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Sample records for ad libitum conditions

  1. Quantifying hepatic glycogen synthesis by direct and indirect pathways in rats under normal ad libitum feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana F; Viega, Francisco J; Carvalho, Rui A; Jones, John G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic glycogen synthesis from intact hexose (direct pathway) relative to that from gluconeogenic precursors (indirect pathway) was quantified in ad libitum-fed rats. Following (2)H(2)O administration and overnight feeding, the livers were removed and glycogen (2)H-enrichment was measured by (2)H NMR. Six controls and six rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (STZ; fasting blood glucose = 385 +/- 31 mg/dl) were studied. The indirect pathway contribution, estimated as glycogen hydrogen 5 relative to hydrogen 2 enrichment, was 54% +/- 4% for control rats-similar to values from healthy, meal-fed humans. In STZ-treated rats, the indirect pathway contribution was significantly higher (68% +/- 4%, P < 0.05 vs. controls), similar to that of Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. In conclusion, sources of hepatic glycogen synthesis in rats during ad libitum nocturnal feeding were quantified by analysis of glycogen enrichment from (2)H(2)O. STZ caused alterations resembling the pathophysiology of hepatic glycogen synthesis in T1D patients.

  2. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  3. Brisk walking reduces ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters during a workplace simulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2012-02-01

    Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15 years, BMI: 23.56±3.78 kg/m(2) abstained for 2 days. They were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, involving either a 15 min brisk walk or quiet rest, and then computerised Stroop tasks with low or high demanding conditions, in three 180 s blocks with a 90 s interval. Throughout, a pre-weighed bowl of chocolates was available for ad libitum eating. A two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction effect of exercise and stress on total chocolate consumption, or main effect of stress, but a main effect of exercise [F(1, 74)=7.12, p<.01]. Mean (SD) chocolate consumption was less (t(73.5)=2.69, 95% CI for difference 3.4-22.9, ES=0.61) for the exercise (15.6 g) than control (28.8 g) group. Exercise also increased affective activation, but there was no mediating effect of change in affect on chocolate consumption. A brief walk may help to reduce ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters. PMID:22100187

  4. Walking reduces cue-elicited cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and delays ad libitum smoking.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adrian; Katomeri, Magdalena

    2007-11-01

    Stress and exposure to smoking cues influence smoking cravings and behavior. Exercise appears to reduce cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms, but no study has investigated the effects of exercise on cue-elicited cravings and withdrawal symptoms, or ad libitum smoking behavior. In this study, 60 regular smokers, invited by public advertisements, were assessed at baseline following 2 hr of abstinence, and randomized to a 15-min brisk walk or passive condition. Both groups then completed three tasks (Stroop color-word interference task, speech task, and handling a lit cigarette). Cravings were assessed with two single items, and withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the seven-item Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. After the laboratory session, ad libitum smoking was determined from the subject's cell phone text message. Exercise (mean heart rate reserve = 24%) attenuated increases in strength of desire to smoke, tension, poor concentration, and stress, in response to a lit cigarette, but had minimal effects on increases in cravings and withdrawal symptoms in response to the stressors. Absolute levels of cravings and withdrawal symptoms were reduced during and following exercise. Exercisers engaged in ad libitum smoking a net 57 min (CI = 31-83) later than those in the passive condition. A 15-min brisk walk not only reduced cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms but also could attenuate increases in cue-elicited cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and increase the time between cigarettes smoked.

  5. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. PMID:24971700

  6. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  7. Spending one's time: the hedonic principle in ad libitum viewing of pictures.

    PubMed

    Kron, Assaf; Pilkiw, Maryna; Goldstein, Ariel; Lee, Daniel H; Gardhouse, Katherine; Anderson, Adam K

    2014-12-01

    The hedonic principle maintains that humans strive to maximize pleasant feelings and avoid unpleasant feelings. Surprisingly, and contrary to hedonic logic, previous experiments have demonstrated a relationship between picture viewing time and arousal (activation) but not with valence (pleasure vs. displeasure), suggesting that arousal rather than the hedonic principle accounts for how individuals choose to spend their time. In 2 experiments we investigated the arousal and hedonic principles underlying viewing time behavior while controlling for familiarity with stimuli, picture complexity, and demand characteristics. Under ad libitum conditions of picture viewing, we found strong relationships between viewing time, valence, and facial corrugator electomyographic (EMG) activity with familiar but not novel pictures. Viewing time of novel stimuli was largely associated with arousal and visual complexity. We conclude that only after initial information about the stimulus is gathered, where we choose to spend our time is guided by the hedonic principle.

  8. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance. PMID:25220020

  9. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance.

  10. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  11. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake.

  12. A return to ad libitum feeding following caloric restriction promotes hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Linden, Melissa A; Fletcher, Justin A; Meers, Grace M; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2016-09-01

    Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats develop obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but lifestyle modifications, such as caloric restriction (CR), can prevent these conditions. We sought to determine if prior CR had protective effects on metabolic health and NAFLD development following a 4-wk return to ad libitum (AL) feeding. Four-week-old male OLETF rats (n = 8-10/group) were fed AL for 16 wk (O-AL), CR for 16 wk (O-CR; ∼70% kcal of O-AL), or CR for 12 wk followed by 4 wk of AL feeding (O-AL4wk). CR-induced benefit in prevention of NAFLD, including reduced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and markers of Kupffer cell activation/number, was largely lost in AL4wk rats. These findings occurred in conjunction with a partial loss of CR-induced beneficial effects on obesity and serum triglycerides in O-AL4wk rats, but in the absence of changes in serum glucose or insulin. CR-induced increases in hepatic mitochondrial respiration remained significantly elevated (P < 0.01) in O-AL4wk compared with O-AL rats, while mitochondrial [1-(14)C]palmitate oxidation, citrate synthase activity, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity did not differ among OLETF groups. NAFLD development in O-AL4wk rats was accompanied by increases in the protein content of the de novo lipogenesis markers fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and decreases in phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC)/ACC compared with O-CR rats (P < 0.05 for each). The beneficial effects of chronic CR on NAFLD development were largely lost with 4 wk of AL feeding in the hyperphagic OLETF rat, highlighting the importance of maintaining energy balance in the prevention of NAFLD. PMID:27445343

  13. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Queiroz, Regina H C; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-10-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2-0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1-14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106-112 h (4-5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden. PMID:26378131

  14. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Queiroz, Regina H.C.; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2–0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1–14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106–112 h (4–5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden. PMID:26378131

  15. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Queiroz, Regina H C; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-10-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2-0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1-14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106-112 h (4-5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden.

  16. The interdependence of glycolytic and pentose cycle intermediates in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Casazza, J P; Veech, R L

    1986-01-15

    .0008. These data indicate the interdependence of the liver content of glycolytic intermediates and pentose cycle intermediates in ad libitum fed rats.

  17. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance.

  18. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  19. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  20. Evidence for hepatic involvement in control of ad libitum food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M I; Sawchenko, P E

    1984-07-01

    Sectioning the hepatic branch of the anterior abdominal vagal trunk attenuated but did not abolish the normal nocturnal bias in the day-night distribution of food intake in female rats. Neither total daily food intake nor body weight was affected by hepatic vagotomy. This effect appeared to be specific to the hepatic branch of the nerve because sectioning the remaining (gastric and celiac) abdominal vagal branches did not influence daily feeding rhythms and appeared to be specific to feeding behavior, because the day-night rhythms of drinking behavior and wheel-running activity were not affected by hepatic vagotomy. In male rats, hepatic vagotomy also produced an increase in daytime food consumption but without commensurate reduction in nighttime eating. As a result, male rats with hepatic vagotomy displayed a modest chronic hyperphagia and body weight gain, which was associated primarily with increased linear growth. The effect of nerve section on daytime food intake was expressed quite rapidly. Daytime food intake increased within 8 h after hepatic vagotomy, which was produced at light onset by pulling on a previously implanted suture. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hepatic vagotomy changes daily feeding rhythms and suggest that the liver and perhaps its vagal innervation are involved in the control of ad libitum eating behavior.

  1. Predicting ad libitum dry matter intake and yields of Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Holter, J B; West, J W; McGilliard, M L; Pell, A N

    1996-05-01

    Two data files were used that contained weekly mean values for ad libitum DMI of lactating Jersey cows along with appropriate cow, ration, and environmental traits for predicting DMI. One data file (n = 666) was used to develop prediction equations for DMI because that file represented a number of separate experiments and contained more diversity in potential predictors, especially those related to ration, such as forage type. The other data file (n = 1613) was used primarily to verify these equations. Milk protein yield displaced 4% FCM output as a prediction variable and improved the R2 by several units but was not used in the final equations, however, for the sake of simplicity. All equations contained adjustments for the effects of heat stress, parity (1 vs. > 1), DIM > 15, BW, use of recombinant bST, and other significant independent variables. Equations were developed to predict DMI of cows fed individually or in groups and to predict daily yields of 4% FCM and milk protein; equations accounted for 0.69, 0.74, 0.81, and 0.76 of the variation in the dependent variables with standard deviations of 1.7, 1.6, 2.7, and 0.084 kg/ d, respectively. These equations should be applied to the development of software for computerized dairy ration balancing.

  2. Food intake and blood glucose in normal and diabetic cats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Martin, G J; Rand, J S

    1999-12-01

    Ten diabetic cats were studied at intervals for up to 12 months with twice-daily insulin injections. Ten clinically healthy cats were also studied. Diets fed were based on the individual cat's performance, using mainly commercial dry or canned cat foods and fresh meat. In most cases more than one food was offered. Food was given fresh twice daily, and the cats allowed to eat ad libitum. The food intake and blood glucose were measured every 2 h in diabetic cats after insulin injection and in diabetic and normal cats without insulin injections. Food was quantified by the energy consumed (kJ ME), crude protein (g), crude fat (g), and carbohydrate (g). The blood glucose in 10 diabetic cats was measured for 2 h following a 20-min meal. Both diabetic cats and normal cats showed similar patterns of eating, with a higher food intake in the 2 h after fresh food was placed. Both groups of cats ate multiple small meals spread through the day and night. There was little or no correlation between the blood glucose and the amount of food consumed over the previous 2-h period, in insulin- or non-insulin-treated diabetic cats, or in normal cats. An overnight fast did not significantly alter morning blood glucose in diabetic cats. No demonstrable appetite stimulation occurred following an occurrence of low blood glucose; however, recorded incidences were few. No post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen in the 10 diabetic cats during a 2-h period following the ingestion of typical cat foods.

  3. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity. PMID:26647154

  4. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  5. Biomedical responses of rats to chronic exposure to dietary cadmium fed in ad libitum and equalized regimes.

    PubMed

    Cousins, R J; Squibb, K S; Feldman, S L; de Bari, A; Silbon, B L

    1977-03-01

    Forty 100 g male rats were fed, in groups of eight, either 0, 5, or 25 ppm cadmium in a purified diet for 14 wk. Three groups were fed each of the levels of cadmium on an ad libitum basis. Two other groups were fed either 0 or 5 ppm cadmium in amounts that were equalized to that consumed by the 25 ppm group fed ad libitum. Cadmium ingestion decreased daily diet consumption, weight gain, and terminal body weight. These parameters were not significantly different in rats whose diet consumption was equalized. Packed cell volume and serum iron as well as serum zinc were decreased in the rats fed 25 ppm cadmium. These effects were not related to diet intake. No major differences were observed in serum ceruloplasmin, glucose, protein, leucine aminopeptidase activity, or copper in any of the groups. Blood urea nitrogen and renal leucine aminopeptidase activity were decreased by cadmium ingestion in the rats fed ad libitum only. In contrast, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated by cadmium in the equalized-intake groups only. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were elevated and the iron concentration was decreased in the kidney, liver, and intestinal mucosa of the cadmium-fed rats irrespective of level of diet consumption. The increased uptake of cadmium in these tissues was coincident with the increased content of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein, in the cytosol fraction. The results indicate that some parameters of chronic cadmium toxicity are associated with diet consumption whereas others are not.

  6. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-08-28

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use. PMID:24950430

  7. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  8. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. Methods: This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). Results: The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. Conclusions: These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Implications: Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and

  9. Fattening Holstein heifers by feeding high-moisture corn (whole or ground) ad libitum separately from concentrate and straw.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Quintana, B; Aris, A; Bach, A

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of high-moisture corn (HMC), either whole or ground, fed separately from concentrate and straw on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, whole tract digestibility, and nitrogen balance. Twenty-four Holstein heifers (199 ± 5.5 kg BW and 157 ± 6.9 d age) housed in individual pens were assigned to 3 treatments: 1) whole (unprocessed) HMC fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (WHMC); 2) HMC ground through a 0.4-cm screen before ensiling and fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (GHMC); and 3) a concentrate composed of mainly corn meal, ground through a roller mill with screen openings of 6 mm, and barley straw, both fed separately and ad libitum (Control). Concentrate, HMC, and straw were offered separately ad libitum in a free-choice situation and consumption was recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. Apparent nutrient digestibility and N balance were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. At the same time points, rumen fluid was collected through rumenocentesis to determine rumen pH and VFA concentrations. Feeding behavior was monitored throughout the study. Animals were harvested after 134 d and HCW, rumen and cecum wall lesions, and liver abscesses were recorded. Treatment did not affect total DMI, feed efficiency, ADG, final BW, and carcass weight or classification. Concentrate consumption (6.6 ± 0.35 kg/d) of Control heifers was greater ( < 0.001) than that of GHMC (4.1 ± 0.35 kg/d) and WHMC heifers (2.8 ± 0.35 kg/d), and GHMC heifers consumed less ( < 0.001) HMC than WHMC heifers (2.3 ± 0.31 and 4.2 ± 0.31 kg/d, respectively). Dietary treatments did not affect rumination, self-grooming, nonnutritive oral behaviors, and rumen pH. However, rumen acetate to propionate ratio decreased when heifers received HMC (1.77 ± 0.276) compared with when heifers received the Control (2.82 ± 0.276). Total

  10. Impact of fluid restriction and ad libitum water intake or an 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on skill performance of elite adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Oliveira, Bruno; Barros, Renata; Padrão, Patricia; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo

    2011-06-01

    Twelve adolescent athletes underwent, in a crossover-design study, 3 separate 90-min training sessions in the following conditions: no fluid ingestion allowed (NF), ad libitum ingestion of water (W), and ad libitum ingestion of a commercial 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverage (CSB). After each session athletes performed a set of basketball drills (2-point, 3-point, and free-throw shootout, suicide sprints, and defensive zigzags). Body weight (before and after sessions), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), urine color, and beverage acceptability were determined in each session. Athletes also completed a survey about their knowledge and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement. The percentage of weight loss was significantly higher in NF (2.46% ± 0.87%) than in the other 2 conditions (W, 1.08% ± 0.67%, p = .006; CSB, 0.65% ± 0.62%, p = .001) but also higher in W than CSB (p = .012). RPE was higher in NF (16.8 ± 1.96) than in the W (14.2 ± 1.99, p = .004) and CSB (13.3 ± 2.06, p = .002) trials. Athletes' fluid intake was positively correlated with proper self-reported behaviors (r = .75, p = .005) and knowledge (r = .76, p = .004) about fluid and hydration. In conclusion, fluid restriction during exercise was associated with a greater level of dehydration and increased perceived exertion but had no impact on basketball performance compared with ad libitum drinking of water or a CSB. Athletes with more knowledge about hydration and better self-reported hydration behaviors ingested more fluids during training sessions.

  11. The Ratio of Macronutrients, Not Caloric Intake, Dictates Cardiometabolic Health, Aging, and Longevity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ballard, J. William O.; Ruohonen, Kari; Wu, Lindsay E.; Cogger, Victoria C.; Warren, Alessandra; Huang, Xin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Melvin, Richard G.; Gokarn, Rahul; Khalil, Mamdouh; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J.; Sinclair, David A.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fundamental questions of what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet and how this maintains health and longevity remain unanswered. Here, the Geometric Framework, a state-space nutritional modeling method, was used to measure interactive effects of dietary energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate on food intake, cardiometabolic phenotype, and longevity in mice fed one of 25 diets ad libitum. Food intake was regulated primarily by protein and carbohydrate content. Longevity and health were optimized when protein was replaced with carbohydrate to limit compensatory feeding for protein and suppress protein intake. These consequences are associated with hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and mitochondrial function and, in turn, related to circulating branched-chain amino acids and glucose. Calorie restriction achieved by high-protein diets or dietary dilution had no beneficial effects on lifespan. The results suggest that longevity can be extended in ad libitum-fed animals by manipulating the ratio of macronutrients to inhibit mTOR activation. PMID:24606899

  12. Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety.

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, P S; Mars, M; Stafleu, A; de Graaf, C

    2012-10-01

    Food intake and a food's expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food's satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a randomised cross-over study, participants (n=53; age: 21±2.9 y; BMI: 21.8±2.0 kg/m²) consumed one of two iso-energetic dairy foods (liquid or semi-solid) for breakfast in each 5-day test condition. Expectations regarding satiety were measured on days 1, 2, and 5. Foods were offered ad libitum on days 1 and 5 and in a fixed volume on days 2-4. Appetite sensations were rated up to 180 min after the start of the session on fixed time points. Expected satiety effects of the semi-solid food were higher than of the liquid food on all days (p<0.0001). Ad libitum intake of the liquid food was higher than of the semi-solid food on day 1 (liquid: 391±177 g, semi-solid: 277±98 g; p<0.0001) and day 5 (liquid: 477±161 g, semi-solid: 375±148 g; p<0.0001). On day 2, hunger was rated lower and fullness rated higher after the semi-solid compared with the liquid food; on day 4, no differences were observed (significant product∗ exposure interaction AUC). Changes in hunger and fullness indicated that the fixed volumes of liquid and solid food were perceived to be equally satiating after repeated consumption, but this did not result in the anticipated changes: expected satiety effects remained lower, and ad libitum intake higher for the liquid compared with the semi-solid food. The effect of texture on a food's expected satiety effects and its ad libitum intake appears to be large, also after repeated consumption. Expectations based on sensory cues are not easily changed.

  13. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval −54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=−1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval −1645 kJ, −2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine–tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of

  14. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  15. Voluntary feed intake and leptin sensitivity in ad libitum fed obese ponies following a period of restricted feeding: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Swennen, Q; Janssens, G P J

    2013-08-01

    The relation between plasma leptin and daily ad libitum roughage intake was evaluated during a 14-day period in eight obese Shetland ponies. When the feeding strategy was changed from maintenance feeding to ad libitum feeding, feed intake increased the first day, decreased the second day and increased again during the following days to reach a constant level after 8 days. Plasma leptin concentration increased during the first 2 days, but remained constant afterwards. Although the same pattern was found in all ponies, the magnitude of the increase in leptin on day 1 and the resulting decrease in feed intake on day 2 differed between ponies. A lower anorectic effect was seen in ponies with higher initial leptin concentration, suggesting the presence of different degrees in leptin sensitivity in obese ponies. High leptin production in a attempt to compensate for the decrease in leptin sensitivity might explain large variations in plasma leptin among obese ponies with similar body condition score. Further research is necessary to clarify whether the reduced leptin sensitivity precedes obesity in equines or vice versa.

  16. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    PubMed

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted. PMID:21039925

  17. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  18. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  19. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  20. Ad libitum Pasture Feeding in Late Pregnancy Does Not Improve the Performance of Twin-bearing Ewes and Their Lambs.

    PubMed

    Corner-Thomas, R A; Back, P J; Kenyon, P R; Hickson, R E; Ridler, A L; Stafford, K J; Morris, S T

    2015-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of controlled ryegrass-white clover herbage availability from day 128 until day 142 of pregnancy in comparison to unrestricted availability, on the performance of twin-bearing ewes of varying body condition score (BCS; 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0) and their lambs. It was hypothesised that under conditions of controlled herbage availability, the performance of lambs born to ewes with a greater BCS would be greater than those born to ewes with a lower BCS. During the period that the nutritional regimens were imposed, the pre- and post-grazing herbage masses of the Control regimen (1,070±69 and 801±30 kg dry matter [DM]/ha) were lower than the ad libitum regimen (1,784±69 and 1,333±33 kg DM/ha; p<0.05). The average herbage masses during lactation were 1,410±31 kg DM/ha. Nutritional regimen had no effect on ewe live weight, BCS and back fat depth or on lamb live weight, indices of colostrum uptake, maximal heat production, total litter weight weaned or survival to weaning (p>0.05). The difference in ewe BCSs and back fats observed among body condition groups was maintained throughout pregnancy (p<0.05). At weaning, ewes from the BCS2.0 group had lower BCS and live weight (2.4±0.2, 74.3±2.6 kg) than both the BCS2.5 (2.6±0.2, 78.6±2.4 kg) and BCS3.0 ewes (2.7±0.2, 79.0±2.6 kg; p<0.05), which did not differ (p>0.05). Ewe BCS group had no effect on lamb live weight at birth or weaning or on maximal heat production (p>0.05). Serum gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations of lambs born to BCS3.0 ewes were higher within 36 hours of birth than lambs born to BCS2.0 ewes and BCS2.5 ewes (51.8±1.9 vs 46.5±1.9 and 45.6±1.9 IU/mL, respectively [p<0.05]). There was, however, no effect of ewe body condition on lamb plasma glucose concentration (p>0.05). Lamb survival was the only lamb parameter that showed an interaction between ewe nutritional regimen and ewe BCS whereby survival of lambs born to BCS2.5 and BCS3.0 ewes differed but only

  1. CH4 and N2O emissions from China's beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198gCH4animal(-1)d(-1) and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1)) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1) and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China's beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors.

  2. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  3. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits.

  4. Data on the phospholipid fatty acyl composition of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue in ad libitum fed and fasted mice

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Kristin A.; Marvyn, Phillip M.; Henao, Juan J. Aristizabal; Bradley, Ryan M.; Stark, Ken D.; Duncan, Robin E.

    2016-01-01

    Data are presented on the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid from retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of female mice that were either given ad libitum access to food or fasted for 16 h overnight prior to sacrifice. Our data show that total adipose phospholipid concentrations were more than 2-fold higher in the fasted animals compared with the fed animals (33.48±7.40 versus 16.57±4.43 μg phospholipid fatty acids/100 mg tissue). Concentrations of several individual phospholipid fatty acyl species, including palmitic acid (16:0), vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as well as total phospholipid saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, were significantly higher in adipose tissue from the fasted animals compared with the fed animals. However, when the relative abundance of phospholipid fatty acyl species was analyzed, only 20:4n-6 was specifically enriched (by ~2.5-fold) in adipose phospholipid with fasting. PMID:27014729

  5. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than fat from the other depots. Generally, there were no differences (P > .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P < .05) than those for T and R. Marbling was greatest (P < .05) for S and did not differ (P > .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  6. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    PubMed

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal.

  7. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than fat from the other depots. Generally, there were no differences (P > .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P < .05) than those for T and R. Marbling was greatest (P < .05) for S and did not differ (P > .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle.

  8. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  9. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  10. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  11. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p <0.05), fat mass, skinfold thicknesses and the volume of the arm remained unchanged (p >0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p <0.05). The decrease in the lower leg volume was unrelated to fluid intake (p >0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  12. Circadian variation in heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and EEG of immature broiler breeder chickens in restricted-fed and ad libitum-fed states.

    PubMed

    Savory, C J; Kostal, L; Nevison, I M

    2006-10-01

    1. Heart rate, intra-aortic blood pressure, deep body temperature and telencephalic EEG were monitored by radiotelemetry in 6 freely moving immature broiler breeders (three in each of two years), during routine food restriction and then ad libitum feeding, over two 24-h periods in each feeding state.2. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were all higher during ad libitum than restricted feeding, and heart rate and body temperature were higher by day (12 h) than at night (12 h). The decreases in heart rate and body temperature at night were greater during restricted than ad libitum feeding. Blood pressure tended to be higher at night, except in year 2 during restricted feeding. Body temperature and ambient temperature were higher in year 2 than year 1.3. During restricted feeding, marked peaks in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature in the 15 min after provision of the daily food ration at 09:00 h, when birds were eating, were equivalent to corresponding values seen during ad libitum feeding.4. Relative powers in delta (1 to 4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) frequency bands of the EEG power spectrum were higher at night in year 2 only, while power in the alpha (8 to 12 Hz) band was higher at night in both years.5. It is concluded that most of the variation in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature between feeding states and times of day/night can be accounted for in terms of variation in food intake and energy expenditure. The greater slow wave (delta, theta) EEG activity seen after lights-off in year 2 may reflect non-paradoxical sleep at that time.

  13. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  14. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  15. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  16. Ad libitum food intake on a "cafeteria diet" in Native American women: relations with body composition and 24-h energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Larson, D E; Tataranni, P A; Ferraro, R T; Ravussin, E

    1995-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies consistently report associations between obesity and dietary fat but not total energy intake. We measured ad libitum food intake in a laboratory setting and evaluated its relation to body weight and composition, energy expenditure, and macronutrient utilization in 28 women of Pima-Papago heritage (aged 27 +/- 7 y, 85.3 +/- 19.0 kg, 44 +/- 6% body fat; means +/- SD). All women were studied during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. After a 4-d weight-maintenance period, the volunteers selected their food for 5 d from computerized vending machines offering a variety of familiar and preferred foods, ie, a "cafeteria diet". Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured in a respiratory chamber on the 4th d o weight maintenance and the 5th d of ad libitum intake. Average ad libitum intake was 13,732 +/- 4238 kJ/d (11 +/- 1% protein, 40 +/- 1% fat, 49 +/- 4% carbohydrate), ie, moderate overeating by 27 +/- 37% above weight maintenance requirements (range: -27% to 124%). Percent body fat correlated with daily energy intake (r = 0.53, P < 0.01), the degree of overeating (r = 0.41, P < 0.05), and the selection of a diet higher in fat and lower in carbohydrate (r = 0.70 and r = -0.63, respectively, P < 0.001). Excess carbohydrate intake caused an increase in carbohydrate oxidation (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), whereas excess fat intake resulted in a decrease in fat oxidation (r = -0.53, P < 0.01) and thus a positive fat balance of 85 +/- 65 g/d. The positive relations among degrees of obesity, dietary fat intake and overeating, and the fact that dietary fat does not induce fat oxidation, support the hypothesis that dietary fat promotes obesity in women. PMID:7572735

  17. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism. PMID:26004166

  18. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  19. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  20. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake. PMID:26394259

  1. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27766082

  2. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink. PMID:20199991

  3. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts. PMID:26435259

  4. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  5. Total Body Water, Electrolyte, and Thermoregulatory Responses to Ad Libitum Water Replacement Using Two Different Water Delivery Systems During a 19-km Route March.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Nolte, Kim; van der Meulen, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Hands-free hydration systems are often advocated for improved hydration and performance in military populations. The aim was to assess whether such systems indeed result in improved hydration in exercising soldiers. Subjects were required to complete a route march while consuming water ad libitum from either a hydration bladder (BG) or traditional canteen (CG). Water intakes of 538 ml·h⁻¹ (BG) and 533 ml·h⁻¹ (CG) resulted in no differences for changes in body mass, serum [Na], plasma osmolality, total body water, or time required to complete the march. There were no differences between peak exercise core temperature of the BG (38.9° C) and CG (38.7° C) groups. There were no differences between the groups for fluid balance, thermoregulation, or performance. This is a not a surprising finding because the amount of fluid consumed ad libitum is determined by changes in serum osmolality and not the fluid delivery system as often proposed. PMID:26506205

  6. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; < 0.01) when heifers were fed the NI diet compared with the UR diet. The amount of feed consumed increased ( < 0.01) at 0 to 3 h and decreased ( ≤ 0.03) at 3 to 24 h for restrictive vs. ad libitum feeding of both the UR and NI diets. Compared to the UR diet, the NI diet decreased ( < 0.01) feed consumption at 0 to 3 h and increased ( < 0.02) feed consumption at 3 to 24 h (except feed consumption at 9 to 12 h; = 0.90), indicating nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( < 0.01; = 0.75) blood methemoglobin, and plasma NO + NO among other rumen and blood variables had the greatest correlation (sigmoid response; < 0.01, = 0.47) with feed consumption (0 to 3 h). Particle size distribution of orts was partially altered ( = 0.02 to 0

  7. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  8. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss. PMID:26693643

  9. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. PMID:26763471

  10. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, N T; Belza, A; Jensen, M G; Ritz, C; Bitz, C; Hels, O; Frandsen, E; Mela, D J; Astrup, A

    2013-02-14

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.

  11. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ("Ad lib") larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ("Ration") larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V(total) (Control, "C"), 109 ppm (Low, "L"), and 363 ppm (High, "H"). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at alpha=0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited.

  12. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( < 0.0001). There was no line effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( < 0.0001) but no difference in the meat-to-bone ratio of the hind leg. On the contrary, the ADGrestrict line had a higher proportion of forelegs plus thoracic cage ( = 0.03). We also found lower perirenal ( < 0.0001) and scapular fat yields ( < 0.0001) in ConsoResidual rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( < 0.0001) and higher water loss (drip and cooking loss; < 0.002) compared with the G0 and ADGrestrict rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass

  13. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  14. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  15. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  16. Exercise and food ad libitum reduce the impact of early in life nutritional inbalances on nitrergic activity of hippocampus and striatum.

    PubMed

    Viana, Lane Coelho; Torres, João Bento; Farias, José Augusto; Kawhage, Rafael; Lins, Nara; Passos, Aline; Quintairos, Amanda; Trévia, Nonata; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional imbalances were produced by varying litter size pups per dam: 3 (small), 6 (medium), and 12 (large). On the 21st day, 4 subjects of each litter, were sacrificed and the remaining were grouped, 2 per cage, with or without running wheels, with food and water ad libitum. Adult subjects were tested in water maze, their brains processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and quantified by densitometry. No differences were detected in water maze. At 21st day, S and L compared with M presented reduced NADPH-d in the stratum molecular of dentate gyrus (DG), stratum lacunosum of CA1 and in all CA3 layers but not in the striatum. On the 58th day, actvity remained low in S and L in CA3 and striatum and L in CA1 and DG. Voluntary exercise increased NADPH-d in DG, CA1, CA3, and striatum in S, and in the stratum lacunosum of CA1 and CA3 in L.

  17. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  18. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior. PMID:23408973

  19. The effect of an incremental increase in exercise on appetite, eating behaviour and energy balance in lean men and women feeding ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, Stephen; Hughes, Darren A; Ritz, Patrick; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Horgan, Graham W; King, Neil; Blundell, John E; Stubbs, R James

    2008-11-01

    The effects of incremental exercise on appetite, energy intake (EI), expenditure (EE) and balance (EB) in lean men and women were examined. Six men (age 29.7 (SD 5.9) years, weight 75.2 (SD 15.3) kg, height 1.75 (SD 0.11) m) and six women (age 24.7 (SD 5.9) years, weight 66.7 (SD 9.10) kg, height 1.70 (SD 0.09) m) were each studied three times during a 16 d protocol, corresponding to no additional exercise (Nex), moderate-intensity exercise (Mex; 1.5-2.0 MJ/d) and high-intensity exercise (Hex; 3.0-4.0 MJ/d) regimens. Subjects were fed to EB during days 1-2, and during days 3-16 they fed ad libitum from a medium-fat diet of constant composition. Daily EE, assessed using the doubly labelled water method, was 9.2, 11.6 and 13.7 MJ/d (P < 0.001; SED 0.45) for the women and 12.2, 14.0 and 16.7 MJ/d (P = 0.007; SED 1.11) for the men on the Nex, Mex and Hex treatments, respectively. EI was 8.3, 8.6 and 9.9 MJ/d (P = 0.118; SED 0.72) for the women and 10.6, 11.6 and 12.0 MJ/d (P = 0.031; SED 0.47) for the men, respectively. On average, subjects compensated for about 30 % of the exercise-induced energy deficit. However, the degree of compensation varied considerably among individuals. The present study captured the initial compensation in EI for exercise-induced energy deficits. Total compensation would take a matter of weeks.

  20. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  1. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  2. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  3. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  4. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  5. Most general AdS3 boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Riegler, Max

    2016-10-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl{(2)}_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k = ℓ/(4 G N ), where ℓ is the AdS radius and G N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  6. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  7. Effect of CSN1S1 genotype and its interaction with diet energy level on milk production and quality in Girgentana goats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Renato Italo; Pennisi, Pietro; Valenti, Bernardo; Lanza, Massimiliano; Di Trana, Adriana; Di Gregorio, Paola; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella

    2010-05-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate how the energy level of the diet can affect milk production and quality in Girgentana lactating goats in relation to polymorphism at the alphas1-casein (CSN1S1) genotype locus. Twenty-seven goats, homogeneous for milk production (1.5+/-0.3 kg/d), days of lactation (90+/-10 d) and body weight (35.8+/-5.5 kg) were selected on the basis of their CSN1S1 genotype, as follows: nine goats homozygous for strong (AA) alleles, nine goats homozygous for weak alleles (FF) and nine goats heterozygous (AF). The goats were used in a 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with three genotypes (AA, FF, AF) and three diets at different energy levels (100%, 65% and 30% of hay inclusion). The experiment consisted of three simultaneous 3x3 Latin squares for the three genotypes, with one square for each level of hay inclusion in the diet. All the animals were housed in individual pens. Each experimental period lasted 23 d and consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 8 d for data and sample collection, during which the goats received the scheduled diet ad libitum. The animals were fed three different diets designed to have the same crude protein content (about 15%) but different energy levels: a pelleted alfalfa hay (H100) and two feeds including 65% (H65) and 30% (H30) of alfalfa hay (respectively 1099, 1386 and 1590 kcal NE for lactation/kg DM). All the diets were ground and pelleted (6 mm diameter). AA goats were more productive than AF and FF goats (respectively: 1419 v. 1145 and 1014 g/d; P=0.002). Indeed the interaction energy levelxgenotype was significant (P=0.018): in fact AA goats showed their milk increase only when fed with concentrates. Differences in protein and in casein levels between the three genotypes were in line with results expected from the different allele contribution to alphas1-casein synthesis. Milk urea levels were significantly lower in AA goats compared with AF and FF genotypes (respectively 32.7 v. 40.4 and 40.4 mg/dl; P=0

  8. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  9. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights. PMID:25084314

  10. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  11. Differential effects of methamphetamine on expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA in hypothalamus and on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in ad libitum-fed and schedule-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Crowley, W R; Ramoz, G; Keefe, K A; Torto, R; Kalra, S P; Hanson, G R

    2005-01-01

    Relatively little is known concerning the interaction of psychostimulants with hypothalamic neuropeptide systems or metabolic hormones implicated in regulation of energy balance. The present studies tested whether methamphetamine alters the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), two important orexigenic neuropeptides, or proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor for the anorexigenic peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, or the secretion of leptin, insulin and ghrelin, concomitant with inhibition of food intake. Female rats were either fed ad libitum (AL) or placed on a scheduled feeding (SF) regimen, with access to food limited to 4 h/day. Administration of (+/-)-methamphetamine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 h prior to food presentation significantly inhibited food intake in SF animals, but did not affect intake in AL animals. In a separate study, AL and SF animals were killed just prior to expected food presentation, and expression of NPY, AgRP and POMC mRNAs in hypothalamus was determined using in situ hybridisation; concentrations of leptin, insulin and ghrelin in serum were determined with radioimmunoassays. In saline-treated, SF controls, NPY and AgRP mRNA expression in arcuate nucleus and serum ghrelin were significantly elevated, and serum leptin and insulin were significantly reduced. Methamphetamine reversed the up-regulation of NPY mRNA expression observed in the SF condition, without affecting AgRP mRNA or the serum concentrations of metabolic hormones. However, in AL animals, NPY mRNA expression in arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei was significantly increased by methamphetamine, which also reduced serum leptin and insulin and increased serum ghrelin concentrations. These findings suggest that the inhibition of NPY expression in SF animals may be a mechanism underlying the anorexigenic effect of methamphetamine seen in this condition. The increase in NPY expression produced by methamphetamine in AL animals may be mediated by the

  12. Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Werner, D; Lehrer, H; Zachut, M; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Shamay, A

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30 min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1 kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long

  13. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  14. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  15. Drinking guidelines for exercise: what evidence is there that athletes should drink "as much as tolerable", "to replace the weight lost during exercise" or "ad libitum"?

    PubMed

    Noakes, T D

    2007-05-01

    The most recent (1996) drinking guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) propose that athletes should drink "as much as tolerable" during exercise. Since some individuals can tolerate rates of free water ingestion that exceed their rates of free water loss during exercise, this advice has caused some to overdrink leading to water retention, weight gain and, in a few, death from exercise-associated hyponatraemic encephalopathy. The new drinking guidelines of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), recently re-published in this Journal, continue to argue that athletes must drink enough to replace all their weight lost during exercise and to ingest sodium chloride since sodium is "the electrolyte most critical to performance and health". In this rebuttal to that Consensus Document, I argue that these new guidelines, like their predecessors, lack an adequate, scientifically proven evidence base. Nor have they been properly evaluated in appropriately controlled, randomized, prospective clinical trials. In particular, these new guidelines provide erroneous recommendations on five topics. If novel universal guidelines for fluid ingestion during exercise are to be promulgated by important international bodies including the IOC, they should first be properly evaluated in appropriately controlled, randomized, prospective clinical trials conducted under environmental and other conditions that match those found in "out-of-doors" exercise. This, and the potential influence of commercial interests on scientific independence and objectivity, are the two most important lessons to be learned from the premature adoption of those 1996 ACSM drinking guidelines that are not evidence-based. These concerns need to be addressed before the novel IOC guidelines are accepted uncritically. Otherwise the predictable consequences of the premature adoption of the 1996 ACSM guidelines will be repeated.

  16. Boundary conditions for General Relativity on AdS3 and the KdV hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that General Relativity with negative cosmological constant in three spacetime dimensions admits a new family of boundary conditions being labeled by a nonnegative integer k. Gravitational excitations are then described by "boundary gravitons" that fulfill the equations of the k-th element of the KdV hierarchy. In particular, k = 0 corresponds to the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions so that excitations are described by chiral movers. In the case of k = 1, the boundary gravitons fulfill the KdV equation and the asymptotic symmetry algebra turns out to be infinite-dimensional, abelian and devoid of central extensions. The latter feature also holds for the remaining cases that describe the hierarchy ( k > 1). Our boundary conditions then provide a gravitational dual of two noninteracting left and right KdV movers, and hence, boundary gravitons possess anisotropic Lifshitz scaling with dynamical exponent z = 2 k + 1. Remarkably, despite spacetimes solving the field equations are locally AdS, they possess anisotropic scaling being induced by the choice of boundary conditions. As an application, the entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole is precisely recovered from a suitable generalization of the Cardy formula that is compatible with the anisotropic scaling of the chiral KdV movers at the boundary, in which the energy of AdS spacetime with our boundary conditions depends on z and plays the role of the central charge. The extension of our boundary conditions to the case of higher spin gravity and its link with different classes of integrable systems is also briefly addressed.

  17. Boundary conditions and partition functions in higher spin AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Jottar, Juan I.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss alternative definitions of the semiclassical partition function in two-dimensional CFTs with higher spin symmetry, in the presence of sources for the higher spin currents. Theories of this type can often be described via Hamiltonian reduction of current algebras, and a holographic description in terms of three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory with generalized AdS boundary conditions becomes available. By studying the CFT Ward identities in the presence of sources, we determine the appropriate choice of boundary terms and boundary conditions in Chern-Simons theory for the various types of partition functions considered. In particular, we compare the Chern-Simons description of deformations of the field theory Hamiltonian versus those encoding deformations of the CFT action. Our analysis clarifies various issues and confusions that have permeated the literature on this subject.

  18. Security Condition for Exact Localization in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Kim, Jong; Lee, Pil Joong

    As deployment of wireless ad hoc networks for location-based services increases, accurate localization of mobile nodes is becoming more important. Localization of a mobile node is achieved by estimating its distances from a group of anchor nodes. If some anchors are malicious and colluding, localization accuracy cannot be guaranteed. In this article, we present the security conditions for exact localization in the presence of colluding malicious anchors. We first derive the minimum number of truthful anchors that are required for exact localization in 2-D Euclidean space where some anchors may be collinear. Second, we extend our security condition to 3-D localization where some anchors may be coplanar.

  19. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  20. Rotating thin shells in (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetimes: Mechanical properties, machian effects, and energy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Lopes, Francisco J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a rotating thin shell in a (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetime is studied. The spacetime exterior to the shell is the rotating BTZ spacetime and the interior is the empty spacetime with a cosmological constant. Through the Einstein equation in (2 + 1) dimensions and the corresponding junction conditions we calculate the dynamical relevant quantities, namely, the rest energy-density, the pressure, and the angular momentum flux density. We also analyze the matter in a frame where its energy-momentum tensor has a perfect fluid form. In addition, we show that Machian effects, such as the dragging of inertial frames, also occur in rotating (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes. The weak and the dominant energy condition for these shells are discussed.

  1. Irradiation conditions of ADS beam window and implications for window material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, P.; Möslang, A.

    2006-09-01

    Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are aimed at incineration of long living radioactive isotopes of spent nuclear reactor fuel, thus providing a solution for nuclear waste utilization. The idea is to couple a subcritical nuclear reactor with a high-energy proton accelerator. Protons interacting with the liquid metal target inside the reactor will produce neutrons with energy sufficient to transform long living fuel isotopes to those with shorter decay time. In some design variants a proton beam guide and window separate the vacuum of the accelerator from the liquid metal target. The window appears to be the most critical component of the whole facility as besides liquid metal corrosion it undergoes irradiation damage from incident protons, from protons and neutrons produced by spallation inside the target as well as from fission neutrons generated in the reactor fuel assemblies. In the present work we have evaluated irradiation conditions of the ADS beam window using Monte Carlo neutron, photon and charged particle transport code MCNPX. The code and the detailed geometric model of the experimental ADS (XADS) facility allow a realistic simulation of the spallation process and transport of generated nucleons as well as evaluation of various damage and operational characteristics like displacement damage, heat deposition, gas and spallation element production rates. Present results based on the reduced beam parameters provide a hope that apart from the liquid metal corrosion (not considered in the present paper) the window material could sustain full operation during the period of 3-4 month between replacements. These results may allow reconsideration of pro and contra of the window and the windowless XADS concepts.

  2. Bioavailability of freshly added and aged naphthalene in soils under gastric pH conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Simkins, S.; Xing, B.

    1999-12-01

    The bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals decreases with aging in soil because of sequestration. However, assessments of the risk of exposure to contaminated soils are usually dependent on either chemical concentrations, which are measured using vigorous extraction methods, or models that assume an equilibrium without considering the actual conditions. The objective of this research was to determine the availability and desorption kinetics of freshly added and aged naphthalene from a peat and a mineral soil; naphthalene was desorbed into solutions with pH levels that approximate those found in different gastric regions. Soil and peat samples were spiked with radiolabeled and unlabeled naphthalene at 2 and 20 {micro}g/g and were aged from 0 to 135 d. Desorption kinetics were determined using a simulated stomach solution and a neutral solution that represented the pH of intestinal conditions and most soils. Peat sorbed much more naphthalene than did soil, and it allowed little desorption. Though both acidic and neutral extracting solutions could desorb naphthalene, little apparent effect of aging was observed in peat, whereas desorption from soil declined markedly with aging. In addition, the percentage of naphthalene that desorbed from soil was greater for the higher incubation concentration. The desorption of naphthalene from the peat and soil was higher into the neutral solution than into the gastric solution. These results suggest that aging, exposure conditions, concentration effect, and organic matter content should be taken into account in predictive models and risk assessments.

  3. AD/HD Is a Bio-Psychosocial Condition Requiring Support from Integrated Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how integrated services can provide coordinated support for children with AD/HD and their families. The author reports on the effectiveness of a problem-based approach to interagency working by exploring the use of two models of good practice from education, health and social care to provide a framework for working across…

  4. AD/HD and the Capture of Attention by Briefly Exposed Delay-Related Cues: Evidence from a Conditioning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; De Houwer, Jan; De Ruiter, Karen; Ajzenstzen, Michal; Holland, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Background: The selective attention of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) to briefly exposed delay-related cues was examined in two experiments using a dot-probe conditioning paradigm. Method: Colour cues were paired with negatively (i.e., imposition of delay) and positively valenced cues (i.e., escape from or avoidance…

  5. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    PubMed

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury. PMID:25523027

  6. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    PubMed

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury.

  7. Eyelid conditioning to a target amplitude: adding how much to whether and when.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Joy C; Mauk, Michael D

    2010-10-20

    Conceptual and practical advantages of pavlovian eyelid conditioning facilitate analysis of cerebellar computation and learning. Even so, eyelid conditioning procedures are unrealistic in an important way. The error signal to the olivocerebellar system does not decrease as learning adapts response amplitude or gain. This inherently limits the utility of eyelid conditioning for studies investigating how cerebellar learning mechanisms acquire and store an adaptive response amplitude. We report the development and characterization of a training procedure in which conditioned response amplitude is brought under experimental control with contingencies that more closely parallel natural conditions. In this procedure, the delivery of the unconditioned stimulus (US) is made contingent on conditioned response amplitude: the US is delivered for responses that fail to reach a specified target amplitude and is omitted for responses that meet or exceed the target. We find that rabbits trained with either a tone or with mossy fiber stimulation as the conditioned stimulus learn responses that approach target amplitudes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. Inactivating the interpositus nucleus with muscimol infusions abolished these conditioned responses, indicating that cerebellar involvement in eyelid conditioning is not tied explicitly to the use of pavlovian procedures. Together with previous studies, these data suggest that response amplitude is learned and encoded in the cerebellum during eyelid conditioning. As such, these results provide a foundation for systematic and controlled investigations of the cerebellar mechanisms that learn and encode the proper amplitude of adaptive movements.

  8. Quasilocal energy for three-dimensional massive gravity solutions with chiral deformations of AdS{sub 3} boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garbarz, Alan; Giribet, Gaston E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar; Goya, Andrés E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar; Leston, Mauricio

    2015-03-26

    We consider critical gravity in three dimensions; that is, the New Massive Gravity theory formulated about Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space with the specific value of the graviton mass for which it results dual to a two-dimensional conformai field theory with vanishing central charge. As it happens with Kerr black holes in four-dimensional critical gravity, in three-dimensional critical gravity the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes have vanishing mass and vanishing angular momentum. However, provided suitable asymptotic conditions are chosen, the theory may also admit solutions carrying non-vanishing charges. Here, we give simple examples of exact solutions that exhibit falling-off conditions that are even weaker than those of the so-called Log-gravity. For such solutions, we define the quasilocal stress-tensor and use it to compute conserved charges. Despite the drastic deformation of AdS{sub 3} asymptotic, these solutions have finite mass and angular momentum, which are shown to be non-zero.

  9. Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Norris, Peter M.

    2010-03-14

    The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be

  10. On the added value and sensitivity of WRF to driving conditions over CORDEX-Africa domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; García-Díez, Markel; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Fernández, Jesús; Montavez, Juan Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the climate variability over Africa has recently attracted the interest of the regional climate downscaling research community. The main reasons are not only because Africa is a climate change hot-spot, but also due to the low capacity of this region for the adaptation and mitigation under negative impacts and its direct dependency on its socio-economic sustainability of the climate variability. Therefore, improvements in the understanding of the African climate could help the governments in decision-making. Under this umbrella, regional climate models (RCMs) are promising tools to assess the African regional climate. The main advantage of the RCMs, with respect to global reanalysis datasets, is the higher detail provided by the increased resolution which implies a better representation of land-surface interactions and atmospheric processes. However, the confidence on the RCMs strongly depends on the reduction/bounding of uncertainties. One of these sources of uncertainties is associated with the selection of the boundary conditions for driving the regional models. In this work, two identical CORDEX-compliant simulations have been performed over Africa with the unique difference of being driven by two different reanalyses. The reanalyses used were the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis (ERA-I) and the Japanese 25-year reanalysis (JRA-25) by the Japanese Meteorological Service. Both reanalyses have identical temporal resolution (6-hr) but different spatial grid resolution, 0.75 and 1.25 degrees, respectively. The regional model used was the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). The numerical experiments encompass the period 1989-2010 covering the Africa-CORDEX domain with a 50 km horizontal spatial resolution and 28 vertical levels up to 50 hPa. The WRF simulations are compared between them and against observations. For the mean and maximum temperature the CRU monthly time series (0.25deg) from Climatic

  11. Influence of the added mass effect and boundary conditions on the dynamic response of submerged and confined structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentín, D.; Presas, A.; Egusquiza, E.; Valero, C.

    2014-03-01

    The dynamic response of submerged and confined disk-like structures is of interest in the flied of hydraulic machinery, especially in hydraulic turbine runners. This response is difficult to be estimated with accuracy due to the strong influence of the boundary conditions. Small radial gaps as well as short axial distances to rigid surfaces greatly modify the dynamic response because the fact of the added mass and damping effects. Moreover, the effect of the shaft coupling is also important for certain mode-shapes of the structure. In the present study, the influence of the added mass effect and boundary conditions on the dynamic behavior of a submerged disk attached to a shaft is evaluated through experimental tests and structural- acoustic coupling numerical simulations. For the experimentation, a test rig has been developed. It consists of a confined disk attached to a shaft inside a cylindrical container full of water. The disk can be fixed at different axial positions along the shaft. Piezoelectric patches are used to excite the disk and the response is measured with submersible accelerometers. For each configuration tested, the natural frequencies of the disk and the shaft are studied. Numerical results have been compared with experimental results.

  12. Elevated corticosterone levels and severe weather conditions decrease parental investment of incubating Adélie penguins.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    Corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, mediates resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to changes in the environment. Incubation is a time and energy-consuming phase of the avian reproductive cycle. It may be terminated prematurely, when the parents' energy stores are depleted or when environmental conditions are severe. In this study, the effects of experimentally elevated baseline corticosterone levels on the parental investment of incubating male Adélie penguins were investigated. Incubation duration and reproductive success of 60 penguins were recorded. The clutches of some birds were replaced by dummy eggs, which recorded egg temperatures and rotation rates, enabling a detailed investigation of incubation behaviour. Corticosterone levels of treated birds were 2.4-fold higher than those of controls 18 days post treatment. Exogenous corticosterone triggered nest desertion in 61% of the treated birds; consequently reducing reproductive success, indicating that corticosterone can reduce or disrupt parental investment. Regarding egg temperatures, hypothermic events became more frequent and more pronounced in treated birds, before these birds eventually abandoned their nest. The treatment also significantly decreased incubation temperatures by 1.3°C and lengthened the incubation period by 2.1 days. However, the number of chicks at hatching was similar among successful nests, regardless of treatment. Weather conditions appeared to be particularly important in determining the extent to which corticosterone levels affected the behaviour of penguins, as treated penguins were more sensitive to severe weather conditions. This underlines the importance of considering the interactions of organisms with their environment in studies of animal behaviour and ecophysiology.

  13. Conditional Lethal Mutants of Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrids I. Host Range Mutants of Ad2+ND1

    PubMed Central

    Grodzicker, Terri; Anderson, Carl; Sharp, Phillip A.; Sambrook, Joe

    1974-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) grows poorly in monkey cells, although this defect can be overcome by co-infection with simian virus 40 (SV40). The nondefective Ad2-SV40 hybrid virus, Ad2+ND1, replicates efficiently in both human and African green monkey kidney cells, presumably due to the insertion of SV40 sequences into the Ad2 DNA. Several mutants of Ad2+ND1 have been isolated that grow and plaque poorly in monkey cells, although they retain the ability to replicate and plaque efficiently in HeLa cells. One of these mutants (H39) has been examined in detail. Studies comparing the DNA of the mutant with Ad2+ND1 either by the cleavage patterns produced by Escherichia coli R·RI restriction endonuclease digestion or by heteroduplexing reveal no differences. The pattern of protein synthesis of Ad2+ND1 and H39 in monkey cells is quite different with the mutant resembling Ad2, which is defective in the synthesis of late proteins. However, in human cells, the proteins synthesized by H39 and the parent Ad2+ND1 are very similar. The production of SV40 U antigen in H39-infected cells is different from that in Ad2+ND1-infected cells. Finally, the growth of H39 in monkey cells can be complemented by SV40. Images PMID:4364898

  14. Consensus statement: the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of neuromuscular conditions report of the AANEM ad hoc committee.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, Peter D; Berger, Alan; Brannagan, Thomas H; Bromberg, Mark B; Howard, James F; Latov, Normal; Quick, Adam; Tandan, Rup

    2009-11-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a therapeutic biologic agent that has been prescribed for over two decades to treat various neuromuscular conditions. Most of the treatments are given off-label, as little evidence from large randomized trials exists to support its use. Recently, IGIV-C has received an indication for the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Because of the lack of evidence, an ad hoc committee of the AANEM was convened to draft a consensus statement on the rational use of IVIG for neuromuscular disorders. Recommendations were categorized as Class I-IV based on the strength of the medical literature. Class I evidence exists to support the prescription of IVIG to treat patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), CIDP, multifocal motor neuropathy, refractory exacerbations of myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, dermatomyositis, and stiff person syndrome. Treatment of Fisher syndrome, polymyositis, and certain presumed autoimmune neuromuscular disorders is supported only by Class IV studies, whereas there is no convincing data to substantiate the treatment of inclusion body myopathy (IBM), idiopathic neuropathies, brachial plexopathy, or diabetic amyotrophy using IVIG. Treatment with IVIG must be administered in the context of its known adverse effects. There is little evidence to advise the clinician on the proper dosing of IVIG and duration of therapy.

  15. A heparan sulfate-targeted conditionally replicative adenovirus, Ad5.pk7-Δ24, for the treatment of advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ranki, T; Kanerva, A; Ristimäki, A; Hakkarainen, T; Särkioja, M; Kangasniemi, L; Raki, M; Laakkonen, P; Goodison, S; Hemminki, A

    2012-01-01

    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) that replicate in tumor but less in normal cells are promising anticancer agents. A major determinant of their potency is their capacity for infecting target cells. The primary receptor for serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad5), the most widely used serotype in gene therapy, is the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). CAR is expressed variably and often at low levels in various tumor types including advanced breast cancer. We generated a novel p16/retinoblastoma pathway-dependent CRAd, Ad5.pK7-Δ24, with a polylysine motif in the fiber C-terminus, enabling CAR-independent binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Ad5.pK7-Δ24 mediated effective oncolysis of all breast cancer cell lines tested. Further, we utilized noninvasive, fluorescent imaging for analysis of antitumor efficacy in an orthotopic model of advanced hormone refractory breast cancer. A therapeutic benefit was seen following both intratumoral and intravenous delivery. Murine biodistribution similar to Ad5, proven safe in trials, suggests feasibility of clinical safety testing. Interestingly, upregulation of CAR was seen in low-CAR M4A4-LM3 breast cancer cells in vivo, which resulted in better than expected efficacy also with an isogenic CRAd with an unmodified capsid. These results suggest utility of Ad5.pK7-Δ24 and the orthotopic model for further translational studies. PMID:16900223

  16. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  17. Demonstration of tank effect on growth indices of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during an ad libitum feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Speare, D J; MacNair, N; Hammell, K L

    1995-10-01

    Growth indices were examined in 24 identically managed tanks, each containing 120 diploid juvenile rainbow trout (initial mean body weight, 9.3 g) during a 12-week study to examine tank effects associated with tank location in a multi user research facility. Growth indices included mean body weight, feed intake, feed conversion index, and specific growth rate. The null hypothesis that tank effect had no effect on growth over the 12-week period was rejected (P = 0.038), and mean weight in individual tanks differed by as much as 18.7%). During the study it was determined that the proximity of tanks to common-use walkways in the facility could affect growth indices. This was indicated by significant differences in the mean fish weights among blocks of tanks served by different header tanks after 4 (P = 0.001) and 8 (P = 0.024) week. The block containing tanks of fish with the highest them weight was nearest to the 2 common-use walkways in the facility. Fish in this block of tanks, compared with those in other blocks, had significantly greater feed intake but no significant differences in conversion efficiency. Compensatory growth, a well known growth attribute in fishes, diminished the difference in mean weight be tween these blocks of tanks by the end of the study. Comparison of paired ranks within header tank blocks indicated that fish in those located nearest to walkways had higher feeding rates over the 12-week period (P = 0.048), but less efficient feed conversion (P = 0.040) than did fish in matched tanks located farthest from walkways. However, there were no differences in mean weight of fish. Results of this trial document the risks involved in identifying fish in a tank as the experimental unit when treatments are administered to the tank of fish, the latter being the true experimental unit.

  18. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving.

  19. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food. PMID:19481125

  20. Practical Differences Among Aggregate-Level Conditional Status Metrics: From Median Student Growth Percentiles to Value-Added Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Katherine E.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate-level conditional status metrics (ACSMs) describe the status of a group by referencing current performance to expectations given past scores. This article provides a framework for these metrics, classifying them by aggregation function (mean or median), regression approach (linear mean and nonlinear quantile), and the scale that supports…

  1. Robust conditioned flavor preference produced by intragastric starch infusions in rats.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1988-10-01

    Rats were intragastrically infused with hydrolyzed starch (16% Polycose) or water as they drank cherry- or grape-flavored water during 23-h/day tests; chow was available ad libitum. After 4 conditioning days the rats displayed a near-total preference (96%) for the starch-paired flavor over the water-paired flavor in two-choice tests. This conditioned flavor preference persisted during a 4-day extinction test when both flavors were paired with water infusions. The results demonstrate that the postingestive actions of starch are rewarding to nondeprived rats and can condition strong and long-lasting flavor preferences.

  2. Evidence for 18.6 year Mn signal in temperature and drought conditions in North America since AD 1800

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, since 1800, the mean discrepancy in epoch between maxima in temperature and maxima in the Drought Area Index (DAI) for the western United States with respect to maxima in the lunar modal tide is 0.9 and 0.1 year, respectively. It is suggested, in light of the fact that a cluster of nine stations in western Canada yields the 18.6-year lunar nodal term out of phase with 30 stations in eastern North America, that (1) enhanced drought conditions in the western United States are neither recurrent nor rhythmic on a time scale of 20 years, but rather periodic with a period of 18.6 years, and (2) the Rocky Mountain system is an influence for atmospheric tidal phenomena at epochs of maximum in the lunar nodal tide as well as for maxima in the temperature records of the DAI.

  3. Regulation of free corticosterone and CBG capacity under different environmental conditions in altricial nestlings.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Bettina; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Breuner, Creagh W; Jenni, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of circulating glucocorticoids is regulated in response to environmental and endogenous conditions. Total circulating corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, consists of a fraction which is bound to corticosterone-binding globulins (CBG) and a free fraction. There is increasing evidence that the environment modulates free corticosterone levels through varying the concentration of CBG, but experimental evidence is lacking. To test the hypothesis that the regulation of chronic stress in response to endogenous and environmental conditions involves variation in both corticosterone release and CBG capacity, we performed an experiment with barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings in two different years with pronounced differences in environmental conditions and in nestlings experimentally fed ad libitum. In half of the individuals we implanted a corticosterone-releasing pellet to artificially increase corticosterone levels and in the other half we implanted a placebo pellet. We then repeatedly collected blood samples to measure the change in total and free corticosterone levels as well as CBG capacity. The increase in circulating total corticosterone after artificial corticosterone administration varied with environmental conditions and with the food regime of the nestlings. The highest total corticosterone levels were found in nestlings growing up in poor environmental conditions and the lowest in ad libitum fed nestlings. CBG was highest in the year with poor environmental conditions, so that, contrary to total corticosterone, free corticosterone levels were low under poor environmental conditions. When nestlings were fed ad libitum total corticosterone, CBG and free corticosterone did not increase when administering corticosterone. These results suggest that depending on the individual history an animal experienced during development the HPA-axis is regulated differently. PMID:19467233

  4. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  5. Analysis of the levitation force of pure and starch/polystyrene/MWCNT added bulk MgB2 superconductors using frozen image model under zero field cooling condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of superconducting levitation force between permanent magnet and polycrystalline samples of pure and MgB2 added with starch, polystyrene (PS) and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) have been performed under zero field cooling (ZFC) condition at 20 K in both descending and ascending modes. For this, the bulk pellets were synthesized by conventional solid state sintering technique. The XRD data indicate well developed MgB2 phase. However, a decrease in lattice parameter 'a = b' have been observed for doped MgB2 samples. Superconducting transition temperature of MgB2 also decreases with starch/PS/MWCNT addition. Unlike MWCNT, the addition of starch/polystyrene is found to enhance the levitation force of MgB2 superconductor. The levitation force between PM and investigated pellets in ZFC condition is explained well in terms of the updated version of modified frozen image model and the magnetic moment originated due to vertical motion of the superconductors have been estimated. It may be noted that except for MWCNT, addition of starch/PS in MgB2 improves the magnetic moment generated by vertical movement of pure MgB2. However, this improvement is more pronounced for 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2, which indicates more flux trapping and hence better levitation properties in 1 wt.% of PS added MgB2. The vertical stiffness estimated for pure and starch/PS/MWCNT doped MgB2 samples indicate that the levitation force are more sensitive in the region close to the PM.

  6. Microbial thiamin metabolism in the rumen simulating fermenter (RUSITEC): the effect of acidogenic conditions, a high sulfur level and added thiamin.

    PubMed

    Alves de Oliveira, L; Jean-Blain, C; Komisarczuk-Bony, S; Durix, A; Durier, C

    1997-10-01

    The effects of acidogenic conditions, a high S level and the addition of thiamin on the rumen microbial metabolism of thiamin were investigated in vitro in a semi-continuous fermenter (RUSITEC), using a factorial design. Acidogenic conditions were obtained by simultaneously increasing the starch: cellulose ratio and the amount of solid substrate fed, and by decreasing the buffering capacity of the liquid phase of the fermenter. S in the form of sulfate was supplied at two levels, one corresponding to a control amount of S (2 g/kg dietary DM), the second to an excess (5 g/kg DM) which is sufficient to trigger cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN) when used in vivo. Acidogenic conditions decreased the pH of the fermenters, CH4 production and cellulose digestibility, increased the short-chain fatty acid production, but had no effect on thiamin production. The high S level enhanced the production of sulfide considerably, had no effect ont he microbial metabolism of energy and N, and decreased thiamin production (326 v. 266 nmol/d). The added thiamin was rapidly converted into phosphorylated compounds which largely decreased the apparent synthesis of this vitamin by the rumen microflora. The total thiamin flow was increased by added thiamin. In no case was thiaminase activity in the fermenter liquid phase significantly modified. The high level of S induced only a limited decrease of total thiamin flow. Consequently, it is unlikely that the investigated factors could be considered to be high risk factors for the thiamin-dependent CCN. PMID:9389886

  7. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  8. The effectiveness of the oncolytic activity induced by Ad5/F35 adenoviral vector is dependent on the cumulative cellular conditions of survival and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Y; Kang, Sujin; Song, Jae J; Kim, Joo-Hang

    2013-04-01

    To overcome the poor tumor transduction efficiency of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) observed in several types of cancer, the fiber region of Ad5, apart from its tail, was replaced by adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35). The chimeric Ad5/F35 adenoviral vector did not exhibit any significant enhancement of transduction efficiency. CD46, a receptor for Ad35, was expressed in relatively small amounts in most of the cancer cells examined. Therefore, we investigated the pivotal factor(s) that render cancer cells susceptible to transduction. We discovered that the tumor transduction efficiency of Ad5/F35 was enhanced in the presence of rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, in some cancer cells. Analysis of survival potential and cell proliferation rates revealed that Ad5/F35 exerted a more pronounced oncolytic effect in cancer cells with higher survival potential in the presence of rapamycin.

  9. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  10. Emplacement conditions of the 1256 AD Al-Madinah lava flow field in Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Insights from surface morphology and lava flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly; Moufti, Mohammed R.; Cappello, Annalisa; Murcia, Hugo; Ganci, Gaetana; Del Negro, Ciro; Procter, Jonathan; Zahran, Hani Mahmoud Ali

    2016-01-01

    Lava flow hazard modelling requires detailed geological mapping, and a good understanding of emplacement settings and the processes involved in the formation of lava flows. Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a large volcanic field, comprising about 1000 predominantly small-volume volcanoes most of which have emitted lava flows of various lengths. A few eruptions took place in this area during the Holocene, and they were located in the northern extreme of the Harrat Rahat, a close proximity to critical infrastructure and population living in Al-Madinah City. In the present study, we combined field work, high resolution digital topography and morphometric analysis to infer the emplacement history of the last historical event in the region represented by the 1256 AD Al-Madinah lava flow field. These data were also used to simulate 1256 AD-type lava flows in the Harrat Rahat by the MAGFLOW lava flow emplacement model, which is able to relate the flow evolution to eruption conditions. The 1256 AD lava flow field extent was mapped at a scale of 1:1000 from a high resolution (0.5 m) Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) Digital Terrain Model (DTM), aerial photos with field support. The bulk volume of the lava flow field was estimated at 0.4 km3, while the source volume represented by seven scoria cone was estimated at 0.023 km3. The lava flow covered an area of 60 km2 and reached a maximum length of 23.4 km. The lava flow field comprises about 20.9% of pāhoehoe, 73.8% of 'a'ā, and 5.3% of late-stage outbreaks. Our field observation, also suggests that the lava flows of the Harrat Rahat region are mainly core-dominated and that they formed large lava flow fields by amalgamation of many single channels. These channels mitigated downslope by topography-lava flow and channel-channel interactions, highlighting this typical process that needs to be considered in the volcanic hazard assessment in the region. A series of numerical lava flow simulations was carried out

  11. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  12. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  13. Influence of body condition on reproductive output in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction is expensive. Substantial body reserves (i.e. high body condition) are usually required for females to undertake offspring production. In many vertebrates, maternal body condition positively influences reproductive output, and emaciated individuals skip reproduction. However, the impact of extremely high body condition, more specifically obesity, on animal reproductive performance remains poorly understood and research has generated contradictory results. For instance, obesity negatively affects fertility in women, but does not influence reproductive capacity or reproductive output in laboratory rodents. We examined the influence of high body condition on reproductive status and reproductive output in the guinea pig. In captivity, when fed ad libitum, guinea pigs store large amounts of fat tissues and exhibit a tendency for obesity. Our results show that obesity negatively affected reproduction in this species: both the proportion of fertile females and litter size were lower in the fattest females. Therefore, guinea pigs may represent suitable organisms to better understand the negative effect of obesity on reproduction.

  14. Aqueous Suzuki Coupling Reactions of Basic Nitrogen-Containing Substrates in the Absence of Added Base and Ligand: Observation of High Yields under Acidic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Gelbaum, Carol; Fisk, Jason S; Holden, Bruce; Jaganathan, Arvind; Whiteker, Gregory T; Pollet, Pamela; Liotta, Charles L

    2016-09-16

    A series of aqueous heterogeneous Suzuki coupling reactions of substrates containing basic nitrogen centers with phenylboronic acid in the absence of added base and ligand is presented. High yields of products were obtained by employing aryl bromides containing aliphatic 1°, 2°, and 3° amine substituents, and good to high yields were obtained by employing a variety of substituted bromopyridines. In the former series, the pH of the aqueous phase changed from basic to acidic during the course of the reaction, while in the latter series the aqueous phase was on the acidic side of the pH scale throughout the entire course of reaction. A mechanistic interpretation for these observations, which generally preserves the oxo palladium catalytic cycle widely accepted in the literature, is presented. PMID:27559749

  15. Aqueous Suzuki Coupling Reactions of Basic Nitrogen-Containing Substrates in the Absence of Added Base and Ligand: Observation of High Yields under Acidic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Gelbaum, Carol; Fisk, Jason S; Holden, Bruce; Jaganathan, Arvind; Whiteker, Gregory T; Pollet, Pamela; Liotta, Charles L

    2016-09-16

    A series of aqueous heterogeneous Suzuki coupling reactions of substrates containing basic nitrogen centers with phenylboronic acid in the absence of added base and ligand is presented. High yields of products were obtained by employing aryl bromides containing aliphatic 1°, 2°, and 3° amine substituents, and good to high yields were obtained by employing a variety of substituted bromopyridines. In the former series, the pH of the aqueous phase changed from basic to acidic during the course of the reaction, while in the latter series the aqueous phase was on the acidic side of the pH scale throughout the entire course of reaction. A mechanistic interpretation for these observations, which generally preserves the oxo palladium catalytic cycle widely accepted in the literature, is presented.

  16. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  17. The clinical effect of dentifrices containing stabilized stannous fluoride on plaque formation and gingivitis--a six-month study with ad libitum brushing.

    PubMed

    Beiswanger, B B; Doyle, P M; Jackson, R D; Mallatt, M E; Mau, M s; Bollmer, B W; Crisanti, M M; Guay, C B; Lanzalaco, A C; Lukacovic, M F

    1995-01-01

    The effects of stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrices on supragingival plaque, gingival inflammation and gingival bleeding were studied in 549 adult male and female subjects who completed a six-month, double blind clinical study. Following an oral prophylaxis, subjects were randomly assigned to brush with one of the following dentifrices: 1) 0.454% SnF2 stabilized with 2.08% sodium gluconate, 2) 0.454% SnF2 stabilized with 4.16% sodium gluconate, 3) an experimental dentifrice, or 4) 0.243% NaF control dentifrice. Follow-up examinations were conducted at 3 and 6 months. Compared to the control dentifrice at 6 months, stannous fluoride dentifrices stabilized with 2.08% or 4.16% sodium gluconate significantly reduced gingivitis by 18.8% and 18.0%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two stabilized SnF2 groups with respect to their beneficial effects on gingival health. Gingival bleeding was also reduced, relative to the control dentifrice, for both stabilized SnF2 dentifrices. However, these differences were not statistically significant at p=0.05. The stabilized SnF2 dentifrices were not significantly different from the control dentifrice in their effects on supragingival plaque. No significant differences in adverse oral soft tissue effects were observed between the test and control groups. As expected, accumulation of extrinsic tooth stain increased in the stabilized SnF2 groups. However, the difficulty in removing accumulated dental stain was similar between the control and stabilized SnF2 dentifrices. Since use of SnF2 dentifrices has been reported to produce tooth stain, gingivitis examinations were done with and without custom-made tooth covers to evaluate the potential for examiner bias. Comparable gingivitis and gingival bleeding benefits were observed when the evaluations were conducted with or without the tooth covers. Results from this study support that 0.454% stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrices can provide an important adjunct to the prevention and control of gingivitis when used in combination with regular personal oral hygiene procedures and professional care.

  18. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  19. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (P<0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm (P<0.05) with the acrophase at the second feed and a decrease over the next 12 h. Average daily trypsin, lipase and amylase levels of FA fish were significantly lower than those of TR fish (P<0.01); however, the growth performance of both groups was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  20. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  1. D-branes on AdS flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerber, Paul; Martucci, Luca

    2008-01-01

    We study D-branes in Script N = 1 flux compactifications to AdS4. We derive their supersymmetry conditions and express them in terms of background generalized calibrations. Basically because AdS has a boundary, the analysis of stability is more subtle and qualitatively different from the usual case of Minkowski compactifications. For instance, stable D-branes filling AdS4 may wrap trivial internal cycles. Our analysis gives a geometric realization of the four-dimensional field theory approach of Freedman and collaborators. Furthermore, the one-to-one correspondence between the supersymmetry conditions of the background and the existence of generalized calibrations for D-branes is clarified and extended to any supersymmetric flux background that admits a time-like Killing vector and for which all fields are time-independent with respect to the associated time. As explicit examples, we discuss supersymmetric D-branes on IIA nearly Kähler AdS4 flux compactifications.

  2. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  3. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  4. Coral Geochemical Proxy Records Of The East Asian Winter Monsoon And Hydrological Conditions In The Central Vietnam From 1978-2004 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Shen, C.; Chen, Y.; Chiang, H.; Lam, D. D.; Ngai, N.

    2007-12-01

    Monthly-resolution geochemical proxies, including δ18O, δ13C, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca, in a living Porites coral head, collected from Son Tra Island, a near-shore island located at the north tip of Vung Da Nang Bay, central Vietnam (16°12'59.4", 108°1'57.1"), was used to quantitatively reconstruct records of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), seasonality of rainfall, and regional terrestrial input during a period of 1978-2004 AD. By comparing the 1/4-century geochemical data, five features are exhibited. (1) The coral Sr/Ca-inferred summer SSTs correspond well with the 1°x1° instrumental data to suggest that the regional SST record can be retrieved from this local coral head. (2) Interannual variation of coral winter SST data does not follow regional instrumental values. The harmonic phenomenon between coral inferred winter SST dynamic and the surface pressure difference, between the southern South China Sea (SCS) (0-10°N, 105-115°E) and the northern SCS (22.5-32.5°N, 112-122°E), indicating that the cold local SST induced by East Asian winter monsoon was addressed in the Son Tra coral. (3) 1‰ seasonal anomaly of δ18O residual (Δδ18O) suggests a 2-4-psu seasonal salinity change between dry and wet seasons. (4) The synchronous intra-annual changes of δ18O and Ba/Ca data suggest that the rainy season is from late summer to winter, which is consistent with the meteorological record. (5) The high Ba/Ca background level of 10 μmol/mol in 1992-2004, 2-3 times larger than the averaged value of 4 μmol/mol in 1978-1992, indicates an enhanced terrestrial sediment discharge into the bay over the past 10 years. Ba records probably reflect an impact of human activity on hydrological change since the Vietnam War.

  5. Reconstructions of Circulation in the Northeastern Pacific and Western North America since 1500 A.D.: Relation to Precipitation and Fire Conditions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorita, Eduardo; Wahl, Eugene; Trouet, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    A reconstruction of the position of the North Pacific Jet Stream (NPJ) in wintertime over the past 500 years is. Reconstruction of NPJ behavior is driven by an analog process that employs existing paleoclimate field reconstructions of winter temperature, summer precipitation and summer soil moisture from western North America to select climate model states in millennial climate simulations that are closest to the field reconstructions. The skill of the reconstruction method is tested against the 20CR meteorological reanalysis. All three types of proxy sets individually contribute to the skill in the reconstruction of the winter atmospheric circulation. The NPJ reconstruction is also evaluated in relation to dry and wet extremes in California and extremes of Sierra Nevada fire activity. Results indicate that fire and precipitation extremes are both closely linked with NPJ winter position, with characteristic wet/low fire and dry/high fire NPJ spatial features in the northeastern Pacific adjacent to western North America. The meridional profiles of zonal wind at 200 hPa height can be classified according to winters belonging to dry and wet hydrological years and also according to summers with high or low fire activity. This classification indicates that in wet years and low-fire years the jet stream is more intense, more zonally oriented with peak winds occurring at lower latitudes. The opposite configuration occurs in dry, high-fire, years, with a more meandering jet stream peaking at higher latitudes. These features are in turn evaluated in future climate model scenarios using directly comparable transient integrations that cover the past millennium, the instrumental period, and the 21st century. Relatively wet/low fire regional conditions are reasonably possible in the later 21st century under a high greenhouse gas forcing regime (RCP 8.5), even though temperatures rise significantly. The implication of this combination of conditions in the Sierra Nevada is that

  6. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goffe, Louis; Wrieden, Wendy; Penn, Linda; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving. Design Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes), amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty), time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s), and individual serving. Setting Controlled, laboratory, conditions. Participants A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women) aged 18–59 years. Main Outcome Measures Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers. Results Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD) of 7.86g (4.54) per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22). The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001). This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (ps

  7. The effect of past condition on a multicomponent sexual signal.

    PubMed

    Scheuber, Hannes; Jacot, Alain; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2003-09-01

    Sexual-selection theory predicts that multiple signals may reveal male condition at different stages of life, thus allowing females to make a more reliable assessment of male quality. While the effect of current condition on signal design is well established, few studies have experimentally investigated the effects of past condition. We therefore manipulated the nutritional condition of male nymph field crickets Gryllus campestris and assessed the enduring effects on multiple components of the adult calling song. Food-restricted males had longer nymphal development times and smaller adult body sizes than nymphs with ad libitum food access. Nymphal feeding conditions specifically affected the allometric relationship between body size and harp size, as food-restricted males developed comparatively small harps, leading to a calling song of higher carrier frequency than that produced by similar-sized control males. Other calling-song components, notably chirp rate and chirp intensity, were not affected by the nymphal food treatment, exposing carrier frequency as the key component indicating past condition. In a previous study we established chirp rate as the sole indicator of current condition. The combined results represent experimental evidence of a multicomponent sexual signal that provides distinct information on male condition during different stages of life. PMID:12964979

  8. The effect of past condition on a multicomponent sexual signal.

    PubMed Central

    Scheuber, Hannes; Jacot, Alain; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2003-01-01

    Sexual-selection theory predicts that multiple signals may reveal male condition at different stages of life, thus allowing females to make a more reliable assessment of male quality. While the effect of current condition on signal design is well established, few studies have experimentally investigated the effects of past condition. We therefore manipulated the nutritional condition of male nymph field crickets Gryllus campestris and assessed the enduring effects on multiple components of the adult calling song. Food-restricted males had longer nymphal development times and smaller adult body sizes than nymphs with ad libitum food access. Nymphal feeding conditions specifically affected the allometric relationship between body size and harp size, as food-restricted males developed comparatively small harps, leading to a calling song of higher carrier frequency than that produced by similar-sized control males. Other calling-song components, notably chirp rate and chirp intensity, were not affected by the nymphal food treatment, exposing carrier frequency as the key component indicating past condition. In a previous study we established chirp rate as the sole indicator of current condition. The combined results represent experimental evidence of a multicomponent sexual signal that provides distinct information on male condition during different stages of life. PMID:12964979

  9. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  10. One-loop diagrams in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Hung Lingyan; Shang Yanwen

    2011-01-15

    We study the complex scalar loop corrections to the boundary-boundary gauge two-point function in pure AdS space in Poincare coordinates, in the presence of boundary quadratic perturbations to the scalar. These perturbations correspond to double-trace perturbations in the dual CFT and modify the boundary conditions of the bulk scalars in AdS. We find that, in addition to the usual UV divergences, the one-loop calculation suffers from a divergence originating in the limit as the loop vertices approach the AdS horizon. We show that this type of divergence is independent of the boundary coupling; making use of this we extract the finite relative variation of the imaginary part of the loop via Cutkosky rules as the boundary perturbation varies. Applying our methods to compute the effects of a time-dependent impurity to the conductivities using the replica trick in AdS/CFT, we find that generally an IR-relevant disorder reduces the conductivity and that in the extreme low frequency limit the correction due to the impurities overwhelms the planar CFT result even though it is supposedly 1/N{sup 2} suppressed. We also comment on the more physical scenario of a time-independent impurity.

  11. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  12. Adding flavor to AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, René; O'Bannon, Andy; Wrase, Timm

    2009-11-01

    Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena have proposed that the low-energy description of multiple M2-branes at a Bbb C4/Bbb Zk singularity is a (2+1)-dimensional Script N = 6 supersymmetric U(Nc) × U(Nc) Chern-Simons matter theory, the ABJM theory. In the large-Nc limit, its holographic dual is supergravity in AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk. We study various ways to add fields that transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge groups, i.e. flavor fields, to the ABJM theory. We work in a probe limit and perform analyses in both the supergravity and field theory descriptions. In the supergravity description we find a large class of supersymmetric embeddings of probe flavor branes. In the field theory description, we present a general method to determine the couplings of the flavor fields to the fields of the ABJM theory. We then study four examples in detail: codimension-zero Script N = 3 supersymmetric flavor, described in supergravity by Kaluza-Klein monopoles or D6-branes; codimension-one Script N = (0,6) supersymmetric chiral flavor, described by D8-branes; codimension-one Script N = (3,3) supersymmetric non-chiral flavor, described by M5/D4-branes; codimension-two Script N = 4 supersymmetric flavor, described by M2/D2-branes. Finally we discuss special physical equivalences between brane embeddings in M-theory, and their interpretation in the field theory description.

  13. Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hozza, W A; Mtenga, L A; Kifaro, G C; Shija, D S N; Mushi, D E; Safari, J G; Shirima, E J M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28°C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high

  14. Twistor methods for AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, Tim; Skinner, David; Williams, Jack

    2016-08-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS5 is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  15. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  16. Influence of nutrients on feed intake and condition of captive canvasbacks in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.

  17. Constraining pre-eruptive magma conditions and unrest timescales during the Monte Nuovo eruption (1538 ad; Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy): integrating textural and CSD results from experimental and natural trachy-phonolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzilli, Fabio; Piochi, Monica; Mormone, Angela; Agostini, Claudia; Carroll, Michael R.

    2016-10-01

    We present crystallization experiments representing a broad range of growth conditions of alkali feldspar and sodalite in a trachy-phonolite magma composition during later stages of evolution. Our results include (i) textural data and mineral assemblages of synthetic samples; (ii) feldspar nucleation kinetics and growth rate estimates; and (iii) textural data, mineral abundances, and crystal size distribution measurements on samples representative of the Monte Nuovo eruption (1538 ad), the last eruption of Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy. Experiments reproduced the texture and feldspar content of natural products indicating that kinetic data can provide insights into processes within the volcanic system shortly before and during this small-magnitude eruption and, particularly, about magma ascent timescale. We suggest that the groundmass crystallization of Monte Nuovo magma started between 4 and 7 km depth (˜100-200 MPa) at a temperature between 825 and 840 °C (close to the liquidus of alkali feldspar). The crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspar and the absence of sodalite in most of the natural samples indicate that magma ascent rate increased in the shallow part of the conduit from about 3 km depth to the quenching level (possibly fragmentation point; ˜30 MPa), during the first phases of the eruption. The crystallization time of the magma requires that it ascended from pre-eruptive storage to the quenching level in several hours to a few days. We also observe that a small decrease in pressure can induce a dramatic increase in crystallinity, with associated rheological changes, leading to changes in the eruption style, and such changes could occur on timescales of hours to several days. The products from the later phases of the Monte Nuovo eruption are more crystalline and contain sodalite in response to the decrease in magma ascent rate, which in turn allowed for more degassing during ascent, resulting in more time spent at very shallow depths.

  18. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  19. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  20. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  1. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  2. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  3. Dynamical AdS strings across horizons

    DOE PAGES

    Ishii, Takaaki; Murata, Keiju

    2016-03-01

    We examine the nonlinear classical dynamics of a fundamental string in anti-deSitter spacetime. The string is dual to the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in $N = 4$ super Yang-Mills theory. We perturb the string by shaking the endpoints and compute its time evolution numerically. We find that with sufficiently strong perturbations the string continues extending and plunges into the Poincare´ horizon. In the evolution, effective horizons are also dynamically created on the string worldsheet. The quark and antiquark are thus causally disconnected, and the string transitions to two straight strings. The forces acting on the endpoints vanishmore » with a power law whose slope depends on the perturbations. Lastly, the condition for this transition to occur is that energy injection exceeds the static energy between the quark-antiquark pair.« less

  4. Dynamical AdS strings across horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Murata, Keiju

    2016-03-01

    We examine the nonlinear classical dynamics of a fundamental string in anti-de Sitter spacetime. The string is dual to the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We perturb the string by shaking the endpoints and compute its time evolution numerically. We find that with sufficiently strong perturbations the string continues extending and plunges into the Poincaré horizon. In the evolution, effective horizons are also dynamically created on the string worldsheet. The quark and antiquark are thus causally disconnected, and the string transitions to two straight strings. The forces acting on the endpoints vanish with a power law whose slope depends on the perturbations. The condition for this transition to occur is that energy injection exceeds the static energy between the quark-antiquark pair.

  5. Interpolating from Bianchi attractors to Lifshitz and AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachru, Shamit; Kundu, Nilay; Saha, Arpan; Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P.

    2014-03-01

    We construct classes of smooth metrics which interpolate from Bianchi attractor geometries of Types II, III, VI and IX in the IR to Lifshitz or AdS 2 × S 3 geometries in the UV. While we do not obtain these metrics as solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a simple matter field theory, we show that the matter sector stress-energy required to support these geometries (via the Einstein equations) does satisfy the weak, and therefore also the null, energy condition. Since Lifshitz or AdS 2 × S 3 geometries can in turn be connected to AdS 5 spacetime, our results show that there is no barrier, at least at the level of the energy conditions, for solutions to arise connecting these Bianchi attractor geometries to AdS 5 spacetime. The asymptotic AdS 5 spacetime has no non-normalizable metric deformation turned on, which suggests that furthermore, the Bianchi attractor geometries can be the IR geometries dual to field theories living in flat space, with the breaking of symmetries being either spontaneous or due to sources for other fields. Finally, we show that for a large class of flows which connect two Bianchi attractors, a C-function can be defined which is monotonically decreasing from the UV to the IR as long as the null energy condition is satisfied. However, except for special examples of Bianchi attractors (including AdS space), this function does not attain a finite and non-vanishing constant value at the end points.

  6. A stochasticity threshold in holography and the instability of AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Saurabh, Ayush

    2015-07-01

    We give strong numerical evidence that a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS, with only a few modes turned on initially, will undergo fast thermalization only if it is above a certain energetic threshold. Below the threshold the energy stays close to constant in a few modes for a very long time instead of cascading quickly. This indicates the existence of a Strong Stochasticity Threshold (SST) in holography. The idea of SST is familiar from certain statistical mechanical systems, and we suggest that it exists also in AdS gravity. This would naturally reconcile the generic nonlinear instability of AdS observed by Bizon and Rostworowski, with the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou-like quasiperiodicity noticed recently for some classes of initial conditions. We show that our simple setup captures many of the relevant features of the full gravity-scalar system.

  7. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  8. Feeding demand conditions and plasma cortisol in socially-housed squirrel monkey mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Champoux, M; Hwang, L; Lang, O; Levine, S

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that experimentally altering the accessibility and availability of food can have profound impact on behavior and adrenocortical activity in nonhuman primate species. In this study, groups of mother-infant squirrel monkey dyads were housed in either high demand (HFD: 120% normal daily food intake provided), low demand (LFD: 600% normal daily food intake provided) or variable demand (VFD: alternating two-week blocks of low demand and high demand) conditions for 12 weeks. During the 12-week experimental foraging phase, animals in the HFD group exhibited prolonged and consistent cortisol elevations. The cortisol levels in the VFD group reflected the ambient demand condition, with higher levels exhibited during the high demand phases of the study, and lower values when the low demand condition was in effect. Overall, mothers were more affected by the experimental manipulation than were infants. The experimental condition did not affect the infants' response to a 24-h separation from their mothers. A suppression of cortisol levels, particularly in the HFD group, was observed upon resumption of ad-libitum feeding. PMID:11337131

  9. Fattening performance and carcass traits of Chios male lambs fed under traditional and intensive feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Soycan Önenç, Sibel; Ozdoğan, Mürsel; Erdoğan Ataç, Funda; Taşkın, Turgay

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out to compare the fattening performance and carcass traits of Chios male lambs fed under traditional and intensive feeding conditions. In the study, a total of 34 lambs were randomly separated into traditional (T) and intensive (I) groups in equal numbers. Lambs in group T were fed on ration prepared in local style and grazed in olive grove for 8 h/day. On the other hand, lambs in group I were fed on 255 g alfalfa hay animal(-1) day(-1) and ad libitum mixed feed. After a period of 8 weeks, lambs were transported to the slaughterhouse. The results showed that Chios lambs fed under intensive conditions has better performance and produced heavier carcass compared to those fed under traditional conditions. However, consumption of concentrate feed mixture was about twice as much in group I as in group T. Total feed consumption and feed conversion ratio was similar in each group. The values of carcass traits of lambs in group I were found to be significantly higher than those of group T. On the other hand, carcass fat thickness was slightly lower in group T. Traditional condition is considered to respond to better to consumer demands for lean lamb carcass.

  10. Nonlinear realization of local symmetries of AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2005-10-15

    Coset methods are used to construct the action describing the dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of the local symmetries of AdS{sub d+1} space due to the embedding of an AdS{sub d} brane. The resulting action is an SO(2,d) invariant AdS form of the Einstein-Hilbert action, which in addition to the AdS{sub d} gravitational vielbein, also includes a massive vector field localized on the brane. Its long wavelength dynamics is the same as a massive Abelian vector field coupled to gravity in AdS{sub d} space.

  11. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  12. Bubbling geometries for AdS2× S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, Oleg

    2015-10-01

    We construct BPS geometries describing normalizable excitations of AdS2×S2. All regular horizon-free solutions are parameterized by two harmonic functions in R 3 with sources along closed curves. This local structure is reminiscent of the "bubbling solutions" for the other AdS p ×S q cases, however, due to peculiar asymptotic properties of AdS2, one copy of R 3 does not cover the entire space, and we discuss the procedure for analytic continuation, which leads to a nontrivial topological structure of the new geometries. We also study supersymmetric brane probes on the new geometries, which represent the AdS2×S2 counterparts of the giant gravitons.

  13. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

  14. Studies on the ADS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muck, Wolfgang

    1999-11-01

    This thesis summarizes original research on the topic of the ``AdS/CFT correspondence.'' This correspondence, which was first conjectured by Maldacena [ Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 231 (1998)] and subsequently formulated by Gubser, Klebanov and Polyakov [Phys. Lett. B 428, 105 (1998) and by Witten [Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 253 (1998)], relates field theories on (d + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces and conformal field theories (CFTs) in d dimensions with each other. Its main prediction is that the correlation functions of certain quantum CFTs are determined by the dynamics of classical field theories on AdS spaces. Starting from a correspondence formula provided by the authors above, several CFT correlation functions are calculated and agreement with the forms dictated by conformal invariance is found. The necessary renormalization is carried out in the ``ɛ- prescription.'' Details of renormalization and the breaking of conformal symmetries in special cases are investigated by means of the example of the scalar field. The ``asymptotic prescription'' is used to prove a suggestion by Klebanov and Witten [hep- th/9905104] about the treatment of irregular boundary conditions valid to all orders of perturbation theory. The treatment of AdS gravity, which enables the calculation of correlation functions of CFT energy momentum tensors, is carried out in the time slicing formalism. The calculated two-point functions and Weyl anomalies agree with results known from pure CFT considerations. The Wess Zumino model on AdS4 is discussed as an example containing supersymmetry. It is shown that the model yields the correlation functions of conformal fields belonging to a d = 3, N = 1 superconformal multiplet.

  15. The effects of testosterone manipulation on the body condition of captive male yellow-legged gulls.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Ferrer, Miguel; Figuerola, Jordi; Veira, José A R; Estepa, Julio; Torres, Luis M

    2002-02-01

    Persistently high testosterone levels are believed to be costly to males due to their negative effect on body condition. However, this assumption could not be validated when we analysed birds isolated from all social interactions. The hypothesis was tested on birds kept in isolation in order to analyse the effects of testosterone per se, and thereby exclude the influence of social interactions. Adult male yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans) were captured, and after a period of adjustment, some individuals were subcutaneously implanted with testosterone, while the rest were used as controls. The gulls received ad libitum food for 10 days and were then fasted for 4 days. Thyroid hormones, body-mass change, daily food intake, hematocrit and several plasma biochemical parameters were analysed. Treated (T)-males maintained constant levels of plasma total protein throughout the experiment, whilst control (C)-males showed a decrease. We did not find any other differences between groups for the other variables analysed. Since the implanted birds sustained high testosterone levels for a number of days, any cost to body condition would have been revealed if these costs levels were actually important. Our results do not support the hypothesis that a reduction in body condition can be directly produced by plasma testosterone, although total protein changes do suggest different anabolic patterns in testosterone-treated gulls. PMID:11818219

  16. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward.

  17. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  18. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  19. Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF**6) is a commonly used method for measuring CH**4 enteric emissions in ruminants. Studies using SF**6 have shown large variation in CH**4 emissions data, inconsistencies in CH**4 emissions across studies, and potential methodological errors. Therefore, th...

  20. Superstring theory in AdS(3) and plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, John Sang Won

    This thesis is devoted to the study of string theory in AdS 3 and its applications to recent developments in string theory. The difficulties associated with formulating a consistent string theory in AdS3 and its underlying SL(2, R) WZW model are explained. We describe how these difficulties can be overcome by assuming that the SL(2, R) WZW model contains spectral flow symmetry. The existence of spectral flow symmetry in the fully quantum treatment is proved by a calculation of the one-loop string partition function. We consider Euclidean AdS 3 with the time direction periodically identified, and compute the torus partition function in this background. The string spectrum can be reproduced by viewing the one-loop calculation as the free energy of a gas of strings, thus providing a rigorous proof of the results based on spectral flow arguments. Next, we turn to spacetimes that are quotients of AdS 3, which include the BTZ black hole and conical spaces. Strings propagating in the conical space are described by taking an orbifold of strings in AdS3. We show that the twisted states of these orbifolds can be obtained by fractional spectral flow. We show that the shift in the ground state energy usually associated with orbifold twists is absent in this case, and offer a unified framework in which to view spectral flow. Lastly, we consider the RNS superstrings in AdS 3 x S3 x M , where M may be K3 or T 4, based on supersymmetric extensions of SL(2, R) and SU(2) WZW models. We construct the physical states and calculate the spectrum. A subsector of this theory describes strings propagating in the six dimensional plane wave obtained by the Penrose limit of AdS3 x S3 x M . We reproduce the plane wave spectrum by taking J and the radius to infinity. We show that the plane wave spectrum actually coincides with the large J spectrum at fixed radius, i.e. in AdS3 x S3. Relation to some recent topics of interest such as the Frolov-Tseytlin string and strings with critical tension

  1. Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Soren, N M; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P < 0.05) in G2 and G3 than in G0. A lower ruminal pH and ammonia N but higher total N and trichloroacetic acid-precipitable N, an increase in holotrichs, spirotrichs and total protozoa population, increase in haemoglobin but decrease in serum total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were observed in high-concentrate-fed groups. Carcass attributes revealed increase (P < 0.05) in empty LW, dressing yield, eye muscle area, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat, decrease in shear force value and higher (P < 0.05) protein content in Longissimus dorsi muscle in test groups than in the control. Above all, the G2 animals had better rumen environment and blood biochemical attributes and consumed more feed with enhanced digestibility that supported higher LWG at better feed conversion efficiency, improvement in BCS and carcass quality. Thus, re-alimentation of

  2. Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Soren, N M; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P < 0.05) in G2 and G3 than in G0. A lower ruminal pH and ammonia N but higher total N and trichloroacetic acid-precipitable N, an increase in holotrichs, spirotrichs and total protozoa population, increase in haemoglobin but decrease in serum total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were observed in high-concentrate-fed groups. Carcass attributes revealed increase (P < 0.05) in empty LW, dressing yield, eye muscle area, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat, decrease in shear force value and higher (P < 0.05) protein content in Longissimus dorsi muscle in test groups than in the control. Above all, the G2 animals had better rumen environment and blood biochemical attributes and consumed more feed with enhanced digestibility that supported higher LWG at better feed conversion efficiency, improvement in BCS and carcass quality. Thus, re-alimentation of

  3. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  4. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  5. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  6. Holography and AdS4 self-gravitating dyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. R.; Moreno, E. F.; Schaposnik, F. A.

    2010-11-01

    We present a self-gravitating dyon solution of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations of motion in asymptotically AdS space. The back reaction of gauge and Higgs fields on the space-time geometry leads to the metric of an asymptotically AdS black hole. Using the gauge/gravity correspondence we analyze relevant properties of the finite temperature quantum field theory defined on the boundary. In particular we identify an order operator, characterize a phase transition of the dual theory on the border and also compute the expectation value of the finite temperature Wilson loop.

  7. AdS box graphs, unitarity and operator product expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Mesref, L.; Rühl, W.

    2000-11-01

    We develop a method of singularity analysis for conformal graphs which, in particular, is applicable to the holographic image of AdS supergravity theory. It can be used to determine the critical exponents for any such graph in a given channel. These exponents determine the towers of conformal blocks that are exchanged in this channel. We analyze the scalar AdS box graph and show that it has the same critical exponents as the corresponding CFT box graph. Thus pairs of external fields couple to the same exchanged conformal blocks in both theories. This is looked upon as a general structural argument supporting the Maldacena hypothesis.

  8. Phases of global AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  9. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  10. Vacuum currents in braneworlds on AdS bulk with compact dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, S.; Saharian, A. A.; Vardanyan, V.

    2015-11-01

    The two-point function and the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the current density are investigated for a massive charged scalar field with arbitrary curvature coupling in the geometry of a brane on the background of AdS spacetime with partial toroidal compactification. The presence of a gauge field flux, enclosed by compact dimensions, is assumed. On the brane the field obeys Robin boundary condition and along compact dimensions periodicity conditions with general phases are imposed. There is a range in the space of the values for the coefficient in the boundary condition where the Poincaré vacuum is unstable. This range depends on the location of the brane and is different for the regions between the brane and AdS boundary and between the brane and the horizon. In models with compact dimensions the stability condition is less restrictive than that for the AdS bulk with trivial topology. The vacuum charge density and the components of the current along non-compact dimensions vanish. The VEV of the current density along compact dimensions is a periodic function of the gauge field flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. It is decomposed into the boundary-free and brane-induced contributions. The asymptotic behavior of the latter is investigated near the brane, near the AdS boundary and near the horizon. It is shown that, in contrast to the VEVs of the field squared an denergy-momentum tensor, the current density is finite on the brane and vanishes for the special case of Dirichlet boundary condition. Both the boundary-free and brane-induced contributions vanish on the AdS boundary. The brane-induced contribution vanishes on the horizon and for points near the horizon the current is dominated by the boundary-free part. In the near-horizon limit, the latter is connected to the corresponding quantity for a massless field in the Minkowski bulk by a simple conformal relation. Depending on the value of the Robin coefficient, the presence of the brane can either

  11. Dyonic AdS black holes from magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Dias, Óscar J. C.; Klemm, Dietmar

    2009-03-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large dyonic black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime are dual to stationary solutions of the equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics on the conformal boundary of AdS. The dyonic Kerr-Newman-AdS4 solution corresponds to a charged diamagnetic fluid not subject to any net Lorentz force, due to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields compensating each other. The conserved charges, stress tensor and R-current of the fluid are shown to be in exact agreement with the corresponding quantities of the black hole. Furthermore, we obtain stationary solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in four dimensions, which yield predictions for (yet to be constructed) charged rotating black strings in AdS5 carrying nonvanishing momentum along the string. Finally, we consider Scherk-Schwarz reduced AdS gravity on a circle. In this theory, large black holes and black strings are dual to lumps of deconfined plasma of the associated CFT. We analyze the effects that a magnetic field introduces in the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of a plasma tube, which is holographically dual to the Gregory-Laflamme instability of a magnetically charged black string.

  12. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-10-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.

  13. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Israel; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini

    2016-05-01

    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS 5 × S 5 superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  14. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  15. Short communication: Hepatic progesterone-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 2C and 3A in lactating cows during thermoneutral and heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    McCracken, V L; Xie, G; Deaver, S E; Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P; Rhoads, M L

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of heat stress (HS) and insulin on hepatic mRNA abundance of enzymes responsible for metabolizing progesterone [cytochrome P450 2C and 3A (CYP2C and CYP3A)]. To distinguish the direct effects of HS from decreased dry matter intake, cohorts were pair fed (PF) in thermoneutral conditions to match the intake of the HS cows during both experiments. In the first experiment, multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (n=12, 305±33 d in milk) housed in climate-controlled chambers were subjected to 2 experimental periods: (1) thermoneutral (TN) conditions (18°C, 20% humidity) with ad libitum intake (TN and well fed) for 9 d; and (2) either HS conditions (cyclical temperature 31-40°C, 20% humidity) fed for ad libitum intake (n=6), or TN conditions and PF to match the HS animal (n=6) for 9 d. To evaluate hepatic gene expression during experiment 1, biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. In the second experiment, multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows (n=12, 136±8 DIM) were housed and fed in conditions similar to those described for the first experiment. Liver biopsies were obtained immediately before and after an insulin tolerance test administered on d 6 of each period. No effects of exogenous insulin were observed on any of the tested variables, nor were there interactions between environment (TN/HS or well fed/PF) and insulin administration. Heat stress decreased hepatic CYP2C expression during both experiments. The relative abundance of CYP3A was not affected by environmental conditions in the late-lactation cows (first experiment), but was reduced by HS in the mid-lactation cows (second experiment). Interestingly, during experiment 2, hepatic CYP3A expression also decreased during PF. These results suggest that HS reduces the capacity of the liver to metabolize progesterone through distinct effects on CYP2C and CYP3A, and that the effects appear to vary based upon stage of lactation. Ultimately, HS

  16. Short communication: Hepatic progesterone-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 2C and 3A in lactating cows during thermoneutral and heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    McCracken, V L; Xie, G; Deaver, S E; Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P; Rhoads, M L

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of heat stress (HS) and insulin on hepatic mRNA abundance of enzymes responsible for metabolizing progesterone [cytochrome P450 2C and 3A (CYP2C and CYP3A)]. To distinguish the direct effects of HS from decreased dry matter intake, cohorts were pair fed (PF) in thermoneutral conditions to match the intake of the HS cows during both experiments. In the first experiment, multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (n=12, 305±33 d in milk) housed in climate-controlled chambers were subjected to 2 experimental periods: (1) thermoneutral (TN) conditions (18°C, 20% humidity) with ad libitum intake (TN and well fed) for 9 d; and (2) either HS conditions (cyclical temperature 31-40°C, 20% humidity) fed for ad libitum intake (n=6), or TN conditions and PF to match the HS animal (n=6) for 9 d. To evaluate hepatic gene expression during experiment 1, biopsies were obtained at the end of each period. In the second experiment, multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows (n=12, 136±8 DIM) were housed and fed in conditions similar to those described for the first experiment. Liver biopsies were obtained immediately before and after an insulin tolerance test administered on d 6 of each period. No effects of exogenous insulin were observed on any of the tested variables, nor were there interactions between environment (TN/HS or well fed/PF) and insulin administration. Heat stress decreased hepatic CYP2C expression during both experiments. The relative abundance of CYP3A was not affected by environmental conditions in the late-lactation cows (first experiment), but was reduced by HS in the mid-lactation cows (second experiment). Interestingly, during experiment 2, hepatic CYP3A expression also decreased during PF. These results suggest that HS reduces the capacity of the liver to metabolize progesterone through distinct effects on CYP2C and CYP3A, and that the effects appear to vary based upon stage of lactation. Ultimately, HS

  17. Integrable open spin-chains in AdS3 /CFT2 correspondences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinsloo, Andrea; Regelskis, Vidas; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    We study integrable open boundary conditions for d (2 ,1 ;α )2 and p s u (1 ,1 |2 )2 spin-chains. Magnon excitations of these open spin-chains are mapped to massive excitations of type-IIB open superstrings ending on D-branes in the AdS3×S3×S3×S1 and AdS3×S3×T4 supergravity geometries with pure R-R flux. We derive reflection matrix solutions of the boundary Yang-Baxter equation which intertwine representations of a variety of boundary coideal subalgebras of the bulk Hopf superalgebra. Many of these integrable boundaries are matched to D1- and D5-brane maximal giant gravitons.

  18. Effective Ad-Hoc Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David G.

    1983-01-01

    Ad-hoc committees may be symbolic, informational, or action committees. A literature survey indicates such committees' structural components include a suprasystem and three subsystems involving linkages, production, and implementation. Other variables include size, personal factors, and timing. All the factors carry implications about ad-hoc…

  19. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  20. Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

    2013-08-01

    We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.

  1. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  2. AdS6 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Passias, Achilleas; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Very few AdS6 × M 4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space Σ. M 4 is then a fibration of S 2 over Σ; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of ( p, q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT5's. We also show that there are no AdS6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  3. Conserved higher-spin charges in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfond, O. A.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Gauge invariant conserved conformal currents built from massless fields of all spins in 4d Minkowski space-time and AdS4 are described in the unfolded dynamics approach. The current cohomology associated with non-zero conserved charges is found. The resulting list of charges is shown to match the space of parameters of the conformal higher-spin symmetry algebra in four dimensions.

  4. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  5. ``Short'' spinning strings and structure of quantum AdS5×S5 spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, M.; Giombi, S.; Macorini, G.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2012-09-01

    Using information from the marginality conditions of vertex operators for the AdS5×S5 superstring, we determine the structure of the dependence of the energy of quantum string states on their conserved charges and the string tension ˜λ. We consider states on the leading Regge trajectory in the flat space limit which carry one or two (equal) spins in AdS5 or S5 and an orbital momentum in S5, with Konishi multiplet states being particular cases. We argue that the coefficients in the energy may be found by using a semiclassical expansion. By analyzing the examples of folded spinning strings in AdS5 and S5, as well as three cases of circular two-spin strings, we demonstrate the universality of transcendental (zeta-function) parts of few leading coefficients. We also show the consistency with target space supersymmetry with different states belonging to the same multiplet having the same nontrivial part of the energy. We suggest, in particular, that a rational coefficient (found by Basso for the folded string using Bethe Ansatz considerations and which, in general, is yet to be determined by a direct two-loop string calculation) should, in fact, be universal.

  6. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  7. Pre- and post-conditioning hormesis in elderly mice, rats, and humans: its loss and restoration.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2016-08-01

    This paper assessed differences and similarities in the capacity for preconditioning (PC) and post-conditioning (PostC) to prevent ischemic reperfusion (IR) damage to the heart in the old/elderly as compared to young adult mice, rats, and humans. While PC reliably reduces myocardial ischemia-induced heart damage by about 30-60 % in young adult (2-3 months old) mice and rats, such protection begins to diminish in middle age (1 year old) and is fully lost in the old and elderly (≥18 months). Common rearing practices (i.e., no exercise; ad libitum feeding) are strongly associated with the loss of PC to prevent IR damage to the heart in old/elderly rodents. Substantial restoration of lost PC in old/elderly animal models is affected via various types of exercise and exercise protocols, several types of dietary interventions and pharmacological means. Evidence of PC-mediated cardioprotection in old/elderly humans via epidemiological investigations has been reported using multiple research protocols. These findings suggest the need for animal studies to better reflect human dietary, exercise and lifestyle patterns to enhance their extrapolative relevance. PMID:27075594

  8. Supersymmetric AdS 3 × S 2 M-theory geometries with fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgáin, Eoin Ó; Wu, Jun-Bao; Yavartanoo, Hossein

    2010-08-01

    Motivated by a recent observation that the LLM geometries admit 1/4-BPS M5-brane probes with worldvolume AdS 3 × Σ2 × S 1 preserving the R-symmetry, SU(2) × U(1), we initiate a classification of the most general AdS 3× S 2 geometries in M-theory dual to two-dimensional chiral mathcal{N} = left( {4,0} right) SCFTs. We retain all field strengths consistent with symmetry and derive the torsion conditions for the internal six-manifold, M 6, in terms of two linearly independent spinors. Surprisingly, we identify three Killing directions for M 6, but only two of these generate isometries of the overall ansatz. We show that the existence of this third direction depends on the norm of the spinors. With the torsion conditions derived, we establish the MSW solution as the only solution in the class where M6 is an SU(3)-structure manifold. Then, specialising to the case where the spinors define an SU(2)-structure, we note that supersymmetry dictates that all magnetic fluxes necessarily thread the S 2. Finally, by assuming that the two remaining Killing directions are parallel and aligned with one of the two vectors defining the SU(2)-structure, we derive a general relationship for the two spinors before extracting a known class of solutions from the torsion conditions.

  9. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  10. Effects of bovine somatotropin on milk yield and composition, body weight, and condition score of Holstein and Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    West, J W; Bondari, K; Johnson, J C

    1990-04-01

    Forty cows (20 Holstein, 20 Jersey) were administered 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg of recombinantly derived bST daily to determine the effect on milk yield, milk composition, body weight, and body condition score. Administration of bST was from 75 +/- 7 d through 305 d postpartum. A total mixed diet of 45% corn silage and 55% of a concentrate mixture (dry basis) was provided for ad libitum intake. Milk yield of Holstein and Jersey cows administered 20 mg of bST increased 25.3 and 22.8%, respectively, over controls. Fat-corrected milk from Holsteins and Jerseys that were administered 20 mg of somatotropin increased 32.2 and 18.7% over controls, but Jersey response was greatest when 15 mg of bST were administered (27.1% over controls). Dry matter intake of the 20 mg bST group was 13.5% greater than DM intake of controls. Apparent efficiency of production increased linearly with increasing somatotropin. There was no significant change in body weight, but body condition score declined linearly with increasing somatotropin. Most milk composition measures were unaffected by somatotropin. Jersey and Holstein milk yield increased quadratically and linearly, respectively, with somatotropin dose.

  11. Effects of body size, condition, and lipid content on the survival of juvenile lake herring during rapid cooling events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, K.L.; Sutton, T.M.; Kinnunen, R.E.; Hoff, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile lake herring Coregonus artedi were exposed to rapid cooling events during two laboratory experiments to determine the effects of body size, physiological condition, and lipid content on survival. The first experiment was conducted at the onset of winter, exposing small (50 to 85 mm) and large (85 to 129 mm) fish to a decline in water temperature from 12 to 2??C at a rate of 1??C/hr. During this experiment, both large and small individuals exposed to a rapid cooling event experienced no mortality or abnormal behaviors. Separate fish were then maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size class were maintained at two feeding treatments: Artemia ad libitum and no food. At the completion of the winter period, these lake herring were subjected to the same rapid cooling event conducted in the first experiment. During the experiment, lake herring exhibited no mortality or abnormal behaviors despite treatment-dependent differences in condition and lipid content. Our results indicate that mortality due to rapid cooling events does not appear to contribute to the recruitment variability observed for juvenile lake herring in Lake Superior.

  12. [Food effect on the physiological condition of the mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae), using the RNA/DNA ratio].

    PubMed

    Bracho, M A; Segnini de Bravo, M I; Viñoles, I; Chung, K S

    2000-12-01

    The green mussel, Perna viridis, became widespread in the northern coast of Sucre State since its arrival to Venezuela in 1993. RNA/DNA and Protein/DNA ratios were used to study the effect of starvation on its instantaneous growth. The mussels were collected in La Esmeralda and Chacopata, acclimatized in the laboratory for four weeks and maintained for another six weeks in two groups: one fed ad libitum and another without food (this later group was later fed for two additional weeks). Protein (colorimetric method), and nucleic acid concentrations (RNA and DNA, fluorometric method with ethidium bromide) were measured in adductor muscle, digestive gland and gills. The instantaneous growth was assessed using RNA/DNA and Protein/DNA rations. These indexes were always higher in the fed organisms. Animals from Chacopata were in better physiological condition that those from La Esmeralda during the abstinence time (six weeks). Muscle was the best tissue to determine instantaneous growth. The RNA/DNA ratio is a reliable index to determine the physiological condition and instantaneous growth of this species.

  13. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  14. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  15. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  16. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5.

  17. AdS/CFT connection between Boltzmann and Einstein equations: Kinetic theory and pure gravity in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2010-04-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence defines a sector with universal strongly coupled dynamics in the field theory as the dual of pure gravity in AdS described by Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant. We explain here, from the field-theoretic viewpoint how the dynamics in this sector gets determined by the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We first show that the Boltzmann equation has very special solutions which could be functionally completely determined in terms of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We call these solutions conservative solutions. We indicate why conservative solutions should also exist when we refine this kinetic description to go closer to the exact microscopic theory or even move away from the regime of weak coupling so that no kinetic description could be employed. We argue that these conservative solutions form the universal sector dual to pure gravity at strong coupling and large N. Based on this observation, we propose a regularity condition on the energy-momentum tensor so that the dual solution in pure gravity has a smooth future horizon. We also study if irreversibility emerges only at long time scales of observation, unlike the case of the Boltzmann equation.

  18. Added Value in Electronic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Theo J. D.

    Electronic publications are flooding the market. Some of these publications are created specifically for the electronic environment, but many are conversions of existing material to electronic format. It is not worth the time and effort merely to publish existing material in electronic format if no value is added in the conversion process. The…

  19. Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-07-01

    Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits.

  20. Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

  1. Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-07-01

    Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

  2. Entangled photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    We study the degree of entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of m, n photon-added coherent states (PACS) {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ u {|{{α },m}rangle }{|{{β },n }rangle }+ v {|{{β },n}rangle }{|{{α },m}rangle } using the concurrence and obtain the general conditions for maximal entanglement. We show that photon addition process can be identified as an entanglement enhancer operation for superpositions of coherent states (SCS). Specifically for the known bipartite positive SCS: {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ {|{α }rangle }_a{|{-α }rangle }_b + {|{-α }rangle }_a{|{α }rangle }_b whose entanglement tends to zero for α → 0, can be maximal if al least one photon is added in a subsystem. A full family of maximally entangled PACS is also presented. We also analyzed the decoherence effects in the entangled PACS induced by a simple depolarizing channel . We find that robustness against depolarization is increased by adding photons to the coherent states of the superposition. We obtain the dependence of the critical depolarization p_{ {crit}} for null entanglement as a function of m,n, α and β.

  3. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  4. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  5. Superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen

    1999-07-01

    Motivated by recent progress on the correspondence between string theory on nti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, we provide an explicit construction of an infinite dimensional class of superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3. These space-time algebras are N extended superconformal algebras of the kind obtainable by hamiltonian reduction of affine SL(2|N/2) current superalgebras for N even, and are induced by the same current superalgebras residing on the world sheet. Thus, such an extended superconformal algebra is generated by N supercurrents and an SL(N/2) current algebra in addition to a U(1) current algebra. The results are obtained within the framework of free field realizations.

  6. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  7. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  8. Chronic cadmium exposure attenuates the conditioned reinforcing properties of morphine and fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Miller, D K; Nation, J R

    1997-11-21

    Adult male rats were exposed ad libitum for 40 days to 100 ppm cadmium chloride through their diet, or an identical diet with no added cadmium. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was conducted in a 2-chamber apparatus in which all drugs were paired with the least-preferred side as determined on a pre-test. In Experiment 1. control and cadmium-exposed rats received 0, 0.6, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg morphine sulfate (i.p.) for 4 days, and vehicle only for 4 days. Control animals showed a preference for the drug-paired side at 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg while the cadmium-exposed rats showed a preference at 5 mg/kg only. In Experiment 2, rats were implanted with cannulae into the lateral ventricles and 0, 2, 5 micrograms morphine sulfate was administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). An attenuation by cadmium again was observed, as control animals showed a place preference at 2 and 5 micrograms and cadmium-exposed animals showed preference at 5 micrograms only. In Experiment 3, increasing doses of the mu-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0, 0.0004, 0.004, and 0.04 mg/kg) were systemically administered (s.c.) and rats tested for CPP. While cadmium animals showed place preference only at 0.04 mg/kg, control animals showed preference at 0.0004, 0.004, and 0.04 mg/kg. These findings are discussed within the framework of metal-induced disturbance of neurochemical function and/or associative processing, and the implications that such disturbances may have for drug seeking and taking.

  9. RG flow and thermodynamics of causal horizons in higher-derivative AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shamik; Bhattacharyya, Arpan

    2016-05-01

    In arXiv:1508.01343 [hep-th], one of the authors proposed that in AdS/CFT the gravity dual of the boundary c-theorem is the second law of thermodynamics satisfied by causal horizons in AdS and this was verified for Einstein gravity in the bulk. In this paper we verify this for higher derivative theories. We pick up theories for which an entropy expression satisfying the second law exists and show that the entropy density evaluated on the causal horizon in a RG flow geometry is a holographic c-function. We also prove that given a theory of gravity described by a local covariant action in the bulk a sufficient condition to ensure holographic c-theorem is that the second law of causal horizon thermodynamics be satisfied by the theory. This allows us to explicitly construct holographic c-function in a theory where there is curvature coupling between gravity and matter and standard null energy condition cannot be defined although second law is known to hold. Based on the duality between c-theorem and the second law of causal horizon thermodynamics proposed in arXiv:1508.01343 [hep-th] and the supporting calculations of this paper we conjecture that every Unitary higher derivative theory of gravity in AdS satisfies the second law of causal horizon thermodynamics. If this is not true then c-theorem will be violated in a unitary Lorentz invariant field theory.

  10. ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

  11. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  12. Aerosol Best Estimate Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, C; Turner, D; Koontz, A; Chand, D; Sivaraman, C

    2012-07-19

    The objective of the Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) value-added product (VAP) is to provide vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo, asymmetry parameter, and Angstroem exponents for the atmospheric column above the Central Facility at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. We expect that AEROSOLBE will provide nearly continuous estimates of aerosol optical properties under a range of conditions (clear, broken clouds, overcast clouds, etc.). The primary requirement of this VAP was to provide an aerosol data set as continuous as possible in both time and height for the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP in order to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Even though BBHRP has been completed, AEROSOLBE results are very valuable for environmental, atmospheric, and climate research.

  13. Autism Disorder (AD): An Updated Review for Paediatric Dentists

    PubMed Central

    J., Udhya; M.M, Varadharaja; J., Parthiban; Srinivasan, Ila

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been an explosion of interest in Autism Disorder (AD). Knowledge and awareness on the condition has grown exponentially at all levels among the general public, parents, health professionals, the research community and more recently, at parliamentary level. The world has begun to recognize the scope of this problem and act internationally and locally to improve the lives of the growing number of individuals and families affected by this devastating disorder. This article reviews the dental literature since 1969 and it summarizes characteristics of patients with AD, oral health status and dental management of patients with AD. PMID:24701555

  14. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  15. Asymptotic structure of the Einstein-Maxwell theory on AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Alfredo; Riquelme, Miguel; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    The asymptotic structure of AdS spacetimes in the context of General Relativity coupled to the Maxwell field in three spacetime dimensions is analyzed. Although the fall-off of the fields is relaxed with respect to that of Brown and Henneaux, the variation of the canonical generators associated to the asymptotic Killing vectors can be shown to be finite once required to span the Lie derivative of the fields. The corresponding surface integrals then acquire explicit contributions from the electromagnetic field, and become well-defined provided they fulfill suitable integrability conditions, implying that the leading terms of the asymptotic form of the electromagnetic field are functionally related. Consequently, for a generic choice of boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetries are broken down to {R}⊗ U(1)⊗ U(1) . Nonetheless, requiring compatibility of the boundary conditions with one of the asymptotic Virasoro symmetries, singles out the set to be characterized by an arbitrary function of a single variable, whose precise form depends on the choice of the chiral copy. Remarkably, requiring the asymptotic symmetries to contain the full conformal group selects a very special set of boundary conditions that is labeled by a unique constant parameter, so that the algebra of the canonical generators is given by the direct sum of two copies of the Virasoro algebra with the standard central extension and U (1). This special set of boundary conditions makes the energy spectrum of electrically charged rotating black holes to be well-behaved.

  16. Visuospatial memory in healthy elderly, AD and MCI: a review.

    PubMed

    Iachini, Ina; Iavarone, Alessandro; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Ruotolo, Francesco; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2009-03-01

    In the literature it is commonly reported that several spatial abilities decline with normal aging, even though such a decline is not uniform. So far, it is not yet clear which spatial components present a normal age-related decline, which ones are preserved and at what point the deficit is so severe to represent an index of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or a symptom of potential degenerative progression as in the early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, AD (from early onset) is characterised by impairments in constructive abilities, visuospatial intelligence, spatial short-term memory deficits, and disorders of spatial orientation (topographical disorientation). MCI indicates a condition, generally affecting older individuals, characterized by cognitive deficits including memory and/or non memory impairments and at high risk of progression to dementia. Three MCI subgroups have been distinguished and a very high risk of developing AD is associated to the amnestic MCI subtypes. Further, recent studies have suggested that the allocentric component of spatial memory might be taken as predictor of AD from MCI. Given the frequency of visuospatial deficits in early-stage AD, evaluation of visuospatial processes is a promising approach to find predictive markers of AD. Here we report a review of the literature exploring specific visuospatial components in normal aging, MCI, and AD. In this way we could shed some light on the role of these components in the progression from MCI to AD and pave the way for future studies.

  17. Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, K.

    2011-10-15

    Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

  18. AdS black holes from duality in gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmagyi, Nick; Vanel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    We study and utilize duality transformations in a particular STU-model of four dimensional gauged supergravity. This model is a truncation of the de Wit-Nicolai =8 theory and as such has a lift to eleven-dimensional supergravity on the seven-sphere. Our duality group is U(1)3 and while it can be applied to any solution of this theory, we consider known asymptotically AdS4, supersymmetric black holes and focus on duality transformations which preserve supersymmetry. For static black holes we generalize the supersymmetric solutions of Cacciatori and Klemm from three magnetic charges to include two additional electric charges and argue that this is co-dimension one in the full space of supersymmetric static black holes in the STU-model. These new static black holes have nontrivial profiles for axions. For rotating black holes, we generalize the known two-parameter supersymmetric solution to include an additional parameter. When lifted to M-theory, these black holes correspond to the near horizon geometry of a stack of BPS rotating M2-branes, spinning on an S 7 which is fibered non-trivially over a Riemann surface.

  19. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  20. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  1. Condom ads slated for TV.

    PubMed

    1987-02-20

    3 CBS-owned television stations and NBC's New York television station announced yesterday that they would begin accepting condom advertising. In addition, the ABC network announced it will begin running a 30-second public service message with Dr. C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, saying that condoms are the best protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. CBS said it will allow the 4 television stations and 18 radio stations it owns to accept condom advertising based on the attitudes of the local viewing or listening community. WCBS-TV in New York, WCAU-TV in Philadelphia and KCBS-TV in Los Angeles said they would accept such ads. CBS also owns a television station in Chicago. WCAU will air condom ads after 11 p.m. only, beginning probably next week, said Paul Webb, a station spokesman. "We recognize the legitimate sensitivities of some members of the community in regard to this issue," said Steve Cohen, the WCAU general manager. "However, it is the judgment of this station that the importance of providing information about the AIDS epidemic and means of prevention is an overriding consideration." NBC's New York television station, WNBC, announced that it will accept condom advertising and public service announcements. PMID:12269166

  2. Hepatic, duodenal, and colonic circadian clocks differ in their persistence under conditions of constant light and in their entrainment by restricted feeding.

    PubMed

    Polidarová, Lenka; Sládek, Martin; Soták, Matúš; Pácha, Jiří; Sumová, Alena

    2011-04-01

    Physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are temporally controlled such that they exhibit circadian rhythms. The circadian rhythms are synchronized with the environmental light-dark cycle via signaling from the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and by food intake. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which disturbance in the SCN signaling via prolonged exposure to constant light affects circadian rhythms in the liver, duodenum, and colon, as well as to determine whether and to what extent food intake can restore rhythmicity in individual parts of the GIT. Adult male rats were maintained in constant light (LL) for 30 days and fed ad libitum throughout the entire interval or exposed to a restricted feeding (RF) regime for the last 14 days in LL. Locomotor and feeding behaviors were recorded throughout the experiment. On the 30th day, daily expression profiles of clock genes (Per1, Per2, Rev-erbα, and Bmal1) and of clock-controlled genes (Wee1 and Dbp) were measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the duodenum, colon, and liver. By the end of the LL exposure, rats fed ad libitum had completely lost their circadian rhythms in activity and food intake. Daily expression profiles of clock genes and clock-controlled genes in the GIT were impaired to an extent depending on the tissue and gene studied, but not completely abolished. In the liver and colon, exposure to LL abolished circadian rhythms in expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Wee1, whereas it impaired, but preserved, rhythms in expression of Rev-erbα and Dbp. In the duodenum, all but Wee1 expression rhythms were preserved. Restricted feeding restored the rhythms to a degree that varied with the tissue and gene studied. Whereas in the liver and duodenum the profiles of all clock genes and clock-controlled genes became rhythmic, in the colon only Per1, Bmal1, and Rev-erbα-but not Per2

  3. AdS flowing black funnels: Stationary AdS black holes with non-Killing horizons and heat transport in the dual CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Marolf, Donald; Santos, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    We construct stationary non-equilibrium black funnels locally asymptotic to global AdS4 in vacuum Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant. These are non-compactly-generated black holes in which a single connected bulk horizon extends to meet the conformal boundary. Thus the induced (conformal) boundary metric has smooth horizons as well. In our examples, the boundary spacetime contains a pair of black holes connected through the bulk by a tubular bulk horizon. Taking one boundary black hole to be hotter than the other (δT !=0) prohibits equilibrium. The result is a so-called flowing funnel, a stationary bulk black hole with a non-Killing horizon that may be said to transport heat toward the cooler boundary black hole. While most of our results are numerical, a semi-analytic fluid/gravity description can be obtained by passing to a one-parameter generalization of the above boundary conditions. In the fluid regime, we find excellent agreement with our numerical solutions. In terms of a dual CFT, our solutions describe heat transport via a large N version of Hawking radiation through a deconfined plasma that couples efficiently to both boundary black holes.

  4. Axiomatic Conformal Theory in Dimensions >2 and AdS/CT Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Albert

    2016-09-01

    We formulate axioms of conformal theory (CT) in dimensions >2 modifying Segal's axioms for two-dimensional CFT. (In the definition of higher-dimensional CFT, one includes also a condition of existence of energy-momentum tensor.) We use these axioms to derive the AdS/CT correspondence for local theories on AdS. We introduce a notion of weakly local quantum field theory and construct a bijective correspondence between conformal theories on the sphere S d and weakly local quantum field theories on {H^{d+1}} that are invariant with respect to isometries. (Here {H^{d+1}} denotes hyperbolic space = Euclidean AdS space.) We give an expression of AdS correlation functions in terms of CT correlation functions. The conformal theory has conserved energy-momentum tensor iff the AdS theory has graviton in its spectrum.

  5. Simulated Firefighting Task Performance and Physiology Under Very Hot Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Williams-Bell, Michael; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of very hot (45°C) conditions on the performance of, and physiological responses to, a simulated firefighting manual-handling task compared to the same work in a temperate environment (18°C). Methods: Ten male volunteer firefighters performed a 3-h protocol in both 18°C (CON) and 45°C (VH). Participants intermittently performed 12 × 1-min bouts of raking, 6 × 8-min bouts of low-intensity stepping, and 6 × 20-min rest periods. The area cleared during the raking task determined work performance. Core temperature, skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously. Participants also periodically rated their perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation. Firefighters consumed water ad libitum. Urine specific gravity (USG) and changes in body mass determined hydration status. Results: Firefighters raked 19% less debris during the VH condition. Core and skin temperature were 0.99 ± 0.20 and 5.45 ± 0.53°C higher, respectively, during the VH trial, and heart rate was 14–36 beats.min−1 higher in the VH trial. Firefighters consumed 2950 ± 1034 mL of water in the VH condition, compared to 1290 ± 525 in the CON trial. Sweat losses were higher in the VH (1886 ± 474 mL) compared to the CON trial (462 ± 392 mL), though both groups were hydrated upon protocol completion (USG < 1.020). Participants' average RPE was higher in the VH (15.6 ± 0.9) compared to the CON trial (12.6 ± 0.9). Similarly, the firefighers' thermal sensation scores were significantly higher in the VH (6.4 ± 0.5) compared to the CON trial (4.4 ± 0.4). Conclusions: Despite the decreased work output and aggressive fluid replacement observed in the VH trial, firefighters' experienced increases in thermal stress, and exertion. Fire agencies should prioritize the health and safety of fire personnel in very hot temperatures, and consider the impact of reduced productivity on fire suppression efforts. PMID:26617527

  6. Adding crumb rubber into exterior wall materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han; Thong-On, Norasit; Zhang, Xiong

    2002-10-01

    In Arizona US, most houses are built with walls covered by stuccos/coatings/mortars. This paper presents an explorative investigation of adding crumb rubber into stuccos/coatings/mortars. A series of experiments are conducted to examine the thermal and mechanical performance of the crumb rubber mixes. The results show that, the mixes with crumb rubber do exhibit more desirable performances like being high in crack-resistance and thermal insulation, and low in thermal expansion/contraction. The drawback for the crumb rubber mixes is the reduction in compressive strength, but which can be compensated by other means. As a site experiment, an area of 100 square-feet of crumb rubber coatings for two mix designs is sprayed on a tire-adobe wall. After being sprayed more than 14 months, the coatings apparently are in good condition. Significance of this study is that this practice, if accepted, will yield improved products that consume large quantities of crumb rubber.

  7. The New York Times ad.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were

  8. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  9. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  10. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  11. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  12. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  13. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  14. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  15. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  16. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  17. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  18. Value Added and Other Related Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Dean K.

    The term "value added" refers to the assessment of the amount of learning that takes place during the college years. Two experiments, Value Added I and Value Added II, attempted to measure college students' attainment of eight liberal education objectives: (1) writing ability; (2) analytical ability; (3) sensitivity to ethics, morals, and values;…

  19. The efficacy of the appetite suppressant, diethylpropion, is dependent on both when it is given (day vs. night) and under conditions of high fat dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Kalyanasundar, B; Solorio, Jessica; Perez, Claudia I; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Simon, Sidney A; Gutierrez, Ranier

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a public health problem caused by excessive consumption of high caloric diets and/or lack of physical activity. Although treatments for obesity include low caloric diets and exercise programs, these activities frequently are supplemented with appetite suppressants. For the short-term treatment of weight loss, diethylpropion (DEP) is a commonly used appetite suppressant. However, little is known with regard to how to improve its weight loss efficacy. We therefore evaluated, in rats, two administration protocols where the animals received daily injections of DEP. First, when these nocturnal animals were normally active (at night) and when they were normally inactive (daytime), and second, with or without high fat dietary restriction (HFDR). We observed that DEP induced a greater weight-loss administered when the animals were in their active phase than in their inactive phase. Moreover, DEP's administration during the inactive phase (and to a lesser degree in the active phase) promotes the consumption of food during normal sleeping time. In addition, we found that DEP-induced weight loss under ad libitum access to a HF diet, but its efficacy significantly improved under conditions of HFDR. In summary, the efficacy of DEP, and presumably other like appetite suppressants, is enhanced by carefully controlling the time it is administered and under dietary restriction of HF diets.

  20. High energy QCD from Planckian scattering in AdS space and the Froissart bound

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyungsik; Nastase, Horatiu

    2005-11-15

    We reanalyze high-energy QCD scattering regimes from scattering in cutoff AdS space via gravity-gauge dualities (a la Polchinski-Strassler). We look at 't Hooft scattering, Regge behavior, and black hole creation in AdS space. Black hole creation in the gravity dual is analyzed via gravitational shockwave collisions. We prove the saturation of the QCD Froissart unitarity bound, corresponding to the creation of black holes of AdS size, as suggested by Giddings.

  1. Overwinter survival of juvenile lake herring in relation to body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Kevin L.; Sutton, Trent M.; Kinnunen, Ronald E.; Hoff, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Populations of lake herring Coregonus artedi in Lake Superior have exhibited high recruitment variability over the past three decades. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms which influence year-class strength, we conducted a 225-d laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration on the winter survival of age-0 lake herring. Small (total length (TL) range = 60–85 mm) and large (TL range = 86–110 mm) fish were maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size-class were maintained at two feeding treatments: brine shrimp Artemiaspp. ad libitum and no food. The mortality of large lake herring (fed, 3.8%; starved, 20.1%) was significantly less than that of small fish (fed, 11.7%; starved, 32.0%). Body condition and crude lipid content declined for all fish over the experiment; however, these variables were significantly greater for large fed (0.68% and 9.8%) and small fed (0.65% and 7.3%) fish than large starved (0.49% and 5.7%) and small starved (0.45% and 4.8%) individuals. Final crude protein and gross energy contents were also significantly greater in large fed lake herring (17.6% and 1,966 cal/g), followed by small fed (17.1% and 1,497 cal/g), large starved (15.4% and 1,125 cal/g), and small starved (13.2% and 799 cal/g) fish. Lake herring that died during the experiment had significantly lower body condition and energy stores relative to those of the surviving fish. These results suggest that the depletion of energy stores contributes to greater winter mortality of small lake herring with limited energy uptake and may partially explain the variability in recruitment observed in Lake Superior.

  2. Droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product

    2015-08-06

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration (Nd) will increase and droplet size will decrease, for a given liquid water path. This will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation; however, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain.McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based onBoers andmore » Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions. In order to provide data sets for studying aerosol-cloud interactions, the McComiskey et al. (2009) method was implemented as the Droplet Number Concentration (NDROP) value-added product (VAP).« less

  3. Droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Chitra Sivaraman, PNNL

    2015-08-06

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration (Nd) will increase and droplet size will decrease, for a given liquid water path. This will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation; however, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain.McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based onBoers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions. In order to provide data sets for studying aerosol-cloud interactions, the McComiskey et al. (2009) method was implemented as the Droplet Number Concentration (NDROP) value-added product (VAP).

  4. Nurse Value-Added and Patient Outcomes in Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Yakusheva, Olga; Lindrooth, Richard; Weiss, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to (1) estimate the relative nurse effectiveness, or individual nurse value-added (NVA), to patients’ clinical condition change during hospitalization; (2) examine nurse characteristics contributing to NVA; and (3) estimate the contribution of value-added nursing care to patient outcomes. Data Sources/Study Setting Electronic data on 1,203 staff nurses matched with 7,318 adult medical–surgical patients discharged between July 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011 from an urban Magnet-designated, 854-bed teaching hospital. Study Design Retrospective observational longitudinal analysis using a covariate-adjustment value-added model with nurse fixed effects. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were extracted from the study hospital's electronic patient records and human resources databases. Principal Findings Nurse effects were jointly significant and explained 7.9 percent of variance in patient clinical condition change during hospitalization. NVA was positively associated with having a baccalaureate degree or higher (0.55, p = .04) and expertise level (0.66, p = .03). NVA contributed to patient outcomes of shorter length of stay and lower costs. Conclusions Nurses differ in their value-added to patient outcomes. The ability to measure individual nurse relative value-added opens the possibility for development of performance metrics, performance-based rankings, and merit-based salary schemes to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. PMID:25256089

  5. Warped AdS 6 × S 2 in Type IIB supergravity I: local solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the existence of solutions with 16 residual supersymmetries to Type IIB supergravity on a space-time of the formc AdS 6× S 2 warped over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ. The SO(2 , 5) × SO(3) isometry extends to invariance under the exceptional Lie superalgebra F (4). In the present paper, we construct the general Ansatz compatible with these symmetries, derive the corresponding reduced BPS equations, and obtain their complete local solution in terms of two locally holomorphic functions {A}_{± } on Σ, subject to certain positivity and regularity conditions. Globally, ( {A}+ , {A}- ) are allowed to be multiple-valued on Σ and be holomorphic sections of a holomorphic bundle over Σ with structure group contained in SU(1,1)× C . Globally regular solutions are expected to provide the near-horizon geometry of ( p, q) 5-brane and 7-brane webs which are holographic duals to five-dimensional conformal field theories. A preliminary analysis of the positivity and regularity conditions will be presented here, leaving the construction of globally regular solutions to a subsequent paper.

  6. AdS flowing black funnels: stationary AdS black holes with non-Killing horizons and heat transport in the dual CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Marolf, Donald; Santos, Jorge E.

    2013-04-01

    We construct stationary non-equilibrium black funnels locally asymptotic to global AdS4 in vacuum Einstein-Hilbert gravity with a negative cosmological constant. These are non-compactly-generated black holes in which a single connected bulk horizon extends to meet the conformal boundary. Thus the induced (conformal) boundary metric has smooth horizons as well. In our examples, the boundary spacetime contains a pair of black holes connected through the bulk by a tubular bulk horizon. Taking one boundary black hole to be hotter than the other (ΔT ≠ 0) prohibits equilibrium. The result is a so-called flowing funnel, a stationary bulk black hole with a non-Killing horizon that may be said to transport heat toward the cooler boundary black hole. While generators of the bulk future horizon evolve toward zero expansion in the far future, they begin at finite affine parameter with infinite expansion on a singular past horizon characterized by power-law divergences with universal exponents. We explore both the horizon generators and the boundary stress tensor in detail. While most of our results are numerical, a semi-analytic fluid/gravity description can be obtained by passing to a one-parameter generalization of the above boundary conditions. The new parameter detunes the temperatures Tbulk BH and Tbndy BH of the bulk and boundary black holes, and we may then take α = {T_{bndy \\ BH}/{T_{bulk \\ BH}} and ΔT small to control the accuracy of the fluid-gravity approximation. In the small α, ΔT regime, we find excellent agreement with our numerical solutions. For our cases the agreement also remains quite good even for α ˜ 0.8. In terms of a dual CFT, our α = 1 solutions describe heat transport via a large N version of Hawking radiation through a deconfined plasma that couples efficiently to both boundary black holes.

  7. AdS4 black holes from M-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katmadas, Stefanos; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    We consider the BPS conditions of eleven dimensional supergravity, restricted to an appropriate ansatz for black holes in four non-compact directions. Assuming the internal directions to be described by a circle fibration over a Kähler manifold and considering the case where the complex structure moduli are frozen, we recast the resulting flow equations in terms of polyforms on this manifold. The result is a set of equations that are in direct correspondence with those of gauged supergravity models in four dimensions consistent with our simplifying assumptions. In view of this correspondence even for internal manifolds that do not correspond to known consistent truncations, we comment on the possibility of obtaining gauged supergravities from reductions on Kähler manifolds.

  8. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  9. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing. PMID:24512899

  10. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing. PMID:24511620

  11. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  12. A consistent and unified picture for critical phenomena of f(R) AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jie-Xiong; Li, Gu-Qiang; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    A consistent and unified picture for critical phenomena of charged AdS black holes in f(R) gravity is drawn in this paper. Firstly, we investigate the phase transition in canonical ensemble. We derive the explicit solutions corresponding to the divergence of CQ. The two solutions merge into one when the condition Qc=√(‑1/3R0) is satisfied. The curve of specific heat for Q < Qc has two divergent points and can be divided into three regions. Both the large radius region and the small radius region are thermodynamically stable with positive specific heat while the medium radius region is unstable with negative specific heat. However, when Q > Qc, the specific heat is always positive, implying the black holes are locally stable and no phase transition will take place. Secondly, both the T‑r+ curve and T‑S curve f(R) AdS black holes are investigated and they exhibit Van der Vaals like behavior as the P‑v curve in the former research. Critical physical quantities are obtained and they are consistent with those derived from the specific heat analysis. We carry out numerical check of Maxwell equal area law for the cases Q=0.2Qc, 0.4Qc, 0.6Qc, 0.8Qc. The relative errors are amazingly small and can be negligible. So the Maxwell equal area law holds for T‑S curve of f(R) black holes. Thirdly, we establish geometrothermodynamics for f(R) AdS black hole to examine the phase structure. It is shown that the Legendre invariant scalar curvature fraktur R would diverge exactly where the specific heat diverges. To summarize, the above three perspectives are consistent with each other, thus providing a unified picture which deepens the understanding of critical phenomena of f(R) AdS black holes.

  13. Entropic information of dynamical AdS/QCD holographic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, Alex E.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2016-11-01

    The Shannon based conditional entropy that underlies five-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity coupled to a dilaton field is investigated in the context of dynamical holographic AdS/QCD models. Considering the UV and IR dominance limits of such AdS/QCD models, the conditional entropy is shown to shed some light onto the meson classification schemes, which corroborate with the existence of light-flavor mesons of lower spins in Nature. Our analysis is supported by a correspondence between statistical mechanics and information entropy which establishes the physical grounds to the Shannon information entropy, also in the context of statistical mechanics, and provides some specificities for accurately extending the entropic discussion to continuous modes of physical systems. From entropic informational grounds, the conditional entropy allows one to identify the lower experimental/phenomenological occurrence of higher spin mesons in Nature. Moreover, it introduces a quantitative theoretical apparatus for studying the instability of high spin light-flavor mesons.

  14. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  15. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  16. On conserved charges and thermodynamics of the AdS4 dyonic black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, Marcela; Fuentealba, Oscar; Matulich, Javier

    2016-05-01

    We consider four-dimensional gravity in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field and an Abelian gauge field. This theory corresponds to the bosonic sector of a Kaluza-Klein reduction of eleven-dimensional supergravity which induces a specific self-interacting potential for the scalar field. We compute the conserved charges and carry out the thermodynamics of an anti-de Sitter (AdS) dyonic black hole solution that was proposed recently. The charges coming from symmetries of the action are computed using the Regge-Teitelboim Hamiltonian approach. They correspond to the mass, which acquires contributions from the scalar field, and the electric charge. We introduce integrability conditions because the scalar field leads to non-integrable terms in the variation of the mass. These conditions are generically solved by introducing boundary conditions that relate the leading and subleading terms of the scalar field fall-off. The Hamiltonian Euclidean action, computed in the grand canonical ensemble, is obtained by demanding the action to have an extremum. Its value is given by a radial boundary term plus an additional polar angle boundary term due to the presence of a magnetic monopole. Remarkably, the magnetic charge can be identified from the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term, confirming that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is a consequence of having a well-defined and finite Hamiltonian action principle, even if the charge does not come from a symmetry of the action. The temperature and electrostatic potential are determined by demanding regularity of the black hole solution, whereas the value of the magnetic potential is determined by the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term. Consequently, the first law of black hole thermodynamics is identically satisfied by construction.

  17. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan; Tawian Power Co., Taipei; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan )

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Compactification and Fluxes: An AdS{sub 4} Example

    SciTech Connect

    Aldazabal, Gerardo; Font, Anamaria

    2008-07-28

    We discuss explicit examples of compactifications on AdS{sub 4} with fluxes turned on. We show that a class of type IIA vacua recently found within the D = 4 effective approach corresponds to compactification on AdS{sub 4}xS{sup 3}xS{sup 3}/Z{sub 2}{sup 3}. The results obtained using the effective method completely match the general ten-dimensional analysis for the existence of N = 1 warped compactifications on AdS{sub 4}xM{sub 6}. In particular, we verify that the internal metric is nearly-Kaehler and that for specific values of the parameters the Bianchi identity of the RR 2-form is fulfilled without sources. For another range of parameters, including the massless case, the Bianchi identity is satisfied when D6-branes are introduced. Solving the tadpole cancellation conditions in D = 4 we are able to find examples of appropriate sets of branes.

  19. Carotenoid-based bill and eye ring coloration as honest signals of condition: an experimental test in the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Viñuela, Javier

    2008-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments cannot be synthesized by vertebrates but must be ingested through the diet. As they seem to be a limited resource, carotenoid-based ornaments are particularly interesting as possible honest signals of individual quality, in particular of foraging efficiency and nutritional status. Some studies have demonstrated the condition dependence of carotenoid-based plumage in birds. However, many other carotenoid-pigmented bare parts (i.e. skin, caruncles, bills, cere, and tarsi) are present in birds but, in comparison with plumage, little is known about these traits as indicators of individual quality. Here, we show that the eye ring pigmentation and bill redness of the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa) are positively associated to body condition and recent changes in body mass. Also, we found a negative relationship between these two traits and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of physiological stress (the relationship with bill redness being significant only for males). In an experiment, we found that after a period of reduction in food intake (with the consequent loss of body mass), food-restricted birds showed lower eye ring pigmentation than ad-libitum-fed birds. Therefore, different ornaments seem to reflect changes in body condition but at different speeds or intensities (eye ring, a fleshy ornament, appears to respond more rapidly to changes in the nutritional status than a keratinized structure as the bill). These results indicate that carotenoid-based ornaments are condition-dependent traits in the red-legged partridge, being therefore susceptible to be employed as honest signals of quality in sexual selection.

  20. Enhanced flavor-nutrient conditioning in obese rats on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate choice diet.

    PubMed

    Wald, Hallie S; Myers, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5 ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity.

  1. Enhanced flavor-nutrient conditioning in obese rats on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate choice diet.

    PubMed

    Wald, Hallie S; Myers, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5 ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity. PMID:26150317

  2. The effects of lighting conditions and food restriction paradigms on locomotor activity of common spiny mice, Acomys cahirinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An endogenous circadian clock controls locomotor activity in common spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus). However, little is known about the effects of constant light (LL) on this activity or about the existence of an additional food entrainable clock. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effects of LL and DD on tau and activity levels. Methods Spiny mice were housed individually and their running wheel activity monitored. One group of mice was exposed to LD, DD and several intensities of LL. Another group was exposed to a restricted feeding (RF) paradigm in light: dark (LD) during one hour before the L to D transition. Significance of rhythmicity was assessed using Lomb-Scargle periodograms. Results In LD all animals exhibited nocturnal activity rhythms that persisted in DD. When animals were exposed to RF (during L), all of these animals (n = 11) demonstrated significant food anticipatory activity as well as an increase in diurnal activity. This increase in diurnal activity persisted in 4/11 animals during subsequent ad libitum conditions. Under LL conditions, the locomotor rhythms of 2/11 animals appeared to entrain to RF. When animals were exposed to sequentially increasing LL intensities, rhythmicity persisted and, while activity decreased significantly, the free-running period was relatively unaffected. In addition, the period in LL was significantly longer than the period in DD. Exposure to LL also induced long-term changes (after-effects) on period and activity when animals were again exposed to DD. Conclusions Overall these studies demonstrate clear and robust circadian rhythms of wheel-running in A. cahirinus. In addition, LL clearly inhibited activity in this species and induced after-effects. The results also confirm the presence of a food entrainable oscillator in this species. PMID:22958374

  3. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising.

  4. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising. PMID:8265756

  5. S -matrix algebra of the AdS2×S2 superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we find the Yangian algebra responsible for the integrability of the AdS2×S2×T6 superstring in the planar limit. We demonstrate the symmetry of the corresponding exact S matrix in the massive sector, including the presence of the secret symmetry. We give two alternative presentations of the Hopf algebra. The first takes the usual canonical form, which, as the relevant representations are long, leads to a Yangian representation that is not of evaluation type. After investigating the relationship between cocommutativity, evaluation representations and the shortening condition, we find an alternative realization of the Yangian whose representation is of the evaluation type. Finally, we explore two limits of the S matrix. The first is the classical r matrix, where we rediscover the need for a secret symmetry also in this context. The second is the simplifying zero-coupling limit. In this limit, taking the S matrix as a generating R matrix for the algebraic Bethe ansatz, we obtain an effective model of free fermions on a periodic spin-chain. This limit should provide hints to the one-loop anomalous dimension of the mysterious superconformal quantum mechanics dual to the superstring theory in this geometry.

  6. Symplectic and Killing symmetries of AdS3 gravity: holographic vs boundary gravitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, G.; Mao, P.; Seraj, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The set of solutions to the AdS3 Einstein gravity with Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions is known to be a family of metrics labeled by two arbitrary periodic functions, respectively left and right-moving. It turns out that there exists an appropriate presymplectic form which vanishes on-shell. This promotes this set of metrics to a phase space in which the Brown-Henneaux asymptotic symmetries become symplectic symmetries in the bulk of spacetime. Moreover, any element in the phase space admits two global Killing vectors. We show that the conserved charges associated with these Killing vectors commute with the Virasoro symplectic symmetry algebra, extending the Virasoro symmetry algebra with two U(1) generators. We discuss that any element in the phase space falls into the coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro algebras and that each orbit is labeled by the U(1) Killing charges. Upon setting the right-moving function to zero and restricting the choice of orbits, one can take a near-horizon decoupling limit which preserves a chiral half of the symplectic symmetries. Here we show two distinct but equivalent ways in which the chiral Virasoro symplectic symmetries in the near-horizon geometry can be obtained as a limit of the bulk symplectic symmetries.

  7. On shape dependence of holographic entanglement entropy in AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Piermarco; Seminara, Domenico; Tonni, Erik

    2015-12-01

    We study the finite term of the holographic entanglement entropy of finite domains with smooth shapes and for four dimensional gravitational backgrounds. Analytic expressions depending on the unit vectors normal to the minimal area surface are obtained for both stationary and time dependent spacetimes. The special cases of AdS4, asymptotically AdS4 black holes, domain wall geometries and Vaidya-AdS backgrounds have been analysed explicitly. When the bulk spacetime is AdS4, the finite term is the Willmore energy of the minimal area surface viewed as a submanifold of the three dimensional flat Euclidean space. For the static spacetimes, some numerical checks involving spatial regions delimited by ellipses and non convex domains have been performed. In the case of AdS4, the infinite wedge has been also considered, recovering the known analytic formula for the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence.

  8. Kaon Decays from AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Schvellinger, Martin

    2008-07-28

    We briefly review one of the current applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence known as AdS/QCD and discuss about the calculation of four-point quark-flavour current correlation functions and their applications to the calculation of observables related to neutral kaon decays and neutral kaon mixing processes.

  9. Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.

  10. An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês

    2015-04-01

    We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 ×S3 ×S3 ×S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q1Q2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q2Q3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.

  11. On circular strings in (AdS3 × S 3)ϰ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2016-09-01

    The so called one-parameter (often called ϰ) deformed AdS string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the (AdS3 × S 3) ϰ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the ϰ-deformed AdS3 and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.

  12. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  13. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  14. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  15. 42 CFR 137.69 - May a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement be redesigned?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May a statutorily mandated grant program added to a...-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.69 May a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding... terms and conditions of the grant award, a program added to a funding agreement under a...

  16. 42 CFR 137.69 - May a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding agreement be redesigned?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a statutorily mandated grant program added to a...-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.69 May a statutorily mandated grant program added to a funding... terms and conditions of the grant award, a program added to a funding agreement under a...

  17. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a model to study the response of energy homeostasis-related genes to acute changes in feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Caimari, Antoni; Oliver, Paula; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu

    2010-04-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are readily accessible biological material and a potential tissue source to discover novel biomarkers of response to environmental exposures including nutrition. We analyzed whether PBMCs could reflect molecular changes that take place in response to different feeding conditions in key organs/tissues involved in energy homeostasis. We studied energy balance-related genes whose expression was altered in normoweight (control) rats and in diet-induced (cafeteria) obese rats in response to ad libitum feeding, 14-h fasting, and 6-h refeeding after fasting, using whole-genome microarray analysis. In PBMCs, the expression of the genes central to energy metabolism was altered by the feeding conditions. The number of affected genes was 75 in the control rats, but only 23 in the cafeteria obese rats. Most of these genes play a role in metabolic pathways regulated by nutritional changes, such as lipid metabolism (the metabolic pathway mainly reflected in blood cells), carbohydrate metabolism, central energy metabolism, respiratory chain/mitochondrial ATPase system, and food intake regulation. Importantly, our results showed a similar behavior to that of the mesenteric white adipose tissue. In conclusion, metabolic adaptations to acute changes in feeding conditions are reflected in the expression of genes central to energy homeostasis in PBMCs of normoweight rats, while response is impaired in cafeteria obese animals. The lower number of genes affected in obese animals indicates impaired nutritional regulation. PBMCs appear as a suitable potential model to characterize metabolic adaptations to food intake and body weight maintenance in experimental animals. These findings may also inform the development of future peripheral tissue models in the emerging field of clinical nutrigenomics.

  18. Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.

  19. Relationships between habitat conditions, larval traits, and juvenile performance in a marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Luis

    2010-05-01

    Environmental effects on sets of traits of organisms can have important consequences on populations. In marine species with complex life cycles, plastic responses in larval traits can affect size at metamorphosis and juvenile growth. These traits can ultimately affect survival and recruitment. Here, I evaluate links between pelagic conditions, natural variations in larval physiological traits (duration of development, size of the megalopa stage), size at metamorphosis, and juvenile growth in the shore crab Carcinus maenas. I sampled settling larvae (megalopae) of C. maenas, daily, during the settlement season of three consecutive years, in the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight). Megalopae were brought to the laboratory where postmetamorphic growth was evaluated under different larval food environments. Traits varied considerably at several temporal scales; variation was not consistent among years. However, the size at metamorphosis was always larger at the start of the settlement season. Some variability correlated with predicted changes in transport processes and dynamics of plume fronts around the study area. Positive relationships between predicted periods of formation of plume fronts, settlement rates, and size at metamorphosis suggest a link between oceanographic conditions and individual traits. Size at metamorphosis explained juvenile growth rates: during the first five juvenile stages, larger individuals grew faster and reached larger size at stage (that is, at any stage observed). Megalopae experiencing ad libitum food conditions grew faster as juveniles than those deprived of food, showing that size at metamorphosis and juvenile growth respond plastically to variations in the larval food environment. I conclude that juvenile growth rate in C. maenas can be affected by natural environmental conditions experienced by larval stages; this effect is mediated by changes in the size at metamorphosis. Most likely the most important factor operating on

  20. Environmental conditions experienced during the tadpole stage alter post-metamorphic glucocorticoid response to stress in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Erica J; Warne, Robin W

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to adverse environmental conditions during early development can shape life-history traits and have lasting effects on physiological function in later life. Although findings within the biomedical literature have shown that environmentally induced elevations in glucocorticoids (GCs) during critical developmental windows can cause persistent carry-over effects (i.e., developmental programming), little is known about whether such effects of GCs can be generalized to wildlife species. Using wood frogs as a study species, we conducted an experiment with a split-plot design to assess the short-term and the long-term physiological consequences of availability of food, hydroperiod length (i.e., pond drying), and the interaction between these two environmental conditions. In outdoor experimental ponds, we reared tadpoles in chronically high or low-food conditions, and tadpoles from each pond experienced either high water until metamorphosis or a reduction in water volume during late developmental stages (after Gosner stage 38). After metamorphosis, animals were housed individually and fed ad libitum for 10 weeks, and growth rate, fat content, and resting and acute stress-induced GC levels were measured. We found that tadpoles experiencing low availability of food and reduced water volume had elevated GC levels, reduced mass, and body condition as they approached metamorphosis. At 10 weeks after metamorphosis, we found that these two conditions also had persistent interactive effects on post-metamorphic allocation of resources to growth, energy storage, and responsiveness of GCs to a novel stressor. Of individuals that experienced reduced water volume, only those that experienced high food as tadpoles were able to catch up to individuals that did not experience reduced water volume in terms of body mass, femur length, and body condition, and they allocated more resources to fat storage. By contrast, 10-week old frogs with low-food and that experienced low water

  1. Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of California, Los Angeles. For example, the biological clock measured Hispanic women's "genetic" age as 2. ... and how long they live," he added. The biological clock used in the new study evaluates the ...

  2. Underweight Seniors May Have Added Alzheimer's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160278.html Underweight Seniors May Have Added Alzheimer's Risk Study links lower body weight to increased ... older adults' risk of the memory-robbing disorder Alzheimer's disease, new research suggests. The study included 280 ...

  3. Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.

  4. Junk Food Ads Sway Kids' Preferences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids' Preferences Children under 8 most vulnerable to marketing's effects, study says To use the sharing features ... studies. The researchers found that ads and other marketing for products high in sugar or salt have ...

  5. Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, Igor R.

    2008-07-28

    This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

  6. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  7. Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katoh, S.

    1978-01-01

    Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.

  8. The Mutation SK(ad-3A) Cancels the Dominance of ad-3A+ over ad-3A in the Ascus of Neurospora

    PubMed Central

    Delange, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A newly induced mutant of Neurospora, when crossed with an ad-3A mutant, produces asci with four viable black and four inviable white ascospores. The survivors always contain the new mutant allele, never ad-3A. The new allele, which is called SK(ad-3A) (for spore killer of ad-3A), is located at or very near the ad-3A locus.—In crosses homozygous for ad-3A, each ascus contains only inviable white ascospores. This defect in ascospore maturation is complemented by the wild-type allele, ad-3A+ (crosses heterozygous for ad-3A and ad-3A+ produce mainly viable ascospores), but it is not complemented by the new SK(ad-3A) allele (all ad-3A ascospores from crosses heterozygous for SK(ad-3A) and ad-3A are white and inviable). In crosses homozygous for SK(ad-3A) or heterozygous for SK(ad-3A) and ad-3A+, each ascus contains only viable black ascospores. SK(ad-3A) does not require adenine for growth, and forced heterokaryons between SK(ad-3A) and ad-3A grow at wild-type rates and produce conidia of both genotypes with approximately equal frequency. Thus, the action of SK(ad-3A) is apparently restricted to ascospore formation. Possible mechanisms of the action of this new allele are discussed. PMID:6456169

  9. Image Ads and Issue Ads in U.S. Presidential Advertising: Using Videostyle To Explore Stylistic Differences in Televised Political Ads From 1952 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Anne; Kaid, Lynda Lee

    2002-01-01

    Explores the differences in techniques, strategies, narratives, and symbols used in 1,213 television issue ads and image ads from 13 U.S. presidential campaigns. Concludes that although the majority of both types of ads were positive, negative appeals dominated a higher percentage of issue ads as compared with image ads. (SG)

  10. The effects of sports drink osmolality on fluid intake and immunoendocrine responses to cycling in hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Hashimoto, Hideki; Oh, Taewoong; Ishijima, Toshimichi; Mitsuda, Hiromichi; Peake, Jonathan M; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Muraoka, Isao; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two carbohydrate-based sports drinks on fluid intake and immunoendocrine responses to cycling. Six well-trained male cyclists completed trials on three separate days that involved cycling at 60% VO(2peak) for 90 min in hot conditions (28.1 ± 1.5ºC and 52.6 ± 3.1% relative humidity). During each trial, the subjects consumed ad libitum (1) an isotonic sports drink (osmolality 317 mOsm/kg), (2) a hypotonic sports drink (osmolality 193 mOsm/kg) or (3) plain water. The cyclists consumed significantly (p<0.05) more of the isotonic drink (1.23 ± 0.35 L) and hypotonic drink (1.44 ± 0.55 L) compared with water (0.73 ± 0.26 L). Compared with water (-0.96 ± 0.26 kg), body mass decreased significantly less after consuming the hypotonic drink (-0.50 ± 0.38 kg) but not the isotonic drink (-0.51 ± 0.41 kg). Blood glucose concentration was significantly higher at the end of the isotonic and hypotonic drink trials compared with the water trial. Neutrophil count and the plasma concentrations of catecholamines, interleukin 6 (IL-6), myeloperoxidase, calprotectin and myoglobin increased significantly during all three trials. IL-6 and calprotectin were significantly lower following the hypotonic drink trial compared with the water trial. In conclusion, hypotonic sports drinks are appealing for athletes to drink during exercise, and may help to offset fluid losses and attenuate some inflammatory responses to exercise.

  11. Comment on the scaling function in AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Mikhaylov, Victor

    2009-04-01

    The folded spinning string in AdS3 gives us an important insight into AdS/CFT duality. Recently its one-loop energy was analyzed in the context of AdS4/CFT3 by McLoughlin and Roiban arXiv:0807.3965, by Alday, Arutyunov and Bykov arXiv:0807.4400 and by Krishnan arXiv:0807.4561. They computed the spectrum of the fluctuations around the classical solution. In this paper we reproduce their results using the algebraic curve technique and show that under some natural resummation of the fluctuation energies the one-loop energy agrees perfectly with the predictions of arXiv:0807.0777. This provides a further support of the all-loop Bethe equations and of the AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3 algebraic curve developed in arXiv:0807.0437.

  12. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally. PMID:25615306

  13. Supersymmetric black holes in AdS4 from very special geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnecchi, Alessandra; Halmagyi, Nick

    2014-04-01

    Supersymmetric black holes in AdS spacetime are inherently interesting for the AdS/CFT correspondence. Within a four dimensional gauged supergravity theory coupled to vector multiplets, the only analytic solutions for regular, supersymmetric, static black holes in AdS4 are those in the STU-model due to Cacciatori and Klemm. We study a class of U (1)-gauged supergravity theories coupled to vector multiplets which have a cubic prepotential, the scalar manifold is then a very special Kähler manifold. When the resulting very special Kähler manifold is a homogeneous space, we find analytic solutions for static, supersymmetric AdS4 black holes with vanishing axions. The horizon geometries of our solutions are constant curvature Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus.

  14. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally.

  15. Comments on the symmetry of AdS6 solutions in string/M-theory and Killing spinor equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo

    2016-09-01

    It was recently pointed out in [1] that AdS6 solutions in IIB theory enjoy an extended symmetry structure and the consistent truncation to D = 4 internal space leads to a nonlinear sigma model with target SL (3 , R) / SO (2 , 1). We continue to study the purely bosonic D = 4 effective action, and elucidate how the addition of scalar potential term still allows Killing spinor equations in the absence of gauge fields. In particular, the potential turns out to be a single diagonal component of the coset representative. Furthermore, we perform a general analysis of the integrability conditions of Killing spinor equations and establish that the effective action can be in fact generalized to arbitrary sizes and signatures, e.g. with target SL (n , R) / SO (p , n - p) and the scalar potential expressible by a single diagonal component of the coset representative. We also comment on a similar construction and its generalizations of effective D = 5 purely bosonic non-linear sigma model action related to AdS6 in M-theory.

  16. Higher spin contributions to holographic fluid dynamics in AdS5/CFT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjin; Polyakov, Dimitri

    2014-08-01

    We calculate the graviton's β function in the AdS string-theoretic sigma model, perturbed by vertex operators for Vasiliev's higher spin gauge fields in AdS5. The result is given by βmn=Rmn+4Tmn(g ,u) (with the AdS radius set to 1 and the graviton polarized along the AdS5 boundary), with the matter stress-energy tensor given by that of conformal holographic fluid in d =4, evaluated at the temperature given by T =1/π. The stress-energy tensor is given by Tmn=gmn+4umun+∑NTmn(N) where u is the vector excitation satisfying u2=-1 and N is the order of the gradient expansion in the dissipative part of the tensor. We calculate the contributions up to N =2. The higher spin excitations contribute to the β function, ensuring the overall Weyl covariance of the matter stress tensor. We conjecture that the structure of gradient expansion in d =4 conformal hydrodynamics at higher orders is controlled by the higher spin operator algebra in AdS5.

  17. AdS and Lifshitz scalar hairy black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Fan, Zhong-Ying; Zhu, Lu-Yao

    2016-09-01

    We consider Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity in general dimensions, which is nonminimally coupled to a scalar field. By choosing a scalar potential of the type V (ϕ )=2 Λ0+1/2 m2ϕ2+γ4ϕ4 , we first obtain large classes of scalar hairy black holes with spherical/hyperbolic/planar topologies that are asymptotic to locally anti- de Sitter (AdS) space-times. We derive the first law of black hole thermodynamics using Wald formalism. In particular, for one class of the solutions, the scalar hair forms a thermodynamic conjugate with the graviton and nontrivially contributes to the thermodynamical first law. We observe that except for one class of the planar black holes, all these solutions are constructed at the critical point of GB gravity where there exist unique AdS vacua. In fact, a Lifshitz vacuum is also allowed at the critical point. We then construct many new classes of neutral and charged Lifshitz black hole solutions for an either minimally or nonminimally coupled scalar and derive the thermodynamical first laws. We also obtain new classes of exact dynamical AdS and Lifshitz solutions which describe radiating white holes. The solutions eventually become AdS or Lifshitz vacua at late retarded times. However, for one class of the solutions, the final state is an AdS space-time with a globally naked singularity.

  18. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Azevedo de Meneses, J; Junqueira Lopes, C A; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.

  19. Generalized massive gravity in AdS{sub 3} spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yan; Sun Yawen

    2009-06-15

    In this note we investigate the generalized massive gravity in asymptotically AdS{sub 3} spacetime by combining the two mass terms of topological massive gravity and new massive gravity theory. We study the linearized excitations around the AdS{sub 3} background and find that at a specific value of a certain combination of the two mass parameters (chiral line), one of the massive graviton solutions becomes the left-moving massless mode. It is shown that the theory is chiral at this line under Brown-Henneaux boundary condition. Because of this degeneration of the gravitons the new log solution which has a logarithmic asymptotic behavior is also a solution to this gravity theory at the chiral line. The log boundary condition which was proposed to accommodate this log solution is proved to be consistent at this chiral line. The resulting theory is no longer chiral except at a special point on the chiral line, where another new solution with log-square asymptotic behavior exists. At this special point, we prove that a new kind of boundary condition called log-square boundary condition, which accommodates this new solution, can be consistent.

  20. Metadata-driven Ad Hoc Query of Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aniruddha M.; Brandt, Cynthia; Nadkarni, Prakash M.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical study data management systems (CSDMSs) have many similarities to clinical patient record systems (CPRSs) in their focus on recording clinical parameters. Requirements for ad hoc query interfaces for both systems would therefore appear to be highly similar. However, a clinical study is concerned primarily with collective responses of groups of subjects to standardized therapeutic interventions for the same underlying clinical condition. The parameters that are recorded in CSDMSs tend to be more diverse than those required for patient management in non-research settings, because of the greater emphasis on questionnaires for which responses to each question are recorded separately. The differences between CSDMSs and CPRSs are reflected in the metadata that support the respective systems' operation, and need to be reflected in the query interfaces. The authors describe major revisions of their previously described CSDMS ad hoc query interface to meet CSDMS needs more fully, as well as its porting to a Web-based platform. PMID:12087118

  1. Effect of feed restriction early in life on humoral and cellular immunity of two commercial broiler strains under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Khajavi, M; Rahimi, S; Hassan, Z M; Kamali, M A; Mousavi, T

    2003-07-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of early feed restriction (FR) on immunocompetence of Ross and Arian chickens with separated sexes under heat stress (HS) conditions. 2. Chickens consumed feed ad libitum (AL) or were restricted on alternate days from 11 to 20 d of age. From 35 to 41 d of age, the HS groups were exposed to a high ambient temperature of 39 +/- 1 degreesC for 7 h each day, while the thermoneutral groups (TN) were at 33 degrees C. 3. At 21 and 42d of age, the percentage of CD4+ (helper T cells) and CD8+ (cytotoxic T cells) were determined by flow cytometry. Antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio were determined on d 21 and 42. 4. On d 21, FR elevated the CD4+, antibody titre and H/L ratio, but it decreased the CD8+ T cells. On d 42, HS decreased CD4+, CD8+, and antibody titre, but it increased H/L ratio. Under TN conditions, FR chickens had higher CD4+ than AL chickens. On d 42, FR/HS chickens had higher CD4+ and antibody titre, but they had lower CD8+ and H/L ratio than AL/HS chickens. 5. On d 42, the TN-Ross strain had lower CD4+, but they had higher CD8+ and antibody titres than the TN-Arian strain. On d 42, the HS-Arian strain had higher antibody titres and a lower H/L ratio than the HS-Ross strain. 6. Male chickens had higher CD4+, CD8+, antibody titres and H/L ratios 25 in all treatment groups. 7. In conclusion, FR early in life reduced some of the negative effects of the heat stress on the immune system of broiler chickens when exposed to high environmental temperatures later in life.

  2. Spinning strings at one-loop in AdS4 × Bbb P3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLoughlin, Tristan; Roiban, Radu

    2008-12-01

    We analyze the folded spinning string in AdS4 × Bbb P3 with spin S in AdS4 and angular momentum J in Bbb P3. We calculate the one-loop correction to its energy in the scaling limit of both ln S and J large with their ratio kept fixed. This result should correspond to the first subleading strong coupling correction to the anomalous dimension of operators of the type Tr(DS(Y†Y)J) in the dual Script N = 6 Chern-Simons-matter theory. Our result appears to depart from the predictions for the generalized scaling function found from the all-loop Bethe equations conjectured for this AdS4/CFT3 duality. We comment on the possible origin of this difference.

  3. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  4. Asymptotically AdS Solutions of Five Dimensional Gravity-Dilaton Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nata Atmaja, Ardian

    2016-08-01

    We search for Asymptotically AdS solutions of the background metric in which dilaton back reacts to gravity in five-dimensional gravity-dilaton theory. The five-dimensional gravity-dilaton theory generally appears in the context of the low energy effective action of closed string theory in the Einstein frame. In particular, we consider dilaton which are minimally coupled to gravity in which the potential for dilation is taken to be simple and contain only one exponential term parametrized by a constant a. We solve analytically and show for a simple constant dilaton potential it appears there are no black hole solutions if we turn on the dilaton contribution. On the other hand, the exponential dilaton potential has black hole solutions but they are not in general Asymptotically AdS. We argue that there are some possible Asymptotically AdS black hole solutions in the range of |a| \\lt \\frac{4}{\\sqrt{6}}

  5. Superstring theory on AdS 2× S2 as a coset supermanifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovits, N.; Bershadsky, M.; Hauer, T.; Zhukov, S.; Zwiebach, B.

    We quantize the superstring on the AdS 2× S2 background with Ramond-Ramond flux using a PSU(1,1|2)/ U(1)× U(1) sigma model with a WZ term. One-loop conformal invariance of the model is guaranteed by a general mechanism which holds for coset spaces G/ H where G is Ricci-flat and H is the invariant locus of a Z4 automorphism of G. This mechanism gives conformal theories for the PSU(1,1|2)× PSU(2|2)/ SU(2)× SU(2) and PSU(2,2|4)/ SO(4,1)× SO(5) coset spaces, suggesting our results might be useful for quantizing the superstring on AdS 3× S3 and AdS 5× S5 backgrounds.

  6. Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.

  7. Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments, or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. There are more papers written than ever on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service that provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this paper we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser-known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.

  8. Flowing along the edge: Spinning up black holes in AdS spacetimes with test particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the consequences of throwing point particles into odd-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) backgrounds. We restrict our attention to the case in which the angular momenta of the background geometry are all equal. This process allows us to test the generalization of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture to asymptotically AdS spacetimes in higher dimensions. We find no evidence for overspinning in D =5,7,9 and 11 dimensions. Instead, test particles carrying the maximum possible angular momentum that still fall into an extremal rotating black hole generate a flow along the curve of extremal solutions.

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: The hidden symmetry of higher dimensional Kerr NUT AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiznák, David; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2007-02-01

    It is well known that four-dimensional Kerr NUT AdS spacetime possesses the hidden symmetry associated with the Killing Yano tensor. This tensor is 'universal' in the sense that there exist coordinates where it does not depend on any of the free parameters of the metric. Recently, the general higher dimensional Kerr NUT AdS solutions of the Einstein equations were obtained. We demonstrate that all these metrics with arbitrary rotation and NUT parameters admit a universal Killing Yano tensor. We give an explicit presentation of the Killing Yano tensor and associated second rank Killing tensor and briefly discuss their properties.

  10. {{AdS}}_{3}/{{CFT}}_{2} and q-Poincaré superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömwall, Joakim; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    We discover that a certain deformation of the 1+1 dimensional Poincaré superalgebra is exactly realised in the massless sector of the {{AdS}}3/{{CFT}}2 integrable scattering problem. Deformed Poincaré superalgebras were previously noticed to appear in the {{AdS}}5/{{CFT}}4 correspondence—which displays only massive excitations, but they were there only a partial symmetry. We obtain a representation of the boost operator and its coproduct, and show that the comultiplication exactly satisfies the homomorphism property. We present a classical limit, and finally speculate on an analogy with the physics of phonons.

  11. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; ReyBacaicoa, V.; Murray, S. S.

    2001-11-01

    The ADS Abstract Service contains over 2.3 million references in four databases: Astronomy/Astrophysics/Planetary Sciences, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and Preprints. We provide abstracts and articles free to the astronomical community for all major and many smaller astronomy journals, PhD theses, conference proceedings, and technical reports. These four databases can be queried either separately of jointly. The ADS also has scanned 1.3 million pages in 180,000 articles in the ADS Article Service. This literature archive contains all major Astronomy journals and many smaller journals, as well as conference proceedings, including the abstract books from all the LPSCs back to volume 2. A new feature gives our users the ability to see list of articles that were also read by the readers of a given article. This is a powerful tool to find out what current articles are relevant in a particular field of study. We have recently expanded the citation and reference query capabilities. It allows our users to select papers for which they want to see references or citations and then retrieve these citations/references. Another new capability is the ability to sort a list of articles by their citation count. As usual, users should be reminded that the citations in ADS are incomplete because we do not obtain reference lists from all publishers. In addition, we cannot match all references (e.g. in press, private communications, author errors, some conference papers, etc.). Anyone using the citations for analysis of publishing records should keep this in mind. More work on expanding the citation and reference features is planned over the next year. ADS Home Page http://ads.harvard.edu/

  12. Impact of feed restriction on health, digestion and faecal microbiota of growing pigs housed in good or poor hygiene conditions.

    PubMed

    Le Floc'h, N; Knudsen, C; Gidenne, T; Montagne, L; Merlot, E; Zemb, O

    2014-10-01

    Feed restriction could be a relevant strategy to preserve gut health, reduce systemic inflammatory response and finally limit antibiotic use. This study assessed the effect of feed restriction on growing pigs submitted to a moderate inflammatory challenge induced by the degradation of the environmental hygiene that is known to alter growth rate. The experiment was run on 80 pigs selected at 7 weeks of age according to a 2×2 factorial design: two feeding levels, ad libitum (AL) and feed restricted (FR) at 60% of AL, and two conditions of environmental hygiene, clean and dirty. Pigs were housed individually throughout the experiment. From 61 to 68 days of age (day 0 to 7), pigs were housed in a post weaning unit and feed restriction was applied to half of the pigs from day 0 to day 29. At 68 days of age (day 7 of the experiment), pigs were transferred in a growing unit where half of FR and half of AL pigs were housed in a dirty environment (poor hygiene) and the other half in a clean environment (good hygiene) until day 42. Growth performance was recorded weekly. Blood and faeces samples were collected to measure indicators of inflammation, nutrient digestibility and microbiota composition. Faecal consistency was monitored daily to detect diarrhoeas. Feed restriction decreased daily weight gain (-35% to -50%, P<0.001), increased the feed conversion ratio (+15%, P<0.001) and CP digestibility (+3%, P<0.05) and reduced the occurrence of diarrhoeas irrespective of hygiene conditions. Poor hygiene conditions decreased growth performance (-20%, P<0.05) and total tract digestibility of all nutrients (P<0.001). Haptoglobin (+50%) concentrations and lymphocyte (+10%) and granulocyte (+40%) numbers were higher in poor hygiene conditions (P<0.05), confirming that the model was effective to induce a systemic inflammatory response. Both feed restriction and hygiene modified the profile of the faecal microbiota. In this study, feed restriction did not reduce the systemic

  13. Offset compensation for A/D converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokl, S. S.; Hurd, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Analog-to-digital (A/D) converter eliminates dc offset in final digitized signal as well as in analog input by using digital feedback for compensation. Circuit could prove useful in data processing applications in which analog-format data are entered at high rates, as in point-of-sale data input systems.

  14. Value-Added Modeling in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The educational reform movement in the United States has resulted in a variety of states moving toward a system of value-added modeling (VAM) to measure a teacher's contribution to student achievement. Recently, many states have begun using VAM scores as part of a larger system to evaluate teacher performance. In the past decade, only "core…

  15. Fitting Value-Added Models in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Harold C.; Lockwood, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Value-added models of student achievement have received widespread attention in light of the current test-based accountability movement. These models use longitudinal growth modeling techniques to identify effective schools or teachers based upon the results of changes in student achievement test scores. Given their increasing popularity, this…

  16. Adding a Statistical Wrench to the "Toolbox"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; Lindsay, Nathan K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a formal statistical test that can be used to help researchers make decisions about alternative statistical model specifications. This test is commonly used by researchers who would like to test whether adding new variables to a model improves the model fit. However, we demonstrate that this formal test can also be employed…

  17. "Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the publishing pipeline…

  18. Double relaxation via AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri-Sharifi, S.; Ali-Akbari, M.; Kishani-Farahani, A.; Shafie, N.

    2016-08-01

    We exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate thermalization in an N = 2 strongly coupled gauge theory including massless fundamental matter (quark). More precisely, we consider the response of a zero temperature state of the gauge theory under influence of an external electric field which leads to a time-dependent current. The holographic dual of the above set-up is given by introducing a time-dependent electric field on the probe D7-brane embedded in an AdS5 ×S5 background. In the dual gravity theory an apparent horizon forms on the brane which, according to AdS/CFT dictionary, is the counterpart of the thermalization process in the gauge theory side. We classify different functions for time-dependent electric field and study their effect on the apparent horizon formation. In the case of pulse functions, where the electric field varies from zero to zero, apart from non-equilibrium phase, we observe the formation of two separate apparent horizons on the brane. This means that the state of the gauge theory experiences two different temperature regimes during its time evolution.

  19. Imago Mundi, Imago AD, Imago ADNI

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch in 2003 of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) in the USA, ever growing, similarly oriented consortia have been organized and assembled around the world. The various accomplishments of ADNI have contributed substantially to a better understanding of the underlying physiopathology of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These accomplishments are basically predicated in the trinity of multimodality, standardization and sharing. This multimodality approach can now better identify those subjects with AD-specific traits that are more likely to present cognitive decline in the near future and that might represent the best candidates for smaller but more efficient therapeutic trials – trials that, through gained and shared knowledge, can be more focused on a specific target or a specific stage of the disease process. In summary, data generated from ADNI have helped elucidate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning aging and AD pathology, while contributing to the international effort in setting the groundwork for biomarker discovery and establishing standards for early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25478022

  20. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  1. The AD Nurse: Prepared to be Prepared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Lynne; Junker, Mary H.

    1977-01-01

    It is not enough for the new associate degree (AD) nursing graduate to know the theory and be willing to learn. She must also have some skill in providing basic nursing care. Examples of applicants, both ADNs and BSNs, are described to illustrate the nursing talent necessary to practice sensitively and effectively. (Editor/TA)

  2. Value Added School Review Field Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes described in Alberta…

  3. "Value Added" Proves Beneficial to Teacher Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The use of "value added" information appears poised to expand into the nation's teacher colleges, with more than a dozen states planning to use the technique to analyze how graduates of training programs fare in classrooms. Supporters say the data could help determine which teacher education pathways produce teachers who are at least as…

  4. Drag force in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2006-12-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence and a classical test string approximation are used to calculate the drag force on an external quark moving in a thermal plasma of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This computation is motivated by the phenomenon of jet-quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  5. Cutting Budget Corners While Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veile, Craig N.; Carpenter, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how one school district saved money while adding long- term value to its capital improvement project. Planning issues involving square footage requirements, quality of material to be used, and heating and cooling system selection are discussed as are concepts to increase student learning capacity for the same construction dollars. (GR)

  6. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  7. Value-Added Analysis in Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Michael R.; Brown, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added data provide a viable alternative for gauging school effectiveness--one virtually free of the confounding effects of student demographics and other factors relating to student learning. How is it different from other measuring methods? It concentrates on growth, rather than attainment. This strengthens the concept and measurement of…

  8. Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

  9. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  10. Holographic Hydrodynamics with Baryon Chemical Potential for Charged AdS Black Hole

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2009-12-15

    We work out the decoupling problem and hydrodynamic analysis for the sound mode in charged AdS black hole and calculate the sound velocity, the charge susceptibility and the electrical conductivity. We find that Einstein relation among the conductivity, the diffusion constant and the susceptibility holds exactly.

  11. Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…

  12. Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, En-Hua

    In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile

  13. Hairy black holes in AdS5 × S 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markeviciute, Julija; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We use numerical methods to exhaustively study a novel family of hairy black hole solutions in AdS5. These solutions can be uplifted to solutions of type IIB supergravity with AdS5 × S 5 asymptotics and are thus expected to play an important role in our understanding of AdS/CFT. We find an intricate phase diagram, with the aforementioned family of hairy black hole solutions branching from the Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of the superradiance instability. We analyse black holes with spherical and planar horizon topology and explain how they connect in the phase diagram. Finally, we detail their global and local thermodynamic stability across several ensembles.

  14. Concise review: no breakthroughs for human mesenchymal and embryonic stem cell culture: conditioned medium, feeder layer, or feeder-free; medium with fetal calf serum, human serum, or enriched plasma; serum-free, serum replacement nonconditioned medium, or ad hoc formula? All that glitters is not gold!

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Tonti, Gaetana A

    2007-07-01

    The choice of an optimal strategy of stem cell culture is at the moment an impossible task, and the elaboration of a culture medium adapted to the production of embryonic and adult mesenchymal stem cells for the clinical application of cell therapy remains a crucial matter. To make an informed choice, it is crucial to not underestimate the theoretical health risk of using xenogenic compounds, to limit the immunological reactions once stem cells are transplanted, to not overestimate the controversial results obtained with human serum, plasma, and blood derivatives, as well as to carefully examine the pros and cons of serum-free and ad hoc formulation strategies; besides that, to also maintain multipotentiality, self-renewal, and transplantability. The extent to which we are able to achieve effective cell therapies will depend on assimilating a rapidly developing base of scientific knowledge with the practical considerations of design, delivery, and host response. Although clinical studies have already started, many questions remain unsolved, and concomitantly even more evidence on suitable and safe off-the-shelf products (mainly xeno-free) for embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells is cropping up, even though there should be no rush to enter the clinical stage while the underlying basic research is still not so solid; this solely will lead to high-quality translational research, without making blunders stemming from the assumption that all that glitters is not gold. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  15. Enhanced Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference and Associated Brain Regional Levels of BDNF, P-ERK1/2 and P-Ser845-GluA1 in Food-Restricted Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Zheng, Danielle; Peng, Xing-Xiang; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, a learning-free measure was used to demonstrate that chronic food restriction (FR) increases the reward magnitude of a wide range of abused drugs. Moreover, a variety of striatal neuroadaptations were detected in FR subjects, some of which are known to be involved in synaptic plasticity but have been ruled out as modulators of acute drug reward magnitude. Little is known about effects of FR on drug-conditioned place preference (CPP) and brain regional mechanisms that may enhance CPP in FR subjects. The purpose of the present study was to compare the expression and persistence of a conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by a relatively low dose of cocaine (7.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in ad libitum fed (AL) and FR rats and take several brain regional biochemical measures following the first CPP conditioning session to probe candidate mechanisms that may underlie the more robust CPP observed in FR subjects. Behaviorally, AL subjects displayed a CPP upon initial testing which extinguished rapidly over the course of subsequent test sessions while CPP in FR subjects persisted. Despite previous reports of elevated BDNF protein in forebrain regions of FR rats, the FR protocol used in the present study did not alter BDNF levels in dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens or medial prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, FR rats, whether injected with cocaine or vehicle, displayed elevated p-ERK1/2 and p-Ser845-GluA1 in dorsal hippocampus. FR rats also displayed elevated p-ERK1/2 in medial prefrontal cortex and elevated p-ERK1 in nucleus accumbens, with further increases produced by cocaine. The one effect observed exclusively in cocaine-treated FR rats was increased p-Ser845-GluA1 in nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest a number of avenues for continuing investigation with potential translational significance. PMID:21640333

  16. Effect of calcium lactate in erosion and S. mutans in rats when added to Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Beiraghi, S; Atkins, S; Rosen, S; Wilson, S; Odom, J; Beck, M

    1989-12-01

    Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats, 22 days of age, were divided randomly into three groups of 12 each and housed in a programmable feeder. The three experimental groups received either Coca-Cola (CC), Coca-Cola with calcium lactate (CC-CaL), or distilled water. The programmable feeder was set to deliver 17 equal volumes of fluid per day with each feeding period lasting between 80-90 min. All groups were given Diet MIT 305 in one premeasured amount per 24 hr period (ad libitum). The pH of the CC with calcium lactate was adjusted to match the CC without calcium lactate by the addition of citric and phosphoric acids. The test period lasted five weeks. Each week, the food and fluid consumed and the weight gain were measured. Erosion of the teeth was scored by the method of Restarski et al. (1945). ANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference in the amount of erosion among groups. A Newman-Keuls analysis showed that the mean erosion score of the CC group was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than that of the CC-CaL and distilled water groups (54.2 +/- 0.12; 0.0275 +/- 0.0123; 0.132 +/- 0.070, respectively). There was no significant difference in erosion between the CC-CaL and distilled water groups. There was no difference in the amount of food and fluid consumed among the group of rats. In conclusion, calcium lactate added to CC resulted in significantly reduced tooth erosion in rats.

  17. E-Books in the Early Literacy Environment: Is There Added Value for Vocabulary Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen A.; Sullivan, Shannon; Simpson, Danielle; Zuzolo, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Using a theory of affordances, this study examines the introduction of e-books into the early literacy environment as resources that can increase children's opportunity for learning vocabulary. Added value was observed under conditions of (1) book browsing, (2) instruction, and (3) a print-only condition. A total of 33 4-year-olds (18 boys, 15…

  18. Sex steroid levels and AD-like pathology in 3xTgAD mice.

    PubMed

    Overk, C R; Perez, S E; Ma, C; Taves, M D; Soma, K K; Mufson, E J

    2013-02-01

    Decreases in testosterone and 17β-oestradiol (E(2)) are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been attributed to an increase in β-amyloid and tau pathological lesions. Although recent studies have used transgenic animal models to test the effects of sex steroid manipulations on AD-like pathology, almost none have systematically characterised the associations between AD lesions and sex steroid levels in the blood or brain in any mutant model. The present study evaluated age-related changes in testosterone and E(2) concentrations, as well as androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β expression, in brain regions displaying AD pathology in intact male and female 3xTgAD and nontransgenic (ntg) mice. We report for the first time that circulating and brain testosterone levels significantly increase in male 3xTgAD mice with age, but without changes in AR-immunoreactive (IR) cell number in the hippocampal CA1 or medial amygdala. The age-related increase in hippocampal testosterone levels correlated positively with increases in the conformational tau isoform, Alz50. These data suggest that the over-expression of human tau up-regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these mice. Although circulating and brain E(2) levels remained stable with age in both male and female 3xTgAD and ntg mice, ER-IR cell number in the hippocampus and medial amygdala decreased with age in female transgenic mice. Furthermore, E(2) levels were significantly higher in the hippocampus than in serum, suggesting local production of E(2). Although triple transgenic mice mimic AD-like pathology, they do not fully replicate changes in human sex steroid levels, and may not be the best model for studying the effects of sex steroids on AD lesions.

  19. The AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.

    2015-06-01

    We give a brief review of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which posits the equivalence between a certain gravitational theory and a lower-dimensional non-gravitational one. This remarkable duality, formulated in 1997, has sparked a vigorous research program that has gained in breadth over the years, with applications to many aspects of theoretical (and even experimental) physics, not least to general relativity and quantum gravity. To put the AdS/CFT correspondence into historical context, we start by reviewing the relevant aspects of string theory (of which no prior knowledge is assumed). We then develop the statement of the correspondence, and explain how the two sides of the duality map into each other. Finally, we discuss the implications and applications of the correspondence, and indicate some of the current trends in this subject. The presentation attempts to convey the main concepts in a simple and self-contained manner, relegating supplementary remarks to footnotes.

  20. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah A.; Berket, Karlo

    2003-07-14

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  1. LINAC for ADS application - accelerator technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, Robert W; Sheffreld, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Sifnificant high-current, high-intensity accelerator research and development have been done in the recent past in the US, centered primarily at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These efforts have included designs for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, and Accelerator Driven Systems, as well as many others. This past work and some specific design principles that were developed to optimie linac designs for ADS and other high-intensity applications will be discussed briefly.

  2. Merged Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2010-03-03

    The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.

  3. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  4. Adding coal dust to coal batch

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin

    2009-05-15

    The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

  5. Period-adding route in sparkling bubbles.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Tufaile, Alberto; Robillard, Bertrand; Jeandet, Philippe; Sartorelli, José Carlos

    2005-09-01

    Chains of bubbles are seen rising along the wall whenever champagne is poured into a glass. The careful observation of a given bubble chain often reveals that the interbubble distance suddenly changes during the degassing process, indicating different bubbling regimes in this elusive phenomenon of effervescence. We report the transitions between these different bubbling regimes that present sequences of multiple periods known as the period-adding route.

  6. Routing Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervaiz, Mohammad O.; Cardei, Mihaela; Wu, Jie

    Wireless networks provide rapid, untethered access to information and computing, eliminating the barriers of distance, time, and location for many applications ranging from collaborative, distributed mobile computing to disaster recovery (such as fire, flood, earthquake), law enforcement (crowd control, search, and rescue), and military communications (command, control, surveillance, and reconnaissance). An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration [11

  7. Bar Impact Tests on Alumina (AD995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazamias, James U.; Reinhart, William D.; Konrad, Carl H.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Bless, Stephan J.

    2002-07-01

    Dynamic strength may be inferred from bar impact tests, although interpretation of the data is affected by the time-to-failure of the target bar. To clarify the mechanics, tests with graded density impactors were conducted on bare and confined bars, 12 and 19 mm in diameter, cut from blocks of AD995 alumina. Manganin gauge and VISAR diagnostics were employed. Larger rods displayed higher strength. In some tests the "true" yield stress of ˜4.5 GPa was achieved.

  8. ADS: The Next Generation Search Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Chyla, R.; Luker, J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Holachek, A.; Dave, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Four years after the last LISA meeting, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) finds itself in the middle of major changes to the infrastructure and contents of its database. In this paper we highlight a number of features of great importance to librarians and discuss the additional functionality that we are currently developing. Our citation coverage has doubled since 2010 and now consists of over 10 million citations. We are normalizing the affiliation information in our records and we have started collecting and linking funding sources with papers in our system. At the same time, we are undergoing major technology changes in the ADS platform. We have rolled out and are now enhancing a new high-performance search engine capable of performing full-text as well as metadata searches using an intuitive query language. We are currently able to index acknowledgments, affiliations, citations, and funding sources. While this effort is still ongoing, some of its benefits are already available through the ADS Labs user interface and API at http://adslabs.org/adsabs/.

  9. A new AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastase, Horatiu Stefan; Siegel, Warren

    2000-10-01

    We consider a geometric zero-radius limit for strings on AdS5 × S5, where the Anti-de Sitter hyperboloid becomes the projective lightcone. In this limit the fifth dimension becomes non dynamical, yielding a different ``holographic'' interpretation than the usual ``bulk to boundary'' one. When quantized on the random lattice, the fifth coordinate acts as a new kind of Schwinger parameter, producing Feynman rules with normal propagators at the tree level: for example, in the bosonic case ordinary massless phi4 theory is obtained. In the superstring case we obtain new, manifestly Script N = 4 supersymmetric rules for Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills. These gluons are also different from those of the usual AdS/CFT correspondence: they are the ``partons'' that make up the usual ``hadrons'' of the open and closed strings in the familiar QCD string picture. Thus, their coupling gYM and rank N of the ``color'' gauge group are different from those of the ``flavor'' gauge group of the open string. As a result we obtain different perturbation expansions in radius, coupling, and 1/N.

  10. Semiclassical energy of the AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3 folded string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Macorini, Guido; Ratti, CarloAlberto; Valatka, Saulius

    2013-01-01

    We consider the classical solution describing a folded type IIA string in the background AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3. The string is spinning in AdS and has angular momentum in Bbb CBbb P3. In the 't Hooft limit, this is the gravity dual of twist operators in the ABJM superconformal theory. We quantize the classical solution by algebraic curve methods and determine the first semiclassical correction to the energy. An integral representation is given, valid for all values of the charges. We analyze its properties in the special regimes associated with a short or long string. Finally, we investigate various properties of the leading term of the energy for short strings (the so-called slope).

  11. Tensionless supersymmetric M2 branes in AdS4 × S7 and giant diabolo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Carballo, Jaume; Lugo, Adrián R.; Russo, Jorge G.

    2009-11-01

    We find various supersymmetric configurations of toroidal M2 brane solutions in AdS4 × S7 or, more generally, in AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk. In this class we identify solutions preserving 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetries of the background. The supersymmetric M2 branes have angular momenta and winding on S7, and null world-volumes. In certain cases they collapse to string-like configurations. These configurations can be viewed as a higher-dimensional (membrane) analog of BMN states. We compute the energy and angular momenta, showing that all supersymmetric configurations obey the BPS relation E = J/R, J≡∑i = 14|Ji| with E,J → ∞. Finally, we also study another class of supersymmetric M2-branes, including uncompact rotating membranes of ``diabolo'' shape.

  12. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  13. Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new method for decomposing Witten diagrams into conformal blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existing results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.

  14. Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS

    DOE PAGES

    Asplund, Curtis T.; Denef, Frederik; Dzienkowski, Eric

    2016-01-11

    Here, we present a new class of N = 4 supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can bemore » obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.« less

  15. Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2016-01-25

    Here, we develop a new method for decomposing blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we also consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existingmore » results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.« less

  16. Unfolded equations for massive higher spin supermultiplets in AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchbinder, I. L.; Snegirev, T. V.; Zinoviev, Yu. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we give an explicit construction of unfolded equations for massive higher spin supermultiplets of the minimal (1, 0) supersymmetry in AdS 3 space. For that purpose we use an unfolded formulation for massive bosonic and fermionic higher spins and find supertransformations leaving appropriate set of unfolded equations invariant. We provide two general supermultiplets ( s, s + 1 /2) and ( s, s - 1 /2) with arbitrary integer s, as well as a number of lower spin examples.

  17. AdS black disk model for small-x DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João

    2011-05-01

    Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple AdS black disk model to describe saturation in DIS. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, FT˜FL˜x-ω, where ω is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio FL/FT is given by the universal value 1+ω/3+ω, independently of the target.

  18. Yangian of AdS3 / CFT2 and its deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regelskis, Vidas

    2016-08-01

    We construct highest-weight modules and a Yangian extension of the centrally extended sl(1 | 1) 2 superalgebra, that is a symmetry of the worldsheet scattering associated with the AdS3 / CFT2 duality. We demonstrate that the R-matrix intertwining atypical modules has an elegant trigonometric parametrization. We also consider a quantum deformation of this superalgebra, its modules, and obtain a quantum affine extension of the Drinfeld-Jimbo type that describes a deformed worldsheet scattering.

  19. Gaugings of four-dimensional N =3 supergravity and AdS4/CFT3 holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karndumri, Parinya; Upathambhakul, Khem

    2016-06-01

    We study matter-coupled N =3 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with various semisimple gauge groups. When coupled to n vector multiplets, the gauged supergravity contains 3 +n vector fields and 3 n complex scalars parametrized by S U (3 ,n )/S U (3 )×S U (n )×U (1 ) coset manifold. Semisimple gauge groups take the form of G0×H ⊂S O (3 ,n )⊂S U (3 ,n ) with H being a compact subgroup of S O (n +3 -dim (G0)). The G0 groups considered in this paper are of the form S O (3 ), S O (3 ,1 ), S O (2 ,2 ), S L (3 ,R ) and S O (2 ,1 )×S O (2 ,2 ). We find that S O (3 )×S O (3 ), S O (3 ,1 ) and S L (3 ,R ) gauge groups admit a maximally supersymmetric AdS4 critical point. The S O (2 ,1 )×S O (2 ,2 ) gauge group admits a supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum while the remaining gauge groups admit both half-supersymmetric domain wall vacua and AdS4 vacua with completely broken supersymmetry. For the S O (3 )×S O (3 ) gauge group, there exists another supersymmetric N =3 AdS4 critical point with S O (3 )diag symmetry. We explicitly give a detailed study of various holographic RG flows between AdS4 critical points, flows to nonconformal theories, and supersymmetric domain walls in each gauge group. The results provide gravity duals of N =3 Chern-Simons-matter theories in three dimensions.

  20. New =1 supersymmetric AdS 5 backgrounds in type IIA supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfetsos, Konstadinos; Thompson, Daniel C.

    2014-11-01

    We present a family of =1 supersymmetric backgrounds in type-IIA super-gravity and their lifts to eleven-dimensional supergravity. These are of the form AdS 5 × X 5 and are characterised by an SU(2) structure. The internal space, X 5, is obtained from the known Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, Y p,q , via an application of non-Abelian T-duality.

  1. Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan

    2007-07-24

    We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.

  2. On elliptic string solutions in AdS3 and dS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios

    2016-07-01

    Classical string actions in AdS3 and dS3 can be connected to the sinh-Gordon and cosh-Gordon equations through Pohlmeyer reduction. We show that the problem of constructing a classical string solution with a given static or translationally invariant Pohlmeyer counterpart is equivalent to solving four pairs of effective Schrödinger problems. Each pair consists of a flat potential and an n = 1 Lamé potential whose eigenvalues are connected, and, additionally, the four solutions satisfy a set of constraints. An approach for solving this system is developed by employing an interesting connection between the specific class of classical string solutions and the band structure of the Lamé potential. This method is used for the construction of several families of classical string solutions, one of which turns out to be the spiky strings in AdS3. New solutions include circular rotating strings in AdS3 with singular time evolution of their radius and angular velocity as well as classical string solutions in dS3.

  3. Korean nova records in A.D. 1073 and A.D. 1074: R Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Myeong-Gu; Cho, Se-Hyung; Park, Changbom

    2005-05-01

    R Aqr is known to be a symbiotic binary system with an associated extended emission nebula, possibly produced by a historic outburst. To find the associated historic records, we searched for and compiled all Guest Star and Peculiar Star records in three Korean official history books that cover almost two thousand years, Samguksagi, Goryeosa, Joseonwangjosillok. In addition to the record of A.D. 1073, previously noted by Li (1985, Chin. Astron. Astrophys., 9, 322), we have found in Goryeosa another candidate record of A.D. 1074, which has the same positional description as that of A.D. 1073 with an additional brightness description. We examined various aspects of the two records and conclude that they both are likely to be the records of outburst of R Aqr. This means that there were two successive outbursts in A.D. 1073 and in A.D. 1074, separated by approximately one year. Based on these records, we estimate the distance to R Aqr to be 273 pc if the expansion of the nebula has been at a constant rate. The brightness record of A.D. 1074 corresponds to the absolute magnitude at outburst of Moutburst = -6.2m -5.2m at this distance. The two Korean records associated with R Aqr may provide astronomically meaningful constraints to the outburst model of R Aqr and the formative process of its nebulosity.

  4. On AdS to dS transitions in higher-curvature gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camanho, Xián O.; Edelstein, José D.; Gomberoff, Andrés; Sierra-Garcıa, J. Anıbal

    2015-10-01

    We study the possible existence of gravitational phase transitions from AdS to dS geometries in the context of higher-curvature gravities. We use Lanczos-Gauss-Bonnet (LGB) theory with a positive cosmological constant as a toy model. This theory has two maximally symmetric vacua with positive (dS) and negative (AdS) constant curvature. We show that a phase transition from the AdS vacuum to a dS black hole geometry takes place when the temperature reaches a critical value. The transition is produced by nucleation of bubbles of the new phase that expand afterwards. We claim that this phenomenon is not particular to the model under study, that contains Boulware-Deser instabilities, but shall also be part of generic gravitational theories with higher-curvature terms, where these problems are absent. A salient feature that emerges when a positive cosmological constant is considered is that the temperature in which these bubbles may form is bounded from above. Thermodynamically this property is related to quite an uncommon feature that this system exhibits, namely, the existence of a zeroth-order phase transition.

  5. Value-Added Teacher Estimates as Part of Teacher Evaluations: Exploring the Effects of Data and Model Specifications on the Stability of Teacher Value-Added Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersting, Nicole B.; Chen, Mei-kuang; Stigler, James W.

    2013-01-01

    If teacher value-added estimates (VAEs) are to be used as indicators of individual teacher performance in teacher evaluation and accountability systems, it is important to understand how much VAEs are affected by the data and model specifications used to estimate them. In this study we explored the effects of three conditions on the stability of…

  6. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

    2015-03-01

    Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000 kg milk/305 d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1 wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8 wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was

  7. Effect of suckling restriction with nose plates and premature weaning on postpartum anestrous interval in primiparous cows under range conditions.

    PubMed

    Quintans, G; Vázquez, A I; Weigel, K A

    2009-11-01

    Suckling and nutrition are generally recognized as two major factors controlling the duration of the postpartum anovulatory period. In the present study, the effect of premature weaning and suckling restriction with nose plates (NPs) on cow and calf performance was evaluated. The study was conducted over 2 years; primiparous Hereford cows, weighing (mean+/-S.E.M.) 344+/-3.5kg and with 4.1+/-0.05 units of body condition score (BCS) (scale 1-8 [Vizcarra, J.A., Ibañez, W., Orcasberro, R., 1986. Repetibilidad y reproductibilidad de dos escalas para estimar la condición corporal de vacas Hereford. Investigaciones Agronómicas 7 (1), 45-47]) at calving, remained with their calves until 72.5+/-1.2 days postpartum (day 0). They were then assigned to one of three treatments: (i) calves with free access to their dams and ad libitum suckling (S, n=29); (ii) calves fitted with NPs for 14 days, but remained with their dams (NP, n=29), and (iii) calves that were weaned from their dams (W, n=28). All cows were anestrus at the time treatments commenced (day 0). All cows were blood sampled twice weekly from 1 week before the beginning of the experiment until the end of the mating period (day 74) for progesterone analysis. The mating period began on day 14. Cows in W treatment had ovulations earlier (P<0.05) than those in NP and S groups. Cows in the NP group had longer (P<0.05) intervals between the first progesterone increase and normal luteal phase than cows in the other two treatments groups (23.3+/-3.2 vs. 6.5+/-3.2 and 5.2+/-3.3 days for NP, S and W cows, respectively). Fifty per cent of the cows with NP had a short cycle (7 days) but there was a group of cows that had longer (P<0.05) intervals (66 days) between first progesterone increase and normal estrous activity. In the NP group, 8 of 29 cows had a short luteal phase and then a normal one; for 9 of these 29 cows progesterone concentrations remained low for 6 weeks from the beginning of the treatment; and for 12 of these

  8. 37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...

  9. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  10. 7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...

  11. 37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...

  12. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  13. Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2013-04-01

    The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.

  14. The NASA ADS: Searching, Linking and More

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. M.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Bohlen, E.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M.; Murray, S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA ADS Abstract Service is a NASA-funded project which provides FREE World Wide Web abstract search services. We currently have over 3.6 million references in four databases: 1) Astronomy and Planetary Sciences; 2) Physics and Geophysics; 3) Space Instrumentation; and 4) Astronomy Preprints. Our eleven mirror sites in France, Germany, Japan, Chile, Great Britain, India, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Korea and China help to provide better global access. Each database contains abstracts from hundreds of journals, publications, colloquia, symposia, proceedings, PhD Theses, and NASA reports. All abstracts can be searched by author, title, or abstract text words.

  15. Firewalls in AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, Steven G.; Chowdhury, Borun D.

    2014-10-01

    Several recent papers argue against firewalls by relaxing the requirement for locality outside the stretched horizon. In the firewall argument, locality essentially serves the purpose of ensuring that the degrees of freedom required for infall are those in the proximity of the black hole and not the ones in the early radiation. We make the firewall argument sharper by utilizing the AdS/CFT framework and claim that the firewall argument essentially states that the dual to a thermal state in the CFT is a firewall.

  16. Adding control to arbitrary unknown quantum operations

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Ralph, Timothy C.; Kalasuwan, Pruet; Zhang, Mian; Peruzzo, Alberto; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    Although quantum computers promise significant advantages, the complexity of quantum algorithms remains a major technological obstacle. We have developed and demonstrated an architecture-independent technique that simplifies adding control qubits to arbitrary quantum operations—a requirement in many quantum algorithms, simulations and metrology. The technique, which is independent of how the operation is done, does not require knowledge of what the operation is, and largely separates the problems of how to implement a quantum operation in the laboratory and how to add a control. Here, we demonstrate an entanglement-based version in a photonic system, realizing a range of different two-qubit gates with high fidelity. PMID:21811242

  17. Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique

    2016-05-01

    We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.

  18. Non-Repudiation in Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandel, Purvi; Valiveti, Sharada; Agrawal, K. P.; Kotecha, K.

    With the phenomenal growth of the Internet and open networks in general, security services, such as non-repudiation, become crucial to many applications. In conventional network non-repudiation is achieved using protocols involving TTP. Non-repudiation in conventional network is achieved using different protocols, but in ad hoc networks due to mobility problem we can't use trusted third party (TTP). There is a scope to implement a non-repudiation protocol, which satisfies non-repudiation requirements emerged by the application in a peer-to-peer network.

  19. Disease Information in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Print Ads.

    PubMed

    Aikin, Kathryn J; Sullivan, Helen W; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements sometimes include information about the disease condition in addition to information about the advertised product. Although the intent of such information is to educate about the disease condition, in some cases consumers may mistakenly assume that the drug will address all of the potential consequences of the condition mentioned in the ad. We investigated the effects of adding disease information to DTC prescription drug print ads on consumer product perceptions and understanding. Participants (4,064 adults) viewed 1 of 15 DTC print ads for fictitious prescription drugs indicated to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia, or lymphoma that varied in disease information presence, type, and format. Participants answered questions that assessed risk and benefit memory, perception, and behavioral intention. Results indicate that exposure to disease information as part of DTC prescription drug ads can promote the impression that the drug addresses consequences of the condition that are not part of the drug's indication. PMID:26717304

  20. POSSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN AD LEO

    SciTech Connect

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Petrucci, Romina; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Jofré, Emiliano

    2014-01-20

    AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star that has been extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully convective boundary, studying its long-term chromospheric activity in detail could be an appreciable contribution to dynamo theory. Here, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we analyze the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both of these totally independent time series, we obtain a possible activity cycle with a period of approximately seven years and a less significant shorter cycle of approximately two years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe different spectral features simultaneously, we also analyze the relation between simultaneous measurements of the Na I index (R{sub D}{sup ′}), Hα, and Ca II K fluxes at different activity levels of AD Leo, including flares.

  1. OpenAD : algorithm implementation user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.

    2004-05-13

    Research in automatic differentiation has led to a number of tools that implement various approaches and algorithms for the most important programming languages. While all these tools have the same mathematical underpinnings, the actual implementations have little in common and mostly are specialized for a particular programming language, compiler internal representation, or purpose. This specialization does not promote an open test bed for experimentation with new algorithms that arise from exploiting structural properties of numerical codes in a source transformation context. OpenAD is being designed to fill this need by providing a framework that allows for relative ease in the implementation of algorithms that operate on a representation of the numerical kernel of a program. Language independence is achieved by using an intermediate XML format and the abstraction of common compiler analyses in Open-Analysis. The intermediate format is mapped to concrete programming languages via two front/back end combinations. The design allows for reuse and combination of already implemented algorithms. We describe the set of algorithms and basic functionality currently implemented in OpenAD and explain the necessary steps to add a new algorithm to the framework.

  2. Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.

    PubMed

    Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat.

  3. Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.

  4. A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: observations and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Bodybuilding is full of myths and practices that are contrary to the scientific literature, which can lead to health problems. Adopting a scientifically designed approach is very important, as it may help bodybuilders to achieve better results while preserving their health. However, I have some criticism regarding some practices adopted in the referred article as ad libitum ingestion of sugar-free cordial and flavored tea and the performance of the exercise in fasted state, as it seems to bring no benefit and have some potential problems. Some suggestion are made in order to preserve FFM, like changing training split and exercise selection; increasing carbohydrate ingestion and decreasing protein intake; changing the resistance training stimuli and reducing the volume of aerobic exercises and increase its intensity.

  5. Josephson junctions and AdS/CFT networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiritsis, Elias; Niarchos, Vasilis

    2011-07-01

    We propose a new holographic model of Josephson junctions (and networks thereof) based on designer multi-gravity, namely multi-(super)gravity theories on products of distinct asymptotically AdS spacetimes coupled by mixed boundary conditions. We present a simple model of a Josephson junction (JJ) that reproduces trivially the well-known current-phase sine relation of JJs. In one-dimensional chains of holographic superconductors we find that the Cooper-pair condensates are described by a discretized Schrödinger-type equation. Such non-integrable equations, which have been studied extensively in the past in condensed matter and optics applications, are known to exhibit complex behavior that includes periodic and quasiperiodic solutions, chaotic dynamics, soliton and kink solutions. In our setup these solutions translate to holographic configurations of strongly-coupled superconductors in networks with weak site-to-site interactions that exhibit interesting patterns of modulated superconductivity. In a continuum limit our equations reduce to generalizations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We comment on the many possible extensions and applications of this new approach.

  6. 3D τ RR -minimization in AdS4 gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amariti, Antonio; Gnecchi, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose the identification in AdS4 N = 2 gauged supergravity of the coefficient τRR of 3D N = 2 SCFTs. We constrain the structure of this function in supergravity by combining the results from unitarity, holography and localization. We show that our conjectured function is minimized by the exact R-charge, corresponding to a gravitational attractor for the scalars of special geometry. We identify this mechanism with the supergravity dual of τ RR -minimization. We check this proposal in ABJM model, comparing with expectations from localization and AdS/CFT duality. We comment also on possible relations with black hole microstates counting, recently obtained from application of localization techniques.

  7. Histological and direct evidence for the role of complement in the neuroinflammation of AD.

    PubMed

    Veerhuis, Robert

    2011-02-01

    In Alzheimers's disease (AD) a disturbed balance between synthesis and removal of Aβ leads to the formation of Aβ deposits and a reaction of the innate immune system. Little evidence exists for a contribution of the adaptive immune response in AD, as no signs of influx of blood borne cells or presence of immunoglobulins in Aβ deposits are apparent. Factors of the complement(C) system and pentraxins act as pattern recognition molecules and mediate uptake of Aβ by glial cells expressing C-receptors (Crec). These interactions may, however, also lead to synthesis and secretion of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines, chemokines and other potentially neurotoxic agents by the glial cells. Virtually all complement factors are produced in brain, and the expression is increased in AD affected brain areas. In AD brain areas with amyloid deposits especially classical pathway C activation products are readily observed. Also C regulatory proteins (Creg) and Crec can be found in the brain parenchyma and are upregulated, especially under acute inflammatory conditions, such as meningitis. However, under chronic low-grade inflammatory conditions, such as in AD, Creg and to some extent Crec expression may remain at a low level, thereby allowing C activation to proceed, leading to sustained activation of glial cells and neurodegenerative changes. In this review evidence from immunohistochemical, in vitro and animal studies pointing to a role for C activation is discussed, with special focus on the disturbed balance between C activators and Cregs in AD.

  8. Impairment of nesting behaviour in 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2013-06-15

    Deterioration in executive functions and daily life activities (DLA) are early signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that signal the need for caregiver attention. We have addressed this issue in the 3xTg-AD mice model for AD and studied nesting behaviour as a natural DLA of parental structures as well as at early- (6 month-old) and advanced-stages (12 month-old) of the disease in isolated animals. The results show genetic, gender and age-dependent impairment of nesting behaviour but also aware about the relevance of factors such as the temporal course of nest construction and the nesting material. Paper towel consistently showed the impairment of nesting behavior in 3xTg-AD mice since early stages of the disease and in both social conditions. Their nest construction was slow temporal pattern and of poor quality, especially in females and advanced stages of the disease where the deficits were shown from the first day. In all cases, cotton elicited an intense behaviour that lead to perfect nesting during the first 48 h. Genotype, gender and age differences were found in the onset of nesting behaviour, with a time delay in the 3xTg-AD mice, particularly in females. The reported impairment of nesting behaviour in 3xTg-AD provides another behavioral tool to assess the benefits of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies, as well as the potential action of risk factors of AD, in this animal model. PMID:23523959

  9. Oxidative DNA damage in peripheral leukocytes of mild cognitive impairment and AD patients.

    PubMed

    Migliore, L; Fontana, I; Trippi, F; Colognato, R; Coppedè, F; Tognoni, G; Nucciarone, B; Siciliano, G

    2005-05-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress plays a key role in the degenerative neuronal death and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although it is not clear if it is the primary triggering event in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical condition between normal aging and AD, characterized by a memory deficit without loss of general cognitive and functional abilities. We performed this study by a comet assay analysis to evaluate the level of primary and oxidative DNA damage in two groups of MCI and AD patients, compared to healthy controls. Data showed a significantly higher level of primary DNA damage in leukocytes of AD and also of MCI patients compared to control individuals (average: 2.09+/-0.79 and 2.47+/-1.01, respectively for AD and MCI, versus 1.04+/-0.31 in controls). Moreover, the amount of oxidised DNA bases (both purines and pyrimidines) was significatively higher in the two groups of patients (AD and MCI) compared to controls. Our results give a further indication that oxidative stress, at least at the DNA level, is an earlier event in the pathogenesis of AD.

  10. Non-minimally coupled pseudoscalars in AdS4 for instantons in CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghdi, M.

    2016-06-01

    For the 11-dimensional supergravity over {{{AdS}}}4× {{{S}}}7/{Z}k, beginning with a general four-form ansatz and the main geometry unchanged, we get a tower of massive and tachyonic pseudoscalars. Indeed, the resultant equations can be assigned to the so-called {φ }4 actions of the non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor theories with a cosmological constant. We focus on a well-known tachyonic and a new massive bulk mode, which are singlet under the internal group and break all supersymmetries, associated with skew-whiffing and Wick-rotating of the background four-form flux, respectively. The first one is the conformally coupled {m}2=-2 pseudoscalar in the bulk of Euclidean AdS4, where an exact instanton solution is found and a marginally triple-trace deformation with a proper dimension-1 operator produces an agreeing boundary solution with finite action. From the action evaluated on the solution, we estimate the decay rate of the vacuum tunneling mediated by the instanton. Another massive {m}2=+4 mode, with the so-called non-minimal coupling parameter ξ =-1/3, also breaks the conformal invariance and so there is no exact solution. Then, based on the AdS4/CFT3 correspondence rules, we propose the dimension-4 ({{{Δ }}}+=+4) boundary operator in the skew-whiffed (anti-M2-branes) theory with which to deform the boundary action—consisting of a singlet fermion, an original scalar and U(1) gauges fields—and find some solutions to be matched with the bulk solutions.

  11. Impairment of water maze behaviour with ageing is counteracted by maze learning earlier in life but not by physical exercise, food restriction or housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Hansalik, Michaela; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2006-02-01

    Spatial learning and memory decline with ageing in humans as well as rats. We examined the influence of different interventions on male Sprague Dawley rats with respect to learning ability and memory at the age of 5, 10 and 18 months. The intervention and control groups were: (RW) voluntary exercise in running wheels, (PW) sedentary, food restricted (by about 25%) to keep them at pair weight with RW, (S1) sedentary, fed ad libitum, (TM) forced training in a treadmill, and, (S4) sedentary, fed ad libitum. The animals in all groups were housed individually except those in group S4, which were housed four in each cage. The ability of learning and memory was determined in the Morris water maze. The results showed a significantly better learning ability when young in comparison with their ability when having grown older. At the age of 18 months, the performance was significantly better in the subgroups which had received training also at the age of 10 months compared to the subgroups receiving their first training. None of the various interventions had any significant effect on these functions. Repeated training seems to be the best intervention with respect to retaining learning ability and memory.

  12. Art as an Evolutionary Adaptation: Inspiration from the Visible Supernovae of AD 1054 and AD 3054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, C. J.; Rappaport, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The authors, an astronomer/priest and an anthropologist/biologist, describe their use of the dramatic arts at the INSAP VIII meeting in their performance of two short skits on the sighting of a supernova in AD 1054 (creating the beautiful Crab Nebula) and a future “Rho Cas” stellar explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia, in AD 3054. They speculate on the emergence of science, religion, and art as bona fide adaptations, responding to natural selection, which served early hominins well in their struggle for existence. They draw parallels to the continued functions of science, religion, and art in modern society.

  13. - criticality of AdS black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Xu, Wei; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2015-02-01

    We study the - critical behaivor of N-dimensional AdS black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity. Our results show the existence of the Van der Waals like small-large black hole phase transitions when taking some special values of charges of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills fields. Further to calculate the critical exponents of the black holes at the critical point, we find that they are the same as those in the Van der Waals liquid-gas system.

  14. Phantom Accretion onto the Schwarzschild AdS Black Hole with Topological Defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, Ali R.; Farahani, H.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we have studied phantom energy accretion of prefect fluid onto the Schwarzschild AdS black hole with topological defect. We have obtained critical point during the accretion of fluid on the black hole where the speed of flow is equal speed of sound (Sharif and Abbas in Phantom accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole, 2011, arXiv:1109.1043 [gr-qc]). The critical velocities have been computed so that the speed of fluid into the black hole is less than speed of sound. Finally, we have found that the critical point is near the black hole horizon.

  15. Vinasse added to the concentrate for fattening lambs: intake, animal performance, and carcass and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Ó; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Frutos, P; Andrés, S; Giráldez, F J

    2011-04-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs (mean BW 15.4 ± 0.13 kg, 6 to 7 wk old) were used to study the effects of the addition of 0 (control), 100 (V10), and 200 (V20) g of vinasse per kilgram of concentrate on intake, animal performance, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets and fed barley straw and the corresponding concentrate ad libitum. When the animals reached 25 kg of BW, a sample of blood was taken and the lambs were slaughtered. Feed intake, growth rate, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics were assessed. Lambs that received the concentrates with vinasse showed a reduced concentrate intake (linear contrast, P = 0.029) and ADG (linear contrast, P = 0.004) and an increased length of fattening period (linear contrast, P = 0.002) as well as feed:gain ratio (linear contrast P = 0.011). Vinasse enhanced ruminal pH (orthogonal contrast control vs. V10 + V20; P = 0.007). Plasma glucose concentrations declined in lambs fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.003), whereas plasma urea concentration increased in animals fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.036). The plasma concentrations of creatinine, triglycerides, and lactate and the enzyme profile studied (alkaline phosphate, alanine transaminase, glutamate oxal-acetate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase) were not modified in response to vinasse inclusion. Lambs in the vinasse groups had less Na(+) and nitrate and greater K(+) and nitrite plasma concentrations (linear contrasts, P < 0.05). None of the carcass characteristics studied was affected by vinasse (P > 0.10). Meat chemical composition and characteristics were unaffected (P > 0.10), but shear force was greater for lambs that received vinasse (orthogonal contrast, control vs. V10 + V20, P = 0.007). The addition of 100 or 200 g vinasse/kg of concentrate for fattening lambs reduced feed intake and growth rate and increased the feed:gain ratio

  16. Scientific Publishing: Adding Value, Delivering Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Publishers are developing new services and applying new technologies to improve publication and reading experiences for the scholarly community. This needs to be implemented with care to avoid adding technology-driven complexity. Our publishing processes need to be widely accessible to both authors and readers and to maintain the scientific record. Beth Mayes will outline new developments at IOP Publishing delivering (1) improvements to the presentation of articles and their commitment to formats that go beyond the PDF, improving the understanding of research. (2) How IOP Publishing is responding to the growing calls for metadata and linking that involve being central to the shared information ecosystem for astronomy. (3) After publication, discuss how publishers invest in metrics and new initiatives for discovery that improve the impact of published research.

  17. Accelerator development in India for ADS programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, Rajni; Basak, T.; Roy, Shweta; Aslam, M.; Jain, P.; Srivastava, S. C. L.; Kumar, Rajesh; Nema, P. K.; Kailas, S.; Sahni, V. C.

    2007-02-01

    At BARC, development of a Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), as front-end injector of the 1 GeV accelerator for the ADS programme, has been initiated. The major components of LEHIPA (20 MeV, 30 mA) are a 50 keV ECR ion source, a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) lines match the beam from the ion source to RFQ and from RFQ to DTL respectively. Design of these systems has been completed and fabrication of their prototypes has started. Physics studies of the 20-1000 MeV part of the Linac are also in progress. In this paper, the present status of this project is presented.

  18. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  19. Impact of AD995 alumina rods

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Reinhart, W.D.; Grady, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Gas guns and velocity interferometric techniques have been used to determine the loading behavior of an AD995 alumina rod 19 mm in diameter by 75 mm and 150 mm long, respectively. Graded-density materials were used to impact both bare and sleeved alumina rods while the velocity interferometer was used to monitor the axial-velocity of the free end of the rods. Results of these experiments demonstrate that (1) a time-dependent stress pulse generated during impact allows an efficient transition from the initial uniaxial strain loading to a uniaxial stress state as the stress pulse propagates through the rod, and (2) the intermediate loading rates obtained in this configuration lie between split Hopkinson bar and shock-loading techniques.

  20. Adding a lens Improves spinning speed characterization.

    PubMed

    Mihaliuk, Eugene; Gullion, Terry

    2015-11-01

    Highly stable sample rotation is important in many solid-state NMR experiments. Whether the necessary stability is achieved is not always clear. Typically only an average frequency over some time interval (often relatively long and unknown) is available from the spinning speed controller readout, which is not representative of the short-term variations of instantaneous rotation frequency. The necessity of the relatively slow measurement of spinning speed is a consequence of phase noise in the tachometer, which prevents speed measurement to be both rapid and precise at the same time. We show that adding a lens to the tachometer, without any other changes in the probe, reduces phase noise by nearly an order of magnitude and allows improved measurement of the spinning speed.

  1. Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, L.; McFarlane, S.; Sivaraman, C.

    2014-06-01

    The ndrop_mfrsr value-added product (VAP) provides an estimate of the cloud droplet number concentration of overcast water clouds retrieved from cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) instrument and liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the microwave radiometer (MWR). When cloud layer information is available from vertically pointing lidar and radars in the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product, the VAP also provides estimates of the adiabatic LWP and an adiabatic parameter (beta) that indicates how divergent the LWP is from the adiabatic case. quality control (QC) flags (qc_drop_number_conc), an uncertainty estimate (drop_number_conc_toterr), and a cloud layer type flag (cloud_base_type) are useful indicators of the quality and accuracy of any given value of the retrieval. Examples of these major input and output variables are given in sample plots in section 6.0.

  2. Spin Filtering Studies at COSY and AD

    SciTech Connect

    Nass, Alexander

    2009-08-04

    The high physics potential of experiments with stored high-energy polarized antiprotons led to the proposal of PAX (Polarized Antiproton eXperiment) for the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the FAIR at GSI (Darmstadt/Germany). It is proposed to polarize a stored antiproton beam by means of spin filtering with a polarized H (D) gas target. The feasibility of spin filtering has been demonstrated in the FILTEX experiment. The current interpretation foresees a self-cancellation of the electron contribution to the filtering process and only the hadronic contribution is effective. Several experimental studies with protons (at COSY/Juelich) as well as antiprotons (at AD/CERN) will be carried out to test the principle and measure p-barp-vector and p-bard-vector cross sections. A polarized internal gas target (PIT) with surrounding Silicon detectors immersed into a low-beta section has to be set up.

  3. Design of the new couplers for C-ADS RFQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ai-Min; Sun, Lie-Peng; Zhang, Zhou-Li; Xu, Xian-Bo; Shi, Long-Bo; Li, Chen-Xing; Wang, Wen-Bin

    2015-04-01

    A new special coupler with a kind of bowl-shaped ceramic window for a proton linear accelerator named the Chinese Accelerator Driven System (C-ADS) at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) has been simulated and constructed and a continuous wave (CW) beam commissioning through a four-meter long radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) was completed by the end of July 2014. In the experiments of conditioning and beam, some problems were promoted gradually such as sparking and thermal issues. Finally, two new couplers were passed with almost 110 kW CW power and 120 kW pulsed mode, respectively. The 10 mA intensity beam experiments have now been completed, and the couplers during the operation had no thermal or electro-magnetic problems. The detailed design and results are presented in the paper. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA03020500)

  4. Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.

  5. Conserved charges for black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics in AdS space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mišković, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.

  6. Precision calculation of 1/4-BPS Wilson loops in AdS5×S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forini, V.; Puletti, V. Giangreco M.; Griguolo, L.; Seminara, D.; Vescovi, E.

    2016-02-01

    We study the strong coupling behaviour of 1/4-BPS circular Wilson loops (a family of "latitudes") in {N}=4 Super Yang-Mills theory, computing the one-loop corrections to the relevant classical string solutions in AdS5 ×S5. Supersymmetric localization provides an exact result that, in the large 't Hooft coupling limit, should be reproduced by the sigma-model approach. To avoid ambiguities due to the absolute normalization of the string partition function, we compare the ratio between the generic latitude and the maximal 1/2-BPS circle: any measure-related ambiguity should simply cancel in this way. We use the Gel'fand-Yaglom method with Dirichlet boundary conditions to calculate the relevant functional determinants, that present some complications with respect to the standard circular case. After a careful numerical evaluation of our final expression we still find disagreement with the localization answer: the difference is encoded into a precise "remainder function". We comment on the possible origin and resolution of this discordance.

  7. Zero added oxygen for high quality sputtered ITO. A data science investigation of reduced Sn-content and added Zr

    DOE PAGES

    Peshek, Timothy J.; Burst, James M.; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.

    2016-01-19

    Here, we demonstrate mobilities of >45 cm2/V s for sputtered tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films at zero added oxygen. All films were deposited with 5 wt. % SnO2, instead of the more conventional 8–10 wt. %, and had varying ZrO2 content from 0 to 3 wt. %, with a subsequent reduction in In2O3 content. Moreover, these films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from nominally stoichiometric targets with varying oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient. Anomalous behavior was discovered for films with no Zr-added, where a bimodality of high and low mobilities was discovered for nominally similar growth conditions.more » However, all films showed the lowest resistivity and highest mobilities when the oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient was zero. This result is contrasted with several other reports of ITO transport performance having a maximum for small but nonzero oxygen partial pressure. Our result is attributed to the reduced concentration of SnO2. The addition of ZrO2 yielded the highest mobilities at >55 cm2/V s and the films showed a modest increase in optical transmission with increasing Zr-content.« less

  8. Conserved charges for black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-01-15

    Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.

  9. The Effect of Variety and Growing Conditions on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat for Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ball, M. E. E.; Owens, B.; McCracken, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG), in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05) affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F) wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F) wheats. An increase (p<0.1) of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the low seed

  10. Effect of chronic undernutrition on body mass and mechanical bone quality under normoxic and altitude hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lezon, Christian; Bozzini, Clarisa; Agûero Romero, Alan; Pinto, Patricia; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Boyer, Patricia; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2016-05-01

    Both undernutrition and hypoxia exert a negative influence on both growth pattern and bone mechanical properties in developing rats. The present study explored the effects of chronic food restriction on both variables in growing rats exposed to simulated high-altitude hypoxia. Male rats (n 80) aged 28 d were divided into normoxic (Nx) and hypoxic (Hx) groups. Hx rats were exposed to hypobaric air (380 mmHg) in decompression chambers. At T0, Nx and Hx rats were subdivided into four equal subgroups: normoxic control and hypoxic controls, and normoxic growth-restricted and hypoxic growth-restricted received 80 % of the amount of food consumed freely by their respective controls for a 4-week period. Half of these animals were studied at the end of this period (T4). The remaining rats in each group continued under the same environmental conditions, but food was offered ad libitum to explore the type of catch-up growth during 8 weeks. Structural bone properties (strength and stiffness) were evaluated in the right femur midshaft by the mechanical three-point bending test; geometric properties (length, cross-sectional area, cortical mass, bending cross-sectional moment of inertia) and intrinsic properties of the bone tissue (elastic modulus) were measured or derived from appropriate equations. Bone mineralisation was assessed by ash measurement of the left femur. These data indicate that the growth-retarded effects of diminished food intake, induced either by food restriction or hypoxia-related inhibition of appetite, generated the formation of corresponding smaller bones in which subnormal structural and geometric properties were observed. However, they seemed to be appropriate to the body mass of the animals and suggest, therefore, that the bones were not osteopenic. When food restriction was imposed in Hx rats, the combined effects of both variables were additive, inducing a further reduction of bone mass and bone load-carrying capacity. In all cases, the mechanical

  11. Baldcypress tree ring elemental concentrations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee from AD 1795 to AD 1820

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdale, R.; Hall, G.

    1995-11-01

    Many two hundred year old baldcypress trees in Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, lived through the great New Madrid earthquakes of 1811--1812. This study was undertaken to determine if the elemental composition of baldcypress tree rings showed any systematic variation through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820. Multiple cores were collected from two Reelfoot Lake baldcypress trees and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Individual yearly rings and five-year ring segments were analyzed to determine their elemental compositions. The cores were analyzed for Li through U but only Ba, Ce, Cs, Cu, I, La, Mg, Mn, Nd, Rb, Sm, Sr, and Zn were found to be in appropriate concentrations for this study. Of these elements only Ce, I, La, Nd, Rb, and Sm showed any systematic changes within individual cores. Comparison of three cores taken from one tree reveal that tree-ring elemental concentrations and changes in tree-ring elemental concentration through time are very different among the cores. When comparing the elemental concentrations of tree rings for the same years in the two different trees neither elemental concentrations nor changes in elemental concentration through time were similar. We conclude that the elemental concentrations in the tree rings of the two baldcypress trees analyzed in this study show no systematic change through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820.

  12. Exact results for the low energy AdS 4 × 3 string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Fioravanti, Davide; Piscaglia, Simone; Tateo, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    We derive the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations for the relativistic sigma model describing the AdS 4 × 3 string II A theory at strong coupling (i.e. in the Alday-Maldacena decoupling limit). The corresponding Y -system involves an infinite number of Y functions and is of a new type, although it shares a peculiar feature with the Y -system for AdS 4 × 3. A truncation of the equations at level p and a further generalisation to generic rank N allow us an alternative description of the theory as the N =4, p = ∞ representative in an infinite family of models corresponding to the conformal cosets ( N -1) p × U(1), perturbed by a relevant composite field ϕ ( N,p) = ϕ[( N -1) p ] × ϕ [U(1)] that couples the two independent conformal field theories. The calculation of the ultraviolet central charge confirms the conjecture by Basso and Rej and the conformal dimension of the perturbing operator, at every N and p, is obtained using the Y-system periodicity. The conformal dimension of ϕ[( N -1) p ] matches that of the field identified by Fendley while discussing integrability issues for the purely bosonic N -1 sigma model.

  13. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  14. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2014-01-14

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  15. Quartic AdS interactions in higher-spin gravity from Conformal Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekaert, X.; Erdmenger, J.; Ponomarev, D.; Sleight, C.

    2015-11-01

    Clarifying the locality properties of higher-spin gravity is a pressing task, but notoriously difficult due to the absence of a weakly-coupled flat regime. The simplest non-trivial case where this question can be addressed is the quartic self-interaction of the AdS scalar field present in the higher-spin multiplet. We investigate this issue in the context of the holographic duality between the minimal bosonic higher-spin theory on AdS4 and the free O( N) vector model in three dimensions. In particular, we determine the exact explicit form of the derivative expansion of the bulk scalar quartic vertex. The quartic vertex is obtained from the field theory four-point function of the operator dual to the bulk scalar, by making use of our previous results for the Witten diagrams of higher-spin exchanges. This is facilitated by establishing the conformal block expansions of both the boundary four-point function and the dual bulk Witten diagram amplitudes. We show that the vertex we find satisfies a generalised notion of locality.

  16. Null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS4 from perturbed W minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji

    2013-02-01

    We study the null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS4, which correspond to the gluon scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in {N} = 4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The area of the minimal surfaces with n cusps is characterized by the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) integral equations or the Y-system of the homogeneous sine-Gordon model, which is regarded as the SU( n - 4)4 /U(1) n-5 generalized parafermion theory perturbed by the weight-zero adjoint operators. Based on the relation to the TBA systems of the perturbed W minimal models, we solve the TBA equations by using the conformal perturbation theory, and obtain the analytic expansion of the remainder function around the UV/regular-polygonal limit for n = 6 and 7. We compare the rescaled remainder function for n = 6 with the two-loop one, to observe that they are close to each other similarly to the AdS3 case.

  17. Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one characterised by a pair of poles colliding and moving away from the imaginary frequency axis with increasing deformation. In the limit of infinite deformation all scalar operators have identical quasinormal spectra. We compare and contrast our strongly coupled de Sitter QFT results with strongly coupled thermal correlators from AdS black holes.

  18. Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on Ad{{S}_{3}} × {{S}^{3}} × {{M}^{4}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro; Wolf, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert-de Leeuw construction.

  19. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (P<0.001) than LU steers. Thus, adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the level of dietary lipid through the use of cold-pressed RSC, did not adversely affect health or performance of finishing beef steers when used within the diets studied. PMID:26627142

  20. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  1. Enhanced prostate cancer gene transfer and therapy using a novel serotype chimera cancer terminator virus (Ad.5/3-CTV).

    PubMed

    Azab, Belal M; Dash, Rupesh; Das, Swadesh K; Bhutia, Sujit K; Sarkar, Siddik; Shen, Xue-Ning; Quinn, Bridget A; Dent, Paul; Dmitriev, Igor P; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Curiel, David T; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Reed, John C; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Few options are available for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC). As PC is a slow growing disease and accessible by ultrasound, gene therapy could provide a viable option for this neoplasm. Conditionally replication-competent adenoviruses (CRCAs) represent potentially useful reagents for treating PC. We previously constructed a CRCA, cancer terminator virus (CTV), which showed efficacy both in vitro and in vivo for PC. The CTV was generated on a serotype 5-background (Ad.5-CTV) with infectivity depending on Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptors (CARs). CARs are frequently reduced in many tumor types, including PCs thereby limiting effective Ad-mediated therapy. Using serotype chimerism, a novel CTV (Ad.5/3-CTV) was created by replacing the Ad.5 fiber knob with the Ad.3 fiber knob thereby facilitating infection in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated Ad.5/3-CTV in comparison with Ad.5-CTV in low CAR human PC cells, demonstrating higher efficiency in inhibiting cell viability in vitro. Moreover, Ad.5/3-CTV potently suppressed in vivo tumor growth in a nude mouse xenograft model and in a spontaneously induced PC that develops in Hi-myc transgenic mice. Considering the significant responses in a Phase I clinical trial of a non-replicating Ad.5-mda-7 in advanced cancers, Ad.5/3-CTV may exert improved therapeutic benefit in a clinical setting.

  2. Enhanced Prostate Cancer Gene Transfer and Therapy Using a Novel Serotype Chimera Cancer Terminator Virus (Ad.5/3-CTV)

    PubMed Central

    AZAB, BELAL M.; DASH, RUPESH; DAS, SWADESH K.; BHUTIA, SUJIT K.; SARKAR, SIDDIK; SHEN, XUE-NING; QUINN, BRIDGET A.; DENT, PAUL; DMITRIEV, IGOR P.; WANG, XIANG-YANG; CURIEL, DAVID T.; PELLECCHIA, MAURIZIO; REED, JOHN C.; SARKAR, DEVANAND; FISHER, PAUL B.

    2015-01-01

    Few options are available for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC). As PC is a slow growing disease and accessible by ultrasound, gene therapy could provide a viable option for this neoplasm. Conditionally replication-competent adenoviruses (CRCAs) represent potentially useful reagents for treating PC. We previously constructed a CRCA, cancer terminator virus (CTV), which showed efficacy both in vitro and in vivo for PC. The CTV was generated on a serotype 5-background (Ad.5-CTV) with infectivity depending on Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptors (CARs). CARs are frequently reduced in many tumor types, including PCs thereby limiting effective Ad-mediated therapy. Using serotype chimerism, a novel CTV (Ad.5/3-CTV) was created by replacing the Ad.5 fiber knob with the Ad.3 fiber knob thereby facilitating infection in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated Ad.5/3-CTV in comparison with Ad.5-CTV in low CAR human PC cells, demonstrating higher efficiency in inhibiting cell viability in vitro. Moreover, Ad.5/3-CTV potently suppressed in vivo tumor growth in a nude mouse xenograft model and in a spontaneously induced PC that develops in Hi-myc transgenic mice. Considering the significant responses in a Phase I clinical trial of a non-replicating Ad.5-mda-7 in advanced cancers, Ad.5/3-CTV may exert improved therapeutic benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:23868767

  3. Enhanced prostate cancer gene transfer and therapy using a novel serotype chimera cancer terminator virus (Ad.5/3-CTV).

    PubMed

    Azab, Belal M; Dash, Rupesh; Das, Swadesh K; Bhutia, Sujit K; Sarkar, Siddik; Shen, Xue-Ning; Quinn, Bridget A; Dent, Paul; Dmitriev, Igor P; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Curiel, David T; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Reed, John C; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Few options are available for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC). As PC is a slow growing disease and accessible by ultrasound, gene therapy could provide a viable option for this neoplasm. Conditionally replication-competent adenoviruses (CRCAs) represent potentially useful reagents for treating PC. We previously constructed a CRCA, cancer terminator virus (CTV), which showed efficacy both in vitro and in vivo for PC. The CTV was generated on a serotype 5-background (Ad.5-CTV) with infectivity depending on Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptors (CARs). CARs are frequently reduced in many tumor types, including PCs thereby limiting effective Ad-mediated therapy. Using serotype chimerism, a novel CTV (Ad.5/3-CTV) was created by replacing the Ad.5 fiber knob with the Ad.3 fiber knob thereby facilitating infection in a CAR-independent manner. We evaluated Ad.5/3-CTV in comparison with Ad.5-CTV in low CAR human PC cells, demonstrating higher efficiency in inhibiting cell viability in vitro. Moreover, Ad.5/3-CTV potently suppressed in vivo tumor growth in a nude mouse xenograft model and in a spontaneously induced PC that develops in Hi-myc transgenic mice. Considering the significant responses in a Phase I clinical trial of a non-replicating Ad.5-mda-7 in advanced cancers, Ad.5/3-CTV may exert improved therapeutic benefit in a clinical setting. PMID:23868767

  4. Multi-decadal variation in southern California drought during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age (~800AD-~1800AD) - evidence from coeval terrestrial and marine proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, L. E.; Hendy, I. L.; Barron, J. A.; Pak, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution studies of precipitation proxies (pollen from coastal, drought-resistant chaparral and upslope mesic oak-pine woodlands, and bulk sediment Ti%) from sediments deposited in Santa Barbara Basin (SPR0901-02kc; 34°16.845N, 120°02.332W, water depth 588 m) reflect decadal-scale fluctuations in persistent severe drought spanning from ~800 to 1270AD. Pollen from chamise and manzanita chaparrals (sclerophyllous woody shrubs dominated by Adenostoma and Arctostaphylos) begins to decline at ~1265AD, while oak-pine woodlands begin to increase at ~1211AD reaching a maximum between ~1500-~1600AD. Termination of the last major drought in our record coincides with that of major drought events elsewhere in the West (Stine, 1994; Cook et al, 2004), and marks the beginning of gradual, fluctuating increases in precipitation and in coastal southern California mesic, oak-dominated communities. Offshore, diatom, oxygen isotopes, and planktonic foraminifera data imply cold spring and warm winter sea surface temperatures during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) that reverse in the Little Ice Age (LIA). These major climate-driven changes in southern California and Santa Barbara Basin are consistent with changes in northern hemisphere circulation, i.e., weakened Arctic Lows, strengthened North Pacific Highs and extended La Niña-like conditions during the MCA and strengthened Aleutian Lows, weakened and westward North Pacific Highs and extended El Niño-like atmospheric conditions during the LIA.

  5. Preferential infection of human Ad5-specific CD4 T cells by HIV in Ad5 naturally exposed and recombinant Ad5-HIV vaccinated individuals.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haitao; Eller, Michael A; Zafar, Shah; Zhou, Yu; Gu, Mengnan; Wei, Zhi; Currier, Jeffrey R; Marovich, Mary A; Kibuuka, Hannah N; Bailer, Robert T; Koup, Richard A; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Ratto-Kim, Silvia

    2014-09-16

    Efficacy trials of adenovirus 5-vectored candidate HIV vaccines [recombinant Ad5 (rAd5)-HIV] were halted for futility due to lack of vaccine efficacy and unexpected excess HIV infections in the vaccine recipients. The potential immunologic basis for these observations is unclear. We comparatively evaluated the HIV susceptibility and phenotypes of human CD4 T cells specific to Ad5 and CMV, two viruses that have been used as HIV vaccine vectors. We show that Ad5-specific CD4 T cells, either induced by natural Ad5 exposure or expanded by rAd5 vaccination, are highly susceptible to HIV in vitro and are preferentially lost in HIV-infected individuals compared with CMV-specific CD4 T cells. Further investigation demonstrated that Ad5-specific CD4 T cells selectively display a proinflammatory Th17-like phenotype and express macrophage inflammatory protein 3α and α4β7 integrin, suggestive of gut mucosa homing potential of these cells. Analysis of HIV p24 and cytokine coexpression using flow cytometry revealed preferential infection of IL-17- and IL-2-producing, Ad5-specific CD4 T cells by HIV in vitro. Our data suggest a potential mechanism explaining the excess HIV infections in vaccine recipients after rAd5-HIV vaccination and highlight the importance of testing the HIV susceptibility of vaccine-generated, vector and insert-specific CD4 T cells in future HIV vaccine studies. PMID:25197078

  6. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  7. Reactive Polyphenols: Adding a Function to DOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, B. A.; Lajtha, K.; Frentress, J.; Crow, S. E.

    2006-12-01

    Both the quantity and the quality of DOM changes dramatically as it moves in solution from plant detritus through the terrestrial landscape to rivers. In very N-limited ecosystems, ecosystem theory would suggest that DON would be efficiently retained, and yet DON export can be substantial and may comprise over 90 percent of total N export in many highly limited upland forested ecosystems. We are exploring the hypothesis that DOM contains reactive polyphenols that can bind significant amounts of otherwise highly labile proteinaceous matter and thus play a large role both in N export and the chemistry of DOM delivered to rivers. While polyphenols have been measured across a wide range of aqueous environments, results are usually limited to an estimate of total phenolics, commonly using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. We modified this general assay by adding a step where protein-complexing polyphenols are removed from a subsample by shaking with an insoluble protein. Measuring DOM polyphenols with and without the protein-binding step gives estimates of total phenolics and non-protein reactive phenolics. Protein-binding polyphenols are then calculated by difference. Preliminary measurements with soil lysimeter solutions, soil extracts and stream water collected from watersheds in western Oregon show that over 75 percent of the total polyphenols can bind to protein. Determining the protein-binding function of DOM under different climates, soil and vegetation can provide useful insight into the role of DOM into the N cycle and terrestrial-aquatic linkages.

  8. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars.

  9. Keratinolytic proteinase from Bacillus thuringiensis AD-12.

    PubMed

    Gegeckas, Audrius; Gudiukaitė, Renata; Citavicius, Donaldas

    2014-08-01

    A new isolated strain noted to produce a novel detergent-stable serine keratinolytic proteinase and identified as Bacillus thuringiensis AD-12. Native keratinolytic proteinase from B. thuringiensis (BtKER) was purified and characterized. The purified BtKER enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 39kDa. Biochemical characterization assays revealed that the BtKER attained optimal activity at pH 7 and 30°C. Residual activity after 1h incubation at 50°C was higher than 80%. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by Mn(2+) and Li(+) metal ions but inactivated by organic solvents. Purified BtKER showed the highest substrate specificity toward keratin from wool>sodium caseinate>collagen>BSA>gelatin in descending order. BtKER is the first reported keratinolytic proteinase from B. thuringiensis and obtained results suggested that new characterized enzyme can be a powerful biocatalyst in peptide production associated to hydrolysis of keratinous and/or keratin-like waste.

  10. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. PMID:25713277

  11. Adding a Vocabulary Component to Incremental Rehearsal to Enhance Retention and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the effect of adding a semantic component, in the form of vocabulary, to the incremental rehearsal (IR) procedure. Sixty-one second- and third-grade students in a suburban elementary school were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: IR or IR with vocabulary. Each participant was taught seven previously unknown…

  12. Value-Added Methods & Their Application to Teachers and District Decisions about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation project in applied research uses value added models to estimate learning effects in classrooms in one district under two conditions, schools piloting a reorganization and schools not yet under reorganization. The project addresses one of the current impasses in deciding how to take advantage of the variance among teachers…

  13. Determining Positions and Desired Applicant Characteristics in Sports Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atali, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the diversity of positions occurring in sports job ads and reveal the characteristics requested from applicants for each position. This study examined 103 sports-related job ads obtained from four human resources websites. Using content analysis, job ads were examined in terms of job titles, and the…

  14. John Randolph of Roanoke and the "Argumentum Ad Hominem."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes John Randolph's use of "ad hominem" arguments, in an excerpt from the Yazoo Claims debate in 1805, in light of Douglas Walton's research into the "ad hominem." Claims the arguments employed by Randolph confirm Walton's contention that the "ad hominem" is not inherently fallacious, but is a defensible form of argument. (NH)

  15. 76 FR 71430 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... forum for the U.S. and international aviation community to define a strategy for incorporating ADS-B In... the ADS-B In Aviation Rulemaking Committee, Recommendations to Define a Strategy for Incorporating ADS... request to provide a forum for the U.S. and international aviation community to provide recommendations...

  16. Evaluating Teachers: The Important Role of Value-Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Loeb, Susanna; Goldhaber, Dan; Staiger, Douglas; Raudenbush, Stephen; Whitehurst, Grover

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of teachers based on the contribution they make to the learning of their students, "value-added", is an increasingly popular but controversial education reform policy. In this report, the authors highlight and try to clarify four areas of confusion about value-added. The first is between value-added information and the…

  17. ADDING THE THIRD DIMENSION TO LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape indicator statistical models for water quality in streams are commonly developed using land use/land cover and elevation data. However, surficial soils and geologic conditions have many roles in controlling the occurrence and movement of chemicals into shallow ground wa...

  18. Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using β-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (β-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

  19. Effects of adding nitroprusside on arsenic stressed response of Pistia stratiotes L. under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Farnese, Fernanda S; Oliveira, Juraci A; Gusman, Grasielle S; Leão, Gabriela A; Silveira, Neidiquele M; Silva, Paulo M; Ribeiro, Cléberson; Cambraia, José

    2014-01-01

    Effect of nitric oxide (NO) in mitigating stress induced by arsenic (As) was assessed in Pistia stratiotes, with NO supplied as sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Plants were exposed to four treatments: control, SNP (0.1 mg L(-1)), As (1.5 mg L(-1)), As + SNP (1.5 and 0.1 mg L(-1)), for seven days (analyses of growth, absorption of As and mineral nutrients) and for 24 h (analyses of concentration of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), antioxidant capacity and photosynthesis). P. stratiotes accumulated high concentrations of As and this accumulation wasn't affected by the addition of SNP, but the tolerance index of the plant to As increased. SNP attenuated effects of As on the absorption of mineral nutrients (Ca, Fe, Mn, and Mg), but not for phosphorus, and maintained concentrations of ROIs to normal levels, probably due to the increase in antioxidant capacity. The As damaged the photosynthesis by the decrease in pigment contents and by disturbance the photochemical (loss of PSII efficiency and increases in non-photochemical quenching coefficient) and biochemical (reductions in carbon assimilation, increase in the C(i)/C(a) and phi(PSII)/phi(CO2) ratios) steps. The addition of SNP restored these parameters to normal levels. Thus, NO was able to increasing the resistance of P. stratiotes to As.

  20. Moving from the laboratory to the field: Adding natural environmental conditions to toxicology testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been criticized for being unrealistic. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive. To ...

  1. On integrability of D0-brane equations on AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3 superbackground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2014-03-01

    Equations of motion for the D0-brane on AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3 superbackground are shown to be classically integrable by extending the argument previously elaborated for the massless superparticle model.

  2. Gravitational collapse in the AdS background and the black hole formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyari, Alireza; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza

    2016-10-01

    We study the time evolution of the Misner-Sharp mass and the apparent horizon for gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in the AdS5 spacetime for both cases of narrow and broad waves by numerically solving the Einstein’s equations coupled to a massless scalar field. This is done by relying on the full dynamics of the collapse including the concept of the dynamical horizon. It turns out that the Misner-Sharp mass is everywhere constant except for a rapid change across a thin shell defined by the density profile of the collapsing wave. By studying the evolution of the apparent horizon, indicating the formation of a black hole at different times we see how asymptotically an event horizon forms. The dependence of the thermalization time on the radius of the initial black hole event horizon is also studied.

  3. Localized AdS5×S5 Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson

    2016-10-01

    According to heuristic arguments, global AdS5×S5 black holes are expected to undergo a phase transition in the microcanonical ensemble. At high energies, one expects black holes that respect the symmetries of the S5; at low energies, one expects "localized" black holes that appear pointlike on the S5. According to anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on a 3-sphere should therefore exhibit spontaneous R -symmetry breaking at strong coupling. In this Letter, we numerically construct these localized black holes. We extrapolate the location of this phase transition, and compute the expectation value of the broken scalar operator with lowest conformal dimension. Via the correspondence, these results offer quantitative predictions for N =4 SYM theory.

  4. All-loop Bethe ansatz equations for AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Sfondrini, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Using the S-matrix for the {d}{{( {2, 1; α } )}^2} symmetric spin-chain of AdS3/CFT2, we propose a new set of all-loop Bethe equations for the system. These equations differ from the ones previously found in the literature by the choice of relative grading between the two copies of the {d}( {2, 1; α } ) superalgebra, and involve four undetermined scalar factors that play the role of dressing phases. Imposing crossing symmetry and comparing with the near-BMN form of the S-matrix found in the literature, we find several novel features. In particular, the scalar factors must differ from the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher phase, and should couple nodes of different masses to each other. In the semiclassical limit the phases are given by a suitable generalization of Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase.

  5. Holographic fermionic spectrum from Born-Infeld AdS black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we systematically explore the holographic (non-)relativistic fermionic spectrum without/with dipole coupling dual to Born-Infeld anti-de Sitter (BI-AdS) black hole. For the relativistic fermionic fixed point, this holographic fermionic system exhibits non-Fermi liquid behavior. Also, with the increase of BI parameter γ, the non-Fermi liquid becomes even "more non-Fermi". When the dipole coupling term is included, we find that the BI term makes it a lot tougher to form the gap. While for the non-relativistic fermionic system with large dipole coupling in BI-AdS background, with the increase of BI parameter, the gap comes into being again.

  6. Charge loss (or the lack thereof) for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of evaporating charged black holes is complicated to model in general, but is nevertheless important since the hints to the Information Loss Paradox and its recent firewall incarnation may lie in understanding more generic geometries than that of Schwarzschild spacetime. Fortunately, for sufficiently large asymptotically flat Reissner-Nordström black holes, the evaporation process can be modeled via a system of coupled linear ordinary differential equations, with charge loss rate governed by Schwinger pair-production process. The same model can be generalized to study the evaporation of AdS Reissner-Nordström black holes with flat horizon. It was recently found that such black holes always evolve towards extremality since charge loss is inefficient. This property is completely opposite to the asymptotically flat case in which the black hole eventually loses its charges and tends towards Schwarzschild limit. We clarify the underlying reason for this different behavior.

  7. Holographic antiferromagnetic quantum criticality and AdS2 scaling limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Run-Qiu; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2015-08-01

    A holographic description on the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by the magnetic field and the criticality in the vicinity of the quantum critical point have been investigated numerically recently. In this paper, we show that the properties of QPT in this holographic model are governed by a CFT dual to the emergent AdS2 in the IR region, which confirms that the dual boundary theory is a strong coupling theory with dynamic exponent z =2 and logarithmic corrections appearing. We also compare them with the results from the Hertz model by solving the RG equation at its upper critical dimension and with some experimental data from pyrochlores Er2 -2 xY2 xTi2 O7 and BiCoPO5 .

  8. Dyonic AdS 4 black hole entropy and attractors via entropy function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, Prieslei

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sen's entropy function formalism, we compute the entropy for the extremal dyonic black hole solutions of theories in the presence of dilaton field coupled to the field strength and a dilaton potential. We solve the attractor equations analytically and determine the near horizon metric, the value of the scalar fields and the electric field on the horizon, and consequently the entropy of these black holes. The attractor mechanism plays a very important role for these systems, and after studying the simplest systems involving dilaton fields, we propose a general solution for the value of the scalar field on the horizon, which allows us to solve the attractor equations for gauged supergravity theories in AdS 4 spaces. In particular, we derive an expression for the dyonic black hole entropy for the {N}=8 gauged supergravity in 4 dimensions which does not contain explicitly the gauge parameter of the potential.

  9. Massless sector of AdS3 superstrings: A geometric interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanella, Andrea; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    We study the recently discovered q -deformed Poincaré supersymmetry of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable massless scattering, and demonstrate how the S -matrix is invariant under boosts. The boost generator has a nonlocal coproduct, which acts on the scattering matrix as a differential operator, annihilating it. We propose to reinterpret the boost action in terms of covariant derivatives on bundles, and derive an expression for the S -matrix as the path-ordered exponential of a flat connection. We provide a list of possible alternative interpretations of this emergent geometric picture, including a one-dimensional auxiliary Schrödinger problem. We support our claims by performing a simplified algebraic Bethe ansatz, which bears some resemblance to antiferromagnets.

  10. Minimal surfaces in q-deformed AdS5xS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We study minimal surfaces in q-deformed AdS5×S5. For this purpose, it is convenient to introduce a coordinate system which describes the spacetime only inside the singularity surface and treat the singularity surface as the holographic screen. In particular, we consider minimal surfaces whose boundary shapes are 1) a straight line and 2) a circle. In the q → 1 limit, the solutions correspond to a 1/2 BPS straight line Wilson loop and a 1/2 BPS circular one, respectively. A remarkable point is that the classical Euclidean actions have no linear divergence unlike the original ones. This finiteness indicates that the q-deformation may be regarded as a UV regularization.

  11. Holographic cusped Wilson loops in q-deformed AdS5 × S5 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Hui-Huang; Wu, Jun-Bao

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a minimal surface in q-deformed AdS5×S5 with a cusp boundary is studied in detail. This minimal surface is dual to a cusped Wilson loop in dual field theory. We find that the area of the minimal surface has both logarithmic squared divergence and logarithmic divergence. The logarithmic squared divergence cannot be removed by either Legendre transformation or the usual geometric subtraction. We further make an analytic continuation to the Minkowski signature, taking the limit such that the two edges of the cusp become light-like, and extract the anomalous dimension from the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence. This anomalous dimension goes back smoothly to the results in the undeformed case when we take the limit that the deformation parameter goes to zero. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105154, 11222549, 11275207), K. C. Wong Education Foundation and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS

  12. Dyonic AdS 4 black hole entropy and attractors via entropy function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, Prieslei

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sen's entropy function formalism, we compute the entropy for the extremal dyonic black hole solutions of theories in the presence of dilaton field coupled to the field strength and a dilaton potential. We solve the attractor equations analytically and determine the near horizon metric, the value of the scalar fields and the electric field on the horizon, and consequently the entropy of these black holes. The attractor mechanism plays a very important role for these systems, and after studying the simplest systems involving dilaton fields, we propose a general solution for the value of the scalar field on the horizon, which allows us to solve the attractor equations for gauged supergravity theories in AdS 4 spaces. In particular, we derive an expression for the dyonic black hole entropy for the N=8 gauged supergravity in 4 dimensions which does not contain explicitly the gauge parameter of the potential.

  13. Thermodynamic volumes for AdS-Taub-NUT and AdS-Taub-Bolt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2014-12-01

    In theories of semi-classical quantum gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, the gravitational mass of a black hole has been shown to correspond to the enthalpy of the thermodynamic system, rather than the energy. We propose that this should be extended to all spacetime solutions, and consider the meaning of this extension of gravitational thermodynamics for the Taub-NUT and Taub-Bolt geometries in four dimensional locally anti-de Sitter spacetime. We present formulae for their thermodynamic volumes. Surprisingly, Taub-NUT has negative volume, for which there is a natural dynamical explanation in terms of the process of formation of the spacetime. A special case corresponds to pure AdS4 with an S3 slicing. The same dynamical setting can explain the negative entropy known to exist for these solutions for a range of parameters.

  14. Stability of Schwarzschild-AdS for the Spherically Symmetric Einstein-Klein-Gordon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzegel, Gustav; Smulevici, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the global behavior of solutions to the spherically symmetric coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon (EKG) system in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. For the Klein-Gordon mass-squared satisfying a ≥ -1 (the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound being a > -9/8), we prove that the Schwarzschild-AdS spacetimes are asymptotically stable: Small perturbations of Schwarzschild-AdS initial data again lead to regular black holes, with the metric on the black hole exterior approaching, at an exponential rate, a Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime. The main difficulties in the proof arise from the lack of monotonicity for the Hawking mass and the asymptotically AdS boundary conditions, which render even (part of) the orbital stability intricate. These issues are resolved in a bootstrap argument on the black hole exterior, with the redshift effect and weighted Hardy inequalities playing the fundamental role in the analysis. Both integrated decay and pointwise decay estimates are obtained. As a corollary of our estimates on the Klein-Gordon field, one obtains in particular exponential decay in time of spherically-symmetric solutions to the linear Klein-Gordon equation on Schwarzschild-AdS.

  15. Holographic phase transition from dyons in an AdS black hole background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. R.; Moreno, E. F.; Schaposnik, F. A.

    2010-03-01

    We construct a dyon solution for a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory in a 4 dimensional Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black hole background with temperature T. We then apply the AdS/CFT correspondence to describe the strong coupling regime of a 2 + 1 quantum field theory which undergoes a phase transition exhibiting the condensation of a composite charge operator below a critical temperature T c .

  16. Addison's disease masking a potentially life-threatening condition

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Marte, Geurys; Chadha, Sameer; Konka, Sarita; John, Jinu; Malik, Bilal; Hollander, Gerald; Shani, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Addison's disease (AD) is a metabolic disorder that affects the metabolism of potassium. The hyperkalemia that results from this condition can be reflected in the electrocardiogram, which could confound the diagnosis of other cardiac conditions. Such a challenging situation was encountered when a 73-year-old male with history of AD presented to the emergency department with chest pain. PMID:25988007

  17. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  18. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  19. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  20. Three dimensional nonlinear magnetic AdS solutions through topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Momennia, M.; Panahiyan, S.

    2015-09-01

    Inspired by large applications of topological defects in describing different phenomena in physics, and considering the importance of three dimensional solutions in AdS/CFT correspondence, in this paper we obtain magnetic anti-de Sitter solutions of nonlinear electromagnetic fields. We take into account three classes of nonlinear electrodynamic models; first two classes are the well-known Born-Infeld like models including logarithmic and exponential forms and third class is known as the power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics. We investigate the effects of these nonlinear sources on three dimensional magnetic solutions. We show that these asymptotical AdS solutions do not have any curvature singularity and horizon. We also generalize the static metric to the case of rotating solutions and find that the value of the electric charge depends on the rotation parameter. Finally, we consider the quadratic Maxwell invariant as a correction of Maxwell theory and we investigate the effects of nonlinearity as a correction. We study the behavior of the deficit angle in presence of these theories of nonlinearity and compare them with each other. We also show that some cases with negative deficit angle exists which are representing objects with different geometrical structure. We also show that in case of the static only magnetic field exists whereas by boosting the metric to rotating one, electric field appears too.

  1. Superradiant instability of five-dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, Alikram N.; Delice, Oezguer

    2009-01-15

    We study the instability of small AdS black holes with two independent rotation parameters in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity to massless scalar perturbations. We analytically solve the Klein-Gordon equation for low-frequency perturbations in two regions of the spacetime of these black holes: namely, in the region close to the horizon and in the far-region. By matching the solutions in an intermediate region, we calculate the frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes. We show that in the regime of superradiance only the modes of even orbital quantum number undergo negative damping, resulting in exponential growth of the amplitude. That is, the black holes become unstable to these modes. Meanwhile, the modes of odd orbital quantum number do not undergo any damping, oscillating with frequency-shifts. This is in contrast with the case of four-dimensional small Kerr-AdS black holes which exhibit the instability to all modes of scalar perturbations in the regime of superradiance.

  2. BPS preons and the AdS-M-algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandos, Igor A.; de Azcárraga, José A.

    2008-04-01

    We present here the AdS generalization of BPS preons, which were introduced as the hypothetical constituents of M-theory preserving all but one supersymmetries. Our construction, suggested by the relation of `lower dimensional preons' with higher spin theories, can be considered as a deformation of the M-algebraic description of the single supersymmetry broken by a preon, and provides another reason to identify the AdS generalization of the M-algebra, which we call the AdS-M-algebra, with osp(1|32).

  3. An ice-core based history of Siberian forest fires since AD 1250

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Anja; Tinner, Willy; Brütsch, Sabina; Olivier, Susanne; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2011-05-01

    Forest fires play a key role in the global carbon cycle and thus, can affect regional and global climate. Although fires in extended areas of Russian boreal forests have a considerable influence on atmospheric greenhouse gas and soot concentrations, estimates of their impact on climate are hampered by a lack of data on the history of forest fires. Especially regions with strong continental climate are of high importance due to an intensified development of wildfires. In this study we reconstruct the fire history of Southern Siberia during the past 750 years using ice-core based nitrate, potassium, and charcoal concentration records from Belukha glacier in the continental Siberian Altai. A period of exceptionally high forest-fire activity was observed between AD 1600 and 1680, following an extremely dry period AD 1540-1600. Ice-core pollen data suggest distinct forest diebacks and the expansion of steppe in response to dry climatic conditions. Coherence with a paleoenvironmental record from the 200 km distant Siberian lake Teletskoye shows that the vegetational shift AD 1540-1680, the increase in fire activity AD 1600-1680, and the subsequent recovery of forests AD 1700 were of regional significance. Dead biomass accumulation in response to drought and high temperatures around AD 1600 probably triggered maximum forest-fire activity AD 1600-1680. The extreme dry period in the 16th century was also observed at other sites in Central Asia and is possibly associated with a persistent positive mode of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). No significant increase in biomass burning occurred in the Altai region during the last 300 years, despite strongly increasing temperatures and human activities. Our results imply that precipitation changes controlled fire-regime and vegetation shifts in the Altai region during the past 750 years. We conclude that high sensitivity of ecosystems to occasional decadal-scale drought events may trigger unprecedented environmental

  4. Nearly Conformal QCD and AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2005-08-08

    The AdS/CFT correspondence is a powerful tool to study the properties of conformal QCD at strong coupling in terms of a higher dimensional dual gravity theory. The power-law falloff of scattering amplitudes in the non-perturbative regime and calculable hadron spectra follow from holographic models dual to QCD with conformal behavior at short distances and confinement at large distances. String modes and fluctuations about the AdS background are identified with QCD degrees of freedom and orbital excitations at the AdS boundary limit. A description of form factors in space and time-like regions and the behavior of light-front wave functions can also be understood in terms of a dual gravity description in the interior of AdS.

  5. EFFECTS OF ADMINISTRATION ROUTE, DIETARY CONDITION, AND BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL ON KINETICS AND UPTAKE OF 18F-FDG IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dietary condition and blood glucose level on the kinetics and uptake of 18F-FDG in mice were systematically investigated using intraperitoneal and tail-vein injection. Methods Dynamic PET was performed for 60 min on 23 isoflurane-anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice after intravenous (n = 11) or intraperitoneal (n = 12) injection of 18F-FDG. Five and 6 mice in the intravenous and intraperitoneal groups, respectively, were kept fasting overnight (18 ± 2 h), and the others were fed ad libitum. Serial blood samples were collected from the femoral artery to measure 18F-FDG and glucose concentrations. Image data were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with CT-based attenuation correction. The standardized uptake value (SUV) was estimated from the 45- to 60-min image. The metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlu) and 18F-FDG uptake constant (Ki) were derived by Patlak graphical analysis. Results In the brain, SUV and Ki were significantly higher in fasting mice with intraperitoneal injection, but MRGlu did not differ significantly under different dietary states and administration routes. Cerebral Ki was inversely related to elevated blood glucose levels, irrespective of administration route or dietary state. In myocardium, SUV, Ki, and MRGlu were significantly lower in fasting than in nonfasting mice for both routes of injection. Myocardial SUV and Ki were strongly dependent on the dietary state, and Ki did not correlate with the blood glucose level. Similar results were obtained for skeletal muscle, although the differences were not as pronounced. Conclusions Intraperitoneal injection is a valid alternative route, providing pharmacokinetic data equivalent to data from tail-vein injection for small-animal 18F-FDG PET. Cerebral Ki varies inversely with blood glucose level, but the measured cerebral MRGlu does not correlate with blood glucose level or dietary condition. Conversely, the Ki values of the myocardium and skeletal muscle are strongly dependent on

  6. Recombinant low-seroprevalent adenoviral vectors Ad26 and Ad35 expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein induce protective immunity against RSV infection in cotton rats.

    PubMed

    Widjojoatmodjo, Myra N; Bogaert, Lies; Meek, Bob; Zahn, Roland; Vellinga, Jort; Custers, Jerome; Serroyen, Jan; Radošević, Katarina; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2015-10-01

    RSV is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, the elderly and in those with underlying medical conditions. Although the high disease burden indicates an urgent need for a vaccine against RSV, no licensed RSV vaccine is currently available. We developed an RSV vaccine candidate based on the low-seroprevalent human adenovirus serotypes 26 and 35 (Ad26 and Ad35) encoding the RSV fusion (F) gene. Single immunization of mice with either one of these vectors induced high titers of RSV neutralizing antibodies and high levels of F specific interferon-gamma-producing T cells. A Th1-type immune response was indicated by a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio of RSV-specific antibodies, strong induction of RSV-specific interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytokine producing CD8 Tcells, and low RSV-specific CD4 T-cell induction. Both humoral and cellular responses were increased upon a boost with RSV-F expressing heterologous adenovirus vector (Ad35 boost after Ad26 prime or vice versa). Both single immunization and prime-boost immunization of cotton rats induced high and long-lasting RSV neutralizing antibody titers and protective immunity against lung and nasal RSV A2 virus load up to at least 30 weeks after immunization. Cotton rats were also completely protected against challenge with a RSV B strain (B15/97) after heterologous prime-boost immunization. Lungs from vaccinated animals showed minimal damage or inflammatory infiltrates post-challenge, in contrast to animals vaccinated with formalin-inactivated virus. Our results suggest that recombinant human adenoviral Ad26 and Ad35 vectors encoding the RSV F gene have the potential to provide broad and durable protection against RSV in humans, and appear safe to be investigated in infants.

  7. Efficacy of adding folic acid to foods.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Violeta; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-06-01

    In the past, food fortification along with nutritional education and the decrease in food costs relative to income have proven successful in eliminating common nutritional deficiencies. These deficiencies such as goiter, rickets, beriberi, and pellagra have been replaced with an entirely new set of "emergent deficiencies" that were not previously considered a problem [e.g., folate and neural tube defects (NTDs)]. In addition, the different nutrition surveys in so-called affluent countries have identified "shortfalls" of nutrients specific to various age groups and/or physiological status. Complex, multiple-etiology diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and obesity have emerged. Food fortification has proven an effective tool for tackling nutritional deficiencies in populations; but today a more reasonable approach is to use food fortification as a means to support but not replace dietary improvement strategies (i. e. nutritional education campaigns). Folic acid (FA) is a potential relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies. The evidence linking FA to NTD prevention led to the introduction of public health strategies to increase folate intakes: pharmacological supplementation, mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with FA, and the advice to increase the intake of folate-rich foods. It is quite contradictory to observe that, regardless of these findings, there is only limited information on food folate and FA content. Data in Food Composition Tables and Databases are scarce or incomplete. Fortification of staple foods with FA has added difficulty to this task. Globally, the decision to fortify products is left up to individual food manufacturers. Voluntary fortification is a common practice in many countries. Therefore, the "worldwide map of vitamin fortification" may be analyzed. It is important to examine if fortification today really answers to vitamin requirements at different ages and/or physiological states. The

  8. Implications for accident management of adding water to a degrading reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, P.; Hanson, D.J.; Pafford, D.J.; Quick, K.S.; Witt, R.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report evaluates both the positive and negative consequences of adding water to a degraded reactor core during a severe accident. The evaluation discusses the earliest possible stage at which an accident can be terminated and how plant personnel can best respond to undesired results. Specifically discussed are (a) the potential for plant personnel to add water for a range of severe accidents, (b) the time available for plant personnel to act, (c) possible plant responses to water added during the various stages of core degradation, (d) plant instrumentation available to understand the core condition and (e) the expected response of the instrumentation during the various stages of severe accidents.

  9. Marking Electrical Wiring With Condition Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method is provided for marking electrical Wiring with condition indicators. One or more markers are added to one or both of the insulative material and a surface of an electrical conductor such that it bonds thereto. Each marker is capable of emanating into a surrounding atmospheric environment as a gaseous effluent in response to a specific condition experienced by the electrical conductor.

  10. 40 CFR 52.1072 - Conditional approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1072 Conditional approval. (a)-(d) (e) Maryland's severe ozone nonattainment area SIP for the Metropolitan Washington area, which... the February 9, 2000 submittal, is conditionally approved contingent on Maryland submitting a...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1072 - Conditional approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1072 Conditional approval. (a)-(d) (e) Maryland's severe ozone nonattainment area SIP for the Metropolitan Washington area, which... the February 9, 2000 submittal, is conditionally approved contingent on Maryland submitting a...

  12. Dietary Betaine Impacts the Physiological Responses to Moderate Heat Conditions in a Dose Dependent Manner in Sheep.

    PubMed

    DiGiacomo, Kristy; Simpson, Sarah; Leury, Brian J; Dunshea, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Heat exposure (HE) results in decreased production in ruminant species and betaine is proposed as a dietary mitigation method. Merino ewes ( n = 36, 40 kg, n = 6 per group) were maintained at thermoneutral (TN, n = 18, 21 °C) or cyclical HE ( n = 18, 18-43 °C) conditions for 21 days, and supplemented with either 0 (control), 2 or 4 g betaine/day. Sheep had ad libitum access to water and were pair fed such that intake of sheep on the TN treatment matched that of HE animals. Heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), rectal (T R ) and skin temperatures (T S ) were measured 3 times daily (0900 h, 1300 h, 1700 h). Plasma samples were obtained on 8 days for glucose and NEFA analysis. The HE treatment increased T R by 0.7 °C (40.1 vs. 39.4 °C for HE and TN respectively p < 0.001), T S by +1.8 °C (39.3 vs. 37.5 °C, p < 0.001) and RR by +46 breaths/min (133 vs. 87 breaths/min, p < 0.001) compared to TN. The 2 g betaine/day treatment decreased T R (39.8, 39.6 and 39.8 °C, p < 0.001), T S (38.7, 38.0 and 38.5 °C, p < 0.001) and RR (114, 102 and 116 breaths/min for control, 2 and 4 g betaine/day, p < 0.001) compared to control. Betaine supplementation decreased plasma NEFA concentrations by ~25 μM (80, 55 and 54 μmol/L for 0, 2 and 4 g/day respectively, p = 0.05). These data indicate that dietary betaine supplementation at 2 g betaine/day provides improvements in physiological responses typical of ewes exposed to heat stress and may be a beneficial supplement for the management of sheep during summer. PMID:27589811

  13. Physiological and behavioral basis for the successful adaptation of goats to severe water restriction under hot environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaliber, M; Koluman, N; Silanikove, N

    2016-01-01

    Among domestic ruminants, goats are renowned for their ability to tolerate water deprivation, water restriction and energy restriction. However, some basic questions regarding their ability to endure water restriction under heat stress are still open. Three levels of water restriction (56%, 73% and 87% of the ad libitum) were imposed on 20 cross-bred 3-year-old female goats (75% German Fawn and 25% Hair Goat) distributed into four groups, with five animals per treatment. The experiment was conducted from the beginning of July to the end of August in a farm located in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey (40 m in altitude; 36 59' N, 35 18'E), in which subtropical weather conditions prevail. The average daily temperature during the experiment was 34.2°C, whereas the highest and lowest temperatures were 42°C and 23.1°C, respectively. The average relative humidity was 68.2% and wind speed was 1.2 km/h. Weekly average thermal heat indexes during the experiment were 78.3 (week 1), 79.1 (week 2), 80.1 (weak 3), 79.8 (weak 4), 81.3 (weak 5) and on average 79.7. Feed intake, heart rate, thermoregulatory responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate), blood plasma concentrations of ions (Na, K), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), metabolites (glucose, cholesterol, creatinine and urea) and behavioral aspects (standing, walking, lying) were studied over 30 days. The responses to water restriction were proportional to the level of restriction. The reductions in feed intake (up to 13%), BW (up to 4.6%) and the increases in rectal temperature (0.5°C) and breath rate (10 respirations/min) were moderate and also were far from responses encountered under severe heat and water stresses. The increase in plasma Na (from 119 to 140 mM) and ADH concentrations (from 12.6 to 17.4 pg/ml) indicates that the physiological response to water restriction was in response to mild dehydration, which also explains the increase in blood plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, creatinine

  14. Effects of body condition score at calving on indicators of fat and protein mobilization of periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Delavaud, C; Faulconnier, Y; Pomiès, D; Chilliard, Y

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to study the effects of body condition score (BCS) at calving on dairy performance, indicators of fat and protein mobilization, and metabolic and hormonal profiles during the periparturient period of Holstein-Friesian cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows were classed according to their BCS (0 to 5 scale) before calving as low (BCS ≤ 2.5; n=9), medium (2.75 ≤ BCS ≤ 3.5; n=10), and high (BCS ≥ 3.75; n=9), corresponding to a mean of 2.33, 3.13, and 4.17 points of BCS, and preceding calving intervals of 362, 433, and 640 d, respectively. Cows received the same diets based on preserved grass to allow ad libitum feed intake throughout the study, and lactation diet contained 30% of concentrate (dry-matter basis). Measurements and sampling were performed between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving. No significant effects were observed of BCS group on dry matter intake (kg/d), milk yield, BCS loss, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. The high-BCS group had the lowest postpartum energy balance and the greatest plasma concentrations of leptin prepartum, nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum, insulin-like growth factor 1, and milk fat content. Milk fat yield was greater for the high- than the low-BCS group (1,681 vs. 1,417 g/d). Low-BCS cows had the greatest concentration of medium-chain fatty acids (e.g., sum of 10:0 to 15:0, and 16:0), and the lowest concentration and secretion of preformed fatty acids (e.g., cis-9 18:1) in milk fat. Milk protein secretion was lowest in the low-BCS group, averaging 924, 1,051, and 1,009 g/d for low-, medium-, and high-BCS groups, respectively. Plasma 3-methylhistidine was greater in wk 1 and 2 postpartum compared with other time points, indicating mobilization of muscle protein. Plasma creatinine tended to be lower and the 3-methylhistidine: creatinine ratio was greater in low- compared with medium- and high-BCS cows, suggesting less muscle mass but more intense mobilization of muscle

  15. Dietary Betaine Impacts the Physiological Responses to Moderate Heat Conditions in a Dose Dependent Manner in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    DiGiacomo, Kristy; Simpson, Sarah; Leury, Brian J.; Dunshea, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Heat stress in sheep initiates physiological methods to dissipate heat that result in decreased production. This study investigated the use of a dietary supplement, the osmolyte betaine fed at two doses (2 or 4 g/day), on the physiological responses to heat in sheep. Heat exposure initiated physiological responses such as an increased rectal temperature and respiration rate as expected, while betaine supplemented at 2 g/day ameliorated these responses. Thus, dietary betaine supplementation may have beneficial effects for sheep exposed to heat. Abstract Heat exposure (HE) results in decreased production in ruminant species and betaine is proposed as a dietary mitigation method. Merino ewes (n = 36, 40 kg, n = 6 per group) were maintained at thermoneutral (TN, n = 18, 21 °C) or cyclical HE (n = 18, 18–43 °C) conditions for 21 days, and supplemented with either 0 (control), 2 or 4 g betaine/day. Sheep had ad libitum access to water and were pair fed such that intake of sheep on the TN treatment matched that of HE animals. Heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), rectal (TR) and skin temperatures (TS) were measured 3 times daily (0900 h, 1300 h, 1700 h). Plasma samples were obtained on 8 days for glucose and NEFA analysis. The HE treatment increased TR by 0.7 °C (40.1 vs. 39.4 °C for HE and TN respectively p < 0.001), TS by +1.8 °C (39.3 vs. 37.5 °C, p < 0.001) and RR by +46 breaths/min (133 vs. 87 breaths/min, p < 0.001) compared to TN. The 2 g betaine/day treatment decreased TR (39.8, 39.6 and 39.8 °C, p < 0.001), TS (38.7, 38.0 and 38.5 °C, p < 0.001) and RR (114, 102 and 116 breaths/min for control, 2 and 4 g betaine/day, p < 0.001) compared to control. Betaine supplementation decreased plasma NEFA concentrations by ~25 μM (80, 55 and 54 μmol/L for 0, 2 and 4 g/day respectively, p = 0.05). These data indicate that dietary betaine supplementation at 2 g betaine/day provides improvements in physiological responses typical of ewes exposed to

  16. Winning Conditions?

    PubMed

    Green, Esther; Moody, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper, "The Patient Experience in Ontario 2020: What is Possible?", framed both the current state as well as the future of what patient experience might look like in five years. To ensure intention is catalyzed into meaningful change to improve experience and outcomes, we suggest four winning conditions. The first is to change the language; patients are people too, irrespective of their disease or illness; person-centred is inclusive language and ought to be the focus. The second condition is focused on leaders who play a critical role to establish, build and embed person-centred within the organization. The third and fourth winning conditions are building the evidence base and using effective and meaningful engagement, moving beyond advice, to partnership, respectively. Person-centred care is not the flavour of the month, it is here to stay. Ontarians are important actors in the system not only as users of the system but owners as well. To those who might argue that it is costly to do this work, what are the costs to not engage? Are we satisfied not only as administrators, and clinicians, but as patients at some point, to maintain the status quo? PMID:26888319

  17. What makes an ad a cigarette ad? Commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual press

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E.; Offen, N.; Malone, R.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the extent of commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) press. Methods: Content analysis of all advertising containing tobacco related text or imagery in 20 LGB community periodicals, published between January 1990 and December 2000. Results: 3428 ads were found: 689 tobacco product ads, 1607 ads for cessation products or services, 99 ads with a political message about tobacco, and 1033 non-tobacco ads that showed tobacco (NAST). Although cessation ads were numerically dominant, tobacco product ads and NAST occupied more space and were more likely to use images. NAST almost never had an anti-tobacco message. Formal sponsorship between tobacco and other companies was very rare. Lesbian periodicals had proportionally more NAST and fewer cessation ads. Conclusions: Cigarette ads were outnumbered by NAST. Although these ads do not usually show brands, and are unlikely to be the result of formal sponsorship agreements, they may be "selling" smoking. Tobacco control advocates should persuade editors to refuse tobacco product ads and those with gratuitous tobacco imagery. PMID:16286500

  18. Introduction to the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nąstase, Horaǧiu

    2015-09-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Background: 1. Elements of quantum field theory and gauge theory; 2. Basics of general relativity. Anti-de Sitter space; 3. Basics of supersymmetry; 4. Basics of supergravity; 5. Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction; 6. Black holes and p-branes; 7. String theory actions and spectra; 8. Elements of conformal field theory; 9. D-branes; Part II. Basics of AdS/CFT for N = 4 SYM vs AdS5 × S5: 10. The AdS/CFT correspondence: motivation, definition and spectra; 11. Witten prescription and 3-point correlator calculations; 12. Holography in Lorentzian signature: Poincaré and global; 13. Solitonic objects in AdS/CFT; 14. Quarks and the Wilson loop; 15. Finite temperature and N = 4 SYM plasmas; 16. Scattering processes and gravitational shockwave limit; 17. The pp-wave correspondence; 18. Spin chains; Part III. AdS/CFT Developments and Gauge-Gravity Dualities: 19. Other conformal cases; 20. The 3 dimensional ABJM model vs. AdS4 × CP3; 21. Gravity duals; 22. Holographic renormalization; 23. RG flow between fixed points; 24. Phenomenological gauge-gravity duality I: AdS/QCD; 25. Phenomenological gauge-gravity duality II: AdS/CMT; 26. Gluon scattering: the Alday-Maldacena prescription; 27. Holographic entanglement entropy: the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription.

  19. Matrix model maps and reconstruction of AdS supergravity interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cremonini, Sera; Mello Koch, Robert de; Jevicki, Antal

    2008-05-15

    We consider the question of reconstructing (cubic) SUGRA interactions in AdS/CFT. The method we introduce is based on the matrix model maps (MMP) which were previously successfully employed at the linearized level. The strategy is to start with the map for 1/2 BPS configurations, which is exactly known (to all orders) in the Hamiltonian framework. We then use the extension of the matrix model map with the corresponding Ward identities to completely specify the interaction. A central point in this construction is the nonvanishing of off-shell interactions (even for highest-weight states)

  20. The forecaster's added value in QPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2010-03-01

    : - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use: the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance for the period +24 h/+48 h (i.e. the warning period in the Piemonte system); - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterization and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.