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Sample records for ad lib food

  1. Inaccessible food cues affect stress and weight gain in calorically-restricted and ad lib fed rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Polivy, Janet; Fleming, Alison; Hargreaves, Duane; Herman, C Peter; Lao, Grace

    2010-02-01

    Research suggests that caloric restriction (CR) is beneficial; however, the effects of CR in the context of food cues are unclear. A 2 (food cue vs. no cue)x2 (CR vs. ad lib) between-subjects design was employed to test these effects in 40 rats. It was predicted that cue exposure and CR would induce stress, and that these factors might interact synergistically. The results demonstrated that cue-exposed CR rats weighed less than did non-exposed CR rats. A blunted stress response was evident in CR rats relative to ad lib rats. Finally, cue-exposed rats had higher corticosterone levels and body weight during ad lib feeding than did non-cued rats. These results suggest that both CR and chronic food-cue exposure can be stressful, and the implications of this research are discussed in the context of humans' 'obesigenic' environment.

  2. Toxicity of ad lib. overfeeding: effects on cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Faine, L A; Diniz, Y S; Almeida, J A; Novelli, E L B; Ribas, B O

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ad lib. overfeeding and of dietary restriction (DR) on oxidative stress in cardiac tissue. Lipoperoxide concentrations were decreased and antioxidant enzymes were increased in moderate-DR-fed rats. Severe-DR induced increased lipoperoxide concentrations. Overfeeding increased lipoperoxide levels in cardiac tissue. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) activities were decreased in cardiac tissue at 35 days of overfeeding. As no changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were observed in overfed rats, while SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities were decreased in these animals, it is assumed that superoxide anion is an important intermediate in the toxicity of ad lib. overfeeding. Overfeeding induced alterations in markers of oxidative stress in cardiac tissue.

  3. Ad lib caffeine consumption, symptoms of caffeinism, and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, K; Andress, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors explored the relationship between ad lib caffeine consumption in college students and the incidence of caffeinism, characterized by heightened anxiety, depression, and various psychophysiological reactions. Students were randomly selected from four groups (abstainers from caffeine and low, moderate, and high consumers). A survey battery assessed the effects of caffeine, incidence of psychophysiological disorders, state-trait anxiety, and depression. The moderate and high consumer groups combined reported significantly higher trait anxiety and depression scores when compared with abstainers. The high consumer group also reported significantly higher levels of symptoms of caffeinism, higher frequency of psychophysiological disorders, and lower academic performance.

  4. Ad lib smoking in post-traumatic stress disorder: an electronic diary study.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Jean C; Wiley, Matthew T; Miller, Susannah C; Dennis, Michelle F; Wilson, Sarah M; McClernon, F Joseph; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2008-07-01

    Using ambulatory methods for 1 week of monitoring, this study investigated the association between smoking and situational cues in 22 smokers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 23 smokers without PTSD. Generalized estimating equations contrasted 1,759 smoking and 1,088 nonsmoking situations by group status controlling for multiple covariates. PTSD smokers reported higher stress and PTSD symptoms across daily activities. For all smokers, higher nicotine dependence, craving, food and caffeine consumption, and being outside were related to smoking. PTSD smokers were more likely to smoke when experiencing PTSD symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Following smoking, smokers with PTSD reported a significant reduction in negative affect. These results are consistent with previous ambulatory findings regarding mood in smokers, and underscore that in smokers with PTSD, PTSD symptom variables as well as stress and anxiety are significantly associated with ad lib smoking.

  5. Recovery from activity-stress ulcer by ad lib feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirao, M; Tanaka, M; Emoto, H; Ishii, H; Yokoo, H; Yoshida, M; Tsuda, A

    1997-12-31

    In order to investigate the recovery from activity-stress ulcers by ad lib-feeding and/or cessation of running, male Wistar rats were exposed to the activity-stress paradigm, and the rats that revealed hypothermia (their rectal temperature fell below 36 degrees C) were sacrificed either immediately or after several 24 h periods of healing. Rats that were sacrificed immediately after the appearance of hypothermia and those that were exposed to restricted feeding plus cessation of running revealed severe activity-stress ulcers, whereas few ulcers were observed in rats given ad lib-feeding and those that were given ad lib-feeding plus cessation of running. Although no significant differences in relative weights of spleen and thymus were obtained among the different recovery conditions, the relative weights of the adrenal glands were highest in the restricted feeding plus cessation of running group, whereas, the other animals exposed to the activity-stress paradigm showed no differences. These results indicate that activity-stress ulcers recover under conditions of ad lib-feeding within 24 h, but they are not influenced by cessation of running. These data also suggest that organ weights are not affected by any manipulations employed in the present study.

  6. Ego depletion increases ad-lib alcohol consumption: investigating cognitive mediators and moderators.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Cole, Jon C; Field, Matt

    2012-04-01

    When self-control resources are depleted ("ego depletion"), alcohol-seeking behavior becomes closely associated with automatic alcohol-related processing biases (e.g., Ostafin, Marlatt, & Greenwald, 2008). The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings, and also to investigate whether the effects of ego depletion on drinking behavior would be mediated by temporary impairments in executive function or increases in impulsivity. Eighty heavy social drinkers (46 female) initially completed measures of automatic approach tendencies (stimulus response compatibility [SRC] task) and attentional bias (visual probe task) elicited by alcohol-related cues. Participants were then exposed to either an ego depletion manipulation or a control manipulation, before completing a bogus taste test in order to assess ad-lib alcohol consumption. In a subsequent testing session, we examined effects of the ego depletion manipulation (vs. control manipulation) on 3 aspects of executive function (inhibitory control, phonemic fluency, and delay discounting). Results indicated that the ego depletion manipulation increased ad-lib drinking, relative to the control manipulation. Automatic approach tendencies, but not attentional bias, predicted ad-lib drinking, although this effect was not moderated by ego depletion. Ego depletion had inconsistent effects on measures of executive function and impulsivity, and none of these measures mediated the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking. However, the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking was mediated by self-reported effort in suppressing emotion and thoughts during the manipulation. Implications for the effects of self-control strength on drinking behavior, and cognitive mediators of these effects, are discussed.

  7. P300 during response inhibition is associated with ad-lib alcohol consumption in social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew; Field, Matt; Christiansen, Paul; Stancak, Andrej

    2013-06-01

    Reduced amplitude of the cortical P300 event-related potential (ERP) component during response inhibition is associated with vulnerability to alcohol use disorders. In the current study, we investigated the effect of an experimental manipulation of response conflict on the amplitude of the P300 component during response inhibition, and examined whether individual differences in the amplitude of this P300 component would predict voluntary ad-lib alcohol consumption, in social drinkers. Using a repeated measures design, 16 participants performed a stop-signal task after receiving instructions that either emphasised or de-emphasised response conflict while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was concurrently recorded, before their ad-lib drinking was assessed. Results revealed that task instructions had the predicted effects on behavioural indices of response inhibition and the associated P300 components. Most importantly, individual differences in the amplitude of P300 subcomponents during response inhibition were negatively correlated with ad-lib alcohol consumption. Results provide the first experimental support for theoretical models that posit that reduced amplitude of the P300 during response inhibition is associated with alcohol-seeking behaviour in humans.

  8. Acute effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on tobacco withdrawal symptoms, cigarette reward and ad lib smoking.

    PubMed

    Rose, J E; Behm, F M; Westman, E C

    2001-02-01

    Separate and combined effects of nicotine and the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were studied in 32 healthy volunteer smokers after overnight abstinence from smoking. Subjects participated in three sessions (3 h each), during which they wore skin patches delivering either 0 mg/24 h, 21 mg/24 h or 42 mg/24 h nicotine. Thirty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups receiving oral mecamylamine hydrochloride (10 mg) vs. placebo capsules. Two and one-half hours after drug administration, subjects were allowed to smoke ad lib, rating the cigarettes for rewarding and aversive effects. Transdermal nicotine produced a dose-related reduction in the subjective rewarding qualities of smoking. Nicotine also reduced craving for cigarettes and this effect was attenuated, but not eliminated, by mecamylamine. Mecamylamine blocked the discriminability of high vs. low nicotine puffs of smoke, and increased nicotine intake substantially during the ad lib smoking period. Some of the psychophysiological effects of each drug (elevation in blood pressure from nicotine, sedation and decreased blood pressure from mecamylamine) were offset by the other drug. The results supported the hypothesis that nicotine replacement can alleviate tobacco withdrawal symptoms even in the presence of an antagonist such as mecamylamine. Mecamylamine did not precipitate withdrawal beyond the level associated with overnight cigarette deprivation, suggesting its effects were primarily due to offsetting the action of concurrently administered nicotine as opposed to blocking endogenous cholinergic transmission.

  9. Effects of Experimental Negative Affect Manipulations on Ad Lib Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Bryan W.; Carpenter, Mathew J.; Correa, John B.; Wray, Jennifer M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Froeliger, Brett; Drobes, David J.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To quantify the effect of negative affect (NA), when manipulated experimentally, upon smoking as measured within laboratory paradigms. Quantitative meta-analyses tested the effects of NA vs. neutral conditions on 1) latency to smoke and 2) number of puffs taken. Methods Twelve experimental studies tested the influence of NA induction, relative to a neutral control condition (N = 1,190; range = 24–235). Those providing relevant data contributed to separate random effects meta-analyses to examine the effects of NA on two primary smoking measures: 1) latency to smoke (nine studies) and 2) number of puffs taken during ad lib smoking (eleven studies). Hedge’s g was calculated for all studies through the use of post-NA cue responses relative to post-neutral cue responses. This effect size estimate is similar to Cohen’s d, but corrects for small sample size bias. Results NA reliably decreased latency to smoke (g = −.14; CI = −.23 to −.04; p = .007) and increased number of puffs taken (g = .14; CI = .02 to .25; p = .02). There was considerable variability across studies for both outcomes (I2 = 51% and 65% for latency and consumption, respectively). Potential publication bias was indicated for both outcomes, and adjusted effect sizes were smaller and no longer statistically significant. Conclusions In experimental laboratory studies of smokers, negative affect appears to reduce latency to smoking and increase number of puffs taken but this could be due to publication bias. PMID:25641624

  10. Meal patterns and meal-induced metabolic changes in calves fed milk ad lib.

    PubMed

    Senn, M; Gross-Lüem, S; Leuenberger, H; Langhans, W

    The feeding behavior of 11 calves fed milk ad lib was characterized and analyzed at the age of 5 weeks, and the short-term changes in the plasma concentrations of various metabolites (glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, triglycerides, beta-hydroxybutyrate) and insulin in relation to a representative spontaneous milk meal were measured during the following week. In a 6-day period, the calves consumed 287 (=86%) of a total of 335 milk meals during the light phase from 0500-2200 [on average, 4.4 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SEM) meals]. The meal size and duration during light were 2.0 +/- 0.3 kg and 5.3 +/- 0.3 min, respectively. However, only 0.7 +/- 0.1 milk meals of similar size and duration were consumed during the dark phase. The plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose increased in response to the spontaneous milk meal and remained elevated for at least 2 h after meal end. The plasma concentrations of triglycerides, free fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate also increased after meal termination, and remained elevated until 40 min (triglycerides, free fatty acids) and 60 min (beta-hydroxybutyrate) after meal end, respectively. The observed spontaneous milk intake patterns were similar to the natural suckling behavior described for calves, suggesting that the conditions of the present experiment did not disrupt the animals' natural feeding behavior. Some of the profound metabolic changes in relation to a spontaneous milk meal might contribute to the control of milk intake in calves, but further experiments are necessary to test this idea.

  11. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  12. Individual Differences in Approach and Avoidance Inclinations Moderate the Effect of Self-Control Depletion on Ad-Lib Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Schlauch, Robert C.; Christensen, Rita L.; Derrick, Jaye L.; Crane, Cory A.; Collins, R. Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study sought to examine how exerting self-control to inhibit stereotype use affects alcohol consumption. In addition, we sought to expand previous findings via examination of how individual differences in motivations to approach or avoid alcohol consumption interact with self-control depletion to determine the regulation of ad-lib drinking behavior. Methods Sixty-one social drinkers (31 female) were recruited to participate in a socially relevant self-control depletion task in which they were randomly assigned to one of two creative writing conditions: 1) the self-control depletion condition with explicit instructions to refrain from using stereotypes, or 2) the non-depletion condition in which no instructions were given regarding the use of stereotypes. Participants then completed an ad-lib drinking task and self-report questionnaires pertaining to their motivation to consume alcohol. Results As predicted, results indicated a significant three-way interaction between depletion condition, approach inclinations, and avoidance inclinations. Specifically, self-control depletion predicted greater drinking disinhibition (i.e., mean sip size, total alcohol consumption) only among participants high in both approach and avoidance. Conclusions Taken together, results from the current study highlight the importance of both approach and avoidance inclinations in the failure to regulate alcohol consumption following a routine, socially relevant form of self-control depletion. Our results also suggest that the high approach / high avoidance motivational profile may predict the greatest risk among those actively trying to regulate their drinking. PMID:26756800

  13. Gender differences in immediate antecedents of ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Michelle F; Clancy, Carolina P; Beckham, Jean C

    2007-12-01

    Using ambulatory methods for monitoring, this study investigated gender differences regarding the association between smoking and situational cues in 63 smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 32 smokers without PTSD. Smokers were instructed to complete a diary entry each time an ambulatory blood pressure monitor took a reading and each time they prepared to smoke. Generalized estimating equations contrasted 682 smoking and 444 nonsmoking situations by group status. For all smokers, ad lib smoking was strongly related to craving. For women with PTSD, ad lib smoking was strongly related to total PTSD symptoms, PTSD reexperiencing symptoms, and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. For men with PTSD, ad lib smoking was significantly related to negative affect, PTSD reexperiencing symptoms, restlessness, and worry. No other mood antecedents were significant for women or men smokers without PTSD. These results are consistent with previous studies documenting gender differences in smoking behavior, and underscore the importance of examining gender differences in psychiatric samples.

  14. A comparison of the anticipated and pharmacological effects of alcohol on cognitive bias, executive function, craving and ad-lib drinking.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Rose, Abigail K; Cole, Jon C; Field, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Acute alcohol administration alters automatic processing of alcohol-related cues, impairs executive functions and increases alcohol seeking. Few studies have investigated the effects of expecting to receive alcohol on these measures. Thirty-one social drinkers completed three experimental sessions receiving either 0.65 g/kg alcohol, a placebo and a control beverage (which they knew was not alcoholic) before reporting craving and completing a test battery including a measure of automatic alcohol-approach tendencies (stimulus response compatibility task), a measure of executive function (Controlled Oral Word Association Task (COWAT)) and a taste test assessing ad-lib drinking. Results indicated that alcohol administration impaired performance on the COWAT and increased ad-lib drinking; however, there were no significant differences on these measures after administration of placebo versus control beverages. Craving was increased after alcohol and (to a lesser extent) after placebo. Automatic alcohol-approach tendencies were pronounced after both alcohol and placebo compared to the control beverage, with no difference between alcohol and placebo. Results suggest craving is sensitive to the anticipated and pharmacological effects of alcohol, alcohol-approach tendencies are particularly sensitive to the anticipated effects of alcohol, and measures of executive function and ad-lib drinking are affected by the pharmacological, but not the anticipated, effects of alcohol.

  15. Adding Bite to the Bark: Using LibGuides2 Migration as Impetus to Introduce Strong Content Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritch, Melia; Pitts, Joelle E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the long-term accumulation of unstandardized and inaccessible content within the Libguides system and the decision-making process to create and implement a set of standards using the migration to the LibGuides2 platform as a vehicle for change. Included in the discussion are strategies for the creation of standards and…

  16. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P

  17. Efficacy of adding folic acid to foods.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Violeta; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-06-01

    In the past, food fortification along with nutritional education and the decrease in food costs relative to income have proven successful in eliminating common nutritional deficiencies. These deficiencies such as goiter, rickets, beriberi, and pellagra have been replaced with an entirely new set of "emergent deficiencies" that were not previously considered a problem [e.g., folate and neural tube defects (NTDs)]. In addition, the different nutrition surveys in so-called affluent countries have identified "shortfalls" of nutrients specific to various age groups and/or physiological status. Complex, multiple-etiology diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and obesity have emerged. Food fortification has proven an effective tool for tackling nutritional deficiencies in populations; but today a more reasonable approach is to use food fortification as a means to support but not replace dietary improvement strategies (i. e. nutritional education campaigns). Folic acid (FA) is a potential relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies. The evidence linking FA to NTD prevention led to the introduction of public health strategies to increase folate intakes: pharmacological supplementation, mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with FA, and the advice to increase the intake of folate-rich foods. It is quite contradictory to observe that, regardless of these findings, there is only limited information on food folate and FA content. Data in Food Composition Tables and Databases are scarce or incomplete. Fortification of staple foods with FA has added difficulty to this task. Globally, the decision to fortify products is left up to individual food manufacturers. Voluntary fortification is a common practice in many countries. Therefore, the "worldwide map of vitamin fortification" may be analyzed. It is important to examine if fortification today really answers to vitamin requirements at different ages and/or physiological states. The

  18. Effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, and nicotine levels in smokers with and without schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    McKee, Sherry A; Weinberger, Andrea H; Harrison, Emily L R; Coppola, Sabrina; George, Tony P

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have higher plasma nicotine levels in comparison to non-psychiatric smokers, even when differences in smoking are equated. This difference may be related to how intensely cigarettes are smoked but this has not been well studied. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, which has been shown to increase ad-lib smoking and to affect smoking topography, was used in the current study as a pharmacological probe to increase our understanding of smoking behavior, smoking topography, and resulting nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia. This preliminary study used a within-subject, placebo-controlled design in smokers with schizophrenia (n=6) and healthy control smokers (n=8) to examine the effects of MEC (10mg/day) on ad-lib smoking behavior, topography, nicotine levels, and tobacco craving across two smoking deprivation conditions (no deprivation and 12-h deprivation). MEC, compared to placebo, increased the number of cigarettes smoked and plasma nicotine levels. MEC increased smoking intensity and resulted in greater plasma nicotine levels in smokers with schizophrenia compared to controls, although these results were not consistent across deprivation conditions. MEC also increased tobacco craving in smokers with schizophrenia but not in control smokers. Our results suggest that antagonism of high-affinity nAChRs in smokers with schizophrenia may prompt compensatory smoking, increasing the intensity of smoking and nicotine exposure without alleviating craving. Further work is needed to assess whether nicotine levels are directly mediated by how intensely the cigarettes are smoked, and to confirm whether this effect is more pronounced in smokers with schizophrenia.

  19. Effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on (/sup 3/H)TdR incorporation into DNA in ad lib fed and fasted CD2F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Scheving, L.A.; Tsai, T.H.; Scheving, L.E.; Hoke, W.S.

    1987-03-01

    The effect of EGF on the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)TdR into DNA (DNA synthesis) was determined in the esophagus, liver, pancreas, and kidney in mice standardized to 12 hours (hr) of light alternating with 12 hr of darkness. A question asked was whether intraperitoneally administered EGF could alter the circadian patterns of DNA synthesis in these organs. The most marked effects of EGF were: an increase in DNA synthesis but only after a specific duration of time after treatment, ranging from 8 to 23 hr, which differed for each tissue, a similarity in the response of the esophagus in both ad lib fed and fasted mice, but not in the response of the liver, where the stimulatory effect of EGF observed in fed mice was dramatically reduced in fasted ones, and an advance in the phasing of the circadian rhythm in DNA synthesis of the esophagus by about 12 hr. In addition, no sex differences in fasted animals were found under the conditions of this study.

  20. Region-specific down-regulation of Crhr1 gene expression in alcohol-preferring msP rats following ad lib access to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Anita C; Cippitelli, Andrea; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Heilig, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone 1 receptors (CRH-R1) mediate increased behavioral sensitivity to stress and excessive alcohol self-administration following a history of dependence. It was recently demonstrated that the genetically selected alcohol-preferring msP rat line replicates many characteristics of the post-dependent state, due to an innate up-regulation of the Crhr1 transcript in several limbic areas related to alcohol drinking motivation. Here, we examined whether voluntary alcohol consumption might be able to down-regulate Crhr1 transcript levels in msP rats in brain areas where elevated expression previously has been shown. Within central and medial amygdala (CeA, MeA), as well as the Nc. Accumbens, 2 weeks'ad lib access to alcohol led to a highly significant down-regulation of the Crhr1 transcript. Alcohol-induced Crhr1 down-regulation was not seen in cingulate cortex. These data support that recruitment of CRH-R1 signaling within components of the extended amygdala drives excessive alcohol intake, and that alcohol is voluntarily consumed in part for its ability to reduce CRH-R1 activity in this region.

  1. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  2. LibVMI

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Bryan D.

    2011-09-28

    LibVMI is an introspection library focused on reading and writing memory from virtual machines (VMs). For convenience, LibVMI also provides functions for accessing CPU registers, pausing and unpausing a VM, printing binary data, and more. LibVMI is designed to work across multiple virtualization platforms. LibVMI currently supports VMs running in either Xen or KVM. LibVMI also supports reading physical memory snapshots when saved as a file.

  3. Effects of added fluids on the perception of solid food.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; de Wijk, René A; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D; van der Bilt, Andries

    2006-07-30

    The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. We examined the hypothesis that adding fluid to a food will influence the chewing process. Twenty healthy subjects chewed on melba toast, breakfast cake, carrot, peanut and Gouda cheese. In addition they chewed on these foods after we added different volumes of tap water or a solution of alpha-amylase. We measured jaw muscle activity and the number of cycles until swallowing. Furthermore, we obtained visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for texture and sound attributes for all foods and fluid conditions. The additional fluids significantly lowered muscle activity and swallowing threshold for melba, cake and peanut. The effect of alpha-amylase in the solutions was rather limited. Doubling the volume of tap water had a larger effect. Several texture and sound attributes of melba, cake and peanut were also significantly affected by the additional fluids. For melba, cake, and peanut we observed significant correlations between the physiology parameters and several attributes for the various fluid conditions. This indicates that the added fluid affects both the physiology (muscle activity and number of cycles) and the sensory perception of a number of texture and sound attributes. Adding fluid facilitates the chewing of dry foods (melba, cake), but does not influence the chewing of fatty (cheese) and wet products (carrot).

  4. A new food ingredient for adding soluble oat beta-glucan health benefits to food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new oat food ingredient, containing 20% to 30% soluble beta-glucan, was obtained from oat bran by using natural treatments of heat and shear processing. The product is useful for reducing calories in foods while simultaneously adding health promoting benefits from its beta-glucan. It was evaluat...

  5. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  6. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  7. ParaDIS_lib

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Richard D.

    2016-05-25

    The ParaDIS_lib software is a project that is funded by the DOE ASC Program. Its purpose is to provide visualization and analysis capabilities for the existing ParaDIS parallel dislocation dynamics simulation code.

  8. LibIsopach

    SciTech Connect

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas

    2016-12-06

    LibIsopach is a toolkit for high performance distributed immersive visualization, leveraging modern OpenGL. It features a multi-process scenegraph, explicit instance rendering, mesh generation, and three-dimensional user interaction event processing.

  9. LIBS for Martian Moons eXploration (MMX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, S.; Horiuchi, M.; Cho, Y.; Ishibashi, K.; Wada, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sugita, S.

    2016-10-01

    JAXA's Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) is planned to be a sample return mission from Phobos, one of the satellites of Mars. We propose adding a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS), which enables to determine the origin of the moons.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substances added directly to human food affirmed... FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 184.1 Substances added... and handled as a food ingredient; and that the quantity of the ingredient added to food does...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substances added directly to human food affirmed... FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 184.1 Substances added... and handled as a food ingredient; and that the quantity of the ingredient added to food does...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substances added directly to human food affirmed... FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 184.1 Substances added... and handled as a food ingredient; and that the quantity of the ingredient added to food does...

  13. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source123

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). Design: This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Results: Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Conclusions: Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to

  14. Can overeating induce conditioned taste avoidance in previously food restricted rats?

    PubMed

    Hertel, Amanda; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2010-03-30

    While feeding is rewarding, the feeling of satiation has been theorized to have a mixed affect. Using a food restriction model of overeating we examined whether bingeing was capable of supporting conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on either an ad lib (n=8) or restricted (50% of regular consumption; n=24) food access for 20 days. On Days 9, 14, and 19 all rats were given access to a novel saccharin solution in place of water, and two groups of food restricted rats were given access to either 100% of regular food consumption or ad lib food. Ad lib access in the restricted rats induced significant overeating on all three exposures. After all rats were returned to ad lib feeding, a 24h two-bottle saccharin/water choice test displayed significantly reduced saccharin consumption in the overeating rats, compared to those in the other 3 groups. To determine whether this avoidance was due to a learned association, a second experiment used a latent inhibition paradigm, familiarizing half the rats with the saccharin for 8 days prior to pairing it with overeating. Using the design of Experiment 1, with only the continuously ad lib and the restricted to ad lib feeding groups, it was found that the overeating-induced saccharin avoidance was attenuated by the pre-exposure. These results suggest that self-induced overeating is capable of supporting a learned avoidance of a novel solution suggestive of a conditioned satiety or taste avoidance.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added directly to human food affirmed as... SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 184.1 Substances added directly to... as a food ingredient; and that the quantity of the ingredient added to food does not exceed...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substances added directly to human food affirmed... RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 184.1 Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally... ingredient added to food does not exceed the amount reasonably required to accomplish the intended...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 186.1 Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed... use of such substance for the purpose of adding the ingredient to the food through extraction from...

  18. Alcohol as Good Food: Adolescents' Responses to Liqueur Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Pearlman, Reid A.

    Examining responses to print alcohol advertisements, a study questioned whether alcohol advertisers distinguish between "hard" and "soft" liquors (e.g. wine coolers and liqueurs). Subjects, 102 junior and senior high school students in a major metropolitan area, were asked to examine one set of three ads--either hard liquor ads…

  19. PV_LIB Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    While an organized source of reference information on PV performance modeling is certainly valuable, there is nothing to match the availability of actual examples of modeling algorithms being used in practice. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a PV performance modeling toolbox (PV_LIB) for Matlab. It contains a set of well-documented, open source functions and example scripts showing the functions being used in practical examples. This toolbox is meant to help make the multi-step process of modeling a PV system more transparent and provide the means for model users to validate and understand the models they use and or develop. It is fully integrated into Matlab’s help and documentation utilities. The PV_LIB Toolbox provides more than 30 functions that are sorted into four categories

  20. LIBS Analysis for Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E. Romero, Carlos; De Saro, Robert

    Coal is a non-uniform material with large inherent variability in composition, and other important properties, such as calorific value and ash fusion temperature. This quality variability is very important when coal is used as fuel in steam generators, since it affects boiler operation and control, maintenance and availability, and the extent and treatment of environmental pollution associated with coal combustion. On-line/in situ monitoring of coal before is fed into a boiler is a necessity. A very few analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis are available commercially with enough speed and sophistication of data collection for continuous coal monitoring. However, there is still a need for a better on-line/in situ technique that has higher selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and that is safer and has a lower installation and operating costs than the other options. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is ideal for coal monitoring in boiler applications as it need no sample preparation, it is accurate and precise it is fast, and it can detect all of the elements of concern to the coal-fired boiler industry. LIBS data can also be adapted with advanced data processing techniques to provide real-time information required by boiler operators nowadays. This chapter summarizes development of LIBS for on-line/in situ coal applications in utility boilers.

  1. Report of the Ad Hoc Group for Irradiated Food Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    food irradiation technology. The last briefer of this session was from the Energy Research and Development Administration, who monitors the...34remnants" of the Atomic Energy Commissions low-dosti irradiation program (Memoranduum For Record at Appendix F). In addition to inputs from these meetings...Agriculture, and State; the Energy Research and Development Administration; the National Science Foundation; the International Congress of Radiation

  2. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed... added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) The indirect human... ingredient in this part does not authorize the use of such substance for the purpose of adding the...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed... added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) The indirect human... ingredient in this part does not authorize the use of such substance for the purpose of adding the...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed... added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). (a) The indirect human... ingredient in this part does not authorize the use of such substance for the purpose of adding the...

  5. Cultural Heritage Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglos, Demetrios; Detalle, Vincent

    A versatile spectrochemical technique enabling nearly instant, multi-element analysis of materials, LIBS is increasingly employed in studies of archaeological and historical objects, monuments and works of art. The development of several mobile LIBS instruments opens a lot more possibilities for analytical campaigns on site: at museums, conservation laboratories and even outdoors at excavation sites or historical monuments. The basic concepts underlying the use of LIBS in the context of cultural heritage studies are briefly reviewed along with technical and instrumentation aspects. Selected examples of analytical studies are discussed with emphasis on cases that demonstrate the use of mobile LIBS instruments.

  6. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress. Apple peels have high concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80 degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels. Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels. These phytochemical contents were a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C

  7. Effects of adding fluids to solid foods on muscle activity and number of chewing cycles.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, Andries; Engelen, Lina; Abbink, Jan; Pereira, Luciano J

    2007-06-01

    The production of a sufficient amount of saliva is indispensable for good chewing. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that adding fluid to a food will facilitate the chewing process, especially for dry foods. The effect might be larger for subjects with relatively low salivary flow rates. Furthermore, adding fluids that contain mucins or alpha-amylase may have a larger facilitating effect on mastication than the addition of water alone. Twenty subjects chewed on melba toast, breakfast cake, carrot, peanut, and Gouda cheese. In addition, they chewed on these foods after different volumes of water, artificial saliva containing mucins, or a solution of alpha-amylase had been added. Muscle activity and number of chewing strokes until swallowing were measured. The salivary flow rates of the subjects were also determined. Adding fluid to the food significantly reduced the number of chewing cycles and total muscular work (i.e. the integrated surface electromyograpy of masseter and temporalis muscles measured bilaterally, summed for all chewing cycles) until swallowing for all foods, except carrot. The largest effects were observed for melba and cake, which are dry products requiring sufficient saliva to form a coherent bolus safe for swallowing. More facilitation of the chewing process was observed after adding fluid to breakfast cake for subjects with relatively low salivary flow rates. The type of fluid had no significant effect on the chewing process.

  8. Lib, transcriptionally induced in senile plaque-associated astrocytes, promotes glial migration through extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuki; Hata, Mitsumi; Shimizu, Tomoko; Yokota, Hiroshi; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kosaka, Kenji; Yamada, Tatsuo

    2005-09-23

    In an effort to identify astrocyte-derived molecules that may be intimately associated with progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lib, a type I transmembrane protein belonging to leucine-rich repeat superfamily, has been identified as a distinctly inducible gene, responsive to beta-amyloid as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines in astrocytes. To evaluate the roles of Lib in AD, we investigated Lib expression in AD brain. In non-AD brain, Lib mRNA has been detected in neurons but not in quiescent astrocytes. On the contrary, in AD brain, Lib mRNA is expressed in activated astrocytes associated with senile plaques, but not expressed in neurons around lesions. Lib-expressing glioma cells displayed promotion of migration ability through reconstituted extracellular matrix and recombinant Lib protein bound to constituents of extracellular matrix. These observations suggest that Lib may contribute to regulation of cell-matrix adhesion interactions with respect to astrocyte recruitment around senile plaques in AD brain.

  9. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of food-contact surface(s), the functional use(s) of the ingredient, and the level(s) of use. Any use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 186.1 Section 186.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  10. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals.

  11. [TV, overweight and nutritional surveillance. Ads content, food intake and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity.

  12. Amounts of artificial food dyes and added sugars in foods and sweets commonly consumed by children.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are used to color many beverages, foods, and sweets in the United States and throughout the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits the AFCs allowed in the diet to 9 different colors. The FDA certifies each batch of manufactured AFCs to guarantee purity and safety. The amount certified has risen from 12 mg/capita/d in 1950 to 62 mg/capita/d in 2010. Previously, we reported the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed beverages. In this article, the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed foods and sweets are reported. In addition, the amount of sugars in each product is included. Amounts of AFCs reported here along with the beverage data show that many children could be consuming far more dyes than previously thought. Clinical guidance is given to help caregivers avoid AFCs and reduce the amount of sugars in children's diets.

  13. Reducing Added Sugars in the Food Supply Through a Cap-and-Trade Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effect of a simulated cap-and-trade policy to reduce added sugar in the food supply. Methods. Using nationally representative data on added-sugar content and consumption, we constructed a mathematical model of a cap-and-trade policy and compared its health implications to those of proposals to tax sugar sweetened beverages or added sugars. Results. Capping added-sugar emissions into the food supply by food manufacturers at a rate of 1% per year would be expected to reduce the prevalence of obesity by 1.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9, 2.4; a 4.6% decline) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 21.7 cases per 100 000 people (95% CI = 12.9, 30.6; a 4.2% decline) over 20 years, averting approximately $9.7 billion in health care spending. Racial and ethnic minorities would be expected to experience the largest declines. By comparison, equivalent price penalties through excise taxes would be expected to generate smaller health benefits. Conclusions. A cap-and-trade policy to reduce added-sugar intake may reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes to a greater extent than currently-proposed excise taxes. PMID:25365146

  14. Commercial complementary food consumption is prospectively associated with added sugar intake in childhood.

    PubMed

    Foterek, Kristina; Buyken, Anette E; Bolzenius, Katja; Hilbig, Annett; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Given that commercial complementary food (CF) can contain high levels of added sugar, a high consumption may predispose to a preference for sweet taste later in life. This study examined cross-sectional associations between commercial CF consumption and added sugar intake in infancy as well as its prospective relation to added sugar intake in pre-school and primary-school age children. In all, 288 children of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study with 3-d weighed dietary records at 0·5 and 0·75 (infancy), 3 and 4 (pre-school age) and 6 and 7 years of age (primary-school age) were included in this analysis. Individual commercial CF consumption as percentage of total commercial CF (%cCF) was averaged at 0·5 and 0·75 years. Individual total added sugar intake (g/d, energy percentage/d) was averaged for all three age groups. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to analyse associations between %cCF and added sugar intake. In infancy, a higher %cCF was associated with odds for high added sugar intake from CF and for high total added sugar intake (>75th percentile, P<0·033). Prospectively, a higher %cCF was related to higher added sugar intake in both pre-school (P<0·041) and primary-school age children (P<0·039), although these associations were attenuated in models adjusting for added sugar intake in infancy. A higher %cCF in infancy may predispose to higher added sugar intake in later childhood by virtue of its added sugar content. Therefore, offering home-made CF or carefully chosen commercial CF without added sugar might be one strategy to reduce sugar intake in infancy and later on.

  15. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review.

    PubMed

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; Kumar, Arvind; Unnikrishnan, V S

    2015-02-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received considerable attention for their high content of dietary fibres, phytochemicals and nutritional value. It is believed that consumption of oats possesses various health benefits such as hypocholesterolaemic and anticancerous properties. Oats have also recently been considered suitable in the diet of celiac patients. Owing to their high nutritional value, oat-based food products like breads, biscuits, cookies, probiotic drinks, breakfast cereals, flakes and infant food are gaining increasing consideration. Research and development on oat and its products may be helpful in combating various diseases known to mankind. This paper provides an overview of the nutritional and health benefits provided by oats as whole grains and its value added products. It is designed to provide an insight on the processing of oats and its effect on their functional properties. The manuscript also reviews various uses of oats and its fractions for clinical and industrial purposes and in development of value added food products.

  16. Added sugar in the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian retailer in 2015: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Rachel B.; Vanderlee, Lana; Hobin, Erin P.; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excess consumption of added sugars has been associated with a variety of health problems, but there is little information available characterizing added sugar in the Canadian food supply. This study examined the presence and types of added sugars in the packaged food and beverage products available at a major Canadian grocery retailer. Methods: We searched the ingredients lists of over 40 000 packaged food products available for sale in March 2015 for a variety of added sugar terms. Proportions of food products containing added sugar were identified overall and within food product categories. Differences in total sugar content were identified between food products with and without added sugar. Results: Overall, 66% of the packaged food products analyzed contained at least 1 added sugar. The added sugar term "sugar" (and its variations) appeared the most frequently, followed by "dextrose." Added sugar presence and total sugar content varied within many product categories but were consistently higher in expected categories such as "beverages." Mean total sugar content was significantly higher in products with added sugar than in those without, both overall (p < 0.001) and within most product subcategories (p < 0.02). Interpretation: About two-thirds of the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian grocery retailer contain added sugar, similar to recent patterns estimated for the US food supply. The results provide an estimation of the baseline characterization of added sugar in the Canadian food supply, which can be used to assess outcomes of future changes to sugar labelling policies in Canada.

  17. The microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods with added spices.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Omotoye, R; Mitchell, R T

    2003-03-01

    A microbiological study of ready-to-eat foods with added spices or spice ingredients was undertaken to identify any risk factors in the production, storage and display of this product and to establish their effect on microbiological quality. Examination of 1946 ready-to-eat foods from sandwich bars, cafés, public houses, restaurants, specialist sandwich producers, bakers, delicatessens, market stalls and mobile vendors found that 1291 (66%) were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality, 609 (32%) were of unsatisfactory quality, and 46 (2%) were of unacceptable quality. Unacceptable results were due to high levels of B. cereus and/or other Bacillus spp. (>/=10(5) cfu g(-1)). Unsatisfactory results were mostly due to high Aerobic Colony Counts (up to >/=10(7) cfu g(-1)), Enterobacteriaceae (>/=10(4) cfu g(-1)), Escherichia coli (>/=10(2) cfu g(-1)), and Bacillus spp (>/=10(4) cfu g(-1)). Examination of 750 spices and spice ingredients revealed that B. cereus were present in 142 (19%) samples, other Bacillus spp. in 399 (53%) samples, and Salmonella spp. (S. enteritidis PT 11) in one (<1%) sample. Approximately a third (222) of spice and spice ingredients examined contained high counts (>/=10(4) cfu g(-1)) of B. cereus and/or other Bacillus spp., and appeared to be associated with the corresponding ready-to-eat foods containing similar high counts of these organisms (P<0.0001). Acceptable microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods to which spices or spice ingredients have been added was associated with premises that had management food hygiene training and hazard analysis in place. Poor microbiological quality was associated with preparation on the premises, premises type, little or no confidence in the food business management of food hygiene, and small premises as indicated by local authority inspectors' confidence in management and consumer at risk scores.

  18. Adélie Penguin Population Diet Monitoring by Analysis of Food DNA in Scats

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Simon N.; McInnes, Julie C.; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M.; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches. PMID:24358158

  19. Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HD.

    PubMed

    Harding, Karen L; Judah, Richard D; Gant, Charles

    2003-08-01

    Twenty children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were treated with either Ritalin (10 children) or dietary supplements (10 children), and outcomes were compared using the Intermediate Visual and Auditory/Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT) and the WINKS two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures and with Tukey multiple comparisons. Subjects in both groups showed significant gains (p less than 0.01) on the IVA/CPT's Full Scale Response Control Quotient and Full Scale Attention Control Quotient (p less than 0.001). Improvements in the four sub-quotients of the IVA/CPT were also found to be significant and essentially identical in both groups: Auditory Response Control Quotient (p less than 0.001), Visual Response Control Quotient (p less than 0.05), Auditory Attention Quotient (p less than 0.001), and Visual Attention Quotient (p less than 0.001). Numerous studies suggest that biochemical heterogeneous etiologies for AD/HD cluster around at least eight risk factors: food and additive allergies, heavy metal toxicity and other environmental toxins, low-protein/high-carbohydrate diets, mineral imbalances, essential fatty acid and phospholipid deficiencies, amino acid deficiencies, thyroid disorders, and B-vitamin deficiencies. The dietary supplements used were a mix of vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, amino acids, essential fatty acids, phospholipids, and probiotics that attempted to address the AD/HD biochemical risk factors. These findings support the effectiveness of food supplement treatment in improving attention and self-control in children with AD/HD and suggest food supplement treatment of AD/HD may be of equal efficacy to Ritalin treatment.

  20. Adélie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Simon N; McInnes, Julie C; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  1. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.

  2. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area.

  3. Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children's television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients.

    PubMed

    Batada, Ameena; Seitz, Maia Dock; Wootan, Margo G; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    A 2005 review by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies concluded that food marketing influences children's food preferences, consumption, and health. Given the powerful influence of marketing on children's diets, this cross-sectional study examined the types of foods, the nutritional quality of those foods, and the marketing techniques and messages used in food advertising during Saturday morning children's television programming. During 27.5 hours of programming in May 2005, 49% of advertisements shown were for food (281 food advertisements out of 572 total advertisements). The most commonly advertised food categories were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and cereal bars (27% of all food advertisements), restaurants (19% of food advertisements), and snack foods (18% of food advertisements). Ninety-one percent of food advertisements were for foods or beverages high in fat, sodium, or added sugars or were low in nutrients. Cartoon characters were used in 74% of food advertisements, and toy or other giveaways were used in 26% of food advertisements. About half of food advertisements contained health/nutrition or physical activity messages and 86% of food advertisements contained emotional appeals. This study provides food and nutrition professionals with information about the amount and types of food children are encouraged to eat during Saturday morning television programming. The findings can help food and nutrition professionals counsel children about healthful eating and/or develop programs or policies to balance those advertisements with healthful eating messages.

  4. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    PubMed

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal.

  5. Lessons Learned from LIBS Calibration Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Breves, E. A.; Lepore, K. H.; Boucher, T. F.; Giguere, S.

    2016-10-01

    More than two decades of work have been dedicated to development of robust standards, data processing, and calibration tools for LIBS. Here we summarize major considerations for improving accuracy of LIBS chemical analyses.

  6. Effects of added PGX®, a novel functional fibre, on the glycaemic index of starchy foods.

    PubMed

    Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Atkinson, Fiona S; Gahler, Roland J; Kacinik, Veronica; Lyon, Michael R; Wood, Simon

    2012-07-01

    The development of lower-glycaemic index (GI) foods requires simple, palatable and healthy strategies. The objective of the present study was to determine the most effective dose of a novel viscous fibre supplement (PGX®) to be added to starchy foods to reduce their GI. Healthy subjects (n 10) consumed glucose sugar (50 g in water × 3) and six starchy foods with a range of GI values (52-72) along with 0 (inert fibre), 2.5 or 5 g granular PGX® dissolved in 250 ml water. GI testing according to ISO Standard 26,642-2010 was used to determine the reduction in GI. PGX® significantly reduced the GI of all six foods (P < 0.001), with an average reduction of 19 % for the 2.5 g dose and 30 % for the 5 g dose, equivalent to a reducing the GI by 7 and 15 units, respectively. Consuming small quantities of the novel functional fibre PGX®, mixed with water at the start of a meal, is an effective strategy to reduce the GI of common foods.

  7. Measurement of Ad Libitum Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Time in Response to Overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianying; Votruba, Susanne; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Bonfiglio, Susan; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines), core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry) following a short term (3-day) weight maintaining (WM) vs overfeeding (OF) diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m2, 73.6% male). During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41), and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75) or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88). However, during OF (but not WM), sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight). In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732 PMID:22629311

  8. Methods for the determination of European Union-permitted added natural colours in foods: a review.

    PubMed

    Scotter, M J

    2011-05-01

    Coupled to increasing consumer demand, food manufacturers have moved towards increased usage of approved natural colours. There is a legal requirement for governments to monitor the consumption of all food additives in the European Union to ensure the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are not exceeded, especially by young children. Validated analytical methods are needed to fulfil this requirement. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on methods of extraction for approved natural colours in food and drink. Available analytical methods for the determination of European Union-permitted natural food colour additives in foods and beverages have been assessed for their fitness for purpose in terms of their key extraction and analysis procedures, selectivity and sensitivity, especially with regard to maximum permitted levels, and their applicability for use in surveillance and in an enforcement role. The advantages and disadvantages of available analytical methods for each of nine designated chemical classes (groups) of natural colours in different food and beverage matrices are given. Other important factors such as technical requirements, cost, transferability and applicability are given due consideration. Gaps in the knowledge and levels of validation are identified and recommendations made on further research to develop suitable methods. The nine designated natural colour classes covered are: 1. Curcumin (E100), 2. Riboflavins (E101i-ii), 3. Cochineal (E120), 4. Chlorophylls--including chlorophyllins and copper analogues (E140-141), 5. Caramel Classes I-IV (E150a-d), 6. Carotenoids (E160a-f, E161b, E161g), 7. Beetroot red (E162), 8. Anthocyanins (E163), and 9. Other colours--Vegetable carbon (E153), Calcium carbonate (E170), Titanium dioxide (E171) and Iron oxides and hydroxides (E172).

  9. Effects of food colouring added to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% alcohol for surgical site antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jason; Ng, Jonathan; Pun, Alvin

    2013-11-01

    Preoperative cleansing of a patient's skin with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in alcohol is superior to cleansing with povidone-iodine for preventing surgical site infection (SSI) after clean-contaminated surgery (Darouilche et al 2010). However, 2% CHG in 70% alcohol, tinted pink, is colourless when applied to limbs for surgery and complete coverage cannot be assured. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of food colouring added to CHG in preoperative skin preparation. Two hundred and eight subjects were randomly selected from a population of healthy young adults and were given a questionnaire. They were excluded if they had a known allergy to CHG or food dye, a current infection at the preparation site, or previous preparation with CHG at the site. CHG with food dye additive was applied on the subject's left foot while CHD without the additive was applied on the right. Skin swabs were then taken of both feet and plated on blood agar plates and incubated for 48 hours. Assessment of growth was compared. Patients treated with tinted CHG had around 3.4 times (95% CI: 1.5, 7.8) the risk of a positive bacterial swab compared with those treated with untinted CHG. The efficacy of CHG significantly decreased with food colouring additive. This is consistent with previous studies conducted on similar incompatible substances. In order to have the full efficacy of CHG as a preparation, much thought and care needs to be taken to prevent contamination of the site and substance.

  10. A novel bioconversion for value-added products from food waste using Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yi; Zheng, Dong; Yao, Binghua; Cai, Zizhe; Zhao, Zhimin; Wu, Shengqing; Cong, Peiqing; Yang, Depo

    2017-03-01

    Food waste, as a major part of the municipal solid waste has been generated increasingly worldwide. Efficient and feasible utilization of this waste material for productivity process is significant for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study, Musca domestica larva was used as the carrier to conduct a bioconversion with food waste to get the value-added maggot protein, oil and organic fertilizers. Methods of adult flies rearing, culture medium adjuvant selection, maggot culture conditions, stocking density and the valorization of the waste have been explored. From the experimental results, every 1000g culture mediums (700g food waste and 300g adjuvant) could be disposed by 1.5g M. domestica eggs under proper culture conditions after emergence in just 4days, 42.95±0.25% of which had been consumed and the culture medium residues could be used as good organic fertilizers, accompanying with the food waste consumption, ∼53.08g dried maggots that contained 57.06±2.19% protein and 15.07±2.03% oil had been produced. The maggot protein for its outstanding pharmacological activities is regarded as a good raw material in the field of medicine and animal feeding. Meanwhile, the maggot oil represents a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In our study, the maggot biodiesel was obtained after the procedure of transesterification reaction with methanol and the productivity was 87.71%.

  11. Underwater inverse LIBS (iLIBS) for marine archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, J.; Magde, M.; Elford, J.; Magde, D.; Parfenov, V.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years there have been enormous advances in nautical archaeology through developments in SONAR technologies as well as in manned and robotic submersible vehicles. The number of sunken vessel discoveries has escalated in many of the seas of the world in response to the widespread application of these and other new tools. Customarily, surviving artifacts within the debris field of a wreck are collected and then moved to laboratories, centers, or institutions for analyses and possible conservation. Frequently, the conservation phase involves chemical treatments to stabilize an artefact to standard temperature, pressure, and humidity instead of an undersea environment. Many of the artefacts encountered at an underwater site are now characterized and restored in-situ in accordance with modern trends in art conservation. Two examples of this trend are exemplified by the resting place of the wreck of the Titanic in the Atlantic and the Cancun Underwater Park in the Caribbean Sea. These two debris fields have been turned into museums for diving visitors. Several research groups have investigated the possibility of adapting the well-established analytical tool Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to in-situ elemental analyses of underwater cultural, historic, and archaeological artefacts where discovered, rather than as a phase of a salvage operation. As the underwater laser ablation associated with LIBS generates a "snowplough" shockwave within the aqueous matrix, the atomic emission spectrum is usually severely attenuated in escaping from the target. Consequently, probative experiments to date generally invoke a submerged air chamber or air jet to isolate water from the interaction zone as well as employ more complex double-pulse lasers. These measures impose severe logistical constraints on the examination of widely dispersed underwater artefacts. In order to overcome this constraint we report on water-immersion LIBS experiments performed with oblique

  12. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Participants We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Main outcome measures Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Data analysis Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Results Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Conclusions Decreasing the consumption of ultra

  13. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a

  14. Downhole elemental analysis with LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreschini, P.; Zacny, K.; Rickman, D.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized LIBS analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a vertical stage; a second actuator at the

  15. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods.

  16. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  17. Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on LIBS Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew J. Effenberger; Jill R. Scott

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar) or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air.

  18. Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on LIBS Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Effenberger, Andrew J.; Scott, Jill R.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar) or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air. PMID:22399914

  19. Progress in LIBS for Land Mine Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    material yields a unique LIBS spectrum. This being the case, a LIBS spectrum should provide a “ fingerprint ” of the material analyzed, and LIBS...the predictor variables (called “ latent variables” [LVs]) are generated while simultaneously considering both intraclass and interclass variance. This...mine simulants. Twenty latent variables were chosen to describe the model spectra based on cross-validation (contiguous block method). Because the

  20. Results from a post-launch monitoring survey on consumer purchases of foods with added phytosterols in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Willems, Julie I; Blommaert, Mireille A E; Trautwein, Elke A

    2013-12-01

    Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols), in the form of phytosterol-esters, are used in food products as active ingredients to lower elevated blood low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. In Europe, plant sterol-esters gained Novel Foods authorisation in 2000. As a requirement of the authorisation, Unilever developed a post-launch monitoring program to monitor the use of products with added phytosterols. This paper reports findings from the 2011 post-launch monitoring survey on consumer purchase behaviour of foods with added phytosterols. 91,000 households in the Netherlands, Belgium, United Kingdom, France and Germany were included. 11,612 purchased foods with added phytosterols, including spreads, salad dressings, milk- and yoghurt-type products. The results show that 71-82% of households purchasing products with added phytosterols were 1-2 person households. These households were also purchasing the majority of the volume sold in each country (75-85%). The average phytosterol intakes per household were 0.35-0.86 g/day; well below the 1.5-3.0 g/day phytosterols needed to achieve a significant blood cholesterol lowering benefit. Post-launch monitoring is an accepted and useful tool to estimate the consumption behaviour amongst different consumer groups. Data show that average phytosterol intakes per household were well below 1g/day, suggesting that overconsumption is unlikely.

  1. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  2. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  3. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  4. Femtosecond LIBS studies of nitropyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nageswara Rao, E.; Sunku, Sreedhar; Tewari, Surya P.; Manoj Kumar, G.; Venugopal Rao, S.

    2013-05-01

    We present our initial experimental results from the LIBS studies of pyrazole, 1-nitropyrazole, 3-nitropyrazole, 3,4- dinitropyrazole and 1-methyl- 3,4,5 trinitro pyrazole recorded with femtosecond pulses and performed in argon atmosphere. CN molecular bands in three different spectral regions of 357 nm-360 nm, 384 nm-389 nm and 414 nm -423 nm, C2 swan bands near 460 nm-475 nm, 510 nm- 520 nm and 550 nm-565 nm were observed. The C peak at 247.82 nm, H peak at 656.2 nm have also been observed along with several peaks of O and N. CN/C2, CN/C, C2/C and C2/N ratios were measured from the average of 25 spectra obtained in argon. The effect of number of nitro groups on the atomic and molecular emission has been evaluated. A gate delay of 100 ns and a gate width of 800 ns were used for collecting the spectra.

  5. Food waste collection and recycling for value-added products: potential applications and challenges in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, Irene M C; Woon, Kok Sin

    2016-04-01

    About 3600 tonnes food waste are discarded in the landfills in Hong Kong daily. It is expected that the three strategic landfills in Hong Kong will be exhausted by 2020. In consideration of the food waste management environment and community needs in Hong Kong, as well as with reference to the food waste management systems in cities such as Linköping in Sweden and Oslo in Norway, a framework of food waste separation, collection, and recycling for food waste valorization is proposed in this paper. Food waste can be packed in an optic bag (i.e., a bag in green color), while the residual municipal solid waste (MSW) can be packed in a common plastic bag. All the wastes are then sent to the refuse transfer stations, in which food waste is separated from the residual MSW using an optic sensor. On the one hand, the sorted food waste can be converted into valuable materials (e.g., compost, swine feed, fish feed). On the other hand, the sorted food waste can be sent to the proposed Organic Waste Treatment Facilities and sewage treatment works for producing biogas. The biogas can be recovered to produce electricity and city gas (i.e., heating fuel for cooking purpose). Due to the challenges faced by the value-added products in Hong Kong, the biogas is recommended to be upgraded as a biogas fuel for vehicle use. Hopefully, the proposed framework will provide a simple and effective approach to food waste separation at source and promote sustainable use of waste to resource in Hong Kong.

  6. Food hedonics and reinforcement as determinants of laboratory food intake in smokers.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Wright, Suzanne M; Paluch, Rocco A; Leddy, John; Hawk, Larry W; Jaroni, Jodie L; Saad, Frances G; Crystal-Mansour, Susan; Lerman, Caryn

    2004-05-01

    Both the hedonic ratings and the reinforcing value of food have been considered to be determinants of food intake. The objective of this study was to compare the pleasurable ratings and the reinforcing value of food as determinants of energy intake. Seventy-four smokers were studied in food consumption and reinforcing value of food tasks prior to enrolling in a smoking-cessation treatment program. For the food consumption task, the participants tasted and consumed food ad lib from eight snack foods. The reinforcing value of the food task assessed how hard subjects would work for a preferred snack food. Results showed that food reinforcement was related to laboratory food intake, with those high in food reinforcement consuming significantly more calories (+114.4 kcal, P<.01) than did the participants low in food reinforcement. Food reinforcement was related to food intake for the preferred food as well as to total energy intake. Hedonics for the preferred food was related to food reinforcement but not to either measure of laboratory energy intake. In multiple-regression models, food reinforcement and the interaction of food reinforcement by sex were significant predictors of energy intake for the preferred food and for total energy intake, along with baseline hunger. In conclusion, energy intake in smokers in a laboratory setting is more strongly related to food reinforcement than to the hedonic ratings of food.

  7. Concurrent Validity of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores: What Do LibQUAL+[TM] Scores Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the validity of LibQUAL+[TM] scores, and specifically how total and subscale LibQUAL+[TM] scores are associated with self-reported, library-related satisfaction and outcomes scores. Participants included 88,664 students and faculty who completed the American English (n[AE] = 69,494) or the British English (n[BE] =…

  8. Holocene Closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18′ 48.99″ N, 167 22′ 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water. PMID:24638020

  9. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  10. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, Ruud; van Bemmel, Greet; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G

    2016-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO2 NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO2 and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO2 NPs in food products and supplements. For children aged 2-6 years, additional intake via ingestion of toothpaste was estimated. The mean long-term intake to TiO2 ranges from 0.06 mg/kg bw/day in elderly (70+), 0.17 mg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 0.67 mg/kg bw/day in children (2-6 year old). The estimated mean intake of TiO2 NPs ranges from 0.19 μg/kg bw/day in elderly, 0.55 μg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 2.16 μg/kg bw/day in young children. Ninety-fifth percentile (P95) values are 0.74, 1.61 and 4.16 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The products contributing most to the TiO2 intake are toothpaste (in young children only), candy, coffee creamer, fine bakery wares and sauces. In a separate publication, the results are used to evaluate whether the presence of TiO2 NPs in these products can pose a human health risk.

  11. LIBS spectroscopic classification relative to compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Steven T.; Jacobs, Eddie; Furxhi, Orges

    2011-05-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) utilizes a diversity of standard spectroscopic techniques for classification of materials present in the sample. Pre-excitation processing sometimes limits the analyte to a short list of candidates. Prior art demonstrates that sparsity is present in the data. This is sometimes characterized as identification by components. Traditionally, spectroscopic identification has been accomplished by an expert reader in a manner typical for MRI images in the medicine. In an effort to automate this process, more recent art has emphasized the use of customized variations to standard classification algorithms. In addition, formal mathematical proofs for compressive sensing have been advanced. Recently the University of Memphis has been contracted by the Spectroscopic Materials Identification Center to advance and characterize the sensor research and development related to LIBS. Applications include portable standoff sensing for improvised explosive device detection and related law enforcement and military applications. Reduction of the mass, power consumption and other portability parameters is seen as dependent on classification choices for a LIBS system. This paper presents results for the comparison of standard LIBS classification techniques to those implied by Compressive Sensing mathematics. Optimization results and implications for portable LIBS design are presented.

  12. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    Radium 226 Page 34 Nitrogen mustard (HN) Lassa Polonium 210 Phosgene oxime (CX) Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) (Food Poisoning...Thallium 201 Hydrogen cyanide (AC) FUNGI Thorium 232 Cyanogen chloride (CK) Aflatoxin Lead 210 Arsine (SA) Bacillus Sodium 22

  13. The importance of paternal care on pup survival and pup growth in Peromyscus californicus when required to work for food.

    PubMed

    Wright, Sandra L.; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-10-31

    We examined paternal care in the monogamous California mouse when wheel running was necessary to obtain food. Paternal and maternal care, pup survival and feeding were compared in litters with single females (Male Absent) and paired females (Male Present) under three different foraging requirements. When wheel running was required for obtaining food (Wheel Contingent), the male's presence significantly increased pup survival. There were no significant effects of the male's presence on pup survival in the No Wheel (standard laboratory housing with ad lib food) or Wheel Noncontingent (running wheel with ad lib food) groups. Males may have indirectly increased pup survival by helping generate food through wheel running and then subsequently spending less time eating than females. While females reduced the time spent in parental care as pups aged, males increased the time spent in parental care as pups aged. Thus as pups became larger and more expensive to rear, the male increased parental care. These results indicate that paternal care benefits pup survival more under conditions where the parents must forage to obtain food than when food is provided ad lib in the standard laboratory environment.

  14. Effect of amphetamine on sucrose-reinforced lever pressing: interaction with food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Samson, H H

    1986-07-01

    Rats were trained to lever press on a Fixed Ratio Schedule 8 using sucrose reinforcement in one of two feeding conditions: ad lib food and water available in the home cage; reduced feeding in order to maintain the animals at 80% of their free feeding body weight. The effect of three doses of d-amphetamine (0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg) on lever pressing was examined for each feeding condition. A systematic decrease in responding as dose increased was found in the ad lib feeding condition while only the highest dose had any effect on responding in the food restricted animals. Thus, it appeared that the effect of food deprivation was to shift the amphetamine dose-response curve to the right.

  15. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    PubMed Central

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products. PMID:27110818

  16. New value-added food ingredients from maize based ethanol processing by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some potentially useful food and health-promoting products were obtained from the by-products of ethanol processing including distillers dried grains (DDG) and maize bran. A DDG sample obtained from MCP Corporation in the USA was processed by jet cooking at various pH levels and fractionated. Rheo...

  17. USDA monitors levels of added sodium in processed and prepared foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective is to provide a progress report for efforts by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) to monitor sodium in processed and prepared foods frequently consumed by the U.S. population. Recent concerns by the U.S. public health community about the intake of sodium by Americans have led ARS, USD...

  18. Characterization of a Value-Added Salmon Product: Infant/Toddler Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Santos, Felicia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Salmon are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These are important in the human diet and especially for young children in the first two years of life. Wild Alaskan salmon was utilized in a novel way by development and investigation of basic baby food product formulations from sockeye and pink salmon. Thus, physical and sensory properties of baby…

  19. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique.

    PubMed

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S

    2016-04-21

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  20. Adding Scents to Symbols: Using Food Fragrances with Deafblind Young People Making Choices at Mealtimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Heather; Gough, Anne; Boothroyd, Eileen; Williams, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article is written by Heather Murdoch, research consultant for the Seashell Trust, Anne Gough, deputy headteacher at Royal School Manchester/Seashell Trust, Eileen Boothroyd, consultant for the Seashell Trust, and Kate Williams, a creative perfumer for Seven (PZ Cussons). It describes the use of food fragrances with deafblind students who are…

  1. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  2. Ghrelin-induced sleep responses in ad libitum fed and food-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, E; Hajdu, I; Obal, F; Krueger, James M

    2006-05-09

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and a well-characterized food intake regulatory peptide. Hypothalamic ghrelin-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, and orexin-containing neurons form a feeding regulatory circuit. Orexins and NPY are also implicated in sleep-wake regulation. Sleep responses and motor activity after central administration of 0.2, 1, or 5 microg ghrelin in free-feeding rats as well as in feeding-restricted rats (1 microg dose) were determined. Food and water intake and behavioral responses after the light onset injection of saline or 1 microg ghrelin were also recorded. Light onset injection of ghrelin suppressed non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) for 2 h. In the first hour, ghrelin induced increases in behavioral activity including feeding, exploring, and grooming and stimulated food and water intake. Ghrelin administration at dark onset also elicited NREMS and REMS suppression in hours 1 and 2, but the effect was not as marked as that, which occurred in the light period. In hours 3-12, a secondary NREMS increase was observed after some doses of ghrelin. In the feeding-restricted rats, ghrelin suppressed NREMS in hours 1 and 2 and REMS in hours 3-12. Data are consistent with the notion that ghrelin has a role in the integration of feeding, metabolism, and sleep regulation.

  3. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): specific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trtica, M. S.; Savovic, J.; Stoiljkovic, M.; Kuzmanovic, M.; Momcilovic, M.; Ciganovic, J.; Zivkovic, S.

    2015-12-01

    A short overview of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with emphasis on the new trends is presented. Nowadays, due to unique features of this technique, LIBS has found applications in a great variety of fields. Achievements in the application of LIBS in nuclear area, for hazardous materials detection and in geology were considered. Also, some results recently obtained at VINCA Institute, with LIBS system based on transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser, are presented. Future investigations of LIBS will be oriented toward further improvement of the analytical performance of this technique, as well as on finding new application fields.

  4. Alterations in energy balance from an exercise intervention with ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (-1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (-1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI.

  5. Consuming foods with added oligofructose improves stool frequency: a randomised trial in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Wright, Arnelle R; Specht, Gretchen J; Christman, Mary; Mathews, Anne; Meyer, Diederick; Boileau, Thomas; Willis, Holly J; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi

    2014-01-01

    The impact of oligofructose (OF) intake on stool frequency has not been clearly substantiated, while significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been reported in some individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of OF on stool frequency and GI symptoms in healthy adults. In an 8-week, randomised, double-blind, parallel-arm study, ninety-eight participants were provided with 16 g OF in yogurt and snack bars (twenty male and thirty female) or matching control foods (seventeen male and thirty-one female), to incorporate, by replacement, into their usual diets. Participants completed a daily online questionnaire recording stool frequency and rating four symptoms: bloating, flatulence, abdominal cramping and noise, each on a Likert scale from '0' for none (no symptoms) to '6' for very severe, with a maximum symptom intensity score of 24 (sum of severities from all four symptoms). Online 24 h dietary recalls were completed during pre-baseline and weeks 4, 6 and 8 to determine fibre intake. When provided with OF foods, fibre intake increased to 24·3 (sem 0·5) g/d from pre-baseline (12·1 (sem 0·5) g/d; P < 0·001). Stool frequency increased with OF from 1·3 (sem 0·2) to 1·8 (sem 0·2) stools per d in males and 1·0 (sem 0·1) to 1·4 (sem 0·1) stools per d in females during intervention weeks compared with pre-baseline (P < 0·05),but did not change for control participants (males: 1·6 (sem 0·2) to 1·8 (sem 0·2); females: 1·3 (sem 0·1) to 1·4 (sem 0·1)). Flatulence was the most commonly reported symptom. Mean GI symptom intensity score was higher for the OF group (3·2 (sem 0·3)) v. control (1·7 (sem 0·1)) (P < 0·01), with few participants reporting above moderate symptoms. No change in symptom intensity occurred over time. Consuming yogurt and snack bars with 16 g OF improves regularity in young healthy adults. However, GI symptoms, resulting from an increase in oligofructose intake, may not diminish with time.

  6. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  7. High lib mRNA expression in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuki; Hata, Mitsumi; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2004-06-30

    Lib, first identified as a novel beta-amyloid responsive gene in rat astrocytes, has an extracellular domain of 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) followed by a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic region. It is a distinctly inducible gene and is thought to play a key role in inflammatory states via the LRR extracellular motif, an ideal structural framework for protein-protein and protein-matrix interactions. To evaluate potential roles of Lib, we screened various tumors for Lib expression. Lib mRNA expression was high and uniquely expressed in breast tumor tissues, compared to paired normal breast tissues. Lib mRNA was localized in the ductal carcinoma cells and Lib protein displayed a homophilic association on the surface of cultured cells. These data suggest that Lib may play a role in the progression of breast carcinomas and may be a diagnostic marker for breast tumors.

  8. Adding monounsaturated fatty acids to a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.A.; Chiavaroli, Laura; Wong, Julia M.W.; Kendall, Cyril; Lewis, Gary F.; Vidgen, Edward; Connelly, Philip W.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Josse, Robert G.; Lamarche, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Background Higher intake of monounsaturated fat may raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol without raising low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We tested whether increasing the monounsaturated fat content of a diet proven effective for lowering LDL cholesterol (dietary portfolio) also modified other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, specifically by increasing HDL cholesterol, lowering serum triglyceride and further reducing the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Methods Twenty-four patients with hyperlipidemia consumed a therapeutic diet very low in saturated fat for one month and were then randomly assigned to a dietary portfolio low or high in monounsaturated fatty acid for another month. We supplied participants’ food for the two-month period. Calorie intake was based on Harris–Benedict estimates for energy requirements. Results For patients who consumed the dietary portfolio high in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol rose, whereas for those consuming the dietary portfolio low in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol did not change. The 12.5% treatment difference was significant (0.12 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.21, p = 0.003). The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol was reduced by 6.5% with the diet high in monounsaturated fat relative to the diet low in monounsaturated fat (−0.28, 95% CI −0.59 to −0.04, p = 0.025). Patients consuming the diet high in monounsaturated fat also had significantly higher concentrations of apolipoprotein AI, and their C-reactive protein was significantly lower. No treatment differences were seen for triglycerides, other lipids or body weight, and mean weight loss was similar for the diets high in monounsaturated fat (−0.8 kg) and low in monounsaturated fat (−1.2 kg). Interpretation Monounsaturated fat increased the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering dietary portfolio, despite statin-like reductions in LDL cholesterol. The potential benefits for cardiovascular risk were

  9. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    PubMed

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted.

  10. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation.

  11. 75 FR 31800 - Substances Generally Recognized as Safe Added to Food for Animals; Notice of Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... use of chemicals in foods and food processing, Congress enacted the Food Additives Amendment (the 1958... new additive could be used in food, its producer must demonstrate the safety of the additive to FDA. The 1958 amendment defined the terms ``food additive'' (section 201(s) of the act (21 U.S.C....

  12. Perseveration Augments the Effects of Cognitive Restraint on ad libitum Food Intake in Adults Seeking Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Alexis L.; Gluck, Marci E.; Votruba, Suzanne B.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Differences in executive function have been associated with eating behaviors. Our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predicted ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. METHODS This cross-sectional study involved 78 obese, otherwise healthy, individuals (40 female /38 male; age 36±10y; BMI 37.8±7.2 kg/m2) enrolled in weight loss studies, but prior to any intervention. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task to evaluate decision making, the Stroop Word Color Task to assess attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) to measure perseverative errors, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) to measure disinhibition and cognitive restraint. Ad libitum energy intake over 3-days was then collected using a validated vending paradigm. RESULTS Only results from the WCST and the TFEQ correlated with mean daily energy intake. When expressed as a percentage of an individual's calculated weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN; [mean daily energy consumed/WMEN]*100), intake correlated positively with number of perseverative errors (r = 0.24, p = 0.03) and negatively with cognitive restraint (r2 = −0.51, p<0.0001). In a regression model of %WMEN (r2 = 0.59, p<0.0001) including age, sex, race, disinhibition, restraint, and perseverative error T-score, an interaction between perseveration and restraint was observed (p = 0.05). Greater numbers of perseverative errors intensified the effect of restraint such that subjects with both high restraint and high perseveration, per manual-defined cut-offs, ate the least (median (IQR) = 70 (62, 94) % WMEN), while those with low restraint and high perseveration ate the most (130 (102, 153) %WMEN). Subjects with low perseveration and high versus low restraint ate a median of 84 (70, 86) and 112 (98, 133) %WMEN, respectively. CONCLUSION In obese subjects seeking weight loss, the effects of perseveration on food intake are conditional on the level of dietary restraint, and

  13. Implementing LibGuides 2: An Academic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Vicky; Lucky, Shannon; McLean, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Since 1997, the University of Saskatchewan Library has used "subject pages" to highlight key library resources. When Springshare announced it was launching LibGuides v2, a project team was assembled to transition a mixture of locally produced guides and guides created with the original LibGuides v1 software. This article synthesizes best…

  14. Biomedical applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Nayak, Rajesh; Bhat, Sujatha; Mathew, Stanley; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh, C.

    2015-03-01

    LIBS has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of the wide applications. LIBS can be used for analysis of any type of samples i.e. environmental/physiological, regardless of its state of matter. Conventional spectroscopy techniques are good in analytical performance, but their sample preparation method is mostly destructive and time consuming. Also, almost all these methods are incapable of analysing multi elements simaltaneously. On the other hand, LIBS has many potential advantages such as simplicity in the experimental setup, less sample preparation, less destructive analysis of sample etc. In this paper, we report some of the biomedical applications of LIBS. From the experiments carried out on clinical samples (calcified tissues or teeth and gall stones) for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such applications. It is seen that the presence and relative concentrations of major elements (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) in human calcified tissue (tooth) can be easily determined using LIBS technique. The importance of this study comes in anthropology where tooth and bone are main samples from which reliable data can be easily retrieved. Similarly, elemental composition of bile juice and gall stone collected from the same subject using LIBS was found to be similar. The results show interesting prospects for LIBS to study cholelithiasis (the presence of stones in the gall bladder, is a common disease of the gastrointestinal tract) better.

  15. Racial/Ethnic and Income Disparities in Child and Adolescent Exposure to Food and Beverage Television Ads across U.S. Media Markets

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25086271

  16. Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-09-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods.

  17. Expanding Library Services and Instruction Through LibGuides.

    PubMed

    Ream, Tim; Parker-Kelly, Darlene

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2012, the Charles R. Drew University (CDU) Health Sciences Library used LibGuides in a number of innovative ways. Librarians constructed e-book databases, in-depth tutorials on technology-related topics, and web pages highlighting special events. To assess similar LibGuides innovation, CDU librarians developed an eight-question survey distributed to health sciences and hospital libraries throughout Southern California and Arizona. Results showed that libraries used LibGuides primarily to deliver access to online resources and to provide supplementary materials supporting instruction. Responses also revealed that many libraries had not yet adopted LibGuides. These findings were analyzed and compared to past and current LibGuides design at CDU.

  18. Structural characterization of slightly boron-deficient LiB, LiB0.9 and LiB0.8, under pressure.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Alcubilla, Ainhoa; Gurtubay, Idoia G; Bergara, Aitor

    2014-11-26

    Results of computational investigations of two slightly boron-deficient lithium borides, LiB(0.9) and LiB(0.8), under pressure are reported. Structure predictions based on particle swarm optimization reveal that at low pressure both compositions adopt chain structures, as stoichiometric 1 : 1 LiB. With increasing pressure both undergo phase transitions to layered arrangements. The evolution of the structural parameters of these stoichiometries as a function of pressure and the results obtained from the enthalpies indicate that boron-deficient structures are more favoured than 1 : 1 LiB, even at zero pressure. Moreover, as pressure is increased a larger deficiency in B seems to be favoured.

  19. Comparative LIBS Analysis Of Calcified Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Salam, Z. A.; Harith, M. A.

    2008-09-23

    Signal enhancement, limits of detection, and relevance to environmental concentration for element in calcified tissues using LIBS with single and double laser pulses will be presented. These measurements were performed on three calcified tissues representing different matrices, namely enamel of human teeth, shells and eggshells. This method depends on the role of the laser induced shock wave on the ionization rate of the ablated target material atoms. The effect of the laser single and double pulse on the ionic to atomic ratio of calcium and magnesium spectral emission lines, CaII/CaI and MgII/MgI, will be presented and compared with the previous results and its relevance to the target material hardness. The results show that in case of single pulse the intensity ratios in calcium are higher than the double pulse while there is no appreciable difference between both in case of magnesium.

  20. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  1. LIBS using dual- and ultra-short laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Angel, S M; Stratis, D N; Eland, K L; Lai, T; Berg, M A; Gold, D M

    2001-02-01

    Pre-ablation dual-pulse LIBS enhancement data for copper, brass and steel using ns laser excitation are reported. Although large enhancements are observed for all samples, the magnitude of the enhancement is matrix dependent. Whereas all of the dual-pulse studies used ns laser excitation we see interesting effects when using ps and fs laser excitation for single-pulse LIBS. LIBS spectra of copper using 1.3 ps and 140 fs laser pulses show much lower background signals compared to ns pulse excitation. Also, the atomic emission decays much more rapidly with time. Because of relatively low backgrounds when using ps and fs pulses, non-gated detection of LIBS is shown to be very effective. The plasma dissipates quickly enough using ps and fs laser pulses, that high pulse rates, up to 1,000 Hz, are effective for increasing the LIBS signal, for a given measurement time. Finally, a simple near-collinear dual-pulse fiber-optic LIBS probe is shown to be useful for enhanced LIBS measurements.

  2. Added sugar, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ying; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Jiao, Li; Silverman, Debra T.; Subar, Amy F.; Park, Yikyung; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been hypothesized to be involved in the development of pancreatic cancer, results from epidemiologic studies on added sugar intake are inconclusive. Objective Our objective was to investigate whether the consumption of total added sugar, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Design We prospectively examined 487922 men and women aged 50–71 years and free of cancer and diabetes in 1995–96. Total added dietary sugar intake in teaspoons per day (based on USDA’s Pyramid Servings Database) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with adjustment for total energy and potential confounding factors. Results During an average 7.2 years of follow-up, 1258 incident pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained. The median intakes for the lowest and highest quintiles of total added sugar intake were 12.6 g/day and 96.2 g/day. No overall increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed in men or women with high intake of total added sugar or sugar-sweetened foods and beverages. For men and women combined, the multivariate RRs of the highest versus lowest intake categories were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.06; P trend= 0.07) for total added sugar, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.82,1.23; P trend= 0.58) for sweets, 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82,1.18; P trend= 0.49) for dairy desserts, 1.12 (95% CI: 0.91,1.39; P trend= 0.35) for sugar added to coffee and tea, and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.77,1.31; P trend= 0.76) for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of added sugar, or sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with overall risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:18689380

  3. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001), added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001), SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL)/day; p-trend < 0.001), and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001). Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  4. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001), added sugars (-16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001), SSBs (-0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL)/day; p-trend < 0.001), and sodium (-166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001). Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  5. CosmoBolognaLib: C++ libraries for cosmological calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, F.; Veropalumbo, A.; Moresco, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the CosmoBolognaLib, a large set of Open Source C++ numerical libraries for cosmological calculations. CosmoBolognaLib is a living project aimed at defining a common numerical environment for cosmological investigations of the large-scale structure of the Universe. In particular, one of the primary focuses of this software is to help in handling astronomical catalogues, both real and simulated, measuring one-point, two-point and three-point statistics in configuration space, and performing cosmological analyses. In this paper, we discuss the main features of this software, providing an overview of all the available C++ classes implemented up to now. Both the CosmoBolognaLib and their associated doxygen documentation can be freely downloaded at https://github.com/federicomarulli/CosmoBolognaLib. We provide also some examples to explain how these libraries can be included in either C++ or Python codes.

  6. Minimal invasive control of paintings cleaning by LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staicu, A.; Apostol, I.; Pascu, A.; Urzica, I.; Pascu, M. L.; Damian, V.

    2016-03-01

    In cultural heritage restoration and conservation, it has been proved that LIBS is an appropriate technique for pigments identification, analysis of multilayered paintings, and quantitative analysis of ancient materials. Generally, experiments involving the use of laser for paint cleaning and LIBS in order to identify the composition of the removed material are made. Here, we report LIBS studies on mastic and dammar varnishes removal using visible (532 nm) and UV (266 nm) laser pulses (5 ns) with fluences in the range 0.6-4.4 J/cm2. The studied varnish layers were on-purpose painted on glass supports or were part of several mock-up samples having dammar or mastic as final layer - gold foil, yellow ochre or cobalt blue egg tempera as painting layer - chalk or acrylic ground as link to an wooden support. LIBS was used to monitor the laser induced stepwise selective removal of the layers and to analyze their composition.

  7. SPICE-SANDIA.LIB. Library Analog Semiconductor Devices SPICE Simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Deveney, M.F.; Archer, W.; Bogdan, C.

    1996-06-06

    SPICE-SANDIA.LIB is a library of parameter sets and macromodels of semiconductor devices. They are used with Spice-based (SPICE is a program for electronic circuit analysis) simulators to simulate electronic circuits.

  8. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior.

  9. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  10. The Chemcam LIBS and Imaging Instrument Suite on the Curiosity Mars Rover, and Terrestrial Field Testing of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E., II; Maurice, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Curiosity rover that landed on Mars in 2012 includes an instrument suite consisting of a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) and a remote micro-imager (RMI). The LIBS is effectively the first Mars microprobe, as its interrogation region is 0.35-0.5 mm in diameter; it can access targets up to 7 m from the rover. The LIBS pulsed laser excites atoms and ions from the target, creating a plasma that emits light at characteristic wavelengths. When calibrated, LIBS provides quantitative elemental abundances. The elements observed on Mars include H, Li, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba. The first few laser shots clear the surface of dust, allowing unobscured analyses of the targets. Within the first two years of operation ChemCam has returned > 150,000 spectra from > 4,000 locations along the rover traverse. The RMI is the highest resolution (0.04 mrad) remote imager on the rover and provides context before/after images of the LIBS targets as well as long-distance stand-alone imagery. The ChemCam LIBS instrument concept was developed based on laboratory LIBS instrumentation. For terrestrial field work ChemCam's design with its unshielded laser beam is an eye safety hazard. However, hand-held devices with closed laser-beam designs have been developed. In order to provide a realistic field test prior to the launch of the rover the ChemCam team fielded a backpack LIBS system featuring a shielded laser beam. The system was calibrated using the same 66 geological standards used by the ChemCam instrument prior to flight. During the field test, data was sent remotely to a team back at Los Alamos, effectively imitating operations on Mars and data analysis on the ground. The ground team successfully reported accurate results, identifying the site as rich in kaolinite clay soils.

  11. Fermented and malted millet products in Africa: Expedition from traditional/ethnic foods to industrial value added products.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, J A; Obadina, A O; Adebo, O A; Kayitesi, E

    2016-05-31

    With the prevalent food insecurity in Africa, there is a growing need to utilize the available crops to develop nutritious, affordable and palatable food for the populace. Millet is critical in this role, relative to its abundance in the continent and good nutritional composition. For ages, fermentation and malting have been traditionally used to transform millet into variety of produce. A paradigm shift has however occurred over the years, giving birth to new commercially available products. This review thus appraises and gives an overview of traditional and modern fermented and malted products. Although, millet has been diversified to several products, its major food uses are still restrained to traditional consumers and largely remains underutilized. Considering the potential embedded in this grain, it is important to explore this crop through the application of appropriate modern fermentation and malting technologies. This will ensure the availability of ready to eat (RTE) and ready to use (RTU) food products and to a large extent address the incessant food security challenges plaguing Africa.

  12. Efficiency of food utilization during body weight gain in dormice (Glis glis).

    PubMed

    Melnyk, R B; Boshes, M

    1980-06-01

    During spontaneous body weight gain in dormice, Glis glis, progressive increases in the efficiency of food utilization as defined by weight gain (g)/food intake (g), and parallel increases in mean daily food intake were observed. Towards the end of the weight gain period, there was an abrupt drop in feeding efficiency with no significant change in food intake even when the latter was expressed relative to an index of each animal's "metabolic mass" (body weightkg0.62). Animals whose body weight increases followed a return to ad lib feeding after prolonged food restriction showed marked decreases in feeding efficiency from initially high values which were independent of changes in food intake. These results are discussed in relation to the sliding set point concept of body weight regulation in hibernators.

  13. LIBS controls characterization of predictor corrector-based LIBS data collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Alex; Griffin, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Portable LIBS sensor communication bandwidth limitations favor local material classification for low power consumption. Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) have been implementation via general purpose computers and are accepted for some Department of Defense applications. Prior publications address the creation of a low mass, low power, robust hardware spectra classifier for a limited set of predetermined materials in an atmospheric matrix. The incorporation of a PCA or a PLS-DA classifier into a predictorcorrector implementation on a TI6701 has been developed. The performance modeling of the control system with an emphasis on further optimization needs addressing. This paper characterizes, from a control system standpoint, the predictor-corrector architecture applied to LIBS data collection. In addition, the application of this as a material classifier is presented. Updates in the model implemented on a low power multi-core DSP will be presented as well. Performance comparisons to alternative control system structures will be considered.

  14. [Fast screening of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Gong, Xu; Tan, Li

    2015-03-01

    A fast screening method was established for the simultaneous determination of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-IT MS). The method was based on the sonication assisted extraction of the improving sleep health food samples using methanol. The extract was then filtrated with 0.45 µm filter membrane and the filtrate was separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. A binary mobile phase was 0.05% (v/v) formic acid (solvent A)-methanol/acetonitrile (15:25, v/v, solvent B). The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode or negative ion mode was used to scan MS1-MS3 spectra for the 24 sedative hypnotics. The MS2 and MS3 spectra were used for qualitative analysis of samples. The calibration graphs were linear in their concentration ranges with the correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were 4.0-446.6 µg/L. The recoveries for all the drugs in the improving sleep health foods were 88.6%-110.3% with the relative standard deviations no more than 9.8% at three spiked levels. Twenty-seven batches of the improving sleep health foods were tested. Melatonin was found in eighteen batches. The method is fast, specific, sensitive, easy and suitable for fast screening of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods.

  15. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving.

  16. Awareness of the Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad Program and Education Regarding Pharmaceutical Advertising: A National Survey of Prescribers in Ambulatory Care Settings.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Amie C; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Aikin, Kathryn J; Geisen, Emily; Betts, Kevin R; Southwell, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bad Ad program educates health care professionals about false or misleading advertising and marketing and provides a pathway to report suspect materials. To assess familiarity with this program and the extent of training about pharmaceutical marketing, a sample of 2,008 health care professionals, weighted to be nationally representative, responded to an online survey. Approximately equal numbers of primary care physicians, specialists, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners answered questions concerning Bad Ad program awareness and its usefulness, as well as their likelihood of reporting false or misleading advertising, confidence in identifying such advertising, and training about pharmaceutical marketing. Results showed that fewer than a quarter reported any awareness of the Bad Ad program. Nonetheless, a substantial percentage (43%) thought it seemed useful and 50% reported being at least somewhat likely to report false or misleading advertising in the future. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants expressed more openness to the program and reported receiving more training about pharmaceutical marketing. Bad Ad program awareness is low, but opportunity exists to solicit assistance from health care professionals and to help health care professionals recognize false and misleading advertising. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants are perhaps the most likely contributors to the program.

  17. Modification of aftertaste with a menthol mouthwash reduces food wanting, liking, and ad libitum intake of potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Scott C; Horner, Katy M; Dible, Victoria A; Grigor, John M V; O'Riordan, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of modifying the aftertaste of potato crisps on (1) temporal sensory perception and (2) appetite using three mouthwash conditions (no mouthwash, a water mouthwash, and a menthol mouthwash). For the sensory study, 17 screened female subjects were trained on the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methodology. Subjects undertook TDS to monitor all sensory attributes during the mastication of a 2 g crisp until swallowing (at 20s), then conducted the mouthwash, and then continued the TDS task to monitor aftertaste until 90s. For the appetite study, 36 subjects (18 male, 18 female) completed 100 mm Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for desire, liking, hunger, and thirst, followed by an ad libitum eating task. For the VAS scales testing, subjects chewed and swallowed a 2 g crisp, and then immediately conducted the mouthwash before completing the VAS scales. For the ad libitum task, subjects were given 12 min to consume as many crisps as they desired on a plate (up to 50 g). Every three minutes they were required to conduct a mouthwash. TDS results showed that in comparison with no mouthwash, the water mouthwash significantly reduced aftertaste attributes such as savoury, salty, and fatty mouthcoating, and the menthol mouthwash significantly increased aftertaste attributes of cooling, minty, and tingly. The water mouthwash did not influence desire and liking of crisps, or hunger and thirst. The water mouthwash did not influence ad libitum intake of the crisps over a 12 min period. The menthol mouthwash significantly reduced desire and liking of the crisps, as well as hunger and thirst. Furthermore, the menthol mouthwash significantly reduced ad libitum crisp intake by 29% over the 12 min period.

  18. UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS(E) and GC-MS identification and quantification of non-intentionally added substances coming from biodegradable food packaging.

    PubMed

    Canellas, Elena; Vera, Paula; Nerín, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Biodegradable packagings are made by combination of several materials creating a multilayer with the properties needed. Each material, including the adhesive, could contain substances that could migrate to the food. In this work, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to identify the biodegradable adhesive compounds. Five of the 13 compounds identified were nonintentionally added substances; they were neoformed compounds created by the reaction of added compounds in the adhesive. Moreover, the migration of the compounds through four different biodegradable materials-paper, polylactic acid, ecovio®, and polyvinyl alcohol-was studied for the first time. Three of the 13 compounds identified in the adhesive migrated from the adhesive to Tenax®, which was used as a solid food simulant. One of them, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol, was an intentionally added substance, and the other two were 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione and 1,6,13,18-tetraoxacyclotetracosane-7,12,19,24-tetraone, which were nonintentionally added substances identified in this work. Higher migration values (ranging from 0.81 to 2.07 mg/kg) were observed for migration through ecovio® than through the multilayer made by combination of ecovio® and polyvinyl alcohol (0.07-0.39 mg/kg) owing to the barrier effect provided by polyvinyl alcohol. The migration values for migration through paper and polylactic acid were below the limits of detection.

  19. The influence of food restriction versus ad libitum feeding of chow and purified diets on variation in body weight, growth and physiology of female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moraal, M; Leenaars, P P A M; Arnts, H; Smeets, K; Savenije, B S; Curfs, J H A J; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M

    2012-04-01

    Ad libitum (AL) supply of standard chow is the feeding method most often used for rodents in animal experiments. However, AL feeding is known to result in a shorter lifespan and decreased health as compared with restricted feeding. Restricted feeding and thus limiting calorie intake prevents many health problems, increases lifespan and can also increase group uniformity. All this leads to a reduced number of animals needed. So-called standard chows are known to be prone to variation in composition. Synthetic foods have a more standard composition, contributing to group uniformity which, like diet reduction, may decrease the number of animals necessary to obtain statistical significance. In this study, we compared the effects of AL versus restricted feeding (25% reduction in food intake) on standard chow versus synthetic food of three different suppliers on body weight (BW), growth, several blood parameters and organ weights in growing female Wistar rats over a period of 61 days. Diet restriction led to a decreased growth and significantly reduced variation in BW and growth as compared with AL feeding. AL feeding on synthetic diets caused a significantly higher BW gain than on chow diets. Due to experimental design, this same effect occurred on food restriction. Blood parameters and organ weights were affected neither by diet type nor by amount. Incidentally, variations were significantly reduced on food restriction versus AL, and on synthetic diets versus chow diets. This study demonstrates that food restriction versus AL feeding leads to a significantly reduced variation in BW and growth, thereby indicating the potential for reduction when applying this feeding schedule.

  20. A cosmology forecast toolkit — CosmoLib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiqi

    2012-06-01

    The package CosmoLib is a combination of a cosmological Boltzmann code and a simulation toolkit to forecast the constraints on cosmological parameters from future observations. In this paper we describe the released linear-order part of the package. We discuss the stability and performance of the Boltzmann code. This is written in Newtonian gauge and including dark energy perturbations. In CosmoLib the integrator that computes the CMB angular power spectrum is optimized for a l-by-l brute-force integration, which is useful for studying inflationary models predicting sharp features in the primordial power spectrum of metric fluctuations. As an application, CosmoLib is used to study the axion monodromy inflation model that predicts cosine oscillations in the primordial power spectrum. In contrast to the previous studies by Aich et al. and Meerburg et al., we found no detection or hint of the osicllations. We pointed out that the CAMB code modified by Aich et al. does not have sufficient numerical accuracy. CosmoLib and its documentation are available at http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~zqhuang/CosmoLib

  1. The Effects of Caloric Density of the Food on Running Endurance and General Condition of Rats and Hamsters Restricted in Food Intake or Fed Ad Libitum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    triglyceride levels were 76Z and plasma total cholesterol levels 22X (significant) higher in non-exercised than in regularly exercised animals...right after running to exhaustion. In the hamsters kept at tropical climatic conditions, plasma total cholesterol at both food intake levels was...than on day 8 of the restricted intake. In the hamsters, average plasma triglyceride levels were 76% and plasma total cholesterol levels Z2

  2. [The LIBS experiment condition optimization of alloy steel].

    PubMed

    Shao, Yan; Gao, Xun; Du, Chuang; Zhao, Zhen-Ming; Chen, Wei-Yu; Hao, Zuo-Qiang; Sun, Chang-Kai; Lin, Jing-Quan

    2013-02-01

    Laser induced plasma spectroscopy of alloy steel was produced by Nd : YAG pulsed laser at 1 064 nm, and the spectral signal was detected by high resolution and width controlled ICCD. Several Fe atomic spectral lines such as 404.581, 414.387, 427.176 and 438.355 nm were chosen for analysis, and the effects of different experimental parameters on LIBS spectral signal intensity were investigated. It is shown that the experimental parameters such as pulse energy, laser focus location and laser delay time have great influence on the LIBS signal. LIBS signals with high spectral intensity and signal-background ratio (SBR) as well as the optimum experiment conditions were obtained by optimizing these experiment parameters so as to make composition analysis of the alloy steel.

  3. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-01-27

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products.

  4. LIBS and LA-ICP-MS; Old techniques, new approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, P. A.; Foster, D. A.; Gonzalez, J.; Colucci, M.; Russo, R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade laser ablation in-situ solid sampling for chemical analysis with an ICP-MS analyzer (LA-ICP-MS, single and multi-collector) has become a generally accepted technique across a wide range of disciplines (geochemistry, forensic science, life sciences, etc). More recently, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) has developed into a complementary technique that offers full spectral analysis of the laser plasma without the need for a mass spectrometer. Both techniques provide in-situ solid sample elemental and isotopic analysis at high spatial resolution (<5 microns) with minimal sample preparation. LA-ICP-MS affords the analyst low detection limits (ppb) and the ability to optimize across a specific mass range for high precision element or isotope ratios. LIBS, while providing slightly higher detection limits (ppm), allows for simultaneous and near complete spectral coverage of the laser plasma. Both techniques are capable of producing semi-quantitative and quantitative data. Integration of a LA and LIBS system could be a powerful tool to allow full spectral element and isotope/element ratio data on the same laser plume (plasma and particulates). Although LIBS and LA typically operate under different conditions of pulse length, spot size, and energy, the ability to capture elemental abundance information from the light that is otherwise wasted during LA makes an important complement to the limited number of ions measured in multi-collector ICP-MS analyses. Such an approach would not require the compromises in sampled volume associated with either split-streams (two ICP-MS systems required; diluted aerosol streams) or with peak switching in the MS (magnetic or electrostatic) because extraction of light-based information does not impact the number of ions measured for isotope ratios. We present LIBS experiments with UV-nanosecond lasers at 17mJ energies delivered to spot sizes of <100 μm and light directed to an ICCD detection system on NIST

  5. Outburst of the Cataclysmic Variable 1514-24 GW Lib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2007-04-01

    The cataclysmic variable 1514-24 GW Lib is in outburst (Rod Stubbings, Drouin, Victoria, Australia, visual magnitude 13.8, 2007 April 12.4938 UT), the first outburst observed since its discovery on 1983 August 10 UT. V-band time series photometry and visual observations are urgently requested for GW Lib [the brightest of the accreting pulsating white dwarf systems; the outburst provides the opportunity to see how pulsations change with temperature, according to Dr. Paula Szkody, University of Washington]. Data reported to the AAVSO may be found at www.aavso.org.

  6. PV_LIB Toolbox v. 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-09

    PV_LIB comprises a library of Matlab? code for modeling photovoltaic (PV) systems. Included are functions to compute solar position and to estimate irradiance in the PV system’s plane of array, cell temperature, PV module electrical output, and conversion from DC to AC power. Also included are functions that aid in determining parameters for module performance models from module characterization testing. PV_LIB is open source code primarily intended for research and academic purposes. All algorithms are documented in openly available literature with the appropriate references included in comments within the code.

  7. Simply adding the word "fruit" makes sugar healthier: The misleading effect of symbolic information on the perceived healthiness of food.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    People may use simple heuristics to assess the healthiness of food products. For instance, the information that a product contains "fruit sugar" (in German, "fruit sugar" is the colloquial term for fructose) could be interpreted as a cue that the product is relatively healthy, since the term "fruit" symbolizes healthiness. This can have a misleading effect on the perceived healthiness of a product. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 164) were asked to evaluate the healthiness of one of two breakfast cereals based on the information provided in a nutrition table. For one group, the label "fruit sugar" was used; for the other, the label "sugar" was used. Results suggest that the phrase "fruit sugar" listed as an ingredient of the breakfast cereal resulted in a more positive perception of the healthiness of the cereal compared with the ingredient labeled "sugar." In Experiment 2 (N = 202), the results of Experiment 1 were replicated with a within-subjects design in which participants evaluated the two products simultaneously. Experiment 3 (N = 251) ruled out the alternative explanation that the effect could be due to differing inferences about the product's ingredients based on the label used, that is, that the product labeled with "fruit sugar" contains fruit. Finally, in Experiment 4 (N = 162), the results show that the healthiness associated with the labeling of the ingredient "sugar" ("fruit sugar" vs. "sugar") mediates the observed effect. Results of the four experiments indicate that symbolic information is an important factor that can influence people's health perceptions of food. These findings have implications for marketing and public health.

  8. Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; McPhee, L; Sullivan, S

    1989-02-01

    In two experiments, 2-5-year-old children's responsiveness to caloric density cues was examined. In a preloading protocol, consumption of fixed volumes of drinks (205 ml in Experiment 1; 150 ml in Experiment 2), sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, aspartame plus low glucose maltodextrin, or a water control, was followed by ad lib consumption from among a variety of foods. Caloric drinks had about 90 kcal in Experiment 1, 65 kcal in Experiment 2. The delay interval between the preload and the ad lib consumption was 0, 30 or 60 minutes. In Experiment 1, 24 4- and 5-year-old children participated in only one delay interval, while in Experiment 2, all 20 2- and 3-year-old children were seen in all conditions. Results revealed evidence of caloric compensation, but no evidence of preload x time delay interaction. In both experiments, aspartame also produced a significant suppression of intake relative to water, primarily due to the pattern at 30 min following the preload. Across conditions, the suppression following aspartame was usually significantly less than that produced by the caloric sweet drinks, providing evidence for postingestive effects. In Experiment 1, suppression of intake was related to the children's preferences for the foods, not to macronutrient content; consumption of nonpreferred foods was most suppressed. Consumption of sweetened drinks as long as 1 hour prior to eating suppressed food intake, and this common feeding practice may also reduce dietary variety.

  9. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Mary H; Truong, An N; Truong, Van-Den; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). Total phenolics were highest in blackcurrant-orange sweet potato ingredient matrices (34.03 mg/g), and lowest in muscadine grape-yellow sweet potato matrices (10.56 mg/g). Similarly, anthocyanins were most concentrated in blackcurrant-fortified orange and yellow sweet potato matrices (5.40 and 6.54 mg/g, respectively). Alternatively, other protein-rich edible matrices (defatted soy flour, light roasted peanut flour, and rice protein concentrate) efficiently captured polyphenols (6.09–9.46 mg/g) and anthocyanins (0.77–1.27 mg/g) from purple-fleshed sweet potato juice, with comparable efficiency. Antioxidant activity correlated well with total phenolic content. All formulated ingredient matrices stabilized and preserved polyphenols for up to 24 weeks, even when stored at 37°C. Complexation with juice-derived polyphenols did not significantly alter protein or carbohydrate profiles of the matrices. Sensory evaluation of the ingredient matrices suggested potential uses for a wide range of functional food products. PMID:26405527

  10. Accreting Pulsators Gw Lib and V455 and after Superoutburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula

    Two cataclysmic variables containing pulsating white dwarfs underwent rare outbursts in 2007 (GW Lib and V455 And). As we know outbursts heat the white dwarfs by more than 10,000K and they gradually cool to their quiescent temperatures over the course of about 3 years, these two objects present the first unique opportunity to follow the pulsation spectrum of a white dwarf as it cools on much more rapid timescales than evolutionary ones for single white dwarfs. As these 2 objects cool, they should re-enter their instability strips and we can witness changes in the driving mechanism and detect modes that are excited by the T changes. Our 2008 ground-based data on GW Lib showed an intermittent new pulsation at a longer period than at quiescence. The data in 2010 will be the critical 3rd year and will be combined with our DOT and Cycle 4,5 GI observations to determine the long term cooling of GW Lib. Similar information will be obtained for V455 And. The higher pulse amplitude in UV vs optical and the time-tag mode means that GALEX can provide optimum data over the optical. Data on both systems will provide an important contrast in how the white dwarfs react to an outburst, as GW Lib at quiescence has a hot white dwarf far outside the normal instability strip for non-accreting white dwarfs, while V455 And is cool and inside this strip.

  11. The LIBS Internet Access Software: An Overview and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Deidre E.; Hooper, Todd

    1992-01-01

    Describes and evaluates LIBS Internet Access Software (also called Sonoma Software), which offers automatic Telnet connection to remote library catalogs, databases, information services, campuswide information services, and other wide-area information access tools. Instructions for obtaining and installing the software are given, and a comparison…

  12. A Combined Remote LIBS and Raman Spectroscopic Study of Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubble, H. W.; Ghosh, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Horton, K. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Angel, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of remote LIBS combined with pulsed-laser Raman spectroscopy for mineral analysis at a distance of 10 meters. Samples analyzed include: carbonates (both biogenic and abiogenic), silicates, and sulfates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Library Users' Service Desires: A LibQUAL+ Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Kyrillidou, Martha; Cook, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore library users' desired service quality levels on the twenty-two core LibQUAL+ items. Specifically, we explored similarities and differences in users' desired library service quality levels across user groups (i.e., undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty), across geographic locations (i.e.,…

  14. LibQUAL+ and the Community College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2007-01-01

    Community colleges can use market surveys to better understand the delivery of library services from the standpoint of the end user. One such survey, LibQUAL+, measures library service in three dimensions: 1. Affect of Service (patron interaction with library staff); 2. Information Control (availability of needed resources and ease of accessing);…

  15. Computer methods for ITER-like materials LIBS diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łepek, Michał; Gąsior, Paweł

    2014-11-01

    Recent development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) caused that this method is considered as the most promising for future diagnostic applications for characterization of the deposited materials in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is currently under construction. In this article the basics of LIBS are shortly discussed and the software for spectra analyzing is presented. The main software function is to analyze measured spectra with respect to the certain element lines presence. Some program operation results are presented. Correct results for graphite and aluminum are obtained although identification of tungsten lines is a problem. The reason for this is low tungsten lines intensity, and thus low signal to noise ratio of the measured signal. In the second part artificial neural networks (ANNs) as the next step for LIBS spectra analyzing are proposed. The idea is focused on multilayer perceptron network (MLP) with backpropagation learning method. The potential of ANNs for data processing was proved through application in several LIBS-related domains, e.g. differentiating ancient Greek ceramics (discussed). The idea is to apply an ANN for determination of W, Al, C presence on ITER-like plasma-facing materials.

  16. Questioning LibQUAL+[TM]: Expanding Its Assessment of Academic Library Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, William B.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines LibQUAL+[TM]'s instrument, fundamental assumption, and research approach and proposes a functional/technical model of academic library effectiveness. This expanded view of library effectiveness complements LibQUAL+[TM], emphasizing it to be dependent upon users' experience of service delivery, as LibQUAL+[TM] recognizes.…

  17. Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Composition on LIBS

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Jeremy J.; Scott, Jill R.; Effenberger, A. J. Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Most LIBS experiments are conducted at standard atmospheric pressure in air. However, there are LIBS studies that vary the pressure and composition of the gas. These studies have provided insights into fundamentals of the mechanisms that lead to the emission and methods for improving the quality of LIBS spectra. These atmospheric studies are difficult because the effects of pressure and gas composition and interconnected, making interpretation of the results difficult. The influence of pressures below and above 760 Torr have been explored. Performing LIBS on a surface at reduced pressures (<760 Torr) can result in enhanced spectra due to higher resolution, increased intensity, improved signal-to-noise (S/N), and increased ablation. Lower pressures produce increased resolution because the line width in LIBS spectra is predominantly due to Stark and Doppler broadening. Stark broadening is primarily caused from collisions between electrons and atoms, while Doppler broadening is proportional to the plasma temperature. Close examination using a high resolution spectrometer reveals that spectra show significant peak broadening and self-absorption as pressures increase, especially for pressures >760 Torr. During LIBS plasma expansion, energy is lost to the surrounding atmosphere, which reduces the lifetime of the laser plasma. Therefore, reducing the pressure increases the lifetime of the plasma, allowing more light from the laser plasma to be collected; thus, increasing the observed signal intensity. However, if pressures are too low (<10 Torr), then there is a steep drop in LIBS spectral intensity. This loss in intensity is mostly due to a disordered plasma that results from the lack of sufficient atmosphere to provide adequate confinement. At reduced pressures, the plasma expands into a less dense atmosphere, which results in a less dense shock wave. The reduced density in the shock wave results in reduced plasma shielding, allowing more photons to reach the sample

  18. Evidence for time-of-day dependent effect of neurotoxic dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions on food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Kent, Brianne A; Patton, Danica F; Jaholkowski, Mark; Marchant, Elliott G; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2011-01-01

    The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is a site of circadian clock gene and immediate early gene expression inducible by daytime restricted feeding schedules that entrain food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats and mice. The role of the DMH in the expression of anticipatory rhythms has been evaluated using different lesion methods. Partial lesions created with the neurotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO) have been reported to attenuate food anticipatory rhythms, while complete lesions made with radiofrequency current leave anticipatory rhythms largely intact. We tested a hypothesis that the DMH and fibers of passage spared by IBO lesions play a time-of-day dependent role in the expression of food anticipatory rhythms. Rats received intra-DMH microinjections of IBO and activity and body temperature (T(b)) rhythms were recorded by telemetry during ad-lib food access, total food deprivation and scheduled feeding, with food provided for 4-h/day for 20 days in the middle of the light period and then for 20 days late in the dark period. During ad-lib food access, rats with DMH lesions exhibited a lower amplitude and mean level of light-dark entrained activity and T(b) rhythms. During the daytime feeding schedule, all rats exhibited food anticipatory activity and T(b) rhythms that persisted during 2 days without food in constant dark. In some rats with partial or total DMH ablation, the magnitude of the anticipatory rhythm was weak relative to most intact rats. When mealtime was shifted to the late night, the magnitude of the food anticipatory activity rhythms in these cases was restored to levels characteristic of intact rats. These results confirm that rats can anticipate scheduled daytime or nighttime meals without the DMH. Improved anticipation at night suggests a modulatory role for the DMH in the expression of food anticipatory activity rhythms during the daily light period, when nocturnal rodents normally sleep.

  19. Analytical tools for identification of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) coming from polyurethane adhesives in multilayer packaging materials and their migration into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Félix, Juliana S; Isella, Francesca; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2012-07-01

    Adhesives used in food packaging to glue different materials can provide several substances as potential migrants, and the identification of potential migrants and migration tests are required to assess safety in the use of adhesives. Solid-phase microextraction in headspace mode and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and ChemSpider and SciFinder databases were used as powerful tools to identify the potential migrants in the polyurethane (PU) adhesives and also in the individual plastic films (polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide, polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyethylene/ethyl vinyl alcohol). Migration tests were carried out by using Tenax(®) and isooctane as food simulants, and the migrants were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. More than 63 volatile and semivolatile compounds considered as potential migrants were detected either in the adhesives or in the films. Migration tests showed two non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) coming from PU adhesives that migrated through the laminates into Tenax(®) and into isooctane. Identification of these NIAS was achieved through their mass spectra, and 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione and 1,4,7-trioxacyclotridecane-8,13-dione were confirmed. Caprolactam migrated into isooctane, and its origin was the external plastic film in the multilayer, demonstrating real diffusion through the multilayer structure. Comparison of the migration values between the simulants and conditions will be shown and discussed.

  20. Optimized LWIR enhancement of nanosecond and femtosecond LIBS uranium emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpovo, Codjo A.; Ford, Alan; Johnson, Lewis

    2016-05-01

    A carbon dioxide (CO2) transverse electrical breakdown in atmosphere (TEA), pulsed laser was used to enhance the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectral signatures of uranium under nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) ablation. The peak areas of both ionic and neutral species increased by one order of magnitude for ns-ablation and two orders of magnitude for fs-ablation over LIBS when the CO2 TEA laser was used with samples of dried solutions of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UO2(NO3)2·6H2O) on silicon wafers. Electron temperature and density measurements show that the spectral emission improvement from using the TEA laser comes from plasma reheating.

  1. B[e] Properties in the Spectrum of 48 Lib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismailov, N. Z.; Maharramov, Y. M.

    2017-02-01

    Temporal variations of the Hα, Hβ, He I λ5876 Å, NaI D1, D2 lines, and DIBs at λ5780 and 5797 Å in the spectrum of the Be star 48 Lib are investigated and the presence of the [O I] λ 6300, 6363 Å lines is suspected. We also found additional moving components in the Na I D line profiles.

  2. Review of LIBS application in nuclear fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Feng, Chun-Lei; Oderji, Hassan Yousefi; Luo, Guang-Nan; Ding, Hong-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear fusion has enormous potential to greatly affect global energy production. The next-generation tokamak ITER, which is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of energy production from fusion on a commercial scale, is under construction. Wall erosion, material transport, and fuel retention are known factors that shorten the lifetime of ITER during tokamak operation and give rise to safety issues. These factors, which must be understood and solved early in the process of fusion reactor design and development, are among the most important concerns for the community of plasma-wall interaction researchers. To date, laser techniques are among the most promising methods that can solve these open ITER issues, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an ideal candidate for online monitoring of the walls of current and next-generation (such as ITER) fusion devices. LIBS is a widely used technique for various applications. It has been considered recently as a promising tool for analyzing plasma-facing components in fusion devices in situ. This article reviews the experiments that have been performed by many research groups to assess the feasibility of LIBS for this purpose.

  3. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  4. A hybrid calibration-free/artificial neural networks approach to the quantitative analysis of LIBS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, Eleonora; Pagnotta, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Palleschi, Vincenzo; Lazzerini, Beatrice

    2015-03-01

    A `hybrid' method is proposed for the quantitative analysis of materials by LIBS, combining the precision of the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) algorithm with the quickness of artificial neural networks. The method allows the precise determination of the samples' composition even in the presence of relatively large laser fluctuations and matrix effects. To show the strength and robustness of this approach, a number of synthetic LIBS spectra of Cu-Ni binary alloys with different composition were computer-simulated, in correspondence of different plasma temperatures, electron number densities and ablated mass. The CF-LIBS/ANN approach here proposed demonstrated to be capable, after appropriate training, of `learning' the basic physical relations between the experimentally measured line intensities and the plasma parameters. Because of that the composition of the sample can be correctly determined, as in CF-LIBS measurements, but in a much shorter time.

  5. The effects of food deprivation, nutritive and non-nutritive feeding and wheel running on gastric stress ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, I; Stephan, F K

    1998-01-01

    Feeding and housing conditions that induce gastric lesions were investigated. Rats were housed in activity wheels or in hanging cages and exposed to food deprivation, ad lib cellulose or 6 g of cellulose per day for 5 days. Food-deprived rats in both housing conditions had ulcers in the rumen but many rats also had mucosal ulcers. Cellulose prevented rumenal ulcers but produced a tendency toward more severe mucosal ulcers. Ulcers in wheel-housed rats were somewhat larger but the difference was not significant. In a second experiment, rats were fed 6 g/day laboratory chow or 6 g/day chow + ad lib cellulose until b.wt. reached a preset criterion. On the average, about 10 days on the feeding regimen were required to induce ulcers in these groups. None of the rats had rumenal ulcers. Mucosal ulcers were reliably larger in rats that received cellulose in addition to 6 g of chow. There was no difference in ulcer area between wheel-housed and cage-housed rats. The results indicate that solid bulk, regardless of its caloric value or amount, protects the nonglandular stomach whereas noncaloric bulk tends to aggravate ulcers in the glandular stomach. A small amount of chow delays the rate of b.wt. loss and consequently ulcer formation. Furthermore, wheel running is not necessary to produce mucosal ulcers when food intake is insufficient to maintain b.wt. and b.wt. at sacrifice seems to be a good predictor of ulcer formation.

  6. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-04

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  7. Added value of experts' knowledge to improve a quantitative microbial exposure assessment model--Application to aseptic-UHT food products.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Laure; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Magras, Catherine; Albert, Isabelle; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-10-15

    In a previous study, a quantitative microbial exposure assessment (QMEA) model applied to an aseptic-UHT food process was developed [Pujol, L., Albert, I., Magras, C., Johnson, N. B., Membré, J. M. Probabilistic exposure assessment model to estimate aseptic UHT product failure rate. 2015 International Journal of Food Microbiology. 192, 124-141]. It quantified Sterility Failure Rate (SFR) associated with Bacillus cereus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus per process module (nine modules in total from raw material reception to end-product storage). Previously, the probabilistic model inputs were set by experts (using knowledge and in-house data). However, only the variability dimension was taken into account. The model was then improved using expert elicitation knowledge in two ways. First, the model was refined by adding the uncertainty dimension to the probabilistic inputs, enabling to set a second order Monte Carlo analysis. The eight following inputs, and their impact on SFR, are presented in detail in this present study: D-value for each bacteria of interest (B. cereus and G. stearothermophilus) associated with the inactivation model for the UHT treatment step, i.e., two inputs; log reduction (decimal reduction) number associated with the inactivation model for the packaging sterilization step for each bacterium and each part of the packaging (product container and sealing component), i.e., four inputs; and bacterial spore air load of the aseptic tank and the filler cabinet rooms, i.e., two inputs. Second, the model was improved by leveraging expert knowledge to develop further the existing model. The proportion of bacteria in the product which settled on surface of pipes (between the UHT treatment and the aseptic tank on one hand, and between the aseptic tank and the filler cabinet on the other hand) leading to a possible biofilm formation for each bacterium, was better characterized. It was modeled as a function of the hygienic design level of the aseptic

  8. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  9. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  10. Mercury Amalgam Diffusion in Human Teeth Probed Using Femtosecond LIBS.

    PubMed

    Bello, Liciane Toledo; da Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Santos, Dário; Krug, Francisco José; Zezell, Denise Maria; Vieira, Nilson Dias; Samad, Ricardo Elgul

    2017-01-01

    In this work the diffusion of mercury and other elements from amalgam tooth restorations through the surrounding dental tissue (dentin) was evaluated using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs-LIBS). To achieve this, seven deciduous and eight permanent extracted human molar teeth with occlusal amalgam restorations were half-sectioned and analyzed using pulses from a femtosecond laser. The measurements were performed from the amalgam restoration along the amalgam/dentin interface to the apical direction. It was possible to observe the presence of metallic elements (silver, mercury, copper and tin) emission lines, as well as dental constituent ones, providing fingerprints of each material and comparable data for checking the consistence of the results. It was also shown that the elements penetration depth values in each tooth are usually similar and consistent, for both deciduous and permanent teeth, indicating that all the metals diffuse into the dentin by the same mechanism. We propose that this diffusion mechanism is mainly through liquid dragging inside the dentin tubules. The mercury diffused further in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, probably due to the longer diffusion times due to the age of the restorations. It was possible to conclude that the proposed femtosecond-LIBS system can detect the presence of metals in the dental tissue, among the tooth constituent elements, and map the distribution of endogenous and exogenous chemical elements, with a spatial resolution that can be brought under 100 µm.

  11. LIBS identification of pigments from Aula Leopoldina vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, R.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Marczak, J.; Sarzynski, A.

    2009-07-01

    Aula Leopoldina is the most representative, baroque hall in Wroclaw University. In 2008, LIBS measurements of paintings layers of Aula vault were done. LIBS spectra permitted identification of mineral pigments used for specific colors of painting layers. This identification could not be unambiguous in each case since simultaneous occurrence of elements that could be components of different pigments of the same color was observed in some samples. For example, in some red samples the presence of aluminum and iron was stated, and hence red ochre or Mars red could be used as a pigment. In other samples the cinnabar can be additionally responsible for red color. Similar problems were observed in case of blue pigments, where existence of copper may show that azurite was used, but the presence of aluminum, sodium, silicon and iron can point to application of ultramarine, Egyptian or Prussian blues. The greatest difficulties occurred during identification of white pigments. Because of presence of barium, zinc, lead and titanium, the potential pigments might be lithopone, barite, zinc white, lead white or titanium white. Final choice of the pigment is determined by the time of last renovation and this points out that the zinc white was used.

  12. Development of a portable low-cost LIBS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormachea, O.; Urquidi, O.; Casazola, D.

    2013-11-01

    This article reports the construction of a portable, low-cost LIBS (Light Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) system for use in the Bolivian mining industry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composition of mineral samples. The device consists of a portable laser, a medium-resolution spectrometer and an optomechanical light collection system. The laser developed for the device is a YAG:Nd+++ with an estimated power output of 10 MW/cm2. Weighing approximately 3 kg and powered by lithium ion batteries, it is easily carried and can be used in remote locations. The spectrometer has a resolution of 0.3 nm allowing the detection fine spectral features, while its range of 80 nm is broad enough to simultaneously show many of the principal spectral lines of the element of interest. A monochromatic CCD camera was used as the detector of the spectrometer and was fitted with an external trigger to coordinate the camera frames with the firing of the laser. The light emitted by the plasma is collected with a photographic objective and is transmitted to the spectrometer via a fiber optics cable. A mechanical system was incorporated to make, both the laser beam and the receptor positionable. In the preliminary tests of the prototype, a LIBS spectrum of a Bolivian copper coin was obtained. Analysis showed that the spectral lines obtained coincide with those of a copper reference spectrum and demonstrate the capacity of the device to perform qualitative analysis of materials.

  13. LIBS and Raman spectroscopic investigation of historical copper alloy objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żmuda-Trzebiatowska, Iwona; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Results of spectroscopic investigation of the historical copper and copper alloy objects covered by patina and surface contamination are reported and discussed in this work. For analysis of the surface layers (bulk material, primer/grounding, patina and atmospheric contamination) the Laser Induced Breakdown (LIBS), Raman and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopic techniques are used. Useful data on chemical structure and composition are obtained from stratigraphic analysis performed by a stepwise layer penetration with successive laser pulses. The LIBS, XRF and Raman spectra confirm the presence of patina and contamination layers of the compositions influenced by the atmospheric environment. The elemental composition reveals in the case of the original copper substrate the presence of Cu with traces of Ag and Sb, and of impurities Fe and Pb, while objects made of copper alloys (brass) show different Zn/Cu ratios greater than 20% in all cases and admixtures of Sn and Pb. Consistent results are obtained from the elemental and Raman data indicating presence of the antlerite (Cu3(OH)4SO4), carbon and microcrystalline calcite which are ascribed to patina, surface contamination (atmospheric soot) and primer layers, respectively.

  14. Catch-up growth in Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica): relationships with food intake, metabolic rate and sex.

    PubMed

    Chin, Eunice H; Storm-Suke, Andrea L; Kelly, Ryan J; Burness, Gary

    2013-08-01

    The effects of early environmental conditions can profoundly affect individual development and adult phenotype. In birds, limiting resources can affect growth as nestlings, but also fitness and survival as adults. Following periods of food restriction, individuals may accelerate development, undergoing a period of rapid "catch-up" growth, in an attempt to reach the appropriate size at adulthood. Previous studies of altricial birds have shown that catch-up growth can have negative consequences in adulthood, although this has not been explored in species with different developmental strategies. Here, we investigated the effects of resource limitation and the subsequent period of catch-up growth, on the morphological and metabolic phenotype of adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species with a precocial developmental strategy. Because males and females differ in adult body size, we also test whether food restriction had sex-specific effects. Birds that underwent food restriction early in development had muscles of similar size and functional maturity, but lower adult body mass than controls. There was no evidence of sex-specific sensitivity of food restriction on adult body mass; however, there was evidence for body size. Females fed ad lib were larger than males fed ad lib, while females subjected to food restriction were of similar size to males. Adults that had previously experienced food restriction did not have an elevated metabolic rate, suggesting that in contrast to altricial nestlings, there was no metabolic carry-over effect of catch-up growth into adulthood. While Japanese quail can undergo accelerated growth after re-feeding, timing of food restriction may be important to adult size, particularly in females. However, greater developmental flexibility compared to altricial birds may contribute to the lack of metabolic carryover effects at adulthood.

  15. The effect of nutrient media water purity on LIBS based identification of bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used as the basis for discrimination between 3 genera of Gram-negative bacteria and 2 genera of gram-positive bacteria representing pathogenic threats commonly found in poultry processing rinse waters. Because LIBS-based discrimination reli...

  16. Does LibQUAL+[TM] Account for Student Loyalty to a University College Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgesen, Oyvind; Nesset, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out whether LibQUAL+[TM]can account for student loyalty to the library of an institution of higher education. LibQUAL+[TM] is a marketing tool that is used to measure perceived service quality of libraries, and the present analysis aims at validating this service quality instrument within a more…

  17. "Zones of Tolerance" in Perceptions of Library Service Quality: A LibQUAL+[TM] Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; Heath, Fred M.; Thompson, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    One of the two major ways of interpreting LibQUAL+[TM] data involves placing perceived service quality ratings within "zones of tolerance" defined as the distances between minimally-acceptable and desired service quality levels. This study compared zones of tolerance on the 25 LibQUAL+[TM] items across undergraduate, graduate student and…

  18. Structure of Perceptions of Service Quality in Libraries: A LibQUAL+ Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Heath, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the score integrity of LibQUALl+, an instrument to measure perceptions of library service quality. Results for 60,027 graduate and undergraduate students suggest that the model implied by LibQUAL is reasonable and invariant across independent samples and fits all three major subgroups of library users.…

  19. New Library, New Librarian, New Student: Using LibGuides to Reach the Virtual Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sara; Hunter, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the virtual pathfinder and its relationship with distance education students. Various topics are addressed in relation to virtual students, LibGuides and collaborative efforts between librarians and teaching faculty. A brief history of the subject guide is presented, advantages and disadvantages of LibGuides are discussed and…

  20. Designing LibGuides as Instructional Tools for Critical Thinking and Effective Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ruth L.

    2014-01-01

    Did you ever wish for an easy-to-maintain tool to create course-level or assignment-level instruction for online or distance students? LibGuides can provide the solution! LibGuides provide a versatile and easy-to-maintain platform for delivering step-by-step, scaffolded tutorials that enhance learning outcomes through chunking, reduced strain on…

  1. LibQUAL+[TM]: A Methodological Suite; Reliability and Structure of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores: Measuring Perceived Library Service Quality; Score Norms for Improving Library Service Quality: A LibQUAL+[TM] Study; ARL Index and Other Validity Correlates of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Fred M.; Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Thompson, Russel L.; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss LibQUAL+[TM], a collaborative effort of the Association of Research Libraries and Texas A&M University responding to the need for greater accountability in measuring the delivery of library services to research library users. Discusses the reliability of LibQUAL+[TM] scores in measuring perceived library…

  2. Laboratory Exploration of Organic and Inorganic Carbon by Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): Relevance for Planetary Astrobiology Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, J. G.; Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E.; McKay, C. P.; Wiens, R. C.

    2010-03-01

    We used LIBS and chemometric analysis to distinguish between organic and inorganic carbon in various samples (igneous rocks, carbonates, and kerogen-rich fertilizers), demonstrating the potential for ChemCam LIBS as an astrobiology tool for MSL.

  3. SeqLib: a C ++ API for rapid BAM manipulation, sequence alignment and sequence assembly.

    PubMed

    Wala, Jeremiah; Beroukhim, Rameen

    2017-03-01

    We present SeqLib, a C ++ API and command line tool that provides a rapid and user-friendly interface to BAM/SAM/CRAM files, global sequence alignment operations and sequence assembly. Four C libraries perform core operations in SeqLib: HTSlib for BAM access, BWA-MEM and BLAT for sequence alignment and Fermi for error correction and sequence assembly. Benchmarking indicates that SeqLib has lower CPU and memory requirements than leading C ++ sequence analysis APIs. We demonstrate an example of how minimal SeqLib code can extract, error-correct and assemble reads from a CRAM file and then align with BWA-MEM. SeqLib also provides additional capabilities, including chromosome-aware interval queries and read plotting. Command line tools are available for performing integrated error correction, micro-assemblies and alignment.

  4. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  5. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  6. The Literacy Factor: Adding Value to Training. Investigation of the Inclusion of Literacy in Training Packages in the Food Processing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanguinetti, Jill

    The effects of the inclusion of literacy and numeracy competencies within Australia's food processing industry training package were examined in two case studies of training at two food processing facilities in Victoria. The first case study involved a large pasta factory that had approximately 270 employees and a contract with a registered…

  7. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  8. libMSR library and msr-safe kernel module

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-26

    Modern processors offer a wide range of control and measurement features. While those are traditionally accessed through libraries like PAPI, some newer features no longer follow the traditional model of counters that can be used to only read the state of the processor. For example, Precise Event Based Sampling (PEBS) can generate records that requires a kernel memory for storage. Additionally, new features like power capping and thermal control require similar new access methods. All of these features are ultimately controlled through Model Specific Registers (MSRs). We therefore need new mechanisms to make such features available to tools and ultimately to the user. libMSR provides a convenient interface to access MSRs and to allow tools to utilize their full functionality.

  9. Enhancement of LIBS emission using antenna-coupled microwave.

    PubMed

    Khumaeni, Ali; Motonobu, Tampo; Katsuaki, Akaoka; Masabumi, Miyabe; Ikuo, Wakaida

    2013-12-02

    Intensified microwave coupled by a loop antenna (diameter of 3 mm) has been employed to enhance the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emission. In this method, a laser plasma was induced on Gd₂O₃ sample at a reduced pressure by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 10 ns, 5 mJ) at a local point, at which electromagnetic field was produced by introducing microwave radiation using loop antenna. The plasma emission was significantly enhanced by absorbing the microwave radiation, resulting in high-temperature plasma and long-lifetime plasma emission. By using this method, the enhancement of Gd lines was up to 32 times, depending upon the emission lines observed. A linear calibration curve of Ca contained in the Gd₂O₃ sample was made. The detection limit of Ca was approximately 2 mg/kg. This present method is very useful for identification of trace elements in nuclear fuel and radioactive materials.

  10. The Pulsating, Accreting White Dwarf in GW Lib after Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula

    The first known pulsating white dwarf in an accreting close binary system (GW Lib) underwent an outburst in April, 2007. We aim to follow the pulsation spectrum as the white dwarf cools back to to its quiescent temperature from its heating due to the outburst which should take about 3 years. As it cools, it should re-enter the instability strip and we can witness changes in the driving mechanism and detect modes that are excited by the temperature changes. The higher pulse amplitude in UV vs optical and the available time-tag mode makes GALEX the instrument of choice. The data in 2008 will be combined with our DOT time in May, June 2007 to provide coverage of the largest cooling that takes place in the year following outburst. Since the few known systems only outburst every 20-30 yrs, this is the first opportunity to accomplish a study of this type."

  11. The Low-Lying Electronic States of LiB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The spectroscopic constants for the triplet and singlet states of LiB below about 30 000/ cm are determined using an internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach in conjunction with [6s 5p 3d 2f] atomic natural orbital basis sets. The ground state is (sup 3)Pi as found in previous work. No excited triplet states are found to be ideal for characterizing the ground state; the (1)(sup 3)Sigma(sup -) state has a transition energy that is too small for many experimental approaches and the (2)(sup 3)Pi and (3)(sup 3)Pi states have bond lengths that are significantly longer than the ground state, resulting in transition intensities that are spread out over many vibrational levels of the ground state.

  12. ZioLib: A parallel I/O library

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Woo-Sun; Ding, Chris

    2003-08-01

    In a distributed memory parallel environment, many applications rely on a serial I/O strategy, where the global array is gathered on a single MPI process and then written out to a file. I/O performance with this approach is largely limited by single process I/O bandwidth. Even when parallel I/O is used, satisfactory parallel scaling is not always observed. It is because in many applications fields are not necessarily in a most favorable parallel decomposition for I/O. The best I/O rates are obtained when a field is decomposed with respect to the array's last dimension (referred to here as Z). Another situation often encountered in many applications is that a field in CPU resident memory is in one index order but must be stored in a disk file in another order. Changing index orders can complicate a parallel I/O implementation and slow down I/O. ZioLib facilitates an efficient parallel I/O for arrays in such situations. In case of a write, ZioLib remaps a distributed field into a Z-decomposition on a subset of processes (which will be called the I/O staging processes) and from there writes to a disk file in parallel. In this Z-decomposition, the data layout of the remapped array on the staging processes memory is the same as on disk, thus only block data transfer occurs during parallel I/O, achieving maximum efficiency. In case of a read the steps are reversed to build the required distributed arrays on the computational processes.

  13. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation.

  14. Food-deprivation-induced phase shifts in Sminthopsis macroura froggatti.

    PubMed

    Coleman, G J; O'Reilly, H M; Armstrong, S M

    1989-01-01

    Past research has shown that there is a circadian oscillator in laboratory rats that is entrained by restricted feeding schedules. However, in laboratory rats at least, the light-dark (LD) cycle is the dominant zeitgeber in the entrainment of wheel-running activity rhythms. Given that dasyurid marsupials are predominantly carnivorous, the episodic intake of food in the wild and the high nutritive content of that food suggest that food may be an important zeitgeber in these species. Twelve Sminthopsis macroura froggatti were presented with a daily meal at 0900 hr under an LD 12:12 cycle with lights-on at 0600 hr for 37 days. Activity in anticipation of the meal was observed in most animals. Following this, all animals were exposed to periods of 12-18 days ad lib. food interspersed with 3-day periods of deprivation--a technique used previously to demonstrate persistent meal-associated rhythms. The meal-associated activity rhythms previously observed in rats during the 3-day deprivation period were not seen, but the 3-day deprivation period produced large phase-shifts in the activity rhythms of several S.m. froggatti. It is concluded that meal feeding does not dominate the LD cycle in entraining dasyurid marsupials, but that the frequent observation of phase shifts suggests a different and, perhaps, stronger role for food intake in biological rhythmicity than has been observed previously in laboratory rats.

  15. LIBS analysis of geological samples at low pressures : application to Mars, the Moon, and asteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, D. A.; Sevostiyanova, E. V.; Gibson, L. E.; Wiens, R. C.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) has been proposed as a new method for elemental analysis in space exploration with Mars specifically targeted. there are many reasons for this including rapid analysis (< 2 min.), in-situ and stand-off analysis (< 20 meters) capability, and the ability to readily combine LIBS with other spectroscopic methods (Raman, fluorescence) that provide data complementary to LIBS. In comparison with past and current elemental analysis methods used on planetary surfaces, these capabilities of LIBS should greatly increase the scientific return from future missions. They are characterizing the LIBS method for space exploration applications with emphasis on analysis at reduced pressures ({approx} 7 Torr CO{sub 2} for Mars) and near vacuum (50 mTorr for asteroids and the Moon; at pressures below about 50 mTorr no significant changes in the plasma are observed). This characterization is important because the excitation properties of the LIBS plasma are strongly dependent on pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. Topics addressed include: (1) calibration curves and detection limits for major and minor elements of interest to geochemistry at the two lower pressures as well as atmospheric pressure (for comparison), (2) using short (<22 cm for in-situ) and medium length (4 m for stand-off) light paths for analysis, and (3) characterization of the LIBS plasma at different pressures.

  16. An Evaluation of Femtosecond/nanosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Measuring Total Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-07

    LIBS technique. Single-pulse ns-LIBS and dual-pulse fs/ns LIBS were then used to obtain calibration curves for: (1) carbon dioxide, (2) oxalic acid , and...solid carbon was in the form of 30-nm polystyrene (C8H8) and oxalic acid (COOH)2 particles. As noted in Figure 3.5, the intensities of the carbon...density oxalic acid (1.9 g/cm3) particles, has a larger slope than that for the polystyrene particles with a density of 1.0 g/cm3. The issue

  17. Reconstructing Ancient Egyptian Diet through Bone Elemental Analysis Using LIBS (Qubbet el Hawa Cemetery)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khafif, Ghada Darwish; El-Banna, Rokia

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important advantages of LIBS that make it suitable for the analysis of archeological materials is that it is a quasi-nondestructive technique. Archeological mandibles excavated from Qubbet el Hawa Cemetery, Aswan, were subjected to elemental analysis in order to reconstruct the dietary patterns of the middle class of the Aswan population throughout three successive eras: the First Intermediate Period (FIP), the Middle Kingdom (MK), and the Second Intermediate Period (SIP). The bone Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios were significantly correlated, so the Sr/Ca ratios are considered to represent the ante-mortem values. It was suggested that the significantly low FIP Sr/Ca compared to that of both the MK and the SIP was attributed to the consumption of unusual sorts of food and imported cereals during years of famine, while the MK Sr/Ca was considered to represent the amelioration of climatic, social, economic, and political conditions in this era of state socialism. The SIP Sr/Ca, which is nearly the same as that of the MK, was considered to be the reflection of the continuity of the individualism respect and state socialism and a reflection of agriculture conditions amelioration under the reign of the 17th Dynasty in Upper Egypt. PMID:26345727

  18. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods-A SUSFOOD Project.

    PubMed

    Rohm, Harald; Brennan, Charles; Turner, Charlotta; Günther, Edeltraud; Campbell, Grant; Hernando, Isabel; Struck, Susanne; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis

    2015-11-24

    This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD) network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  19. Direct spectral analysis of tea samples using 266 nm UV pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and cross validation of LIBS results with ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Gondal, M A; Habibullah, Y B; Baig, Umair; Oloore, L E

    2016-05-15

    Tea is one of the most common and popular beverages spanning vast array of cultures all over the world. The main nutritional benefits of drinking tea are its anti-oxidant properties, presumed protection against certain cancers, inhibition of inflammation and possible protective effects against diabetes. Laser induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) was assembled as a powerful tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of various brands of tea samples using 266 nm pulsed UV laser. LIBS spectra for six brands of tea samples in the wavelength range of 200-900 nm was recorded and all elements present in our tea samples were identified. The major toxic elements detected in several brands of tea samples were bromine, chromium and minerals like iron, calcium, potassium and silicon. The spectral assignment was conducted prior to the determination of concentration of each element. For quantitative analysis, calibration curves were drawn for each element using standard samples prepared in known concentration in the tea matrix. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and electron density) were also determined prior to the tea samples spectroscopic analysis. The concentration of iron, chromium, potassium, bromine, copper, silicon and calcium detected in all tea samples was between 378-656, 96-124, 1421-6785, 99-1476, 17-36, 2-11 and 92-130 mg L(-1) respectively. The limits of detection estimated for Fe, Cr, K, Br, Cu, Si, Ca in tea samples were 22, 12, 14, 11, 6, 1 and 12 mg L(-1) respectively. To further confirm the accuracy of our LIBS results, we determined the concentration of each element present in tea samples by using standard analytical technique like ICP-MS. The concentrations detected with our LIBS system are in excellent agreement with ICP-MS results. The system assembled for spectral analysis in this work could be highly applicable for testing the quality and purity of food and also pharmaceuticals products.

  20. Remote Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Geochemical Investigation under Venus Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E.; Humphries, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Vaniman, D.; Dyar, M. D.; Tucker, J. M.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The extreme Venus surface temperature (740 K) and atmospheric pressure (93 atm) creates a challenging environment for future lander missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within several hours of landing before the lander is overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. [1] and Sharma et al. [2] have demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with LIBS and demonstrate the quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. The LIBS experiment involves focusing a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm onto the surface of the sample. The laser ablates material from the surface, generating a plasma containing electronically excited atoms, ions and small molecules. Some of this emission is collected with an 89 mm diameter telescope. The light is directed into a Princeton Instruments f/4 0.25 m dispersive spectrometer and recorded with an ICCD detector. The powdered and pelletized samples are placed in a pressure vessel containing supercritical CO2 at 93 atm and at least 423 K and the vessel is placed at least 1.6 m from the telescope and laser. A range of Venus-analog basaltic rock types [3] was chosen for this study to reproduce compositions identified by Soviet Venera and VEGA landers, including several standards: four basalts (BCR-2, BIR-1, GUWBM, JB-2), granite (GBW 07015), andesite (JA-1), carbonate (SARM-40), and Kauai volcanic (KV04-17, KV04-25). We also added a good Venus analog, TAP 04, which is an alkali-rich rock from an olivine minette in the Ayutla volcanic field (Righter and Rosas-Elguera [4]). Our goal was to study samples with a

  1. Dietary exposures for the safety assessment of seven emulsifiers commonly added to foods in the United States and implications for safety.

    PubMed

    Shah, Romina; Kolanos, Renata; DiNovi, Michael J; Mattia, Antonia; Kaneko, Kotaro J

    2017-03-27

    Dietary exposure assessment using food consumption data and ingredient use level is essential for assessing safety of food ingredients. Dietary exposure estimates are compared to safe intake levels, such as Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). ADI is estimated by applying a safety factor to an experimentally determined no-observed-adverse-effect-level of a test substance. Two food ingredients classified as emulsifiers, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80), received attention recently due to their putative adverse effects on gut microbiota. Because no published dietary exposure estimates for commonly used emulsifiers exist for the United States population, the current investigation focused on the estimation of dietary exposure to seven emulsifiers: CMC, P80, lecithin, mono- and diglycerides (MDG), stearoyl lactylates, sucrose esters, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate. Using maximum use levels obtained from publicly available sources, dietary exposures to these emulsifiers were estimated for the United States population (aged 2 years and older) for two time periods (1999-2002 and 2003-2010) using one- and two-day food consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 10-14 day food consumption data from NPD Group, Inc. National Eating Trends-Nutrient Intake Database. Our analyses indicated that among the emulsifiers assessed, lecithin and MDG have the highest mean exposures at ~60 and ~80 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, whereas the exposure to CMC is one-half to one-third of lecithin or MDG; and the exposure to P80 is approximately one-half of CMC. The review of available safety information such as ADIs established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, in light of our updated dietary exposure estimates for these seven emulsifiers, did not raise safety concerns at the current specified levels of use. Additionally, by examining two time periods (1999-2002) and (2003-2010), it was concluded that there is no

  2. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  3. [An automatic peak detection method for LIBS spectrum based on continuous wavelet transform].

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Fei; Tian, Di; Qiao, Shu-Jun; Yang, Guang

    2014-07-01

    Spectrum peak detection in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an essential step, but the presence of background and noise seriously disturb the accuracy of peak position. The present paper proposed a method applied to automatic peak detection for LIBS spectrum in order to enhance the ability of overlapping peaks searching and adaptivity. We introduced the ridge peak detection method based on continuous wavelet transform to LIBS, and discussed the choice of the mother wavelet and optimized the scale factor and the shift factor. This method also improved the ridge peak detection method with a correcting ridge method. The experimental results show that compared with other peak detection methods (the direct comparison method, derivative method and ridge peak search method), our method had a significant advantage on the ability to distinguish overlapping peaks and the precision of peak detection, and could be be applied to data processing in LIBS.

  4. Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Sklute, Elizabeth; Dyare, Melinda D

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

  5. HSCL LibQUAL+ 2004: from numbers and graphs to practical application.

    PubMed

    Foss, Michelle M; Buhler, Amy; Rhine, Lenny; Layton, Beth

    2006-01-01

    The University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries created a task force representing various departments to review data from its 2004 LibQUAL+ survey. This review compared results from the 2002 and 2004 LibQUAL+ surveys, and the data from the Association of Academic Health Science Libraries 2004 cohort. The task force analyzed the key components of the LibQUAL+ survey: Affect of Service, Information Control, Library as Place, and user comments. At the conclusion of this review, the task force made recommendations and suggestions along departmental lines to meet the patrons' needs and expectations. In addition to following the task force recommendations, the Libraries independently implemented several new services and hired additional personnel after the completion of the 2004 survey. Combined, these changes should improve overall library service and increase customer satisfaction. Looking towards the 2006 LibQUAL+ survey, the task force will be convened in advance and will guide the entire process.

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): An innovative tool for studying bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaidat, Qassem I.

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has gained a reputation as a flexible and convenient technique for rapidly determining the elemental composition of samples with minimal or no sample preparation. In this dissertation, I will describe the benefits of using LIBS for the rapid discrimination and identification of bacteria (both pathogenic and non-pathogenic) based on the relative concentration of trace inorganic elements such as Mg, P, Ca, and Na. The speed, portability, and robustness of the technique suggest that LIBS may be applicable as a rapid point-of-care medical diagnostic technology. LIBS spectra of multiple genera of bacteria such as Escherichia, Streptococcus, Mycobacterium, and Staphylococcus were acquired and successfully analyzed using a computerized discriminant function analysis (DFA). It was shown that a LIBS-based bacterial identification might be insensitive to a wide range of biological changes that could occur in the bacterial cell due to a variety of environmental stresses that the cell may encounter. The effect of reducing the number of bacterial cells on the LIBS-based classification was also studied. These results showed that with 2500 bacteria, the identification of bacterial specimens was still possible. Importantly, it was shown that bacteria in mixed samples (more than one type of bacteria being present) were identifiable. The dominant or majority component of a two-component mixture was reliably identified as long as it comprised 70% of the mixture or more. Finally, to simulate a clinical specimen in a precursor to actual clinical tests, Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were collected from urine samples (to simulate a urinary tract infection specimen) and were tested via LIBS without washing. The analysis showed that these bacteria possessed exactly the same spectral fingerprint as control bacteria obtained from sterile deionized water, resulting in a 100% correct classification. This indicates that the presence of other

  7. Measuring H, O, li, B, and BE on Planetary Surfaces: Calibration of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (libs) Data Under Air, Vacuum, and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Nelms, M.; Breves, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    other light elements are directly measured are nearly nonexistent in the 1-2 g quantities needed for LIBS analyses. For this study, we have obtained two sample suites that provide calibrations needed for accurate analyses of H, O, B, Be, and Li in geological samples. The first suite of 11 samples was analyzed for oxygen by fast neutron activation analysis. The second suite includes 11 gem-quality minerals representing the major rock-forming species for B, Li, and Be-rich parageneses. Light elements were directly analyzed using a combination of EMPA, XRF, ion microprobe, uranium extraction, proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), and prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). LIBS spectra were acquired at Mount Holyoke College under air, vacuum, and CO2 to simulate terrestrial, lunar, and martian environments. Spectra were then used to develop three separate calibration models (one for each environment), enabling LIBS characterization of light elements using multivariate analyses. Results show that when direct analyses of H, O, Li, B, and Be are used rather than LOI results, inferred, or indirectly calculated values, optimal root mean squared errors of prediction result. We are actively adding samples to these calibration suites, and we expect that prediction errors (accuracies) of <1wt% for these elements are possible.

  8. Study of archaeological coins of different dynasties using libs coupled with multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Shikha; Kumar, Rohit; Rai, G. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopic technique having unique capability of an in-situ monitoring tool for detection and quantification of elements present in different artifacts. Archaeological coins collected form G.R. Sharma Memorial Museum; University of Allahabad, India has been analyzed using LIBS technique. These coins were obtained from excavation of Kausambi, Uttar Pradesh, India. LIBS system assembled in the laboratory (laser Nd:YAG 532 nm, 4 ns pulse width FWHM with Ocean Optics LIBS 2000+ spectrometer) is employed for spectral acquisition. The spectral lines of Ag, Cu, Ca, Sn, Si, Fe and Mg are identified in the LIBS spectra of different coins. LIBS along with Multivariate Analysis play an effective role for classification and contribution of spectral lines in different coins. The discrimination between five coins with Archaeological interest has been carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show the potential relevancy of the methodology used in the elemental identification and classification of artifacts with high accuracy and robustness.

  9. LIBS: a potential tool for industrial/agricultural waste water analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpate, Tanvi; K. M., Muhammed Shameem; Nayak, Rajesh; V. K., Unnikrishnan; Santhosh, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a multi-elemental analysis technique with various advantages and has the ability to detect any element in real time. This technique holds a potential for environmental monitoring and various such analysis has been done in soil, glass, paint, water, plastic etc confirms the robustness of this technique for such applications. Compared to the currently available water quality monitoring methods and techniques, LIBS has several advantages, viz. no need for sample preparation, fast and easy operation, and chemical free during the process. In LIBS, powerful pulsed laser generates plasma which is then analyzed to get quantitative and qualitative details of the elements present in the sample. Another main advantage of LIBS technique is that it can perform in standoff mode for real time analysis. Water samples from industries and agricultural strata tend to have a lot of pollutants making it harmful for consumption. The emphasis of this project is to determine such harmful pollutants present in trace amounts in industrial and agricultural wastewater. When high intensity laser is made incident on the sample, a plasma is generated which gives a multielemental emission spectra. LIBS analysis has shown outstanding success for solids samples. For liquid samples, the analysis is challenging as the liquid sample has the chances of splashing due to the high energy of laser and thus making it difficult to generate plasma. This project also deals with determining the most efficient method for testing of water sample for qualitative as well as quantitative analysis using LIBS.

  10. Rapid detection of soils contaminated with heavy metals and oils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Gibaek; Kwak, Jihyun; Kim, Ki-Rak; Lee, Heesung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yang, Hyeon; Park, Kihong

    2013-12-15

    A laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with the chemometric method was applied to rapidly discriminate between soils contaminated with heavy metals or oils and clean soils. The effects of the water contents and grain sizes of soil samples on LIBS emissions were also investigated. The LIBS emission lines decreased by 59-75% when the water content increased from 1.2% to 7.8%, and soil samples with a grain size of 75 μm displayed higher LIBS emission lines with lower relative standard deviations than those with a 2mm grain size. The water content was found to have a more pronounced effect on the LIBS emission lines than the grain size. Pelletizing and sieving were conducted for all samples collected from abandoned mining areas and military camp to have similar water contents and grain sizes before being analyzed by the LIBS with the chemometric analysis. The data show that three types of soil samples were clearly discerned by using the first three principal components from the spectral data of soil samples. A blind test was conducted with a 100% correction rate for soil samples contaminated with heavy metals and oil residues.

  11. Field demonstrations of a direct push FO-LIBS metal sensor.

    PubMed

    Mosier-Boss, P A; Lieberman, S H; Theriault, G A

    2002-09-15

    A direct push, FO-LIBS sensor probe for real-time, in-situ measurement of metals in soils has been built and its capabilities demonstrated at three sites. The response of the FO-LIBS sensor is affected by the soil matrix conditions of grain size, composition, and water content. For each site, uncontaminated soil was collected and spiked with known quantities of the metal under investigation. These calibration standards were used to generate a site-specific calibration curve, which compensates for variations in soil matrix conditions of grain size, composition, porosity, etc. To compensate for moisture content, extra laser pulses are used to volatilize the water, higher power densities and/or shortened acquisition delay times are used. The LIBS experiment inherently exhibits poor precision since it is a point measurement. When multiple spectra are taken of a single, homogenized soil sample, there is a significant amount of variability in the peak intensities. There is no internal standard available to correct for this variability. In this communication, it is shown that normalizing the peak areas under the spectral curves to one effectively corrects for variation due to differences in the plasma volume. Because the LIBS technique is essentially a point measurement the FO-LIBS sensor is used as a semiquantitative field screening tool and not as a quantitative analytical method. In the field demonstrations reported in this communication, remarkably good agreement between the in-situ FO-LIBS results and ICP lab results were obtained.

  12. Eye-safe infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions from energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ei E.; Hömmerich, Uwe; Yang, Clayton C.; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Samuels, Alan C.

    2016-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for detection of trace elements by monitoring the atomic and ionic emission from laser-induced plasmas. Besides elemental emissions from conventional UV-Vis LIBS, molecular LIBS emission signatures of the target compounds were observed in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region in recent studies. Most current LIBS studies employ the fundamental Nd:YAG laser output at 1.064 μm, which has extremely low eye-damage threshold. In this work, comparative LWIR-LIBS emissions studies using traditional 1.064 μm pumping and eye-safe laser wavelength at 1.574 μm were performed on several energetic materials for applications in chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) sensing. A Q-switched Nd: YAG laser operating at 1.064 μm and the 1.574 μm output of a pulsed Nd:YAG pumped Optical Parametric Oscillator were employed as the excitation sources. The investigated energetic materials were studied for the appearance of LWIR-LIBS emissions (4-12 μm) that are directly indicative of oxygenated breakdown products as well as partially dissociated and recombination molecular species. The observed molecular IR LIBS emission bands showed strong correlation with FTIR absorption spectra of the studied materials for 1.064 μm and 1.574 μm pump wavelengths.

  13. Soy- and rice-based processed complementary food increases nutrient intakes in infants and is equally acceptable with or without added milk powder.

    PubMed

    Paul, Keriann H; Dickin, Katherine L; Ali, Nadra S; Monterrosa, Eva C; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2008-10-01

    Processed complementary foods (PCF) might mitigate several complementary feeding barriers in developing countries. Efficacy trials, however, have not shown substantial improvements in child growth, possibly due to inadequate formative research to assess acceptability and identify pitfalls. Milk powder might improve palatability of PCF but incurs a higher cost. We compared the acceptability of an instant soy-rice PCF without (SR) and with (SRM) milk powder. Best practices for formative evaluation of PCF are not established. We therefore compared findings from randomized trials of SR vs. SRM in 1-d sensory tests (n = 71 mother-infant dyads) vs. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs), a 2-wk in-home mixed methods evaluation (n = 54 dyads). TIPs included interviews, disappearance rates, observations, and 24-h dietary recalls to assess acceptance, consumption of the 50 g/d ration, and impact on diet. Although mothers preferred SRM to SR in the sensory tests, children in the TIPs consumed >50 g/d of SR (87 +/- 9 g/d) and SRM (89 +/- 8 g/d) with no difference between the foods (P = 0.55). Despite some replacement of family food, energy (574 kJ/d; P < 0.001) and protein (19 g protein/d; P < 0.001) increased in both groups. Mothers' preferences for milk, more sugar in SR, and preparation with hot water were concerns raised in the sensory tests that proved insignificant in TIPs. However, TIPs uncovered new concerns of overconsumption and food safety. We found milk did not improve the acceptability of the soy-rice PCF and recommend TIPs as a useful tool for formative research of PCF interventions.

  14. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for identification of non intentionally added substances in acrylic adhesives used in food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Domeño, C; Alfaro, P; Nerín, C

    2012-04-27

    Acrylic adhesives are used to manufacture multilayer laminates that are used in food packaging to form the geometric shape of the package as well as to stick labels on the packages. Once applied on the packaging adhesives can supply potential migrants that could endanger the packaged food. Adhesives are complex matrices where intentionally and non intentionally added substances are present, but the identification of the migrants is required by law. In this study atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole hyphenated to a time of flight mass spectrometer (APGC-MS/Q-TOF) has been explored for identification of unknowns coming from three different acrylic adhesives. The results are compared to those obtained by conventional GC-MS-Q (quadrupole). Sixteen compounds were identified by GC-MS/Q and five of them were confirmed by APGC-MS/Q-TOF as their molecular ions were found. Moreover, additional three new compounds were identified and their structure was elucidated working with the spectra obtained by APGC-MS/Q-TOF. This finding was very relevant as these compounds were biocides suspected to be allergenic and cytotoxic in humans. Migration studies were carried out using Tenax as solid food simulant and the results showed that the three acrylic adhesives tested in this work were safe for being used in food packaging materials since the migration of compounds previously identified was below the limit established in the current legislation.

  15. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goffe, Louis; Wrieden, Wendy; Penn, Linda; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving. Design Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes), amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty), time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s), and individual serving. Setting Controlled, laboratory, conditions. Participants A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women) aged 18–59 years. Main Outcome Measures Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers. Results Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD) of 7.86g (4.54) per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22). The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001). This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (psfood, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers’ salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake. PMID:27668747

  16. libRoadRunner: a high performance SBML simulation and analysis library

    PubMed Central

    Somogyi, Endre T.; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie; Glazier, James A.; König, Matthias; Medley, J. Kyle; Swat, Maciej H.; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: This article presents libRoadRunner, an extensible, high-performance, cross-platform, open-source software library for the simulation and analysis of models expressed using Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). SBML is the most widely used standard for representing dynamic networks, especially biochemical networks. libRoadRunner is fast enough to support large-scale problems such as tissue models, studies that require large numbers of repeated runs and interactive simulations. Results: libRoadRunner is a self-contained library, able to run both as a component inside other tools via its C++ and C bindings, and interactively through its Python interface. Its Python Application Programming Interface (API) is similar to the APIs of MATLAB (www.mathworks.com) and SciPy (http://www.scipy.org/), making it fast and easy to learn. libRoadRunner uses a custom Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler built on the widely used LLVM JIT compiler framework. It compiles SBML-specified models directly into native machine code for a variety of processors, making it appropriate for solving extremely large models or repeated runs. libRoadRunner is flexible, supporting the bulk of the SBML specification (except for delay and non-linear algebraic equations) including several SBML extensions (composition and distributions). It offers multiple deterministic and stochastic integrators, as well as tools for steady-state analysis, stability analysis and structural analysis of the stoichiometric matrix. Availability and implementation: libRoadRunner binary distributions are available for Mac OS X, Linux and Windows. The library is licensed under Apache License Version 2.0. libRoadRunner is also available for ARM-based computers such as the Raspberry Pi. http://www.libroadrunner.org provides online documentation, full build instructions, binaries and a git source repository. Contacts: hsauro@u.washington.edu or somogyie@indiana.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available

  17. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  18. Long-wave, infrared laser-induced breakdown (LIBS) spectroscopy emissions from energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter

    2012-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown great promise for applications in chemical, biological, and explosives sensing and has significant potential for real-time standoff detection and analysis. In this study, LIBS emissions were obtained in the mid-infrared (MIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions for potential applications in explosive material sensing. The IR spectroscopy region revealed vibrational and rotational signatures of functional groups in molecules and fragments thereof. The silicon-based detector for conventional ultraviolet-visible LIBS operations was replaced with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector for MIR-LWIR spectral detection. The IR spectral signature region between 4 and 12 μm was mined for the appearance of MIR and LWIR-LIBS emissions directly indicative of oxygenated breakdown products as well as dissociated, and/or recombined sample molecular fragments. Distinct LWIR-LIBS emission signatures from dissociated-recombination sample molecular fragments between 4 and 12 μm are observed for the first time.

  19. Following the Pulsations of GW Lib and V455 and after Superoutburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula

    Two cataclysmic variables containing pulsating white dwarfs underwent outbursts in 2007 (GW Lib and V455 And). As we know outbursts heat the white dwarfs by more than 10,000K and they gradually cool to their quiescent temperatures over the course of about 3 years, these two objects present the first unique opportunity to follow the pulsation spectrum of a white dwarf as it cools on much more rapid timescales than evolutionary ones for single white dwarfs. As these 2 objects cool, they should re-enter their instability strips and we can witness changes in the driving mechanism and detect modes that are excited by the T changes. Our 2008 ground-based data on GW Lib has shown a new pulsation at a longer period than at quiescence. The data in 2009 will be combined with our time for GW Lib in Cycle 4 and our DOT time in 2007 to follow the long term cooling of GW Lib and obtain similar information on V455 And. The higher pulse amplitude in UV vs optical and the time-tag mode means that GALEX can provide optimum data over the optical. Data on both systems will provide an important contrast in how the white dwarfs react to an outburst, as GW Lib at quiescence has a hot white dwarf far outside the normal instability strip for non-accreting white dwarfs, while V455 And is cool and inside this strip.

  20. Ultrasonic Nebulizer Assisted LIBS: a Promising Metal Elements Detection Method for Aqueous Sample Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shilei; Zheng, Ronger; Lu, Yuan; Cheng, Kai; Xiu, Junshan

    2015-11-01

    A newly developed approach for trace metal elements detection for aqueous samples analysis is presented in this paper. The idea of this approach is to improve ablation efficiency by transforming the liquid sample into a dense cloud of droplets using an ultrasonic nebulizer. The resulting droplets are then subjected to analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A purpose-built ultrasonic nebulizer assisted LIBS (UN-LIBS) system has been applied to the analysis of aqueous samples at trace levels of concentration. Experimental investigations of solution samples were carried out with various dissolved trace metal elements (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mg and Na) using this approach. The characteristics of UN-LIBS signal of the elements were investigated regarding the lifetime and S/B ratio and the calibration curves for trace metal elements analyses. The obtained LODs are comparable or much better than the LODS of the reported signal enhancement approaches when the laser pulse energy was as low as 30 mJ. The good linearity of calibration curves and the low LODs shows the potential ability of this method for metal elements analysis application. The density of the electrons was calculated by measuring the Stark width of the line of Hα. The possible mechanism of the LIBS signal enhancement of this approach was briefly discussed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11104153)

  1. libRASCH--a programming framework for transparent access to physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R; Bauer, A; Barthel, P; Schmidt, G

    2004-01-01

    For the analysis of physiological signals, such as ECG's, continuous blood pressure recordings etc., access to the raw signal data as well as to processed data is mandatory. Up to now, there is no computer program which allows access to raw and processed data independently from the file formats used. Thus, programs have to be adapted to each new file format. The aim of the programming library 'libRASCH', is to provide an interface which allows the access to physiological signals in a consistent way. libRASCH is written in C and runs under Linux and Windows. The source code of libRASCH is published under the GNU LGPL. A plugin mechanism for extension of the library was implemented. Support for some widely used data formats (e.g. European Data Format) is already available. To support a new file-format, only the corresponding plugin has to be written. Moreover all programs using this library, can handle the new format without further adjustments. For other programming languages than C (e.g. Perl, Python), interfaces are available. On the libRASCH website (http://www.librasch.org), the source code of libRASCH and further information's are available.

  2. Inverse Calibration Free fs-LIBS of Copper-Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaldone, Antonella; De Bonis, Angela; Galasso, Agostino; Guarnaccio, Ambra; Santagata, Antonio; Teghil, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    In this work the analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique of copper-based alloys having different composition and performed with fs laser pulses is presented. A Nd:Glass laser (Twinkle Light Conversion, λ = 527 nm at 250 fs) and a set of bronze and brass certified standards were used. The inverse Calibration-Free method (inverse CF-LIBS) was applied for estimating the temperature of the fs laser induced plasma in order to achieve quantitative elemental analysis of such materials. This approach strengthens the hypothesis that, through the assessment of the plasma temperature occurring in fs-LIBS, straightforward and reliable analytical data can be provided. With this aim the capability of the here adopted inverse CF-LIBS method, which is based on the fulfilment of the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition, for an indirect determination of the species excitation temperature, is shown. It is reported that the estimated temperatures occurring during the process provide a good figure of merit between the certified and the experimentally determined composition of the bronze and brass materials, here employed, although further correction procedure, like the use of calibration curves, can be demanded. The reported results demonstrate that the inverse CF-LIBS method can be applied when fs laser pulses are used even though the plasma properties could be affected by the matrix effects restricting its full employment to unknown samples provided that a certified standard having similar composition is available.

  3. The mutual effect of metal sample and turboflame in LIBS signal enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezelbash, M.; Mousavi, S. J.; Majd, A. E.; Darbani, S. M. R.; Saghafifar, H.; Maleki, A.

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the mutual effect of copper sample and turboflame in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) signal enhancement. The use of copper sample leads to a signal enhancement in CN ( B 2Σ+- X 2Σ+) 384.2-388.4 nm molecular transition, N742nm, N744nm, N746nm (a triplet generated by the fine splitting of the 2 s 22 p 2(3 P)3 s-2 s 22 p 2(3 P)3 p transition) and Hα, 656.3 nm (as a flame inductor) atomic lines analysis. Additionally, increase in copper sample temperature with flame can enhance the Cu atomic line intensities (as copper sample inductors). Moreover, in this paper, the comparison between turboflame and alcohol flame on LIBS analysis was studied. LIBS signal intensity variation in a turboflame and turboflame coupled with copper sample at different laser pulse energies indicated that the low laser pulse energy could be compensated by using a copper sample that is coupled with turboflame and improved LIBS signal enhancement. For flames analysis, the use of metal sample in LIBS method is demonstrated to be costeffective, compact, and capable of signal enhancement.

  4. Simultaneous determination of 30 hormones illegally added to anti-ageing functional foods using UPLC-MS/MS coupled with SPE clean-up.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqin; Xi, Cunxian; Tang, Bobin; Wang, Guomin; Chen, Dongdong; Peng, Tao; Mu, Zhaode

    2014-01-01

    A novel analytical method employing solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 30 hormones in anti-ageing functional foods (capsules, powders and tablets). The analytes were extracted with acetic acid-acetonitrile (1-99 v/v), methanol and acetone, respectively. The extract was purified using a combined column, followed by analyte detection with electrospray ionisation in positive- or negative-ion modes. The results indicated that the 30 compounds had good linear correlations in the range of 1-1000 μg kg⁻¹, and the correlation coefficients were above 0.99. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.03-2 and 0.1-5 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. The average recovery of 30 compounds at the three spiked levels varied from 74.7% to 124.1%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.4-15.0%. This method was applied to the analysis of hormones in 14 real samples of which seven hormones (such as estrone, dienestrol) were detected in four samples, but the remainder of the hormones were not detected. The developed method is sensitive, efficient, reliable and applicable to real samples.

  5. Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to Mars polar exploration : LIBS analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, Z. A.; Cremers, D. A.; Wiens, R. C.

    2004-01-01

    The polar regions of Mars are of great interest due to the presence of water ice and CO{sub 2} ice combined with wind blown deposits. Due to seasonal changes and repeated cycles of precipitating dusts and H{sub 2}O, geological samples appear to have built up in the polar regions. These polar layered deposits (PLD) may include volcanic ash, fallout from surface impacts, evaporates from subliming lakes and seas and even wind blown ancient microbial life. The ability to examine the PLDs will be of great importance in the study of past Martian geological history and the determination of the past presence of life on Mars. Analysis of the ice fields which are present in the polar regions of Mars will almost certainly be of great interest to future surface rovers and landers to this region. The use of LIBS will maximize the scientific return of these missions. Through the development of a compact sensor head and a pan and tilt mechanism, analysis of PLD may be made in areas that are otherwise inaccessible to either a lander or a surface rover. This gives LIBS a significant advantage over other analysis techniques which require more than just optical access. Also, through the use of repetitive laser pulses it will be possible to ablate away the water ice layer to better examine the PLDs which exist below the surface. Another potential use for LIBS is the analysis of retrieved ice core samples. Laser pulses formed along the length of the ice core can monitor composition as a function of depth. This method has already been shown to work for mineral drill cores and terrestrial ice cores using laser ablation ICP-MS. Prior work on the use of LIBS for analysis of ice has focused on the detection of trace metal ions in the ice. To our knowledge no further work has been reported on the use of LIBS for analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures. Here we will examine in detail the detection capabilities of LIBS on water ice and water ice/soil mixtures in an atmosphere similar

  6. Feasibility Study for Monitoring Actinide Elements in Process Materials Using FO-LIBS at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Bo-Young; Choi, Daewoong; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong; Dae, Dongsun; Whitehouse, Andrew I.

    2015-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been developing the design and deployment methodology of Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for safeguards application within the argon hot cell environment at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF), where ACPF is a facility being refurbished for the laboratory-scaled demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process. LIBS is an analysis technology used to measure the emission spectra of excited elements in the local plasma of a target material induced by a laser. The spectra measured by LIBS are analyzed to verify the quality and quantity of the specific element in the target matrix. Recently LIBS has been recognized as a promising technology for safeguards purposes in terms of several advantages including a simple sample preparation and in-situ analysis capability. In particular, a feasibility study of LIBS to remotely monitor the nuclear material in a high radiation environment has been carried out for supporting the IAEA safeguards implementation. Fiber-Optic LIBS (FO-LIBS) deployment was proposed by Applied Photonics Ltd because the use of fiber optics had benefited applications of LIBS by delivering the laser energy to the target and by collecting the plasma light. The design of FO-LIBS instrument for the measurement of actinides in the spent fuel and high temperature molten salt at ACPF had been developed in cooperation with Applied Photonics Ltd. FO-LIBS has some advantages as followings: the detectable plasma light wavelength range is not limited by the optical properties of the thick lead-glass shield window and the potential risk of laser damage to the lead-glass shield window is not considered. The remote LIBS instrument had been installed at ACPF and then the feasibility study for monitoring actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium, and curium in process materials has been carried out. (authors)

  7. Combined LIBS-Raman for remote detection and characterization of biological samples

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Aaron S.; Mukundan, Harshini; Mcinroy, Rhonda E.; ...

    2015-02-07

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman Spectroscopy have rich histories in the analysis of a wide variety of samples in both in situ and remote configurations. Our team is working on building a deployable, integrated Raman and LIBS spectrometer (RLS) for the parallel elucidation of elemental and molecular signatures under Earth and Martian surface conditions. Herein, results from remote LIBS and Raman analysis of biological samples such as amino acids, small peptides, mono- and disaccharides, and nucleic acids acquired under terrestrial and Mars conditions are reported, giving rise to some interesting differences. A library of spectra and peaks of interestmore » were compiled, and will be used to inform the analysis of more complex systems, such as large peptides, dried bacterial spores, and biofilms. Lastly, these results will be presented and future applications will be discussed, including the assembly of a combined RLS spectroscopic system and stand-off detection in a variety of environments.« less

  8. Combined LIBS-Raman for remote detection and characterization of biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Aaron S.; Mukundan, Harshini; Mcinroy, Rhonda E.; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2015-02-07

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman Spectroscopy have rich histories in the analysis of a wide variety of samples in both in situ and remote configurations. Our team is working on building a deployable, integrated Raman and LIBS spectrometer (RLS) for the parallel elucidation of elemental and molecular signatures under Earth and Martian surface conditions. Herein, results from remote LIBS and Raman analysis of biological samples such as amino acids, small peptides, mono- and disaccharides, and nucleic acids acquired under terrestrial and Mars conditions are reported, giving rise to some interesting differences. A library of spectra and peaks of interest were compiled, and will be used to inform the analysis of more complex systems, such as large peptides, dried bacterial spores, and biofilms. Lastly, these results will be presented and future applications will be discussed, including the assembly of a combined RLS spectroscopic system and stand-off detection in a variety of environments.

  9. Combined LIBS-Raman for remote detection and characterization of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Aaron S.; Mukundan, Harshini; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman Spectroscopy have rich histories in the analysis of a wide variety of samples in both in situ and remote configurations. Our team is working on building a deployable, integrated Raman and LIBS spectrometer (RLS) for the parallel elucidation of elemental and molecular signatures under Earth and Martian surface conditions. Herein, results from remote LIBS and Raman analysis of biological samples such as amino acids, small peptides, mono- and disaccharides, and nucleic acids acquired under terrestrial and Mars conditions are reported, giving rise to some interesting differences. A library of spectra and peaks of interest were compiled, and will be used to inform the analysis of more complex systems, such as large peptides, dried bacterial spores, and biofilms. These results will be presented and future applications will be discussed, including the assembly of a combined RLS spectroscopic system and stand-off detection in a variety of environments.

  10. Adding multiple micronutrient powders to a homestead food production programme yields marginally significant benefit on anaemia reduction among young children in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Osei, Akoto K; Pandey, Pooja; Spiro, David; Adhikari, Debendra; Haselow, Nancy; De Morais, Caroline; Davis, Dale

    2015-12-01

    Anaemia affects 46% of preschool-aged children in Nepal. A cluster-randomised study was conducted in rural Nepal to test whether providing micronutrient powders (MNP) in addition to enhanced homestead food production (EHFP) programme, consisting of home gardens, poultry and nutrition education, could lead to a higher reduction in anaemia compared with providing only EHFP. This sub-study enrolled 335 children aged 6-9 months into one of three groups: (1) EHFP + MNP; (2) EHFP; or (3) control. The EHFP + MNP group received 60 sachets of MNP for flexible consumption at the start and 6 months later for a total supplementation period of 11 months. The MNP contained 15 micronutrients including iron (10 mg encapsulated ferrous fumarate). Haemoglobin and anthropometry were measured at baseline and post-MNP supplementation. Mean ± SE haemoglobin concentration increased significantly in all groups, with a slightly higher but non-significant increase in the EHFP + MNP and EHFP compared with control (difference-in-differences: 4.1 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. control; 3.6 g L(-1) for EHFP vs. control; 0.5 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. EHFP). Anaemia decreased at a slightly higher magnitude in the EHFP + MNP [51.5 percentage points (PP)] than the EHFP (48.6 PP) and control (39.6 PP), with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) at post-supplementation of 0.52 (0.25-1.12) for EHFP + MNP and 0.69 (0.35-1.36) for EHFP, compared with control. There was no impact on child growth. Combining EHFP and MNP programmes yielded a marginally significant reduction in anaemia among children.

  11. Analysis of environmental lead contamination: comparison of LIBS field and laboratory instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainner, R. T.; Harmon, R. S.; Miziolek, A. W.; McNesby, K. L.; French, P. D.

    2001-06-01

    The Army Research Office of the Army Research Laboratory recently sponsored the development of a commercial laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) chemical sensor that is sufficiently compact and robust for use in the field. This portable unit was developed primarily for the rapid, non-destructive detection of lead (Pb) in soils and in paint. In order to better characterize the portable system, a comparative study was undertaken in which the performance of the portable system was compared with a laboratory LIBS system at the Army Research Laboratory that employs a much more sophisticated laser and detector. The particular focus of this study was to determine the effects on the performance of the field sensor's lower spectral resolution, lack of detector gating, and the multiple laser pulsing that occurs when using a passively Q-switched laser. Surprisingly, both the laboratory and portable LIBS systems exhibited similar performance with regards to detection of Pb in both soils and in paint over the 0.05-1% concentration levels. This implies that for samples similar to those studied here, high-temporal resolution time gating of the detector is not necessary for quantitative analysis by LIBS. It was also observed that the multiple pulsing of the laser did not have a significant positive or negative effect on the measurement of Pb concentrations. The alternative of using other Pb lines besides the strong 406-nm line was also investigated. No other Pb line was superior in strength to the 406-nm line for the latex paint and the type of soils used in the study, although the emission line at 220 nm in the UV portion of the spectrum holds potential for avoiding elemental interferences. These results are very encouraging for the development of lightweight, portable LIBS sensors that use less expensive and less sophisticated laser and detector components. The portable LIBS system was also field tested successfully at sites of documented Pb contamination on military

  12. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was <10% for most elements. LIBS limits of detection were <33 ppm and bias <40% for most elements. In a proof of principle study, the LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  13. Automated Interpretation of LIBS Spectra using a Fuzzy Logic Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy J. Hatch; Timothy R. McJunkin; Cynthia Hanson; Jill R. Scott

    2012-02-01

    Automated interpretation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data is necessary due to the plethora of spectra that can be acquired in a relatively short time. However, traditional chemometric and artificial neural network methods that have been employed are not always transparent to a skilled user. A fuzzy logic approach to data interpretation has now been adapted to LIBS spectral interpretation. A fuzzy logic inference engine (FLIE) was used to differentiate between various copper containing and stainless steel alloys as well as unknowns. Results using FLIE indicate a high degree of confidence in spectral assignment.

  14. Application of Handheld Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to Geochemical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Connors, Brendan; Somers, Andrew; Day, David

    2016-05-01

    While laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been in use for decades, only within the last two years has technology progressed to the point of enabling true handheld, self-contained instruments. Several instruments are now commercially available with a range of capabilities and features. In this paper, the SciAps Z-500 handheld LIBS instrument functionality and sub-systems are reviewed. Several assayed geochemical sample sets, including igneous rocks and soils, are investigated. Calibration data are presented for multiple elements of interest along with examples of elemental mapping in heterogeneous samples. Sample preparation and the data collection method from multiple locations and data analysis are discussed.

  15. Automated interpretation of LIBS spectra using a fuzzy logic inference engine.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Jeremy J; McJunkin, Timothy R; Hanson, Cynthia; Scott, Jill R

    2012-03-01

    Automated interpretation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data is necessary due to the plethora of spectra that can be acquired in a relatively short time. However, traditional chemometric and artificial neural network methods that have been employed are not always transparent to a skilled user. A fuzzy logic approach to data interpretation has now been adapted to LIBS spectral interpretation. Fuzzy logic inference rules were developed using methodology that includes data mining methods and operator expertise to differentiate between various copper-containing and stainless steel alloys as well as unknowns. Results using the fuzzy logic inference engine indicate a high degree of confidence in spectral assignment.

  16. Geochemical analysis of layered outcrops using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) - Implications for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobron, P.; Lefebvre, C.; Leveille, R. J.; Koujelev, A.; Haltigin, T.; Hongwei, D.; Wang, A.; Cabrol, N. A.; Zacny, K.; Craft, J.

    2012-12-01

    The chemistry and the stratigraphy of sedimentary, evaporative, and other types of deposits are indicators of their depositional environment and climate, and the evolution of these over time. Over the past eight years, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) have investigated several outcrops at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater. Compared to the MER, the capabilities of Curiosity to investigate outcrops and other deposits are enhanced because the rover incorporates a stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument within the ChemCam suite. ChemCam's LIBS instrument has the capability to obtain chemical information from a large variety of targets at various distances, up to 7 m, including targets at a distance within stratigraphic layers non-accessible to other payload elements. In this work we demonstrate that semi-quantitative chemical stratigraphy can be very rapidly obtained by performing LIBS measurements on visually distinct layers within an outcrop at a terrestrial Mars analogue: the Atacama Desert, Chile. Such semi-quantitative chemical stratigraphy provides very valuable information on the distribution of elements within the analyzed layers, which can be used for tactical mission planning purposes. We performed laboratory laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser Raman spectroscopy measurement on field samples from a layered outcrop from the Atacama Desert, Chile. This layered outcrop is a good terrestrial morphological analogue for similar formations that will likely be investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory on Gale crater. Our results demonstrate that LIBS can generate semi-quantitative chemical profiles in less than 1 min using automated data processing tools, and therefore the LIBS instrument can become an invaluable tactical tool on MSL for rapid geochemical survey of layered outcrops. The derived chemical profile at the terrestrial analogue is consistent with the range of minerals identified by Raman spectroscopy. In the

  17. Costs and health effects of adding functional foods containing phytosterols/-stanols to statin therapy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Feenstra, Talitha L; Toxopeus, Ido B; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Klungel, Olaf H; Verhagen, Hans; van Kranen, Henk J; Rompelberg, Cathy J M

    2011-09-01

    The present modelling study aimed to evaluate if and by how much functional foods containing phytosterols/-stanols add to the benefits of statins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in terms of cost-effectiveness. Long-term health effects, measured as quality-adjusted life-years gained, and costs for scenarios with additional phytosterol/-stanol use were compared to scenarios without extra use. Phytosterols/-stanols were given only to persons who were eligible for use according to their 10-year absolute risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (SCORE-risk). Intake levels and discontinuation rates as observed in daily practice were included in the model. Two situations were compared: 1) A real-life situation in which persons at high SCORE-risk were identified through clinical case-finding and, 2) A theoretical maximum situation where universal screening was implemented resulting in known SCORE-risks for the whole Dutch population aged 35-75 years (8.4 million people). Sensitivity analyses were performed for variations in the cholesterol-lowering effect and intake level of phytosterols/-stanols, indirect health care costs, time horizon and discount rates. At the model's start year, a total of 1.0 (real-life situation) to 3.3 (maximum situation) million persons qualified for phytosterol/-stanol use based on their SCORE-risk (both statin users and statin non-users). Over the model's time horizon, this resulted in a gain of 2700 to 16,300 quality-adjusted life-years, and yielded cost-effectiveness ratios that ranged between €92,000 and €203,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. This simulation study showed that the cost-effectiveness of phytosterols/-stanols as monotherapy and as add-on to statins is above thresholds for cost-effectiveness, generally ranging between €20,000 and €50,000, and is thus a non-cost-effective strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease.

  18. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  19. Scaling Users' Perceptions of Library Service Quality Using Item Response Theory: A LibQUAL+ [TM] Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Youhua; Thompson, Bruce; Cook, C. Colleen

    2005-01-01

    LibQUAL+[TM] data to date have not been subjected to the modern measurement theory called polytomous item response theory (IRT). The data interpreted here were collected from 42,090 participants who completed the "American English" version of the 22 core LibQUAL+[TM] items, and 12,552 participants from Australia and Europe who…

  20. On-Premises Library versus Google-Like Information Gateway Usage Patterns: A LibQUAL+[R] Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Kyrillidou, Martha; Cook, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    Using LibQUAL+[R] data provided by 295,355 of the participants who completed the LibQUAL+[R] survey in 2003, 2004, and 2005, the present study was conducted to address three research questions. First, what differences, if any, have occurred across time in the use by (a) undergraduates, (b) graduate students/postgraduates, and (c) faculty of…

  1. LIBS-based detection of geological samples at low pressures (<0.001 torr) for moon and asteroid exploration.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R. D.; Cremers, D. A.; Khoo, C.; Benelli, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    LIBS is under development for future use on surface probes to Mars. Under simulated Mars atmospheric composition and pressure (7 torr, predominately CO{sub 2}), LIBS has been shown useful for qualitative and quantitative analysis of geological samples at close and stand-off distances (19 m). Because of its many advantages compared to previously deployed and current in-use methods of elemental analysis (e.g. x-ray fluorescence, APXS), LIBS has potential for application to other planetary bodies. Of particular interest are the Moon and asteroids having very low ambient gas pressures at the surface. Because the laser plasma used by LIBS is sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere, it is important to determine analysis capabilities under these conditions. The results of a study of LIBS capabilities at low pressure is presented here for both in-situ and stand-off analysis.

  2. Capabilities of LIBS for analysis of geological samples at stand-off distances in a Mars atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, D. A.; Wiens, R. C.; Ferris, M. J.; Brennetot, R.; Maurice, S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of LIBS for stand-off elemental analysis of geological and other samples in a simulated Mars atmosphere is being evaluated. Analytical capabilities, matrix effects, and other factors effecting analysis are being determined. Through funding from NASA's Mars Instrument Development Program (MIDP), we have been evaluating the use of LIBS for future use on landers and rovers to Mars. Of particular interest is the use of LIBS for stand-off measurements of geological samples up to 20 meters from the instrument. Very preliminary work on such remote LIBS measurements based on large laboratory type equipment was carried out about a decade ago. Recent work has characterized the capabilities using more compact instrumentation and some measurements have been conducted with LIBS on a NASA rover testbed.

  3. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  4. CN and C2 vibrational spectra analysis in molecular LIBS of organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. J.; Hemati Farsani, M.; Darbani, S. M. R.; Mousaviazar, A.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Eslami Majd, A.

    2016-05-01

    With the objective of investigation of the influence of molecular structure on CN violet and C2 Swan bands system spectra, plasma emissions from different organic materials, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic carboxylic acid, aliphatic carboxylic acid, amides and polymers, have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique in air. To evaluate the influence of N2 and O2 molecules concentration on the CN and C2 molecular emissions, LIB spectra of four different samples have been recorded in air (approximately 80 % N2 and 20 % O2), nitrogen, oxygen and argon atmospheres. Experimental results indicate that the main reason for the absence of C2 emission in LIB spectra of samples which do not contain C-C bonds, when measurements were taken in air, is the presence of oxygen which could potentially deplete C2 emission rather than the absence of C-C bonds in their structure. Also, comparisons between experiment and theory spectra are made using a Nelder-Mead temperature program for CN and C2 bands with the ∆ν = 0 sequences from LIB spectra of different samples in various atmospheres. Furthermore, CN and C2 vibrational temperatures in Kelvin (K) are calculated from these spectral fittings. Both CN and C2 vibrational temperatures have highest values in argon atmosphere, and increasing the oxygen concentration in ambient atmosphere decreased those in most cases.

  5. Engineering superconductors with ab initio methods: the example of LiB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    2007-03-01

    The identification of novel crystal structures is a fundamental step for predicting new stable compounds in alloys. While performing ab initio data mining of intermetallic compounds [1], we discover a new family of layered metal borides [2], of which MgB2 is one particular element (the new phases are called Metal Sandwich (MS)). Thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of these MS phases are investigated in details, leading to the prediction of a hypothetical novel superconductor MS-LiB [2,3]. Calculations show that the MS phases in the Li-B system exhibit electronic features similar to those of MgB2 [2,3] and CaC6 [4]. Although the predicted critical temperature of LiB is lower than that of MgB2 (references [4] and [5] for MS2-LiB and MS1-LiB, respectively), the peculiarities of MS-LiB in terms of electronic structure, layer arrangements and doping capabilities allow a lot of freedom in the search for higher Tc systems [5]. We acknowledge the San Diego Supercomputer Center for computational resources. [1] S. Curtarolo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 135503 (2003). [2] A.N. Kolmogorov, S. Curtarolo, Phys. Rev. B 73, 180501(R) (2006). [3] A.N. Kolmogorov, S. Curtarolo, in press, Phys. Rev B 74 (2006), condmat/0607654. [4] A.Y. Liu, I.I. Mazin, cond-mat/0610057. [5] M. Calandra, A.N. Kolmogorov, S. Curtarolo, submitted (2006).

  6. Involving Faculty in BI-LIB 111: Information Literacy at Ulster County Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Robin

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, faculty at Ulster County Community College (now SUNY Ulster) have been teaching LIB 111: Information Literacy. As a result of an information literacy initiative that began in 1992, the reference librarians and faculty at SUNY Ulster developed an award-winning information literacy course. Teaching faculty are trained to teach the…

  7. Qualitative evaluation of maternal milk and commercial infant formulas via LIBS.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Al Sharnoubi, J; Harith, M A

    2013-10-15

    This study focuses on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the evaluation of the nutrients in maternal milk and some commercially available infant formulas. The results of such evaluation are vital for adequate and healthy feeding for babies during lactation period. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy offers special advantages in comparison to the other conventional analytical techniques. Specifically, LIBS is a straightforward technique that can be used in situ to provide qualitative analytical information in few minutes for the samples under investigation without preparation processes. The samples studied in the current work were maternal milk samples collected during the first 3 months of lactation (not colostrum milk) and samples from six different types of commercially available infant formulas. The samples' elemental composition has been compared with respect to the relative abundance of the elements of nutrition importance, namely Mg, Ca, Na, and Fe using their spectral emission lines in the relevant LIBS spectra. In addition, CN and C2 molecular emission bands in the same spectra have been studied as indicators of proteins content in the samples. The obtained analytical results demonstrate the higher elemental contents of the maternal milk compared with the commercial formulas samples. Similar results have been obtained as for the proteins content. It has been also shown that calcium and proteins have similar relative concentration trends in the studied samples. This work demonstrates the feasibility of adopting LIBS as a fast, safe, less costly technique evaluating qualitatively the nutrients content of both maternal and commercial milk samples.

  8. StrBioLib: a Java library for development of custom computationalstructural biology applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chandonia, John-Marc

    2007-05-14

    Summary: StrBioLib is a library of Java classes useful fordeveloping software for computational structural biology research.StrBioLib contains classes to represent and manipulate proteinstructures, biopolymer sequences, sets of biopolymer sequences, andalignments between biopolymers based on either sequence or structure.Interfaces are provided to interact with commonly used bioinformaticsapplications, including (PSI)-BLAST, MODELLER, MUSCLE, and Primer3, andtools are provided to read and write many file formats used to representbioinformatic data. The library includes a general-purpose neural networkobject with multiple training algorithms, the Hooke and Jeeves nonlinearoptimization algorithm, and tools for efficient C-style string parsingand formatting. StrBioLib is the basis for the Pred2ary secondarystructure prediction program, is used to build the ASTRAL compendium forsequence and structure analysis, and has been extensively tested throughuse in many smaller projects. Examples and documentation are available atthe site below.Availability: StrBioLib may be obtained under the terms ofthe GNU LGPL license from http://strbio.sourceforge.net/Contact:JMChandonia@lbl.gov

  9. An exploratory study of the potential of LIBS for visualizing gunshot residue patterns.

    PubMed

    López-López, María; Alvarez-Llamas, César; Pisonero, Jorge; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Bordel, Nerea

    2017-04-01

    The study of gunshot residue (GSR) patterns can assist in the reconstruction of shooting incidences. Currently, there is a real need of methods capable of furnishing simultaneous elemental analysis with higher specificity for the GSR pattern visualization. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a multi-elemental analysis of the sample, requiring very small amounts of material and no sample preparation. Due to these advantages, this study aims at exploring the potential of LIBS imaging for the visualization of GSR patterns. After the spectral characterization of individual GSR particles, the distribution of Pb, Sb and Ba over clothing targets, shot from different distances, were measured in laser raster mode. In particular, an array of spots evenly spaced at 800μm, using a stage displacement velocity of 4mm/s and a laser frequency of 5Hz was employed (e.g. an area of 130×165mm(2) was measured in less than 3h). A LIBS set-up based on the simultaneous use of two spectrographs with iCCD cameras and a motorized stage was used. This set-up allows obtaining information from two different wavelength regions (258-289 and 446-463nm) from the same laser induced plasma, enabling the simultaneous detection of the three characteristic elements (Pb, Sb, and Ba) of GSR particles from conventional ammunitions. The ability to visualize the 2D distribution GSR pattern by LIBS may have an important application in the forensic field, especially for the ballistics area.

  10. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  11. Using Localized Survey Items to Augment Standardized Benchmarking Measures: A LibQUAL+[TM] Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2006-01-01

    The LibQUAL+[TM] protocol solicits open-ended comments from users with regard to library service quality, gathers data on 22 core items, and, at the option of individual libraries, also garners ratings on five items drawn from a pool of more than 100 choices selected by libraries. In this article, the relationship of scores on these locally…

  12. Faculty Perception of Information Control Using LibQUAL+[TM] Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayongo, Jessica; Jones, Sherri

    2008-01-01

    The LibQUAL+[TM] survey was used in 2006 to assess library service quality at the University of Notre Dame. While results showed that the Libraries were meeting users' expectations for service in most areas, a closer examination of the data revealed dissatisfaction from a subgroup of users in one particular dimension of library services. This…

  13. Special Collections and the New Web: Using LibGuides to Provide Meaningful Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara; Griffin, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Librarians have long struggled to find user-friendly mediums to provide meaningful information to patrons using bibliographies, pathfinders, and subject guides with varying degrees of success. Content management systems, such as Springshare's LibGuides, have recently been developed to facilitate the creation of online subject guides. Special…

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of a portable LIBS system for detection of CWA on surfaces.

    PubMed

    L'Hermite, D; Vors, E; Vercouter, T; Moutiers, G

    2016-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a laser-based optical technique particularly suited for in situ surface analysis. A portable LIBS instrument was tested to detect surface chemical contamination by chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Test of detection of surface contamination was carried out in a toxlab facility with four CWAs, sarin (GB), lewisite (L1), mustard gas (HD), and VX, which were deposited on different substrates, wood, concrete, military green paint, gloves, and ceramic. The CWAs were detected by means of the detection of atomic markers (As, P, F, Cl, and S). The LIBS instrument can give a direct response in terms of detection thanks to an integrated interface for non-expert users or so called end-users. We have evaluated the capability of automatic detection of the selected CWAs. The sensitivity of our portable LIBS instrument was confirmed for the detection of a CWA at surface concentrations above 15 μg/cm(2). The simultaneous detection of two markers may lead to a decrease of the number of false positive.

  15. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+® Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+® survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on…

  16. Recent advances in the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a rapid point-of-care pathogen diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehse, Steven; Trojand, Daniel; Putnam, Russell; Gillies, Derek; Woodman, Ryan; Sheikh, Khadija; Daabous, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    There is a well-known and urgent need in the fields of medicine, environmental health and safety, food-processing, and defense/security to develop new 21st Century technologies for the rapid and sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens. In only the last five years, the use of a real-time elemental (atomic) analysis performed with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has made tremendous progress in becoming a viable technology for rapid bacterial pathogen detection and identification. In this talk we will show how this laser-based optical emission spectroscopic technique is able to sensitively assay the elemental composition of bacterial cells in situ. We will also present the latest achievements of our lab to fully develop LIBS-based bacterial sensing including simulation of a rapid urinary tract infection diagnosis and investigation of a variety of autonomous multivariate analysis algorithms. Lastly, we will show how this technology is now ready to be transitioned from the laboratory to field-portable and potentially man-portable instrumentation. The introduction of such a technology into popular use could very well transform the field of bacterial biosensing - a market valued at approximately 10 billion/year world-wide. Funding for this project was provided in part by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery Grant.

  17. Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almirall, Jose R.; Umpierrez, Sayuri; Castro, Waleska; Gornushkin, Igor; Winefordner, James

    2005-05-01

    Materials analysis and characterization can provide important information as evidence in legal proceedings. Although the utility of trace elemental analyses for comparisons of glass, paint chips, bullet lead and metal fragments has been shown to offer a high degree of discrimination between different sources of these materials, the instrumentation required for the generation of good analytical data in forensic comparisons can be beyond the reach of many forensic laboratories. Scanning Electron Microscopy with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) and, more recently, LA-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have been used in forensic laboratories for elemental analysis determinations. A newly developed Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument (Foster and Freeman Ltd., Evesham, U.K.) has been evaluated as a tool for the forensic elemental analysis of glass and compared in performance to other elemental methods in order to determine the utility of comparing casework sized glass samples. Developments in the instrumental design of this LIBS system, which is specifically designed to address the analytical requirements of the forensic laboratory, are presented. The utility of the LIBS system for the analysis of glass, paint, metals, gun shot residue and other matrices are also presented. The power of the LIBS-based elemental analysis to discriminate between different glass samples is also compared to the discrimination power of SEM-EDS, XRF and LA-ICP-MS. The relatively low cost (expected to be $ 60,000.), ease of operation and almost non-destructive nature of the LIBS analysis makes the technique a viable forensic elemental analysis tool.

  18. [Effect of Characteristic Variable Extraction on Accuracy of Cu in Navel Orange Peel by LIBS].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-bing; Yao, Ming-yin; Huang, Lin; Chen, Tian-bing; Zheng, Jian-hong; Fan, Shi-quan; Liu Mu-hua HE, Mu-hua; Lin, Jin-long; Ouyang, Jing-yi

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metals pollution in foodstuffs is more and more serious. It is impossible to satisfy the modern agricultural development by conventional chemical analysis. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technology with the characteristic of rapid and nondestructive detection. But LIBS' s repeatability, sensitivity and accuracy has much room to improve. In this work, heavy metal Cu in Gannan Navel Orange which is the Jiangxi specialty fruit will be predicted by LIBS. Firstly, the navel orange samples were contaminated in our lab. The spectra of samples were collected by irradiating the peel by optimized LIBS parameters. The laser energy was set as 20 mJ, delay time of Spectral Data Gathering was set as 1.2 micros, the integration time of Spectral data gathering was set as 2 ms. The real concentration in samples was obtained by AAS (atom absorption spectroscopy). The characteristic variables Cu I 324.7 and Cu I 327.4 were extracted. And the calibration model was constructed between LIBS spectra and real concentration about Cu. The results show that relative error of the predicted concentrations of three relational model were 7.01% or less, reached a minimum of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.02% respectively. The average relative errors were 2.33%, 3.10% and 26.3%. Tests showed that different characteristic variables decided different accuracy. It is very important to choose suitable characteristic variable. At the same time, this work is helpful to explore the distribution of heavy metals between pulp and peel.

  19. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6 Section 109.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND...

  20. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  1. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  2. A Simple Device for Lens-to-Sample Distance Adjustment in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Cortez, Juliana; Farias Filho, Benedito B; Fontes, Laiane M; Pasquini, Celio; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; de Souza Lins Borba, Flávia

    2017-01-01

    A simple device based on two commercial laser pointers is described to assist in the analysis of samples that present uneven surfaces and/or irregular shapes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The device allows for easy positioning of the sample surface at a reproducible distance from the focusing lens that conveys the laser pulse to generate the micro-plasma in a LIBS system, with reproducibility better than ±0.2 mm. In this way, fluctuations in the fluence (J cm(-2)) are minimized and the LIBS analytical signals can be obtained with a better precision even when samples with irregular surfaces are probed.

  3. Preliminary study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for a Venus mission

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, Z. A.; Cremers, D. A.; Wiens, R. C.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been proposed as a candidate analysis system for missions to Mars, asteroids, and recently Venus. This technique has several distinct advantages over other techniques which have been used on past missions (X-Ray fluorescence on Viking 1 and 2, 1976; APXS on Pathfiider, 1997; MER, 2004). Two of the more important advantages LIBS has over other techniques for a mission to Venus is rapid elemental analysis of both high and low Z value elements and stand-off analysis at distances of many meters. Rapid elemental analysis and stand-off analysis are very important to missions to Venus due to the harsh environment at the planet surface. From the Venera missions it is known that on the Venusian surface the pressures are approximately 9.1 MPa (90 atm) and the temperature is near 735 K. For these reasons, the Soviet Venera surface probes had operational lifetimes of less than 2 hours. Currently Venus is the target of one of four missions specifically mentioned for consideration for NASA's New Frontier Program with a launch date of 2010 or earlier. In light of this, it is beneficial to evaluate different analysis methods such as LIBS, which offer to greatly increase the scientific return from such a mission. Currently we have begun to evaluate LIBS detection in an environment with pressures and compositions which are similar to those found on Venus. Although the temperature of Venus ({approx} 735 K) has not been taken into account in these experiments, due to the high temperature of the plasma ({approx}8000 K) signifcant perturbations of excitation characteristics sufficient to affect LIBS analytical capability would not be expected. Previous work, however, has shown that the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere can have a strong effect on the detection of elements in soil. These studies have mainly concentrated on pressures at or below earth ambient pressure, but one study has shown successful results at elevated pressures (3

  4. Remote Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) of Martian Meteorites and Other Basaltic Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, S. M.; Thompson, J. R.; Wiens, R. C.; Barefield, J. E.; Vaniman, D. T.; Newsom, H. E.

    2005-12-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a rapid and quantitative analytical tool for elemental analysis in terrestrial1 and Martian environments. LIBS is one of two instruments comprising the "ChemCam" package recently selected for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Mission scheduled to launch in 2009. LIBS will be the first active remote sensing instrument to fly on a NASA rover, designed to interrogate samples to a distance of 9 m. In preparation for the MSL mission, we are working to improve our ability to extract quantitative results under the Martian environment. We recently completed a study in which we extracted quantitative elemental concentrations and calculated the oxide concentrations from two Martian basaltic shergottite meteorites, Dar al Gani (DaG) 476 and Zagami. The current LIBS laboratory setup involves ablating some material from the sample surface with a focused Nd:YAG (1064nm) laser. The ablated material produces a supersonically expanding plasma of electronically excited atoms. A dispersive spectrometer and an ICCD camera are used to record the spectral signatures emitted from the electronically excited atoms. In our experimental set-up, samples were placed at a distance of 5.4 m from the instrument in a vacuum chamber filled with 7 Torr CO2 to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Terrestrial basalt standards were used to generate calibration curves for all of the major elements and some of the minor and trace species including Si, Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Al, and Na. First, two blind basalt standards were analyzed and their compositions were found to match the actual compositions within the uncertainty of the measurement, being correctly distinguished from other available basalt standards. Next, LIBS was used to distinguish between two different basaltic Martian meteorites. Using 14 analysis spots of ~400 μm diameter on DaG 476 and 9 analysis spots on Zagami, LIBS distinguished the olivine-phyric (DaG 476) from the basaltic (Zagami

  5. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  6. Spectroscopic analysis of works of art using a single LIBS and pulsed Raman setup.

    PubMed

    Osticioli, I; Mendes, N F C; Porcinai, S; Cagnini, A; Castellucci, E

    2009-06-01

    A nanosecond pulsed laser setup has been optimized to perform laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and pulsed Raman spectroscopy measurements in the field of cultural heritage. Three different samples of artistic/architectural interest with different typologies have been analyzed. The results from the two techniques allowed the identification of the materials used in their manufacture or contaminating them, probably coming from atmospheric pollution and biological activity. No sampling and sample preparation was required before the measurements, and no visual or structural damage was observed. Depth profiling using LIBS was performed in one of the samples, providing elemental information along the different layers composing the object and covering its surface. The quality of the results and the rather short time needed for the measurements and for switching between techniques confirmed the instrument's capabilities and specificity for dealing with objects of artistic or historical interest.

  7. GH Lib: A multi-periodic Mira, not an eclipsing binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siviero, Alessandro; Munari, Ulisse; Righetti, Gian Luigi; Graziani, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    Over the period 2012-2016 we have obtained accurate V and R band photometry and 3400-8000 Ang spectroscopy which show the poorly studied variable GH Lib to be a multi-periodic Mira and not an Algol-type eclipsing binary. The main pulsation periods are 157 and 1180 days, with amplitudes of 3.5 and 1.0 mag, respectively. The spectral type change from M2III at maximum to M7III at minimum. The intensity of Halpha and Hbeta emission lines in GH Lib is much larger than in normal Miras, suggesting that the region of Balmer line formation is located at a larger radius (more external atmospheric layers) as if mixed with and not deeply below the region where absorption by TiO molecules occurs.

  8. Analysis of water ice and ice/dust mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, D. A.; Brown, Kari; Gibson, L. E.; Ferris, M. J.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.

    2003-01-01

    In 1992, LIBS was proposed as a new method for stand-off detection of geological samples for use on landers and rovers to Mars. Recently, there has been increased interest in the technique for this and other space applications and studies have determined some of the characteristics and capabilities of the method under the conditions that these measurements will have to be made. In addition to rocks and soils, there is interest in using LIBS to analyze ices and dusts entrained in ice . This is especially true for missions to the Mars polar regions . Of particular interest is determining the nature of polar layered deposits, the geochemistry of polar surface materials, detection of water ice and the distribution of ice, and the presence of possible organics in these materials (via C/N ratios)

  9. GammaLib: A New Framework for the Analysis of Astronomical Gamma-Ray Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knödlseder, J.

    2012-09-01

    With the advent of a new generation of telescopes (INTEGRAL, Fermi, H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS, MILAGRO) and the prospects of planned observatories such as CTA or HAWC, gamma-ray astronomy is becoming an integral part of modern astrophysical research. Analysing gamma-ray data is still a major challenge, and today relies on a large diversity of tools and software frameworks that were specifically developed for each instrument. With the goal of facilitating and unifying the analysis of gamma-ray data, we are currently developing an innovative data analysis toolbox, called the GammaLib, that enables gamma-ray data analysis in an instrument independent way. We will present the basic ideas that are behind the GammaLib, and describe its architecture and usage.

  10. Application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrumentation for international safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Barefield Ii, James E; Clegg, Samuel M; Lopez, Leon N; Le, Loan A; Veirs, D Kirk; Browne, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Advanced methodologies and improvements to current measurements techniques are needed to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of international safeguards. This need was recognized and discussed at a Technical Meeting on 'The Application of Laser Spectrometry Techniques in IAEA Safeguards' held at IAEA headquarters (September 2006). One of the principal recommendations from that meeting was the need to pursue the development of novel complementary access instrumentation based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (UBS) for the detection of gaseous and solid signatures and indicators of nuclear fuel cycle processes and associated materials'. Pursuant to this recommendation the Department of Safeguards (SG) under the Division of Technical Support (SGTS) convened the 'Experts and Users Advisory Meeting on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Safeguards Applications' also held at IAEA headquarters (July 2008). This meeting was attended by 12 LlBS experts from the Czech Republic, the European Commission, France, the Republic of South Korea, the United States of America, Germany, the United Kingdom of Great Britain, Canada, and Northern Ireland. Following a presentation of the needs of the IAEA inspectors, the LIBS experts agreed that needs as presented could be partially or fully fulfilled using LIBS instrumentation. Inspectors needs were grouped into the following broad categories: (1) Improvements to in-field measurements/environmental sampling; (2) Monitoring status of activities in Hot Cells; (3) Verify status of activity at a declared facility via process monitoring; and (4) Need for pre-screening of environmental samples before analysis. The primary tool employed by the IAEA to detect undeclared processes and activities at special nuclear material facilities and sites is environmental sampling. One of the objectives of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Program Plan calls for the development of advanced tools and methodologies to

  11. Analysis Si/Al ratio in zeolites type FAU by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, W. A.; Cabanzo, R.; Mejía-Ospino, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to determine the Si/Al ratio of Zeolite type Y. The catalytic activity of zeolite is strongly dependent of the Si/Al ratio. We have used Si lines in the spectral region between 245-265 nm to determine temperature of the plasma generated on pelletized sample of zeolite, and stoichiometry relation between Si and Al.

  12. ENDF/B-V, LIB-V, and the CSEWG benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.

    1981-08-01

    A 70-group library, LIB-V, generated with the NJOY processing code from ENDF/B-V, is tested on most of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) fast reactor benchmarks. Every experimental measurement reported in the benchmark specifications is compared to both diffusion theory and transport theory calculations. Several comparisons with prior benchmark calculations attempt to assess the effects of data and code improvements.

  13. A full featured handheld LIBS analyzer with early results for defense and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, D.; Connors, B.; Jennings, M.; Egan, J.; Derman, K.; Soucy, P.; Moller, S.; Sackett, D.

    2015-06-01

    A handheld LIBS instrument has been designed that includes most features found in large bench-top systems including variable gating, argon purge, high resolution, wide spectral range, sample rastering, and video targeting. In this presentation we will discuss the feature selection, trade-off decisions and new developments that made this kind of size reduction possible. Early results will be presented for elemental presence detection and quantification with specific emphasis on defense and security.

  14. EggLib: processing, analysis and simulation tools for population genetics and genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the considerable growth of available nucleotide sequence data over the last decade, integrated and flexible analytical tools have become a necessity. In particular, in the field of population genetics, there is a strong need for automated and reliable procedures to conduct repeatable and rapid polymorphism analyses, coalescent simulations, data manipulation and estimation of demographic parameters under a variety of scenarios. Results In this context, we present EggLib (Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics Library), a flexible and powerful C++/Python software package providing efficient and easy to use computational tools for sequence data management and extensive population genetic analyses on nucleotide sequence data. EggLib is a multifaceted project involving several integrated modules: an underlying computationally efficient C++ library (which can be used independently in pure C++ applications); two C++ programs; a Python package providing, among other features, a high level Python interface to the C++ library; and the egglib script which provides direct access to pre-programmed Python applications. Conclusions EggLib has been designed aiming to be both efficient and easy to use. A wide array of methods are implemented, including file format conversion, sequence alignment edition, coalescent simulations, neutrality tests and estimation of demographic parameters by Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). Classes implementing different demographic scenarios for ABC analyses can easily be developed by the user and included to the package. EggLib source code is distributed freely under the GNU General Public License (GPL) from its website http://egglib.sourceforge.net/ where a full documentation and a manual can also be found and downloaded. PMID:22494792

  15. GPCR-GRAPA-LIB--a refined library of hidden Markov Models for annotating GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Ron; Cline, Melissa; Liu, Guoying; Siani-Rose, Michael A

    2003-03-22

    GPCR-GRAPA-LIB is a library of HMMs describing G protein coupled receptor families. These families are initially defined by class of receptor ligand, with divergent families divided into subfamilies using phylogenic analysis and knowledge of GPCR function. Protein sequences are applied to the models with the GRAPA curve-based selection criteria. RefSeq sequences for Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans have been annotated using this approach.

  16. Rapid Analysis of Ash Composition Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic compounds are known to be problematic in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to syngas and ultimately hydrocarbon fuels. The elements Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe, and Al are particularly problematic and are known to influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams. Substantial quantities of inorganic species can be entrained in the bark of trees during harvest operations. Herbaceous feedstocks often have even greater quantities of inorganic constituents, which can account for as much as one-fifth of the total dry matter. Current methodologies to measure the concentrations of these elements, such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry (ICP-OES/MS) are expensive in time and reagents. This study demonstrates that a new methodology employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can rapidly and accurately analyze the inorganic constituents in a wide range of biomass materials, including both woody and herbaceous examples. This technique requires little or no sample preparation, does not consume any reagents, and the analytical data is available immediately. In addition to comparing LIBS data with the results from ICP-OES methods, this work also includes discussions of sample preparation techniques, calibration curves for interpreting LIBS spectra, minimum detection limits, and the use of internal standards and standard reference materials.

  17. Rocks analysis at stand off distance by LIBS in Martian conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, R. C.; Cremers, D. A.; Lacour, J. L.; Salle B.; Fichet, P.; Vors, E.; Fabre, C.; Dubessy, J.; Maurice, S.

    2004-01-01

    The research project called MALIS (Mars Analysis by Laser-Induced breakdown Spectroscopy) aims at producing a LIBS facility allowing rocks and soils analysis on Mars at stand off distance up to 10 or ideally 20 m. The capability of LIBS to perform a sample analysis at different distances was previously shown. Basically, the LIBS technique uses a pulsed laser beam focused on a sample surface. With sufficient power, the laser ablates the material, producing atoms and ions in an excited state, resulting in a visible spark. This one is characteristic of the elements present in the material. Light emission recording allows the qualitative and the quantitative elemental analysis. Up to now the technique needs a pre calibration in order to obtain quantitative data. But some works indicated that even with a lack of calibration quantitative results can be obtained. Our previous works studied different parameters (laser energy, atmospheric pressure, ...) that are of importance (laser energy, atmospheric pressure, ...) to control the quality of the measurements in Martian conditions. With those optimized parameters, some analytical results were obtained and will be presented.

  18. Composition analysis of medieval ceramics by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc Oztoprak, B.; Sinmaz, M. A.; Tülek, F.

    2016-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is expected to be one of the most preferred techniques in archaeology research since it does not disrupt the structural and chemical form of archaeological samples, and it is considered virtually nondestructive analysis method. In this work, LIBS is used for analyses of glaze, paint, and clay of medieval ceramics collected from East Plain Cilicia, Osmaniye Province during archaeological survey. Transparent glazed and colour-painted ceramics of the Islam and Byzantine pottery traditions are analysed to detect distinctive and common features of the chemical compositions of their glazes. The spectral lines of Islamic and Byzantine glazes indicate that their structures are same. However, strontium (Sr) is determined in the transparent glaze of Islamic ceramics. Elemental composition and homogeneity of paint on one of the sample are determined by LIBS analysis. Colour changes are related with composition differences of the paint content in the archaeological ceramic. In addition, the clay classification of archaeological ceramics taken from the Yapılıpınar mounds, Taşlıhöyük mounds, and Örenşehir ancient sites is done using PCA and PLS-DA chemometric techniques. According to the results of the classification, Yapılıpınar mounds terracotta ceramics differ from those of Taşlıhöyük and Örenşehir ancient sites.

  19. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in a Novel Molten Salt Aerosol System.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ammon N; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2017-04-01

    In the pyrochemical separation of used nuclear fuel (UNF), fission product, rare earth, and actinide chlorides accumulate in the molten salt electrolyte over time. Measuring this salt composition in near real-time is advantageous for operational efficiency, material accountability, and nuclear safeguards. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been proposed and demonstrated as a potential analytical approach for molten LiCl-KCl salts. However, all the studies conducted to date have used a static surface approach which can lead to issues with splashing, low repeatability, and poor sample homogeneity. In this initial study, a novel molten salt aerosol approach has been developed and explored to measure the composition of the salt via LIBS. The functionality of the system has been demonstrated as well as a basic optimization of the laser energy and nebulizer gas pressure used. Initial results have shown that this molten salt aerosol-LIBS system has a great potential as an analytical technique for measuring the molten salt electrolyte used in this UNF reprocessing technology.

  20. Analysis and classification of heterogeneous kidney stones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Oztoprak, Belgin Genc; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Yoo, Jong; Gulecen, Turgay; Mutlu, Nazim; Russo, Richard E; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Demir, Arif

    2012-11-01

    Kidney stones were analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), utilizing a high resolution multi-channel charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer and a nanosecond-pulse Nd : YAG laser. The kidney stones were also characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques for comparative analysis. It was found that the ratio of hydrogen (H) to carbon (C) was an important indicator of organic compounds such as uric acid. Advantages of LIBS, especially with regards to amount of sample required and sample preparation as well as the ability to carry out elemental analysis and classification of kidney stones simultaneously, over other analytical techniques such as XRD and XRF are discussed. The common minor elements detected in the kidney stones include P, S, Si, Ti, and Zn. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of broadband LIBS spectra were employed for classifying different types of kidney stones. The results are beneficial in understanding kidney stone formation processes, which can lead to preventive therapeutic strategies and treatment methods for urological patients.

  1. Final report on feasibility of real-time geochemical analysis at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using LIBS technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blacic, J.D.; Pettit, D.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytic method whereby an intense laser pulse is used to vaporize and excite a small volume of material into atomic emission. Calibrated spectral analysis of the laser spark light provides detection and quantification of the elemental composition of the target material. We performed laboratory and field tests to assess the feasibility of developing field-portable LIBS-based instruments for real-time analyses of Yucca Mountain rocks in conjunction with Yucca Mountain Project drilling, coring, sampling, and characterization tasks. We developed one prototype instrument designed to analyze air core drilling dust and another prototype instrument designed to analyze rock and fracture surfaces. In realistic field tests at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, we demonstrated that the LIBS prototypes are capable of measuring major, minor, and some trace elements in real time. Laboratory LIBS analyses show that we can identify characteristic element ratios in a range of manganese oxide minerals present at Yucca Mountain as fracture surface coatings and matrix grains. Preliminary LIBS analyses also indicate that the U/Na ratio may distinguish tuffs containing the hazardous zeolite mineral erionite from non-erionite bearing tuffs, and that a LIBS-based instrument may be useful to detect in real time the probable presence of erionite encountered in core drilling and other operations at Yucca Mountain.

  2. Lithium-Boron (Li-B) Monolayers: First-Principles Cluster Expansion and Possible Two-Dimensional Superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Jiajia; Gou, Gaoyang; Pan, Bicai; Li, Ju

    2016-02-03

    Recent works demonstrated that the superconductivity at two-dimensional (2-D) can be achieved in Li-decorated graphene (Nature Phys. 2012, 8, 131 and Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2015, 112, 11795). Inspired by the progress made in graphene, we predict by using the first-principles calculations that Li-incorporated B monolayers (Li-B monolayers) can be alternative 2-D superconductors. First-principles cluster expansion approach was used to evaluate the structural diversity and energetic stability of the 2-D Li-B monolayers by treating them as ternary Lix⬡yB1-x-y pseudoalloys (⬡ refers to B hexagonal hole). After thoroughly exploring the Li-B configuration space, several well-ordered and stable Li-B monolayers were identified. Detailed analyses regarding the electronic structures and lattice dynamics properties of the predicted Li-B monolayers were performed. Compared with the non-superconducting pure B-sheet, some predicted Li-B monolayers can exhibit the phonon-mediated superconducting properties above the liquid helium temperature.

  3. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  4. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  5. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  6. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  7. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  8. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  9. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  10. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  11. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  12. Food-anticipatory activity and liver per1-luc activity in diabetic transgenic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Alec J.; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Yamazaki, Shin; Menaker, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian Per1 gene is an important component of the core cellular clock mechanism responsible for circadian rhythms. The rodent liver and other tissues rhythmically express Per1 in vitro but typically damp out within a few cycles. In the liver, the peak of this rhythm occurs in the late subjective night in an ad lib-fed rat, but will show a large phase advance in response to restricted availability of food during the day. The relationship between this shift in the liver clock and food-anticipatory activity (FAA), the circadian behavior entrained by daily feeding, is currently unknown. Insulin is released during feeding in mammals and could serve as an entraining signal to the liver. To test the role of insulin in the shift in liver Per1 expression and the generation of FAA, per-luciferase transgenic rats were made diabetic with a single injection of streptozotocine. Following 1 week of restricted feeding and locomotor activity monitoring, liver was collected for per-luc recording. In two separate experiments, FAA emerged and liver Per1 phase-shifted in response to daytime 8-h food restriction. The results rule out insulin as a necessary component of this system.

  13. Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS Remote Sensing Composition Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice S.; Bender, S.; Barraclough, B. L.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H.; Vaniman, D.; Clegg, S.; Lasue, J. A.; Blaney, D.; DeFlores, L.; Morris, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity, will provide remote-sensing composition information for rock and soil samples within seven meters of the rover using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system, and will provide context imaging with a resolution of 0.10 mradians using the remote micro-imager (RMI) camera. The high resolution is needed to image the small analysis footprint of the LIBS system, at 0.2-0.6 mm diameter. This fine scale analytical capability will enable remote probing of stratigraphic layers or other small features the size of "blueberries" or smaller. ChemCam is intended for rapid survey analyses within 7 m of the rover, with each measurement taking less than 6 minutes. Repeated laser pulses remove dust coatings and provide depth profiles through weathering layers, allowing detailed investigation of rock varnish features as well as analysis of the underlying pristine rock composition. The LIBS technique uses brief laser pulses greater than 10 MW/square mm to ablate and electrically excite material from the sample of interest. The plasma emits photons with wavelengths characteristic of the elements present in the material, permitting detection and quantification of nearly all elements, including the light elements H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O. ChemCam LIBS projects 14 mJ of 1067 nm photons on target and covers a spectral range of 240-850 nm with resolutions between 0.15 and 0.60 nm FWHM. The Nd:KGW laser is passively cooled and is tuned to provide maximum power output from -10 to 0 C, though it can operate at 20% degraded energy output at room temperature. Preliminary calibrations were carried out on the flight model (FM) in 2008. However, the detectors were replaced in 2009, and final calibrations occurred in April-June, 2010. This presentation describes the LIBS calibration and characterization procedures and results, and details plans for final analyses during rover system thermal testing

  14. Iron bioavailability from a lipid-based complementary food fortificant mixed with millet porridge can be optimized by adding phytase and ascorbic acid but not by using a mixture of ferrous sulfate and sodium iron EDTA.

    PubMed

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Egli, Ines M; Mitchikpe, Evariste; Tossou, Felicien; Hessou, Joamel; Zeder, Christophe; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-08-01

    Home fortification with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) is a promising approach to improve bioavailable iron and energy intake of young children in developing countries. To optimize iron bioavailability from an LNS named complementary food fortificant (CFF), 3 stable isotope studies were conducted in 52 young Beninese children. Test meals consisted of millet porridge mixed with CFF and ascorbic acid (AA). Study 1 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals with meals fortified with a mixture of FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA. Study 2 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals without or with extra AA. Study 3 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortified meals with meals containing phytase added prior to consumption, once without or once with extra AA. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes. In study 1, iron absorption from FeSO4 (8.4%) was higher than that from the mixture of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 (5.9%; P < 0.05). In study 2, the extra AA increased absorption (11.6%) compared with the standard AA concentration (7.3%; P < 0.001). In study 3, absorption from meals containing phytase without or with extra AA (15.8 and 19.9%, respectively) increased compared with meals without phytase (8.0%; P < 0.001). The addition of extra AA to meals containing phytase increased absorption compared with the test meals containing phytase without extra AA (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that phytase and AA, and especially a combination of the two, but not a mixture of FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA would be useful strategies to increase iron bioavailability from a CFF mixed with cereal porridge.

  15. Evaluation of Crayfish Growth and Assimilation on Animal and Detrital Food Sources: Are Stable Isotopes Telling the Whole Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. L.; Wotton, R. S.; Wharton, G.; Fortino, K.; Ulseth, A. J.; Hershey, A. E.

    2005-05-01

    Crayfish are the dominant omnivores of many ecosystems and have strong direct and indirect effects through predation and organic matter processing. Despite this, the importance of detritus for crayfish production is poorly understood. We conducted a laboratory experiment where we fed crayfish an ad. lib. diet of only detritus, only fish tissue, or a mixture the above. The crayfish grew more on a diet which contained meat but growth was highly correlated with the amount of food consumed. The least amount of food was consumed in the detritus treatment, an intermediate amount of food in the meat treatment, and the most food in the mix treatment, suggesting that consumption of detritus by crayfish is related to more than simply the abundance of detritus. Nonetheless, isotopic evidence indicated that the crayfish were not assimilating leaf C and N. Additionally, crayfish in the meat containing treatments never exceeded the del 15N signature of their source by the approximately 3 units expected following fractionation, despite coming to isotopic equilibrium with their source. These findings suggest that crayfish may fractionate C and N uniquely. This difference may have to do with gut microbial activity and may have implications for the interpretation crayfish isotopic signatures.

  16. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  17. LIBS Spectral Data for a Mixed Actinide Fuel Pellet Containing Uranium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Elizabeth J.; Berg, John M.; Le, Loan A.; Lopez, Leon N.; Barefield, James E.

    2012-06-18

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze a mixed actinide fuel pellet containing 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2}. The preliminary data shown here is the first report of LIBS analysis of a mixed actinide fuel pellet, to the authors knowledge. The LIBS spectral data was acquired in a plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory where the sample was contained within a glove box. The initial installation of the glove box was not intended for complete ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) transmission, therefore the LIBS spectrum is truncated in the UV and NIR regions due to the optical transmission of the window port and filters that were installed. The optical collection of the emission from the LIBS plasma will be optimized in the future. However, the preliminary LIBS data acquired is worth reporting due to the uniqueness of the sample and spectral data. The analysis of several actinides in the presence of each other is an important feature of this analysis since traditional methods must chemically separate uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium prior to analysis. Due to the historic nature of the sample fuel pellet analyzed, the provided sample composition of 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2} cannot be confirm without further analytical processing. Uranium, plutonium, and americium emission lines were abundant and easily assigned while neptunium was more difficult to identify. There may be several reasons for this observation, other than knowing the exact sample composition of the fuel pellet. First, the atomic emission wavelength resources for neptunium are limited and such techniques as hollow cathode discharge lamp have different dynamics than the plasma used in LIBS which results in different emission spectra. Secondly, due to the complex sample of four actinide elements, which all have very dense electronic energy levels, there may be reactions and

  18. Analysis of geological materials containing uranium using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barefield, James E.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Campbell, Keri R.; Colgan, James P.; Kilcrease, David P.; Johns, Heather M.; Wiens, Roger C.; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Martinez, Ronald K.; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2016-06-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a rapid atomic emission spectroscopy technique that can be configured for a variety of applications including space, forensics, and industry. LIBS can also be configured for stand-off distances or in-situ, under vacuum, high pressure, atmospheric or different gas environments, and with different resolving-power spectrometers. The detection of uranium in a complex geological matrix under different measurement schemes is explored in this paper. Although many investigations have been completed in an attempt to detect and quantify uranium in different matrices at in-situ and standoff distances, this work detects and quantifies uranium in a complex matrix under Martian and ambient air conditions. Investigation of uranium detection using a low resolving-power LIBS system at stand-off distances (1.6 m) is also reported. The results are compared to an in-situ LIBS system with medium resolving power and under ambient air conditions. Uranium has many thousands of emission lines in the 200-800 nm spectral region. In the presence of other matrix elements and at lower concentrations, the limit of detection of uranium is significantly reduced. The two measurement methods (low and high resolving-power spectrometers) are compared for limit of detection (LOD). Of the twenty-one potential diagnostic uranium emission lines, seven (409, 424, 434, 435, 436, 591, and 682 nm) have been used to determine the LOD for pitchblende in a dunite matrix using the ChemCam test bed LIBS system. The LOD values determined for uranium transitions in air are 409.013 nm (24,700 ppm), 424.167 nm (23,780 ppm), 434.169 nm (24,390 ppm), 435.574 nm (35,880 ppm), 436.205 nm (19,340 ppm), 591.539 nm (47,310 ppm), and 682.692 nm (18,580 ppm). The corresponding LOD values determined for uranium transitions in 7 Torr CO2 are 424.167 nm (25,760 ppm), 434.169 nm (40,800 ppm), 436.205 nm (32,050 ppm), 591.539 nm (15,340 ppm), and 682.692 nm (29,080 ppm). The LOD values

  19. Planetary Surface Analysis Using Fast Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Combined Microscopic Raman, LIBS, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, J.; Rossman, G. R.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.

    2011-12-01

    In situ exploration of planetary surfaces has to date required multiple techniques that, when used together, yield important information about their formation histories and evolution. We present a time-resolved laser spectroscopic technique that could potentially collect complementary sets of data providing information on mineral structure, composition, and hydration state. Using a picosecond-scale pulsed laser and a fast time-resolved detector we can simultaneously collect spectra from Raman, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and fluorescence emissions that are separated in time due to the unique decay times of each process. The use of a laser with high rep rate (40 KHz) and low pulse energy (1 μJ/pulse) allows us to rapidly collect high signal to noise Raman spectra while minimizing sample damage. Increasing the pulse energy by about an order of magnitude creates a microscopic plasma near the surface and enables the collection of LIBS spectra at an unusually high rep rate and low pulse energy. Simultaneously, broader fluorescence peaks can be detected with lifetimes varying from nanosecond to microsecond. We will present Raman, LIBS, and fluorescence spectra obtained on natural mineral samples such as sulfates, clays, pyroxenes and carbonates that are of interest for Mars mineralogy. We demonstrate this technique using a photocathode-based streak camera detector as well as a newly-developed solid state Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) sensor array based on Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. We will discuss the impact of system design and detector choice on science return of a potential planetary surface mission, with a specific focus on size, weight, power, and complexity. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  20. Screening of brick-kiln area soil for determination of heavy metal Pb using LIBS.

    PubMed

    Pandhija, Shiwani; Rai, A K

    2009-01-01

    Rapid measurement of heavy metals in soil is an important factor in modeling the effect of industrial pollution on agricultural soil. Conventional methods of heavy metal analysis are relatively slow in terms of measurement/analysis time and sample preparation time with the requirement of skilled manpower. Our results highlight the quantitative analysis of toxic metal lead (Pb), for the first time, in an Indian agricultural soil, in the vicinity of brick-kiln area, Phaphamau, near Allahabad, India, by using a novel technique named as Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS spectra of soil has been recorded in the wavelength range from ultraviolet (UV) to infrared region (200-1,100 nm). The suitability of Pb lines for drawing the calibration curve is checked and realized, for the first time, that 220.3 nm, which is observed in the UV region of LIBS spectra, is completely interference free and best suited for the quantification of trace amount of Pb in soil instead of any other Pb lines, because it has best linear regression coefficient and smallest standard deviation of the background signal. In the present work the detection limit for Pb in soil is found to be 45 ppm. Based on the present work the concentration of Pb in agricultural soil of brick-kiln area in Phaphamau is found to be congruent with 570 ppm, which is more than the regulatory standards imposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (400 ppm) for the presence of lead in soil, therefore, it is of great concern to us.

  1. Accuracy Enhancement of Raman Spectroscopy Using Complementary Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with Geologically Mixed Samples.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soojin; Kim, Dongyoung; Yang, Junho; Yoh, Jack J

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative Raman analysis was carried out with geologically mixed samples that have various matrices. In order to compensate the matrix effect in Raman shift, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis was performed. Raman spectroscopy revealed the geological materials contained in the mixed samples. However, the analysis of a mixture containing different matrices was inaccurate due to the weak signal of the Raman shift, interference, and the strong matrix effect. On the other hand, the LIBS quantitative analysis of atomic carbon and calcium in mixed samples showed high accuracy. In the case of the calcite and gypsum mixture, the coefficient of determination of atomic carbon using LIBS was 0.99, while the signal using Raman was less than 0.9. Therefore, the geological composition of the mixed samples is first obtained using Raman and the LIBS-based quantitative analysis is then applied to the Raman outcome in order to construct highly accurate univariate calibration curves. The study also focuses on a method to overcome matrix effects through the two complementary spectroscopic techniques of Raman spectroscopy and LIBS.

  2. Effect of laser beam parameters on melt mobilization and LIBS analysis of a special aluminum alloy containing zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Osama M.; Nakimana, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum alloy containing zeolite was analyzed by using nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ns and fs-LIBS). The results reveal that Laser parameters, target physical properties, and ambient conditions affect the laser ablation process. The aluminum silicate minerals present in the alloy under investigation enable material volume expansion under compression. In laser interaction with this alloy, it has been observed that the crater depth decreases with the increase of the surface hardness. In ns -LIBS, it is noted that the ablation speed decreases with time and suddenly decreases with less sharp slope and after that the ablation speed increases slightly. In additional the results show the vanishing and reform of the crater rim with the increase of ablation time. Furthermore, a comparison between ns and fs-LIBS analysis has been done. Ns-LIBS analysis reveals that both spectra intensity and lines detection are significantly influenced by the ambient conditions. However in fs-LIBS, the ambient conditions affect the presented lines amplitude and width with the same effect on all lines.

  3. BiopLib and BiopTools—a C programming library and toolset for manipulating protein structure

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Craig T.; Martin, Andrew C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We describe BiopLib, a mature C programming library for manipulating protein structure, and BiopTools, a set of command-line tools which exploit BiopLib. The library also provides a small number of functions for handling protein sequence and general purpose programming and mathematics. BiopLib transparently handles PDBML (XML) format and standard PDB files. BiopTools provides facilities ranging from renumbering atoms and residues to calculation of solvent accessibility. Availability and implementation: BiopLib and BiopTools are implemented in standard ANSI C. The core of the BiopLib library is a reliable PDB parser that handles alternate occupancies and deals with compressed PDB files and PDBML files automatically. The library is designed to be as flexible as possible, allowing users to handle PDB data as a simple list of atoms, or in a structured form using chains, residues and atoms. Many of the BiopTools command-line tools act as filters, taking a PDB (or PDBML) file as input and producing a PDB (or PDBML) file as output. All code is open source and documented using Doxygen. It is provided under the GNU Public Licence and is available from the authors’ web site or from GitHub. Contact: andrew@bioinf.org.uk PMID:26323716

  4. Calibration-free quantitative analysis of elemental ratios in intermetallic nanoalloys and nanocomposites using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Davari, Seyyed Ali; Hu, Sheng; Mukherjee, Dibyendu

    2017-03-01

    Intermetallic nanoalloys (NAs) and nanocomposites (NCs) have increasingly gained prominence as efficient catalytic materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. But their morphology and chemical compositions play critical role in tuning their catalytic activities, and precious metal contents. While advanced microscopy techniques facilitate morphological characterizations, traditional chemical characterizations are either qualitative or extremely involved. In this study, we apply Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for quantitative compositional analysis of NAs and NCs synthesized with varied elemental ratios by our in-house built pulsed laser ablation technique. Specifically, elemental ratios of binary PtNi, PdCo (NAs) and PtCo (NCs) of different compositions are determined from LIBS measurements employing an internal calibration scheme using the bulk matrix species as internal standards. Morphology and qualitative elemental compositions of the aforesaid NAs and NCs are confirmed from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. LIBS experiments are carried out in ambient conditions with the NA and NC samples drop cast on silicon wafers after centrifugation to increase their concentrations. The technique does not call for cumbersome sample preparations including acid digestions and external calibration standards commonly required in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques. Yet the quantitative LIBS results are in good agreement with the results from ICP-OES measurements. Our results indicate the feasibility of using LIBS in future for rapid and in-situ quantitative chemical characterizations of wide classes of synthesized NAs and NCs.

  5. Exploration of Mars with the ChemCam LIBS Instrument and the Curiosity Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Horton E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landed on Mars in August 2012, and has been exploring the planet ever since. Dr. Horton E. Newsom will discuss the MSL's design and main goal, which is to characterize past environments that may have been conducive to the evolution and sustainability of life. He will also discuss Curiosity's science payload, and remote sensing, analytical capabilities, and direct discoveries of the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instrument, which is the first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to operate on another planetary surface and determine the chemistry of the rocks and soils.

  6. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for carbonate minerals on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, Roger C; Clegg, Samuel M; Ollila, Ann M; Barefield, James E; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  7. Validation studies of the site-directed docking program LibDock.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shashidhar N; Head, Martha S; Kulkarni, Amit; LaLonde, Judith M

    2007-01-01

    The performance of the site-features docking algorithm LibDock has been evaluated across eight GlaxoSmithKline targets as a follow-up to a broad validation study of docking and scoring software (Warren, G. L.; Andrews, W. C.; Capelli, A.; Clarke, B.; Lalonde, J.; Lambert, M. H.; Lindvall, M.; Nevins, N.; Semus, S. F.; Senger, S.; Tedesco, G.; Walls, I. D.; Woolven, J. M.; Peishoff, C. E.; Head, M. S. J. Med. Chem. 2006, 49, 5912-5931). Docking experiments were performed to assess both the accuracy in reproducing the binding mode of the ligand and the retrieval of active compounds in a virtual screening protocol using both the DJD (Diller, D. J.; Merz, K. M., Jr. Proteins 2001, 43, 113-124) and LigScore2 (Krammer, A. K.; Kirchoff, P. D.; Jiang, X.; Venkatachalam, C. M.; Waldman, M. J. Mol. Graphics Modell. 2005, 23, 395-407) scoring functions. This study was conducted using DJD scoring, and poses were rescored using all available scoring functions in the Accelrys LigandFit module, including LigScore2. For six out of eight targets at least 30% of the ligands were docked within a root-mean-square difference (RMSD) of 2.0 A for the crystallographic poses when the LigScore2 scoring function was used. LibDock retrieved at least 20% of active compounds in the top 10% of screened ligands for four of the eight targets in the virtual screening protocol. In both studies the LigScore2 scoring function enhanced the retrieval of crystallographic poses or active compounds in comparison with the results obtained using the DJD scoring function. The results for LibDock accuracy and ligand retrieval in virtual screening are compared to 10 other docking and scoring programs. These studies demonstrate the utility of the LigScore2 scoring function and that LibDock as a feature directed docking method performs as well as docking programs that use genetic/growing and Monte Carlo driven algorithms.

  8. zorder-lib: Library API for Z-Order Memory Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Nowell, Lucy; Edward W. Bethel

    2015-04-01

    This document describes the motivation for, elements of, and use of the zorder-lib, a library API that implements organization of and access to data in memory using either a-order (also known as "row-major" order) or z-order memory layouts. The primary motivation for this work is to improve the performance of many types of data- intensive codes by increasing both spatial and temporal locality of memory accesses. The basic idea is that the cost associated with accessing a datum is less when it is nearby in either space or time.

  9. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  10. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Sanuel M; Barefield, James E; Humphries, Seth D; Wiens, Roger C; Vaniman, D. T.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2010-12-13

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to

  11. Investigation of historical metal objects using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Ghoneim, M.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-22

    Analysis of metal objects is a necessary step for establishing an appropriate conservation treatment of an object or to follow up the application's result of the suggested treatments. The main considerations on selecting a method that can be used in investigation and analysis of metal objects are based on the diagnostic power, representative sampling, reproducibility, destructive nature/invasiveness of analysis and accessibility to the appropriate instrument. This study aims at evaluating the usefulness of the use of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Technique for analysis of historical metal objects. In this study various historical metal objects collected from different museums and excavations in Egypt were investigated using (LIBS) technique. For evaluating usefulness of the suggested analytical protocol of this technique, the same investigated metal objects were investigated by other methods such as Scanning Electron Microscope with energy-dispersive x-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This study confirms that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Technique is considered very useful technique that can be used safely for investigating historical metal objects. LIBS analysis can quickly provide information on the qualitative and semi-quantitative elemental content of different metal objects and their characterization and classification. It is practically non-destructive technique with the critical advantage of being applicable in situ, thereby avoiding sampling and sample preparations. It is can be dependable, satisfactory and effective method for low cost study of archaeological and historical metals. But we have to take into consideration that the corrosion of metal leads to material alteration and possible loss of certain metals in the form of soluble salts. Certain corrosion products are known to leach out of the object and therefore, their low content does not necessarily reflect the composition of the metal at the time of

  12. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to animal feeds...

  13. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to animal feeds...

  14. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to animal feeds...

  15. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to animal feeds...

  16. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to animal feeds...

  17. Application of LIBS and TMA for the determination of combustion predictive indices of coals and coal blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ctvrtnickova, T.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G.

    2011-04-01

    Presented work brings results of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA) of coals and coal blends used in coal fired power plants all over Spain. Several coal specimens, its blends and corresponding laboratory ash were analyzed by mentioned techniques and results were compared to standard laboratory methods. The indices of slagging, which predict the tendency of coal ash deposition on the boiler walls, were determined by means of standard chemical analysis, LIBS and TMA. The optimal coal suitable to be blended with the problematic national lignite coal was suggested in order to diminish the slagging problems. Used techniques were evaluated based on the precision, acquisition time, extension and quality of information they could provide. Finally, the applicability of LIBS and TMA to the successful calculation of slagging indices is discussed and their substitution of time-consuming and instrumentally difficult standard methods is considered.

  18. Efficient global optimization based 3D carotid AB-LIB MRI segmentation by simultaneously evolving coupled surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Yuan, Jing; Rajchl, Martin; Fenster, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of carotid atherosclerosis biomarkers are increasingly being investigated for the risk assessment of vulnerable plaques. A fast and robust 3D segmentation of the carotid adventitia (AB) and lumen-intima (LIB) boundaries can greatly alleviate the measurement burden of generating quantitative imaging biomarkers in clinical research. In this paper, we propose a novel global optimization-based approach to segment the carotid AB and LIB from 3D T1-weighted black blood MR images, by simultaneously evolving two coupled surfaces with enforcement of anatomical consistency of the AB and LIB. We show that the evolution of two surfaces at each discrete time-frame can be optimized exactly and globally by means of convex relaxation. Our continuous max-flow based algorithm is implemented in GPUs to achieve high computational performance. The experiment results from 16 carotid MR images show that the algorithm obtained high agreement with manual segmentations and achieved high repeatability in segmentation.

  19. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  20. Less is more: Avoiding the LIBS dimensionality curse through judicious feature selection for explosive detection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Myakalwar, Ashwin; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Zhang, Chi; Kumar Anubham, Siva; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan; Kumar Gundawar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Despite its intrinsic advantages, translation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for material identification has been often impeded by the lack of robustness of developed classification models, often due to the presence of spurious correlations. While a number of classifiers exhibiting high discriminatory power have been reported, efforts in establishing the subset of relevant spectral features that enable a fundamental interpretation of the segmentation capability and avoid the ‘curse of dimensionality’ have been lacking. Using LIBS data acquired from a set of secondary explosives, we investigate judicious feature selection approaches and architect two different chemometrics classifiers –based on feature selection through prerequisite knowledge of the sample composition and genetic algorithm, respectively. While the full spectral input results in classification rate of ca.92%, selection of only carbon to hydrogen spectral window results in near identical performance. Importantly, the genetic algorithm-derived classifier shows a statistically significant improvement to ca. 94% accuracy for prospective classification, even though the number of features used is an order of magnitude smaller. Our findings demonstrate the impact of rigorous feature selection in LIBS and also hint at the feasibility of using a discrete filter based detector thereby enabling a cheaper and compact system more amenable to field operations. PMID:26286630

  1. [Analysis of Cr in soil by LIBS based on conical spatial confinement of plasma].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Zeng; Yao, Ming-Yin; Chen, Tian-Bing; Li, Wen-Bing; Zheng, Mei-Lan; Xu, Xue-Hong; Tu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Mu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The present study is to improve the sensitivity of detection and reduce the limit of detection in detecting heavy metal of soil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The Cr element of national standard soil was regarded as the research object. In the experiment, a conical cavity with small diameter end of 20 mm and large diameter end of 45 mm respectively was installed below the focusing lens near the experiment sample to mainly confine the signal transmitted by plasma and to some extent to confine the plasma itself in the LIBS setup. In detecting Cr I 425.44 nm, the beast delay time gained from experiment is 1.3 micros, and the relative standard deviation is below 10%. Compared with the setup of non-spatial confinement, the spectral intensity of Cr in the soil sample was enhanced more than 7%. Calibration curve was established in the Cr concentration range from 60 to 400 microg x g(-1). Under the condition of spatial confinement, the liner regression coefficient and the limit of detection were 0.997 71 and 18.85 microg x g(-1) respectively, however, the regression coefficient and the limit of detection were 0.991 22 and 36.99 microg x g(-1) without spatial confinement. So, this shows that conical spatial confinement can/improve the sensitivity of detection and enhance the spectral intensity. And it is a good auxiliary function in detecting Cr in the soil by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  2. Request for observations of GW Lib and V842 Cen in support of HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2010-03-01

    Dr. Paula Szkody (U. Washington) has requested the help of AAVSO observers to provide monitoring of the cataclysmic variables GW Lib and V842 Cen in support of Hubble Space Telescope observations in March 2010. Observations of both objects are requested beginning immediately, with intensive observations requested beginning 48 hours prior to the scheduled HST visit. The first observation of GW Lib has now been scheduled for 2010 March 11 03:45 UT; intensive observations by the AAVSO community are requested beginning 2010 March 9 UT. Observations of V842 Cen are expected to be scheduled during the dates of 2010 March 18-22. Observations of both sources are requested to guarantee to ground controllers at STScI that they are below V~14.0 which is considered the safe limit for the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Positive observations are preferred if at all possible, however any fainter-than below V=14 is useful. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  3. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of ammonium nitrate in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Daniel; Hahn, David W.; Molina, Alejandro

    2009-05-01

    The extensive use of improvised explosive devices (IED) by irregular armed groups in Colombia has posed a threat, not only to the Colombian regular army but to the civilian population. It is expected that in future years, after an eventual cease fire, humanitarian missions for IED clearance will be fundamental to secure safe transit of people and goods, particularly in Colombian rural areas. The clandestine nature of IEDs preparation in Colombia yielded a rather diverse nature of these irregular weapons. Although, some have metal parts such as nails and shrapnel, others are metal-free devices in which detonation is obtained by chemical means. Despite this variability in IEDs design, one thing that is common in IEDs preparation is the use of significant amounts of ANFO (ammonium nitrate (AN), fuel oil (FO)) in their construction. The goal of this work was to identify AN and FO in soils using LIBS. Experiments showed the ability of LIBS to identify the presence of AN based on Hα (656.3 nm) and Hβ (486.1 nm) emission lines. It was not possible to identify FO mixed with soils in the spectral windows studied. FO caused a reduction on spark intensity on the samples. This would represent a challenge for identification of chemical compounds in wet soils. Potential interferences with fertilizers are discussed as well.

  4. Study of filtering Ag liquid sample by chitosan biomembrane using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Suyanto, Hery; Sumadiyasa, Made; Purwanto, Christine Prita; Purnomo, Rendra Rustam

    2013-09-01

    The capability of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to resolve filtration process of Ag liquid sample by chitosan biomembrane is demonstrated. The biomembrane was prepared by inversion method used to filter Ag liquid using pressurized technique samples which were then analyzed by monitoring the emission corresponding to Ag (I) at wavelength of 328 nm. The experiment was conducted by varying the laser energy i.e. 80, 120, and 160 mJ, where, subsequently, and its effect on the depth-profile from 20 - 200 μm was characterized by LIBS. The results showed that the physical processes of pressurized filtration led a homogeneous Ag in the membrane from the surface to a depth of 200 μm. The optimum condition was obtained at laser energy of 120 mJ. The adsorption occurred only on the surface of the membrane i.e. 20 μm depth, but there was no inclusion. Improvement of the detection performance of adsorption process was done by heating the dripped membrane at 35 °C and was resulting in increase in emission intensity as expected.

  5. Design and construction of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system for LIBS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Khaled.; Imam, Hisham; Harfoosh, Amro; Hassebo, Yasser; Elbaz, Yasser; Aziz, Mouayed; Mansour, Mohy

    2012-02-01

    A passive, Q-switched pulsed, Nd:YAG laser system was designed and built, which can provide a potential compact robust laser source for portable laser induced breakdown spectroscopy systems. The developed laser system operates at 1064 nm. Each laser shot contains a train of pulses having maximum total output energy of 170 mJ. The number of pulses varies from 1-6 pulses in each laser shot depending on the pump energy. The pulse width of each pulse ranges from 20 to 30 ns. The total duration of the output pulse train is within 300 μs. The multi-pulse nature of the laser shots was employed to enhance the LIBS signal. To validate the system, LIBS measurements and analysis were performed on ancient ceramic samples collected from Al-Fustat excavation in Old Cairo. The samples belong to different Islamic periods in Egypt history. The results obtained are highly indicative that useful information can be provided to archeologists for use in restoring and repairing of precious archeological objects.

  6. Development of a Stand-off Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system for the analysis of complex matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamboli, M. M.; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Nayak, R.; Devangad, P.; Muhammed Shameem, K. M.; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh, C.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, we discuss the evaluation and optimization of a stand-off laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system, developed indigenously for remote analysis of heavy elements in soil. A compact Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was used for plasma generation at distances up to 6 meters. Techniques for optimal experimental results were evaluated for detection of Cd, Cr, Pb, Mo and Ni in soil. The system was evaluated with two NIST certified soil samples. The effect of working distance on the LIBS signal is also discussed briefly. Results confirm the capabilities of the system for remote monitoring.

  7. 21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90 Section... PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner may use...

  8. 21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90 Section... PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner may use...

  9. Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results…

  10. Dynamics of the Linuron Hydrolase libA Gene Pool Size in Response to Linuron Application and Environmental Perturbations in Agricultural Soil and On-Farm Biopurification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bers, Karolien; Sniegowski, Kristel; De Mot, René

    2012-01-01

    libA, a gene encoding a novel type of linuron hydrolase, was recently identified in the linuron-mineralizing Variovorax sp. strain SRS16. In order to assess the contribution of libA to linuron degradation in environmental settings, libA abundance was monitored in response to the application of linuron and to environmental perturbations in agricultural soil microcosms and microcosms simulating the matrix of on-farm biopurification systems. libA numbers were measured by real-time PCR and linked to reported data of Variovorax community composition and linuron mineralization capacity. In the soil microcosms and one biopurification system setup, libA numbers responded to the application of linuron and environmental changes in congruency with the modulation of linuron mineralization capacity and the occurrence of a particular Variovorax phylotype (phylotype A). However, in another biopurification system setup, no such correlations were found. Our data suggest that in the simulated environmental settings, the occurrence of libA can be linked to the linuron mineralization capacity and that libA is primarily hosted by Variovorax phylotype A strains. However, the results also suggest that, apart from libA, other, as-yet-unknown isofunctional genes play an important role in linuron mineralization in the environment. PMID:22307296

  11. Characterization of attenuated food motivation in high-fat diet-induced obesity: Critical roles for time on diet and reinforcer familiarity.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Andrea L; Wee, Colin J M; Hazeltine, Grace E; Carter, Rebecca A

    2015-03-15

    Prior work using animal models to study the effects of obesogenic diets on food motivation have generated inconsistent results, with some reporting increases and others reporting decreases in responding on food-reinforced tasks. Here, we identified two specific variables that may account for these discrepant outcomes - the length of time on the obesigenic diet and the familiarity of the food reinforcer - and examined the independent roles of these factors. Time on diet was found to be inversely related to food motivation, as rats consuming a 40% high-fat diet (HFD) for only 3weeks did not differ from chow-fed rats when responding for a sucrose reinforcer on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, but responding was suppressed after 6weeks of ad lib HFD consumption. Explicitly manipulating experience with the sucrose reinforcer by pre-exposing half the rats prior to 10weeks of HFD consumption attenuated the motivational deficit seen in the absence of this familiarity, resulting in obese rats performing at the same level as lean rats. Finally, after 8weeks on a HFD, rats did not express a conditioned place preference for sucrose, indicating a decrement in reward value independent of motivation. These findings are consistent with prior literature showing an increase in food motivation for rats with a shorter time consuming the obesigenic diet, and for those with more prior experience with the reinforcer. This account also helps reconcile these findings with increased food motivation in obese humans due to extensive experience with palatable food and suggests that researchers engaging in non-human animal studies of obesity would better model the conditions under which human obesity develops by using a varied, cafeteria-style diet to increase the breadth of food experiences.

  12. Mid-infrared, long wave infrared (4-12 μm) molecular emission signatures from pharmaceuticals using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe H; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to augment the atomic emission spectra of conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and to provide an increase in selectivity, mid-wave to long-wave infrared (IR), LIBS studies were performed on several organic pharmaceuticals. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signature molecular emissions of target organic compounds are observed for the first time in the IR fingerprint spectral region between 4-12 μm. The IR emission spectra of select organic pharmaceuticals closely correlate with their respective standard Fourier transform infrared spectra. Intact and/or fragment sample molecular species evidently survive the LIBS event. The combination of atomic emission signatures derived from conventional ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared LIBS with fingerprints of intact molecular entities determined from IR LIBS promises to be a powerful tool for chemical detection.

  13. Standoff Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) using a Miniature Wide Field of View Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer with Sub-Microsteradian Collection Optics.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Patrick D; Lamsal, Nirmal; Angel, S Michael

    2017-01-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) is described for standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. The spatial heterodyne LIBS spectrometer (SHLS) is a diffraction grating based interferometer with no moving parts that offers a very large field of view, high light throughput, and high spectral resolution in a small package. The field of view of the SHLS spectrometer is shown to be ∼1° in standoff LIBS measurements. In the SHLS system described here, the collection aperture was defined by the 10 mm diffraction gratings in the SHS and standoff LIBS measurements were made up to 20 m with no additional collection optics, corresponding to a collection solid angle of 0.2 μsr, or f/2000, and also using a small telescope to increase the collection efficiency. The use of a microphone was demonstrated to rapidly optimize laser focus for 20 m standoff LIBS measurements.

  14. Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Andrew K.; Scherbarth, Nancy L.; Cremers, David A.; Ferris, Monty J.

    2000-03-01

    Early in the next century, several space missions are planned with the goal of landing craft on asteroids, comets, the Moon, and Mars. To increase the scientific return of these missions, new methods are needed to provide (1) significantly more analyses per mission lifetime, and (2) expanded analytical capabilities. One method that has the potential to meet both of these needs for the elemental analysis of geological samples is laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). These capabilities are possible because the laser plasma provides rapid analysis and the laser pulse can be focused on a remotely located sample to perform a stand-off measurement. Stand-off is defined as a distance up to 20 m between the target and laser. Here we present the results of a characterization of LIBS for the stand-off analysis of soils at reduced air pressures and in a simulated Martian atmosphere (5-7 torr pressure of CO{sub 2}) showing the feasibility of LIBS for space exploration. For example, it is demonstrated that an analytically useful laser plasma can be generated at distances up to 19 m by using only 35 mJ/pulse from a compact laser. Some characteristics of the laser plasma at reduced pressure were also investigated. Temporally and spectrally resolved imaging showed significant changes in the plasma as the pressure was reduced and also showed that the analyte signals and mass ablated from a target were strongly dependent on pressure. As the pressure decreased from 590 torr to the 40-100 torr range, the signals increased by a factor of about 3-4, and as the pressure was further reduced the signals decreased. This behavior can be explained by pressure-dependent changes in the mass of material vaporized and the frequency of collisions between species in the plasma. Changes in the temperature and the electron density of the plasmas with pressure were also examined and detection limits for selected elements were determined. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  15. Request for observations of GW Lib in support of HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2011-03-01

    Dr. Paula Szkody (University of Washington) has requested AAVSO help in monitoring the cataclysmic variable GW Lib for HST observations scheduled during the week of 2011 April 7-11 UT. Dr. Szkody also observed this object with HST in March 2010 (see AAVSO Alert Notice 417). AAVSO observations are needed to ensure that the object is not in outburst when observed with HST, as it could damage the instrument if it were to go into outburst. AAVSO observations will be used to make a go/no go decision when the observing window opens, and will also be used in the analysis of the resulting data. At the end of March the schedulers will give Dr. Szkody the exact date of the HST observations, and an AAVSO Special Notice will be issued. Dr. Szkody requests nightly monitoring of this object from now until the observing window opens, intensive monitoring during the 24-48 hour period during which observations will be made, and nightly observations for the week following the HST observations. GW Lib is part of a larger study of pulsating white dwarf primaries in cataclysmic variables. In particular, Szkody and collaborators are investigating the effects that higher temperatures and larger rotation velocities caused by accretion have on the pulsation behavior. In these HST observations, they plan to measure the temperature of the white dwarf at minimum. GW Lib is magnitude ~16.8 visual/unfiltered. V filter is preferred for CCD observations, but B, Rc, and Ic may also be used. Detection of the variable itself is not required unless you can reach V=16.8 in reasonable time, but please use sufficient exposure to detect at least the V=143 comparison star or V=147 with a S/N of 10 and report the observation as a "fainter-than" observation. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  16. Medical foods for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Raj C

    2011-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with cognitive loss, behavioural changes, functional ability decline and caregiver burden. Given the worldwide public health impact of AD, novel interventions to reduce suffering experienced by AD patients need to be developed. Foods may offer a mechanism for intervention complementary to drugs, devices, biologicals and vaccines. Apart from foods with health claims (including dietary supplements), medical foods are also being explored as an intervention option. The purpose of this article is to describe how medical foods may complement other interventions for AD patients by: (i) defining what a medical food is; (ii) discussing whether AD is a condition amenable to medical food intervention; (iii) reviewing current clinical trial data on medical foods used in participants with AD; and (iv) highlighting steps needed to establish a more comprehensive framework for developing medical foods for AD. While medical foods may be defined differently in other countries, the US Orphan Drug Act of 1998 defined a medical food as a food formulated for enteral intake, taken under physician supervision, and intended to meet the distinctive nutritional requirements identified for a disease or condition. For AD to be amenable to medical food intervention, it must: (i) result in limited or impaired capacity to ingest, digest, absorb or metabolize ordinary foodstuff or certain nutrients; or (ii) have unique, medically determined nutrient requirements; and (iii) require dietary management that cannot be achieved by modification of the normal diet alone. While these criteria are most likely met in advanced AD, identifying unique nutritional requirements in early AD that cannot be met by normal diet modification requires a better understanding of AD pathophysiology. A PubMed search using the terms 'medical food' and 'Alzheimer', limited to clinical trials published in English with human participants with AD aged >65

  17. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  18. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  19. A Simple Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) System for Use at Multiple Levels in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, David W.; Hayes, Ryan T.; Wong, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    A LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) spectrometer constructed by the instructor is reported for use in undergraduate analytical chemistry experiments. The modular spectrometer described here is based on commonly available components including a commercial Nd:YAG laser and a compact UV-vis spectrometer. The modular approach provides a…

  20. Review of methodological and experimental LIBS techniques for coal analysis and their application in power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Shu-Xia; Li, Yu-Fang; Gong, Yao; Dong, Lei; Ma, Wei-Guang; Yin, Wang-Bao; Yao, Shun-Chun; Lu, Ji-Dong; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical spectroscopy technique. This review presents the main recent developments in China regarding the implementation of LIBS for coal analysis. The paper mainly focuses on the progress of the past few years in the fundamentals, data pretreatment, calibration model, and experimental issues of LIBS and its application to coal analysis. Many important domestic studies focusing on coal quality analysis have been conducted. For example, a proposed novel hybrid quantification model can provide more reproducible quantitative analytical results; the model obtained the average absolute errors (AREs) of 0.42%, 0.05%, 0.07%, and 0.17% for carbon, hydrogen, volatiles, and ash, respectively, and a heat value of 0.07 MJ/kg. Atomic/ionic emission lines and molecular bands, such as CN and C2, have been employed to generate more accurate analysis results, achieving an ARE of 0.26% and a 0.16% limit of detection (LOD) for the prediction of unburned carbon in fly ashes. Both laboratory and on-line LIBS apparatuses have been developed for field application in coal-fired power plants. We consider that both the accuracy and the repeatability of the elemental and proximate analysis of coal have increased significantly and further efforts will be devoted to realizing large-scale commercialization of coal quality analyzer in China.

  1. Spatial investigation of plasma emission from laminar diffusion methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol alcohol flames using LIBS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezelbash, Mahsa; Majd, Abdollah Eslami; Darbani, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Mousavi, Seyyed Jabbar; Ghasemi, Ali; Tehrani, Masoud Kavosh

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is used to record some plasma emissions of different laminar diffusion methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol alcohol flames, to investigate the shapes, structures (i.e., reactants and products zones), kind, and quality of burning in different areas. For this purpose, molecular bands of CH, CH*, C2, CN, and CO as well as atomic and ionic lines of C, H, N, and O are identified, simultaneously. Experimental results indicate that the CN and C2 emissions have highest intensity in LIBS spectrum of n-propanol flame and the lowest in methanol. In addition, lowest content of CO pollution and better quality of burning process in n-propanol fuel flame toward ethanol and methanol are confirmed by comparison between their CO molecular band intensities. Moreover, variation of the signal intensity from these three flames with that from a known area of burner plate is compared. Our findings in this research advance the prior results in time-integrated LIBS combustion application and suggesting that LIBS can be used successfully with the CCD detector as a non-gated analytical tool, given its simple instrumentation needs, real-time capability applications of molecular detection in laminar diffusion flame samples, requirements.

  2. Partial Least Squares and Neural Networks for Quantitative Calibration of Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBs) of Geologic Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. B.; Morris, Richard V.; Clegg, S. M.; Humphries, S. D.; Wiens, R. C.; Bell, J. F., III; Mertzman, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument [1] on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover will be used to obtain the chemical composition of surface targets within 7 m of the rover using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). ChemCam analyzes atomic emission spectra (240-800 nm) from a plasma created by a pulsed Nd:KGW 1067 nm laser. The LIBS spectra can be used in a semiquantitative way to rapidly classify targets (e.g., basalt, andesite, carbonate, sulfate, etc.) and in a quantitative way to estimate their major and minor element chemical compositions. Quantitative chemical analysis from LIBS spectra is complicated by a number of factors, including chemical matrix effects [2]. Recent work has shown promising results using multivariate techniques such as partial least squares (PLS) regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict elemental abundances in samples [e.g. 2-6]. To develop, refine, and evaluate analysis schemes for LIBS spectra of geologic materials, we collected spectra of a diverse set of well-characterized natural geologic samples and are comparing the predictive abilities of PLS, cascade correlation ANN (CC-ANN) and multilayer perceptron ANN (MLP-ANN) analysis procedures.

  3. Stability of the Reliability of LibQUAL+ (tm) Scores: A Reliability Generalization Meta-Analysis Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Collen

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization meta-analysis of subscale and total scale scores on the Web-administered LibQUAL+ (tm) (Cook and others, 2002), a measure of library service quality. Data for 18,161 participants from 43 universities show that score reliabilities are remarkably invariant across campuses and different over groups. (SLD)

  4. "We Thought It Might Encourage Participation." Using Lottery Incentives to Improve LibQUAL+[TM] Response Rates among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stefanie; Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Bridges, Laurie M.

    2012-01-01

    Libraries deploying the LibQUAL+[TM] survey can offer a lottery incentive and many do so in the hope of increasing response rates. Other libraries may be prohibited from offering one because of Institutional Review Board restrictions, as is the case at Oregon State University. We wanted to discover why libraries offer lottery incentives, what…

  5. Improving Library Service Quality to Graduate Students: LibQual+[TM] Survey Results in a Practical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowska, Maria Anna; Hertel, Karen; Young, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    The LibQUAL+[TM] survey was conducted to determine user satisfaction and expectations concerning library service quality. The results of the "22 items and a box" constituted a rich source of information for the University of Idaho (UI) Library's strategic planning process. Focusing on graduate students, this study used three…

  6. Psychometric Properties of Scores from the Web-based LibQUAL+ Study of Perceptions of Library Service Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Colleen; Thompson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the psychometric integrity of scores from the LibQUAL+ evaluation of perceived library service quality conducted by ARL (Association of Research Libraries). Examines score structure, score reliability, score correlation and concurrent validity coefficients, scale means, and scale standardized norms, and considers the potential of the…

  7. Evaluation of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Measurement of Silica on Filter Samples of Coal Dust

    PubMed Central

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Miller, Arthur L.; Brown, Jonathan; Guevara, Edward; Cauda, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Airborne silica dust (quartz) is common in coal mines and represents a respiratory hazard that can lead to silicosis, a potentially fatal lung disease. With an eye toward developing a portable monitoring device for rapid analysis of silica dust, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to quantify quartz in coal dust samples collected on filter media. Pure silica (Min-U-Sil™ 5), Georgia kaolin, and Pittsburgh-4 and Illinois-6 coal dusts were deposited separately and at multiple mass loadings onto 37-mm polyvinylchloride (PVC) filters. LIBS-generated silicon emission was monitored at 288.16 nm, and non-silica contributions to that signal from kaolinite were removed by simultaneously detecting aluminum. Measurements of the four samples were used to calculate limits of detection (LOD) for silicon and aluminum of approximately 0.08 µg/cm2 and 0.05 µg/cm2, respectively (corresponding to 0.16 µg/cm2 and 0.20 µg/cm2 for silica and kaolinite, respectively). Relative errors of prediction are around 10%. Results demonstrate that LIBS can dependably quantify silica on filter samples of coal dust and confirm that accurate quantification can be achieved for very lightly loaded samples, which supports the potential application of LIBS for rapid, in-field monitoring. PMID:23146184

  8. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for measurement of silica on filter samples of coal dust.

    PubMed

    Stipe, Christopher B; Miller, Arthur L; Brown, Jonathan; Guevara, Edward; Cauda, Emanuele

    2012-11-01

    Airborne silica dust (quartz) is common in coal mines and represents a respiratory hazard that can lead to silicosis, a potentially fatal lung disease. With an eye toward developing a portable monitoring device for rapid analysis of silica dust, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to quantify quartz in coal dust samples collected on filter media. Pure silica (Min-U-Sil™ 5), Georgia kaolin, and Pittsburgh-4 and Illinois-6 coal dusts were deposited separately and at multiple mass loadings onto 37-mm polyvinylchloride (PVC) filters. LIBS-generated silicon emission was monitored at 288.16 nm, and non-silica contributions to that signal from kaolinite were removed by simultaneously detecting aluminum. Measurements of the four samples were used to calculate limits of detection (LOD) for silicon and aluminum of approximately 0.08 μg/cm(2) and 0.05 μg/cm(2), respectively (corresponding to 0.16 μg/cm(2) and 0.20 μg/cm(2) for silica and kaolinite, respectively). Relative errors of prediction are around 10%. Results demonstrate that LIBS can dependably quantify silica on filter samples of coal dust and confirm that accurate quantification can be achieved for very lightly loaded samples, which supports the potential application of LIBS for rapid, in-field monitoring.

  9. GammaLib and ctools. A software framework for the analysis of astronomical gamma-ray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knödlseder, J.; Mayer, M.; Deil, C.; Cayrou, J.-B.; Owen, E.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Lu, C.-C.; Buehler, R.; Forest, F.; Louge, T.; Siejkowski, H.; Kosack, K.; Gerard, L.; Schulz, A.; Martin, P.; Sanchez, D.; Ohm, S.; Hassan, T.; Brau-Nogué, S.

    2016-08-01

    The field of gamma-ray astronomy has seen important progress during the last decade, yet to date no common software framework has been developed for the scientific analysis of gamma-ray telescope data. We propose to fill this gap by means of the GammaLib software, a generic library that we have developed to support the analysis of gamma-ray event data. GammaLib was written in C++ and all functionality is available in Python through an extension module. Based on this framework we have developed the ctools software package, a suite of software tools that enables flexible workflows to be built for the analysis of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope event data. The ctools are inspired by science analysis software available for existing high-energy astronomy instruments, and they follow the modular ftools model developed by the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center. The ctools were written in Python and C++, and can be either used from the command line via shell scripts or directly from Python. In this paper we present the GammaLib and ctools software versions 1.0 that were released at the end of 2015. GammaLib and ctools are ready for the science analysis of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope event data, and also support the analysis of Fermi-LAT data and the exploitation of the COMPTEL legacy data archive. We propose using ctools as the science tools software for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory.

  10. Geochemical Predictions of Elemental Compositions using Remote LIBS under Mars Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Tucker, J.; Humphries, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Carmosino, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The ChemCam instrument on Mars Science Laboratory will be the first deployment of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for remote geochemical analysis. Successful quantitative analyses of those results will use in-situ calibration targets and laboratory calibrations, and employ sophisticated algorithms for data reduction in order to correct for variations in peak intensities and areas caused by interactions in the plasma that are a function of chemical composition. Such chemical matrix effects influence the ratio of each emission line to the abundance of the element that produces it, and are directly related to the elemental composition of the sample. Advances in statistical analysis of LIBS data that mitigate matrix effects and provide for accurate and precise bulk analysis of major, minor, and trace elements are reported here. Our in-house data set currently includes LIBS spectra of >140 rock powders (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary) with highly-varying compositions (as determined by XRF) that were acquired at 7-9 m standoff distance under Mars atmospheric conditions using a laboratory instrument [1]. LIBS spectra were modeled using partial least squares analysis (PLS) to predict elemental compositions. Within the igneous suite, 10 repeat measurements of a single sample demonstrates consistency and precision; calculated 1-σ errors were 1.6 wt.%SiO2, 1.5 wt.% Al2O3, 0.4 wt.% TiO2, 1.2 wt.% Fe2O3T, 1.6 wt.% MgO, 0.02 wt.% MnO, 1.1 wt.% CaO, 0.5 wt.% Na2O, 0.2 wt.% P2O5, and 0.4 wt.% K2O. In the overall suite, predictions of all elements, expressed as root mean square errors (RMSEP), are better than ±2.45 for SiO2, ±1.64 for Al2O3, ±0.38 for TiO2, ±1.50 for Fe2O3T, ±1.88 for MgO, ±0.03 for MnO, ±0.82 for CaO, ±0.55 for K2O, ±0.62 for Na2O, and ±0.24 for P2O5 in units of wt.% oxides. On-going work should reduce these values even further. For elements at low concentrations, multivariate analyses must be interpreted with care because their

  11. Li/B ratio in deep fluids an indicator of their generation depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirajima, Takao; Sengen, Yoshiteru; Nishimura, Koshi; Ohsawa, Shinji

    2010-05-01

    that the fluid inclusions in the studied specimens were produced during multi-stages, probably higher salinity syn-metamorphic ones and lower salinity post-peak metamorphic ones. The deep fluids contained in the quartz veins/lenses were leached into the extra-pure water by the crush leaching technique, mainly following Banks and Yardley (1992) and Bottrell et al. (1988). Composition in the leached fluids was analyzed using gas-chromatography and ICP-MS. All extracted fluids are characterized by significantly lower Cl/(Lix2000+Bx500+Cl) (<0.2) ratio than the value of the modern sea water (ca. 0.8). Li(x2000)/B(x500) ratio of extracted fluids varies from 0.1 to 1.0 and shows a positive correlation with the metamorphic grade of the host rock., i.e., ca. 0.1 in the chlorite zone, ca. 0.2 in the garnet zone, ca. 0.4 in the biotite zone and 0.4-1.0 in the eclogite unit. Literature data of Li-B contents in natural HP metamorphic rocks suggest that Li/B ration of dehydrated fluid released from subducted meta-basalts increases with the metamorphic depth (Marschall et al., 2006; 2007). These evidences suggest that Li/B ratio of deep fluids has a potential evaluating the generated depth, although there remains several factors which control should Li/B ration ratio in the fluid should be clarified.

  12. Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leahy-Hoppa, Megan R.; Miragliotta, Joseph; Osiander, Robert; Burnett, Jennifer; Dikmelik, Yamac; McEnnis, Caroline; Spicer, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast pulsed lasers find application in a range of spectroscopy and sensing techniques including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), coherent Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Whether based on absorption or emission processes, the characteristics of these techniques are heavily influenced by the use of ultrafast pulses in the signal generation process. Depending on the energy of the pulses used, the essential laser interaction process can primarily involve lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, or a combination of excited states produced by laser heating. While some of these techniques are currently confined to sensing at close ranges, others can be implemented for remote spectroscopic sensing owing principally to the laser pulse duration. We present a review of ultrafast laser-based spectroscopy techniques and discuss the use of these techniques to current and potential chemical and environmental sensing applications. PMID:22399883

  13. Remote Raman - Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Geochemical Investigation under Venus Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E.; Humphries, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures (~740 K) and atmospheric pressures (~93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. [1] and Sharma et al. [2] demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic [3] with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachy-andesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to

  14. LIBSLog: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) based logging tool for exploration of boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Chu, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel downhole instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in terrestrial and non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized LIBS analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars and Europa. The system can also be deployed in a wireline configuration as a logging probe, called LIBSLog. The LIBSLog could be lowered into existing boreholes and scan the borehole wall with depth. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. The results for lunar simulant NU-LHT-2M show a value for the concentration of iron ranging between 2.29% and 3.05% depending on the atomic line selected. The accepted value for the sample analyzed is 2.83%, showing the capability for the system in development to provide qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis in real-time.

  15. Effect of experimental conditions on surface hardness measurements of calcified tissues via LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Salam, Z. A.; Nanjing, Z.; Anglos, D.; Harith, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LIBS experimental conditions on the measurement of the surface hardness of calcified tissues. The technique mainly depends on a previously demonstrated correlation between the intensity ratio of ionic to atomic spectral lines and the hardness of the target material. Three types of calcified tissues have been examined, namely enamel of human teeth, shells, and eggshells. Laser-induced breakdown spectra were obtained under two different experimental conditions. In the first nano and picoseconds, laser pulses were used in a single-pulse arrangement, while in the second, single- and double-pulse regimes with nanosecond laser excitation were utilized. The results show that the ionic to atomic spectral line intensity ratios are higher in the case of picosecond laser pulse for both Ca and Mg spectral lines. This effect has been justified in view of the repulsive force of the laser-induced shock waves which depends clearly on the target surface hardness and on the laser irradiance. The electron densities ratio (pico/nano) is shown to be strongly depending on the laser irradiance too. In the case of calcium, single-pulse ratios are higher than the double-pulse ratios, while there is no appreciable difference between both in the case of magnesium. The results obtained herein suggest that double-pulse nanosecond arrangement and the choice of a minor element such as Mg furnishes the best experimental conditions for estimating the surface hardness via LIBS spectra. To validate this method, it has been applied on two previously measured groups of teeth enamel, the first is of ancient Egyptians, and the second from Nubians and Ugandans. The results support the usefulness of this method for similar real-life applications.

  16. Determination of trace elements in volcanic rock samples collected from cenozoic lava eruption sites using LIBS.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Nasr, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Yamani, Zain H

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements of environmental significance present in the volcanic rock samples collected from sites of the Cenozoic era flood basalt flows and eruptions were detected using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. For spectro-chemical analysis of these samples, the plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm wavelength on the target rock samples. These samples were collected from four widely separated locations surrounding the volcanic eruption sites belonging to the Harrat Hutaymah volcanic field in the vicinity of Taba town, situated to the east of Hail city of northern Saudi Arabia. These samples represent the scoria basalt lava flows as well as a large tuff-ring crater and it contains xenoliths. These flows occur widespread over the Earth's surface in this region, and their contained xenoliths are brought up from depths of a few tens of kilometers. This volcanic field has received much less attention in the previous geological studies; and consequently, its effects on the environment are not well defined. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance like Cr, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr and other trace metals like Cu, Al, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ti and Fe in these rock samples were determined by spectral analysis. Parametric dependence for improvement of LIBS sensitivity for detection of these elements was also carried out. The highest concentration detected of environmentally significant elements like Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Ni are 1910, 1399, 90.5, 12412 and 461.5 ppm, respectively in four different lava samples which are considered to be much higher than the safe permissible limits. The LIBS results were compared with the results obtained using other analytical techniques such as the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  17. Potential application of LIBS to NNSA next generation safeguards initiative (NGSI)

    SciTech Connect

    Barefield Ii, James E; Clegg, Samuel M; Veirs, Douglas K; Browne, Mike; Lopez, Leon; Martinez, Ron; Le, Loan; Lamontagne, Stephen A

    2009-01-01

    In a climate in which states and nations have been and perhaps currently are involved in the prol iferation of nuclear materials and technologies, advanced methodologies and improvements in current measurement techniques are needed to combat new threats and increased levels of sophistication. The Department of Energy through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has undertaken a broad review of International Safeguards. The conclusion from that review was that a comprehensive initiative to revitalize international safeguards technology and the human resource base was urgently needed to keep pace with demands and increasingly sophisticated emerging safeguards challenges. To address these challenges, NNSA launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to develop policies, concepts, technologies, expertise, and infrastructure necessary to sustain the international safeguards system as its mission evolves for the next 25 years. NGSI is designed to revitalize and strengthen the U.S. safeguards technical base, recognizing that without a robust program the United States of America will not be in a position to exercise leadership or provide the necessary support to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). International safeguards as administrated by the IAEA are the primary vehicle for verifying compliance with the peaceful use and nonproliferation of nuclear materials and technologies. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy or LIBS has the potential to support the goals of NGSI as follows: by providing (1) automated analysis in complex nuclear processing or reprocessing facilities in real-time or near real-time without sample preparation or removal, (2) isotopic and important elemental ratio (Cm/Pu, Cm/U, ... etc) analysis, and (3) centralized remote control, process monitoring, and analysis of nuclear materials in nuclear facilities at multiple locations within the facility. Potential application of LIBS to international safeguards as

  18. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a tool to determine the origin of 'conflict minerals'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, R. R.; Harmon, R. S.; Remus, J. J.; East, L. J.; Wise, M. A.; Tansi, B. M.; Shughrue, K. M.; Dunsin, K. S.; Liu, C.

    2012-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a means of rapidly distinguishing different places of origin for a mineral because the LIBS plasma emission spectrum provides the complete chemical composition (i.e. geochemical fingerprint) of a mineral in real-time. An application of this approach with potentially significant commercial and political importance is the spectral fingerprinting of the 'conflict minerals' columbite-tantalite ("coltan"). Following a successful pilot study of three columbite-tantalite suites from the United States and Canada, a more geographically diverse set of samples from 37 locations worldwide were analyzed using a commercial laboratory LIBS system and a subset of samples also analyzed using a prototype broadband field-portable system. The spectral range from 250-490 nm was chosen for the laboratory analysis to encompass many of the intense emission lines for the major elements (Ta, Nb, Fe, Mn) and the significant trace elements (e.g., W, Ti, Zr, Sn, U, Sb, Ca, Zn, Pb, Y, Mg, and Sc) known to commonly substitute in the columbite-tantalite solid solution series crystal structure and in the columbite group minerals. The field-portable instrument offered an increased spectral range (198-1005 nm), over which all elements have spectral emission lines, and higher resolution than the laboratory instrument. In both cases, the LIBS spectra were analyzed using advanced multivariate statistical signal processing techniques. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) resulted in a correct place-level geographic classification at success rates between 90 and 100%. The possible role of rare-earth elements (REE's) as a factor contributing to the high levels of sample discrimination was explored. Given the fact that it can be deployed as a man-portable analytical technology, these results lend additional evidence that LIBS has the potential to be utilized in the field as a real-time tool to discriminate between columbite-tantalite ores of

  19. In-situ 1-D and 2-D mapping of soil core and rock samples using the LIBS long spark

    SciTech Connect

    Rodolfa, C. T.; Cremers, D. A.; Ebinger, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    LIBS is being developed for stand-off interrogation of samples up to 20 m from a lander or rover. Stand-off capability is important to access targets not conveniently located for in-situ analysis. On the other hand, in-situ techniques are still important and are being developed for future missions such as MSL. Retrieved samples may consist of loose soils, subsurface soil cores, drilled rock cores, and ice cores. For these sample types, it is possible to employ LIBS analysis and take advantage of LIBS capabilities. These include: (1) rapid analysis, (2) good detection sensitivity for many elements, (3) good spatial resolution (3-100 microns), and (4) ability to clean a surface prior to analysis. Using LIBS, it is possible to perform a 1-dimensional analysis, for example, determining element concentrations along a soil core, or a 2-dimensional mapping of the sample surface using a unique 'long' spark. Two-dimensional sampling has been developed previously by focusing the laser pulses as small spots on the sample and then moving the sample a short distance between sampling locations. Although demonstrated, this method is time consuming, requiring a large number of shots to span even a small region (for 3 micron resolution, an area 600 x 480 microns sampled in {approx} 30 min using a 20 Hz laser). For a spacecraft instrument, the ability to more rapidly prepare a 2D elemental spatial map will be desirable. Here they discuss the use of LIBS for sampling along a core in 1D (detection of carbon) and for 2D mapping of a rock face.

  20. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate.

  1. Food Allergy in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Sandipan; Srinivas, Sahana M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy in atopic dermatitis (AD) is debatable from decades. Role of diet in the cause and treatment of AD is controversial and is not well-defined. Allergists and pediatricians are convinced about the food allergy in AD whereas many dermatologists are contrary for this. However, there are studies in the Indian and western literature supporting the evidence that elimination diet may improve the severe type of AD. There is increasing awareness and lot of misconception among caregivers about food allergy and hence careful understanding about this concept is necessary to counsel parents. Recent evidence-based literature suggests avoidance of proven food allergens in AD could be beneficial in moderate to severe type of AD. PMID:27904183

  2. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  3. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  4. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your ...

  5. Impact socio professionnel de la libération chirurgicale du syndrome du canal carpien

    PubMed Central

    Kraiem, Aouatef Mahfoudh; Hnia, Hajer; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Henchi, Mohamed Adnène; Khalfallah, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    L’objectif de notre travail était d’étudier les conséquences socioprofessionnelles d’une libération chirurgicale du SCC. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale portant sur les sujets opérés pour un SCC d’origine professionnelle ; recensés dans le Service de Médecine de Travail et de Pathologies Professionnelles au CHU Tahar Sfar de Mahdia en Tunisie sur une période de 8 ans allant du 1 Janvier 2006 au mois Décembre 2013. Le recueil des données s’est basé sur une fiche d’enquête, portant sur la description des caractéristiques socioprofessionnelles, médicales, et sur le devenir professionnel des participants. Pour étudier les contraintes psychosociales au travail, nous avons adopté le questionnaire de Karasek. La durée d’arrêt de travail après libération chirurgicale du SCC était significativement liée à l’existence d’autres troubles musculo-squelettiques autre que le SCC, la déclaration du SCC en maladie professionnelle et à l’ancienneté professionnelle des salariés. Quant au devenir professionnel des salariés opérés, 50,7% ont gardé le même poste, 15,3% ont bénéficié d’un aménagement de poste et 33,8% ont bénéficié d’un changement de poste dans la même entreprise. Le devenir professionnel de ces salariés était corrélé à leurs qualifications professionnelles et au type de l’atteinte sensitive et/ou motrice du nerf médian à l’EMG. Un certain nombre de facteurs non lésionnels déterminaient la durée de l’arrêt de travail, alors que le devenir professionnel des opérés pour SCC dépendait essentiellement de leurs qualifications professionnelles et des données de l’électromyogramme. Il est certain que des travaux beaucoup plus larges permettraient d’affiner encore ces résultats. PMID:27800089

  6. [Study on the multivariate quantitative analysis method for steel alloy elements using LIBS].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan-hong; Li, Ying; Tian, Ye; Lu, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of steel alloys was carried out using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) taking into account the complex matrix effects in steel alloy samples. The laser induced plasma was generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with pulse width of 10 ns and repeated frequency of 10 Hz. The LIBS signal was coupled to the echelle spectrometer and recorded by a high sensitive ICCD detector. To get the best experimental conditions, some parameters, such as the detection delay, the CCDs integral gate width and the detecting position from the sample surface, were optimized. The experimental results showed that the optimum detection delay time was 1.5 micros, the optimal CCDs integral gate width was 2 micros and the best detecting position was 1.5 mm below the alloy sample's surface. The samples used in the experiments are ten standard steel alloy samples and two unknown steel alloy samples. The quantitative analysis was investigated with the optimum experimental parameters. Elements Cr and Ni in steel alloy samples were taken as the detection targets. The analysis was carried out with the methods based on conditional univariate quantitative analysis, multiple linear regression and partial least squares (PLS) respectively. It turned out that the correlation coefficients of calibration curves are not very high in the conditional univariate calibration method. The analysis results were obtained with the unsatisfied relative errors for the two predicted samples. So the con- ditional univariate quantitative analysis method can't effectively serve the quantitative analysis purpose for multi-components and complex matrix steel alloy samples. And with multiple linear regression method, the analysis accuracy was improved effectively. The method based on partial least squares (PLS) turned out to be the best method among all the three quantitative analysis methods applied. Based on PLS, the correlation coefficient of calibration curve for Cr is 0

  7. [The symmetric zero-area conversion adptive peak-seeking method research for LIBS/Raman spectra].

    PubMed

    Bi, Yun-Feng; Li, Ying; Zheng, Rong-Er

    2013-02-01

    Automatic peak seeking is an indispensable link for in situ and real-time spectral detection and analysis, and has important significance for application of spectral technology to such fields as long-term marine monitoring and oil mud logging. Based on some typical LIBS/Raman spectrum data obtained from lab, three kinds of symmetric zero-area transformation functions respectively constructed from Gaussian, Lorentz and Voigt function were compared, and the results show that there exists an optimal symmetrical zero-area transformation function for peak seeking, but all the transformation functions obtain the same peak position and peak width under their optimal parameters. The proposed method is free from spectrum background and baseline trend influence, adaptive to the wide range of SNR, close to or even better than artificial recognition for weak peak, and could be used in future automatic in-situ analysis of LIBS and Raman.

  8. Analysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ángel Aguirre, Miguel; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Canals, Antonio; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R

    2013-12-15

    This study shows the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) investigation. Several emission spectra were obtained for 7 different mobiles from 4 different manufacturers. Using the emission spectra of the black components it was possible to see some differences among the manufacturers and some emission lines from organic elements and molecules (N, O, CN and C2) led to the highest contribution for this differentiation. Some polymeric internal parts in contact with the inner pieces of the mobiles and covered with a special paint presented a strong emission signal for Cr. The white pieces presented mainly Al, Ba and Ti in their composition. Finally, this study developed a procedure for LIBS emission spectra using chemometric strategies and suitable information can be obtained for identification of manufacturer and counterfeit products. In addition, the results obtained can improve the classification for establishing recycling strategies of e-waste.

  9. Chemical and textural characteristics of multistage fluid inclusions with high Li/B ratio found from the Sanbagawa belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Hirajima, T.

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies invoked that the variation of peculiar fluid soluble light elements, such as Li, B and Cl, are capable of suggesting generation depths of fluid released in subduction zones (e.g., Scambelluri et al., 2004; Bebout et al., 2007; Marschall et al., 2009). Crush-leached fluids extracted from quartz veins intercalated with metabasites of the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt show high Li and B concentrations, whose Li/B ratios show a positive correlation with metamorphic grade of the host rocks, i.e., from 0.02 for pumpellyite-actinolite facies to 0.27 for eclogite facies (Sengen et al., 2009). Furthermore, crush-leached fluids extracted from quartz veins intercalated with metasediments in proximal to the eclogite unit in the Besshi district show much higher Li/B ratio (ca. 0.36-1.99). Yoshida et al. (2011) pointed out that Li/B ratio of dehydrated fluids was controlled by the rock types of the host rocks, i.e., Li/B ratio of dehydrated fluids derived from tourmaline-free metasediments show much higher values than those expected from metabasites. Those obtained data suggest that the Li/B ratio of the deep fluid has a potential as a depth indicator but there remain many unknown factors for establishing it. The Li/B ratio of extracted fluid obtained by the crush-leached method integrates the whole fluid activities which the host rocks were taken place. To investigate the fluid activity history for the sample showing the highest Li/B ratio (1.99), detailed petrographical and microthemometric studies were performed. The studied sample IR04 is a foliation-parallel quartz vein intercalated with a Grt-Hbl-Ph schist probably derived from clay, whose peak P-T conditions are estimated as 600 °C and 1.3 GPa using pseudosection analysis. The quartz vein shows a foam microstructure, suggesting that low differential stress and high-T conditions were attained during its texture formation. Three types of fluid inclusions have been identified: the earliest one, FIA-I, is

  10. LibME-automatic extraction of 3D ligand-binding motifs for mechanistic analysis of protein-ligand recognition.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Liang, Zhi; Teng, MaiKun; Niu, LiWen

    2016-12-01

    Identifying conserved binding motifs is an efficient way to study protein-ligand recognition. Most 3D binding motifs only contain information from the protein side, and so motifs that combine information from both protein and ligand sides are desired. Here, we propose an algorithm called LibME (Ligand-binding Motif Extractor), which automatically extracts 3D binding motifs composed of the target ligand and surrounding conserved residues. We show that the motifs extracted by LibME for ATP and its analogs are highly similar to well-known motifs reported by previous studies. The superiority of our method to handle flexible ligands was also demonstrated using isocitric acid as an example. Finally, we show that these motifs, together with their visual exhibition, permit better investigating and understanding of protein-ligand recognition process.

  11. The detection of palladium particles in proton exchange membrane fuel-cell water by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Stuart C; Wickun, William G; Mode, Jeremy M; Gurney, Brian D; Michels, Fred G

    2011-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using conditional data analysis was applied to aqueous suspensions of palladium particles in the reformate water of palladium-based proton exchange membrane fuel cells. A significant amount of palladium was found in the water, indicating degradation of the fuel-cell cathode catalytic layers. The palladium particle-size detection limit was found to be about 400 nm. Calibration procedures to quantify the palladium concentration are discussed.

  12. Characteristics of stand-off detection of geological samples at MARS atmospheric pressure using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, D. A.; Arp, Z. A.; Knight, Andrew K.; Scherbarth, Nancy L.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.

    2003-01-01

    LIBS has been proposed as a new method for stand-off detection of geological samples for use on landers and rovers to Mars and studies are on-going to determine capabilities. Because of the severe size, weight, ruggedness and power requirements for space instrumentation and the need to maximize scientific return, it is important to benchmark capabilities with parameters representative of compact instrumentation likely to be used in a flight instrument. Some of these issues are addressed here.

  13. Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B.; Manurung, M.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2013-09-03

    Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

  14. Analyzing toys models of Arabidopsis and Drosphila using Z3 SMT-LIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-05-01

    Toy models for the Arabidopsis Thaliana flower and the Drosophila are analyzed using Microsoft SMT-Solver Z3 with the SMT-LIB language. The models are formulated as Boolean networks which describe the metabolic cycles for Arabidopsis and Drosophila. The dynamic activation of the different bio macromolecules is described by the variables and laws of Boolean transition. Specifically, bitvectors and assertions, which describe the change of state of bitvectors from a sampling time to the next, are used. The dynamic feasibility problem of the biological network is translated to a Boolean satisfiability problem. The corresponding dynamic attractors are represented as a model of satisfiability. The Z3 software allows all required computations in a friendly and efficient manner. It is expected that the SMT-solvers, such as Z3, will become a routine tool in system biology and that they will provide bio-nanosystem design techniques. As a line for future research, the study of the models for Arabidopsis and Drosophila using different SMT-solvers such as CVC4, Mathsat and Yices, is proposed.

  15. Qualitative analysis of Pb liquid sample using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyanto, Hery; Rupiasih, Ni Nyoman; Winardi, T. B.; Manurung, M.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2013-09-01

    Qualitative analysis of liquid sample containing 1,000 ppm of Pb was performed by using LIBS technique. In order to avoid splashing off of the liquid sample during laser irradiation, a sample pretreatment was done, namely the liquid sample was absorbed by using commercial available stomach medicine. Two kinds of absorbent materials were chosen in this experiment, first containing 125 mg activated carbon and second 600 mg activated attapulgite. These absorbent materials were used since carbon sample gives better absorption of infrared laser irradiation used in this experiment. In order to characterize the absorption process, three treatments were conducted in this experiment; first, without heating the sample but varying the absorption time before laser irradiation; second by varying the heating temperature after certain time of absorption process and third by varying the temperature only. The maximum emission intensity of Pb I 405.7 nm was found in the second treatment of heating the sample till 85°C after 30 minutes absorption of the liquid sample in both absorbent materials.

  16. Picosecond LIBS diagnostics for Tokamak in situ plasma facing materials chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Vincent; Pérès, Bastien; Bultel, Arnaud; Hideur, Ammar; Grisolia, Christian

    2016-02-01

    First results are presented in relation with experimental and theoretical studies performed at the CORIA laboratory in the general framework of the determination of the chemical analysis of Tokamak plasma facing materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in picosecond regime. Experiments are performed on W in a specific chamber. This chamber is equipped with a UV-visible-near IR spectroscopic device. Boltzmann plots are derived for typical laser characteristics. We show that the initial excitation temperature is close to 12 000 K followed by a quasi steady value close to 8500 K. The ECHREM (Euler code for CHemically REactive Multicomponent laser-induced plasmas) code is developed to reproduce the laser-induced plasmas. This code is based on the implementation of a Collisional-Radiative model in which the different excited states are considered as full species. This state-to-state approach is relevant to theoretically assess the departure from excitation and chemical equilibrium. Tested on aluminum, the model shows that the plasma remains close to excitation equilibrium.

  17. Reliable classification of moving waste materials with LIBS in concrete recycling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Han; Bakker, M C M

    2014-03-01

    Effective discrimination between different waste materials is of paramount importance for inline quality inspection of recycle concrete aggregates from demolished buildings. The moving targeted materials in the concrete waste stream are wood, PVC, gypsum block, glass, brick, steel rebar, aggregate and cement paste. For each material, up to three different types were considered, while thirty particles of each material were selected. Proposed is a reliable classification methodology based on integration of the LIBS spectral emissions in a fixed time window, starting from the deployment of the laser shot. PLS-DA (multi class) and the hybrid combination PCA-Adaboost (binary class) were investigated as efficient classifiers. In addition, mean centre and auto scaling approaches were compared for both classifiers. Using 72 training spectra and 18 test spectra per material, each averaged by ten shots, only PLS-DA achieved full discrimination, and the mean centre approach made it slightly more robust. Continuing with PLS-DA, the relation between data averaging and convergence to 0.3% average error was investigated using 9-fold cross-validations. Single-shot PLS-DA presented the highest challenge and most desirable methodology, which converged with 59 PC. The degree of success in practical testing will depend on the quality of the training set and the implications of the possibly remaining false positives.

  18. White mould of common bean incited by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, M A; Abou-el-Seoud, I; Rasmy, M R; Khater, Manar M

    2009-01-01

    White mould, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a destructive yield-limiting disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt. Forty eight isolate of S. sclerotiorum were isolated from diseased bean tissues taken from 9 geographical regions (Al-Behaira, Alexandria and Assiut governorates) during winter season in 2008. The pathogenicity studies showed that the tested bean cultivars (Bronco, Contender, Giza 6 and Nebraska) varied in disease incidence. Contender bean cultivar was more resistant than other cultivars. Whereas, the more virulent isolates were S5 and S6. Histology investigation of seedlings bean hypocotyls inoculated with S. sclerotiorum after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after inoculation indicated that penetration of bean seedlings occurred, during the first 48 hours after inoculation, through the epidermis and the outer layer of the cortex. 72 hours after inoculation, damage extended deeper into the cortical cells. Infection took place inter-and interacellularly after 96 hours more damage occurred. In addition, the invasion of the fungal hyphae through the cortical cells occurred both inter-, and intracellularly. Moreover, the observed of electron microscope both transmission and scanning investigations concluded that penetrating hyphae progressed through bean seedlings tissues leading to complete destruction of epidermis, fully colonization and death of cortical cells, partial invasion of vascular tissues. However, presence of the fungal structures in pith cells was observed.

  19. Investigation of molecular and elemental species dynamics in NTO, TNT, and ANTA using femtosecond LIBS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nageswara Rao, E.; Sunku, Sreedhar; Tewari, Surya P.; Manoj Kumar, G.; Venugopal Rao, S.

    2013-05-01

    We present our initial experimental results from the LIBS studies of pyrazole, 1-nitropyrazole, 3-nitropyrazole, 3,4- dinitropyrazole and 1-methyl- 3,4,5 trinitro pyrazole recorded with femtosecond pulses and performed in argon atmosphere. CN molecular bands in three different spectral regions of 357 nm-360 nm, 384 nm-389 nm and 414 nm -423 nm, C2 swan bands near 460 nm-475 nm, 510 nm- 520 nm and 550 nm-565 nm were observed. The C peak at 247.82 nm, H peak at 656.2 nm have also been observed along with several peaks of O and N. CN/C2, CN/C, C2/C and C2/N ratios were measured from the average of 25 spectra obtained in argon. The effect of number of nitro groups on the atomic and molecular emission has been evaluated. A gate delay of 100 ns and a gate width of 800 ns were used for collecting the spectra.

  20. Fabrication of Si negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) using cross-linked polymer binders

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Suk-Yong; Han, Sien-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Si as an active material for LIBs has been attracting much attention due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3572 mAh g−1). However, a disadvantage when using a Si negative electrode for LIBs is the abrupt drop of its capabilities during the cycling process. Therefore, there have been a few studies of polymers such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) given that the robust structure of a polymeric binder to LIBs anodes is a promising means by which to enhance the performance of high-capacity anodes. These studies essentially focused mainly on modifying of the linear-polymer component or on copolymers dissolved in solvents. Cross-linking polymers as a binder may be preferred due to their good scratch resistance, excellent chemical resistance and high levels of adhesion and resilience. However, because these types of polymers (with a rigid structure and cross-linking points) are also insoluble in general organic solvents, applying these types in this capacity is virtually impossible. PMID:27991497

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of a high-pressure CO2-water mixture: application to carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Goueguel, Christian; McIntyre, Dustin L; Singh, Jagdish P; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Geologic carbon storage in deep saline aquifers is considered a feasible and possible approach of mitigating the problem of increasing greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are latent risks in which carbon dioxide (CO2) could migrate from the deep saline formations to shallower aquifers. In the event of a significant CO2 leakage to an underground source of drinking water, CO2 will dissolve in the water, thereby increasing its acidity, which could potentially enhance the solubility of various aquifer constituents, including hazardous compounds, subsequently compromising groundwater quality due to increased concentration of aqueous metals. In this paper we explore the possibility of detecting such leakage by the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The experiments were conducted in calcium chloride solution at three pressures of 10, 50, and 120 bar. To evaluate the direct effect of elevated CO2 on the intensity of calcium emission lines (422.67 and 393.37 nm), we also performed experiments with pure nitrogen (N2) gas, offering large water solubility contrast. We found that when performed in presence of CO2, LIBS showed only a modest decrease in Ca emission intensity from 10 to 120 bar compared to N2. These results indicate that LIBS is a viable tool for measuring brine/water contents in high-pressure CO2 environment and can be applied for monitoring CO2 leakage and displaced brine migration.

  2. Fabrication of Si negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) using cross-linked polymer binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Suk-Yong; Han, Sien-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Currently, Si as an active material for LIBs has been attracting much attention due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3572 mAh g‑1). However, a disadvantage when using a Si negative electrode for LIBs is the abrupt drop of its capabilities during the cycling process. Therefore, there have been a few studies of polymers such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) given that the robust structure of a polymeric binder to LIBs anodes is a promising means by which to enhance the performance of high-capacity anodes. These studies essentially focused mainly on modifying of the linear-polymer component or on copolymers dissolved in solvents. Cross-linking polymers as a binder may be preferred due to their good scratch resistance, excellent chemical resistance and high levels of adhesion and resilience. However, because these types of polymers (with a rigid structure and cross-linking points) are also insoluble in general organic solvents, applying these types in this capacity is virtually impossible.

  3. Direct measurements of sample heating by a laser-induced air plasma in pre-ablation spark dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Register, Janna; Scaffidi, Jonathan; Angel, S Michael

    2012-08-01

    Direct measurements of temperature changes were made using small thermocouples (TC), placed near a laser-induced air plasma. Temperature changes up to ~500 °C were observed. From the measured temperature changes, estimates were made of the amount of heat absorbed per unit area. This allowed calculations to be made of the surface temperature, as a function of time, of a sample heated by the air plasma that is generated during orthogonal pre-ablation spark dual-pulse (DP) LIBS measurements. In separate experiments, single-pulse (SP) LIBS emission and sample ablation rate measurements were performed on nickel at sample temperatures ranging from room temperature to the maximum surface temperature that was calculated using the TC measurement results (500 °C). A small, but real sample temperature-dependent increase in both SP LIBS emission and the rate of sample ablation was found for nickel samples heated up to 500 °C. Comparison of DP LIBS emission enhancement values for bulk nickel samples at room temperature versus the enhanced SP LIBS emission and sample ablation rates observed as a function of increasing sample temperature suggests that sample heating by the laser-induced air plasma plays only a minor role in DP LIBS emission enhancement.

  4. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in vitrified Mn-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Nayak, Rajesh; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh, C. E-mail: unnikrishnan.vk@manipal.edu; Sonavane, M. S.; Yeotikar, R. G.; Shah, M. L.; Gupta, G. P.; Suri, B. M.

    2014-09-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an atomic emission spectroscopy method, has rapidly grown as one of the best elemental analysis techniques over the past two decades. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in manganese-doped glasses have been carried out using an optimized LIBS system employing a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser as the source of excitation. The glass samples have been prepared using conventional vitrification methods. The laser pulse irradiance on the surface of the glass samples placed in air at atmospheric pressure was about 1.7×10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}. The spatially integrated plasma emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fiber-based collection system. Homogeneity was checked by recording LIBS spectra from different sites on the sample surface and analyzing the elemental emission intensities for concentration determination. Validation of the observed LIBS results was done by comparison with scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) surface elemental mapping. The analytical performance of the LIBS system has been evaluated through the correlation of the LIBS determined concentrations of Mn with its certified values. The results are found to be in very good agreement with the certified concentrations.

  5. Analysis of heterogeneous gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF).

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K; Gondal, Mohammed A; Gondal, Bilal; Singh, Vivek K

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, no specific sample preparation requirements, non-destructiveness, and versatility. It has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of being applied to a wide range of materials including biomaterials. In this paper, we have performed spectroscopic studies on gallstones which are heterogeneous in nature using LIBS and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) techniques. It has been observed that the presence and relative concentrations of trace elements in different kind of gallstones (cholesterol and pigment gallstones) can easily be determined using LIBS technique. From the experiments carried out on gallstones for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such biomedical applications. The stone samples studied in the present paper were classified using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. WD-XRF spectroscopy has been applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major and trace elements present in the gallstone which was compared with the LIBS data. The results obtained in the present paper show interesting prospects for LIBS and WD-XRF to study cholelithiasis better.

  6. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  7. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  8. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  9. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  10. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    PubMed

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  11. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers FDA Regulates ... of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  12. Bioanalytical Methods for Food Contaminant Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foods are complex mixtures of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, organic compounds and other naturally occurring compounds. Sometimes added to this mixture are residues of pesticides, veterinary and human drugs, microbial toxins, preservatives, contaminants from food proc...

  13. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pesticides where other legal premarket approval requirements apply. Direct food additives are those that are added to ... and other foods to add texture -- is a direct additive. Most direct additives are identified on the ...

  14. A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L

    2010-08-20

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain L-glutamate by 15-20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain.

  15. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars.

  16. Optimization of the spectral data processing in a LIBS simultaneous elemental analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Body, D.; Chadwick, B. L.

    2001-06-01

    An instrumentation variation on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is described that allows simultaneous determination of all detectable elements using a multiple spectrograph and synchronized, multiple CCD spectral acquisition system. The system is particularly suited to the rapid analysis of heterogeneous materials such as coal and mineral ores. For the analysis of a heterogeneous material the acquisition cycle typically stores 1000 spectra for subsequent filtering and analysis. The incorporation of an effective data analysis methodology has been critical in achieving both accurate and reproducible results in the analysis of powders with the technology. Using naturally occurring gypsum as the optimization matrix, various data analysis techniques have been investigated including: using pulse-to-pulse internal standardisation; data filtering; and spectral deconvolution. The incorporation of normalization of the elemental emission to the total plasma emission intensity has been found to yield the single biggest improvement in accuracy and precision. Spectral deconvolution has been found to yield further improvement and is particularly relevant to the analysis of complex materials such as black coal. The use of pulse-to-pulse intensity normalization has the further benefit of extending the period between instrument recalibration, thus enhancing the ease of use of the device. The benefit of the optimized data analysis methodology is revealed in the determination of eight elemental components of gypsum (Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Si, Ti and K) where a typical absolute analysis accuracy of ±10% is obtained. These results compare favourably to analysis by conventional techniques for these materials. The analysis accuracy and repeatability is further demonstrated by the determination of the concentrations of these elements in a black coal sample.

  17. The impact of chronic bupropion on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of ad lib smoking: a randomized controlled trial in unmotivated smokers.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sarwar; Zawertailo, Laurie; Busto, Usoa; Zack, Martin; Farvolden, Peter; Selby, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Bupropion is an efficacious non-nicotine medication for smoking cessation; however, its cessation-mediating mechanism is unclear. This randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the effect of bupropion SR (300 mg/day for 6 weeks) on plasma cotinine and on the subjective effects of smoking in 24 current daily smokers who were not trying to quit or reduce smoking. Subjective effects of smoking, as well as cue-elicited responses were assessed at bi-weekly experimental sessions using validated scales. Several indices of cigarette consumption were measured. Plasma cotinine decreased from 280 (+/-133) microg/l at baseline to 205 (+/-108) microg/l at end of treatment in the bupropion group (p=0.036), but no significant change was found in the placebo group. Daily cigarette count and puff topography did not significantly change in either group. In contrast to placebo, bupropion increased post-smoking satiety (p=0.045). Both groups reported higher craving (p=0.025) and withdrawal (p=0.014) after exposure to smoking-related pictures, compared to neutral pictures. This biased reactivity was not significantly affected by treatment condition (p>0.1). Therefore, bupropion does not appear to impact the smokers' response to conditioned smoking-related cues but influences the unconditioned subjective effects of smoking in unmotivated smokers. This study is among the first to systematically investigate the effect of chronic bupropion administration, free from the confounding effect of the smoker's motivation to quit smoking.

  18. SOD isoforms play no role in lifespan in ad lib or dietary restricted conditions, but mutational inactivation of SOD-1 reduces life extension by cold.

    PubMed

    Yen, Kelvin; Patel, Harshil B; Lublin, Alex L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2009-03-01

    The free radical theory of aging is one of the most prominent theories of aging and senescence, but has yet to be definitively proven. If free radicals are the cause of senescence, then the cellular anti-oxidant system should play a large role in lifespan determination. Because superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays a central role in detoxifying superoxide radicals, we have examined the effects of mutational inactivation of each isoform of sod on normal lifespan and lifespan extension by dietary restriction (DR) or cold-/hypothermic-induced longevity (CHIL). We find no significant decrease in lifespan for control worms or worms undergoing DR when sod isoforms are knocked-out even though sod mutational inactivation produces hypersensitivity to paraquat. In contrast, sod-1 inactivation significantly reduces lifespan extension by CHIL, suggesting that CHIL requires a specific genetic program beyond simple reduction in metabolic rate. Furthermore, CHIL paradoxically increases lifespan while reducing resistance to oxidative stress, further disassociating oxidative stress resistance and lifespan.

  19. Your Food Dollar. Money Management. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This student/teacher resource booklet provides information on conserving food dollars while providing nutritious meals. The guide shows how to set up a food budget and explains how scanning the weekly food ads, planning meals around the specials, and compiling a list accordingly can also help consumers get more for their food dollars. Numerous…

  20. Novel Estimation of the Humification Degree of Soil Organic Matter by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Compared to Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Edilene; Ferreira, Ednaldo; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Senesi, Giorgio; Carvalho, Camila; Romano, Renan; Martin-Neto, Ladislau; Milori, Debora

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes an important reservoir of terrestrial carbon and can be considered an alternative for atmospheric carbon storage, contributing to global warming mitigation. Soil management can favor atmospheric carbon incorporation into SOM or its release from SOM to atmosphere. Thus, the evaluation of the humification degree (HD), which is an indication of the recalcitrance of SOM, can provide an estimation of the capacity of carbon sequestration in soils under various managements. The HD of SOM can be estimated by using various analytical techniques including fluorescence spectroscopy. In the present work, the potential of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to estimate the HD of SOM was evaluated for the first time. In a LIBS experiment a high-energy laser pulse irradiates the sample and the energy absorbed by the sample causes a local heating of the material that results in its evaporation or sublimation. The high temperature of the ablated material generates a small plasma plume and, as a result of the plasma temperature, the ablated material breaks down into excited atomic and ionic species. During the plasma cooling, the excited species return to their lower energy state emitting electromagnetic radiation at characteristic wavelengths. In a LIBS spectrum the measurement of the characteristic emission wavelengths provides qualitative information about the elemental composition of the sample, whereas the intensities of the signals can be used for quantitative determinations. The LIBS potential for the analysis of organic compounds has been explored recently by using the emission lines of elements that are commonly present in organic compounds, such as the predominant C, H, P, O and N. LIBS elemental emissions were correlated to fluorescence emissions determined by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS), which was considered as the reference technique. The HD of SOM determined by LIBS showed a strong correlation to that

  1. LiB12PC, the first boron-rich metal boride with phosphorus--synthesis, crystal structure, hardness, spectroscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Vojteer, Natascha; Sagawe, Vanessa; Stauffer, Julia; Schroeder, Melanie; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2011-03-07

    We present synthesis, crystal structure, hardness, and IR/Raman and UV/Vis spectra of a new compound with the mean composition LiB(12)PC. Transparent single crystals were synthesised from Ga, Li, B, red phosphorus and C at 1500 °C in boron nitride crucibles welded in Ta ampoules. Depending on the type of boron used for the synthesis we obtained colourless, brown and red single crystals with slightly different P/C ratios. Colourless LiB(12)PC crystallizes orthorhombic in the space group Imma (No. 74) with a=10.188(2) Å, b=5.7689(11) Å, c=8.127(2) Å and Z=4. Brown LiB(12)P(0.89)C(1.11) is very similar, but with a lower P content. Red single crystals of LiB(12)P(1.13)C(0.87) have a larger unit cell with a=10.4097(18) Å, b=5.9029(7) Å, c=8.2044(12) Å. EDX measurements confirm that the red crystals contain more phosphorus than the other ones. The crystal structure is characterized by a covalent network of B(12) icosahedra connected by exohedral B-B bonds and P-P, P-C or C-C units. Li atoms are located in interstitials. The structure is closely related to MgB(7), LiB(13)C(2) and ScB(13)C. LiB(12)PC fulfils the electron counting rules of Wade and also Longuet-Higgins. Measurements of Vickers micro-hardness (H(V)=27 GPa) revealed that LiB(12)PC is a hard material. The optical band gaps obtained from UV/Vis spectra match the colours of the crystals. Furthermore we report on the IR and Raman spectra.

  2. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  3. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  4. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  5. LIB spectroscopic and biochemical analysis to characterize lead toxicity alleviative nature of silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Rai, Awadesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The responses of wheat seedling treated with silicon (Si; 10 μM) and lead (Pb; 100 μM) for 7 days have been investigated by analyzing growth, Pb uptake, chlorophyll fluorescence, oxidative stress, antioxidants and nutrients regulation. Results indicated that, Pb significantly (P<0.05) declined growth of seedlings which was accompanied by uptake of Pb. Under Pb stress, fluorescence parameters: Fv/Fm ratio and qP were significantly (P<0.05) decreased while NPQ was increased. Si addition alleviated Pb-induced decrease in growth and alterations in photosynthesis, and also significantly (P<0.05) lowered Pb uptake. Under Pb treatment, oxidative stress markers: hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were enhanced while DPPH(•) scavenging capacity and total phenolic compounds (TPCs) were decreased significantly, however, Si addition improved the status of antioxidants. The non-protein thiols (NP-SH) showed enhanced level under Pb stress. Pb stress considerably disturbed status of the nutrients as decrease in Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Ni contents while an increase in K, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Na contents were noticed. Si addition maintained status of all the nutrients remarkably. The quickest method of element analysis: LIBS spectra revealed significantly lower uptake of Pb in seedlings grown under Si and Pb combination and same was correlated with the data of AAS. Overall results pointed out that excess Pb uptake disturbed status of nutrients, photosynthetic performance, antioxidant capacity, hence severe oxidative damage to lipids occurred. Further, Si supplementation successfully regulated these parameters by inhibiting Pb uptake hence maintained growth of wheat seedlings. Similar pattern of data recorded by the LIBS, AAS and ICAP-AES confirmed that LIBS may be one of the promising and authentic tools to monitor the mineral and metal distribution in the plants without hampering or disturbing the environment due to its eco-friendly and non-invasive nature.

  6. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C.; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P.; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P. C.; Silver, R. Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment. PMID:24795618

  7. A matrix effect and accuracy evaluation for the determination of elements in milk powder LIBS and laser ablation/ICP-OES spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gilon, N; El-Haddad, J; Stankova, A; Lei, W; Ma, Q; Motto-Ros, V; Yu, J

    2011-11-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-OES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were investigated for the determination of Ca, Mg, Zn and Na in milk samples. The accuracy of both methods was evaluated by comparison of the concentration found using LA-ICP-OES and LIBS with classical wet digestion associated with ICP-OES determination. The results were not fully acceptable, with biases from less than 1% to more than 60%. Matrix effects were also investigated. The sample matrix can influence the temperature, electron number density (n (e)) and other excitation characteristics in the ICP. These ICP characteristics were studied and evaluated during ablation of eight milk samples. Differences in n (e) (from 8.9 to 13.8 × 10(14) cm(-3)) and rotational temperature (ranging from 3,400 to 4,400 K) occurred with no correlation with trueness. LIBS results obtained after classical external calibration procedure gave degraded accuracy, indicating a strong matrix effect. The LIBS measurements clearly showed that the major problem in LA-ICP was related to the ablation process and that LIBS spectroscopy is an excellent diagnostic tool for LA-ICP techniques.

  8. Photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio study of the doubly antiaromatic B(6) (2-) dianion in the LiB(6) (-) cluster.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2005-02-01

    A metal-boron mixed cluster LiB(6) (-) was produced and characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. A number of electronic transitions were observed and used to compare with theoretical calculations. An extensive search for the global minimum of LiB(6) (-) was carried out via an ab initio genetic algorithm technique. The pyramidal C(2v) ((1)A(1)) molecule was found to be the most stable at all levels of theory. The nearest low-lying isomer was found to be a triplet C(2) ((3)B) structure, 9.2 kcal/mol higher in energy. Comparison of calculated detachment transitions from LiB(6) (-) and the experimental photoelectron spectra confirmed the C(2v) pyramidal global minimum structure. Natural population calculation revealed that LiB(6) (-) is a charge-transfer complex, Li(+)B(6) (2-), in which Li(+) and B(6) (2-) interact in a primarily ionic manner. Analyses of the molecular orbitals and chemical bonding of B(6) (2-) showed that the planar cluster is twofold (pi- and sigma-) antiaromatic, which can be viewed as the fusion of two aromatic B(3) (-) units.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in soils as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), with special emphasis on chromium.

    PubMed

    Senesi, G S; Dell'Aglio, M; Gaudiuso, R; De Giacomo, A; Zaccone, C; De Pascale, O; Miano, T M; Capitelli, M

    2009-05-01

    Soil is unanimously considered as one of the most important sink of heavy metals released by human activities. Heavy metal analysis of natural and polluted soils is generally conducted by the use of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) on adequately obtained soil extracts. Although in recent years the emergent technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied widely and with increasing success for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of a number of heavy metals in soil matrices with relevant simplification of the conventional methodologies, the technique still requires further confirmation before it can be applied fully successfully in soil analyses. The main objective of this work was to demonstrate that new developments in LIBS technique are able to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative analytical evaluation of several heavy metals in soils, with special focus on the element chromium (Cr), and with reference to the concentrations measured by conventional ICP spectroscopy. The preliminary qualitative LIBS analysis of five soil samples and one sewage sludge sample has allowed the detection of a number of elements including Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Si, Ti, V and Zn. Of these, a quantitative analysis was also possible for the elements Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn based on the obtained linearity of the calibration curves constructed for each heavy metal, i.e., the proportionality between the intensity of the LIBS emission peaks and the concentration of each heavy metal in the sample measured by ICP. In particular, a triplet of emission lines for Cr could be used for its quantitative measurement. The consistency of experiments made on various samples was supported by the same characteristics of the laser-induced plasma (LIP), i.e., the typical linear distribution confirming the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition, and similar excitation

  10. Relationship Between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for the In Situ Absolute Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, Damien; Cohen, Barbara; Miller, J.-S.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Lefevre, J.-C.; Boukari, C.

    2014-01-01

    These first results demonstrate that LIBS spectra can be an interesting tool to estimate the ablated volume. When the ablated volume is bigger than 9.10(exp 6) cubic micrometers, this method has less than 10% of uncertainties. Far enough to be directly implemented in the KArLE experiment protocol. Nevertheless, depending on the samples and their mean grain size, the difficulty to have homogeneous spectra will increase with the ablated volume. Several K-Ar dating studies based on this approach will be implemented. After that, the results will be shown and discussed.

  11. Modern foraging: Presence of food and energy density influence motivational processing of food advertisements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-12-01

    More energy dense foods are preferable from an optimal foraging perspective, which suggests these foods are more motivationally relevant due to their greater capability of fulfilling biological imperatives. This increase in motivational relevance may be exacerbated in circumstances where foraging will be necessary. This study examined how food energy density and presence of food in the immediate environment interacted to influence motivational processing of food advertisements. N = 58 adults viewed advertisements for foods varying in energy density in contexts where the advertised food was actually present in the viewing room or not. Advertisements for more energy dense foods elicited greater skin conductivity level compared to ads for less energy dense foods when food was not present. All ads elicited decreases in corrugator supercilii activation indicating positive emotional response resultant from appetitive motivational activation, though the greatest activation was exhibited toward higher energy density foods when food was present. This supports an optimal foraging perspective and has implications for healthy eating interventions.

  12. Food colors: Existing and emerging food safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-02-11

    Food colors are added to different types of commodities to increase their visual attractiveness or to compensate for natural color variations. The use of these additives is strictly regulated in the European Union, the United States, and many other countries worldwide. There is a growing concern about the safety of some commonly used legal food colorants and there is a trend to replace the synthetic forms with natural products. Additionally, a number of dyes with known or suspected genotoxic or carcinogenic properties have been shown to be added illegally to foods. Robust monitoring programs based on reliable detection methods are required to assure the food is free from harmful colors. The aim of this review is to present an up to date status of the various concerns arising from use of color additives in food. The most important food safety concerns in the field of food colors are lack of uniform regulation concerning legal food colors worldwide, possible link of artificial colors to hyperactive behavior, replacement of synthetic colors with natural ones, and the presence of harmful illegal dyes-both known but also new, emerging ones in food. The legal status of food color additives in the EU, United States, and worldwide is summarized. The reported negative health effects of both legal and illegal colors are presented. The European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed notifications and US import alerts concerning food colors are analyzed and trends in fraudulent use of color additives identified. The detection methods for synthetic colors are also reviewed.

  13. Are Food Advertisements Promoting More Unhealthy Foods and Beverages over Time? Evidence from Three Swedish Food Magazines, 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy food in advertising has been suggested as a mediator for the increase in diet-related illness. This study quantitatively investigates changes in food advertising between 1995 and 2014 in terms of food categories promoted, macronutrient content, and percentage of foods classified as heathy or unhealthy from a sample of 7,199 ads from three Swedish food magazines. With the exception of increased alcoholic beverage and decreased carbohydrate-rich-food promotion, no monotonic trends of increasingly unhealthy food advertisement are found. From these findings, it is argued that food magazine advertising is not a mediator of the adverse dietary trend.

  14. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  15. Preliminary study on detection sediment contamination in soil affected by the Indian Ocean giant tsunami 2004 in Aceh, Indonesia using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    This work is intended to asses the capability of LIBS for the detection of the tsunami sediment contamination in soil. LIBS apparatus used in this work consist of a laser system and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system. The soil sample was collected from in Banda Aceh City, Aceh, Indonesia, the most affected region by the giant Indian Ocean tsunami 2004. The laser beam was focused onto surface of the soil pellet using a focusing lens to produce luminous plasma. The experiment was conducted under air as surrounding gas at 1 atmosphere. The emission spectral lines from the plasma were detected by the OMA system. It was found that metal including heavy metals can surely be detected, thus implying the potent of LIBS technique as a fast screening tools of tsunami sediment contamination.

  16. Insight to UV-induced formation of laser damage on LiB(3)O(5) optical surfaces during long-term sum-frequency generation.

    PubMed

    Möller, S; Andresen, A; Merschjann, C; Zimmermann, B; Prinz, M; Imlau, M

    2007-06-11

    Microscopic investigations of UV-induced formation of laser damage on LiB(3)O(5) optical surfaces during long-term sum-frequency generation (SFG) uncovers a significant growth of a SiO(2)-amorphous layer spatially limited to the illuminated area. The layer gives rise to a catastrophic break-down of the LiB(3)O(5)-output surface upon long-term laser operation even at intensities far below the laser-induced damage threshold. The interaction of UV laser light, LiB(3)O(5) surface and foreign atoms in the ambient atmosphere is discussed in the frame of a two-step process for surface-damage formation.

  17. 78 FR 39548 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253 RIN 0584-AD95 Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Amendments Related to the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008; Approval of Information... Information Collection Request (ICR). SUMMARY: The final rule entitled Food Distribution Program on...

  18. Investigation of Growth Patterns due to Environmental Factors on the Surface of Bivalve shells with LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Andria; Mays, Joseph; Amos, James; Dynka, Tom; Ujj, Laszlo

    Environmental disturbances (such as temperature or chemical disturbances) can cause bivalve mollusk shells to grow faster or slower and cause changes in color and surface ring pattern. We have selected a few shells from our local habitat in Pensacola Beach, FL to analyze without sample treatment to determine what factors may have come into play during growth and use this as a way to analyze our marine environment. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) uses high energy laser pulses (355 and 532nm) to ablate the sample and create a micro-plasma from which emission spectra can be recorded. Based upon the analysis of intensities, wavelengths, and band patterns of spectral emission bands, the spatial qualitative elemental composition of the shell samples can be determined. Raman spectra were also recorded and correlated to molecules in the sample. By analyzing these measurements using LIBS-Raman spectroscopic techniques, we will be able to see how the local environment is effecting growth, with the largest chemical disturbance in the area being the BP Oil Spill in the Gulf in 2010. Therefore if samples are selected from this period of time it may be possible to identify the effects on shell growth. UWF NIH MARC U-STAR 1T34GM110517-01, UWF Office of Undergraduate Research.

  19. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for the Measurement of Spatial Structures and Fuel Distribution in Flames.

    PubMed

    Kotzagianni, Maria; Kakkava, Eirini; Couris, Stelios

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the mapping of local structures (i.e., reactants and products zones) and for the determination of fuel distribution by means of the local equivalence ratio ϕ in laminar, premixed air-hydrocarbon flames. The determination of laser threshold energy to induce breakdown in the different zones of flames is employed for the identification and demarcation of the local structures of a premixed laminar flame, while complementary results about fuel concentration were obtained from measurements of the cyanogen (CN) band Β(2)Σ(+)--Χ(2)Σ(+), (Δυ = 0) at 388.3 nm and the ratio of the atomic lines of hydrogen (Hα) and oxygen (O(I)), Hα/O. The combination of these LIBS-based methods provides a relatively simple to use, rapid, and accurate tool for online and in situ combustion diagnostics, providing valuable information about the fuel distribution and the spatial variations of the local structures of a flame.

  20. Classification of vegetable oils based on their concentration of saturated fatty acids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Mbesse Kongbonga, Yvon G; Ghalila, Hassen; Onana, Marthe Boyomo; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

    2014-03-15

    Spectrochemical analyses of organic liquid media such as vegetable oils and sweetened water were performed with the use of LIBS. The aim of this work is to study, on the basis of spectral analyses by LIBS technique of "Swan band" of C2 emitted by different vegetable oils in liquid phase, the characteristics of each organic media. Furthermore this paper proposes, as a classification, a single parameter that could be used to determine the concentration of saturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. A Nd:YAG operating at λ=532 nm and an energies per pulse of 30 mJ was focused onto the surface of the liquid in ambient air. Following ablation of vegetable oils and sweetened water, we find that vibrational bonds of C2 were released from the molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds linear. In the case of vegetable oils, we find a clear relationship between C2 emission from the plasma and the concentration of saturated fatty acids in the oil.

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for the determination of the chemical composition of complex inorganic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łazarek, Łukasz; Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Wójcik, Michał R.; Kozioł, Paweł E.; Stepak, Bogusz; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2014-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a fast, fully optical method, that needs little or no sample preparation. In this technique qualitative and quantitative analysis is based on comparison. The determination of composition is generally based on the construction of a calibration curve namely the LIBS signal versus the concentration of the analyte. Typically, to calibrate the system, certified reference materials with known elemental composition are used. Nevertheless, such samples due to differences in the overall composition with respect to the used complex inorganic materials can influence significantly on the accuracy. There are also some intermediate factors which can cause imprecision in measurements, such as optical absorption, surface structure, thermal conductivity etc. This paper presents the calibration procedure performed with especially prepared pellets from the tested materials, which composition was previously defined. We also proposed methods of post-processing which allowed for mitigation of the matrix effects and for a reliable and accurate analysis. This technique was implemented for determination of trace elements in industrial copper concentrates standardized by conventional atomic absorption spectroscopy with a flame atomizer. A series of copper flotation concentrate samples was analyzed for contents of three elements, that is silver, cobalt and vanadium. It has been shown that the described technique can be used to qualitative and quantitative analyses of complex inorganic materials, such as copper flotation concentrates.

  2. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  3. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  4. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  5. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  6. Food chemistry and U.S. food regulations.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David J

    2009-09-23

    The Agriculture and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) was founded in 1908 shortly after passage of the first U.S. food regulations in 1906. Modern food regulations started with the passage of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act in 1938. This Act has been amended several times to keep pace with developments in food chemistry. In 1958 the Food Additives Amendment was enacted to control substances added to food. Since 1958 scientific techniques have been developed to evaluate the safety and carcinogenicity of substances in the food supply. In the 1970s and 1980s AGFD symposia and books addressed compounds of concern in foods. In the 1990s food safety and nutrition regulations followed new developments in food and nutrition chemistry. Recently, the well-studied toxin acrylamide was discovered in food and presented regulators with new questions on safety and control in the food supply. Discoveries and developments in chemistry such as those in nanotechnology will continue to present challenges to food regulators.

  7. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  8. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  9. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  10. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  11. Some Kids' Genes Might Make Food Ads More Tempting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Genes and Gene Therapy Obesity in Children Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Genes and Gene Therapy Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  12. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... soap after preparing each food item. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. To ...

  13. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... the food came from, whether the food is organic, and certain health claims. So who decides what ... make that claim. Foods that are labeled "USDA organic" are required to have at least 95% organic ...

  14. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  15. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  16. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  17. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  18. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    AD____ AD-A 194 466 DNOFLACU.ATh TOXINS RESIONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA FOOD POISONING Annual Summary Report 0 Donald M. Miller 10 December 1987 Supported...21701-5012 62770A 162770A87] AA 7 7 A11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) DINOFLAGELLATE TOXINS RESPONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA FOOD POISONING .12...occurring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from

  19. Processing of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  20. [Chemical food contaminants].

    PubMed

    Schrenk, D

    2004-09-01

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology.

  1. [Application of gene detection technology in food species identification].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Yajun

    2011-07-01

    It is critical to determine the biological identity of all ingredients in food to ensure its safety and quality. Modern gene detection technology makes species identification in food more accurate, sensitive and rapid. A comprehensive review on its current applications in the last decade and the future perspective in food species identification is presented, including a brief introduction of gene detection methods, and their applications in plant-originated food, animal-originated food, high value-added food and highly processed food.

  2. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  3. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  4. Trends in exposure to television food advertisements in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Given the increased concern about the impact of TV food advertisements (ads) on individual food choices, we provide important evidence on TV food ad exposure between 2004 and 2009 in South Korea. We used monthly targeted ratings data by age group as the number of ads seen daily from Korean Nielsen Media Research. We generated six food groups: beverages (milk, soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, water, coffee/tea products, and other); snacks/sweets (cookies/chips, candy, and chewing gum); fast food (Domino's pizza, Lotteria, McDonald's, Mr. Pizza, Pizza Hut, local chicken and pizza franchises, and other); instant noodle; full-service restaurants; and other. From 2004 to 2009, overall exposure to television food ads fell by 19.0% (from 6.8 to 5.5 ads daily), although exposure to full-service restaurant ads increased over that time period by 45.7%. While fast-food ad exposure fell overall, exposure to ads for local fried chicken franchises nearly doubled, making them the most commonly seen fast-food ads by 2009. Fast-food and instant noodle ads made up larger proportions of total ad exposure in 2009 than in 2004 in all age groups, with the largest increase among adolescents. Beverage ads continue to be the most prevalent food ads seen in South Korea. Differential trends found in exposure across and within food product categories and differences by age groups highlight the need for continued monitoring to help inform the regulatory policy debate on food advertising, particularly with regards to ads directed at children and adolescents.

  5. Analysis of Ti in textile stippled by TiO2 nanoparticle sol using double-pulse LIBS and ED XRF spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouzar, M.; Průšová, M.; Černohorský, T.; Wiener, J.; Kratochvil, T.

    2011-11-01

    Double-pulse LIBS and ED XRF usabilities for quantitative analysis of Ti in samples of cotton, wool, and viscose fabrics were compared to each other. The analyzed samples were prepared by stippling a particular fabric with TiO2 nanoparticle sol (particle size 100 nm). Both spectrometers were calibrated with the aid of the same sets of authentic fabric samples previously analyzed by ICP OES after the microwave digestion. Average values of the Ti concentration calculated from five repeated measurements of the same sample obtained by LIBS and ED XRF were comparable for all types of the tested materials (100•(CTi-LIBS/CTi-ED XRF)) ≅ 96-109%), but the precision of analysis expressed as RSD (relative standard deviation) was usually better for ED XRF (RSDLIBS from 9 to 25%, RSDED XRF from 3 to 17%). Poor RSD values of LIBS measurements were observed mainly in the case of samples with lower areal weights. Limits of detection calculated as a triple standard deviation of five repeated measurements of Ti in a sample with the low concentration of the analyte were comparable for both methods (LODLIBS = from 15 to 97, and LODED XRF = from 21 to 64, all in mg/kg).

  6. Development of an apparatus for on-line analysis of unburned carbon in fly ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Ma, Weiguang; Dong, Lei; Yan, Xiaojuan; Hu, Zhiyu; Li, Zhixin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Wang, Le; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2011-07-01

    The level of unburned carbon in fly ash is an important criteria for evaluating the combustion efficiencies of boilers, as well as the commercial value of the produced fly ash. In this work, an automated prototype laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) apparatus comprising an isokinetic sampler, a sample preparation module, and a LIBS module has been developed for possible application to power plants for on-line analysis of unburned carbon in fly ash without being affected by the type of coal burned. Emphasis is placed on the structure and operation of the LIBS apparatus, the optimum suction capacity selection, the analytical methods for estimation of the exact C line intensity, and the proper calibration model established for minimizing the matrix effects, which enable the minimization of matrix effects and obtaining more accurate compositional measurements. Good agreement has been found between the laboratory measurement results from the LIBS method and those from the traditional method. The measurement accuracy presented here for unburned carbon analysis is estimated to be 0.26%, while the average relative error is 3.81%.

  7. Creating Tomorrow's Technologists: Contrasting Information Technology Curriculum in North American Library and Information Science Graduate Programs against Code4lib Job Listings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This research study explores technology-related course offerings in ALA-accredited library and information science (LIS) graduate programs in North America. These data are juxtaposed against a text analysis of several thousand LIS-specific technology job listings from the Code4lib jobs website. Starting in 2003, as a popular library technology…

  8. Simple and direct method for detecting phosphorus in air at normal pressure and temperature using a combination of LIBS and LIFS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jeffery, Mohammad O.; Kondou, H.; Belenkevitch, Alexander; Azzeer, Abdallah M.

    2002-05-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EAP) designated phosphorus as hazardous material; it is flammable and poisonous. Phosphorus attacks the respiratory system, liver, kidneys, jaw, teeth, blood, eyes, and skin. Phosphorus is an element that has a high detection limit when using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) techniques. In order to improve on detection limits, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) has been proposed, as an extension to LIBS. The ultimate goal of this work is to use the combined LIBS & LIFS techniques to detect the presence of phosphorus in air and to measure its level. In order to provide 'proof-of-concept' results, the sample used for our experiment was prepared using the 'igniting' strip of a safety match box. The spectrally and temporally resolved detection of the specific atomic emission revealed analytical information about the elemental composition of the sample. A tunable Ti: sapphire laser, at the resonance wavelength of 253.4 nm, was then used to probe the plume by exciting the phosphorus element and we measured the fluorescence from the atoms at 213.62 nm and 214.91 nm. The whole experiment was carried out in a few minutes. We have thus demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, the use of LIBS and LIFS in air quality monitoring and in particular for phosphorus detection.

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Patron Type, Carnegie Classification, and Satisfaction with Library Services: An Analysis of LibQUAL+® Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how faculty and students responded to the Information Control section of the LibQUAL+® survey at two libraries with different Carnegie Classifications. As one of the institutions being studied was considering a shift from a research institution to one more focused on teaching and learning, this study used…

  10. The influence of ns- and fs-LA plume local conditions on the performance of a combined LIBS/LA-ICP-MS sensor

    SciTech Connect

    LaHaye, Nicole L.; Phillips, Mark C.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.

    2016-01-01

    Both laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are well-established analytical techniques with their own unique advantages and disadvantages. The combination of the two analytical methods is a very promising way to overcome the challenges faced by each method individually. We made a comprehensive comparison of local plasma conditions between nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) laser ablation (LA) sources in a combined LIBS and LA-ICP-MS system. The optical emission spectra and ICP-MS signal were recorded simultaneously for both ns- and fs-LA and figures of merit of the system were analyzed. Characterization of the plasma was conducted by evaluating temperature and density of the plume under various irradiation conditions using optical emission spectroscopy, and correlations to ns- and fs-LIBS and LA-ICP-MS signal were made. The present study is very useful for providing conditions for a multimodal system as well as giving insight into how laser ablation plume parameters are related to LA-ICP-MS and LIBS results for both ns- and fs-LA.

  11. Free-running and Q:Switched LIBS measurements during the laser ablation of Prickle Pears spines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; de Posada, E.

    2009-05-01

    The pulse laser ablation (PLA) as a new method for spines elimination of Prickle Pear fruit is presented. The new technique works thanks to the use of the pulsed light that is absorbed in a selective way, specifically in the spines. An optical characterization of both spine and cactus cortex allows to find the most convenient pulse energy for selective absorption. By using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in Q:Switch and free-running regimes, it is possible to control the process in real time and to check the cleaning results online. The feasibility of performing the laser ablation of spines without visible damages to the substrate was proved by the optical microscopy observation.

  12. Synthesis of single-crystal low-loss LiB3O5 nanowire and its optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Guang-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Cui, Guo-xin; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Optical-quality single-crystal LiB3O5 (LBO) nanowires are synthesized for the first time using a sol–gel method. The LBO nanowires possess diameters ranging from 200 to 800 nm and lengths of up to 200 μm, and exhibit excellent uniformity, smooth surfaces, and good mechanical properties. A typical propagating loss of 0.038 dB/μm at 532 nm is obtained for a 620 nm-diameter nanowire. This is a decrease of one order of magnitude compared with that of a β-BaB2O4 (BBO) nanowire with similar diameter, which makes the LBO nanowire a promising candidate to construct miniaturized nonlinear photonic devices. PMID:27991549

  13. Synthesis of single-crystal low-loss LiB3O5 nanowire and its optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guang-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Cui, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Optical-quality single-crystal LiB3O5 (LBO) nanowires are synthesized for the first time using a sol–gel method. The LBO nanowires possess diameters ranging from 200 to 800 nm and lengths of up to 200 μm, and exhibit excellent uniformity, smooth surfaces, and good mechanical properties. A typical propagating loss of 0.038 dB/μm at 532 nm is obtained for a 620 nm-diameter nanowire. This is a decrease of one order of magnitude compared with that of a β-BaB2O4 (BBO) nanowire with similar diameter, which makes the LBO nanowire a promising candidate to construct miniaturized nonlinear photonic devices.

  14. Comparative Study of Elemental Nutrients in Organic and Conventional Vegetables Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Chet R; Alfarraj, Bader; Ghany, Charles T; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used to identify and compare the presence of major nutrient elements in organic and conventional vegetables. Different parts of cauliflowers and broccolis were used as working samples. Laser-induced breakdown spectra from these samples were acquired at optimum values of laser energy, gate delay, and gate width. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for the comparison of these organic and conventional vegetable flowers. Principal component analysis (PCA) was taken into account for multivariate analysis while for univariate analysis, the intensity of selected atomic lines of different elements and their intensity ratio with some reference lines of organic cauliflower and broccoli samples were compared with those of conventional ones. In addition, different parts of the cauliflower and broccoli were compared in terms of intensity and intensity ratio of elemental lines.

  15. The SuperCam Remote Sensing Suite for MARS 2020: Nested and Co-Aligned LIBS, Raman, and VISIR Spectroscopies, and color micro-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, Thierry; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Clegg, Samuel; Sharma, Shiv; Rull, Fernando; Montmessin, Franck; Anderson, Ryan; Beyssac, Olivier; Bonal, Lydie; Deflores, Lauren; Dromart, Gilles; Fischer, William; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Mangold, Nicolas; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; MacLennan, Scott; McCabe, Kevin; cais, Philippe; Nelson, Tony; Angel, Stanley; Beck, Pierre; Benzerara, Karim; Bernard, Sylvain; Bousquet, Bruno; Bridges, Nathan; Cloutis, Edward; Fabre, Cécile; Grasset, Olivier; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Leveille, Rich; Lewin, Eric; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Misra, Anupam; Montagnac, Gilles; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Pinet, Patrick; Poulet, Francois; Sobron, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    As chartered by the Science Definition Team, the Mars 2020 mission addresses four primary objectives: A. Characterize the processes that formed and modified the geologic record within an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment, B. Perform astrobiologically relevant investigations to determine habitability, search for materials with biosignature presentation potential, and search for evidence of past life, C. Assemble a returnable cache of samples and D. Contribute to preparation for human exploration of Mars. The SuperCam instrument, selected for the Mars 2020 rover, as a suite of four instruments, provides nested and co-aligned remote investigations: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF), visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (VISIR), and high resolution color imaging (RMI). SuperCam appeals broadly to the four Mars 2020 objectives.In detail, SuperCam will perform:1. Microscale mineral identification by combining LIBS elemental and VISIR mineralogical spectroscopies, especially targeting secondary minerals2. Determine the sedimental stratigraphy through color imaging and LIBS and VISIR spectroscopy3. Search for organics and bio-signatures with LIBS and Raman spectroscopy4. Quantify the volatile content of the rocks by LIBS spectroscopy to determine the degree of aquaeous alteration5. Characterize the texture of the rocks by color imaging to determine their alteration processes6. Characterize the rocks' coatings by LIBS spectroscopy7. Characterize the soil and its potential for biosignature preservation8. Monitor the odd-oxygen atmospheric chemistry.To meet these goals SuperCam will perform LIBS spectroscopy on 0.5 mm spot up to 7-meter distance, perform Raman and time-resolved fluoresence up to 12-m distance with a 0.8 mrad angular resolution, a 100 ns time gating in the 534-850 nm spectral range, acquire VISIR spectra in the range 0.4-0.85 μm with a resolution of 0.35 nm, and in the IR range

  16. Comparison of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Martian Meteorite NWA 7034 to ChemCam Observations at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Agee, C. B.; Santos, A. R.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Lasue, J.; Sautter, V.

    2014-12-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover uses laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze rock and soil targets on Mars from up to 7 m away. The Nd:KGW laser can shoot up to 1000 shots at one location and profile up to 1 mm depth into a rock. Identical LIBS instrumentation is located at Los Alamos National Laboratory and was used to analyze martian meteorite NWA 7034, a non-SNC basaltic breccia whose bulk composition matches the martian surface. Initial LIBS analysis of NWA 7034 included observations on two basaltic clasts in the meteorite. Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) was performed on the two clasts for comparison with elemental compositions measured using LIBS. The two instruments give similar compositions of major oxides within the error of both techniques. EPMA analysis was also completed on three light-toned clasts and a dark-toned clast in the meteorite. The light-toned clasts have Al/Si vs. (Fe+Mg)/Si compositions ranging from felsic to mafic, and the dark-toned clast shows a mafic composition. A Sammon's map was created to compare LIBS data for NWA 7034 and ChemCam targets Stark, Crestaurum, Link, Portage, Jake_M, Mara, Thor_Lake, Coronation, Pearson, and Prebble. This nonlinear statistical mapping technique is used for clustering assessment of LIBS data in two dimensions. The map shows NWA 7034 clustering in its own location, and the closest similar ChemCam rock targets are La_Reine and Ashuamipi, which are both coarse grained targets that have a mafic component consistent with augite. The most similar ChemCam soil targets are the Crestaurum and Portage. Creation of maps with a greater number of targets will show more of the similarities between NWA 7034 and ChemCam target rocks and soils. Further analysis will compare NWA 7034 LIBS data, data from the paired meteorite NWA 7533, and a variety of ChemCam targets that are similar in morphology and texture.

  17. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  18. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers.

  19. Application of LIBS to the in-line process control of liquid high-alloy steel under pressure.

    PubMed

    Hubmer, Gerhard; Kitzberger, Reinhard; Mörwald, Karl

    2006-05-01

    A process optimization and control system called VAI-CON Chem has been developed that uses laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to quasi-continuously chemically analyze liquid high-alloy steel under pressure. The beam from a Nd:YAG laser, located on safe ground and operating at its fundamental wavelength, is guided by a mirror system to a process tuyere below bath level. Passing through the approximately 1.5 m long tuyere, the beam is then focused onto the steel bath. Light emitted from the induced plasma passes back through the tuyere, which is coupled to a fiber optic cable that carries the information over a distance of approximately 10 m back to an Echelle spectrometer located beside the laser. Calibrations were performed using the complete system, located in a laboratory, during system testing. An induction furnace was used to simulate the AOD converter, wherein the samples were molten and superheated to a temperature of approximately 1600 degrees C and kept at a pressure of approximately 1.7 bar under an argon atmosphere. Twelve different high alloyed reference samples taken from normal AOD production with Fe concentrations of >48 wt.% and non-Fe element concentrations of up to 25 wt.% were available for calibration. The mean residual deviations (defined as the square root of the variance of the concentration ratios determined by LIBS and the reference element concentration ratios) obtained were close to those reported for other comparable high-alloy samples that were investigated at room temperature under normal atmospheric pressure.

  20. Application of a spectrum standardization method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiongwei; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jianmin; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of coal carbon content using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is limited by its low precision and accuracy. A modified spectrum standardization method was proposed to achieve both reproducible and accurate results for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal using LIBS. The proposed method used the molecular emissions of diatomic carbon (C2) and cyanide (CN) to compensate for the diminution of atomic carbon emissions in high volatile content coal samples caused by matrix effect. The compensated carbon line intensities were further converted into an assumed standard state with standard plasma temperature, electron number density, and total number density of carbon, under which the carbon line intensity is proportional to its concentration in the coal samples. To obtain better compensation for fluctuations of total carbon number density, the segmental spectral area was used and an iterative algorithm was applied that is different from our previous spectrum standardization calculations. The modified spectrum standardization model was applied to the measurement of carbon content in 24 bituminous coal samples. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has superior performance over the generally applied normalization methods. The average relative standard deviation was 3.21%, the coefficient of determination was 0.90, the root mean square error of prediction was 2.24%, and the average maximum relative error for the modified model was 12.18%, showing an overall improvement over the corresponding values for the normalization with segmental spectrum area, 6.00%, 0.75, 3.77%, and 15.40%, respectively.

  1. Identification of metal elements by time-resolved LIBS technique in sediments lake the “Cisne”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, P.; Arregui, E.; Álvarez, J.; Rangel, N.; Sarmiento, R.

    2017-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), is a kind of spectral method of atomic emission that uses pulses of radiation high energy laser as excitation source. One of the advantages of technical LIBS lies in the possibility of analyse the substances in any State of aggregation, already is solid, liquid or gaseous, even in colloids as aerosols, gels and others. Another advantage over other conventional techniques is the simultaneous analysis of elements present in a sample of multielement. This work is made in the use of this technique for the identification of metal pollutants in the Swan Lake sediment samples, collected by drilling cores. Plasmas were generated by focusing the radiation of Nd: YAG laser with an energy per pulse 13mJ and 4ns duration, wavelength of 532nm. The spectra of radiation from the plasmas of sediment were recorded with an Echelle spectrograph type coupled to an ICCD camera. The delay times were between 0.5μs and 7μs, while the gate width was of 2μs. To ensure the homogeneity of the plasmas, the sediment sample was placed in a positioning system of linear and rotary adjustment of smooth step synchronized with the trigger of the laser pulse. The registration of the spectra of the sediment to different times of delay, allowed to identify the lines prominent of the different elements present in the sample. The analysis of the Spectra allowed the identification of some elements in the sample as if, Ca, Na, Mg, and Al through the measurement of wavelengths of the prominent peaks.

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  3. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  4. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  5. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  6. Fast detection and characterization of organic and inorganic gunshot residues on the hands of suspects by CMV-GC-MS and LIBS.

    PubMed

    Tarifa, Anamary; Almirall, José R

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the characterization of both organic and inorganic components of gunshot residues (GSR) is proposed as an alternative tool to facilitate the identification of a suspected shooter. In this study, two fast screening methods were developed and optimized for the detection of organic compounds and inorganic components indicative of GSR presence on the hands of shooters and non-shooters. The proposed methods consist of headspace extraction of volatile organic compounds using a capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) device previously reported as a high-efficiency sampler followed by detection by GC-MS. This novel sampling technique has the potential to yield fast results (<2min sampling) and high sensitivity capable of detecting 3ng of diphenylamine (DPA) and 8ng of nitroglycerine (NG). Direct analysis of the headspace of over 50 swabs collected from the hands of suspected shooters (and non-shooters) provides information regarding VOCs present on their hands. In addition, a fast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) screening method for the detection of the inorganic components indicative of the presence of GSR (Sb, Pb and Ba) is described. The sampling method for the inorganics consists of liquid extraction of the target elements from the same cotton swabs (previously analyzed for VOCs) and an additional 30 swab samples followed by spiking 1μL of the extract solution onto a Teflon disk and then analyzed by LIBS. Advantages of LIBS include fast analysis (~12s per sample) and high selectivity and sensitivity, with expected LODs 0.1-18ng for each of the target elements after sampling. The analytical performance of the LIBS method is also compared to previously reported methods (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The combination of fast CMV sampling, unambiguous organic compound identification with GC-MS and fast LIBS analysis provides the basis for a new comprehensive screening method for GSR.

  7. Food Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Food sensitivities are a common but frequently unrecognized cause of chronic symptomatology in patients with known allergies. Food sensitivities often are not detected by skin testing. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the treatment of food sensitivities; the provocative sublingual and intradermal tests for sensitivities, and the importance of eliciting complete past and family histories from the allergic patient. Because patients with symptoms of food sensitivity are likely to visit their family doctor first, he should be the first to detect and treat them. Usually patients with a food sensitivity obtain relief from symptoms when the offending food(s) are excluded from their diet. PMID:21283500

  8. Food and environmental allergies.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Miranda M

    2015-03-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic responses to food and environmental allergens can cause symptoms ranging from mild allergic rhinitis and rashes to gastrointestinal distress and, most seriously, anaphylaxis. The diagnosis can be difficult, as it relies on complex interplay between patient history and diagnostic tests with low specificity. Adding to the difficulty in confirming the diagnosis is an increased public interest in food intolerances, which can be inappropriately attributed to an allergic response. Treatment of allergic diseases with avoidance strategies and pharmacologic treatments can improve quality of life and control of other chronic conditions, such as asthma and eczema.

  9. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  10. Updates of the KArLE Experiment: New Libs Calibration Under High Vacuum for the Quantification of Potassium in Basalt for In Situ Geochronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, B. A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary exploration, in situ absolute geochronology is one of the main important measurements that needs to be accomplished. Until now, on Mars, the age of the surface is only determined by crater density counting, which gives relative ages. These ages can have a lot of uncertainty as they depend on many parameters. More than that, the curves must be ties to absolute ages. Thus far, only the lost lander Beagle 2 was designed to conduct absolute geochronology measurements, though some recent attempts using MSL Curiosity show that this investigation is feasible and should be strongly encouraged for future flight. Experimental: The Potassium (K)-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) is being developed at MSFC through the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). The goal of this experiment is to provide in situ geochronology based on the K-Ar method. A laser ablates a rock under high vacuum, creating a plasma which is sensed by an optical spectrometer to do Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The ablated material frees gases, including radiogenic 40Ar,which is measured by a mass spectrometer (MS). As the potassium is a content and the 40Ar is a quantity, the ablated mass needed in order to relate them. The mass is given by the product of the ablated volume by the density of this material. So we determine the mineralogy of the ablated material with the LIBS spectra and images and calculate its density. The volume of the pit is measured by using microscopy. LIBS measurement of K under high vacuum: Three independant projects [1, 2, 3] including KArLE, are developing geochronological instruments based on this LA-LIBS-MS method. Despite several differences in their setup, all of them have validated the methods with analyses and ages. However, they all described difficulties with the LIBS measurements of K [3,4]. At ambient pressure, the quantification of K by LIBS on geological materials can be accurate [5]. However the protocol of the LA-LIBS

  11. The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children's food attitudes and preferences.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen G; Scully, Maree L; Wakefield, Melanie A; White, Victoria M; Crawford, David A

    2007-10-01

    Television (TV) food advertising has attracted criticism for its potential role in promoting unhealthy dietary practices among children. Content analyses indicate junk food advertising is prevalent on Australian children's TV; healthy eating is rarely promoted. This paper presents (a) a cross-sectional survey examining associations between children's regular TV viewing habits and their food-related attitudes and behaviour; and (b) an experiment assessing the impact of varying combinations of TV advertisements (ads) for unhealthy and healthy foods on children's dietary knowledge, attitudes and intentions. The experimental conditions simulated possible models for regulating food ads on children's TV. Participants were 919 grade five and six students from schools in Melbourne, Australia. The survey showed that heavier TV use and more frequent commercial TV viewing were independently associated with more positive attitudes toward junk food; heavier TV use was also independently associated with higher reported junk food consumption. The experiment found that ads for nutritious foods promote selected positive attitudes and beliefs concerning these foods. Findings are discussed in light of methodological issues in media effects research and their implications for policy and practice. It is concluded that changing the food advertising environment on children's TV to one where nutritious foods are promoted and junk foods are relatively unrepresented would help to normalize and reinforce healthy eating.

  12. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  13. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  14. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  15. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  16. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  17. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  18. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  19. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  20. Control of nonenzymatic browning in intermediate-moisture foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckle, K. A.; Labruza, T. P.; Warmbier, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    Series of compounds called humectants were found to decrease rate of browning when added to intermediate-moisture foods. Twenty percent level of humectant can increase shelf life of foods by factor of 5 or 6.

  1. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... food allergy syndrome In many people who have hay fever, fresh fruits and vegetables and certain nuts and ... if asthma, eczema, hives or allergies such as hay fever are common in your family. A past food ...

  2. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a food allergy, learn how to use injectable epinephrine. You should have it with you at all ... even hives) after eating the food: Inject the epinephrine. Then go to the nearest hospital or emergency ...

  3. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  4. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... November 2016 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. If you have a food allergy ... clinical trials below: Idiopathic Anaphylaxis Natural History and Genetics of Food Allergy and Related Conditions Featured Research ...

  5. The generalized added mass revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray

    2007-05-01

    The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.

  6. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  7. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  8. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  9. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  10. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  11. Calibration of the Fluorine, Chlorine and Hydrogen Content of Apatites With the ChemCam LIBS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Cicutto, L.; Forni, O.; Drouet, C.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Cousin, A.; Blank, J. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Gasnault, O.; Newsom, H.; Mangold, N.; Schroeder, S.; Sautter, V.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the composition of apatites is important to understand the behavior of volatiles during planetary differentiation. Apatite is an ubiquitous magmatic mineral in the SNC meteorites. It is a significant reservoir of halogens in these meteorites and has been used to estimate the halogen budget of Mars. Apatites have been identified in sandstones and pebbles at Gale crater by ChemCam, a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscometer (LIBS) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. Their presence was inferred from correlations between calcium, fluorine (using the CaF molecular band centered near 603 nm, whose detection limit is much lower that atomic or ionic lines and, in some cases, phosphorus (whose detection limit is much larger). An initial quantification of fluorine, based on fluorite (CaF2)/basalt mixtures and obtained at the LANL laboratory, indicated that the excess of F/Ca (compared to the stoichiometry of pure fluorapatites) found on Mars in some cases could be explained by the presence of fluorite. Chlorine was not detected in these targets, at least above a detection limit of 0.6 wt% estimated from. Fluorapatite was later also detected by X-ray diffraction (with CheMin) at a level of approx.1wt% in the Windjana drill sample (Kimberley area), and several points analyzed by ChemCam in this area also revealed a correlation between Ca and F. The in situ detection of F-rich, Cl-poor apatites contrasts with the Cl-rich, F-poor compositions of apatites found in basaltic shergottites and in gabbroic clasts from the martian meteorite NWA 7034, which were also found to be more Cl-rich than apatites from basalts on Earth, the Moon, or Vesta. The in situ observations could call into question one of the few possible explanations brought forward to explain the SNC results, namely that Mars may be highly depleted in fluorine. The purpose of the present study is to refine the calibration of the F, Cl, OH and P signals measured by the ChemCam LIBS instrument, initiated

  12. Food hoarding is increased by food deprivation and decreased by leptin treatment in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Carolyn A; Schneider, Jill E

    2003-11-01

    Compensatory increases in food intake are commonly observed after a period of food deprivation in many species, including laboratory rats and mice. Thus it is interesting that Syrian hamsters fail to increase food intake after a period of food deprivation, despite a fall in plasma leptin concentrations similar to those seen in food-deprived rats and mice. In previous laboratory studies, food-deprived Syrian hamsters increased the amount of food hoarded. We hypothesized that leptin treatment during food deprivation would attenuate food-deprivation-induced increases in hoarding. Baseline levels of hoarding were bimodally distributed, with no hamsters showing intermediate levels of hoarding. Both high (HH) and low hoarding (LH) hamsters were included in each experimental group. Fifty-six male hamsters were either food deprived or given ad libitum access to food for 48 h. One-half of each group received intraperitoneal injections of leptin (4 mg/kg) or vehicle every 12 h during the food-deprivation period. Within the HH group, the hoarding score increased significantly in food-deprived but not fed hamsters (P < 0.05). Leptin treatment significantly decreased hoarding in the food-deprived HH hamsters (P < 0.05). The LH hamsters did not increase hoarding regardless of whether they were food deprived or had ad libitum access to food. These results are consistent with the idea that HH hamsters respond to energetic challenges at least in part by changing their hoarding behavior and that leptin might be one factor that mediates this response.

  13. GenoLIB: a database of biological parts derived from a library of common plasmid features.

    PubMed

    Adames, Neil R; Wilson, Mandy L; Fang, Gang; Lux, Matthew W; Glick, Benjamin S; Peccoud, Jean

    2015-05-26

    Synthetic biologists rely on databases of biological parts to design genetic devices and systems. The sequences and descriptions of genetic parts are often derived from features of previously described plasmids using ad hoc, error-prone and time-consuming curation processes because existing databases of plasmids and features are loosely organized. These databases often lack consistency in the way they identify and describe sequences. Furthermore, legacy bioinformatics file formats like GenBank do not provide enough information about the purpose of features. We have analyzed the annotations of a library of ∼2000 widely used plasmids to build a non-redundant database of plasmid features. We looked at the variability of plasmid features, their usage statistics and their distributions by feature type. We segmented the plasmid features by expression hosts. We derived a library of biological parts from the database of plasmid features. The library was formatted using the Synthetic Biology Open Language, an emerging standard developed to better organize libraries of genetic parts to facilitate synthetic biology workflows. As proof, the library was converted into GenoCAD grammar files to allow users to import and customize the library based on the needs of their research projects.

  14. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  15. Use of the near vacuum UV spectral range for the analysis of W-based materials for fusion applications using LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribula, M.; Krištof, J.; Suchoňová, M.; Horňáčková, M.; Plavčan, J.; Hakola, A.; Veis, P.

    2016-02-01

    The vacuum UV (VUV)-near Infrared (NIR) laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was applied to investigate the composition of W-based samples with a protective carbon layer. The sample was analyzed under pressures from 5 to 105 Pa and atmosphere (air, He). The spectra were recorded with three spectrometers at delays from 200 ns to 10 μs at atmospheric pressures and from 100 to 500 ns at low pressures. The electron density was determined from the measured spectra using Stark broadening and the electron temperature from the W I-W III Saha-plot in the VUV-NIR spectral range. The better precision was achieved due to usage W III spectral lines of tungsten. The achieved results are more reliable than results obtained without W III spectral lines. The calibration free LIBS method was then applied to determine the W and C contents of the analyzed sample.

  16. An assessment of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the analysis of cesium in liquid samples of biological origin.

    PubMed

    Metzinger, Anikó; Kovács-Széles, Eva; Almási, István; Galbács, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the development of an analytical method for the determination of cesium in biological fluid samples (human urine and blood samples) by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The developed method is based on sample presentation by liquid-to-solid conversion, enhancing the emission signal by drying the liquid into small "pockets" created in a metal support (zinc plate), and allows the analysis to be carried out on as little as 1 μL of sample volume, in a closed sample cell. Absolute detection limits on the Cs I 852.1 nm spectral line were calculated by the IUPAC 3σ method to be 6 ng in the urine sample and 27 ng in the blood serum sample. It is estimated that LIBS may be used to detect highly elevated concentration levels of Cs in fluid samples taken from people potentially exposed to surges of Cs from non-natural sources.

  17. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  18. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  19. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  20. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.