and variety of scripts mostly written in Python. Main goal of this paper is in analyzing security issues in GSM network and practical demonstration of selected attacks.

  14. Assessment and Intervention for Academic Task Attack Strategy Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, R. T.; Lee, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Many students who underachieve in schools may not be learning as effectively as they could. Direct assessments such as the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES), School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI), and the Academic Task Attack Checklist System (ATACS) can be used to evaluate students' knowledge and use of…

  15. Database Relation Watermarking Resilient against Secondary Watermarking Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Pieprzyk, Josef

    There has been tremendous interest in watermarking multimedia content during the past two decades, mainly for proving ownership and detecting tamper. Digital fingerprinting, that deals with identifying malicious user(s), has also received significant attention. While extensive work has been carried out in watermarking of images, other multimedia objects still have enormous research potential. Watermarking database relations is one of the several areas which demand research focus owing to the commercial implications of database theft. Recently, there has been little progress in database watermarking, with most of the watermarking schemes modeled after the irreversible database watermarking scheme proposed by Agrawal and Kiernan. Reversibility is the ability to re-generate the original (unmarked) relation from the watermarked relation using a secret key. As explained in our paper, reversible watermarking schemes provide greater security against secondary watermarking attacks, where an attacker watermarks an already marked relation in an attempt to erase the original watermark. This paper proposes an improvement over the reversible and blind watermarking scheme presented in [5], identifying and eliminating a critical problem with the previous model. Experiments showing that the average watermark detection rate is around 91% even with attacker distorting half of the attributes. The current scheme provides security against secondary watermarking attacks.

  16. Cultural Connections: Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief description of the piece of art titled "Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls" which is thought to be the product of a court or palace of the Neo-Assyrian period and dates to the late seventh to eighth century BC, between the reigns of Sargon and Ashurbanipal. The article highlights the piece's most notable…

  17. Assessing Sexual Abuse/Attack Histories with Bariatric Surgery Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahony, David

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…

  18. Protecting Cryptographic Keys and Functions from Malware Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.3.1 Basic Idea and Resulting Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3.2 Scrambling and...Prototype’s method for scrambling and dispersing key . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.4 Effects of different attack methods in different threat models...confirmation dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.4 A high-level description of the system shared memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.5 A

  19. Molten Salt Techniques for Students: Attacking Hematite with Pyrosulfate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, George F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained for an experiment involving a dry attack of ores with pyrosulfate flux. The experiment has been carried out by about 150 students a year with a demonstrator-to-student ratio of about 1:15 with no serious accidents. (JN)

  20. Defeating Insider Attacks via Autonomic Self-Protective Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibai, Faisal M.

    2012-01-01

    There has been a constant growing security concern with insider attacks on network accessible computer systems. Users with power credentials can do almost anything they want with the systems they own with very little control or oversight. Most breaches occurring nowadays by power users are considered legitimate access and not necessarily…

  1. SDN-based path hopping communication against eavesdropping attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanhao; Bu, Youjun; Zhao, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Network eavesdropping is one of the most popular means used by cyber attackers, which has been a severe threat to network communication security. Adversaries could capture and analyze network communication data from network nodes or links, monitor network status and steal sensitive data such as username and password etc. Traditional network usually uses static network configuration, and existing defense methods, including firewall, IDS, IPS etc., cannot prevent eavesdropping, which has no distinguishing characteristic. Network eavesdropping become silent during most of the time of the attacking process, which is why it is difficult to discover and to defend. But A successful eavesdropping attack also has its' precondition, which is the target path should be relatively stable and has enough time of duration. So, In order to resolve this problem, it has to work on the network architecture. In this paper, a path hopping communication(PHC) mechanism based on Software Define Network (SDN) was proposed to solve this problem. In PHC, Ends in communication packets as well as the routing paths were changed dynamically. Therefore, the traffic would be distributed to multiple flows and transmitted along different paths. so that Network eavesdropping attack could be prevented effectively. It was concluded that PHC was able to increase the overhead of Network eavesdropping, as well as the difficulty of communication data recovery.

  2. Novel mechanism of network protection against the new generation of cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanov, Alexander; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit

    2012-06-01

    A new intelligent mechanism is presented to protect networks against the new generation of cyber attacks. This mechanism integrates TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack protection and attacker/intruder deception to eliminate existing TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack vulnerabilities. It allows to detect currently undetectable, highly distributed, low-frequency attacks such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, coordinated attacks, botnet, and stealth network reconnaissance. The mechanism also allows insulating attacker/intruder from the network and redirecting the attack to a simulated network acting as a decoy. As a result, network security personnel gain sufficient time to defend the network and collect the attack information. The presented approach can be incorporated into wireless or wired networks that require protection against known and the new generation of cyber attacks.

  3. Functional Forms of Optimum Spoofing Attacks for Vector Parameter Estimation in Quantized Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiangfan; Blum, Rick S.; Kaplan, Lance M.; Lu, Xuanxuan

    2017-02-01

    Estimation of an unknown deterministic vector from quantized sensor data is considered in the presence of spoofing attacks which alter the data presented to several sensors. Contrary to previous work, a generalized attack model is employed which manipulates the data using transformations with arbitrary functional forms determined by some attack parameters whose values are unknown to the attacked system. For the first time, necessary and sufficient conditions are provided under which the transformations provide a guaranteed attack performance in terms of Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) regardless of the processing the estimation system employs, thus defining a highly desirable attack. Interestingly, these conditions imply that, for any such attack when the attacked sensors can be perfectly identified by the estimation system, either the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) for jointly estimating the desired and attack parameters is singular or that the attacked system is unable to improve the CRB for the desired vector parameter through this joint estimation even though the joint FIM is nonsingular. It is shown that it is always possible to construct such a highly desirable attack by properly employing a sufficiently large dimension attack vector parameter relative to the number of quantization levels employed, which was not observed previously. To illustrate the theory in a concrete way, we also provide some numerical results which corroborate that under the highly desirable attack, attacked data is not useful in reducing the CRB.

  4. Exploiting Small Leakages in Masks to Turn a Second-Order Attack into a First-Order Attack and Improved Rotating Substitution Box Masking with Linear Code Cosets

    PubMed Central

    DeTrano, Alexander; Karimi, Naghmeh; Karri, Ramesh; Guo, Xiaofei; Carlet, Claude; Guilley, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Masking countermeasures, used to thwart side-channel attacks, have been shown to be vulnerable to mask-extraction attacks. State-of-the-art mask-extraction attacks on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm target S-Box recomputation schemes but have not been applied to scenarios where S-Boxes are precomputed offline. We propose an attack targeting precomputed S-Boxes stored in nonvolatile memory. Our attack targets AES implemented in software protected by a low entropy masking scheme and recovers the masks with 91% success rate. Recovering the secret key requires fewer power traces (in fact, by at least two orders of magnitude) compared to a classical second-order attack. Moreover, we show that this attack remains viable in a noisy environment or with a reduced number of leakage points. Eventually, we specify a method to enhance the countermeasure by selecting a suitable coset of the masks set. PMID:26491717

  5. Attacks by packs of dogs involving predation on human beings.

    PubMed

    Borchelt, P L; Lockwood, R; Beck, A M; Voith, V L

    1983-01-01

    Dog bites are a medical problem for millions of people, children being the most common victims. Human deaths attributable to dog bite injury (not rabies) are relatively infrequent. There have been some epidemiologic reviews, but this study is the first attempt to arrive at an understanding of bites involving predation on human beings by conducting behavioral examinations under controlled conditions of the dogs involved, and by interviewing victims, witnesses, and people familiar with the animals.The three cases studied involved two fatalities and an attack that was nearly fatal. The victims were 11, 14, and 81. In each case, owned pet dogs consumed some human tissue. The severity of the victims' injuries was not the consequence of a single dog bite, but the result of repeated attacks by dogs behaving as a social group. Factors that might contribute to a dog's regarding human beings as potential prey were examined, including hunger, prior predation, group behaviors, defense of territory, previous interactions with people, the presence of estrous female dogs, and environmental stimuli. In two of the cases, it was possible, by using similar stimuli, to duplicate the circumstances at the time of the attack.The results of the observations showed the value of behavioral analysis and simulations methods in evaluating possible factors in dog attacks.Among the many factors probably involved in severe dog attacks are the size, number, and nutritional status of the dogs; the dogs' previous aggressive contacts with people; the victim's age, size, health, and behavior; and the absence of other human beings in the vicinity.

  6. The anatomy of a shark attack: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Caldicott, D G; Mahajani, R; Kuhn, M

    2001-07-01

    Shark attacks are rare but are associated with a high morbidity and significant mortality. We report the case of a patient's survival from a shark attack and their subsequent emergency medical and surgical management. Using data from the International Shark Attack File, we review the worldwide distribution and incidence of shark attack. A review of the world literature examines the features which make shark attacks unique pathological processes. We offer suggestions for strategies of management of shark attack, and techniques for avoiding adverse outcomes in human encounters with these endangered creatures.

  7. From path integrals to tensor networks for the AdS /CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaji, Masamichi; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss tensor network descriptions of AdS /CFT from two different viewpoints. First, we start with a Euclidean path-integral computation of ground state wave functions with a UV cutoff. We consider its efficient optimization by making its UV cutoff position dependent and define a quantum state at each length scale. We conjecture that this path integral corresponds to a time slice of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Next, we derive a flow of quantum states by rewriting the action of Killing vectors of AdS3 in terms of the dual two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). Both approaches support a correspondence between the hyperbolic time slice H2 in AdS3 and a version of continuous multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. We also give a heuristic argument about why we can expect a sub-AdS scale bulk locality for holographic CFTs.

  8. Pre-Attack Stress-Load, Appraisals, and Coping in Children's Responses to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…

  9. = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    For all types of = 4 anti-de Sitter (AdS) supersymmetry in three dimensions, we construct manifestly supersymmetric actions for Abelian vector multiplets and explain how to extend the construction to the non-Abelian case. Manifestly = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) actions are explicitly given in the cases of (2,2) and critical (4,0) AdS supersymmetries. The = 4 vector multiplets and the corresponding actions are then reduced to (2,0) AdS superspace, in which only = 2 supersymmetry is manifest. Using the off-shell structure of the = 4 vector multiplets, we provide complete = 4 SYM actions in (2,0) AdS superspace for all types of = 4 AdS supersymmetry. In the case of (4,0) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the resulting = 2 action contains a Chern-Simons term proportional to q/r, where r is the radius of AdS 3 and q is the R-charge of a chiral scalar superfield. The R-charge is a linear inhomogeneous function of X, an expectation value of the = 4 Cotton superfield. Thus our results explain the mysterious structure of = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories on S 3 discovered in arXiv:1401.7952. In the case of (3,1) AdS supersymmetry, which has no Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action contains both a Chern-Simons term and a chiral mass-like term. In the case of (2,2) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action has no Chern-Simons and chiral mass-like terms.

  10. Random Time Identity Based Firewall In Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, Patel, R. B.; Singh, Parvinder

    2010-11-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-organizing network of mobile routers and associated hosts connected by wireless links. MANETs are highly flexible and adaptable but at the same time are highly prone to security risks due to the open medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, and lack of centralized control. Firewall is an effective means of protecting a local network from network-based security threats and forms a key component in MANET security architecture. This paper presents a review of firewall implementation techniques in MANETs and their relative merits and demerits. A new approach is proposed to select MANET nodes at random for firewall implementation. This approach randomly select a new node as firewall after fixed time and based on critical value of certain parameters like power backup. This approach effectively balances power and resource utilization of entire MANET because responsibility of implementing firewall is equally shared among all the nodes. At the same time it ensures improved security for MANETs from outside attacks as intruder will not be able to find out the entry point in MANET due to the random selection of nodes for firewall implementation.

  11. Beyond Test Scores: Adding Value to Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At a time when teacher quality has emerged as a key factor in student learning, a statistical technique that determines the "value added" that teachers bring to student achievement is getting new scrutiny. Value-added measures compare students' growth in achievement to their expected growth, based on prior achievement and demographic…

  12. Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of AdS braneworld black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2017-02-01

    The thermodynamics and phase transitions of charged RN-AdS and rotating Kerr-AdS black holes in a generalized Randall-Sundrum braneworld are investigated in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamics, stability and phase structures in the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles for these AdS braneworld black holes are described. The thermodynamic curvatures for both these AdS braneworld black holes are computed and studied as a function of the thermodynamic variables. Through this analysis we illustrate an interesting dependence of the phase structures on the braneworld parameter for these black holes.

  13. Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.

  14. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhari, N. S.; Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2017-03-01

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  15. An adaptive neural swarm approach for intrusion defense in ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannady, James

    2011-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) and mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) are being increasingly deployed in critical applications due to the flexibility and extensibility of the technology. While these networks possess numerous advantages over traditional wireless systems in dynamic environments they are still vulnerable to many of the same types of host-based and distributed attacks common to those systems. Unfortunately, the limited power and bandwidth available in WSNs and MANETs, combined with the dynamic connectivity that is a defining characteristic of the technology, makes it extremely difficult to utilize traditional intrusion detection techniques. This paper describes an approach to accurately and efficiently detect potentially damaging activity in WSNs and MANETs. It enables the network as a whole to recognize attacks, anomalies, and potential vulnerabilities in a distributive manner that reflects the autonomic processes of biological systems. Each component of the network recognizes activity in its local environment and then contributes to the overall situational awareness of the entire system. The approach utilizes agent-based swarm intelligence to adaptively identify potential data sources on each node and on adjacent nodes throughout the network. The swarm agents then self-organize into modular neural networks that utilize a reinforcement learning algorithm to identify relevant behavior patterns in the data without supervision. Once the modular neural networks have established interconnectivity both locally and with neighboring nodes the analysis of events within the network can be conducted collectively in real-time. The approach has been shown to be extremely effective in identifying distributed network attacks.

  16. [Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang

    2011-07-01

    The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.

  17. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  18. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  19. Neurosurgical sequelae of domestic dog attacks in children.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Deleyiannis, Frederic W B; Wilkinson, Corbett; O'Neill, Brent R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period. RESULTS A total of 124 children with dog bites to the head, face, and neck were evaluated in the emergency department. Of these, 17 children (13.7%) incurred injuries requiring neurosurgical consultation. Fifty-three percent of victims were female. The mean age at the time of attack was 30 months. Twelve (71%) of the attacks were perpetrated by the family pet, and 13 (76%) occurred at the patient's home. Breeds involved in the attacks included German Shepherd, Pit Bull, American Bulldog, large mixed breed, Labrador Retriever, and Akita, with German Shepherds and Akitas being the most frequently involved. Neurosurgical injuries included nondepressed skull fracture in 5, depressed skull fracture in 10, intracranial hemorrhage in 5, cerebral contusions in 4, dural laceration in 4, pneumocephalus in 5, clinically evident CSF leak in 3, spinal fracture with complete spinal cord injury in 1, stroke in 2, vascular injury in 2, and cranial nerve injury (hypoglossal and facial nerve) in 1. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered in 16 patients (94%). Only 1 patient had a confirmed infection involving the site of injury. Neurosurgical intervention was required in 10 patients (59%) and ranged in severity from debridement and closure of a complex scalp wound to decompressive craniectomy. Neurological deficits, all of which were considered catastrophic, developed in 3 patients (18%). CONCLUSIONS Dog attacks on children

  20. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.