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Sample records for ad libitum al

  1. Drinking to Thirst Versus Drinking Ad Libitum During Road Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Johnson, Evan C.; Kunces, Laura J.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Judelson, Daniel A.; Kupchak, Brian R.; Vingren, Jakob L.; Munoz, Colleen X.; Huggins, Robert A.; Hydren, Jay R.; Moyen, Nicole E.; Williamson, Keith H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The sensation of thirst is different from the complex behavior of drinking ad libitum. Rehydration recommendations to athletes differ, depending on the source, yet no previous researchers have systematically compared drinking to thirst (DTT) versus ad libitum drinking behavior (DAL). Objective: To compare 2 groups of trained cyclists (DTT and DAL) who had similar physical characteristics and training programs (P > .05). The DTT group (n = 12, age = 47 ± 7 years) drank only when thirsty, whereas the DAL group (n = 12, age = 44 ± 7 years) consumed fluid ad libitum (ie, whenever and in whatever volume desired). Design: Cohort study. Setting: Road cycling (164 km) in the heat (36.1°C ± 6.5°C). Patients or Other Participants: Ultraendurance cyclists (4 women, 20 men). Intervention(s): We recorded measurements 1 day before the event, on event day before the start, at 3 roadside aid stations, at the finish line, and 1 day after the event. Main Outcome Measure(s): Body mass, urinary hydration indices, and food and fluids consumed. Results: No between-groups differences were seen on event day for total exercise time (DTT = 6.69 ± 0.89 hours, DAL = 6.66 ± 0.77 hours), urinary indices (specific gravity, color), body mass change (DTT = −2.22% ± 1.73%, DAL = −2.29% ± 1.62%), fluid intake (DTT = 5.63 ± 2.59 L/6.7 h, DAL = 6.04 ± 2.37 L/6.7 h), dietary energy intake, macronutrient intake, ratings of thirst (DTT start = 2 ± 1, DTT finish = 6 ± 1, DAL start = 2 ± 1, DAL finish = 6 ± 1), pain, perceived exertion, or thermal sensation. Total fluid intake on recovery day +1 was the primary significant difference (DAL = 5.13 ± 1.87 L/24 h, DTT = 3.13 ± 1.53 L/24 h, t18 = 2.59, P = .02). Conclusions: Observations on event day indicated that drinking to thirst and drinking ad libitum resulted in similar physiologic and perceptual outcomes. This suggests that specific instructions to “drink to thirst” were unnecessary. Indeed, if athletes drink ad libitum

  2. Circadian patterns of ad libitum smoking by menstrual phase

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alicia M.; Mooney, Marc; Chakraborty, Rima; Allen, Sharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research suggests nicotine metabolism may be influenced by sex hormones. Thus, we hypothesized that circadian smoking patterns would vary by menstrual phase. Methods Healthy female smokers (n = 31) between the ages of 18 and 40 with regular menstrual cycles, and not using hormones or psychotropic medications, were recruited for a randomized clinical study. Subjects recorded the time of each cigarette smoked and their menstrual phase with daily diaries prospectively for one complete menstrual cycle of ad libitum smoking. Analyses included Poisson regression to assess variations in the rate of smoking during waking hours (i.e., 6:00 a.m. and 12:00 midnight) and circadian smoking patterns by menstrual phase. Results Participants were 29.61 ± 5.44 years of age and smoked 16.93 ± 5.37 cigarettes per day. Participants had a lower rate of smoking during waking hours in the follicular phase as compared to the menses phase. There were no significant menstrual phase differences in the circadian smoking patterns. Conclusions These results offer further support for the influence of sex hormones on smoking behavior, but not on circadian patterns of smoking. Additional research is needed to study the direct relationship between nicotine metabolism, sex hormones, menstrual phase, and smoking behavior. PMID:19517420

  3. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  4. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  5. Ad Libitum Fluid Consumption via Self- or External Administration

    PubMed Central

    Yeargin, Susan W.; Finn, Megan E.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Gage, Matthew J.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Niemann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Context: During team athletic events, athletic trainers commonly provide fluids with water bottles. When a limited number of water bottles exist, various techniques are used to deliver fluids. Objective: To determine whether fluid delivered via water-bottle administration influenced fluid consumption and hydration status. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Outdoor field (22.2°C ± 3.5°C). Patients or Other Participants: Nineteen participants (14 men, 5 women, age = 30 ± 10 years, height = 176 ± 8 cm, mass = 72.5 ± 10 kg) were recruited from the university and local running clubs. Intervention(s): The independent variable was fluid delivery with 3 levels: self-administration with mouth-to-bottle direct contact (SA-DC), self-administration with no contact between mouth and bottle (SA-NC), and external administration with no contact between the mouth and the bottle (EA-NC). Participants warmed up for 10 minutes before completing 5 exercise stations, after which an ad libitum fluid break was given, for a total of 6 breaks. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured the fluid variables of total volume consumed, total number of squirts, and average volume per squirt. Hydration status via urine osmolality and body-mass loss, and perceptual variables for thirst and fullness were recorded. We calculated repeated-measures analyses of variance to assess hydration status, fluid variables, and perceptual measures to analyze conditions across time. Results: The total volume consumed for EA-NC was lower than for SA-DC (P = .001) and SA-NC (P = .001). The total number of squirts for SA-DC was lower than for SA-NC (P = .009). The average volume per squirt for EA-NC was lower than for SA-DC (P = .020) and SA-NC (P = .009). Participants arrived (601.0 ± 21.3 mOsm/L) and remained (622.3 ± 38.3 mOsm/L) hydrated, with no difference between conditions (P = .544); however, the EA-NC condition lost more body mass than did the SA-DC condition (P = .001). There was no main effect for

  6. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.

  7. Ad Libitum Fluid Intake and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Hypertonic Saline, or Deionized Water Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Scott; Miller, Kevin C.; Albrecht, Jay; Garden-Robinson, Julie; Blodgett-Salafia, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adding sodium (Na+) to drinks improves rehydration and ad libitum fluid consumption. Clinicians (∼25%) use pickle juice (PJ) to treat cramping. Scientists warn against PJ ingestion, fearing it will cause rapid plasma volume restoration and thereby decrease thirst and delay rehydration. Advice about drinking PJ has been developed but never tested. Objective: To determine if drinking small volumes of PJ, hypertonic saline (HS), or deionized water (DIW) affects ad libitum DIW ingestion, plasma variables, or perceptual indicators. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen, euhydrated (urine specific gravity ≤ 1.01) men (age = 22 ± 2 years, height = 178 ± 6 cm, mass = 82.9 ± 8.4 kg). Intervention(s): Participants completed 3 testing days (≥72 hours between days). After a 30-minute rest, a blood sample was collected. Participants completed 60 minutes of hard exercise (temperature = 36 ± 2°C, relative humidity = 16 ± 1%). Postexercise, they rested for 30 minutes; had a blood sample collected; rated thirst, fullness, and nausea; and ingested 83 ± 8 mL of PJ, HS, or DIW. They rated drink palatability (100-mm visual analog scale) and were allowed to drink DIW ad libitum for 60 minutes. Blood samples and thirst, fullness, and nausea ratings (100-mm visual analog scales) were collected at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes posttreatment drink ingestion. Main Outcome Measure(s): Ad libitum DIW volume, percentage change in plasma volume, plasma osmolality (OSMp,) plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]p), and thirst, fullness, nausea, and palatability ratings. Results: Participants consumed more DIW ad libitum after HS (708.03 ± 371.03 mL) than after DIW (532.99 ± 337.14 mL, P < .05). Ad libitum DIW ingested after PJ (700.35 ± 366.15 mL) was similar to that after HS and DIW (P > .05). Plasma sodium concentration, OSMp, percentage change in plasma volume, thirst, fullness, and nausea did not differ among treatment drinks

  8. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance.

  9. Measurement of Ad Libitum Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Time in Response to Overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianying; Votruba, Susanne; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Bonfiglio, Susan; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines), core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry) following a short term (3-day) weight maintaining (WM) vs overfeeding (OF) diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m2, 73.6% male). During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41), and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75) or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88). However, during OF (but not WM), sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight). In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732 PMID:22629311

  10. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  11. Midbrain response to milkshake correlates with ad libitum milkshake intake in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Geha, Paul; Small, Dana M

    2013-01-01

    There is now widespread agreement that individual variation in the neural circuits representing the reinforcing properties of foods may be associated with risk for overeating and obesity. What is currently unknown is how and whether brain response to a food is related to immediate subsequent intake of that food. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether response to a palatable milkshake is associated with subsequent ad libitum milkshake consumption. We predicted that enhanced responses in key reward regions (insula, striatum, midbrain, medial orbitofrontal cortex) and decreased responses in regions implicated in self-control (lateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex) would be associated with greater intake. We found a significant positive association between response to milkshake in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain and ad libitum milkshake intake. Although strong bilateral insular responses were observed during consumption of the milkshake this response did not correlate with subsequent intake. The associations observed in the midbrain and orbitofrontal cortex were uninfluenced by ratings of hunger, which were near neutral. We conclude that midbrain response to a palatable food is related to eating in the absence of hunger.

  12. Midbrain Response to Milkshake Correlates with Ad Libitum Milkshake Intake in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Geha, Paul; Small, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    There is now widespread agreement that individual variation in the neural circuits representing the reinforcing properties of foods may be associated with risk for overeating and obesity. What is currently unknown is how and whether brain response to a food is related to immediate subsequent intake of that food. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether response to a palatable milkshake is associated with subsequent ad libitum milkshake consumption. We predicted that enhanced responses in key reward regions (insula, striatum, midbrain, medial orbitofrontal cortex) and decreased responses in regions implicated in self-control (lateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex) would be associated with greater intake. We found a significant positive association between response to milkshake in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain and ad libitum milkshake intake. Although strong bilateral insular responses were observed during consumption of the milkshake this response did not correlate with subsequent intake. The associations observed in the midbrain and orbitofrontal cortex were uninfluenced by ratings of hunger, which were near neutral. We conclude that midbrain response to a palatable food is related to eating in the absence of hunger. PMID:23064394

  13. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Queiroz, Regina H.C.; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2–0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1–14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106–112 h (4–5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden. PMID:26378131

  14. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance.

  15. Immunogenicity of ad libitum drinking water administration of bovine serum albumin in Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Ameiss, K A; Danforth, H D; McElroy, A P; Barri, A; Berghman, L R; Caldwell, D J

    2004-09-01

    Oral administration of protein antigen in solution routinely leads to development of oral tolerance in most mammals but has been reported to be fully immunogenic in chickens. Previous studies, including several performed by our laboratory, have demonstrated that oral administration of discrete amounts of BSA for 6 consecutive days is fully immunogenic. This study was performed to determine immunoresponsiveness to protein antigen administered ad libitum at low levels in drinking water compared with i.p. and oral gavage routes of administration. Seven days following the last oral immunization, serum was assayed for IgG, bile for IgA, and tissue culture supernatant from 3 distinct lower intestinal regions for IgG and IgA in immunized and nonimmunized single-comb White Leghorn chickens. Systemic responses in the serum of experimental birds revealed a greater (P < 0.001) IgG response when BSA was administered via i.p. injection or by drinking water compared with gavage administration or nonimmunized controls. Responses measured in bile revealed that BSA administration in the drinking water resulted in a greater (P < 0.001) secretory IgA response compared with i.p. or gavage administration, and negative control groups. Intestinal antigen specific IgG, but not IgA, was elevated (P < 0.05) in all intestinal areas tested in birds immunized against BSA by drinking water and i.p. routes of administration, compared with other experimental groups. Taken together, the present experiments demonstrate that ad libitum drinking water administration of a protein antigen is as effective as i.p. administration or gavage routes of antigen exposure and potentially describe a novel approach to immunization of commercial poultry with purified protein antigens.

  16. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  17. Alterations in energy balance from an exercise intervention with ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (-1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (-1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI.

  18. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  19. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  20. Modification of aftertaste with a menthol mouthwash reduces food wanting, liking, and ad libitum intake of potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Scott C; Horner, Katy M; Dible, Victoria A; Grigor, John M V; O'Riordan, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of modifying the aftertaste of potato crisps on (1) temporal sensory perception and (2) appetite using three mouthwash conditions (no mouthwash, a water mouthwash, and a menthol mouthwash). For the sensory study, 17 screened female subjects were trained on the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methodology. Subjects undertook TDS to monitor all sensory attributes during the mastication of a 2 g crisp until swallowing (at 20s), then conducted the mouthwash, and then continued the TDS task to monitor aftertaste until 90s. For the appetite study, 36 subjects (18 male, 18 female) completed 100 mm Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for desire, liking, hunger, and thirst, followed by an ad libitum eating task. For the VAS scales testing, subjects chewed and swallowed a 2 g crisp, and then immediately conducted the mouthwash before completing the VAS scales. For the ad libitum task, subjects were given 12 min to consume as many crisps as they desired on a plate (up to 50 g). Every three minutes they were required to conduct a mouthwash. TDS results showed that in comparison with no mouthwash, the water mouthwash significantly reduced aftertaste attributes such as savoury, salty, and fatty mouthcoating, and the menthol mouthwash significantly increased aftertaste attributes of cooling, minty, and tingly. The water mouthwash did not influence desire and liking of crisps, or hunger and thirst. The water mouthwash did not influence ad libitum intake of the crisps over a 12 min period. The menthol mouthwash significantly reduced desire and liking of the crisps, as well as hunger and thirst. Furthermore, the menthol mouthwash significantly reduced ad libitum crisp intake by 29% over the 12 min period.

  1. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-08-28

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use.

  2. Influence of ad Libitum Feeding of Piglets With Bacillus Subtilis Fermented Liquid Feed on Gut Flora, Luminal Contents and Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuyong; Mao, Chunxia; Wen, Hong; Chen, Zhiyu; Lai, Tao; Li, Lingyu; Lu, Wei; Wu, Huadong

    2017-01-01

    Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0.05), higher intestinal fungal diversity (P > 0.05), more Firmicutes (P > 0.05), fewer Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria (P > 0.05), higher concentrations of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (P < 0.05), orotic acid (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (P < 0.01), lactic acid (P < 0.01), deoxycholic acid (P > 0.05) and lithocholic acid (P < 0.01) and a higher incidence of diarrhoea (P > 0.05). The data show that ad libitum feeding of piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet during the suckling and early post-weaning periods promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria, bile salt hydrolase-active bacteria and 7a-dehydroxylase-active bacteria in the intestinal lumen; disturbs the normal production of lactic acid, orotic acid and unconjugated bile acids; and increases circulating interleukin-6 levels and diarrhoea incidence. PMID:28291252

  3. Influence of ad Libitum Feeding of Piglets With Bacillus Subtilis Fermented Liquid Feed on Gut Flora, Luminal Contents and Health.

    PubMed

    He, Yuyong; Mao, Chunxia; Wen, Hong; Chen, Zhiyu; Lai, Tao; Li, Lingyu; Lu, Wei; Wu, Huadong

    2017-03-14

    Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0.05), higher intestinal fungal diversity (P > 0.05), more Firmicutes (P > 0.05), fewer Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria (P > 0.05), higher concentrations of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (P < 0.05), orotic acid (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (P < 0.01), lactic acid (P < 0.01), deoxycholic acid (P > 0.05) and lithocholic acid (P < 0.01) and a higher incidence of diarrhoea (P > 0.05). The data show that ad libitum feeding of piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet during the suckling and early post-weaning periods promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria, bile salt hydrolase-active bacteria and 7a-dehydroxylase-active bacteria in the intestinal lumen; disturbs the normal production of lactic acid, orotic acid and unconjugated bile acids; and increases circulating interleukin-6 levels and diarrhoea incidence.

  4. Fattening Holstein heifers by feeding high-moisture corn (whole or ground) ad libitum separately from concentrate and straw.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Quintana, B; Aris, A; Bach, A

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of high-moisture corn (HMC), either whole or ground, fed separately from concentrate and straw on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, whole tract digestibility, and nitrogen balance. Twenty-four Holstein heifers (199 ± 5.5 kg BW and 157 ± 6.9 d age) housed in individual pens were assigned to 3 treatments: 1) whole (unprocessed) HMC fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (WHMC); 2) HMC ground through a 0.4-cm screen before ensiling and fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (GHMC); and 3) a concentrate composed of mainly corn meal, ground through a roller mill with screen openings of 6 mm, and barley straw, both fed separately and ad libitum (Control). Concentrate, HMC, and straw were offered separately ad libitum in a free-choice situation and consumption was recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. Apparent nutrient digestibility and N balance were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. At the same time points, rumen fluid was collected through rumenocentesis to determine rumen pH and VFA concentrations. Feeding behavior was monitored throughout the study. Animals were harvested after 134 d and HCW, rumen and cecum wall lesions, and liver abscesses were recorded. Treatment did not affect total DMI, feed efficiency, ADG, final BW, and carcass weight or classification. Concentrate consumption (6.6 ± 0.35 kg/d) of Control heifers was greater ( < 0.001) than that of GHMC (4.1 ± 0.35 kg/d) and WHMC heifers (2.8 ± 0.35 kg/d), and GHMC heifers consumed less ( < 0.001) HMC than WHMC heifers (2.3 ± 0.31 and 4.2 ± 0.31 kg/d, respectively). Dietary treatments did not affect rumination, self-grooming, nonnutritive oral behaviors, and rumen pH. However, rumen acetate to propionate ratio decreased when heifers received HMC (1.77 ± 0.276) compared with when heifers received the Control (2.82 ± 0.276). Total

  5. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. Methods: This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). Results: The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. Conclusions: These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Implications: Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and

  6. Effects of encapsulated nitrate on eating behavior, rumen fermentation, and blood profile of beef heifers fed restrictively or ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-05-01

    A slow-release form of nitrate (encapsulated nitrate [EN]) was investigated for effects on risk of toxicity, feed consumption rates, and feed sorting behavior in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 5 beef heifers (806 ± 72 kg BW) were fed once daily at 75% of ad libitum intake. Supplementary EN (85.6% DM; 71.4% NO3(-) on a DM basis) was increased by 1% every 4 d from 0 to 1.0, 2.0, 2.9, 3.9, 4.8, and 5.8% of dietary DM (from 10.3 to 15.6% CP and 0.11 to 4.8% total NO3(-)). During the study, a heifer was removed due to nitrate poisoning with 59% blood methemoglobin (MetHb; % of total hemoglobin) at 2.9% EN and another due to refusal to eat the 2% EN diet. When dietary EN increased from 0 to 5.8%, DMI (8.8 to 7.6 kg/d; P < 0.001) and feed consumption from 0 to 3 h were decreased (70.3 to 48.6% of total feed offered on an as-is basis; P = 0.001) and feed consumption from 12 to 24 h was increased (0.6 to 22.6%; P < 0.001). Blood MetHb at 1% EN was negligible (<1.5% of total hemoglobin). However, MetHb levels were greater (average 9.8 vs. 3.1% and maximum 23.6 vs. 13.6% at 3 h) at 2.0 and 2.9% EN than at 3.9, 4.8, and 5.8% EN. In Exp. 2, 8 beef heifers (451 ± 21 kg BW) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed for ad libitum intake, once daily, diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% EN (isonitrogenous, 12.7% CP, and 0.15 to 2.5% total NO3(-) in dietary DM). Each period consisted of 14 d for adaption and 14 d for sampling followed by a 7-d washout. During adaptation, EN was provided to heifers in a stepwise manner (an increase by 1% every 4 d). In Exp. 2 with ad libitum feeding, feed consumption rates were not different (41.8% of total feed consumed from 0 to 3 h; P = 0.56) among EN levels, but DMI tended to decrease linearly (0 to 3% EN; 10.4 to 10.1 kg/d; P = 0.06) and feed was sorted (linear, P < 0.05) against concentrates (containing EN) with EN inclusion. Potential toxicity of nitrate based on blood MetHb was not observed (all samples <2.0% of total hemoglobin

  7. Retention and utilization of amino acids in piglets fed ad libitum or restrictively diets supplemented with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Walz, O P; Pallauf, J

    1997-01-01

    In a metabolic trial 4 groups of 8 piglets of 5 kg weight each were kept individually for 45 days (final weight 23 kg) and fed a practical diet. At the beginning of the experiment the body amino acid contents of an additional group of 8 piglets were determined by carcass analysis, and at the end of the experiment the body amino acid contents of the 4 test group piglets (A = control fed ad libitum, B and C = supplement of 1.5% fumaric acid fed ad libitum or restrictively, D = supplement of 1.5% citric acid fed ad libitum) were also analysed. The amino acid retention during the experimental period was determined by difference. The supplements of fumaric or citric acid did not influence the amount of the amino acid retention. The quotient of amino acid retention to amino acid consumed or the "productive amino acid value" was calculated and the maintenance requirements of essential amino acids for piglets were used to estimate the productive amino acid value for both retention and maintenance. The mean amino acid retention amounted to about 56 g/d, i.e. 3.49 g/kg W0.75.d of essential amino acids. The essential amino acid requirements for maintenance was 2.0 g, i.e. 0.29 g/kg W0.75.d, showing a variation of 4% (Leu) to 20% (Met+Cys) when related to the amount of the corresponding amino acid retention. With regard to the amino acid pattern for retention of the nutritionally most important amino acids, the following ratios were found: Lys, 100 (6.27 g/16 g N): Met+Cys, 48 (3.03 g): Thr, 56 (3.49 g): Trp, 13 (0.80 g). The productive amino acid values ranged from 40% (Trp), 55% (Thr), 66% (Met) to 80% (Lys). Under the conditions investigated, neither the supplements of organic acids nor the feed restriction influenced the amino acid utilization.

  8. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  9. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  10. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    PubMed

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted.

  11. Leptin extends the anorectic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration in ad libitum-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Unniappan, Suraj; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Acute administration of peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] results in a reduction in food intake in several different vertebrates. However, long-term continuous administration of PYY(3-36) causes only a transient reduction in food intake, thus potentially limiting its therapeutic efficacy. We hypothesized that a fall in leptin levels associated with reduced food intake could contribute to the transient anorectic effects of continuous PYY(3-36) infusion and thus that leptin replacement might prolong the anorectic effects of PYY(3-36). Seven-day administration of 100 microg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1) PYY(3-36) using osmotic minipumps caused a significant reduction in food intake of ad libitum-fed rats, but only for the first 2 days postimplantation. Circulating levels of leptin were reduced 1 day following continuous infusion of PYY(3-36), and combined leptin infusion at a dose of leptin that had no anorectic effects on its own (100 microg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1)) prolonged the anorectic actions of PYY(3-36) in ad libitum-fed rats for up to 6 days postimplantation and yielded reduced weight gain compared with either peptide alone. The inhibitory effects of 100 microg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1) PYY(3-36) on food intake were absent in rats refed after a 24-h fast and substantially reduced at a dose of 1,000 microg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1) PYY(3-36). Leptin replacement was unable to recover the anorectic effects of PYY(3-36) in fasted rats. Our results suggest that an acute fall in leptin levels is not solely responsible for limiting duration of action of chronic PYY(3-36) infusion, yet chronic coadministration of a subanorectic dose of leptin can extend the anorectic effects of PYY(3-36).

  12. Influence of a pig respiratory disease on the pharmacokinetic behaviour of amoxicillin after oral ad libitum administration in medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Godoy, C; Castells, G; Martí, G; Capece, B P S; Pérez, F; Colom, H; Cristòfol, C

    2011-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin in healthy and respiratory-diseased pigs were studied, after ad libitum administration of medicated feed. In addition, amoxicillin dose linearity and drug penetration into respiratory tract tissues were evaluated in diseased animals. The respiratory disease involves porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and bacterial agents such as Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis. Typical clinical signs and gross lesions of respiratory disease were observed. The plasma pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by means of a noncompartmental approach. After single intravenous bolus administration of amoxicillin to healthy pigs, the steady-state volume of distribution was 0.61 L/kg, the total plasma clearance was 0.83 L/h/kg and the mean residence time was 0.81 h. After oral bolus administration, the mean absorption time was 1.6 h and the peak plasma concentration (3.09 μg/mL) reached at 1.1 h postadministration. The oral bioavailability was 34%. For oral ad libitum administration, plasma concentration-time profiles were related to the feeding behaviour. Plasma concentrations at steady-state were established between 12 and 120 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated (C(maxss) , C(minss) , C(avss) and AUC(24ss) ) showed significantly lower values in healthy pigs compared to diseased animals. This was in accordance with the significantly higher amoxicillin bioavailability (44.7% vs. 14.1%) and longer absorption period observed in diseased pigs. Amoxicillin dose linearity in diseased animals was established in a dose range of 4-18 mg/kg. On the other hand, tissue distribution ratio in diseased animals was 0.65 for bronchial mucosa, 0.48 for lung tissue and 0.38 for lymph nodes. Our results suggest that the pharmacokinetic properties and disposition of amoxicillin can be influenced by the disease state or by related factors such as changes in the gastrointestinal transit.

  13. Effects of ad libitum ingestion of monosodium glutamate on weight gain in C57BL6/J mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueying; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; Kondoh, Takashi; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2011-01-01

    Although the umami compound monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used flavor enhancer, controversy still persists regarding the effects of MSG intake on body weight. It has been claimed, in particular, that chronic MSG intake may result in excessive body weight gain and obesity. In this study we assessed the effects of chronic (16 weeks) ad libitum MSG on body weight and metabolism of C57BL6/J mice. Adult male mice were divided in four experimental groups and fed with either a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet and with either two bottles of plain water or one bottle containing 1% MSG and another one containing water according to a factorial design. Mice were monitored weekly for body weight and food/fluid intake for 15 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the circulating levels of leptin, insulin, total protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, and non-esterified fatty acids were also analyzed. Our results show that MSG intake did not influence body weight in either LF or HF groups. Interestingly, although animals overall displayed strong preferences for MSG against water, preferences were relatively higher in LF compared to HF group. Consistent with the body weight data, while significant differences in leptin, insulin, total cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids were found between HF and LF groups, such an effect was not influenced by MSG intake. Finally, indirect calorimetry measurements revealed similar energy expenditure levels between animals being presented water only and MSG only. In summary, our data does not support the notion that ad libitum MSG intake should trigger the development of obesity or other metabolic abnormalities.

  14. Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Stappers, L J N; van Hees, H M J; Gerrits, W J J; Kemp, B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency

  15. Perseveration Augments the Effects of Cognitive Restraint on ad libitum Food Intake in Adults Seeking Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Alexis L.; Gluck, Marci E.; Votruba, Suzanne B.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Differences in executive function have been associated with eating behaviors. Our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predicted ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. METHODS This cross-sectional study involved 78 obese, otherwise healthy, individuals (40 female /38 male; age 36±10y; BMI 37.8±7.2 kg/m2) enrolled in weight loss studies, but prior to any intervention. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task to evaluate decision making, the Stroop Word Color Task to assess attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) to measure perseverative errors, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) to measure disinhibition and cognitive restraint. Ad libitum energy intake over 3-days was then collected using a validated vending paradigm. RESULTS Only results from the WCST and the TFEQ correlated with mean daily energy intake. When expressed as a percentage of an individual's calculated weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN; [mean daily energy consumed/WMEN]*100), intake correlated positively with number of perseverative errors (r = 0.24, p = 0.03) and negatively with cognitive restraint (r2 = −0.51, p<0.0001). In a regression model of %WMEN (r2 = 0.59, p<0.0001) including age, sex, race, disinhibition, restraint, and perseverative error T-score, an interaction between perseveration and restraint was observed (p = 0.05). Greater numbers of perseverative errors intensified the effect of restraint such that subjects with both high restraint and high perseveration, per manual-defined cut-offs, ate the least (median (IQR) = 70 (62, 94) % WMEN), while those with low restraint and high perseveration ate the most (130 (102, 153) %WMEN). Subjects with low perseveration and high versus low restraint ate a median of 84 (70, 86) and 112 (98, 133) %WMEN, respectively. CONCLUSION In obese subjects seeking weight loss, the effects of perseveration on food intake are conditional on the level of dietary restraint, and

  16. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  17. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    PubMed

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal.

  18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics study of cloned versus normal pigs fed either restricted or ad libitum high-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kirstine L; Hedemann, Mette S; Jørgensen, Henry; Stagsted, Jan; Knudsen, Knud Erik B

    2012-07-06

    Genetically identical cloned pigs should in principle eliminate biological variation and provide more pronounced effects when subjected to, e.g., dietary interventions, but little is known about how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning. Therefore, an investigation of the metabolome of cloned pigs compared to normal control pigs was performed to elucidate the variation and possible differences in the metabolic phenotypes during a dietary intervention. A total of 19 control pigs and 17 cloned pigs were given the same high-energy dense diet either ad libitum or in a restricted manner (60% of ad libitum) for ∼6 months, and plasma was subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry nontargeted metabolomics and biochemical analyses. Low systemic levels of IGF-1 could indicate altered growth conditions and energy metabolism in cloned pigs. In response to ad libitum feeding, clones had a decreased energy intake and lower weight gain compared to controls, and plasma lipid profiles were changed accordingly. Elevated lactate and decreased creatine levels implied an increased anaerobic metabolism in ad libitum fed clones. Less interindividual variation between cloned pigs was however not established, suggesting a strong role for epigenetics and/or the gut microbiota to develop variation.

  19. The influence of food restriction versus ad libitum feeding of chow and purified diets on variation in body weight, growth and physiology of female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moraal, M; Leenaars, P P A M; Arnts, H; Smeets, K; Savenije, B S; Curfs, J H A J; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M

    2012-04-01

    Ad libitum (AL) supply of standard chow is the feeding method most often used for rodents in animal experiments. However, AL feeding is known to result in a shorter lifespan and decreased health as compared with restricted feeding. Restricted feeding and thus limiting calorie intake prevents many health problems, increases lifespan and can also increase group uniformity. All this leads to a reduced number of animals needed. So-called standard chows are known to be prone to variation in composition. Synthetic foods have a more standard composition, contributing to group uniformity which, like diet reduction, may decrease the number of animals necessary to obtain statistical significance. In this study, we compared the effects of AL versus restricted feeding (25% reduction in food intake) on standard chow versus synthetic food of three different suppliers on body weight (BW), growth, several blood parameters and organ weights in growing female Wistar rats over a period of 61 days. Diet restriction led to a decreased growth and significantly reduced variation in BW and growth as compared with AL feeding. AL feeding on synthetic diets caused a significantly higher BW gain than on chow diets. Due to experimental design, this same effect occurred on food restriction. Blood parameters and organ weights were affected neither by diet type nor by amount. Incidentally, variations were significantly reduced on food restriction versus AL, and on synthetic diets versus chow diets. This study demonstrates that food restriction versus AL feeding leads to a significantly reduced variation in BW and growth, thereby indicating the potential for reduction when applying this feeding schedule.

  20. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  1. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p <0.05), fat mass, skinfold thicknesses and the volume of the arm remained unchanged (p >0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p <0.05). The decrease in the lower leg volume was unrelated to fluid intake (p >0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  2. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  3. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-04

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  4. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  5. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  6. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27766082

  7. Impact of fluid restriction and ad libitum water intake or an 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on skill performance of elite adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Oliveira, Bruno; Barros, Renata; Padrão, Patricia; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo

    2011-06-01

    Twelve adolescent athletes underwent, in a crossover-design study, 3 separate 90-min training sessions in the following conditions: no fluid ingestion allowed (NF), ad libitum ingestion of water (W), and ad libitum ingestion of a commercial 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverage (CSB). After each session athletes performed a set of basketball drills (2-point, 3-point, and free-throw shootout, suicide sprints, and defensive zigzags). Body weight (before and after sessions), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), urine color, and beverage acceptability were determined in each session. Athletes also completed a survey about their knowledge and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement. The percentage of weight loss was significantly higher in NF (2.46% ± 0.87%) than in the other 2 conditions (W, 1.08% ± 0.67%, p = .006; CSB, 0.65% ± 0.62%, p = .001) but also higher in W than CSB (p = .012). RPE was higher in NF (16.8 ± 1.96) than in the W (14.2 ± 1.99, p = .004) and CSB (13.3 ± 2.06, p = .002) trials. Athletes' fluid intake was positively correlated with proper self-reported behaviors (r = .75, p = .005) and knowledge (r = .76, p = .004) about fluid and hydration. In conclusion, fluid restriction during exercise was associated with a greater level of dehydration and increased perceived exertion but had no impact on basketball performance compared with ad libitum drinking of water or a CSB. Athletes with more knowledge about hydration and better self-reported hydration behaviors ingested more fluids during training sessions.

  8. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  9. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink.

  10. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial1

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. Objective: We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. Design: We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)–sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. Results: In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P < 0.003 for each), with no difference between the fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject’s estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). Conclusions: In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The

  11. Total Body Water, Electrolyte, and Thermoregulatory Responses to Ad Libitum Water Replacement Using Two Different Water Delivery Systems During a 19-km Route March.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Nolte, Kim; van der Meulen, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Hands-free hydration systems are often advocated for improved hydration and performance in military populations. The aim was to assess whether such systems indeed result in improved hydration in exercising soldiers. Subjects were required to complete a route march while consuming water ad libitum from either a hydration bladder (BG) or traditional canteen (CG). Water intakes of 538 ml·h⁻¹ (BG) and 533 ml·h⁻¹ (CG) resulted in no differences for changes in body mass, serum [Na], plasma osmolality, total body water, or time required to complete the march. There were no differences between peak exercise core temperature of the BG (38.9° C) and CG (38.7° C) groups. There were no differences between the groups for fluid balance, thermoregulation, or performance. This is a not a surprising finding because the amount of fluid consumed ad libitum is determined by changes in serum osmolality and not the fluid delivery system as often proposed.

  12. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  13. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; < 0.01) when heifers were fed the NI diet compared with the UR diet. The amount of feed consumed increased ( < 0.01) at 0 to 3 h and decreased ( ≤ 0.03) at 3 to 24 h for restrictive vs. ad libitum feeding of both the UR and NI diets. Compared to the UR diet, the NI diet decreased ( < 0.01) feed consumption at 0 to 3 h and increased ( < 0.02) feed consumption at 3 to 24 h (except feed consumption at 9 to 12 h; = 0.90), indicating nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( < 0.01; = 0.75) blood methemoglobin, and plasma NO + NO among other rumen and blood variables had the greatest correlation (sigmoid response; < 0.01, = 0.47) with feed consumption (0 to 3 h). Particle size distribution of orts was partially altered ( = 0.02 to 0

  14. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  15. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  16. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  17. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits.

  18. Increased satiety after intake of a chocolate milk drink compared with a carbonated beverage, but no difference in subsequent ad libitum lunch intake.

    PubMed

    Harper, Angela; James, Anita; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2007-03-01

    The rising rate of obesity has been blamed on increased consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks, such as carbonated sodas, which fail to satisfy hunger. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect on appetite and energy intake of a sugar-sweetened beverage (cola) and a chocolate milk drink, matched for energy content and volume. It was hypothesised that chocolate milk may be more satiating because of its protein content. Twenty-two healthy young men (age 23 (SD 1 x 8) years) of normal weight (BMI 22 x 2 (SD 1 x 5) kg/m2) were recruited to the randomised cross-over study. Visual analogue scales were used to record subjective appetite ratings every 30 min on each of two test days. A drink of 500 ml cola or chocolate milk (900 kJ) was ingested 30 min before an ad libitum lunch. Satiety and fullness were significantly greater (P=0 x 0007, P=0 x 0004, respectively) 30 min after chocolate milk than after cola. Ratings of prospective consumption and hunger were significantly greater after cola than after chocolate milk, both immediately after preload intake (P=0 x 008, P=0 x 01, respectively) and 30 min afterwards (P=0 x 004, P=0 x 01, respectively). There was no significant difference (P=0 x 42) in ad libitum lunch intake after ingestion of chocolate milk (3145 (SD 1268) kJ) compared with cola (3286 (SD 1346) kJ). The results support the hypothesis that sweetened soft drinks are different from milk products in their impact on short-term hunger and satiety, although differences in subjective appetite scores were not translated into differences in energy intake.

  19. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, N T; Belza, A; Jensen, M G; Ritz, C; Bitz, C; Hels, O; Frandsen, E; Mela, D J; Astrup, A

    2013-02-14

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.

  20. CH4 and N2O emissions from China's beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198gCH4animal(-1)d(-1) and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1)) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1) and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China's beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors.

  1. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting.

  2. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  3. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  4. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( < 0.0001). There was no line effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( < 0.0001) but no difference in the meat-to-bone ratio of the hind leg. On the contrary, the ADGrestrict line had a higher proportion of forelegs plus thoracic cage ( = 0.03). We also found lower perirenal ( < 0.0001) and scapular fat yields ( < 0.0001) in ConsoResidual rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( < 0.0001) and higher water loss (drip and cooking loss; < 0.002) compared with the G0 and ADGrestrict rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass

  5. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  6. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women.

  7. Hepatic metabolism of glucose and linoleic acid varies in relation to susceptibility to fatty liver in ad libitum-fed Muscovy and Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Saez, Gladys; Baéza, Elisabeth; Davail, Stéphane; Durand, Denys; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2009-02-01

    The susceptibility to develop hepatic steatosis is known to differ between duck species, especially between Muscovy and Pekin ducks. This difference could be explained by either differential responses of species to overfeeding or genetic differences in hepatic lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to compare the intensities of the different hepatic pathways (oxidation, lipogenesis, esterification, secretion, etc.) of the two main nutrients (glucose and linoleic acid (LA)) reaching the liver of ad libitum-fed Muscovy (n 6) and Pekin (n 6) ducks using the ex vivo method of liver slices incubated for 16 h with [U-14C]glucose, [1-14C]LA and [35S]methionine added to the survival medium. In such experimental conditions, the lipogenesis pathway from glucose was 2-fold higher (P<0.05) in the liver of the Muscovy duck than in that of the Pekin duck. Furthermore, the hepatic uptake of LA was 2-fold higher (P<0.05) in the Muscovy duck than in the Pekin duck leading to a 2-fold higher (P<0.05) esterification of this fatty acid in the liver of the Muscovy duck. The hepatic secretion of VLDL was higher (P<0.01) in the Muscovy duck than in the Pekin duck but insufficient to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver of the Muscovy duck. In conclusion, these results show the influence of the species on the hepatic metabolism of ducks in relation to their susceptibility to develop fatty liver. These results should shed light on the metabolic regulations that might underlie susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in the the human liver.

  8. Sensitivity of ad libitum meals to detect changes in hunger. Restricted-item or multi-item testmeals in the design of preload appetite studies.

    PubMed

    Wiessing, Katy R; Xin, Liping; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Strik, Caroline M; Poppitt, Sally D

    2012-06-01

    The aims of the study were to determine whether restricted single-item or multi-item testmeals are better able to detect prior changes in hunger and fullness when assessing ad libitum eating behaviour. Thirty male participants were given a low- (L(E), 0.5 MJ) or high-energy (H(E), 4.0 MJ) breakfast preload designed to induce or suppress hunger, followed 3h later by a restricted-item (R(I)) or multi-item (M(I)) testmeal. The R(I) testmeal comprised pasta+meat sauce, whilst the M(I) testmeal comprised pasta+meat sauce plus bread, chicken, ham, cheese, salad, cake and fruit. The four conditions were (i) L(E)/R(I); (ii) L(E)/M(I); (iii) H(E)/R(I); (iv) H(E)/M(I). Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to rate appetite sensations and EI was measured at the lunch testmeal. As expected, increasing the energy content of the preload significantly altered VAS ratings and decreased EI at the testmeal. Following both L(E) and H(E) breakfasts, EI was lower at the R(I) (L(E)=4566 kJ, H(E)=3583 kJ) compared with the M(I) (L(E)=6142 kJ, H(E)=5149 kJ) testmeal. However, the compensatory decrease in EI in response to the H(E) breakfast was not significantly greater at the R(I) testmeal (R(I): -983 kJ, 28.1% compensation; M(I): -993 kJ, 28.4% compensation). In preload studies measuring EI, increasing the variety of an ad lib testmeal may not decrease the sensitivity to detect changes in hunger and fullness.

  9. The contrasting effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding of a diet very high in saturated fats on sex ratio and metabolic hormones in mice.

    PubMed

    Alexenko, Andrei P; Mao, Jiude; Ellersieck, Mark R; Davis, Angela M; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Roberts, R Michael

    2007-10-01

    Skewing of the sex ratio towards males occurs among pups born to mice fed a very high saturated fat (VHF) diet. In the present study, we tested whether the fat content of the VHF diet rather than the number of calories consumed is responsible for this effect. Eight-week-old NIH Swiss mice were placed on the VHF diet either ad libitum (VHF) or in a restricted manner (VHF-R). The VHF-R mice gained weight at a similar rate to controls fed a standard chow diet. Mice were bred at 15 wk and subsequently at 26 wk and 35 wk of age. Overall, the VHF, VHF-R, and control groups delivered 244, 242, and 274 pups, respectively, with male proportions of 0.60, 0.43, and 0.48, respectively. The pup sex ratios of the VHF group (favoring males) and VHF-R group (favoring females) each differed from 0.5 (P < 0.01). The sex ratios also differed (P < 0.0001) between the VHF and control groups, and between the VHF and VHF-R groups. Within the diet groups, maternal body weight had no effect on sex ratio. Serum leptin concentrations among the dams were similar in the VHF and VHF-R groups but higher than in the control group, while the IGF1 and corticosterone levels were comparable in all three groups. Therefore, the atypical sex ratios of offspring born to dams on the VHF diet seem to be influenced by the amount of fat consumed. Since males fed the VHF diet had neither more Y-sperm nor sired more sons than daughters, the dietary effects are manifested exclusively through the female.

  10. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior.

  11. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    PubMed

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P < 0.05) crude protein intake as the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal increased from 80 to 120 g. Similarly, treatment with PEG 4000 improved (P < 0.05) DM, OM and CP digestibilities when compared to 80 g Acacia nilotica leaf meal. Supplementation with PEG 4000 resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in blood urea concentrations. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has the potential to improve the feeding value of A. nilotica leaf meal and can, therefore, be used in the feeding systems for ruminant animals. The second experiment determined the effect of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation on in vitro digestibility of the diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP

  12. Induced regenerative cell proliferation in livers and kidneys of male F-344 rats given chloroform in corn oil by gavage or ad libitum in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Larson, J L; Wolf, D C; Butterworth, B E

    1995-01-06

    These studies were designed to establish the dose response relationships for the induction of cytolethality and regenerative cell proliferation in the liver and kidneys of male F-344 rats given chloroform by gavage or in drinking water. Rats were administered oral doses of 0, 10, 34, 90 or 180 mg/kg/day chloroform dissolved in corn oil by gavage for 4 days or for 5 days/week for 3 weeks. A second group of rats was given chloroform ad libitum in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 60, 200, 400, 900 or 1800 ppm for 4 days or 3 weeks. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered via an implanted osmotic pump 3.5 days prior to necropsy to label cells in S-phase. Cells having incorporated BrdU were visualized in tissue sections immunohistochemically and the labelling index (LI) evaluated as the percentage of S-phase cells. Rats treated with 90 or 180 mg/kg/day by gavage for 4 days had mild to moderate degeneration of renal proximal tubules and centrilobular hepatocytes. These alterations were absent or slight after 3 weeks of treatment. LI were increased in the kidney cortex only in the rats treated with 180 mg/kg/day for 4 days. A dose-dependent increase in LI was seen in rat liver after 4 days of treatment with 90 and 180 mg/kg/day by gavage, but the LI remained elevated after 3 weeks of treatment only at the 180 mg/kg/day dose. When chloroform was administered in the drinking water, no microscopic alterations were seen in the kidneys after 4 days of treatment. As a general observation, rats treated for 3 weeks with 200 ppm chloroform and greater had slightly increased numbers of focal areas of regenerating renal proximal tubular epithelium and cell proliferation than were noted in the controls, but no clear dose response relationship was evident. However, the overall renal LI was not increased at any dose or time point. Similarly, only mild hepatocyte vacuolation was observed in rats given 1800 ppm chloroform in the water for 3 weeks with no increase in the

  13. Regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme in liver and adipose tissue: effect of dietary trilinolein level in starved-refed and ad libitum-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nace, C S; Szepesi, B; Michaelis, O E

    1979-06-01

    The responses of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) (EC 1.1.1.49) and malic enzyme (ME) (EC 1.1.1.40) were studied in liver and adipose tissue of rats fed for 2 days a high glucose diet containing levels of synthetic trilinolein ranging from 0 to 25% (w/w) of the diet (trilinolein was substituted for glucose). One group of rats was starved for 2 days before the trilinolein-containing diets were fed (starved-refed); a second group of rats was fed a fat-free diet for 7 days before the trilinolein-containing diets were fed (ad libitum). Liver G6PD activity decreased exponentially and liver ME activity decreased linearly with increasing dietary trilinolein in starved-refed rats, but did not decrease significantly in ad libitum fed rats. Total liver lipid decreased exponentially with increasing trilinolein in starved-refed rats, but increased exponentially in ad libitum fed rats. Adipose tissue G6PD and ME activities decreased slightly with increasing trilinolein in starved-refed rats, but did not decrease in ad libitum fed rats. When the data were adjusted by analysis of covariance for differences in glucose intake, the liver responses in starved-refed rats were still significant but the adipose tissue responses were not, indicating that the responses of adipose tissue (but not of liver) may have resulted from decreased glucose intake rather than from increased trilinolein intake. The results suggest that dietary trilinolein inhibits the characteristic increase in liver G6PD, ME and total lipids upon starvation-refeeding. However, after the levels of these parameters have been increased by feeding a fat-free diet they cannot be decreased by dietary trilinolein in 2 days.

  14. Protection of total body water content and absence of hyperthermia despite 2% body mass loss ('voluntary dehydration') in soldiers drinking ad libitum during prolonged exercise in cool environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D; van Vuuren, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    The extent to which humans need to replace fluid losses during exercise remains contentious despite years of focused research. The primary objective was to evaluate ad libitum drinking on hydration status to determine whether body mass loss can be used as an accurate surrogate for changes in total body water (TBW) during exercise. Data were collected during a 14.6-km route march (wet bulb globe temperature of 14.1°C ). 18 subjects with an average age of 26 ± 2.5 (SD) years participated. Their mean ad libitum total fluid intake was 2.1 ± 1.4 litres during the exercise. Predicted sweat rate was 1.289 ± 0.530 l/h. There were no significant changes (p>0.05) in TBW, urine specific gravity or urine osmolality despite an average body mass loss (p<0.05) of 1.3 ± 0.45 kg during the march. Core temperature rose as a function of marching speed and was unrelated to the % change in body mass. This suggests that changes in mass do not accurately predict changes in TBW (r=-0.16) because either the body mass loss during exercise includes losses other than water or there is an endogenous body water source that is released during exercise not requiring replacement during exercise, or both. Ad libitum water replacement between 65% and 70% of sweat losses maintained safe levels of hydration during the experiment. The finding that TBW was protected by ad libitum drinking despite approximately 2% body mass loss suggests that the concept of 'voluntary dehydration' may require revision.

  15. Differential effects of methamphetamine on expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA in hypothalamus and on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in ad libitum-fed and schedule-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Crowley, W R; Ramoz, G; Keefe, K A; Torto, R; Kalra, S P; Hanson, G R

    2005-01-01

    Relatively little is known concerning the interaction of psychostimulants with hypothalamic neuropeptide systems or metabolic hormones implicated in regulation of energy balance. The present studies tested whether methamphetamine alters the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), two important orexigenic neuropeptides, or proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor for the anorexigenic peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, or the secretion of leptin, insulin and ghrelin, concomitant with inhibition of food intake. Female rats were either fed ad libitum (AL) or placed on a scheduled feeding (SF) regimen, with access to food limited to 4 h/day. Administration of (+/-)-methamphetamine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 h prior to food presentation significantly inhibited food intake in SF animals, but did not affect intake in AL animals. In a separate study, AL and SF animals were killed just prior to expected food presentation, and expression of NPY, AgRP and POMC mRNAs in hypothalamus was determined using in situ hybridisation; concentrations of leptin, insulin and ghrelin in serum were determined with radioimmunoassays. In saline-treated, SF controls, NPY and AgRP mRNA expression in arcuate nucleus and serum ghrelin were significantly elevated, and serum leptin and insulin were significantly reduced. Methamphetamine reversed the up-regulation of NPY mRNA expression observed in the SF condition, without affecting AgRP mRNA or the serum concentrations of metabolic hormones. However, in AL animals, NPY mRNA expression in arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei was significantly increased by methamphetamine, which also reduced serum leptin and insulin and increased serum ghrelin concentrations. These findings suggest that the inhibition of NPY expression in SF animals may be a mechanism underlying the anorexigenic effect of methamphetamine seen in this condition. The increase in NPY expression produced by methamphetamine in AL animals may be mediated by the

  16. Binge-like consumption of caloric and non-caloric palatable substances in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice: pharmacological and molecular evidence of orexin involvement.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Valor, Luis Miguel; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The orexin (OX) system has been implicated in food-reinforced behavior, food-seeking and food overconsumption. Recent evidence suggests that OX signaling might influence consumption of palatable foods with high reinforcing value depending upon the caloric status of the animal. The present study evaluates from a pharmacological and a molecular approach the contribution of OX to excessive binge-like consumption of highly preferred palatable substances (sucrose and saccharin) in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice. The main findings of this study are: (1) intraperitoneal (ip) injection of SB-334867 (10, 20 or 30mg/kg), a selective OXR1 antagonist, significantly decreased binge-like consumption of sucrose (10%, w/v) and saccharin (0.15%, w/v) during the test day in a Drinking in the Dark procedure in ad libitum-fed animals, without evidence of any significant alteration of locomotor activity. (2) Four repetitive, 2-h daily episodes of sucrose and saccharin (but not water) binge-like drinking significantly dampened OX mRNA expression in the LH. Present findings show for the first time a role for OXR1 signaling in binge-like consumption of palatable substances in animals under no caloric needs. Targeting OXR1 could represent a novel pharmacological approach to treat binge-eating episodes.

  17. Effects of Feeding Milk Replacer Ad Libitum or in Restricted Amounts for the First Five Weeks of Life on the Growth, Metabolic Adaptation, and Immune Status of Newborn Calves

    PubMed Central

    Schäff, Christine T.; Gruse, Jeannine; Maciej, Josefine; Mielenz, Manfred; Wirthgen, Elisa; Hoeflich, Andreas; Schmicke, Marion; Pfuhl, Ralf; Jawor, Paulina; Stefaniak, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The pre-weaning period is critical for calf health and growth, and intensive milk feeding programs may assist postnatal development by improving body growth and organ maturation. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding on the growth, metabolic adaptation, health, and immune status of newborn calves. Twenty-eight newborn Holstein and Holstein x Charolais crossbred calves were fed ad libitum (ADLIB) or in restricted amounts (6 liters per day; RES) during the first five weeks of life. The MR intake in the ADLIB treatment was gradually reduced at weeks 6 and 7, and all calves then received 6 liters of MR per day until day 60. Blood samples were collected to measure the plasma concentrations of metabolites, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), immunoglobulins, and acute phase proteins. The expression of mRNA associated with both the somatotropic axis and gluconeogenic enzymes was measured in the liver on day 60. Intensive feeding improved MR intake and growth in ADLIB without influencing concentrate intake. Carcass weight, perirenal fat, and muscle mass were greater in ADLIB. Plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, and IGF-I were greater, whereas plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, IGFBP-2 and -4, and fibrinogen were lower at distinct time points in ADLIB. The hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was greater in ADLIB. Most metabolic and endocrine differences occurred during the MR feeding period, but a slightly greater concentrate intake was associated with increased plasma IGF-I and insulin at the end of the study. The immune and health status of the calves were not affected by MR feeding. However, increased plasma fibrinogen in the RES group suggested differences in the acute phase response. PMID:28036351

  18. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  19. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  20. Thermoelectric properties of Fe and Al co-added Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yusufu, Aikebaier; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2017-04-01

    The polycrystalline bulk samples of Fe and Al co-added Ge were synthesized by melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering and the thermoelectric properties were examined. Here, Al acts as a p-type dopant, while Fe is expected to form FeGe2 as precipitates. Since the lattice mismatch between Ge and FeGe2 is small (<4%), they would coherently connect with each other, reducing the thermal conductivity without affecting the electrical transport. In this study, a reduction in thermal conductivity was achieved by dispersing the FeGe2 precipitates in the Al-doped Ge matrix, while they had little influences on both the carrier mobility and the Seebeck coefficient. As the results, the maximum ZT value of 0.13 was obtained at 773 K, which is three times higher than that of single-crystal Ge reported by the authors’ group [Y. Ohishi et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 051301 (2016)].

  1. Ibn al-Quff (1233-1286 AD), a medieval Arab surgeon and physician.

    PubMed

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Abū'l-Faraj ibn Ya'qūb ibn Isḥāq Ibn al-Quff al-Karakī (1233-1286 AD), best known as Ibn al-Quff in the West, was a 13(th) century Arab physician-surgeon. During his lifetime, Ibn al-Quff made some important contributions to the art of healing. He authored several books and commentaries in the field of medicine, in particular surgery. This paper aims to review Ibn al-Quff's life, career, and contributions to medical science.

  2. Preparation of silicon target material by adding Al-B master alloy in directional solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengting; Wang, Kai; Ren, Shiqiang; Jiang, Dachuan; Tan, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The silicon target material was prepared by adding Al-6B master alloy in directional solidification. The microstructure was characterized and the resistivity was studied in this work. The results showed that the purity of the silicon target material was more than 99.999% (5N). The resistivity was ranges from 0.002 to 0.030 Ω·cm along the ingot height. It was revealed that the particles of AlB2 in Al-6B master alloy would react spontaneously and generate clusters of [B] and [Al] in molten silicon at 1723 K. After directional solidification, the content of B and Al were increasing gradually with the increase of solidified fraction. The measured values of B were in good agreement with the curve of the Scheil equation below 80% of the ingot height. The mean concentration of B was about 17.20 ppmw and the mean concentration of Al was about 8.07 ppmw after directional solidification. The measured values of Al were fitting well with the curve of values which the effective segregation coefficient was 0.00378. It was observed that B co-doped Al in directional solidification polysilicon could regulate resistivity mutually. This work provides the theoretical basis and technical support for industrial production of the silicon target material.

  3. Effect of Al deoxidation on the formation behavior of inclusions in Ce-added stainless steel melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sun Kuk; Kong, Young-Min; Park, Joo Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The effect of Al deoxidation on the oxygen content and the inclusion properties (composition, size and morphology) of Ce-added stainless steel melts at 1873 K was investigated. The total oxygen content was about 310(±40) ppm before Al addition and slightly decreases with holding time when Al content was lower than 0.01%, whereas the oxygen content drastically decreased when Al content was greater than about 0.05%. Al content initially decreased, followed by an increase by addition of Ce, which originates from the reduction of Al2O3 in the refractory and/or inclusions by added Ce. The initial inclusions before Al addition were mainly Mn(Cr)-silicates. When Ce was added without Al deoxidation, small amounts of Ce oxide were detected after Ce addition. However, the content of Ce oxide decreased with holding time, and the inclusion composition reverted to the MnO-SiO2-Cr2O3 system. The initial Mn(Cr)-silicate inclusions transformed to Al2O3-rich inclusions by Al addition, and then Ce2O3 was enriched by Ce addition due to local enrichment of Ce around Al2O3 particles, resulting in the formation of AlCeO3-type inclusions. However, the Ce2O3 in the inclusions was continuously reduced by Al due to higher chemical potential of Al than Ce, finally forming the Al2O3-CeAl11O18 complex inclusions.

  4. Antagonistic molecular interactions of photosynthetic pigments with molecular disease targets: a new approach to treat AD and ALS.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, R Navanietha; Kumari, S S Sreeja; Mukhopadhyay, Sudit Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are progressive neurodegenerative diseases that affect the neurons in the brain and the spinal cord. Neuroinflamation and apoptosis are key players in the progressive damage of the neurons in AD and ALS. Currently, there is no drug to offer complete cure for both these diseases. Riluzole is the only available drug that can prolong the life time of the ALS patients for nearly 3 months. Molecules that offer good HIT to the molecular targets of ALS will help to treat AD and ALS patients. P53 kinase receptor (4AT3), EphA4 (3CKH) and histone deacetylase (3SFF) are the promising disease targets of AD and ALS. This paper discusses on a new approach to combat neurodegenerative diseases using photosynthetic pigments. The docking studies were performed with the Autodock Vina algorithm to predict the binding of the natural pigments such as β carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin on these targets. The β carotene, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin had higher binding energies indicating the antagonistic activity to the disease targets. These pigments serve as a potential therapeutic molecule to treat neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the AD and ALS patients.

  5. Microstructural development in Al/MgAl2O4in situ metal matrix composite using value-added silica sources.

    PubMed

    Madathil Sreekumar, Vadakke; Marimuthu Pillai, Raman; Chandrasekhara Pai, Bellampettu; Chakraborty, Madhusudhan

    2008-01-01

    Al/MgAl2O4in situ metal matrix composites have been synthesized using value-added silica sources (microsilica and rice husk ash) containing ∼97% SiO2 in Al-5 wt.% Mg alloy. The thermodynamics and kinetics of MgAl2O4 formation are discussed in detail. The MgO and MgAl2O4 phases were found to dominate in microsilica (MS) and rice husk ash (RHA) value-added composites, respectively, during the initial stage of holding the composites at 750 °C. A transition phase between MgO and MgAl2O4 was detected by the scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis of the particles extracted from the composite using 25% NaOH solution. This confirms that MgO is gradually transformed to MgAl2O4 by the reaction 3SiO2(s)+2MgO(s)+4Al(l)→2MgAl2O4(s)+3Si(l). The stoichiometry of MgAl2O4, n, computed by a new methodology is between 0.79 and 1.18. The reaction between the silica sources and the molten metal stopped after 55% of the silica source was consumed. A gradual increase in mean MgAl2O4 crystallite size, D, from 24 to 36 nm was observed in the samples held for 10 h.

  6. Microstructural development in Al/MgAl2O4 in situ metal matrix composite using value-added silica sources

    PubMed Central

    Madathil Sreekumar, Vadakke; Marimuthu Pillai, Raman; Chandrasekhara Pai, Bellampettu; Chakraborty, Madhusudhan

    2008-01-01

    Al/MgAl2O4 in situ metal matrix composites have been synthesized using value-added silica sources (microsilica and rice husk ash) containing ∼97% SiO2 in Al-5 wt.% Mg alloy. The thermodynamics and kinetics of MgAl2O4 formation are discussed in detail. The MgO and MgAl2O4 phases were found to dominate in microsilica (MS) and rice husk ash (RHA) value-added composites, respectively, during the initial stage of holding the composites at 750 °C. A transition phase between MgO and MgAl2O4 was detected by the scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) analysis of the particles extracted from the composite using 25% NaOH solution. This confirms that MgO is gradually transformed to MgAl2O4 by the reaction 3SiO2(s)+2MgO(s)+4Al(l)→2MgAl2O4(s)+3Si(l). The stoichiometry of MgAl2O4, n, computed by a new methodology is between 0.79 and 1.18. The reaction between the silica sources and the molten metal stopped after 55% of the silica source was consumed. A gradual increase in mean MgAl2O4 crystallite size, D, from 24 to 36 nm was observed in the samples held for 10 h. PMID:27877941

  7. Surgery for Gynecomastia in the Islamic Golden Age: Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936–1013 AD)

    PubMed Central

    Chavoushi, Seyed Hadi; Ghabili, Kamyar; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Aslanabadi, Arash; Babapour, Sarah; Ahmedli, Rafail; Golzari, Samad E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of European science during the Renaissance is greatly indebted to the flourishing of the sciences during the Islamic Golden Age. However, some believe that medieval Islamic physicians and in particular surgeons had been merely a medium for Greco-Roman ideas. Contrarily, in some medieval Islamic medical books, such as Al-Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi (936–1013), the surgical instructions represent a change in the usual techniques or are accompanied by a case history, implying that the procedure was actually undertaken. Along with the hundreds of chapters on different diseases and related medical and surgical treatments, Al-Tasrif includes a chapter on surgical techniques for gynecomastia. The present paper is a review of the description of the surgical management of gynecomastia by Al-Zahrawi as well as that of the ancient Greek, medieval, and modern medicine. Although Al-Zahrawi seemed to base his descriptions of surgery for gynecomastia upon those of Paulus of Aegina, his modification of the procedure and application of the medicinal substances might be indicative of Al-Zahrawi's own practice of the procedure. Al-Zahrawi's surgical procedures remained unchanged for many centuries thenceforward until the technological evolution in the recent centuries. PMID:23050167

  8. Sintering and microstructure of silicon carbide ceramic with Y3Al5O12 added by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xing-Zhong; Yang, Hui

    2005-03-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with YAG (Y3Al5O12) additive added by sol-gel method was liquid-phase sintered at different sintering temperatures, and the sintering mechanism and microstructural characteristics of resulting silicon carbide ceramics were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental distribution of surface (EDS). YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) phase formed before the sintering and its uniform distribution in the SiC/YAG composite powder decreased the sintering temperature and improved the densification of SiC ceramic. The suitable sintering temperature was 1860 degrees C with the specimen sintered at this temperature having superior sintering and mechanical properties, smaller crystal size and fewer microstructure defects. Three characteristics of improved toughness of SiC ceramic with YAG added by sol-gel method were microstructural densification, main-crack deflection and crystal 'bridging'.

  9. A transient event in AD 775 reported by al-Tabarı: A bolide - not a nova, supernova, or kilonova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Kunitzsch, P.

    2014-11-01

    Given that the cause for the strong increase in 14C in AD 774/5 in Japanese and German trees is still a matter of debate (e.g. short gamma-ray burst or solar super-flare), we have searched in Arabic chronicles for reports about unusual transient celestial events. In the History of al-Tabarı we found two (almost identical) reports about such an event. The group around caliph al-Mansūr observed a transient event while on the way from Baghdad to Mecca on AD 775 Augusst 29 - September 1 (Julian calendar). A celestial object (kawkab) was seen to fall or set (inqadda), and its trace (atharuhu) was seen for at least tens of minutes (up to 70-90 min) during morning twilight. The reports use the Arabic words kawkab and athar(uhu), which were also used in the known Arabic reports about supernovae SN 1006 and 1054, so that one might consider an interpretation as a nova-like event. The kawkab (celestial object) was observed only during the morning twilight at a brightness of probably between about -3 and 0 mag. Such a brightness and time-scale would be expected for optical kilonovae (at {˜ 3} to 9 kpc) in the context of short gamma-ray bursts. There are no similar reports from eastern Asia for this time. However, the short reports are fully consistent with a bolide: The word kawkab can be used for meteor, the verb inqadda normally means falling down, the word atharuhu can mean its trace. We therefore prefer the interpretation as bolide. We discuss in detail how to convert the Muslim calendar date to a date in the Julian calendar using first the calculated Islamic calendar and then considering the time when the crescent new moon could be visible at the given location.

  10. Mechanical and Wear Properties of Sb- and Y-Added Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boby, Arun; Srinivasan, A.; Pillai, U. T. S.; Pai, B. C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper studies the effect of Sb and Y additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AZ91 alloy. The results indicate that the Sb and Y additions lead to the formation of Mg3Sb2 and Al2Y phases. These phases modify the morphology of the β-Mg17Al12 phase, and hence refine the microstructure. The effects of Sb and Y additions on the aging behavior have also been investigated. Aging of the AZ91 alloy results in the formation of continuous and discontinuous types of precipitates. Whereas Sb and Y additions to AZ91 alloy suppresses the formation of discontinuous precipitate. The paper also reports the mechanical properties of as-cast and aged Sb-added AZ91-xY alloys for room and high temperatures. The optimum tensile properties are obtained with the alloy having the combined addition of 0.5 wt pct Sb and 0.6 wt pct Y. The fracture surface of AZ91-0.5Sb-0.6Y alloy reveals more quasi-cleavage type of failure with a cleavage fracture than the base alloy. At HT, the AZ91-0.5Sb-0.6Y alloy displays more cleavage facets connected with tearing ridges and shallow dimples than AZ91 alloy. Furthermore, it observed the improvement in wear resistance through the addition of Y. The worn surface reveals abrasion, oxidation, delamination, and plastic deformation wear mechanisms.

  11. Ghrelin-induced sleep responses in ad libitum fed and food-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, E; Hajdu, I; Obal, F; Krueger, James M

    2006-05-09

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and a well-characterized food intake regulatory peptide. Hypothalamic ghrelin-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, and orexin-containing neurons form a feeding regulatory circuit. Orexins and NPY are also implicated in sleep-wake regulation. Sleep responses and motor activity after central administration of 0.2, 1, or 5 microg ghrelin in free-feeding rats as well as in feeding-restricted rats (1 microg dose) were determined. Food and water intake and behavioral responses after the light onset injection of saline or 1 microg ghrelin were also recorded. Light onset injection of ghrelin suppressed non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) for 2 h. In the first hour, ghrelin induced increases in behavioral activity including feeding, exploring, and grooming and stimulated food and water intake. Ghrelin administration at dark onset also elicited NREMS and REMS suppression in hours 1 and 2, but the effect was not as marked as that, which occurred in the light period. In hours 3-12, a secondary NREMS increase was observed after some doses of ghrelin. In the feeding-restricted rats, ghrelin suppressed NREMS in hours 1 and 2 and REMS in hours 3-12. Data are consistent with the notion that ghrelin has a role in the integration of feeding, metabolism, and sleep regulation.

  12. 76 FR 13438 - In the Matter of AdAl Group, Inc., Com/Tech Communications Technologies, Inc., Dialog Group, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of AdAl Group, Inc., Com/Tech Communications Technologies, Inc., Dialog Group, Inc... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of...

  13. Microstructure and properties of mullite-based porous ceramics produced from coal fly ash with added Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-bin; Yan, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Using coal fly ash slurry samples supplemented with different amounts of Al2O3, we fabricated mullite-based porous ceramics via a dipping-polymer-replica approach, which is a popular method suitable for industrial application. The microstructure, phase composition, and compressive strength of the sintered samples were investigated. Mullite was identified in all of the prepared materials by X-ray diffraction analysis. The microstructure and compressive strength were strongly influenced by the content of Al2O3. As the Al/Si mole ratio in the starting materials was increased from 0.84 to 2.40, the amount of amorphous phases in the sintered microstructure decreased and the compressive strength of the sintered samples increased. A further increase in the Al2O3 content resulted in a decrease in the compressive strength of the sintered samples. The mullite-based porous ceramic with an Al/Si molar ratio of 2.40 exhibited the highest compressive strength and the greatest shrinkage among the investigated samples prepared using coal fly ash as the main starting material.

  14. Observation of the TWIP + TRIP Plasticity-Enhancement Mechanism in Al-Added 6 Wt Pct Medium Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seawoong; Lee, Kyooyoung; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2015-06-01

    The intercritically annealed Fe-0.15 pctC-6.0 pctMn-1.5 pctSi-3.0 pctAl and Fe-0.30 pctC-6.0 pctMn-1.5 pctSi-3.0 pctAl medium Mn steels were found to have improved mechanical properties due to the TWIP and TRIP plasticity-enhancing mechanisms being activated in succession during tensile deformation. The increase of the C content from 0.15 to 0.30 pct resulted in ultra-high strength properties and a strength-ductility balance of approximately 65,000 MPa-pct, i.e., equivalent to the strength-ductility balance of high Mn TWIP steel with a fully austenitic microstructure.

  15. Ascorbate, added after irradiation, reduces the mutant yield and alters the spectrum of CD59- mutations in A(L) cells irradiated with high LET carbon ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Akiko; Vannais, Diane; Lenarczyk, Marek; Waldren, Charles A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    It has been reported that X-ray induced HPRT- mutation in cultured human cells is prevented by ascorbate added after irradiation. Mutation extinction is attributed to neutralization by ascorbate, of radiation-induced long-lived radicals (LLR) with half-lives of several hours. We here show that post-irradiation treatment with ascorbate (5 mM added 30 min after radiation) reduces, but does not eliminate, the induction of CD59- mutants in human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells exposed to high-LET carbon ions (LET of 100 KeV/microm). RibCys, [2(R,S)-D-ribo-1',2',3',4'-Tetrahydroxybutyl]-thiazolidene-4(R)-ca riboxylic acid] (4 mM) gave a similar but lesser effect. The lethality of the carbon ions was not altered by these chemicals. Preliminary data are presented that ascorbate also alters the spectrum of CD59- mutations induced by the carbon beam, mainly by reducing the incidence of small mutations and mutants displaying transmissible genomic instability (TGI), while large mutations are unaffected. Our results suggest that LLR are important in initiating TGI.

  16. Evaluation of Interfacial Interactions Between Ti-6Al-4V and Mold Use Ti-Added Backup Coat in Investment Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xu; Chai, Lianjing; Wu, Guoqing; Wang, Hong; Nan, Hai

    2016-05-01

    In this article, the chemical inertness of shell using Ti-added mullite backup coat against molten Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy was investigated. The metal/shell interfacial microstructures and compositions were characterized using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, roughness tester, and X-ray diffractometer; the hardened layer thickness was evaluated using a microhardness tester. By adding titanium powder into the mullite backup coat, the alpha case and hardened layer thickness of the Ti64 castings were largely reduced with good surface finishing. Silicon ions, from the backup coat, penetrated into the alloy and coarsened the β lath at the metal/shell interfacial area. The Ti powder in the mullite backup coat oxidized and interacted with silica during mold firing and casting, which reduced the silicon and oxygen concentrations at the metal/shell interfacial area. The oxygen penetration depth is thicker than the alpha case layer thickness, and around 0.26 wt pct, oxygen can obviously coarsen the alpha lath at the metal/shell interfacial area during investment casting.

  17. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  18. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving.

  19. Emplacement conditions of the 1256 AD Al-Madinah lava flow field in Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Insights from surface morphology and lava flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly; Moufti, Mohammed R.; Cappello, Annalisa; Murcia, Hugo; Ganci, Gaetana; Del Negro, Ciro; Procter, Jonathan; Zahran, Hani Mahmoud Ali

    2016-01-01

    Lava flow hazard modelling requires detailed geological mapping, and a good understanding of emplacement settings and the processes involved in the formation of lava flows. Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a large volcanic field, comprising about 1000 predominantly small-volume volcanoes most of which have emitted lava flows of various lengths. A few eruptions took place in this area during the Holocene, and they were located in the northern extreme of the Harrat Rahat, a close proximity to critical infrastructure and population living in Al-Madinah City. In the present study, we combined field work, high resolution digital topography and morphometric analysis to infer the emplacement history of the last historical event in the region represented by the 1256 AD Al-Madinah lava flow field. These data were also used to simulate 1256 AD-type lava flows in the Harrat Rahat by the MAGFLOW lava flow emplacement model, which is able to relate the flow evolution to eruption conditions. The 1256 AD lava flow field extent was mapped at a scale of 1:1000 from a high resolution (0.5 m) Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) Digital Terrain Model (DTM), aerial photos with field support. The bulk volume of the lava flow field was estimated at 0.4 km3, while the source volume represented by seven scoria cone was estimated at 0.023 km3. The lava flow covered an area of 60 km2 and reached a maximum length of 23.4 km. The lava flow field comprises about 20.9% of pāhoehoe, 73.8% of 'a'ā, and 5.3% of late-stage outbreaks. Our field observation, also suggests that the lava flows of the Harrat Rahat region are mainly core-dominated and that they formed large lava flow fields by amalgamation of many single channels. These channels mitigated downslope by topography-lava flow and channel-channel interactions, highlighting this typical process that needs to be considered in the volcanic hazard assessment in the region. A series of numerical lava flow simulations was carried out

  20. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  1. Contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis (1210-1288 AD) to the progress of medicine and urology. A study and translations from his medical works.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E

    2008-01-01

    This primary-source study of 4 medical works of the 13th century Muslim scholar Ibn Al-Nafis confirmed that his Kitab Al-Mujaz Fi Al-Tibb was authored as an independent book meant to be a handbook for medical students and practitioners not as an epitome of Kitab Al-Qanun of Ibn Sina as thought by recent historians. His huge medical encyclopedia, Al-Shamil, represents a wave of intense scientific activity that spread among the scholars of Cairo and Damascus following the massive destruction of books by Hulako's Army during the devastation of Baghdad in 1258. Like his predecessors in the Islamic Era, Ibn Al-Nafis critically appraised the views of scholars before him in the light of his own experimentation and direct observations. Accordingly, in his books Sharh Tashreeh Al-Qanun, Risalat al-Aadaa and Al-Risalah Al-Kameleyyah, we find the first description of the coronary vessels and the true concept of the blood supply of the heart as well as the correct description of the pulmonary circulation and the beginnings of the proper understanding of the systemic circulation. Those discoveries of Ibn Al-Nafis, translated to Latin by Andreas Alpagus printed in Venice in 1547, appeared, 6 years later, in the Christianismi Restituto of Servetus and, in 1555, in the De Fabrica Humani Corporis of Vesalius 2nd edition then in the works of Valvarde 1554, Columbus 1559, Cesalpino 1571, and finally Harvey in 1628. Furthermore, this study documented several other contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis to the progress of human functional anatomy and to advances in medical and surgical practice.

  2. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  3. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  4. Adding the right (or left) twist to tris-chelate complexes--coordination chemistry of chiral oxazolylphenolates with M3+ ions (M = Al or lanthanide).

    PubMed

    Aspinall, Helen C; Bacsa, John; Beckingham, Oliver D; Eden, Edward G B; Greeves, Nicholas; Hobbs, Matthew D; Potjewyd, Frances; Schmidtmann, Marc; Thomas, Christopher D

    2014-01-21

    A series of homoleptic tris-chelate complexes ML3 (M = Al or rare earth; L = chiral or achiral oxazolyl phenolate or -naphtholate) is reported. In all cases, complexes crystallize as mer-isomers and complete diastereoselectivity is observed on crystallization of the complexes: ML3 crystallize with Λ-helicity at the metal where L = (S)-oxazolylphenolate. Complexes have been characterized in solution by NMR spectroscopy, demonstrating rapid ligand exchange at ambient temperature for rare earth complexes, and slow exchange on the NMR timescale for complexes of Al; in all cases the mer-isomer is observed exclusively. Crystal structures are reported for [YL3]2 (L = (S)-2-(4-isopropyl-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)-phenolate), mer-[YbL3] (L = (S)-2-(4-isopropyl-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)-6-methylphenolate) and mer-[AlL3] (L = (S)-2-(4-isopropyl-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)-6-methylphenolate, L = (S)-2-(4-isopropyl-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)-6-cyanophenolate), L = (S)-1-(4-isopropyl-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-olate, L = 1-(4,4-dimethyl-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)naphthalen-2-olate).

  5. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  6. Effects of Ca and H2O2 added to RPMI on the fretting corrosion of Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Montague, A; Merritt, K; Brown, S; Payer, J

    1996-12-01

    Titanium and its alloys have demonstrated considerable success in various surgical procedures including orthopedic, dental, and cardiovascular surgery. However, particulate debris from corrosion and wear is present in a considerable quantity in tissue local to the implant. This study evaluated the effect of Ca, since it is present in both serum and bone, and H2O2, since it is produced through local inflammation, on the amount of titanium release. Four sets of Ti6Al4V plates and Ti6Al4V screws were used. Each set was designated to one of four solutions: RPMI (cell culture growth media), RPMI with CaCl2, RPMI with CaCO3, and RPMI with H2O2. A fretter was used to cause corrosion by creating micromotion between two screws and a two-hole plate of Ti6Al4V. After fretting for 72 h, weight loss of the plate and screws and the amount of Ti and vanadium (V) in solution was used to assess the amount of fretting corrosion which had occurred. Results of weight loss and Ti in solution indicated that the presence of H2O2 increased the amount of particulate debris produced in RPMI as compared with RPMI alone. The addition of CaCl2 to RPMI also increased both weight loss and Ti in solution compared with RPMI alone. The addition of CaCO2, however, did not give values significantly different from RPMI alone. Comparison of weight loss and Ti in solution indicated that the increase in fretting corrosion was not different between RPMI with CaCl2 and RPMI with H2O2. The particulate wear debris from the four solutions was black in color and the size of the particulate produced was compared using a Coulter Multisizer. The results indicated that particles produced in the four solutions were not different, with mean values between 1.324 and 1.100 microns, and they were similar in size to the particulate found in tissues surrounding failed total hip replacements. In order to better understand the role of Ca in the fretting corrosion of Ti6Al4V, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) using

  7. Evaluación de la utilidad diagnóstica de la versión española del cuestionario al informador «AD8»☆

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, C. Carnero; de la Vega Cotarelo, R.; Alcalde, S. López; Aparicio, C. Martos; Carrillo, R. Vílchez; Gavilán, E. Mora; Galvin, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción El AD8 es un cuestionario al informador breve que puede ser autoaplicado y facilita la identificación de deterioro cognitivo (DC); nuestro objetivo es evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica (UD) de una versión española. Material y métodos Estudio transversal en una muestra clínica de díadas paciente/ informador, 330 sujetos con sospecha de DC o demencia (DEM) y 71 controles. Se ha evaluado la consistencia interna (α de Cronbach) y la validez (correlaciones parciales con estadio GDS, Fototest e índice funcional [IF]). La UD se ha evaluado para no DC vs DC (GDS 3–4) por medio del área bajo la curva ROC (aROC) y se ha considerado mejor punto de corte aquel que hacía máximo el índice de Youden. Resultados En la muestra, 105 no tenían DC, 99 tenían DC sin DEM y 203 DEM. La consistencia interna es alta (α 0,90, IC del 95%, 0,89–0,92), al igual que las correlaciones con GDS (r = 0,72, p < 0,001), Fototest (r = −0,61, p < 0,001) e IF (r = 0,59, p < 0,001). El aROC del AD8 es 0,90 (IC del 95%, 0,86–0,93), sin diferencia significativa con la del Fototest (aROC 0,93, IC del 95%, 0,89–0,96); el mejor punto de corte es 3/4 con sensibilidad de 0,93 (IC del 95%, 0,88–0,96), especificidad de 0,81 (IC del 95%, 0,72–0,88) y el 88,8% de las clasificaciones correctas. El uso conjunto de AD8 y Fototest mejora de forma significativa la UD de ambos (aROC 0,96, IC del 95%, 0,93–0,98, p < 0,05). Conclusiones La versión española del AD8 conserva las cualidades psicométricas y la UD de la versión original; su uso combinado con el Fototest mejora de forma significativa la UD de ambos. PMID:22652137

  8. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (P<0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm (P<0.05) with the acrophase at the second feed and a decrease over the next 12 h. Average daily trypsin, lipase and amylase levels of FA fish were significantly lower than those of TR fish (P<0.01); however, the growth performance of both groups was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  9. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  10. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-05-23

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations.

  11. The Effects of Caloric Density of the Food on Running Endurance and General Condition of Rats and Hamsters Restricted in Food Intake or Fed Ad Libitum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    triglyceride levels were 76Z and plasma total cholesterol levels 22X (significant) higher in non-exercised than in regularly exercised animals...right after running to exhaustion. In the hamsters kept at tropical climatic conditions, plasma total cholesterol at both food intake levels was...than on day 8 of the restricted intake. In the hamsters, average plasma triglyceride levels were 76% and plasma total cholesterol levels Z2

  12. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  13. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  14. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  15. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  16. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  17. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  18. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  19. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  20. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  1. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  2. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  3. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  4. Photon-added coherent states in parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivakumar, S.

    2011-03-15

    Photon-added coherent states have been realized in optical parametric down-conversion by Zavatta et al. [Science 306, 660 (2004)]. In this report, it is established that the states generated in the process are ideal photon-added coherent states. It is shown that the scheme can generate higher-order photon-added coherent states. A comparative study of the down-conversion process and atom-cavity interaction in generating the photon-added coherent states is presented.

  5. Partition functions in even dimensional AdS via quasinormal mode methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Cynthia; Ng, Gim Seng

    2014-06-01

    In this note, we calculate the one-loop determinant for a massive scalar (with conformal dimension Δ) in even-dimensional AdS d+1 space, using the quasinormal mode method developed in [1] by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev. Working first in two dimensions on the related Euclidean hyperbolic plane H 2, we find a series of zero modes for negative real values of Δ whose presence indicates a series of poles in the one-loop partition function Z(Δ) in the Δ complex plane; these poles contribute temperature-independent terms to the thermal AdS partition function computed in [1]. Our results match those in a series of papers by Camporesi and Higuchi, as well as Gopakumar et al. [2] and Banerjee et al. [3]. We additionally examine the meaning of these zero modes, finding that they Wick-rotate to quasinormal modes of the AdS2 black hole. They are also interpretable as matrix elements of the discrete series representations of SO(2, 1) in the space of smooth functions on S 1. We generalize our results to general even dimensional AdS2 n , again finding a series of zero modes which are related to discrete series representations of SO(2 n, 1), the motion group of H 2 n .

  6. /Cu-Al System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  7. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  8. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  9. The antagonistic effects of L-dopa and eserine on Al-induced neurobehavioral deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y X; Liang, Y X

    1998-12-01

    The main goals of the study were to elucidate the mechanism of Al-induced behavioral toxicity and to explore the possible link between the changes in the metabolism of monoaminergic or cholinergic transmitters and neurobehavioral effects. Three groups (12 rats in each group) were fed with aluminum chloride in drinking water (1600 mg/l) ad libitum through a 90-day exposure period. The controls were fed with distilled water. From the 60th to 90th day of treatment, two of the three Al-treated groups were administered with L-dopa (220 mg/kg.bw) and eserine (0.4 mg/kg.bw) by gavage, respectively. A two-item neurobehavioral test battery consisting of step down test and Morris water maze task was used for rats after three months treatment. In the step-down test, markedly shortened the step-down latency (SDL) and the number of step-down (NSD) were observed in the Al-treated group (P < 0.05, vs. control). On the contrary, only slight changes were found in the rats treated with aluminum combined with L-dopa or eserine (P > 0.05, vs control). In eserine and L-dopa antagonized groups, the mean escape latencies of Morris water maze approached a level close to that of the controls (P > 0.05). The results showed that the Al-induced memory and learning impairment could be reduced by L-dopa or eserine. It is suggested that the depletion of dopaminergic and cholinergic transmitters in the central nervous system might play an important role in Al-induced neurotoxicity.

  10. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  11. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  12. Inactivated phosphorus by added aluminum in Baltic Sea sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Emil

    2014-12-01

    Decreased phosphorus (P) retention in aquatic sediments during hypoxic periods results in increased P recycling to the water column. To revert to less productive conditions in the enclosed bays of the Baltic Sea archipelago, increased sediment P burial capacity is needed. Aluminum (Al) addition is considered to be a cost-effective lake restoration method, as it improves sediment P burial capacity. However, little is known about its ability to permanently bind P in brackish systems. In summer 2000, Al sulfate granules were added to a hypoxic bottom area in the Östhammar bay, Sweden. Sediment core samples from the area were collected 10 years later. A peak in Al and P was detected at 20 cm sediment depth, reflecting the added Al and P trapped to it. Only part of the added Al was recovered, but the recovered Al (8 g Al/m2) trapped P at a ratio of 5:1 (molar). Chemical fractionation showed that P extracted as 'Al-P' constituted 55% of the trapped P, indicating that Al added also trapped P extracted as other P forms.

  13. Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF**6) is a commonly used method for measuring CH**4 enteric emissions in ruminants. Studies using SF**6 have shown large variation in CH**4 emissions data, inconsistencies in CH**4 emissions across studies, and potential methodological errors. Therefore, th...

  14. Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity.

  15. Induced cytotoxicity and cell proliferation in the hepatocarcinogenicity of chloroform in female B6C3F1 mice: comparison of administration by gavage in corn oil vs ad libitum in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Larson, J L; Wolf, D C; Butterworth, B E

    1994-01-01

    Chloroform increases the incidence of liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice when administered in by gavage in corn oil, but not when given in the drinking water at similar daily doses. Since cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation have been implicated in the tumorigenic process for this nongenotoxic agent, these effects of chloroform in corn oil and drinking water were evaluated under conditions similar to the two bioassays. Female B6C3F1 mice were administered oral doses of 0, 3, 10, 34, 90, 238, or 477 mg/kg chloroform dissolved in corn oil 5 days/week for periods of 4 days or 3 weeks, or were continually exposed to chloroform in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 60, 200, 400, 900, or 1800 ppm for 4 days or 3 weeks, at which time they were necropsied. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was delivered via osmotic pumps implanted 3.5 days prior to necropsy. Cell proliferation was evaluated as the percentage of hepatocytes that entered S-phase over 3.5 days (labeling index, LI), measured by immunohistochemical detection of BrdU incorporated into the DNA. Dose-dependent changes included centrilobular necrosis and markedly elevated LI in mice given 238 or 477 mg/kg chloroform in corn oil (the average daily doses that produced tumors in the cancer bioassay). The no-observed-effect level for histopathological changes was 10 mg/kg/day and for induced cell proliferation was 34 mg/kg/day for chloroform given in corn oil. Chloroform given in the drinking water did not increase the hepatic LI after either 4 days or 3 weeks in any of the dose groups, nor were any microscopic alterations observed in the livers, even though the cumulative daily amount of chloroform ingested in the 1800-ppm exposure group was 329 mg/kg/day. The sustained increase in LI in the livers of mice administered hepatocarcinogenic doses of chloroform in corn oil, but not for chloroform in drinking water, is evidence that chloroform-induced mouse liver cancer is secondary to events associated with induced cytolethality and cell proliferation. The triggering of these effects appears to be dependent on both the rate and duration of chloroform delivery to the target tissues. Thus, the most straightforward risk assessment for chloroform for this tissue would assign no increased cancer risk for dosing regimens that do not induce cytolethality and cell proliferation.

  16. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  17. EXACT S-MATRICES FOR AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Changrim; Bombardelli, Diego

    2013-12-01

    We propose exact S-matrices for the AdS3/CFT2 duality between type IIB strings on AdS3×S3×M4 with M4 = S3×S1 or T4 and the corresponding two-dimensional conformal field theories. We fix the two-particle S-matrices on the basis of the symmetries su(1|1) and su(1|1)×su(1|1). A crucial justification comes from the derivation of the all-loop Bethe ansatz matching exactly the recent conjecture proposed by Babichenko et al. [J. High Energy Phys.1003, 058 (2010), arXiv:0912.1723 [hep-th

  18. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  19. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  20. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  1. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  2. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  3. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  4. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  5. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  6. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  7. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  8. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  9. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  10. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  11. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  12. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  13. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  14. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  15. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  16. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  17. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  18. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  19. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  20. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  1. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  2. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  3. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  4. Added mass in human swimmers: age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Caspersen, Cecilie; Berthelsen, Petter A; Eik, Mari; Pâkozdi, Csaba; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik

    2010-08-26

    In unstationary swimming (changing velocity), some of the water around the swimmer is set in motion. This can be thought of as an added mass (M(a)) of water. The purpose of this study was to find added mass on human swimmers and investigate the effect of shape and body size. Thirty subjects were connected to a 2.8m long bar with handles, attached with springs (stiffness k = 318 N/m) and a force cell. By oscillating this system vertically and registering the period of oscillations it was possible to find the added mass of the swimmer, given the known masses of the bar and swimmer. Relative added mass (M(a)%) for boys, women and men were, respectively, 26.8 +/- 2.9%, 23.6 +/- 1.6% and 26.8 +/- 2.3% of the subjects total mass. This study reported significantly lower added mass (p < 0.001) and relative added mass (p < 0.002) for women compared to men, which indicate that the possible body shape differences between genders may be an important factor for determining added mass. Boys had significantly lower (p < 0.001) added mass than men. When added mass was scaled for body size there were no significant differences (p = 0.996) between boys and men, which indicated that body size is an important factor that influences added mass. The added mass in this study seems to be lower and within a smaller range than previously reported (Klauck, 1999; Eik et al., 2008). It is concluded that the added mass in human swimmers, in extended gliding position, is approximately 1/4 of the subjects' body mass.

  5. The generalized added mass revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray

    2007-05-01

    The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.

  6. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  7. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  8. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  9. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  10. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  11. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  12. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas; Woerd, Ellen van der E-mail: ellen@itf.fys.kuleuven.be

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  13. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  14. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  15. The Chinese comet observation in AD 773 January

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, J.; Csikszentmihalyi, M.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2014-11-01

    The strong 14C increase in the year AD 774/5 detected in one German and two Japanese trees was recently suggested to have been caused by an impact of a comet onto Earth and a deposition of large amounts of 14C into the atmosphere (Liu et al. 2014). The authors supported their claim using a report of a historic Chinese observation of a comet ostensibly colliding with Earth's atmosphere in AD 773 January. We show here that the Chinese text presented by those authors is not an original historic text, but that it is comprised of several different sources. Moreover, the translation presented in Liu et al. is misleading and inaccurate. We give the exact Chinese wordings and our English translations. According to the original sources, the Chinese observed a comet in mid January 773, but they report neither a collision nor a large coma, just a long tail. Also, there is no report in any of the source texts about "dust rain in the daytime" as claimed by Liu et al. (2014), but simply a normal dust storm. Ho (1962) reports sightings of this comet in China on AD 773 Jan 15 and/or 17 and in Japan on AD 773 Jan 20 (Ho 1962). At the relevant historic time, the Chinese held that comets were produced within the Earth's atmosphere, so that it would have been impossible for them to report a "collision" of a comet with Earth's atmosphere. The translation and conclusions made by Liu et al. (2014) are not supported by the historical record. Therefore, postulating a sudden increase in 14C in corals off the Chinese coast precisely in mid January 773 (Liu et al. 2014) is not justified given just the 230Th dating for AD 783 ± 14.

  16. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  17. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  18. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  19. Courtship American Style: Newspaper Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated an increasing social phenomenon--newspaper advertising for dating or marital partners--in terms of the bargaining process involved. Content analysis of personal ads in a popular "respectable" singles newspaper revealed a pattern of offers and requests reminiscent of a heterosexual stock market. (Author)

  20. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  1. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n <= 4 and 2 ⌊n/2 ⌋ + 1 k supersymmetries for 4 < n <= 7 , k ∈N> 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  2. The Massive Wave Equation in Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, C. M.

    2013-07-01

    We consider the massive wave equation on asymptotically AdS spaces. We show that the timelike F behaves like a finite timelike boundary, on which one may impose the equivalent of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions for a range of (negative) mass parameter which includes the conformally coupled case. We demonstrate well posedness for the associated initial-boundary value problems at the H 1 level of regularity. We also prove that higher regularity may be obtained, together with an asymptotic expansion for the field near F. The proofs rely on energy methods, tailored to the modified energy introduced by Breitenlohner and Freedman. We do not assume the spacetime is stationary, nor that the wave equation separates.

  3. On jordanian deformations of AdS5 and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-10-01

    We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that can be obtained from the η-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the η-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which implies that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which do correspond to supergravity solutions.

  4. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  5. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  6. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  7. Droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Chitra Sivaraman, PNNL

    2015-08-06

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration (Nd) will increase and droplet size will decrease, for a given liquid water path. This will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation; however, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain.McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based onBoers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions. In order to provide data sets for studying aerosol-cloud interactions, the McComiskey et al. (2009) method was implemented as the Droplet Number Concentration (NDROP) value-added product (VAP).

  8. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  9. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  10. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  11. AdS4/CFT3 squashed, stretched and warped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, Igor R.; Klose, Thomas; Murugan, Arvind

    2009-03-01

    We use group theoretic methods to calculate the spectrum of short multiplets around the extremum of Script N = 8 gauged supergravity potential which possesses Script N = 2 supersymmetry and SU(3) global symmetry. Upon uplifting to M-theory, it describes a warped product of AdS4 and a certain squashed and stretched 7-sphere. We find quantum numbers in agreement with those of the gauge invariant operators in the Script N = 2 superconformal Chern-Simons theory recently proposed to be the dual of this M-theory background. This theory is obtained from the U(N) × U(N) theory through deforming the superpotential by a term quadratic in one of the superfields. To construct this model explicitly, one needs to employ monopole operators whose complete understanding is still lacking. However, for the U(2) × U(2) gauge theory we make a proposal for the form of the monopole operators which has a number of desired properties. In particular, this proposal implies enhanced symmetry of the U(2) × U(2) ABJM theory for k = 1,2; it makes its similarity to and subtle difference from the BLG theory quite explicit.

  12. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  13. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  14. Non-extended phase space thermodynamics of Lovelock AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jie-Xiong; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2015-05-01

    Recently, extended phase space thermodynamics of Lovelock AdS black holes has been of great interest. To provide insight from a different perspective and gain a unified phase transition picture, the non-extended phase space thermodynamics of -dimensional charged topological Lovelock AdS black holes is investigated in detail in the grand canonical ensemble. Specifically, the specific heat at constant electric potential is calculated and the phase transition in the grand canonical ensemble is discussed. To probe the impact of the various parameters, we utilize the control variate method and solve the phase transition condition equation numerically for the cases . There are two critical points for the case , while there is only one for the other cases. For , there exists no phase transition point. To figure out the nature of the phase transition in the grand canonical ensemble, we carry out an analytic check of the analog form of the Ehrenfest equations proposed by Banerjee et al. It is shown that Lovelock AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble undergo a second-order phase transition. To examine the phase structure in the grand canonical ensemble, we utilize the thermodynamic geometry method and calculate both the Weinhold metric and the Ruppeiner metric. It is shown that for both analytic and graphical results that the divergence structure of the Ruppeiner scalar curvature coincides with that of the specific heat. Our research provides one more example that Ruppeiner metric serves as a wonderful tool to probe the phase structures of black holes.

  15. The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (Λ < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].

  16. Thermodynamics of dual conformal field theories for Kerr-AdS black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Pang Dawei

    2005-08-15

    Recently Gibbons et al. in [G. W. Gibbons et al. Class. Quant. Grav. 22, 1503 (2005)] defined a set of conserved quantities for Kerr-AdS black holes with the maximal number of rotation parameters in arbitrary dimension. This set of conserved quantities is defined with respect to a frame which is nonrotating at infinity. On the other hand, there is another set of conserved quantities for Kerr-AdS black holes, defined by Hawking et al. in [Hawking et al. Phys. Rev. D 59, 064005 (1999)], which is measured relative to a frame rotating at infinity. Gibbons et al. explicitly showed that the quantities defined by them satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics, while those quantities defined by Hawking et al. do not obey the first law. In this paper we discuss thermodynamics of dual CFTs to the Kerr-AdS black holes by mapping the bulk thermodynamic quantities to the boundary of the AdS space. We find that thermodynamic quantities of dual CFTs satisfy the first law of thermodynamics and Cardy-Verlinde formula only when these thermodynamic quantities result from the set of bulk quantities given by Hawking et al.. We discuss the implication of our results.

  17. How does adding anatomical landmarks as fiducial points in the point-matching registration of neuronavigation influence registration accuracy?

    PubMed

    Wang, Manning; Song, Zhijian

    2016-12-01

    Skin markers (SMs) are usually used as fiducial points in registration of neuronavigation, but the areas in which they can be adhered to are restricted, which usually results in poor distribution of the SMs and a large registration error. In this research, we studied whether the registration accuracy can be improved by adding anatomical landmarks (ALs), which are thought to have a larger localization error than SMs. A series of random SM configurations were generated, and for each SM configuration, we generated a corresponding SM-AL configuration by adding several ALs. We then compared the accuracy of the point-matching registration of the SM configurations with that of the corresponding SM-AL configurations. Experiment results indicated that adding ALs always made the mean target registration error of the whole head fall into a lower and narrower range, which meant that the registration became more accurate and more stable. In addition, adding more ALs resulted in a better performance.

  18. AD, the ALICE diffractive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Abraham Villatoro

    2017-03-01

    ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a complement to its Heavy-Ion physics program, ALICE started during Run 1 of LHC an extensive program dedicated to the study of proton-proton diffractive processes. In order to optimize its trigger efficiencies and purities in selecting diffractive events, the ALICE Collaboration installed a very forward AD detector during the Long Shut Down 1 of LHC. This new forward detector system consists of two stations made of two layers of scintillator pads, one station on each side of the interaction point. With this upgrade, ALICE has substantially increased its forward physics coverage, including the double rapidity gap based selection of central production, as well as the measurements of inclusive diffractive cross sections.

  19. Brain and Plasma Molecular Characterization of the Pathogenic TBI-AD Interrelationship in Mouse Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0253 TITLE: Brain and Plasma Molecular Characterization of the Pathogenic TBI-AD Interrelationship in Mouse Models ... brain and plasma responses in mouse models of TBI, AD and other neurodegenerative conditions (Abdullah et al., 2014; Abdullah et al., 2013; Crawford...identify age/time-dependent expression of brain proteins and lipids in mouse models of AD (PSAPP and hTau) and of mTBI (single and repetitive mTBI in hTau

  20. The New York Times ad.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were

  1. Intracellular Signaling and Desmoglein 2 Shedding Triggered by Human Adenoviruses Ad3, Ad14, and Ad14P1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber

  2. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  3. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...

  4. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the... you give the price per square foot, you do not have to give the coverage area. (c) If your ad...

  5. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  6. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  7. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  8. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... página en español Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads Related Items Weight Loss Challenge Diet Ads and ... control Information Network .  The Truth Behind Weight Loss Ads Claims to watch out for include: Lose weight ...

  9. Historical Literature in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.

    1997-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.

  10. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  11. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  12. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ökcü, Özgür; Aydıner, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T- P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions.

  13. Removal of Aluminum from Leaching Solution of Lepidolite by Adding Ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan; Kuang, Ge; Hu, Song; Guo, Hui; Jin, Ran; Vekariya, Rohit L.

    2016-10-01

    Lepidolite is a kind of low-grade lithium ore (3.5-4.0% Li2O) which contains more than 22% Al2O3 and 8% K2O. Removal and utilization of the Al and K will be very important for the economic extraction of lithium from this ore. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to remove Al from the leaching solution of lepidolite by adding ammonium from (NH4)2SO4. The results indicate that adding NH4 + could remove more aluminum and have a smaller loss of lithium in comparison to adding K+ for removing aluminum in the leaching solution. The Al removal reached up to 80.44% at (K+ + NH4 +)/Al3+ molar ratio of 0.95, while the amount of Li+ (99.84%) still remained in the leaching solution. In addition, the phase equilibrium in the quaternary K2SO4-Al2(SO4)3-(NH4)2SO4-H2O system at 278.2 K was investigated to support the above conclusion. The results verify that the addition of ammonium could remove more Al3+ by easily forming potassium alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O) and ammonium alum (NH4Al(SO4)2·12H2O).

  14. Static Einstein-Maxwell Black Holes with No Spatial Isometries in AdS Space.

    PubMed

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen

    2016-11-25

    We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully nonlinear, D=4, Einstein-Maxwell-anti-de Sitter (AdS) equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. In sharp contrast to the uniqueness results for a Minkowski electrovacuum, the existence of these black holes shows that single, equilibrium, black hole solutions in an AdS electrovacuum admit an arbitrary multipole structure.

  15. Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed.

  16. Boundary conditions for conformally coupled scalar in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    We consider conformally coupled scalar with ɸ4 coupling in AdS4 and study its various boundary conditions on AdS boundary. We have obtained perturbative solutions of equation of motion of the conformally coupled scalar with power expansion order by order in ɸ4 coupling λ up to λ2 order. In its dual CFT, we get 2, 4 and 6 point functions by using this solution with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions via AdS/CFT dictionary. We also consider marginal deformation on AdS boundary and get its on-shell and boundary effective actions.

  17. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  18. Solar activity around AD 775 from aurorae and radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-04-01

    discuss two more Schwabe cycles until AD {˜ 844}. The 14C record (from both Intcal and Miyake et al. 2013a) is anti-correlated to auroral and sunspot activity, as expected from solar wind modulation of cosmic rays which produce the radiocarbon.

  19. Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

    In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

  20. Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask Value-Added Product Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, C; Comstock, J

    2011-07-25

    Lidar backscattered signal is a useful tool for identifying vertical cloud structure in the atmosphere in optically thin clouds. Cloud boundaries derived from lidar signals are a necessary input for popular ARM data products, such as the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product. An operational cloud boundary algorithm (Wang and Sassen 2001) has been implemented for use with the ARM Micropulse Lidar (MPL) systems. In addition to retrieving cloud boundaries above 500 m, the value-added product (VAP) named Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask (MPLCMASK) applies lidar-specific corrections (i.e., range-square, background, deadtime, and overlap) as described in Campbell et al. (2002) to the measured backscattered lidar. Depolarization ratio is computed using the methodology developed by Flynn et al. (2007) for polarization-capable MPL systems. The cloud boundaries output from MPLCMASK will be the primary lidar cloud mask for input to the ARSCL product and will be applied to all MPL systems, including historical data sets.

  1. From path integrals to tensor networks for the AdS /CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaji, Masamichi; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss tensor network descriptions of AdS /CFT from two different viewpoints. First, we start with a Euclidean path-integral computation of ground state wave functions with a UV cutoff. We consider its efficient optimization by making its UV cutoff position dependent and define a quantum state at each length scale. We conjecture that this path integral corresponds to a time slice of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Next, we derive a flow of quantum states by rewriting the action of Killing vectors of AdS3 in terms of the dual two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT). Both approaches support a correspondence between the hyperbolic time slice H2 in AdS3 and a version of continuous multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz. We also give a heuristic argument about why we can expect a sub-AdS scale bulk locality for holographic CFTs.

  2. = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    For all types of = 4 anti-de Sitter (AdS) supersymmetry in three dimensions, we construct manifestly supersymmetric actions for Abelian vector multiplets and explain how to extend the construction to the non-Abelian case. Manifestly = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) actions are explicitly given in the cases of (2,2) and critical (4,0) AdS supersymmetries. The = 4 vector multiplets and the corresponding actions are then reduced to (2,0) AdS superspace, in which only = 2 supersymmetry is manifest. Using the off-shell structure of the = 4 vector multiplets, we provide complete = 4 SYM actions in (2,0) AdS superspace for all types of = 4 AdS supersymmetry. In the case of (4,0) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the resulting = 2 action contains a Chern-Simons term proportional to q/r, where r is the radius of AdS 3 and q is the R-charge of a chiral scalar superfield. The R-charge is a linear inhomogeneous function of X, an expectation value of the = 4 Cotton superfield. Thus our results explain the mysterious structure of = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories on S 3 discovered in arXiv:1401.7952. In the case of (3,1) AdS supersymmetry, which has no Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action contains both a Chern-Simons term and a chiral mass-like term. In the case of (2,2) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action has no Chern-Simons and chiral mass-like terms.

  3. Beyond Test Scores: Adding Value to Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At a time when teacher quality has emerged as a key factor in student learning, a statistical technique that determines the "value added" that teachers bring to student achievement is getting new scrutiny. Value-added measures compare students' growth in achievement to their expected growth, based on prior achievement and demographic…

  4. Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of AdS braneworld black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2017-02-01

    The thermodynamics and phase transitions of charged RN-AdS and rotating Kerr-AdS black holes in a generalized Randall-Sundrum braneworld are investigated in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamics, stability and phase structures in the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles for these AdS braneworld black holes are described. The thermodynamic curvatures for both these AdS braneworld black holes are computed and studied as a function of the thermodynamic variables. Through this analysis we illustrate an interesting dependence of the phase structures on the braneworld parameter for these black holes.

  5. Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.

  6. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhari, N. S.; Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2017-03-01

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  7. [Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang

    2011-07-01

    The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.

  8. Akhawayni (?-983 AD): A Persian neuropsychiatrist in the early medieval era (9th-12th Century AD).

    PubMed

    Zargaran, Arman; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Seyyed Rouhollah; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The early medieval era is also called the Islamic Golden Age because of the significant rise in sciences, including medicine. Abū Bakr Rabi' ibn Ahmad Akhawayni Bukhāri (better known as Akhawayni) was one of the notable medical practitioners in his lifetime. His fame was in neuroscience and he became known as Pezeshk-e-Divanegan (Physician to the Insane). His only surviving book, Hidāyat al-Muta'allimin fi al-Tibb (The Students' Handbook of Medicine), is the first medical textbook in Persian, after Islam. Akhawayni gathered and categorized available knowledge on neuropsychiatry and added his own. He was the first to describe sleep paralysis and to suggest pragmatic rather than supernatural treatment. He was also the first to present fever cure and his descriptions of meningitis (Lisarghos in Hidāyat), mania, psychosis (Malikhulia), dementia (Ghotrab), etc., are close to current concepts.

  9. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  10. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  11. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  12. What Is ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javits, actor David Niven, “Sesame Street” creator Jon Stone, boxing champion Ezzard Charles, NBA Hall of Fame ... Help for People with ALS and Caregivers Read stories from families living with ALS Forms of ALS ...

  13. Space-like minimal surfaces in AdS × S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Harald; Drukker, Nadav; Jorjadze, George; Kalousios, Chrysostomos

    2010-04-01

    We present a four parameter family of classical string solutions in AdS 3 × S 3, which end along a light-like tetragon at the boundary of AdS 3 and carry angular momentum along two cycles on the sphere. The string surfaces are space-like and their projections on AdS 3 and on S 3 have constant mean curvature. The construction is based on the Pohlmeyer reduction of the related sigma model. After embedding in AdS 5 × S 5, we calculate the regularized area and analyze conserved charges. Comments on possible relations to scattering amplitudes are presented. We also sketch time-like versions of our solutions.

  14. Quantum corrections to supergravity on AdS2×S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Finn; Lisbão, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    We compute the off-shell spectrum of supergravity on AdS2×S2 by explicit diagonalization of the equations of motion for an effective AdS2 theory where all fields are dualized to scalars and spin-1/2 fermions. We classify all bulk modes as physical, gauge violating, and pure gauge then compute the physical spectrum by explicit cancellation of unphysical modes. We identify boundary modes as physical fields on S2 that are formally pure gauge but with gauge function that is non-normalizable on AdS2. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to AdS2×S2 as a sum over physical fields including boundary states. The result agrees with a previous computation by Sen [1] where unphysical modes were canceled by ghosts.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in a Swarm of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    research in mobile, ad hoc routing protocols. Broch , et al. performed a simulation comparison of the DSDV, DSR, AODV and Temporally-Ordered...July 6, 2005. [Bel58] R. Bellman, “On a Routing Problem,” in Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, 16(1), pp.87-90, 1958. [BJM04] J. Broch , D. B...vol. AD- A404703, 2002. [BMJ98] J. Broch , D. A. Maltz, D. B. Johnson, Y. Hu and J. Jetcheva, “A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc

  16. Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.

  17. Effects of Al additives on growth of GaN polycrystals by the Na flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imabayashi, Hiroki; Murakami, Kosuke; Matsuo, Daisuke; Honjo, Masatomo; Imanishi, Masayuki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the growth of GaN polycrystals using the Al-added Na flux method. We studied the effects of Al on accelerating the nucleation and purity of GaN polycrystals. The yields of GaN crystals grown in Al-added Na flux were dramatically increased from those in Al-free Na flux, and the polycrystals grown by the Al-added Na flux method were highly transparent. As observed in secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, the Al content of the polycrystals was below the detection limit of 3 × 1016 atoms/cm3. From these results, the Al-added Na flux method is found to be appropriate for fabricating a large amount of GaN polycrystals without deteriorating the crystal quality.

  18. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Introduction In the tradition of post-9/11 senior Arab militant figures operating in Khurasan (the Afghanistan-Pakistan region), there is little doubt as to...the standing of Libyan jihadi commander Abu al-Layth al-Libi. If Usama bin Ladin and Ayman al-Zawahiri came to be the most prominent Arab -Afghan...Libi, a longtime leader of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), who rapidly established himself as the champion of the Arab -Afghan milieu after

  19. The Effect of Added AL2O3 on the Propagation Behavior of an Al/CuO Nanoscale Thermite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    optimum stoichiometry was found to be fuel rich (1.4) for all of the metal oxides except cop - per oxide, which optimized at an equivalence ratio close... PCB Piezotronics piezoelectronic pressure transducer with a PCB Piezotronics signal-conditioner (model 482A20). Data were recorded at 10MHz with a

  20. Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, Igor R.

    2008-07-28

    This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

  1. The Recent Data Explosion in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Carolyn S.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E.; Thompson, D.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2007-12-01

    In the past 12 months, we have added over a million records to the ADS Abstract Service. This is the equivalent of a 20% increase, or about double the rate of increase that the ADS has seen in recent years. This significant increase in size is due to the addition of several large datasets including historical data from many Springer astronomy and physics journals as well as bibliographic records from the full run of A&A Abstracts from the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. The number of citations in the Abstract Service has seen an increase of more than 25%, bringing the total number of citations to over 25 million. Our recent agreement to index records from CrossRef will continue the data explosion in the ADS into 2008.

  2. Microbial production of value-added nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Guleria, Sanjay; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Yan, Yajun

    2016-02-01

    Nutraceuticals are important natural bioactive compounds that confer health-promoting and medical benefits to humans. Globally growing demands for value-added nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of human diseases have rendered nutraceuticals a multi-billion dollar market. However, supply limitations and extraction difficulties from natural sources such as plants, animals or fungi, restrict the large-scale use of nutraceuticals. Metabolic engineering via microbial production platforms has been advanced as an eco-friendly alternative approach for production of value-added nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. Microbial platforms like the most widely used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered as versatile cell factories for production of diverse and complex value-added chemicals such as phytochemicals, prebiotics, polysaccaharides and poly amino acids. This review highlights the recent progresses in biological production of value-added nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering approaches.

  3. Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katoh, S.

    1978-01-01

    Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.

  4. Image Ads and Issue Ads in U.S. Presidential Advertising: Using Videostyle To Explore Stylistic Differences in Televised Political Ads From 1952 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Anne; Kaid, Lynda Lee

    2002-01-01

    Explores the differences in techniques, strategies, narratives, and symbols used in 1,213 television issue ads and image ads from 13 U.S. presidential campaigns. Concludes that although the majority of both types of ads were positive, negative appeals dominated a higher percentage of issue ads as compared with image ads. (SG)

  5. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally.

  6. Theoretics-directed effect of copper or aluminum content on the ductility characteristics of Al-based (Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, AlTiCu2) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Qi-Jun; Kong, Ge-Xing; Ma, Hai-Xia; Wang, Wen-Peng; Wang, Yi-Gao; Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Tang

    2016-11-01

    First-principle simulations have been applied to investigate the effect of copper (Cu) or aluminum (Al) content on the ductility of Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, and AlTiCu2 alloys. The mechanical stable and elastic properties of Al-based intermetallic compounds are researched by density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (DFT-GGA). The calculated lattice constants are in conformity with the previous experimental and theoretical data. The deduced elastic constants show that the investigated Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, and AlTiCu2 structures are mechanically stable. Shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the ratio B/G have also been figured out by using reckoned elastic constants. A further analysis of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio reveals that the third added element copper content has significant effects on the Al-Ti-based ICs ductile character. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41674088, 11574254, 11272296, and 11547311), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808201), the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014ZT30 and 2682014ZT31), and the Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing in Northwestern Polytechnical University, China (Grant No. SKLSP201511).

  7. Supersymmetric wrapped membranes, AdS2 spaces, and bubbling geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.

    2007-03-01

    We perform a systematic study, in eleven dimensional supergravity, of the geometry of wrapped brane configurations admitting AdS2 limits. Membranes wrapping holomorphic curves in Calabi-Yau manifolds are found to exhibit some novel features; in particular, for fourfolds or threefolds, the gravitational effect of the branes on the overall transverse space is only weakly restricted by the kinematics of the Killing spinor equation. We also study the AdS2 limits of the wrapped brane supergravity descriptions. For membranes wrapped in a two-fold, we derive a set of AdS2 supersymmetry conditions which upon analytic continuation coincide precisely with those for the half-BPS bubbling geometries of LLM. From membranes wrapped in a three-fold, we obtain a set of AdS2 supersymmetry conditions which upon analytic continuation describe a class of spacetimes which we identify as quarter-BPS bubbling geometries in M-theory, with SO(4) × SO(3) × U(1) isometry in Riemannian signature. We also study fivebranes wrapping a special lagrangian five-cycle in a fivefold, in the presence of membranes wrapping holomorphic curves, and employ the wrapped brane supersymmetry conditions to derive a classification of the general minimally supersymmetric AdS2 geometry in M-theory.

  8. AdS and Lifshitz scalar hairy black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Fan, Zhong-Ying; Zhu, Lu-Yao

    2016-09-01

    We consider Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity in general dimensions, which is nonminimally coupled to a scalar field. By choosing a scalar potential of the type V (ϕ )=2 Λ0+1/2 m2ϕ2+γ4ϕ4 , we first obtain large classes of scalar hairy black holes with spherical/hyperbolic/planar topologies that are asymptotic to locally anti- de Sitter (AdS) space-times. We derive the first law of black hole thermodynamics using Wald formalism. In particular, for one class of the solutions, the scalar hair forms a thermodynamic conjugate with the graviton and nontrivially contributes to the thermodynamical first law. We observe that except for one class of the planar black holes, all these solutions are constructed at the critical point of GB gravity where there exist unique AdS vacua. In fact, a Lifshitz vacuum is also allowed at the critical point. We then construct many new classes of neutral and charged Lifshitz black hole solutions for an either minimally or nonminimally coupled scalar and derive the thermodynamical first laws. We also obtain new classes of exact dynamical AdS and Lifshitz solutions which describe radiating white holes. The solutions eventually become AdS or Lifshitz vacua at late retarded times. However, for one class of the solutions, the final state is an AdS space-time with a globally naked singularity.

  9. Implementation of Recursion Relations in Gluon Scattering Amplitude Calculations in AdS4 /CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokmetzoglou, Nikolaos; Kharel, Savan

    2017-01-01

    The Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence is a duality between a theory of gravity in curved-space (AdS) and a conformally-invariant quantum field theory in flat-space (CFT). Scattering amplitudes are observables associated with the probability of the interaction of a given assembly of particles. Gluons, being the exchange particles associated with the strong nuclear force, which holds quarks together to form protons, are abundant byproducts of fundamental particle collisions. Thus, studying gluon scattering amplitudes is an effective way of deepening our understanding of these observables in AdS/CFT. Traditionally, Feynman diagrams have been used to calculate such scattering amplitudes. In this project, we use factorization properties and recursion relations to simplify these calculations. More specifically, we calculate multiple (different helicity combinations) four-point gluon scattering amplitudes in AdS4 /CFT3 (4-D AdS and 3-D CFT) as sums of products of three-point amplitudes. And then we calculate a five-point gluon scattering amplitude in AdS4 /CFT3 by decomposing it into a sum of products of these four-point and three-point amplitudes. Finally we comment on useful identities for checking these amplitudes. This work was supported by a Weinstein Davidson College Research Initiative Summer Research grant.

  10. Sporadic and hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Siddique, Teepu

    2015-04-01

    Genetic discoveries in ALS have a significant impact on deciphering molecular mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration. The identification of SOD1 as the first genetic cause of ALS led to the engineering of the SOD1 mouse, the backbone of ALS research, and set the stage for future genetic breakthroughs. In addition, careful analysis of ALS pathology added valuable pieces to the ALS puzzle. From this joint effort, major pathogenic pathways emerged. Whereas the study of TDP43, FUS and C9ORF72 pointed to the possible involvement of RNA biology in motor neuron survival, recent work on P62 and UBQLN2 refocused research on protein degradation pathways. Despite all these efforts, the etiology of most cases of sporadic ALS remains elusive. Newly acquired genomic tools now allow the identification of genetic and epigenetic factors that can either increase ALS risk or modulate disease phenotype. These developments will certainly allow for better disease modeling to identify novel therapeutic targets for ALS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis.

  11. Brick walls and AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.

  12. Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.

  13. Black hole microstates in AdS4 from supersymmetric localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benini, Francesco; Hristov, Kiril; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses a long standing problem, the counting of the microstates of supersymmetric asymptotically AdS black holes in terms of a holographically dual field theory. We focus on a class of asymptotically AdS4 static black holes preserving two real supercharges which are dual to a topologically twisted deformation of the ABJM theory. We evaluate in the large N limit the topologically twisted index of the ABJM theory and we show that it correctly reproduces the entropy of the AdS4 black holes. An extremization of the index with respect to a set of chemical potentials is required. We interpret it as the selection of the exact R-symmetry of the superconformal quantum mechanics describing the horizon of the black hole.

  14. A note on vectorial AdS5/CFT4 duality for spin- j boundary theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Joung, Euihun; Lal, Shailesh

    2016-12-01

    The vectorial holographic correspondences between higher-spin theories in AdS5 and free vector models on the boundary are extended to the cases where the latter is described by free massless spin- j field. The dual higher-spin theory in the bulk does not include gravity and can only be defined on rigid AdS5 background with S 4 boundary. We discuss various properties of these rather special higher-spin theories and calculate their one-loop free energies. We show that the result is proportional to the same quantity for spin- j doubleton treated as if it is a AdS5 field. Finally, we consider even more special case where the boundary theory itself is given by an infinite tower of massless higher-spin fields.

  15. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  16. Stability of warped AdS3 vacua of topologically massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Esole, Mboyo; Guica, Monica

    2009-10-01

    AdS3 vacua of topologically massive gravity (TMG) have been shown to be perturbatively unstable for all values of the coupling constant except the chiral point μl = 1. We study the possibility that the warped vacua of TMG, which exist for all values of μ, are stable under linearized perturbations. In this paper, we show that spacelike warped AdS3 vacua with Compère-Detournay boundary conditions are indeed stable in the range μl>3. This is precisely the range in which black hole solutions arise as discrete identifications of the warped AdS3 vacuum. The situation somewhat resembles chiral gravity: although negative energy modes do exist, they are all excluded by the boundary conditions, and the perturbative spectrum solely consists of boundary (pure large gauge) gravitons.

  17. The generalization of charged AdS black hole specific volume and number density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Liang; He, Miao; Fang, Chao; Sun, Dao-Quan; Deng, Jian-Bo

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, by proposing a generalized specific volume, we restudy the P- V criticality of charged AdS black holes in the extended phase space. The results show that most of the previous conclusions can be generalized without change, but the ratio {\\tilde{ρ }}_c should be 3 {\\tilde{α }}/16 in general case. Further research on the thermodynamical phase transition of black hole leads us to a natural interpretation of our assumption, and more black hole properties can be generalized. Finally, we study the number density for charged AdS black hole in higher dimensions, the results show the necessity of our assumption.

  18. Warped AdS3 , dS3 , and flows from N =(0 ,2 ) SCFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Colgáin, Eoin

    2015-05-01

    We present the general form of all timelike supersymmetric solutions to three-dimensional U (1 )3 gauged supergravity, a known consistent truncation of string theory. We uncover a rich vacuum structure, including an infinite class of new timelike-warped AdS3 (Gödel) and timelike-warped dS3 critical points. We outline the construction of supersymmetric flows, driven by irrelevant scalar operators in the SCFT, which interpolate between critical points. For flows from AdS3 to Gödel, the natural candidate for the central charge decreases along the flow. Flows to timelike-warped dS3 exhibit topology change.

  19. The Status of AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Matthew

    2011-05-23

    In this talk I give a brief assessment of the 'AdS/QCD correspondence', its successes, and its failures. I begin with a review of the AdS/CFT correspondence, with an emphasis on why the large N, large 't Hooft coupling limit is necessary for a calculable theory. I then briefly discuss attempts to extrapolate this correspondence to QCD-like theories, stressing why the failure of the large 't Hooft coupling limit is more important than the breakdown of the large N expansion. I sketch how event shapes can manifest stringy physics, and close with some brief remarks on the prospects for future improvements.

  20. Advanced Optical A/D Converter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    before the receiver and separately by reducing the gain in the EDFA . It is important to note that the optical power level was varied while all the...could not exceed roughly 50% of the maximum power available at full gain from the EDFA . 4.2 Baseband-Mode Testing The single-channel system was also...AD-A275 663 Advanced Optical A/D Convert M.C. Hamilton, J.A. Bell, D.A. Leep, J.P. Lin The Boeing Company Boeing Defense and Space Group P.O. Box

  1. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  2. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1930s. People in England and Australia call ALS motor neurone disease (MND). The French refer to it ... about ALS in 1869. Lou Gehrig's disease damages motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Motor ...

  3. The AD Nurse: Prepared to be Prepared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Lynne; Junker, Mary H.

    1977-01-01

    It is not enough for the new associate degree (AD) nursing graduate to know the theory and be willing to learn. She must also have some skill in providing basic nursing care. Examples of applicants, both ADNs and BSNs, are described to illustrate the nursing talent necessary to practice sensitively and effectively. (Editor/TA)

  4. Value-Added Analysis in Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Michael R.; Brown, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added data provide a viable alternative for gauging school effectiveness--one virtually free of the confounding effects of student demographics and other factors relating to student learning. How is it different from other measuring methods? It concentrates on growth, rather than attainment. This strengthens the concept and measurement of…

  5. Adding calcium improves lithium ferrite core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessoff, H.

    1969-01-01

    Adding calcium increases uniformity of grain growth over a wide range of sintering temperatures and reduces porosity within the grain. Ferrite cores containing calcium have square hysteresis loops and high curie temperatures, making them useful in coincident current memories of digital electronic computers.

  6. Higher Education Value Added Using Multiple Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milla, Joniada; Martín, Ernesto San; Van Bellegem, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    In this article we develop a methodology for the joint value added analysis of multiple outcomes that takes into account the inherent correlation between them. This is especially crucial in the analysis of higher education institutions. We use a unique Colombian database on universities, which contains scores in five domains tested in a…

  7. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  8. Drag force in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2006-12-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence and a classical test string approximation are used to calculate the drag force on an external quark moving in a thermal plasma of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This computation is motivated by the phenomenon of jet-quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  9. Value Added School Review Field Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes…

  10. "Value Added" Proves Beneficial to Teacher Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The use of "value added" information appears poised to expand into the nation's teacher colleges, with more than a dozen states planning to use the technique to analyze how graduates of training programs fare in classrooms. Supporters say the data could help determine which teacher education pathways produce teachers who are at least as…

  11. Imago Mundi, Imago AD, Imago ADNI

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch in 2003 of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) in the USA, ever growing, similarly oriented consortia have been organized and assembled around the world. The various accomplishments of ADNI have contributed substantially to a better understanding of the underlying physiopathology of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These accomplishments are basically predicated in the trinity of multimodality, standardization and sharing. This multimodality approach can now better identify those subjects with AD-specific traits that are more likely to present cognitive decline in the near future and that might represent the best candidates for smaller but more efficient therapeutic trials – trials that, through gained and shared knowledge, can be more focused on a specific target or a specific stage of the disease process. In summary, data generated from ADNI have helped elucidate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning aging and AD pathology, while contributing to the international effort in setting the groundwork for biomarker discovery and establishing standards for early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25478022

  12. Making Schools Ad-Free Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpatkin, Rhoda H.; Holmes, Anita

    1995-01-01

    Advertisers spend billions to market so-called educational products, services, and viewpoints to vulnerable young consumers. Budget constraints are forcing educators to accept ads and promotional materials. Several education and consumer-interest groups are developing guidelines for using commercial materials in schools. Consumers Union developed…

  13. Cutting Budget Corners While Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veile, Craig N.; Carpenter, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how one school district saved money while adding long- term value to its capital improvement project. Planning issues involving square footage requirements, quality of material to be used, and heating and cooling system selection are discussed as are concepts to increase student learning capacity for the same construction dollars. (GR)

  14. Test Scaling and Value-Added Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Conventional value-added assessment requires that achievement be reported on an interval scale. While many metrics do not have this property, application of item response theory (IRT) is said to produce interval scales. However, it is difficult to confirm that the requisite conditions are met. Even when they are, the properties of the data that…

  15. Distribution of Information in Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Ad-hoc networks are distributed, self-organized networks which do not need a fixed infrastructure. Entities in...73 V . CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK ............................75 A. OVERVIEW ..........................................75 B. CONCLUSIONS...statistical analysis on the results. Finally, Chapter V concludes the research and provides suggestions for further research. 7 II. BACKGROUND A

  16. "Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the…

  17. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  18. Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

  19. Hairy black holes and the endpoint of AdS4 charged superradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Masachs, Ramon

    2017-02-01

    We construct hairy black hole solutions that merge with the anti-de Sitter (AdS4) Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of superradiance. These hairy black holes have, for a given mass and charge, higher entropy than the corresponding AdS4-Reissner-Nordström black hole. Therefore, they are natural candidates for the endpoint of the charged superradiant instability. On the other hand, hairy black holes never dominate the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. The zero-horizon radius of the hairy black holes is a soliton (i.e. a boson star under a gauge transformation). We construct our solutions perturbatively, for small mass and charge, so that the properties of hairy black holes can be used to testify and compare with the endpoint of initial value simulations. We further discuss the near-horizon scalar condensation instability which is also present in global AdS4-Reissner-Nordström black holes. We highlight the different nature of the near-horizon and superradiant instabilities and that hairy black holes ultimately exist because of the non-linear instability of AdS.

  20. Measuring the Value Added of Management: A Knowledge Value Added Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    Value Added Approach Presenter: Dr. Thomas J. Housel specializes in valuing intellectual capital , telecommunications, information technology, value...Value-Added methodology for objectively measuring the return generated by corporate knowledge assets/ intellectual capital . He received his PhD...measuring the value of intellectual capital has been featured in a Fortune cover story (October 3, 1994) and Investor’s Business Daily, numerous books

  1. Holographic Hydrodynamics with Baryon Chemical Potential for Charged AdS Black Hole

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2009-12-15

    We work out the decoupling problem and hydrodynamic analysis for the sound mode in charged AdS black hole and calculate the sound velocity, the charge susceptibility and the electrical conductivity. We find that Einstein relation among the conductivity, the diffusion constant and the susceptibility holds exactly.

  2. Thermodynamics and Stability of Five Dimensional AdS Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider five dimensional AdS Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and calculate thermodynamical variables such as entropy, specific heat and free energy. In that case we can obtain stability conditions of the black hole and fix black hole charge and mass for phase transition.

  3. Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…

  4. Master symmetry in the AdS 5 × S 5 pure spinor string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandía, Osvaldo; Linch, William Divine; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini

    2017-01-01

    We lift the set of classical non-local symmetries recently studied by Klose, Loebbert, and Münkler in the context of ℤ 2 cosets to the pure spinor description of the superstring in the AdS 5 × S 5 background.

  5. Integrable deformation of the AdS5×S5 superstring action.

    PubMed

    Delduc, F; Magro, M; Vicedo, B

    2014-02-07

    An integrable deformation of the type IIB AdS5×S5 superstring action is presented. The deformed field equations, Lax connection, and κ-symmetry transformations are given. The original psu(2,2|4) symmetry is expected to become q deformed.

  6. D-branes from pure spinor superstring in AdS5 × S5 background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanazawa, Sota; Sakaguchi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    We examine the surface term for the BRST transformation of the open pure spinor superstring in an AdS5 ×S5 background. We find that the boundary condition to eliminate the surface term leads to a classification of possible configurations of 1/2 supersymmetric D-branes.

  7. Geometry and supersymmetry of heterotic warped flux AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-07-01

    We classify the geometries of the most general warped, flux AdS backgrounds of heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We show under some mild assumptions that there are no AdS n backgrounds with n ≠ 3. Moreover the warp factor of AdS3 backgrounds is constant, the geometry is a product AdS 3 × M 7 and such solutions preserve, 2, 4, 6 and 8 supersymmetries. The geometry of M 7 has been specified in all cases. For 2 supersymmetries, it has been found that M 7 admits a suitably restricted G 2 structure. For 4 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(3) structure and can be described locally as a circle fibration over a 6-dimensional KT manifold. For 6 and 8 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(2) structure and can be described locally as a S 3 fibration over a 4-dimensional manifold which either has an anti-self dual Weyl tensor or a hyper-Kähler structure, respectively. We also demonstrate a new Lichnerowicz type theorem in the presence of α' corrections.

  8. Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, En-Hua

    In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile

  9. Black hole formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Nils; Kolly, Allison; Frey, Andrew R.; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2016-10-01

    AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In [1], the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.

  10. AdS/CFT connection between Boltzmann and Einstein equations: Kinetic theory and pure gravity in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2010-04-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence defines a sector with universal strongly coupled dynamics in the field theory as the dual of pure gravity in AdS described by Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant. We explain here, from the field-theoretic viewpoint how the dynamics in this sector gets determined by the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We first show that the Boltzmann equation has very special solutions which could be functionally completely determined in terms of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We call these solutions conservative solutions. We indicate why conservative solutions should also exist when we refine this kinetic description to go closer to the exact microscopic theory or even move away from the regime of weak coupling so that no kinetic description could be employed. We argue that these conservative solutions form the universal sector dual to pure gravity at strong coupling and large N. Based on this observation, we propose a regularity condition on the energy-momentum tensor so that the dual solution in pure gravity has a smooth future horizon. We also study if irreversibility emerges only at long time scales of observation, unlike the case of the Boltzmann equation.

  11. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774-775

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in AD 774-775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765-796, were collected and their 14C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ14C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  12. Mysterious zero in AdS5×S5 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak

    2002-11-01

    It is shown that all the states in AdS5×S5 supergravity have zero eigenvalue for all Casimir eigenvalues of its symmetry group SU(2,2|4). To compute this zero in supergravity we refine the oscillator methods for studying the lowest weight unitary representations of SU(N,M|R+S). We solve the reduction problem when one multiplies an arbitrary number of super-doubletons. This enters in the computation of the Casimir eigenvalues of the lowest weight representations. We apply the results to SU(2,2|4) that classifies the Kaluza-Klein towers of ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity compactified on AdS5×S5. We show that the vanishing of the SU(2,2|4) Casimir eigenvalues for all the states is indeed a group-theoretical fact in AdS5×S5 supergravity. By the AdS-CFT correspondence, it is also a fact for gauge invariant states of super-Yang-Mills theory with four supersymmetries in four dimensions. This nontrivial and mysterious zero is very interesting because it is predicted as a straightforward consequence of the fundamental local Sp(2) symmetry in 2T-physics. Via the 2T-physics explanation of this zero we find a global indication that these special supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theories hide a twelve-dimensional structure with (10,2) signature.

  13. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah A.; Berket, Karlo

    2003-07-14

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  14. AdS/dS CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chong-Sun; Giataganas, Dimitrios

    2016-11-01

    We propose and study a holographic dual of the type-IIB superstring theory of AdS5×S5 in terms of the N =4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory on dS4 . We develop the bulk to boundary formalism for the computation of the correlation functions to a wide class of theories. We apply it to compute the two-point correlators in the particular duality under study and we find that they agree with the expected results in d S conformal field theory. The gauge theory is expected to be UV finite and enjoy exact S L (2 ,Z ) strong-weak duality. As the string theory Green-Schwarz sigma model carries an infinite number of classically conserved charges, it also suggests that the superconformal Yang-Mills theory is integrable and deserves further studies.

  15. Adding coal dust to coal batch

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin

    2009-05-15

    The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

  16. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  17. The new lingo of added value.

    PubMed

    Appleby, C

    1997-02-05

    In the vast kit of tools used by corporate America to measure success, one has vaulted from the desks of CFOs to the cover of Fortune. Economic value added, better known as EVA, has become the tool of choice to assess shareholder value in publicly owned companies. Despite its Wall Street roots, advocates say EVA can also be applied to the traditionally not-for-profit health care industry, especially in an age of brutal competition for scarce capital.

  18. Merged Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2010-03-03

    The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.

  19. ADS: The Next Generation Search Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Chyla, R.; Luker, J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Holachek, A.; Dave, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Four years after the last LISA meeting, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) finds itself in the middle of major changes to the infrastructure and contents of its database. In this paper we highlight a number of features of great importance to librarians and discuss the additional functionality that we are currently developing. Our citation coverage has doubled since 2010 and now consists of over 10 million citations. We are normalizing the affiliation information in our records and we have started collecting and linking funding sources with papers in our system. At the same time, we are undergoing major technology changes in the ADS platform. We have rolled out and are now enhancing a new high-performance search engine capable of performing full-text as well as metadata searches using an intuitive query language. We are currently able to index acknowledgments, affiliations, citations, and funding sources. While this effort is still ongoing, some of its benefits are already available through the ADS Labs user interface and API at http://adslabs.org/adsabs/.

  20. Searching for events in Chinese ancient records to explain the increase in 14C from AD 774-775 and AD 993-994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Ya-Ting; Zou, Yuan-Chuan

    2015-09-01

    According to analysis of the 14C content in two Japanese trees, that grew over a period of approximately 3000 years, with high time resolution, Miyake et al. found a rapid increase at AD 774-775 and another one at AD 993-994. These increases correspond to high-energy events that happened within those years and radiated γ-ray energy of about 7×1024 erg toward the Earth. The origin of these events is a mystery. Such strong events should have an unusual optical counterpart, and have been recorded in historical literatures. We searched Chinese historical materials around AD 744-775 and AD 993-994, but no remarkable event was found except for a violent thunderstorm in AD 775. However, the possibility of a thunderstorm containing so much energy is unlikely. We conclude that the events, which caused the 14C increase, are still unclear. These events most probably had no optical counterpart, and a short gamma-ray burst, giant flare of a soft gamma-ray repeater or a terrestrial γ-ray flash could all be candidates.

  1. Measured Activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni) and gamma'-(Ni)3Al in the Ni-Al-Pt System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Adding Pt to Ni-Al coatings is critical to achieving the required oxidation protection of Ni-based superalloys, but the nature of the Pt effect remains unresolved. This research provides a fundamental part of the answer by measuring the influence of Pt on the activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni), gamma prime-(Ni)3Al and liquid in the Ni-Al-Pt system. Measurements have been made at 25 compositions in the Ni-rich corner over the temperature range, T = 1400-1750 K, by the vapor pressure technique with a multiple effusion-cell mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). These measurements clearly show adding Pt (for X(sub Pt) less than 0.25) decreases a(Al) while increasing a(Ni). This solution behavior supports the idea that Pt increases Al transport to an alloy / Al2O3 interface and also limits the interaction between the coating and substrate alloys in the gamma-(Ni) + gamma prime-(Ni)3Al region. This presentation will review the progress of this study.

  2. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi's 3-Step Magnitude System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. Richard; Orchiston, Wayne

    'Abd al-Rahmān al-ūfī's Book of the Fixed Stars dates from around AD 964 and is one of the most important medieval Arabic treatises on astronomy. In this paper we begin with a very brief introduction to the Book of the Fixed Stars. This book contains an extensive star catalogue that lists star coordinates and magnitude estimates for all of the Ptolemaic stars. However, in his book al-hūfī utilized three distinct intermediate magnitude values whereas Ptolemy only mentioned two. We believe that al-hūfī used what we have termed a '3-step intermediate magnitude system,' which is more accurate than Ptolemy's 2-step intermediate system. In this paper we examine in detail the accuracy of this unique 3-step system in comparison with Ptolemy's and modern magnitude values.

  3. Static strings in global AdS space and quark-antiquark potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bayona, C. A. Ballon; Ferreira, Cristine N.

    2008-07-15

    We investigate the finite temperature quark antiquark problem in a compact space S{sup n-1}xS{sup 1} by considering static strings in global AdS{sub n+1} space with n{>=}3. For high temperatures we work in the black hole metric where two possible solutions show up : the big black hole and the small black hole. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we calculate the quark antiquark potential (free energy) as a function of the distance. We show that this potential can be intrepeted as confining for the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and deconfining for the big black hole. We find for the small black hole a confining limit for the potential but this solution is instable following the Hawking-Page criteria. Our results for the free energy reinforce the Witten interpretation of the confinement/deconfinement transition as the dual of the well-known Hawking-Page transition.

  4. Vector condensate and AdS soliton instability induced by a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li; Li, Li-Fang; Wu, You

    2014-01-01

    We continue to study the holographic p-wave superconductor model in the Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a non-minimal coupling between the complex vector field and the Maxwell field. In this paper we work in the AdS soliton background which describes a conformal field theory in the confined phase and focus on the probe approximation. We find that an applied magnetic field can lead to the condensate of the vector field and the AdS soliton instability. As a result, a vortex lattice structure forms in the spatial directions perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. As a comparison, we also discuss the vector condensate in the Einstein-SU(2) Yang-Mills theory and find that in the setup of the present paper, the Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field model is a generalization of the SU(2) model in the sense that the vector field has a general mass and gyromagnetic ratio.

  5. Partition functions with spin in AdS2 via quasinormal mode methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Cynthia; Lisbão, Pedro; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-10-01

    We extend the results of [1], computing one loop partition functions for massive fields with spin half in AdS2 using the quasinormal mode method proposed by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev [2]. We find the finite representations of SO(2, 1) for spin zero and spin half, consisting of a highest weight state | h> and descendants with non-unitary values of h. These finite representations capture the poles and zeroes of the one loop determinants. Together with the asymptotic behavior of the partition functions (which can be easily computed using a large mass heat kernel expansion), these are sufficient to determine the full answer for the one loop determinants. We also discuss extensions to higher dimensional AdS2 n and higher spins.

  6. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  7. Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Denef, Frederik; Dzienkowski, Eric

    2016-01-11

    Here, we present a new class of N = 4 supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can be obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.

  8. Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; ...

    2016-01-25

    Here, we develop a new method for decomposing blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we also consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existingmore » results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.« less

  9. Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS

    DOE PAGES

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Denef, Frederik; Dzienkowski, Eric

    2016-01-11

    Here, we present a new class of N = 4 supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can bemore » obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.« less

  10. Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2016-01-25

    Here, we develop a new method for decomposing blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we also consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existing results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.

  11. Supersymmetric AdS5 solutions of type IIB supergravity without D3 branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzens, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the most general bosonic supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity whose metrics are warped products of five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS5) with a five-dimensional Riemannian manifold M 5, where the five-form flux vanishes, while all remaining fluxes are allowed to be non-vanishing consistent with SO(4,2) symmetry. This completes the program of classifying all supersymmetric solutions of ten and eleven-dimensional supergravity with an AdS5 factor. We investigate the supersymmetry conditions in some special cases, and demonstrate how these are satisfied by a solution originally found in [13], utilising the method of non-Abelian T-duality.

  12. AdS black disk model for small-x DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João

    2011-05-01

    Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple AdS black disk model to describe saturation in DIS. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, FT˜FL˜x-ω, where ω is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio FL/FT is given by the universal value 1+ω/3+ω, independently of the target.

  13. Minisuperspace quantization of bubbling AdS2×S2 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinglin

    2017-01-01

    We quantize the moduli space of supersymmetric microstates describing four-dimensional black holes with AdS2×S2 asymptotics. To acquire the commutation relations of quantization, we find the symplectic form that is imposed in the Type IIB supergravity and defined in the space of solutions parametrized by one complex harmonic function in R3 with sources distributed along closed curves.

  14. A comparative note on tunneling in AdS and in its boundary matrix dual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, B.; Mukherji, Sudipta; Sahay, Anurag; Sarkar, Swarnendu

    2012-05-01

    For charged black hole, within the grand canonical ensemble, the decay rate from thermal AdS to the black hole at a fixed high temperature increases with the chemical potential. We check that this feature is well captured by a phenomenological matrix model expected to describe its strongly coupled dual. This comparison is made by explicitly constructing the kink and bounce solutions around the de-confinement transition and evaluating the matrix model effective potential on the solutions.

  15. Closed Timelike Curves in (2+1)-AdS Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtancoli, P.

    We build the (2+1)-AdS gravity generalization of the Gott time machine using a first-order formalism for solving the scattering of point sources. The two-body dynamics is solved by two invariant masses, whose difference is simply related to the total angular momentum of the system. We show how to build a time machine when at least one of the two invariant masses is no more real but acquires an imaginary part.

  16. Time-dependent AdS backgrounds from S-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deger, Nihat Sadik

    2016-11-01

    We construct time and radial dependent solutions that describe p-branes in chargeless S-brane backgrounds. In particular, there are some new M5- and D3-branes among our solutions which have AdS limits and contain a cosmological singularity as well. We also find a time-dependent version of the dyonic membrane configuration in 11-dimensions by applying a Lunin-Maldacena deformation to our new M5-brane solution.

  17. Yangian of AdS3 / CFT2 and its deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regelskis, Vidas

    2016-08-01

    We construct highest-weight modules and a Yangian extension of the centrally extended sl(1 | 1) 2 superalgebra, that is a symmetry of the worldsheet scattering associated with the AdS3 / CFT2 duality. We demonstrate that the R-matrix intertwining atypical modules has an elegant trigonometric parametrization. We also consider a quantum deformation of this superalgebra, its modules, and obtain a quantum affine extension of the Drinfeld-Jimbo type that describes a deformed worldsheet scattering.

  18. A method to find N = 1 AdS4 vacua in type IIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solard, Gautier

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we are looking for N = 1, AdS4 sourceless vacua in type IIB. While several examples exist in type IIA, there exists only one example of such vacua in type IIB. Thanks to the framework of generalized geometry we were able to devise a semi-algorithmical method to look for sourceless vacua. We present this method, which can easily be generalized to more complex cases, and give two new vacua in type IIB.

  19. Mellin Amplitudes for Supergravity on AdS5×S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastelli, Leonardo; Zhou, Xinan

    2017-03-01

    We revisit the calculation of holographic correlation functions in type-IIB supergravity on AdS5×S5 . Results for four-point functions simplify drastically when expressed in Mellin space. We conjecture a compact formula for the four-point functions of one-half Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield single-trace operators of arbitrary weight. Our methods rely on general consistency conditions and eschew detailed knowledge of the supergravity effective action.

  20. Near horizon soft hairs as microstates of generic AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Yavartanoo, H.

    2017-02-01

    In [1] the horizon fluffs proposal is put forward to identify microstates of generic nonextremal three-dimensional Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. The proposal is that black hole microstates, the horizon fluffs, are certain near horizon soft hairs which are not in the coadjoint orbits of the asymptotic Virasoro algebra associated with the BTZ black holes. It is also known that AdS3 Einstein gravity has more general black hole solutions than the BTZ family which are generically described by two periodic, but otherwise arbitrary, holomorphic and antiholomorphic functions. We show that these general AdS3 black holes which are typically conformal descendants of the BTZ black holes and are characterized by the associated Virasoro coadjoint orbits, appear as coherent states in the asymptotic symmetry algebra corresponding to the black hole family. We apply the horizon fluffs proposal to these generic AdS3 black holes and identify the corresponding microstates. We then perform microstate counting and compute the entropy. The entropy appears to be an orbit invariant quantity, providing an important check for the horizon fluffs proposal.

  1. ``Short'' spinning strings and structure of quantum AdS5×S5 spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, M.; Giombi, S.; Macorini, G.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2012-09-01

    Using information from the marginality conditions of vertex operators for the AdS5×S5 superstring, we determine the structure of the dependence of the energy of quantum string states on their conserved charges and the string tension ˜λ. We consider states on the leading Regge trajectory in the flat space limit which carry one or two (equal) spins in AdS5 or S5 and an orbital momentum in S5, with Konishi multiplet states being particular cases. We argue that the coefficients in the energy may be found by using a semiclassical expansion. By analyzing the examples of folded spinning strings in AdS5 and S5, as well as three cases of circular two-spin strings, we demonstrate the universality of transcendental (zeta-function) parts of few leading coefficients. We also show the consistency with target space supersymmetry with different states belonging to the same multiplet having the same nontrivial part of the energy. We suggest, in particular, that a rational coefficient (found by Basso for the folded string using Bethe Ansatz considerations and which, in general, is yet to be determined by a direct two-loop string calculation) should, in fact, be universal.

  2. On elliptic string solutions in AdS3 and dS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios

    2016-07-01

    Classical string actions in AdS3 and dS3 can be connected to the sinh-Gordon and cosh-Gordon equations through Pohlmeyer reduction. We show that the problem of constructing a classical string solution with a given static or translationally invariant Pohlmeyer counterpart is equivalent to solving four pairs of effective Schrödinger problems. Each pair consists of a flat potential and an n = 1 Lamé potential whose eigenvalues are connected, and, additionally, the four solutions satisfy a set of constraints. An approach for solving this system is developed by employing an interesting connection between the specific class of classical string solutions and the band structure of the Lamé potential. This method is used for the construction of several families of classical string solutions, one of which turns out to be the spiky strings in AdS3. New solutions include circular rotating strings in AdS3 with singular time evolution of their radius and angular velocity as well as classical string solutions in dS3.

  3. Holographic estimation of multiplicity and the collision of membranes in modified AdS5 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Pozdeeva, E. O.; Pozdeeva, T. O.

    2013-07-01

    The quark-gluon plasma formed as a result of heavy-ion collisions is currently investigated actively both theoretically and experimentally. According to the holographic approach, forming a quark-gluon plasma in the four-dimensional world is associated with creating black holes in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The multiplicity of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions is then determined by the entropy of the five-dimensional black hole, which is estimated by the area of the trapped surface. In this approach, we can model the dependence of the entropy on the energy of the colliding ions and thus the dependence of the multiplicity on the energy, and we can also compare the theoretical results with experimental data. To obtain a variety of model dependences on the energy, we consider the formation of black holes in modified AdS spaces, namely, in AdS spaces with different b factors. We find dynamics of the change of the trapped surface area depending on the energy for each investigated space.

  4. Korean nova records in A.D. 1073 and A.D. 1074: R Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu; Cho, Se-Hyung; Park, Changbom

    2005-05-01

    R Aqr is known to be a symbiotic binary system with an associated extended emission nebula, possibly produced by a historic outburst. To find the associated historic records, we searched for and compiled all Guest Star and Peculiar Star records in three Korean official history books that cover almost two thousand years, Samguksagi, Goryeosa, Joseonwangjosillok. In addition to the record of A.D. 1073, previously noted by Li (1985, Chin. Astron. Astrophys., 9, 322), we have found in Goryeosa another candidate record of A.D. 1074, which has the same positional description as that of A.D. 1073 with an additional brightness description. We examined various aspects of the two records and conclude that they both are likely to be the records of outburst of R Aqr. This means that there were two successive outbursts in A.D. 1073 and in A.D. 1074, separated by approximately one year. Based on these records, we estimate the distance to R Aqr to be 273 pc if the expansion of the nebula has been at a constant rate. The brightness record of A.D. 1074 corresponds to the absolute magnitude at outburst of Moutburst = -6.2m -5.2m at this distance. The two Korean records associated with R Aqr may provide astronomically meaningful constraints to the outburst model of R Aqr and the formative process of its nebulosity.

  5. AdS black holes, the bulk-boundary dictionary, and smearing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichenauer, Stefan; Rosenhaus, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    In Lorentzian AdS/CFT there exists a mapping between local bulk operators and nonlocal conformal field theory (CFT) operators. In global anti-de Sitter (AdS) this mapping can be found through use of bulk equations of motion and allows the nonlocal CFT operator to be expressed as a local operator smeared over a range of positions and times. We argue that such a construction is not possible if there are bulk normal modes with exponentially small near boundary imprint. We show that the AdS-Schwarzschild background is such a case, with the horizon introducing modes with angular momentum much larger than frequency, causing them to be trapped by the centrifugal barrier. More generally, we argue that any barrier in the radial effective potential which prevents null geodesics from reaching the boundary will lead to modes with vanishingly small near boundary imprint, thereby obstructing the existence of a smearing function. While one may have thought the bulk-boundary dictionary for low curvature regions, such as the exterior of a black hole, should be as in empty AdS, our results demonstrate otherwise.

  6. Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan

    2007-07-24

    We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.

  7. Stringy correlations on deformed AdS3 × S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, following the basic prescriptions of Gauge/String duality, we perform a strong coupling computation on classical two point correlation between local (single trace) operators in a gauge theory dual to κ-deformed AdS3 × S 3 background. Our construction is based on the prescription that relates every local operator in a gauge theory to that with the (semi)classical string states propagating within the physical region surrounded by the holographic screen in deformed AdS3. In our analysis, we treat strings as being that of a point like object located near the physical boundary of the κ-deformed Euclidean Poincare AdS3 and as an extended object with non trivial dynamics associated to S 3. It turns out that in the presence of small background deformations, the usual power law behavior associated with two point functions is suppressed exponentially by a non trivial factor which indicates a faster decay of two point correlations with larger separations. On the other hand, in the limit of large background deformations ( κ ≫ 1), the corresponding two point function reaches a point of saturation. In our analysis, we also compute finite size corrections associated with these two point functions at strong coupling. As a consistency check of our analysis, we find perfect agreement between our results to that with the earlier observations made in the context of vanishing deformation.

  8. Supersymmetry of IIA warped flux AdS and flat backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-09-01

    We identify the fractions of supersymmetry preserved by the most general warped flux AdS and flat backgrounds in both massive and standard IIA supergravities. We find that AdS n × w M 10 - n preserve {2}^{[n/2]}k for n ≤ 4 and {2}^{[n/2]+1}k for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries, k ∈ ℕ >0. In addition we show that, for suitably restricted fields and M 10 - n , the killing spinors of AdS backgrounds are given in terms of the zero modes of Dirac like operators on M 10 - n . This generalizes the Lichnerowicz theorem for connections whose holonomy is included in a general linear group. We also adapt our results to ℝ 1, n - 1 × w M 10 - n backgrounds which underpin flux compactifications to ℝ 1, n - 1 and show that these preserve {2}^{[n/2]}k for 2

  9. Non-split and split deformations of {{AdS}}_{5}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-12-01

    The η deformation of the {{AdS}}5× {S}5 superstring depends on a non-split r matrix for the superalgebra {psu}(2,2| 4). Much of the investigation into this model has considered one particular choice, however there are a number of inequivalent alternatives. This is also true for the bosonic sector of the theory with {su}(2,2), the isometry algebra of {{AdS}}5, admitting one split and three non-split r matrices. In this article we explore these r matrices and the corresponding geometries. We investigate their contraction limits, comment on supergravity backgrounds and demonstrate their relation to gauged-WZW deformations. We then extend the three non-split cases to {{AdS}}5× {S}5 and compute four separate bosonic two-particle tree-level S-matrices based on inequivalent BMN-type light-cone gauges. The resulting S-matrices, while different, are related by momentum-dependent one-particle changes of basis.

  10. The Morphology and Chemistry Evolution of Inclusions in Fe-Si-Al-O Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Youjong; Choi, Juhan; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to elucidate the process of inclusion precipitation in Fe-Si and Fe-Si-Al melts. Deoxidation experiments were carried out in a vacuum induction furnace (VIF) at 1873 K (1600 °C). In the Si-deoxidation experiments, spherical SiO2 of 1~2 μm diameter was dominant. When 3 wt pct Si and 300 ppm Al were added, such that Al2O3 and mullite were thermodynamically stable, the resulting inclusions depended on the addition sequence. When aluminum was added before silicon, spherical aluminum oxides were dominant after the Al addition, but after the Si addition, the number and size of alumina decreased and Al-Si oxides and mullite appeared with increasing time. When silicon was added before aluminum, spherical SiO2 was dominant after the Si addition, but after the Al addition, spherical and polygonal alumina inclusions were dominant. When Al/Si was added simultaneously, polygonal alumina inclusions were dominant initially, but with time, Al-Si oxide and mullite inclusions increased in numbers. If the Al amount in the Al/Si addition was increased to 600 ppm, only alumina was found. This study shows how, under similar thermodynamic conditions, the transient evolution of inclusions in iron melts in the Si-Al-O system differ depending on the alloy addition sequence.

  11. AD-1 multiple exposure showing wing sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This photograph is a multiple exposure showing the AD-1 aircraft with its wing swept at different angles between zero and 60 degrees. The Ames-Dryden-1 (AD-1) aircraft was designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (pivoting) wing. The wing could be rotated on its center pivot, so that it could be set at its most efficient angle for the speed at which the aircraft was flying. NASA Ames Research Center Aeronautical Engineer Robert T. Jones conceived the idea of an oblique wing. His wind tunnel studies at Ames (Moffett Field, CA) indicated that an oblique wing design on a supersonic transport might achieve twice the fuel economy of an aircraft with conventional wings. The oblique wing on the AD-1 pivoted about the fuselage, remaining perpendicular to it during slow flight and rotating to angles of up to 60 degrees as aircraft speed increased. Analytical and wind tunnel studiesthat Jones conducted at Ames indicated that a transport-sized oblique-wing aircraft flying at speeds of up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times the speed of sound) would have substantially better aerodynamic performance than aircraft with conventional wings. The AD-1 structure allowed the project to complete all of its technical objectives. The type of low-speed, low-cost vehicle - as expected - exhibited aeroelastic and pitch-roll-coupling effects that contributed to poor handling at sweep angles above 45 degrees. The fiberglass structure limited the wing stiffness that would have improved the handling qualities. Thus, after completion of the AD-1 project, there was still a need for a transonic oblique-wing research aircraft to assess the effects of compressibility, evaluate a more representative structure, and analyze flight performance at transonic speeds (those on either side of the speed of sound). The aircraft was delivered to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, in March 1979 and its first flight was on December 21, 1979. Piloting the aircraft on that flight, as well as on its last

  12. Genetic testing in ALS

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Russell L.; Heverin, Mark; Thorpe, Owen; Abrahams, Sharon; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree of consensus among clinicians on the clinical use of genetic testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the factors that determine decision-making. Methods: ALS researchers worldwide were invited to participate in a detailed online survey to determine their attitudes and practices relating to genetic testing. Results: Responses from 167 clinicians from 21 different countries were analyzed. The majority of respondents (73.3%) do not consider that there is a consensus definition of familial ALS (FALS). Fifty-seven percent consider a family history of frontotemporal dementia and 48.5% the presence of a known ALS genetic mutation as sufficient for a diagnosis of FALS. Most respondents (90.2%) offer genetic testing to patients they define as having FALS and 49.4% to patients with sporadic ALS. Four main genes (SOD1, C9orf72, TARDBP, and FUS) are commonly tested. A total of 55.2% of respondents would seek genetic testing if they had personally received a diagnosis of ALS. Forty-two percent never offer presymptomatic testing to family members of patients with FALS. Responses varied between ALS specialists and nonspecialists and based on the number of new patients seen per year. Conclusions: There is a lack of consensus among clinicians as to the definition of FALS. Substantial variation exists in attitude and practices related to genetic testing of patients and presymptomatic testing of their relatives across geographic regions and between experienced specialists in ALS and nonspecialists. PMID:28159885

  13. p-Adic AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, Steven S.; Knaute, Johannes; Parikh, Sarthak; Samberg, Andreas; Witaszczyk, Przemek

    2017-01-01

    We construct a p-adic analog to AdS/CFT, where an unramified extension of the p-adic numbers replaces Euclidean space as the boundary and a version of the Bruhat-Tits tree replaces the bulk. Correlation functions are computed in the simple case of a single massive scalar in the bulk, with results that are strikingly similar to ordinary holographic correlation functions when expressed in terms of local zeta functions. We give some brief discussion of the geometry of p-adic chordal distance and of Wilson loops. Our presentation includes an introduction to p-adic numbers.

  14. Gauged Ads-Maxwell Algebra and Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, R.; Kowalski-Glikman, J.; Szczachor, M.

    We deform the anti-de Sitter algebra by adding additional generators {Z}ab, forming in this way the negative cosmological constant counterpart of the Maxwell algebra. We gauge this algebra and construct a dynamical model with the help of a constrained BF theory. It turns out that the resulting theory is described by the Einstein-Cartan action with Holst term, and the gauge fields associated with the Maxwell generators {Z}ab appear only in topological terms that do not influence dynamical field equations. We briefly comment on the extension of this construction, which would lead to a nontrivial Maxwell fields dynamics.

  15. Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2013-04-01

    The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.

  16. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  17. The NASA ADS: Searching, Linking and More

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. M.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Bohlen, E.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M.; Murray, S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA ADS Abstract Service is a NASA-funded project which provides FREE World Wide Web abstract search services. We currently have over 3.6 million references in four databases: 1) Astronomy and Planetary Sciences; 2) Physics and Geophysics; 3) Space Instrumentation; and 4) Astronomy Preprints. Our eleven mirror sites in France, Germany, Japan, Chile, Great Britain, India, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Korea and China help to provide better global access. Each database contains abstracts from hundreds of journals, publications, colloquia, symposia, proceedings, PhD Theses, and NASA reports. All abstracts can be searched by author, title, or abstract text words.

  18. Firewalls in AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, Steven G.; Chowdhury, Borun D.

    2014-10-01

    Several recent papers argue against firewalls by relaxing the requirement for locality outside the stretched horizon. In the firewall argument, locality essentially serves the purpose of ensuring that the degrees of freedom required for infall are those in the proximity of the black hole and not the ones in the early radiation. We make the firewall argument sharper by utilizing the AdS/CFT framework and claim that the firewall argument essentially states that the dual to a thermal state in the CFT is a firewall.

  19. Cognitive Impact of Banner Ad Characteristics: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hairong; Bukovac, Janice L.

    1999-01-01

    Finds that (1) animated banner ads (display advertisements hyperlinked to an advertiser's Web site) result in quicker response and better recall (from college students) than non-animated banner ads; (2) larger banner ads lead to better comprehension and more clicks than small banner ads; and (3) user mode (information seeking or Web surfing) did…

  20. 37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...

  1. 37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...

  2. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  3. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  4. 37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...

  5. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  6. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  7. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  8. 37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...

  9. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  10. 37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...

  11. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  12. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  13. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  14. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  15. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  16. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  17. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  18. 76 FR 71430 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... a global strategy to proceed with ADS-B In while ensuring compatibility with the standards adopted... the ADS-B In Aviation Rulemaking Committee, Recommendations to Define a Strategy for Incorporating ADS... forum for the U.S. and international aviation community to define a strategy for incorporating ADS-B...

  19. Ventilatory Control in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Van Dyke, J.; Nashold, L.; Satriotomo, I.; Suzuki, M.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease. ALS selectively causes degeneration in upper and lower (spinal) motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. Although ventilatory failure is generally the cause of death in ALS, little is known concerning the impact of this disorder on respiratory motor neurons, the consequences of respiratory motor neuron cell death, or the ability of the respiratory control system to “fight back” via mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. Here we review known effects of ALS on breathing, including possible effects on rhythm generation, respiratory motor neurons, and their target organs: the respiratory muscles. We consider evidence for spontaneous compensatory plasticity, preserving breathing well into disease progression despite dramatic loss of spinal respiratory motor neurons. Finally, we review current and potential therapeutic approaches directed toward preserving the capacity to breathe in ALS patients. PMID:23692930

  20. Resolving Some Issues in Using Value-Added Measures of Productivity for School and Teacher Incentives: Ideas from Technical Assistance and TIF Grantee Experience. The Harvesting Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Although many researchers and policy analysts (e.g., Harris, Glazerman et al., 2011; 2010) consider value-added to be the state of the art in school and teacher productivity measurement, only a minority of Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) Round 1 and 2 grantees used value-added as a measure of school or teacher performance. Fourteen of the 34 grantees…

  1. Ibn al-Haytham: an answer to multicultural science teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettany, Laurence

    1995-07-01

    Ibn al-Haytham (also known as Alhazan AD 965-1040) was a prolific Arab scientist whose work deserves greater attention. The recent partial translation into English of his great optical work, the Kitab al-Manazir, is a welcome contribution to the history of science. In this article his major contributions to optics are examined and it is shown how these and his historial personage are relevant to current debates on multicultural science teaching.

  2. POSSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN AD LEO

    SciTech Connect

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Petrucci, Romina; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Jofré, Emiliano

    2014-01-20

    AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star that has been extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully convective boundary, studying its long-term chromospheric activity in detail could be an appreciable contribution to dynamo theory. Here, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we analyze the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both of these totally independent time series, we obtain a possible activity cycle with a period of approximately seven years and a less significant shorter cycle of approximately two years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe different spectral features simultaneously, we also analyze the relation between simultaneous measurements of the Na I index (R{sub D}{sup ′}), Hα, and Ca II K fluxes at different activity levels of AD Leo, including flares.

  3. AD performance and its extension towards ELENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelert, Walter; Eriksson, Tommy; Belochitskii, Pavel; Tranquille, Gerard

    2012-12-01

    The CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is devoted to special experiments with low energy antiprotons. A main topic is the antihydrogen production with the present aim to produce these antimatter atoms with such low energy that they can be trapped in a magnetic gradient field. First very convincing results have been published recently by ALPHA. Still, it appears to be cumbersome, time consuming and ineffective when collecting the needed large numbers and high densities of antiproton clouds with the present AD. Both the effectiveness and the availability for additional experiments at this unique facility would drastically increase, if the antiproton beam of presently 5 MeV kinetic energy would be reduced by an additional decelerator to something like 100 keV. Such a facility "ELENA", as an abbreviation for Extra Low ENergy Antiproton Ring and first discussed in 1982 for LEAR, was freshly proposed with a substantial new design and revised layout and is presently under consideration. ELENA will increase the number of useful antiprotons by up to two orders of magnitude and will allow to serve up to four experiments in parallel.

  4. AD performance and its extension towards ELENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelert, Walter; Eriksson, Tommy; Belochitskii, Pavel; Tranquille, Gerard

    The CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is devoted to special experiments with low energy antiprotons. A main topic is the antihydrogen production with the present aim to produce these antimatter atoms with such low energy that they can be trapped in a magnetic gradient field. First very convincing results have been published recently by ALPHA. Still, it appears to be cumbersome, time consuming and ineffective when collecting the needed large numbers and high densities of antiproton clouds with the present AD. Both the effectiveness and the availability for additional experiments at this unique facility would drastically increase, if the antiproton beam of presently 5 MeV kinetic energy would be reduced by an additional decelerator to something like 100 keV. Such a facility "ELENA", as an abbreviation for Extra Low ENergy Antiproton Ring and first discussed in 1982 for LEAR, was freshly proposed with a substantial new design and revised layout and is presently under consideration. ELENA will increase the number of useful antiprotons by up to two orders of magnitude and will allow to serve up to four experiments in parallel.

  5. Enabling Meaningful Affiliation Searches in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E. A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    For many years, users have wanted to search affiliations in the ADS in order to build institutional databases and to help with author disambiguation. Although we currently provide this capability upon request, we have yet to incorporate it as part of the operational Abstract Service. This is because it cannot be used reliably, primarily because of the lack of uniform representation of the affiliation data. In an effort to make affiliation searches more meaningful, we have designed a two-tiered hierarchy of standard institutional names based on Ringgold identifiers, with the expectation that this will enable us to implement a search by institution, which will work for the vast majority of institutions. It is our intention to provide the capability of searching the ADS both by standard affiliation name and original affiliation string, as well as to enable autosuggest of affiliations as a means of helping to disambiguate author identification. Some institutions are likely to require manual work, and we encourage interested librarians to assist us in standardizing the representation of their institutions in the affiliation field.

  6. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.

  7. Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.

  8. The future of the cern ad infrastructures in the context of elena machine design and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartmann, W.; Belochitskii, P.; Butin, F.; Carli, C.; Choisnet, O.; Eriksson, T.; Kersevan, R.; Maridor, S.; Maury, S.; Tranquille, G.

    2014-06-01

    ELENA will lower the energy of AD antiprotons from 5MeV to 100keV, thus increasing by a factor of up to 100 the number of antiprotons usable by the experiments (Oelert et al. 2014). The AD infrastructures must be adapted to cope with another 20 years of low energy antiproton physics. To fit the ELENA ring in the already crowded AD hall, old kicker generators must be relocated to a new technical building, existing and new services and racks must be re-arranged also at height, preserving access and maintenance capabilities. The ELENA beam will be delivered to existing experiments via new transfer lines without compromising the possibility to maintain a visitors path to this very popular place at CERN.

  9. Microstructural and phase evolution in metakaolin geopolymers with different activators and added aluminosilicate fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Madhuchhanda; Dana, Kausik; Das, Sukhen

    2015-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the microstructural and phase evolution of alkali activated metakaolin products with different activators and added aluminosilicate filler phases. The added filler phases have different reactivity to the alkali activated metakaolin system. Microstructural evolution in the alkali activated products has been investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Variation in strength development in alkali activated metakaolin products was followed by compressive strength measurement test. Microstructural study shows that in case of metakaolin with NaOH activator crystalline sodalite formed in all the product samples irrespective of the added filler phases. The microstructure of these NaOH activated products investigated by FESEM showed crystalline and inhomogeneous morphology. Mixed activator containing both NaOH and sodium silicate in a fixed mass ratio formed predominantly amorphous phase. Microstructure of these samples showed more homogeneity than that of NaOH activated metakaolin products. The study further shows that addition of α-Al2O3 powder, non reactive phase to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount increased crystalline phase in the matrix. α-Al2O3 powder addition increased the compressive strength of the product samples for both the activator compositions. Added phase of colloidal silica, reactive to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount was found to increase amorphous nature of the matrix. Addition of colloidal silica influenced the compressive strength property differently with different activator compositions.

  10. ALS2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  11. Orbits of the visual binaries ADS 8814 and ADS 8065 from observations along a short arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, A. A.; Kiyaeva, O. V.; Romanenko, L. G.; Gorynya, N. A.

    2012-07-01

    The orbits of the visual binaries ADS 8814 and ADS 8065 are determined for the first time. The orbits were calculated using the parameters of the apparent motion, based on position observations along short arcs obtained on the 26-inch refrector of the Pulkovo Observatory, supplemented with radial-velocity observations for the stellar components in both pairs obtained on the 1-m telescope of the Simeiz Section of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. All previous visual and photographic observations of these stars after 1832 were also taken into account. The orbit of ADS 8814 was refined using the differential-correction method. The orbital periods of these two stars are about 800 and 6000 years, respectively. The mass estimates derived for the known parallaxes from the Hipparcos catalog correspond to the spectral types of these stars. The polar vectors of the obtained orbits in Galactic coordinates are also given.

  12. Non-minimally coupled pseudoscalars in AdS4 for instantons in CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghdi, M.

    2016-06-01

    For the 11-dimensional supergravity over {{{AdS}}}4× {{{S}}}7/{Z}k, beginning with a general four-form ansatz and the main geometry unchanged, we get a tower of massive and tachyonic pseudoscalars. Indeed, the resultant equations can be assigned to the so-called {φ }4 actions of the non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor theories with a cosmological constant. We focus on a well-known tachyonic and a new massive bulk mode, which are singlet under the internal group and break all supersymmetries, associated with skew-whiffing and Wick-rotating of the background four-form flux, respectively. The first one is the conformally coupled {m}2=-2 pseudoscalar in the bulk of Euclidean AdS4, where an exact instanton solution is found and a marginally triple-trace deformation with a proper dimension-1 operator produces an agreeing boundary solution with finite action. From the action evaluated on the solution, we estimate the decay rate of the vacuum tunneling mediated by the instanton. Another massive {m}2=+4 mode, with the so-called non-minimal coupling parameter ξ =-1/3, also breaks the conformal invariance and so there is no exact solution. Then, based on the AdS4/CFT3 correspondence rules, we propose the dimension-4 ({{{Δ }}}+=+4) boundary operator in the skew-whiffed (anti-M2-branes) theory with which to deform the boundary action—consisting of a singlet fermion, an original scalar and U(1) gauges fields—and find some solutions to be matched with the bulk solutions.

  13. One-loop tests of the supersymmetric higher spin AdS4/CFT3 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yi; Sezgin, Ergin; Zhu, Yaodong

    2017-01-01

    We compute one-loop free energy for D =4 Vasiliev higher spin gravities based on Konstein-Vasiliev algebras h u (m ;n |4 ) , h o (m ;n |4 ) , or h u s p (m ;n |4 ) and subject to higher spin-preserving boundary conditions, which are conjectured to be dual to the U (N ) , O (N ) or U S p (N ) singlet sectors, respectively, of free conformal field theories (CFTs) on the boundary of AdS4 . Ordinary supersymmetric higher spin theories appear as special cases of Konstein-Vasiliev theories, when the corresponding higher spin algebra contains O S p (N |4 ) as a subalgebra. In AdS4 with an S3 boundary, we use a regularization scheme for individual spins that employs their character such that the subsequent sum over all spins is finite, thereby avoiding the need for additional regularization. We find that the contribution of the infinite tower of bulk fermions vanishes. As a result, the free energy is the sum of those which arise in type A and type B models with internal symmetries, the known mismatch between the bulk and boundary free energies for type B model persists, and ordinary supersymmetric higher spin theories exhibit the mismatch as well. The only models that have a match are type A models with internal symmetries, corresponding to n =0 . The matching requires identification of the inverse Newton constant GN-1 with N plus a proper integer as was found previously for special cases. In AdS4 with an S1×S2 boundary, the bulk one-loop free energies match those of the dual free CFTs for arbitrary m and n . We also show that a supersymmetric double-trace deformation of free CFT based on O S p (1 |4 ) does not contribute to the O (N0) free energy, as expected from the bulk.

  14. Conformally related massless fields in dS, AdS and Minkowski spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Huguet, E.; Queva, J.; Renaud, J.

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we write down the equation for a scalar conformally coupled field simultaneously for de Sitter (dS), anti-de Sitter (AdS), and Minkowski spacetimes in d dimensions. The curvature dependence appears in a very simple way through a conformal factor. As a consequence the process of curvature free limit, including wave functions limit and two-points functions, turns out to be a straightforward issue. We determine a set of modes, that we call de Sitter plane waves, which become ordinary plane waves when the curvature vanishes.

  15. Art as an Evolutionary Adaptation: Inspiration from the Visible Supernovae of AD 1054 and AD 3054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, C. J.; Rappaport, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The authors, an astronomer/priest and an anthropologist/biologist, describe their use of the dramatic arts at the INSAP VIII meeting in their performance of two short skits on the sighting of a supernova in AD 1054 (creating the beautiful Crab Nebula) and a future “Rho Cas” stellar explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia, in AD 3054. They speculate on the emergence of science, religion, and art as bona fide adaptations, responding to natural selection, which served early hominins well in their struggle for existence. They draw parallels to the continued functions of science, religion, and art in modern society.

  16. Phantom Accretion onto the Schwarzschild AdS Black Hole with Topological Defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, Ali R.; Farahani, H.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we have studied phantom energy accretion of prefect fluid onto the Schwarzschild AdS black hole with topological defect. We have obtained critical point during the accretion of fluid on the black hole where the speed of flow is equal speed of sound (Sharif and Abbas in Phantom accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole, 2011, arXiv:1109.1043 [gr-qc]). The critical velocities have been computed so that the speed of fluid into the black hole is less than speed of sound. Finally, we have found that the critical point is near the black hole horizon.

  17. Mssm-Like AdS Flux Vacua with Frozen Open-String Moduli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Ming; Li, Tianjun; Mayes, Van Eric; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    We construct supersymmetric Pati-Salam flux vacua in AdS from intersecting D6-branes on T6/(ℤ2 × ℤ‧2). The models constructed have three generations of MSSM matter plus right-handed neutrinos. Because the cycles wrapped by the D-branes are rigid there are no extra massless fields in the adjoint representation, arising as open-string moduli. However, we find that it is problematic to break the Pati-Salam gauge symmetry to the Standard Model (SM) while keeping the SM hypercharge massless.

  18. - criticality of AdS black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Xu, Wei; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2015-02-01

    We study the - critical behaivor of N-dimensional AdS black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity. Our results show the existence of the Van der Waals like small-large black hole phase transitions when taking some special values of charges of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills fields. Further to calculate the critical exponents of the black holes at the critical point, we find that they are the same as those in the Van der Waals liquid-gas system.

  19. Giant magnon on deformed AdS3×S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouchen, Malak; KlusoÅ, Josef

    2014-09-01

    We study giant magnon solutions for strings moving on a deformed AdS3×S3 background. We impose a conformal gauge on the Polyakov action and proceed with solving the Virasoro constraints. The expressions of the conserved charge J and the energy of a single magnon excitation are then computed. Then we determine the dispersion relation of a giant magnon in the infinite J limit configuration and we find that for κ =0 it reduces to the celebrated Hofman-Maldacena dispersion relation.

  20. Phase Transition of AdS Black Holes with Non Linear Source in the Holographic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moumni, H. El

    2017-02-01

    In this work we investigate the phase transition of AdS black hole solution in the presence of a generalized Maxwell theory, namely power Maxwell invariant (PMI). This phase structure is probed by the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. We show that the both observables exhibit a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case of the thermal entropy. By checking the Maxwell's equal area law for different space dimension n and nonlinearity parameter s we confirm this result.

  1. Vinasse added to the concentrate for fattening lambs: intake, animal performance, and carcass and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Ó; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Frutos, P; Andrés, S; Giráldez, F J

    2011-04-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs (mean BW 15.4 ± 0.13 kg, 6 to 7 wk old) were used to study the effects of the addition of 0 (control), 100 (V10), and 200 (V20) g of vinasse per kilgram of concentrate on intake, animal performance, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets and fed barley straw and the corresponding concentrate ad libitum. When the animals reached 25 kg of BW, a sample of blood was taken and the lambs were slaughtered. Feed intake, growth rate, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics were assessed. Lambs that received the concentrates with vinasse showed a reduced concentrate intake (linear contrast, P = 0.029) and ADG (linear contrast, P = 0.004) and an increased length of fattening period (linear contrast, P = 0.002) as well as feed:gain ratio (linear contrast P = 0.011). Vinasse enhanced ruminal pH (orthogonal contrast control vs. V10 + V20; P = 0.007). Plasma glucose concentrations declined in lambs fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.003), whereas plasma urea concentration increased in animals fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.036). The plasma concentrations of creatinine, triglycerides, and lactate and the enzyme profile studied (alkaline phosphate, alanine transaminase, glutamate oxal-acetate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase) were not modified in response to vinasse inclusion. Lambs in the vinasse groups had less Na(+) and nitrate and greater K(+) and nitrite plasma concentrations (linear contrasts, P < 0.05). None of the carcass characteristics studied was affected by vinasse (P > 0.10). Meat chemical composition and characteristics were unaffected (P > 0.10), but shear force was greater for lambs that received vinasse (orthogonal contrast, control vs. V10 + V20, P = 0.007). The addition of 100 or 200 g vinasse/kg of concentrate for fattening lambs reduced feed intake and growth rate and increased the feed:gain ratio

  2. Adding crumb rubber into exterior wall materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han; Thong-On, Norasit; Zhang, Xiong

    2002-10-01

    In Arizona US, most houses are built with walls covered by stuccos/coatings/mortars. This paper presents an explorative investigation of adding crumb rubber into stuccos/coatings/mortars. A series of experiments are conducted to examine the thermal and mechanical performance of the crumb rubber mixes. The results show that, the mixes with crumb rubber do exhibit more desirable performances like being high in crack-resistance and thermal insulation, and low in thermal expansion/contraction. The drawback for the crumb rubber mixes is the reduction in compressive strength, but which can be compensated by other means. As a site experiment, an area of 100 square-feet of crumb rubber coatings for two mix designs is sprayed on a tire-adobe wall. After being sprayed more than 14 months, the coatings apparently are in good condition. Significance of this study is that this practice, if accepted, will yield improved products that consume large quantities of crumb rubber.

  3. Spin Filtering Studies at COSY and AD

    SciTech Connect

    Nass, Alexander

    2009-08-04

    The high physics potential of experiments with stored high-energy polarized antiprotons led to the proposal of PAX (Polarized Antiproton eXperiment) for the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the FAIR at GSI (Darmstadt/Germany). It is proposed to polarize a stored antiproton beam by means of spin filtering with a polarized H (D) gas target. The feasibility of spin filtering has been demonstrated in the FILTEX experiment. The current interpretation foresees a self-cancellation of the electron contribution to the filtering process and only the hadronic contribution is effective. Several experimental studies with protons (at COSY/Juelich) as well as antiprotons (at AD/CERN) will be carried out to test the principle and measure p-barp-vector and p-bard-vector cross sections. A polarized internal gas target (PIT) with surrounding Silicon detectors immersed into a low-beta section has to be set up.

  4. The ADS Abstract Service: One Year Old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, C. Stern; Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.

    1994-05-01

    One year after its initial release the ADS Abstract Service has become quite widely used. More than 1000 different people use it per month, making about 20,000 queries and obtaining a couple of hundred thousand pieces of bibliographic information. In February a WWW connection was released, it has been heavily used. The collaboration with SIMBAD, released in January, allows one to make complex queries about work on particular objects. For example one may search for all papers which SIMBAD says are about M87, and which contain the words ``globular cluster'' in the abstract, thus getting the 65 papers on the M87 globular cluster system. One can also look for papers which have the words ``M87 globular clusters'' in the abstract, but are not listed in SIMBAD; this obtains another 19 papers, mostly conference procedings, about the M87 globular cluster system. The figure shows the list of non-SIMBAD papers.

  5. MR enterography: how to deliver added value.

    PubMed

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Trout, Andrew T; Smith, Ethan A

    2016-05-01

    MR enterography (MRE) is increasingly vital to the diagnosis and follow-up of children with Crohn disease. This diagnostic test, which can provide valuable information regarding the presence of intestinal inflammation, intestinal and intra-abdominal complications, and extra-intestinal disease-related manifestations, has the potential to directly impact both medical and surgical decision-making. Consequently, it is imperative that the interpretation and reporting of these examinations provide as much clinical information as possible. This article reviews specific ways radiologists can provide added value when interpreting MRE examinations in the setting of pediatric Crohn disease by (1) establishing the true extent of disease involvement, (2) subjectively and objectively assessing response to medical treatment and (3) accurately characterizing disease-related complications.

  6. Total synthesis of zyzzyanones A-D

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Dwayaja H.; Murugesan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Zyzzyanones A-D is a group of biologically active marine alkaloids isolated from Australian marine sponge Zyzzya fuliginosa. They contain a unique bispyrroloquinone ring system as the core structure. The first total synthesis of all four zyzzyanones is described here. The synthesis of these alkaloids started from a previously known 6-benzylamino indole-4,7-quinone derivative and involves 6–7 steps. The key step in the synthesis involves the construction of a pyrrole ring in one step using a Mn(OAc)3 mediated oxidative free radical cyclization reaction of a 6-benzylamino indole-4,7-quinone derivative with 4-benzyloxyphenyl acetaldehyde diethyl acetal in CH3CN. PMID:23956468

  7. Aerosol Best Estimate Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, C; Turner, D; Koontz, A; Chand, D; Sivaraman, C

    2012-07-19

    The objective of the Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) value-added product (VAP) is to provide vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo, asymmetry parameter, and Angstroem exponents for the atmospheric column above the Central Facility at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. We expect that AEROSOLBE will provide nearly continuous estimates of aerosol optical properties under a range of conditions (clear, broken clouds, overcast clouds, etc.). The primary requirement of this VAP was to provide an aerosol data set as continuous as possible in both time and height for the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP in order to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Even though BBHRP has been completed, AEROSOLBE results are very valuable for environmental, atmospheric, and climate research.

  8. Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, L.; McFarlane, S.; Sivaraman, C.

    2014-06-01

    The ndrop_mfrsr value-added product (VAP) provides an estimate of the cloud droplet number concentration of overcast water clouds retrieved from cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) instrument and liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the microwave radiometer (MWR). When cloud layer information is available from vertically pointing lidar and radars in the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product, the VAP also provides estimates of the adiabatic LWP and an adiabatic parameter (beta) that indicates how divergent the LWP is from the adiabatic case. quality control (QC) flags (qc_drop_number_conc), an uncertainty estimate (drop_number_conc_toterr), and a cloud layer type flag (cloud_base_type) are useful indicators of the quality and accuracy of any given value of the retrieval. Examples of these major input and output variables are given in sample plots in section 6.0.

  9. Spin Filtering Studies at COSY and AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Alexander

    2009-08-01

    The high physics potential of experiments with stored high-energy polarized antiprotons led to the proposal of PAX (Polarized Antiproton eXperiment) [1] for the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the FAIR at GSI (Darmstadt/Germany). It is proposed to polarize a stored antiproton beam by means of spin filtering with a polarized H (D) gas target. The feasibility of spin filtering has been demonstrated in the FILTEX experiment. The current interpretation foresees a self-cancellation of the electron contribution to the filtering process and only the hadronic contribution is effective. Several experimental studies with protons (at COSY/Jülich) as well as antiprotons (at AD/CERN) will be carried out to test the principle and measure p¯p⃗ and p¯d⃗ cross sections. A polarized internal gas target (PIT) with surrounding Silicon detectors immersed into a low-β section has to be set up.

  10. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when it becomes necessary. For instance, a power wheelchair can enable a paralyzed person with ALS to ... done these things despite being confined to a wheelchair for many years, being able to move only ...

  11. Genetic Testing for ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic ... guarantee a person will develop symptoms of ALS. Genetic Counseling If there is more than one person ...

  12. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  13. 75 FR 65279 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... presumptive service connection based on herbicide exposure for this disease. The intended effects are to... adding AL amyloidosis to the list of diseases associated with exposure to certain herbicide...

  14. Synthesis of nanometer-sized sodalite without adding organic additives.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Morozumi, Kazumasa; Kimura, Riichiro; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2008-06-01

    Aggregates (80 nm) of sodalite nanocrystals with crystallite sizes ranging from 20 to 40 nm have been synthesized from a sodium aluminosilicate solution at low temperature, without adding any organic additives, while paying attention to the key factors for the synthesis of nanosized zeolite crystals. The physical properties of nanosized sodalite crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, 29Si solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR, and N2 adsorption. As expected, the external surface area of nanosized sodalite crystals is significantly increased compared with that of microsized sodalite crystals. The size of synthesized sodalite crystals can be controlled from 20 nm to 10 microm. It is found that the preparation of a homogeneous aluminosilicate solution followed by the formation of an aluminosilicate hard gel by adjusting the initial composition, for example, SiO2/Al2O3 and Na2O/H2O ratios, is critical for synthesis.

  15. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Profile Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, S; Sivaraman, C; Ghan, S

    2012-10-08

    The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration at cloud base is the most relevant measure of the aerosol that influences droplet formation in clouds. Since the CCN concentration depends on supersaturation, a more general measure of the CCN concentration is the CCN spectrum (values at multiple supersaturations). The CCN spectrum is now measured at the surface at several fixed ARM sites and by the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), but is not measured at the cloud base. Rather than rely on expensive aircraft measurements for all studies of aerosol effects on clouds, a way to project CCN measurements at the surface to cloud base is needed. Remote sensing of aerosol extinction provides information about the vertical profile of the aerosol, but cannot be directly related to the CCN concentration because the aerosol extinction is strongly influenced by humidification, particularly near cloud base. Ghan and Collins (2004) and Ghan et al. (2006) propose a method to remove the influence of humidification from the extinction profiles and tie the “dry extinction” retrieval to the surface CCN concentration, thus estimating the CCN profile. This methodology has been implemented as the CCN Profile (CCNPROF) value-added product (VAP).

  16. Exploring the bulk in AdS /CFT : A covariant approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2017-03-01

    I propose a general, covariant way of defining when one region is "deeper in the bulk" than another. This definition is formulated outside of an event horizon (or in the absence thereof) in generic geometries; it may be applied to both points and surfaces, and it may be used to compare the depth of bulk points or surfaces relative to a particular boundary subregion or relative to the entire boundary. Using the recently proposed "light-cone cut" formalism, the comparative depth between two bulk points can be determined from the singularity structure of Lorentzian correlators in the dual field theory. I prove that, by this definition, causal wedges of progressively larger regions probe monotonically deeper in the bulk. The definition furthermore matches expectations in pure AdS and in static AdS black holes with isotropic spatial slices, where a well-defined holographic coordinate exists. In terms of holographic renormalization group flow, this new definition of bulk depth makes contact with coarse graining over both large distances and long time scales.

  17. Exact results for the low energy AdS 4 × 3 string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Fioravanti, Davide; Piscaglia, Simone; Tateo, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    We derive the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations for the relativistic sigma model describing the AdS 4 × 3 string II A theory at strong coupling (i.e. in the Alday-Maldacena decoupling limit). The corresponding Y -system involves an infinite number of Y functions and is of a new type, although it shares a peculiar feature with the Y -system for AdS 4 × 3. A truncation of the equations at level p and a further generalisation to generic rank N allow us an alternative description of the theory as the N =4, p = ∞ representative in an infinite family of models corresponding to the conformal cosets ( N -1) p × U(1), perturbed by a relevant composite field ϕ ( N,p) = ϕ[( N -1) p ] × ϕ [U(1)] that couples the two independent conformal field theories. The calculation of the ultraviolet central charge confirms the conjecture by Basso and Rej and the conformal dimension of the perturbing operator, at every N and p, is obtained using the Y-system periodicity. The conformal dimension of ϕ[( N -1) p ] matches that of the field identified by Fendley while discussing integrability issues for the purely bosonic N -1 sigma model.

  18. Baldcypress tree ring elemental concentrations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee from AD 1795 to AD 1820

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdale, R.; Hall, G.

    1995-11-01

    Many two hundred year old baldcypress trees in Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, lived through the great New Madrid earthquakes of 1811--1812. This study was undertaken to determine if the elemental composition of baldcypress tree rings showed any systematic variation through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820. Multiple cores were collected from two Reelfoot Lake baldcypress trees and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Individual yearly rings and five-year ring segments were analyzed to determine their elemental compositions. The cores were analyzed for Li through U but only Ba, Ce, Cs, Cu, I, La, Mg, Mn, Nd, Rb, Sm, Sr, and Zn were found to be in appropriate concentrations for this study. Of these elements only Ce, I, La, Nd, Rb, and Sm showed any systematic changes within individual cores. Comparison of three cores taken from one tree reveal that tree-ring elemental concentrations and changes in tree-ring elemental concentration through time are very different among the cores. When comparing the elemental concentrations of tree rings for the same years in the two different trees neither elemental concentrations nor changes in elemental concentration through time were similar. We conclude that the elemental concentrations in the tree rings of the two baldcypress trees analyzed in this study show no systematic change through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820.

  19. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  20. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2014-01-14

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  1. Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one characterised by a pair of poles colliding and moving away from the imaginary frequency axis with increasing deformation. In the limit of infinite deformation all scalar operators have identical quasinormal spectra. We compare and contrast our strongly coupled de Sitter QFT results with strongly coupled thermal correlators from AdS black holes.

  2. Soft walls in dynamic AdS /QCD and the technidilaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nick; Jones, Peter; Scott, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic AdS /QCD is a modification of AdS /QCD that includes the running of the anomalous dimension of the q ¯q quark bilinear and in which the generation of the constituent quark mass plays the role of an IR wall. The model allows one to move away smoothly from the controlled spectrum of the N =2 super Yang-Mills theory of the D3/probe-D7 system to more QCD-like theories with chiral symmetry breaking. We investigate soft wall behavior in the model that gives Regge trajectories with Mn,s 2˜n ,s . To achieve these behaviors requires the quark's constituent mass to fall peculiarly sharply in the IR so that meson physics is sensitive to renormalization group (RG) scales well below the quark's on-shell mass. Including soft wall behavior in models of walking gauge dynamics breaks the near conformal symmetry which is present above the quark on-shell mass which can generate a large mass for the technidilaton like state. We conclude that the meson spectrum is rather sensitive to the IR decoupling.

  3. The exceptional generalised geometry of supersymmetric AdS flux backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmore, Anthony; Petrini, Michela; Waldram, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We analyse generic AdS flux backgrounds preserving eight supercharges in D = 4 and D = 5 dimensions using exceptional generalised geometry. We show that they are described by a pair of globally defined, generalised structures, identical to those that appear for flat flux backgrounds but with different integrability conditions. We give a number of explicit examples of such "exceptional Sasaki-Einstein" backgrounds in type IIB supergravity and M-theory. In particular, we give the complete analysis of the generic AdS5 M-theory backgrounds. We also briefly discuss the structure of the moduli space of solutions. In all cases, one structure defines a "generalised Reeb vector" that generates a Killing symmetry of the background corresponding to the R-symmetry of the dual field theory, and in addition encodes the generic contact structures that appear in the D = 4 M-theory and D = 5 type IIB cases. Finally, we investigate the relation between generalised structures and quantities in the dual field theory, showing that the central charge and R-charge of BPS wrapped-brane states are both encoded by the generalised Reeb vector, as well as discussing how volume minimisation (the dual of a- and F-maximisation) is encoded.

  4. Expression profiles for macrophage alternative activation genes in AD and in mouse models of AD

    PubMed Central

    Colton, Carol A; Mott, Ryan T; Sharpe, Hayley; Xu, Qing; Van Nostrand, William E; Vitek, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Background Microglia are associated with neuritic plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD) and serve as a primary component of the innate immune response in the brain. Neuritic plaques are fibrous deposits composed of the amyloid beta-peptide fragments (Abeta) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Numerous studies have shown that the immune cells in the vicinity of amyloid deposits in AD express mRNA and proteins for pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to the hypothesis that microglia demonstrate classical (Th-1) immune activation in AD. Nonetheless, the complex role of microglial activation has yet to be fully explored since recent studies show that peripheral macrophages enter an "alternative" activation state. Methods To study alternative activation of microglia, we used quantitative RT-PCR to identify genes associated with alternative activation in microglia, including arginase I (AGI), mannose receptor (MRC1), found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1), and chitinase 3-like 3 (YM1). Results Our findings confirmed that treatment of microglia with anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 induces a gene profile typical of alternative activation similar to that previously observed in peripheral macrophages. We then used this gene expression profile to examine two mouse models of AD, the APPsw (Tg-2576) and Tg-SwDI, models for amyloid deposition and for cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) respectively. AGI, MRC1 and YM1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the Tg-2576 mouse brains compared to age-matched controls while TNFα and NOS2 mRNA levels, genes commonly associated with classical activation, increased or did not change, respectively. Only TNFα mRNA increased in the Tg-SwDI mouse brain. Alternative activation genes were also identified in brain samples from individuals with AD and were compared to age-matched control individuals. In AD brain, mRNAs for TNFα, AGI, MRC1 and the chitinase-3 like 1 and 2 genes (CHI3L1; CHI3L2) were significantly increased

  5. Wilson loops in N = 4 gauge theory and fundamental strings in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukker, Nadav

    The AdS/CFT correspondence is a duality between large N SU(N) gauge theory with N = 4 supersymmetry in 4 dimensions at strong coupling and type IIB string theory on AdS5 × S 5. According to the duality, Wilson loops are given by large fundamental strings in the AdS background. This dissertation examines various aspects of this relation. There is a distinguished class of loops, which are the natural Wilson loop observables in this theory. The magnitude of their coupling to the gauge fields and the scalars is equal. We explore some of their properties, in particular, we show that their expectation values are free from ultra-violet divergence. At strong coupling those Wilson loops can be evaluated by a saddle point expansion around classical solutions of string theory, or minimal surfaces. At the classical level we conclude that the action is not the area of the surface, which is divergent, but a Legendre transform of it. At one loop in the worldsheet expansion, we develop a systematic approach to the study of semiclassical fluctuations of strings in AdS 5 × S5 based on the Green-Schwarz formalism. We show that the string partition function is well defined and finite, and issues related to different gauge choices are clarified. We study four types of loops with different geometries. A single straight line is a BPS object and the corresponding Wilson loop is one. We show this in perturbation theory at weak coupling and to one loop order at strong coupling. A circular Wilson loop is similar to a straight line, but is not BPS, and it's expectation value is not one. A particularly interesting observable is a pair of anti parallel lines. Those give the potential between two W- bosons. Another minimal surface we can find is for loops with cusps or intersections. We also discuss the zig-zag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N = 4 gauge theory the zig-zag symmetry holds when the loop does not couple to the scalar fields. We show how this is realized by formal derivation

  6. RG flow and thermodynamics of causal horizons in higher-derivative AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shamik; Bhattacharyya, Arpan

    2016-05-01

    In arXiv:1508.01343 [hep-th], one of the authors proposed that in AdS/CFT the gravity dual of the boundary c-theorem is the second law of thermodynamics satisfied by causal horizons in AdS and this was verified for Einstein gravity in the bulk. In this paper we verify this for higher derivative theories. We pick up theories for which an entropy expression satisfying the second law exists and show that the entropy density evaluated on the causal horizon in a RG flow geometry is a holographic c-function. We also prove that given a theory of gravity described by a local covariant action in the bulk a sufficient condition to ensure holographic c-theorem is that the second law of causal horizon thermodynamics be satisfied by the theory. This allows us to explicitly construct holographic c-function in a theory where there is curvature coupling between gravity and matter and standard null energy condition cannot be defined although second law is known to hold. Based on the duality between c-theorem and the second law of causal horizon thermodynamics proposed in arXiv:1508.01343 [hep-th] and the supporting calculations of this paper we conjecture that every Unitary higher derivative theory of gravity in AdS satisfies the second law of causal horizon thermodynamics. If this is not true then c-theorem will be violated in a unitary Lorentz invariant field theory.

  7. Contributions of Muhadhdhab Al-Deen Al-Baghdadi to the progress of medicine and urology. A study and translations from his book Al-Mukhtar.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E

    2006-11-01

    This study of the Arabic 4-volume book of Al-Mukhtar Fi Al-Tibb (Choice Book on Medicine) written by the Muslim physician Muhadhdhab Al-Deen Al-Baghdadi (515-610 H, 1117-1213 AD) aimed at evaluating his contributions to the progress of medicine and urology along with providing English translations of relevant excerpts. Al-Baghdadi laid emphasis on the morals of medical practice and the principles of medical education describing how to select medical students and how to evaluate graduates. He stressed on the need for a long training program directly supervised by skilled expert doctors both in hospitals (Al-Bimaristanat) and during home visits. A good part of volume 1 was allocated to preventive medicine and the whole of volume 2 was devoted to the pharmacy section, which he restricted to what was proven by the experience of his teacher and by his own experiments. Same as all his predecessors in the Islamic era, Al-Baghdadi stressed the importance of clinical medicine and gave more details related to history taking, physical examination, differential diagnosis and prognosis. Similar to them, he also, emphasized that a doctor should be quite knowledgeable in anatomy. Furthermore, the presence of anatomical drawings in Kitab Al-Mukhtar Fi Al-Tibb is a further step forward in illustrating medical text books; a trend that flourished in the Islamic era reflecting the role of direct observations and experience. The detailed description of the functional anatomy of the uretero-vesical junction and the antireflux and micturition mechanisms given by Al-Baghdadi is contrary to that of Galen (130-200 AD) but conforms well to our contemporary understanding. In the conservative management of urinary stones, he described 70 simple and 13 compound drugs while those described by Pulus of Aegina (625-690 AD) were only 20 simple and 3 compound drugs. Furthermore, Al-Baghdadi's description of the instruments and techniques of urethral catheterization, perineal cystolithotomy and

  8. The study of the chemical and phase composition of the diffusion interaction zone in layered composite Cr20Ni80-AD1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmorgun, V. G.; Iskhakova, L. D.; Bogdanov, A. I.; Taube, A. O.; Ermakov, R. P.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the research of chemical and phase composition of the zone of diffusion interaction in the layered composite Cr20Ni80-AD1. It is shown that interlayer border of bimetal Cr20Ni80-AD1 is a complex mixture of phases with the main phases in its composition in solid-phase interaction: Al3Ni2 and Al14.687Cr3.443Ni0.87, and in the liquid phase - Al3Ni2, Al0.987Cr0.017, Al14.687Cr3.44Ni0.87 and Al45Cr7. It is shown, that conditions of holding time of the heat treatment do not affect the phase and chemical composition of the diffusion zone.

  9. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (P<0.001) than LU steers. Thus, adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the level of dietary lipid through the use of cold-pressed RSC, did not adversely affect health or performance of finishing beef steers when used within the diets studied.

  10. Rabies in medieval Persian literature - the Canon of Avicenna (980-1037 AD).

    PubMed

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Esnaashary, Mohammad Hosein; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    2014-02-17

    Ibn Sina (980-1037 AD), known by his full name Abu Ali al-Hussain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina and the Latin name 'Avicenna', was a Persian scholar who is primarily remembered for his contributions to the science of medicine. He authored Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). Sections of his work are devoted to detailed descriptions of a number of infectious illnesses, particularly rabies. Avicenna described rabies in humans and animals and explained its clinical manifestations, route of transmission, and treatment methods. In this article, our goal is to discuss Avicenna's 11th-century points of view on rabies and compare them with modern medical knowledge.

  11. AdS/CFT beyond the unitarity bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Scalars in AdS d+1 with squared masses in the Breitenlohner-Freedman window - {d^{{2}}}/{4} ≤slant {m^{{2}}} < - {d^{{2}}}/{4} + {1} (in units with the AdS scale ℓ set to 1) are known to enjoy a variety of boundary conditions. For larger masses {m^{{2}}} > - {d^{{2}}}/{4} + {1} , unitarity bounds in possible dual CFTs suggest that such general boundary conditions should lead to ghosts. We show that this is not always the case as, for conformally-invariant boundary conditions in Poincaré AdS that would naively violate unitarity bounds, the system is generically ghost-free. Conflicts with unitarity bounds are avoided due to the presence of unexpected pure gauge modes and an associated infrared divergence. The expected ghosts appear when the IR divergence is removed either by deforming these boundary conditions or considering global AdS.

  12. Space-Time Processing for Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    Maximization in Multi-User, MIMO Channels with Linear Processing...58 2.9 Using Feedback in Ad Hoc Networks....................................................................65 2.10 Feedback MIMO ...in MIMO Ad Hoc Interference Networks.......................................................................................................75 2.12

  13. B Removal by Zr Addition in Electromagnetic Solidification Refinement of Si with Si-Al Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yun; Ma, Wenhui; Sun, Luen; Dai, Yongnian; Morita, Kazuki

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated a new process of enhancing B removal by adding small amounts of Zr in the electromagnetic solidification refinement of Si with Si-Al melt. B in Si was removed by as much as 97.2 pct by adding less than 1057 ppma Zr, and the added Zr was removed by as much as 99.7 pct. In addition, Zr is more effective in enhancing B removal than Ti in the same electromagnetic solidification refining process.

  14. U-Mo/Al-Si interaction: Influence of Si concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allenou, J.; Palancher, H.; Iltis, X.; Cornen, M.; Tougait, O.; Tucoulou, R.; Welcomme, E.; Martin, Ph.; Valot, C.; Charollais, F.; Anselmet, M. C.; Lemoine, P.

    2010-04-01

    Within the framework of the development of low enriched nuclear fuels for research reactors, U-Mo/Al is the most promising option that has however to be optimised. Indeed at the U-Mo/Al interfaces between U-Mo particles and the Al matrix, an interaction layer grows under irradiation inducing an unacceptable fuel swelling. Adding silicon in limited content into the Al matrix has clearly improved the in-pile fuel behaviour. This breakthrough is attributed to an U-Mo/Al-Si protective layer around U-Mo particles appeared during fuel manufacturing. In this work, the evolution of the microstructure and composition of this protective layer with increasing Si concentrations in the Al matrix has been investigated. Conclusions are based on the characterization at the micrometer scale (X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy) of U-Mo7/Al-Si diffusion couples obtained by thermal annealing at 450 °C. Two types of interaction layers have been evidenced depending on the Si content in the Al-Si alloy: the threshold value is found at about 5 wt.% but obviously evolves with temperature. It has been shown that for Si concentrations ranging from 2 to 10 wt.%, the U-Mo7/Al-Si interaction is bi-layered and the Si-rich part is located close to the Al-Si for low Si concentrations (below 5 wt.%) and close to the U-Mo for higher Si concentrations. For Si weight fraction in the Al alloy lower than 5 wt.%, the Si-rich sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2Al 20, when the other sub-layer (close to U-Mo) is silicon free and made of UAl 3 and U 6Mo 4Al 43. For Si weight concentrations above 5 wt.%, the Si-rich part becomes U 3(Si, Al) 5 + U(Al, Si) 3 (close to U-Mo) and the other sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2Al 20. On the basis of these results and of a literature survey, a scheme is proposed to explain the formation of different types of ILs between U-Mo and Al-Si alloys (i.e. different protective layers).

  15. Radio Decameter Observations of AD Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P., Hanslmeier, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Vanko, M.; Lammer, H.; Khodachenko, M. I.; Rucker, H. O.

    AD Leonis is known to be an active flaring star of spectral type M4.5 Ve. The World's largest decameter array, the UTR-2 near Kharkov/Ukraine of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, was monitoring this star for ten nights during February 2007. A Digital Spectro-Polarimeter (DSP) was used as back-end facility giving the possibility of investigating dynamic spectra. These spectra are very useful when searching for decameter radio type II bursts, which show a slow frequency drift with time and are known to be correlated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun. Since the drift in frequency is correlated with the density of the material through which the shock wave propagates, we can use this also as a proxy for e.g. density changes for stellar wind investigations. We are able to discriminate between stellar and artificial emission using the instrument's multibeam capability. Averaging techniques are also applied to make possible bursts detectable. The main intention is the search for stellar analogues of the solar type II bursts as signatures of CMEs, but also for periodic structures. Preliminary results are presented.

  16. Radio decameter observations of AD Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Hanslmeier, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Vanko, M.; Khodachenko, M.; Lammer, H.; Rucker, H. O.

    2007-08-01

    AD Leonis is known to be an active flaring star of spectral type M4.5 Ve. The world's largest decamter array, the UTR-2 near Kharkov/Ukraine of the Ukrainian Academy of Scienecs, was monitoring this star for ten nights during February of this year. A Digital Spectro Polarimeter (DSP) was used as back-end facility giving the possibility of investigating dynamic spectra. These spectra are very useful when searching for decameter radio type II bursts, which show a slow frequency drift with time and are known to be correlated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the sun. Since the drift in frequency is correlated with the density of the material through which the shock wave propagates, we can use this also as a proxy for e.g. density changes for stellar wind investigations. We are able to discriminate between stellar and artificial emission using the instrument's multibeam capability. Also averaging techniques are applied to make possible bursts detectable. The main intention is the search for stellar analogues of the solar type II bursts as signatures of CMEs, but also for periodic structures. Preliminary results are presented.

  17. Spontaneous Ad Hoc Mobile Cloud Computing Network

    PubMed Central

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes. PMID:25202715

  18. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars.

  19. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  20. AdS/QCD at finite density and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.

    2012-07-15

    We review some basics of AdS/QCD following a non-standard path and list a few results from AdS/QCD or holographic QCD. The non-standard path here is to use the analogy of the way one obtains an effective model of QCD like linear sigma model and the procedure to construct an AdS/QCD model based on the AdS/CFT dictionary.

  1. AD Hoc Study on Human Robot Interface Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    ARMY SCIENCE BOARD AD HOC STUDY ON HUMAN ROBOT INTERFACE ISSUES FINAL REPORT SEPTEMBER 2002 Distribution: Approved for...conclusions contained in this report are those of the 2002 Ad Hoc Study Panel on “Human- Robot Interface Issues” and do not necessarily reflect the official...DATES COVERED Army Science Board – 2002 Ad Hoc Study 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AD HOC STUDY ON HUMAN ROBOT INTERFACE ISSUES 6. AUTHOR(S) Study

  2. Boundary stress tensor and asymptotically AdS3 non-Einstein spaces at the chiral point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giribet, Gaston; Goya, Andrés; Leston, Mauricio

    2011-09-01

    Chiral gravity admits asymptotically AdS3 solutions that are not locally equivalent to AdS3; meaning that solutions do exist which, while obeying the strong boundary conditions usually imposed in general relativity, happen not to be Einstein spaces. In topologically massive gravity (TMG), the existence of non-Einstein solutions is particularly connected to the question about the role played by complex saddle points in the Euclidean path integral. Consequently, studying (the existence of) nonlocally AdS3 solutions to chiral gravity is relevant to understanding the quantum theory. Here, we discuss a special family of nonlocally AdS3 solutions to chiral gravity. In particular, we show that such solutions persist when one deforms the theory by adding the higher-curvature terms of the so-called new massive gravity. Moreover, the addition of higher-curvature terms to the gravity action introduces new nonlocally AdS3 solutions that have no analogues in TMG. Both stationary and time-dependent, axially symmetric solutions that asymptote AdS3 space without being locally equivalent to it appear. Defining the boundary stress tensor for the full theory, we show that these non-Einstein geometries have associated vanishing conserved charges.

  3. Statins: Do They Cause ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    Statins: Do they cause ALS? Do statins cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. ... D. References Sorensen HT, et al. Statins and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: The level of evidence for an association. Journal ...

  4. 2 CFR 200.470 - Taxes (including Value Added Tax).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxes (including Value Added Tax). 200.470... Cost § 200.470 Taxes (including Value Added Tax). (a) For states, local governments and Indian tribes... Federal government for the taxes, interest, and penalties. (c) Value Added Tax (VAT) Foreign taxes...

  5. 14 CFR 1203.903 - Ad hoc committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ad hoc committees. 1203.903 Section 1203... NASA Information Security Program Committee § 1203.903 Ad hoc committees. The Chairperson is authorized to establish such ad hoc panels or subcommittees as may be necessary in the conduct of the...

  6. 14 CFR 1203.903 - Ad hoc committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Ad hoc committees. 1203.903 Section 1203.903... Information Security Program Committee § 1203.903 Ad hoc committees. The Chairperson is authorized to establish such ad hoc panels or subcommittees as may be necessary in the conduct of the Committee's work....

  7. 21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90 Section... PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner may use...

  8. 25 CFR 11.904 - Guardian ad litem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guardian ad litem. 11.904 Section 11.904 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.904 Guardian ad litem. The children's court, under any proceeding authorized by this part, shall appoint, for the purposes of the proceeding, a guardian ad litem for a...

  9. 21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90 Section... PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner may use...

  10. 25 CFR 11.904 - Guardian ad litem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian ad litem. 11.904 Section 11.904 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.904 Guardian ad litem. The children's court, under any proceeding authorized by this part, shall appoint, for the purposes of the proceeding, a guardian ad litem for a...

  11. Determining Positions and Desired Applicant Characteristics in Sports Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atali, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the diversity of positions occurring in sports job ads and reveal the characteristics requested from applicants for each position. This study examined 103 sports-related job ads obtained from four human resources websites. Using content analysis, job ads were examined in terms of job titles, and the…

  12. Evaluating Teachers: The Important Role of Value-Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Loeb, Susanna; Goldhaber, Dan; Staiger, Douglas; Raudenbush, Stephen; Whitehurst, Grover

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of teachers based on the contribution they make to the learning of their students, "value-added", is an increasingly popular but controversial education reform policy. In this report, the authors highlight and try to clarify four areas of confusion about value-added. The first is between value-added information and the…

  13. Leica ADS40 Sensor for Coastal Multispectral Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The Leica ADS40 Sensor as it is used for coastal multispectral imaging is presented. The contents include: 1) Project Area Overview; 2) Leica ADS40 Sensor; 3) Focal Plate Arrangements; 4) Trichroid Filter; 5) Gradient Correction; 6) Image Acquisition; 7) Remote Sensing and ADS40; 8) Band comparisons of Satellite and Airborne Sensors; 9) Impervious Surface Extraction; and 10) Impervious Surface Details.

  14. Full vector archaeomagnetic data and Bayesian modelling for 1300 to 1750 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, E.; Lanos, P.; Chauvin, A.

    2009-04-01

    The data base of geomagnetic palaeointensities obtained from archaeological artefacts is poor and very scattered for Western and Central Europe. High precision palaeointensities have been determined from a single archaeological site in Lübeck (Germany) where a sequence of 25 bread-oven-floors has been preserved in a bakery from medieval times until today. Age dating confines the time interval from about 1300 AD to about 1750 AD. Palaeomagnetic directions have been determined from each oven-floor (Schnepp et al., JGR, 2003). Palaeointensity was measured from selected specimens with the double-heating Thellier method and reliable palaeointensity results have been obtained. Tests for thermoremanent magnetisation anisotropy have been performed, but did not show a significant change, while a cooling rate correction was not necessary. 22 mean palaeointensity values derived from the oven-floors show maxima in the 15th and early 17th century AD, followed by a decrease of palaeointensity of about 25% until 1750 AD. The Thellier experiments provided also new characteristic remanent magnetisation directions which were included in the data set. Mean directions have been recalculated. Palaeointensity together with the directions represent a record of about 450 years full vector secular variation. From this full vector data set a secular variation curve has been calculated using a Bayesian modelling taking dating errors, all errors on the field vector and stratigraphy into account. A smooth curve with an error envelope was obtained which compares very well with the gufm1 geomagnetic model (Jackson et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 2000) obtained from historical observations starting at 1600 AD. Comparison of the marginal curve obtained for palaeointensity with a selected data set of archaeomagnetic intensities from Western and Central Europe will be discussed.

  15. Rapidly solidified NiAl and FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Crimp, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Melt spinning was used to produce rapidly solidified ribbons of the B2 intermetallics NiAl and FeAl. Both Fe-40Al and Fe-45Al possessed some bend ductility in the as spun condition. The bend ductility of Fe-40Al, Fe-45Al, and equiatomic NiAl increased with subsequent heat treatment. Heat treatment at approximately 0.85 T (sub m) resulted in significant grain growth in equiatomic FeAl and in all the NiAl compositions. Low bend ductility in both FeAl and NiAl generally coincided with intergranular failure, while increased bend ductility was characterized by increasing amounts of transgranular cleavage fracture.

  16. ALS superbend magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

    2000-09-15

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

  17. Dynamical probe of thermodynamical properties in three-dimensional hairy AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, De-Cheng; Liu, Yunqi; Zhang, Cheng-Yong; Wang, Bin

    2016-11-01

    We study separatively the quasinormal modes (QNM) of electromagnetic perturbations around three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in Jordan and Einstein frames, which are related by the conformal transformations and a redefinition of a scalar field. We find that, in the Jordan frame, the imaginary parts of QNM frequencies can reflect the thermodynamical stabilities of hairy black holes, including the possible phase transition between the hairy black hole and BTZ black hole, disclosed by examining the corresponding free energies. Similar results are also uncovered in the Einstein frame. The obtained results further support that the QNM can be a dynamic probe of the thermodynamic properties in black holes.

  18. Localized AdS_{5}×S^{5} Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Dias, Óscar J C; Santos, Jorge E; Way, Benson

    2016-10-07

    According to heuristic arguments, global AdS_{5}×S^{5} black holes are expected to undergo a phase transition in the microcanonical ensemble. At high energies, one expects black holes that respect the symmetries of the S^{5}; at low energies, one expects "localized" black holes that appear pointlike on the S^{5}. According to anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on a 3-sphere should therefore exhibit spontaneous R-symmetry breaking at strong coupling. In this Letter, we numerically construct these localized black holes. We extrapolate the location of this phase transition, and compute the expectation value of the broken scalar operator with lowest conformal dimension. Via the correspondence, these results offer quantitative predictions for N=4 SYM theory.

  19. Resurgence of the dressing phase for AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Dorigoni, Daniele; Savin, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the resummation of the strong coupling asymptotic expansion of the dressing phase of the AdS5 × S5 superstring. The dressing phase proposed by Beisert, Eden and Staudacher can be recovered from a modified Borel-Ecalle resummation of this asymptotic expansion only by completing it with new, non-perturbative and exponentially suppressed terms that can be organized into different sectors labelled by an instanton-like number. We compute the contribution to the dressing phase coming from the sum over all the instanton sectors and show that it satisfies the homogeneous crossing symmetry equation. We comment on the semiclassical origin of the non-perturbative terms from the world-sheet theory point of view even though their precise explanation remains still quite mysterious.

  20. Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of dyonic charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Das, Anirban; Sengupta, Gautam

    2017-02-01

    We investigate phase transitions and critical phenomena of four dimensional dyonic charged AdS black holes in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. In a mixed canonical-grand canonical ensemble with a fixed electric charge and varying magnetic charge these black holes exhibit a liquid-gas like first order phase transition culminating in a second order critical point similar to the van der Waals gas. We show that the thermodynamic scalar curvature R for these black holes follow our proposed geometrical characterization of the R-crossing Method for the first order liquid-gas like phase transition and exhibits a divergence at the second order critical point. The pattern of R crossing and divergence exactly corresponds to those of a van der Waals gas described by us in an earlier work.

  1. Holographic p-Wave Superconductors in Quintessence AdS Black Hole Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song-Bai; Pan, Qi-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    We construct a holographic p-wave superconductor model in the background of quintessence AdS black hole with an SU(2) Yang—Mills gauge field and then probe the effects of quintessence on the holographic p-wave superconductor. We investigate the relation between the critical temperature and the state parameter of quintessence, and present the numerical results for electric conductivity. It is shown that the condensation of the vector field becomes harder as the absolute value of the state parameter increases. Unlike the scalar condensate in the s-wave model, the condensation of the vector field in p-wave model can occur in the total value range of the state parameter wq of quintessence. These results could help us know more about holographic superconductor and dark energy.

  2. Holographic antiferromagnetic quantum criticality and AdS2 scaling limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Run-Qiu; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2015-08-01

    A holographic description on the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by the magnetic field and the criticality in the vicinity of the quantum critical point have been investigated numerically recently. In this paper, we show that the properties of QPT in this holographic model are governed by a CFT dual to the emergent AdS2 in the IR region, which confirms that the dual boundary theory is a strong coupling theory with dynamic exponent z =2 and logarithmic corrections appearing. We also compare them with the results from the Hertz model by solving the RG equation at its upper critical dimension and with some experimental data from pyrochlores Er2 -2 xY2 xTi2 O7 and BiCoPO5 .

  3. Holographic cusped Wilson loops in q-deformed AdS5 × S5 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Hui-Huang; Wu, Jun-Bao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a minimal surface in q-deformed AdS5×S5 with a cusp boundary is studied in detail. This minimal surface is dual to a cusped Wilson loop in dual field theory. We find that the area of the minimal surface has both logarithmic squared divergence and logarithmic divergence. The logarithmic squared divergence cannot be removed by either Legendre transformation or the usual geometric subtraction. We further make an analytic continuation to the Minkowski signature, taking the limit such that the two edges of the cusp become light-like, and extract the anomalous dimension from the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence. This anomalous dimension goes back smoothly to the results in the undeformed case when we take the limit that the deformation parameter goes to zero. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105154, 11222549, 11275207), K. C. Wong Education Foundation and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS

  4. Massless sector of AdS3 superstrings: A geometric interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanella, Andrea; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    We study the recently discovered q -deformed Poincaré supersymmetry of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable massless scattering, and demonstrate how the S -matrix is invariant under boosts. The boost generator has a nonlocal coproduct, which acts on the scattering matrix as a differential operator, annihilating it. We propose to reinterpret the boost action in terms of covariant derivatives on bundles, and derive an expression for the S -matrix as the path-ordered exponential of a flat connection. We provide a list of possible alternative interpretations of this emergent geometric picture, including a one-dimensional auxiliary Schrödinger problem. We support our claims by performing a simplified algebraic Bethe ansatz, which bears some resemblance to antiferromagnets.

  5. Holographic fermionic spectrum from Born-Infeld AdS black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we systematically explore the holographic (non-)relativistic fermionic spectrum without/with dipole coupling dual to Born-Infeld anti-de Sitter (BI-AdS) black hole. For the relativistic fermionic fixed point, this holographic fermionic system exhibits non-Fermi liquid behavior. Also, with the increase of BI parameter γ, the non-Fermi liquid becomes even ;more non-Fermi;. When the dipole coupling term is included, we find that the BI term makes it a lot tougher to form the gap. While for the non-relativistic fermionic system with large dipole coupling in BI-AdS background, with the increase of BI parameter, the gap comes into being again.

  6. Charge loss (or the lack thereof) for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of evaporating charged black holes is complicated to model in general, but is nevertheless important since the hints to the Information Loss Paradox and its recent firewall incarnation may lie in understanding more generic geometries than that of Schwarzschild spacetime. Fortunately, for sufficiently large asymptotically flat Reissner-Nordström black holes, the evaporation process can be modeled via a system of coupled linear ordinary differential equations, with charge loss rate governed by Schwinger pair-production process. The same model can be generalized to study the evaporation of AdS Reissner-Nordström black holes with flat horizon. It was recently found that such black holes always evolve towards extremality since charge loss is inefficient. This property is completely opposite to the asymptotically flat case in which the black hole eventually loses its charges and tends towards Schwarzschild limit. We clarify the underlying reason for this different behavior.

  7. Value Added Products from Renewable Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Paul

    2014-07-31

    Cellulosic ethanol is an emerging biofuel that will make strong contributions to American domestic energy needs. In the US midwest the standard method for pretreatment of biomass uses hot acid to deconstruct lignocellulose. While other methods work, they are not in common use. Therefore it is necessary to work within this context to achieve process improvements and reductions in biofuel cost. Technology underlying this process could supplement and even replace commodity enzymes with engineered microbes to convert biomass-derived lignocellulose feedstocks into biofuels and valueadded chemicals. The approach that was used here was based on consolidated bioprocessing. Thermoacidophilic microbes belonging to the Domain Archaea were evaluated and modfied to promote deconvolution and saccharification of lignocellulose. Biomass pretreatment (hot acid) was combined with fermentation using an extremely thermoacidophilic microbial platform. The identity and fate of released sugars was controlled using metabolic blocks combined with added biochemical traits where needed. LC/MS analysis supported through the newly established Nebraska Bioenergy Facility provided general support for bioenergy researchers at the University of Nebraska. The primary project strategy was to use microbes that naturally flourish in hot acid (thermoacidophiles) with conventional biomass pretreatment that uses hot acid. The specific objectives were: to screen thermoacidophilic taxa for the ability to deconvolute lignocellulose and depolymerize associated carbohydrates; evaluate and respond to formation of “inhibitors” that arose during incubation of lignocellulose under heated acidic conditions; identify and engineer “sugar flux channeling and catabolic blocks” that redirect metabolic pathways to maximize sugar concentrations; expand the hydrolytic capacity of extremely thermoacidophilic microbes through the addition of deconvolution traits; and establish the Nebraska Bioenergy Facility (NBF

  8. AdS and ds Entropy from String Junctions or the Function of Junction Conjunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Eva

    Flux compactifications of string theory exhibiting the possibility of discretely tuning the cosmological constant to small values have been constructed. The highly tuned vacua in this discretuum have curvature radii which scale as large powers of the flux quantum numbers, exponential in the number of cycles in the compactiflcation. By the arguments of Susskind/Witten (in the AdS case) and Gibbons/Hawking (in the dS case), we expect correspondingly large entropies associated with these vacua. If they are to provide a dual description of these vacua on their Coulomb branch, branes traded for the flux need to account for this entropy at the appropriate energy scale. In this note, we argue that simple string junctions and webs ending on the branes can account for this large entropy, obtaining a rough estimate for junction entropy that agrees with the existing rough estimates for the spacing of the discretuum. In particular, the brane entropy can account for the (A)dS entropy far away from string scale correspondence limits.

  9. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  10. Three dimensional nonlinear magnetic AdS solutions through topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Momennia, M.; Panahiyan, S.

    2015-09-01

    Inspired by large applications of topological defects in describing different phenomena in physics, and considering the importance of three dimensional solutions in AdS/CFT correspondence, in this paper we obtain magnetic anti-de Sitter solutions of nonlinear electromagnetic fields. We take into account three classes of nonlinear electrodynamic models; first two classes are the well-known Born-Infeld like models including logarithmic and exponential forms and third class is known as the power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics. We investigate the effects of these nonlinear sources on three dimensional magnetic solutions. We show that these asymptotical AdS solutions do not have any curvature singularity and horizon. We also generalize the static metric to the case of rotating solutions and find that the value of the electric charge depends on the rotation parameter. Finally, we consider the quadratic Maxwell invariant as a correction of Maxwell theory and we investigate the effects of nonlinearity as a correction. We study the behavior of the deficit angle in presence of these theories of nonlinearity and compare them with each other. We also show that some cases with negative deficit angle exists which are representing objects with different geometrical structure. We also show that in case of the static only magnetic field exists whereas by boosting the metric to rotating one, electric field appears too.

  11. The Sky is the Limit: Free Boundary Conditions in AdS3 Chern-Simons Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolo, Luis; Sundborg, Bo

    We test the effects of new diffeomorphism invariant boundary terms in SL(2,R)×SL(2,R) Chern-Simons theory. The gravitational interpretation corresponds to free AdS3 boundary conditions, without restrictions on the boundary geometry. The boundary theory is the theory of a string in a target AdS3. Its Virasoro conditions can eliminate ghosts. Generalisations to SL(N,R)×SL(N,R) higher spin theories and many other questions are still unexplored.

  12. Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi and his book of the fixed stars: a journey of re-discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihsan

    2010-10-01

    Al-Şūfı's Book of the Fixed Stars, dating from around AD 964, is one of the most important medieval Arabic treatises on astronomy. This major work contains an extensive star catalog, which lists star co-ordinates and magnitude estimates, as well as detailed star charts. Other topics include descriptions of nebulae, colors of stars and Arabic folk astronomy. Al-Şūfı's book was based on Ptolemy's classical work called the Almagest which was written around A.D. 137. Al-Şūfı updated Ptolemy's stellar longitudes from A.D. 137 to 964 by adding 12 degrees and 42 minutes on Ptolemy's longitude values to allow for precession. However, it is surprising that at present no English translation of al-Şūfı's treatise exists. Therefore this is a Doctorate thesis which includes for the first time a complete English translation of the main parts of al-Şūfı's work as well as a detailed study of this important book. The main topics which have been discussed in this study include a brief biography on al-Şūfı, the extant manuscripts of al-Şūfı's treatise, the structure of the book and star catalogue, and the star maps and charts. One of al-Şūfı's innovations in charting the stars was the production of dual illustrations for each of Ptolemy's constellations. One illustration was as portrayed on a celestial globe. The other illustration was as viewed directly in the night sky. Al-Şūfı's contribution to astronomy was not only limited to writing this book but he was also instrumental in developing the science of astronomy for a very long time. He also contributed to the building of an important observatory in the city of Shiraz as well as constructing many astronomical instruments such as astrolabes and celestial globes. His influence reverberated throughout history reaching as far as the end of the 19th century. This study also includes a major finding which is al-Şūfı's magnitude unique 3-step intermediate magnitude system. Al-Şūfı identified more than one

  13. Fosetyl-al

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fosetyl - al ; CASRN 39148 - 24 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  14. Al Shanker Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  15. Alliance for aging research AD biomarkers work group: structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Jack, Clifford R

    2011-12-01

    Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are increasingly important. All modern AD therapeutic trials employ AD biomarkers in some capacity. In addition, AD biomarkers are an essential component of recently updated diagnostic criteria for AD from the National Institute on Aging--Alzheimer's Association. Biomarkers serve as proxies for specific pathophysiological features of disease. The 5 most well established AD biomarkers include both brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures--cerebrospinal fluid Abeta and tau, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This article reviews evidence supporting the position that MRI is a biomarker of neurodegenerative atrophy. Topics covered include methods of extracting quantitative and semiquantitative information from structural MRI; imaging-autopsy correlation; and evidence supporting diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI measures. Finally, the place of MRI in a hypothetical model of temporal ordering of AD biomarkers is reviewed.

  16. Al Partitioning Patterns and Root Growth as Related to Al Sensitivity and Al Tolerance in Wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, T. D.; Kucukakyuz, K.; Rincon-Zachary, M.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of Al partitioning and accumulation and of the effect of Al on the growth of intact wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots of cultivars that show differential Al sensitivity were conducted. The effects of various Al concentrations on root growth and Al accumulation in the tissue were followed for 24 h. At low external Al concentrations, Al accumulation in the root tips was low and root growth was either unaffected or stimulated. Calculations based on regression analysis of growth and Al accumulation in the root tips predicted that 50% root growth inhibition in the Al-tolerant cv Atlas 66 would be attained when the Al concentrations were 105 [mu]M in the nutrient solution and 376.7 [mu]g Al g-1 dry weight in the tissue. In contrast, in the Al-sensitive cv Tam 105, 50% root growth inhibition would be attained when the Al concentrations were 11 [mu]M in the nutrient solution and 546.2 [mu]g Al g-1 dry weight in the tissue. The data support the hypotheses that differential Al sensitivity correlates with differential Al accumulation in the growing root tissue, and that mechanisms of Al tolerance may be based on strategies to exclude Al from the root meristems. PMID:12223623

  17. Al Sumelat Water Network. Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION AL SUMELAT WATER NETWORK VILLAGE OF AL SUMELAT, IRAQ...Sumelat Water Network Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Al Sumelat Water Network Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq Synopsis Introduction. This report was previously provided on a limited distribution basis

  18. Adding image search capabilities to astronomical archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Peter; Bruggen, Marcus

    VO-Paris Data Centre is a common structure to the Observatory of Paris, in charge of develop-ing Virtual Observatory activities. As a partner in Europlanet-IDIS, VO-Paris contributes to defining the future European VO in Planetary Science. There are two aspects in this program: on one hand, VO-Paris is in charge of the IDIS thematic node "Planetary Dynamics and Extra-Terrestrial Matter", which distributes data resources related to this field, including resources developed by other Europlanet Work Packages. On the other hand, OV-Paris is a partner in the Joint Research Activity (JRA4) which designs the VO infrastructure, and is the co-leader of the task "Added Value Services". VO-Paris baseline in Europlanet-IDIS is to remain as compatible as possible with existing VO systems in Astronomy and Solar Physics, ie to use standards and protocols developed in the IVOA context when they suit the need of Planetary Science, and possibly to propose their extensions whenever the existing standards do not address the usual specific questions in Planetary Science. This approach will allow the rapid design of a registry system, and easy use of tools providing basic functions such as data visualization. Concerning the data resources involved, our aim is to set up a core of data services on which the community will accrete new data resources accessible through VO protocols. This initial core is currently expected to include AMDA (CDPP's service in plasma physics), SSODnet (a semi-VO service being developed at OV-Paris), the PSA (ESA's space missions archive), GhoSST (solid samples spectroscopy developed at LPG), and various topical data bases such as a reference data base set up in LESIA to support the Herschel TNO key-program. The OV-Paris IDIS node can be reached at: http://voparis-europlanet.obspm.fr/ The EuroPlaNet RI project is funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program, grant 228319 "Capacities Specific Programme".

  19. Efficacy of adding folic acid to foods.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Violeta; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-06-01

    In the past, food fortification along with nutritional education and the decrease in food costs relative to income have proven successful in eliminating common nutritional deficiencies. These deficiencies such as goiter, rickets, beriberi, and pellagra have been replaced with an entirely new set of "emergent deficiencies" that were not previously considered a problem [e.g., folate and neural tube defects (NTDs)]. In addition, the different nutrition surveys in so-called affluent countries have identified "shortfalls" of nutrients specific to various age groups and/or physiological status. Complex, multiple-etiology diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and obesity have emerged. Food fortification has proven an effective tool for tackling nutritional deficiencies in populations; but today a more reasonable approach is to use food fortification as a means to support but not replace dietary improvement strategies (i. e. nutritional education campaigns). Folic acid (FA) is a potential relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies. The evidence linking FA to NTD prevention led to the introduction of public health strategies to increase folate intakes: pharmacological supplementation, mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with FA, and the advice to increase the intake of folate-rich foods. It is quite contradictory to observe that, regardless of these findings, there is only limited information on food folate and FA content. Data in Food Composition Tables and Databases are scarce or incomplete. Fortification of staple foods with FA has added difficulty to this task. Globally, the decision to fortify products is left up to individual food manufacturers. Voluntary fortification is a common practice in many countries. Therefore, the "worldwide map of vitamin fortification" may be analyzed. It is important to examine if fortification today really answers to vitamin requirements at different ages and/or physiological states. The

  20. H4 and H5 chondrites from the Rub'al Khali desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.

    1993-06-01

    Based on texture and mineral composition, the highly weathered al-Jimshan chondrite is classed as an S2-shock stage H4 chondrite. The Bir-Hadi and ad-Dahbubah H chondrites are probably not paired with al-Jimshan, and are here respectively classified as H5, shock stage S3 and H5, shock stage S2.

  1. H4 and H5 chondrites from the Rub'al Khali desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krot, Aleksandr N.

    1993-01-01

    Based on texture and mineral composition, the highly weathered al-Jimshan chondrite is classed as an S2-shock stage H4 chondrite. The Bir-Hadi and ad-Dahbubah H chondrites are probably not paired with al-Jimshan, and are here respectively classified as H5, shock stage S3 and H5, shock stage S2.

  2. Introduction to the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nąstase, Horaǧiu

    2015-09-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Background: 1. Elements of quantum field theory and gauge theory; 2. Basics of general relativity. Anti-de Sitter space; 3. Basics of supersymmetry; 4. Basics of supergravity; 5. Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction; 6. Black holes and p-branes; 7. String theory actions and spectra; 8. Elements of conformal field theory; 9. D-branes; Part II. Basics of AdS/CFT for N = 4 SYM vs AdS5 × S5: 10. The AdS/CFT correspondence: motivation, definition and spectra; 11. Witten prescription and 3-point correlator calculations; 12. Holography in Lorentzian signature: Poincaré and global; 13. Solitonic objects in AdS/CFT; 14. Quarks and the Wilson loop; 15. Finite temperature and N = 4 SYM plasmas; 16. Scattering processes and gravitational shockwave limit; 17. The pp-wave correspondence; 18. Spin chains; Part III. AdS/CFT Developments and Gauge-Gravity Dualities: 19. Other conformal cases; 20. The 3 dimensional ABJM model vs. AdS4 × CP3; 21. Gravity duals; 22. Holographic renormalization; 23. RG flow between fixed points; 24. Phenomenological gauge-gravity duality I: AdS/QCD; 25. Phenomenological gauge-gravity duality II: AdS/CMT; 26. Gluon scattering: the Alday-Maldacena prescription; 27. Holographic entanglement entropy: the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription.

  3. Is there potential added value in COSMO-CLM forced by ERA reanalysis data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Claus-Jürgen; Früh, Barbara; Adalatpanah, Fatemeh Davary

    2017-03-01

    An application of the potential added value (PAV) concept suggested by Di Luca et al. (Clim Dyn 40:443-464, 2013a) is applied to ERA Interim driven runs of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. They are performed for the time period 1979-2013 for the EURO-CORDEX domain at horizontal grid resolutions 0.11°, 0.22°, and 0.44° such that the higher resolved model grid fits into the next coarser grid. The concept of the potential added value is applied to annual, seasonal, and monthly means of the 2 m air temperature. Results show the highest potential added value at the run with the finest grid and generally increasing PAV with increasing resolution. The potential added value strongly depends on the season as well as the region of consideration. The gain of PAV is higher enhancing the resolution from 0.44° to 0.22° than from 0.22° to 0.11°. At grid aggregations to 0.88° and 1.76° the differences in PAV between the COSMO-CLM runs on the mentioned grid resolutions are maximal. They nearly vanish at aggregations to even coarser grids. In all cases the PAV is dominated by at least 80% by its stationary part.

  4. Nonvacuum AdS cosmology and comments on gauge theory correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Soumyabrata; Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul; Mukherji, Sudipta; Srivastava, Yogesh K.

    2017-02-01

    Several time dependent backgrounds, with perfect fluid matter, can be used to construct solutions of Einstein equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant along with some matter sources. In this work we focus on the non-vacuum Kasner-AdS geometry and its solitonic generalization. To characterize these space-times, we provide ways to embed them in higher dimensional flat space-times. General space-like geodesics are then studied and used to compute the two point boundary correlators within the geodesic approximation.

  5. Matrix model maps and reconstruction of AdS supergravity interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cremonini, Sera; Mello Koch, Robert de; Jevicki, Antal

    2008-05-15

    We consider the question of reconstructing (cubic) SUGRA interactions in AdS/CFT. The method we introduce is based on the matrix model maps (MMP) which were previously successfully employed at the linearized level. The strategy is to start with the map for 1/2 BPS configurations, which is exactly known (to all orders) in the Hamiltonian framework. We then use the extension of the matrix model map with the corresponding Ward identities to completely specify the interaction. A central point in this construction is the nonvanishing of off-shell interactions (even for highest-weight states)

  6. ALS insertion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1991-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system.

  7. Apical dendrite degeneration, a novel cellular pathology for Betz cells in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Genç, Barış; Jara, Javier H.; Lagrimas, Amiko K. B.; Pytel, Peter; Roos, Raymond P.; Mesulam, M. Marsel; Geula, Changiz; Bigio, Eileen H.; Özdinler, P. Hande

    2017-01-01

    Apical dendrites of Betz cells are important sites for the integration of cortical input, however their health has not been fully assessed in ALS patients. We investigated the primary motor cortices isolated from post-mortem normal control subjects, patients with familial ALS (fALS), sporadic ALS (sALS), ALS with frontotemporal dementia (FTD-ALS), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and found profound apical dendrite degeneration of Betz cells in both fALS and sALS, as well as FTD-ALS patients. In contrast, Betz cells of AD patients and normal controls retain cellular integrity in the motor cortex, and CA1 pyramidal neurons show abnormalities predominantly within their soma, rather than the apical dendrite. In line with extensive vacuolation and cytoarchitectural disintegration, the numbers of synapses were also significantly reduced only in ALS patients. Our findings indicate apical dendrite degeneration as a novel cellular pathology that distinguishes ALS and further support the importance of cortical dysfunction for disease pathology. PMID:28165465

  8. Apical dendrite degeneration, a novel cellular pathology for Betz cells in ALS.

    PubMed

    Genç, Barış; Jara, Javier H; Lagrimas, Amiko K B; Pytel, Peter; Roos, Raymond P; Mesulam, M Marsel; Geula, Changiz; Bigio, Eileen H; Özdinler, P Hande

    2017-02-06

    Apical dendrites of Betz cells are important sites for the integration of cortical input, however their health has not been fully assessed in ALS patients. We investigated the primary motor cortices isolated from post-mortem normal control subjects, patients with familial ALS (fALS), sporadic ALS (sALS), ALS with frontotemporal dementia (FTD-ALS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and found profound apical dendrite degeneration of Betz cells in both fALS and sALS, as well as FTD-ALS patients. In contrast, Betz cells of AD patients and normal controls retain cellular integrity in the motor cortex, and CA1 pyramidal neurons show abnormalities predominantly within their soma, rather than the apical dendrite. In line with extensive vacuolation and cytoarchitectural disintegration, the numbers of synapses were also significantly reduced only in ALS patients. Our findings indicate apical dendrite degeneration as a novel cellular pathology that distinguishes ALS and further support the importance of cortical dysfunction for disease pathology.

  9. String corrections to four point functions in the AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, John H.; Gutperle, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In a string calculation to order α'3, we compute an eight-derivative four-dilaton term in the type IIB effective action. Following the AdS prescription, we compute the order (gYM2Nc)-3/2 correction to the four-point correlation function involving the operator trF2 in four dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills using the string corrected type IIB action extending the work of Freedman et al. (hep-th/9808006). In the limit where two of the Yang-Mills operators approach each other, we find that our correction to the four-point correlation functions develops a logarithmic singularity. We discuss the possible cancellation of this logarithmic singularities by conjecturing new terms in the type IIB effective action.

  10. Behavior of quasinormal modes and high dimension RN-AdS black hole phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabab, M.; Moumni, H. El; Iraoui, S.; Masmar, K.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we use the quasinormal frequencies of a massless scalar perturbation to probe the phase transition of the high dimension charged AdS black hole. The signature of the critical behavior of this black hole solution is detected in the isobaric as well as in isothermal process. This paper is a natural generalization of Liu et al. (JHEP 1409:179, 2014) to higher dimensional spacetime. More precisely our study shows a clear signal for any dimension d in the isobaric process. As to the isothermal case, we find that this signature can be affected by other parameters like the pressure and the horizon radius. We conclude that the quasinormal modes can be an efficient tool to investigate the first-order phase transition, but fail to disclose the signature of the second-order phase transition.

  11. Analytic self-gravitating Skyrmions, cosmological bounces and AdS wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Canfora, Fabrizio; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-gravitating, analytic and globally regular Skyrmion solution of the Einstein-Skyrme system with winding number w = ± 1, in presence of a cosmological constant. The static spacetime metric is the direct product R ×S3 and the Skyrmion is the self-gravitating generalization of the static hedgehog solution of Manton and Ruback with unit topological charge. This solution can be promoted to a dynamical one in which the spacetime is a cosmology of the Bianchi type-IX with time-dependent scale and squashing coefficients. Remarkably, the Skyrme equations are still identically satisfied for all values of these parameters. Thus, the complete set of field equations for the Einstein-Skyrme-Λ system in the topological sector reduces to a pair of coupled, autonomous, nonlinear differential equations for the scale factor and a squashing coefficient. These equations admit analytic bouncing cosmological solutions in which the universe contracts to a minimum non-vanishing size, and then expands. A non-trivial byproduct of this solution is that a minor modification of the construction gives rise to a family of stationary, regular configurations in General Relativity with negative cosmological constant supported by an SU (2) nonlinear sigma model. These solutions represent traversable AdS wormholes with NUT parameter in which the only "exotic matter" required for their construction is a negative cosmological constant.

  12. Gribov ambiguity in asymptotically AdS three-dimensional gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Anabalon, Andres; Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio

    2011-03-15

    In this paper the zero modes of the de Donder gauge Faddeev-Popov operator for three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant are analyzed. It is found that the AdS{sub 3} vacuum produces (infinitely many) normalizable smooth zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator. On the other hand, it is found that the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole (including the zero mass black hole) does not generate zero modes. This differs from the usual Gribov problem in QCD where, close to the maximally symmetric vacuum, the Faddeev-Popov determinant is positive definite while 'far enough' from the vacuum it can vanish. This suggests that the zero mass Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole could be a suitable ground state of three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Because of the kinematic origin of this result, it also applies for other covariant gravity theories in three dimensions with AdS{sub 3} as maximally symmetric solution, such as new massive gravity and topologically massive gravity. The relevance of these results for supersymmetry breaking is pointed out.

  13. Symplectic and Killing symmetries of AdS3 gravity: holographic vs boundary gravitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, G.; Mao, P.; Seraj, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The set of solutions to the AdS3 Einstein gravity with Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions is known to be a family of metrics labeled by two arbitrary periodic functions, respectively left and right-moving. It turns out that there exists an appropriate presymplectic form which vanishes on-shell. This promotes this set of metrics to a phase space in which the Brown-Henneaux asymptotic symmetries become symplectic symmetries in the bulk of spacetime. Moreover, any element in the phase space admits two global Killing vectors. We show that the conserved charges associated with these Killing vectors commute with the Virasoro symplectic symmetry algebra, extending the Virasoro symmetry algebra with two U(1) generators. We discuss that any element in the phase space falls into the coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro algebras and that each orbit is labeled by the U(1) Killing charges. Upon setting the right-moving function to zero and restricting the choice of orbits, one can take a near-horizon decoupling limit which preserves a chiral half of the symplectic symmetries. Here we show two distinct but equivalent ways in which the chiral Virasoro symplectic symmetries in the near-horizon geometry can be obtained as a limit of the bulk symplectic symmetries.

  14. Puzzles of η-deformed AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Borsato, Riccardo; Frolov, Sergey

    2015-12-01

    We derive the part of the Lagrangian for the sigma model on the η-deformed AdS5 × S5 space which is quadratic in fermions and has the full dependence on bosons. We then show that there exists a field redefinition which brings the corresponding La-grangian to the standard form of type IIB Green-Schwarz superstring. Reading off the corresponding RR couplings, we observe that they fail to satisfy the supergravity equations of motion, despite the presence of κ-symmetry. However, in a special scaling limit our solution reproduces the supergravity background found by Maldacena and Russo. Further, using the fermionic Lagrangian, we compute a number of new matrix elements of the tree level world-sheet scattering matrix. We then show that after a unitary transformation on the basis of two-particle states which is not one-particle factorisable, the corresponding T-matrix factorises into two equivalent parts. Each part satisfies the classical Yang-Baxter equation and coincides with the large tension limit of the q-deformed S-matrix.

  15. Static structures of the BCS-like holographic superfluid in AdS4 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shanquan; Liu, Wenbiao; Tian, Yu

    2017-03-01

    We investigate in detail the m2=0 Abelian Higgs model in AdS4 , which is considered as the holographic dual of the most BCS-like superfluid. In homogeneous and isotropic superfluid solutions, we calculate the fourth-sound speeds, the square of which approaches 1 /2 with increasing chemical potential (lowering temperature). Then we present the single dark soliton solutions, which becomes thinner with increasing chemical potential. For the first time, we also find the interesting double and triple dark soliton solutions, which is unexpected and shows the possibility of more complicated static configurations. Finally, we investigate vortex solutions. For winding number n =1 , the vortex becomes thinner with increasing chemical potential. At a given chemical potential, with increasing winding number, first the vortex becomes bigger and the charge density depletion becomes larger, and then the charge density depletion settles down at a certain value and the growth of the vortex size is found to obey a scaling symmetry.

  16. Quantization of the AdS3 superparticle on OSP (1 | 2) 2 / SL (2 , R)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George

    2017-02-01

    We analyze AdS3 superparticle dynamics on the coset OSP (1 | 2) × OSP (1 | 2) / SL (2 , R). The system is quantized in canonical coordinates obtained by gauge invariant Hamiltonian reduction. The left and right Noether charges of a massive particle are parametrized by coadjoint orbits of a timelike element of osp (1 | 2). Each chiral sector is described by two bosonic and two fermionic canonical coordinates corresponding to a superparticle with superpotential W = q - m / q, where m is the particle mass. Canonical quantization then provides a quantum realization of osp (1 | 2) ⊕ osp (1 | 2). For the massless particle the chiral charges lie on the coadjoint orbit of a nilpotent element of osp (1 | 2) and each of them depends only on one real fermion, which demonstrates the underlying κ-symmetry. These remaining left and right fermionic variables form a canonical pair and the system is described by four bosonic and two fermionic canonical coordinates. Due to conformal invariance of the massless particle, the osp (1 | 2) ⊕ osp (1 | 2) extends to the corresponding superconformal algebra osp (2 | 4). Its 19 charges are given by all real quadratic combinations of the canonical coordinates, which trivializes their quantization.

  17. Warped AdS 6 × S 2 in Type IIB supergravity I: local solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the existence of solutions with 16 residual supersymmetries to Type IIB supergravity on a space-time of the formc AdS 6× S 2 warped over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ. The SO(2 , 5) × SO(3) isometry extends to invariance under the exceptional Lie superalgebra F (4). In the present paper, we construct the general Ansatz compatible with these symmetries, derive the corresponding reduced BPS equations, and obtain their complete local solution in terms of two locally holomorphic functions {A}_{± } on Σ, subject to certain positivity and regularity conditions. Globally, ( {A}+ , {A}- ) are allowed to be multiple-valued on Σ and be holomorphic sections of a holomorphic bundle over Σ with structure group contained in SU(1,1)× C . Globally regular solutions are expected to provide the near-horizon geometry of ( p, q) 5-brane and 7-brane webs which are holographic duals to five-dimensional conformal field theories. A preliminary analysis of the positivity and regularity conditions will be presented here, leaving the construction of globally regular solutions to a subsequent paper.

  18. Searching for AdS3 waves and asymptotically Lifshitz black holes in R3 new massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiou, Giorgos G.; Setare, M. R.; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the structure of the AdS3 vacua in R3 expansion of new massive gravity (R3-NMG). We obtain the degeneracies of the AdS3 vacua at several points of the parametric space. Additionally, following a specific analysis we show that AdS3 wave solutions are present. Using these wave solutions, we single out two special points of the parametric space for which logarithmic terms appear in the solutions. The first one is a point at which the effective mass of the wave profile, which is interpreted as a scalar mode, completely saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound of the AdS3 space in which the wave is propagating. The second special point is a point at which the central charge of the theory vanishes. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of asymptotically Lifshitz black hole solutions to be present in the three-dimensional R3-NMG. We derive analytically the Lifshitz vacua considering specific relations between the mass parameters of R3-NMG. A certain polynomial equation arises at the first special point where solutions with logarithmic falloff in the AdS3 space appear. Solving this polynomial equation, we obtain the values of the dynamical exponent z which correspond to possible asymptotically Lifshitz black hole solutions. However, it is shown that asymptotically Lifshitz black hole solutions do not exist in the three-dimensional R3-NMG for a specific ansatz of the black hole metric.

  19. Cooperative Multi-Agent Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    COOPERATIVE MULTI - AGENT SYSTEMS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS Joseph P. Macker William Chao Myriam Abramson Ian Downard Information Technology Division...are, mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) and Multi - Agent Systems (MAS). Despite their value in enabling more autonomous network system operation...2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cooperative Multi - Agent Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  20. ``A red cross appeared in the sky'' and other celestial signs: Presumable European aurorae in the mid AD 770s were halo displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, D. L.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of the strong 14C variation around AD 775 as one (or several) solar super-flare(s) by, e.g., Usoskin et al. (2013) is based on alleged aurora sightings in the mid AD 770s in Europe: A red cross/crucifix in AD 773/4/6 from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, inflamed shields in AD 776 (both listed in the aurora catalogue of Link 1962), and riders on white horses in AD 773 (newly proposed as aurora in Usoskin et al. 2013), the two latter from the Royal Frankish Annals. We discuss the reports about these three sightings in detail here. We can show that all three can be interpreted convincingly as halo displays: The red cross or crucifix is formed by the horizontal arc and a vertical pillar of light (either with the Sun during sunset or with the moon after sunset); the inflamed shields and the riders on white horses were both two mock suns, especially the latter narrated in form of a Christian adaptation of the antique dioscuri motive. While the latter event took place early in AD 774 (dated AD 773 in Usoskin et al. 2013), the two other sightings have to be dated AD 776, i.e. anyway too late for being in connection with a 14C rise that started before AD 775. We also sketch the ideological background of those sightings and there were many similar reports throughout that time. In addition, we present a small drawing of a lunar halo display with horizontal arc and vertical pillar forming a cross for shortly later, namely AD 806 June 4, the night of full moon, also from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; we also show historic observations of halo phenomena (mock suns and crosses) from G. Kirch and Hevelius - and a modern photograph.

  1. Light-Front Holography and AdS/QCD Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2008-04-23

    Light-Front Holography is a remarkable consequence of the correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical-space time. It allows string modes {Phi}(z) in the AdS fifth dimension to be precisely mapped to the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in terms of a specific light-front impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron. This mapping was originally obtained by matching the exact expression for electromagnetic current matrix elements in AdS space with the corresponding exact expression for the current matrix element using light-front theory in physical space-time. More recently we have shown that one obtains the identical holographic mapping using matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor, thus providing an important consistency test and verification of holographic mapping from AdS to physical observables defined on the light-front. The resulting light-front Schrodinger equations predicted from AdS/QCD give a good representation of the observed meson and baryon spectra and give excellent phenomenological predictions for amplitudes such as electromagnetic form factors and decay constants.

  2. The ADS in the Information Age - Impact on Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) grew up with and has been riding the waves of the Information Age, closely monitoring and anticipating the needs of its end-users. By now, all professional astronomers are using the ADS on a daily basis, and a substantial fraction have been using it for their entire professional career. In addition to being an indispensable tool for professional scientists, the ADS also moved into the public domain, as a tool for science education. In this paper we will highlight and discuss some aspects indicative of the impact the ADS has had on research and the access to scholarly publications.

  3. Long-term variations in natural, terrestrial VOC emissions: 1000-1990 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, J. C.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-12-01

    ). We evaluate the long-term response of terrestrial BVOC emission activity to variations in land-use change and climatic factors, and find that compared to preindustrial times (1000-1800 A.D.), global isoprene emissions have decreased 8%, monoterpenes emissions have increased 10% and sesquiterpenes emissions have increased 15% during the time period 1950-1990 A.D.. The results suggest that the variation of isoprene emissions is governed by land-use changes, while monoterpenenes and sesquiterpenes variations are dominated by climate variability. Adams, J.M. (2001). Chemosphere - Global Change Science, 3, 73-91 J.H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis. (1998). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Wiley, New York Jimenez, J. L. et al. (2009). Science, 326, 1525-1529 Kaplan, J. O. et al (2010). The Holocene 21(5), 775-791 Guenther, A. et al. (1995). J. Geophys. Res., 100, 8873-8892 Hoyle, C. R. et al. (2011). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 321-343 A. Guenther et al. (2006). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6:3181-3210 J. H. Jungclaus et al. (2010). Climate of the Past, 6:723-737

  4. 40Ar/39Ar ages of the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, Marvin A.; Champion, Duane E.; Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; Tedesco, Dario; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    The Italian volcano, Vesuvius, erupted explosively in AD 79. Sanidine from pumice collected at Casti Amanti in Pompeii and Villa Poppea in Oplontis yielded a weighted-mean 40Ar/39Ar age of 1925±66 years in 2004 (1σ uncertainty) from incremental-heating experiments of eight aliquants of sanidine. This is the calendar age of the eruption. Our results together with the work of Renne et al. (1997) and Renne and Min (1998) demonstrate the validity of the 40Ar/39Ar method to reconstruct the recent eruptive history of young, active volcanoes.

  5. 40Ar/39Ar ages of the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanphere, Marvin; Champion, Duane; Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo; Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; Tedesco, Dario; Calvert, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The Italian volcano, Vesuvius, erupted explosively in AD 79. Sanidine from pumice collected at Casti Amanti in Pompeii and Villa Poppea in Oplontis yielded a weighted-mean 40Ar/39Ar age of 1925±66 years in 2004 (1σ uncertainty) from incremental-heating experiments of eight aliquants of sanidine. This is the calendar age of the eruption. Our results together with the work of Renne et al. (1997) and Renne and Min (1998) demonstrate the validity of the 40Ar/39Ar method to reconstruct the recent eruptive history of young, active volcanoes.

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why is it necessary to provide my Social Security Number (SSN) when registering in the National ALS ... Why is it necessary to provide my Social Security Number (SSN) when registering in the National ALS ...

  7. Removing Al and regenerating caustic soda from the spent washing liquor of Al etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Farghly, F. E.

    2005-08-01

    Spent liquor from washing of aluminum section materials after etching with caustic soda (NaOH) has been treated. Aluminum was removed from the liquor and caustic soda was regenerated by adding precipitating agents to hydrolyze sodium aluminate (Na2AlO2), separating the aluminumprecipitate, and concentrating free NaOH in the resulting solution for reuse in the etching process. Four systems were investigated: hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2], hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2/Ca(OH)2 mixture, and dry lime (CaO). Results revealed that CaO was more efficient in the removal of aluminum from the spent liquor with a higher hydrolyzing rate of Na2AlO2 than Ca(OH)2, H2O2, or their mixture.

  8. A requiem for AdS4×C P3 fermionic self-T duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Colgáin, E.; Pittelli, A.

    2016-11-01

    Strong evidence for dual superconformal symmetry in N =6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory has fueled expectations that the AdS /CFT dual geometry AdS4×C P3 is self-dual under T duality. We revisit the problem to identify commuting bosonic and fermionic isometries in a systematic fashion and show that fermionic T duality, a symmetry originally proposed by Berkovits and Maldacena, inevitably leads to a singularity in the dilaton transformation. We show that TsT deformations commute with fermionic T duality and comment on T duality in the corresponding sigma model. Our results rule out self-duality based on fermionic T duality for AdS4×C P3 or its TsT deformations but leave the door open for new possibilities.

  9. Effect of Cu Addition to Zn-12Al Alloy on Thermal Properties and Wettability on Cu and Al Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Mosińska, Sylwia; Pawlak, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    The thermal properties, electrical resistivity, thermal linear expansion and tensile strength of a new high-temperature lead-free solder based on a eutectic Zn-Al alloy with 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 at. pct Cu added were studied. Wettability studies on Cu substrate were performed with flux at 773 K (500 °C) for 60, 180, 240, 900, 1800, and 3600 seconds, and for 480 seconds at 733 K, 753 K, 773 K, 793 K, and 823 K (460 °C, 480 °C, 500 °C, 520 °C, and 550 °C, respectively). The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of the addition of Cu on the kinetics of the formation and growth of the CuZn, Cu5Zn8, CuZn4, and Al4Cu9 phases, which were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Wetting tests were also performed on the Al substrate, for 15 and 30 seconds at 773 K and 793 K (500 °C and 520 °C, respectively). Very low contact angles on Al pads were obtained. The electrical resistivity of Zn-Al-Cu alloys was slightly higher than that of the ZnAl eutectic alloy. The present results are discussed with respect to the available literature on Zn-Al and Zn-Al-Cu alloys.

  10. The AD 365 earthquake: high resolution tsunami inundation for Crete and full scale simulation exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalligeris, N.; Flouri, E.; Okal, E.; Synolakis, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the eastern Mediterranean, historical and archaeological records document major earthquake and tsunami events in the past 2000 year (Ambraseys and Synolakis, 2010). The 1200km long Hellenic Arc has allegedly caused the strongest reported earthquakes and tsunamis in the region. Among them, the AD 365 and AD 1303 tsunamis have been extensively documented. They are likely due to ruptures of the Central and Eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, respectively. Both events had widespread impact due to ground shaking, and e triggered tsunami waves that reportedly affected the entire eastern Mediterranean. The seismic mechanism of the AD 365 earthquake, located in western Crete, has been recently assigned a magnitude ranging from 8.3 to 8.5 by Shaw et al., (2008), using historical, sedimentological, geomorphic and archaeological evidence. Shaw et al (2008) have inferred that such large earthquakes occur in the Arc every 600 to 800 years, with the last known the AD 1303 event. We report on a full-scale simulation exercise that took place in Crete on 24-25 October 2011, based on a scenario sufficiently large to overwhelm the emergency response capability of Greece and necessitating the invocation of the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) of the EU and triggering help from other nations . A repeat of the 365 A.D. earthquake would likely overwhelm the civil defense capacities of Greece. Immediately following the rupture initiation it will cause substantial damage even to well-designed reinforced concrete structures in Crete. Minutes after initiation, the tsunami generated by the rapid displacement of the ocean floor would strike nearby coastal areas, inundating great distances in areas of low topography. The objective of the exercise was to help managers plan search and rescue operations, identify measures useful for inclusion in the coastal resiliency index of Ewing and Synolakis (2011). For the scenario design, the tsunami hazard for the AD 365 event was assessed for

  11. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  12. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  13. Effect of catalyst preparation conditions on the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene over Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Lin, Shiow-Shyung; Liu, Tuan-Chi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of preparation conditions on the catalytic properties of the Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. The work included catalyst preparations and reactions. In the preparations, cobalt-impregnated Mo/gamma-Al2O3 (designated as IcIM) was found to have a promoting effect on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. Activity and stability of IcIM was higher than that of Mo/gamma-Al2O3. Conversely, when cobalt was added onto Mo/gamma-Al2O3 by the mechanical mixing method, no promoting effect was observed. Mo/gamma-Al2O3 was also prepared using the two different methods (incipient impregnation or mechanical mixing). The differently prepared Mo/gamma-Al203 resulted in no obvious difference in activity of IcIM. It was further found that Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 activity initially increased appreciably with Mo content and leveled off at Mo contents above 9 wt.%. The catalyst exhibited a maximum activity at Co/Mo ratio 0.3. The order in which metal species were added had a great influence on the activity of the Co-Mo/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst. Higher activity was obtained when Co was added into Mo/gamma-Al2O3 as opposed to Mo added into Co/gamma-Al2O3.

  14. Want Ads, Job Skills, and Curriculum: A Survey of 1998 Chemistry Help-Wanted Ads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, Kurt L.

    2001-09-01

    Employer surveys are useful checks on how well we are preparing students for the working world. Employer surveys are also useful because they put curriculum deficiencies into terms that are readily understood; they can thus be a catalyst for curriculum reform. This study classified 2035 chemistry jobs advertized in newspapers across the USA in the fall of 1998 according to job type, employment sector, industry, type of chemistry principally involved, and academic background and experience desired. Job ads were also searched for keywords denoting a broad range of instrumentation and techniques, personality traits, and general work skills and experience. The total of 7872 keywords, an average of 3.9 per job, indicates that employers are looking for more than just a B.S. in chemistry.

  15. Charged rotating AdS black holes with Chern-Simons coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Mozhgan; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    We obtain a perturbative solution for rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with a negative cosmological constant. We start from a small undeformed Kerr-AdS solution and use the electric charge as a perturbative parameter to build up black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta up to fourth order. These black hole solutions are described by three parameters, the charge, horizon radius and horizon angular velocity. We determine the physical quantities of these black holes and study their dependence on the parameters of black holes and arbitrary Chern-Simons coefficient. In particular, for values of the CS coupling constant beyond its supergravity value, due to a rotational instability, counterrotating black holes arise. Also the rotating solutions appear to have vanishing angular momenta and are not manifest uniquely by their global charges.

  16. Boundary values of mixed-symmetry massless fields in AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekmenev, Alexander; Grigoriev, Maxim

    2016-12-01

    We elaborate on the ambient space approach to boundary values of AdSd+1 gauge fields and apply it to massless fields of mixed-symmetry type. In the most interesting case of odd-dimensional bulk the respective leading boundary values are conformal gauge fields subject to the invariant equations. Our approach gives a manifestly conformal and gauge covariant formulation for these fields. Although such formulation employs numerous auxiliary fields, it comes with a systematic procedure for their elimination that results in a more concise formulation involving only a reasonable set of auxiliaries, which eventually (at least in principle) can be reduced to the minimal formulation in terms of the irreducible Lorentz tensors. The simplest mixed-symmetry field, namely, the rank-3 tensor associated to the two-row Young diagram, is considered in some details.

  17. Stellar survivor from explosion in 1572 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    burned-out 'white dwarf' star. The normal star spills material onto the dwarf, eventually triggering an explosion. The results of this research, led by Pilar Ruiz-Lapuente of the University of Barcelona, Spain, are published in the 28 October issue of the British science journal Nature. "There was no previous evidence pointing to any specific kind of companion star out of the many that had been proposed. Here we have identified a clear path: the feeding star is similar to our sun, but slightly older," said Ruiz-Lapuente. "The high speed of the star called our attention to it," she added. Type Ia supernovae are used to measure the history of the expansion rate of the Universe and so are fundamental in helping astronomers understand the behaviour of 'dark energy', an unknown force that is accelerating the expansion of the Universe. Finding evidence to confirm the theory as to how Type Ia supernovae explode is critical to assuring astronomers that the objects can be better understood as reliable calibrators of the expansion of space. Although today's astronomers are looking at this event 432 years too late, they were still able to see a star rushing away from the location of the explosion (which is now enveloped in a vast bubble of hot gas called 'Tycho's Supernova Remnant'). The runaway star and its surroundings have been studied with a variety of telescopes for the past seven years. The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope played a key role in the process by measuring the star's motion against the sky background precisely. The star is breaking the speed limit for that particular region of the Milky Way Galaxy by moving three times faster than the surrounding stars. When the system was disrupted by the white dwarf's explosion, the companion star went hurtling off into space, like a stone thrown by a sling, retaining the velocity of its orbital motion. However there are alternative explanations for this motion. It could be falling into the region from the galactic halo that

  18. Very low archeointensities found for Suriname from 670 to 960 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, L. V.; Ramcharan, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic field models predict dipole moments higher than today for the past ~3000 years (e.g. Korte et al., 2011). These models are based on data that is geographically biased towards certain regions on the Northern hemisphere; the Southern hemisphere and equatorial regions are currently underrepresented. Here we present archeointensity data obtained from potsherds from the Wageningen-1 mound on the Northwest coast of Suriname (5.8°N 56.7°W); this settlement of the Hertenrits culture was excavated in the 1970s. We obtained potsherds from six levels between 0.75 - 3 meter below the surface, corresponding to 960 and 670 AD respectively (Versteeg, 2003, p. 269-270) based on four radiocarbon datings. The remanent magnetization is carried by small pseudo-single domain grains, is stable, and small overprints are typically removed below 150 °C. Archeointensities were obtained using the IZZI-Thellier protocol; laboratory alteration was monitored by pTRM checks and pTRM Tail checks. All 23 technically acceptable archeointensities (out of 52 samples measured) are very low: between 8.0 and 18.5 μT. A trend is suggested from an average of 10-12 μT at ~700 AD, to ~18 μT at ~950 AD. This corresponds to VADMs from ~28 at ~700 AD to ~47 ZAm2 at ~950 AD. This dramatically contradicts field model predictions that range from 38-39 μT (PFM9K.1b) to 38-46 μT (SHA.DIF.14k) for this location and the same ages. Our results predate the occurrence of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) by 500-1000 years; without a longer record it is difficult to decide whether our reported lows are a different discrete geomagnetic feature, or whether they are a precursor of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  19. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Measuring Teacher Quality with Value-Added Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Using computers to evaluate teachers based on student test scores is more difficult than it seems. Value-added modeling is a genuinely serious attempt to grapple with the difficulties. Value-added modeling carries the promise of measuring teacher quality automatically and objectively, and improving school systems at minimal cost. The essence of…