Science.gov

Sample records for ad libitum diets

  1. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Horgan, Graham W; Murison, Sandra D; Bremner, David M; Lobley, Gerald E

    2008-01-01

    Altering the macronutrient composition of the diet influences hunger and satiety. Studies have compared high- and low-protein diets, but there are few data on carbohydrate content and ketosis on motivation to eat and ad libitum intake. We aimed to compare the hunger, appetite, and weight-loss responses to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate [(LC) ketogenic] and those to a high-protein, medium-carbohydrate [(MC) nonketogenic] diet in obese men feeding ad libitum. Seventeen obese men were studied in a residential trial; food was provided daily. Subjects were offered 2 high-protein (30% of energy) ad libitum diets, each for a 4-wk period-an LC (4% carbohydrate) ketogenic diet and an MC (35% carbohydrate) diet-randomized in a crossover design. Body weight was measured daily, and ketosis was monitored by analysis of plasma and urine samples. Hunger was assessed by using a computerized visual analogue system. Ad libitum energy intakes were lower with the LC diet than with the MC diet [P=0.02; SE of the difference (SED): 0.27] at 7.25 and 7.95 MJ/d, respectively. Over the 4-wk period, hunger was significantly lower (P=0.014; SED: 1.76) and weight loss was significantly greater (P=0.006; SED: 0.62) with the LC diet (6.34 kg) than with the MC diet (4.35 kg). The LC diet induced ketosis with mean 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of 1.52 mmol/L in plasma (P=0.036 from baseline; SED: 0.62) and 2.99 mmol/L in urine (P<0.001 from baseline; SED: 0.36). In the short term, high-protein, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets reduce hunger and lower food intake significantly more than do high-protein, medium-carbohydrate nonketogenic diets.

  2. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    PubMed

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted.

  3. Retention and utilization of amino acids in piglets fed ad libitum or restrictively diets supplemented with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Walz, O P; Pallauf, J

    1997-01-01

    In a metabolic trial 4 groups of 8 piglets of 5 kg weight each were kept individually for 45 days (final weight 23 kg) and fed a practical diet. At the beginning of the experiment the body amino acid contents of an additional group of 8 piglets were determined by carcass analysis, and at the end of the experiment the body amino acid contents of the 4 test group piglets (A = control fed ad libitum, B and C = supplement of 1.5% fumaric acid fed ad libitum or restrictively, D = supplement of 1.5% citric acid fed ad libitum) were also analysed. The amino acid retention during the experimental period was determined by difference. The supplements of fumaric or citric acid did not influence the amount of the amino acid retention. The quotient of amino acid retention to amino acid consumed or the "productive amino acid value" was calculated and the maintenance requirements of essential amino acids for piglets were used to estimate the productive amino acid value for both retention and maintenance. The mean amino acid retention amounted to about 56 g/d, i.e. 3.49 g/kg W0.75.d of essential amino acids. The essential amino acid requirements for maintenance was 2.0 g, i.e. 0.29 g/kg W0.75.d, showing a variation of 4% (Leu) to 20% (Met+Cys) when related to the amount of the corresponding amino acid retention. With regard to the amino acid pattern for retention of the nutritionally most important amino acids, the following ratios were found: Lys, 100 (6.27 g/16 g N): Met+Cys, 48 (3.03 g): Thr, 56 (3.49 g): Trp, 13 (0.80 g). The productive amino acid values ranged from 40% (Trp), 55% (Thr), 66% (Met) to 80% (Lys). Under the conditions investigated, neither the supplements of organic acids nor the feed restriction influenced the amino acid utilization.

  4. Intensive weight loss combining flexible dialysis with a personalized, ad libitum, coach-assisted diet program. A "pilot" case series.

    PubMed

    Vigotti, Federica Neve; Teta, Luigi; Pia, Anna; Mirasole, Sara; Guzzo, Gabriella; Giuffrida, Domenica; Capizzi, Irene; Avagnina, Paolo; Ippolito, Davide; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a growing problem on dialysis. The best approach to weight loss has not been established. The risks of malnutrition may offset the advantages of weight loss. Personalized hemodialysis schedules, with an incremental approach, are gaining interest; to date, no studies have explored its potential in allowing weight loss. This case series reports on combining flexible, incremental hemodialysis, and intensive weight loss. a small Dialysis Unit, following incremental personalized schedules (2-6 sessions/week, depending on residual function), tailored to an equivalent renal clearance >12 mL/min. Four obese and two overweigh patients (5 male, 1 female; age: 40-63 years; body mass index [BMI] 31.1 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a coach-assisted weight loss program, with an "ad libitum" approach (3-6 foods/day chosen on the basis of their glycemic index and glycemic load). The diet consists of 8 weeks of rapid weight loss followed by 8-12 weeks of maintenance; both phases can be repeated. This study measures weight loss, side effects, and patients' opinions. Over 12-30 months, all patients lost weight (median -10.3 kg [5.7-20], median ΔBMI-3.2). Serum albumin (pre-diet 3.78; post-diet 3.83 g/dL), hemoglobin (pre-diet 11; post-diet 11.2 g/dL), and acid-base balance (HCO(3) pre-diet: 23.3; post-diet: 23.4 mmol/L) remained stable, with decreasing needs for erythropoietin and citrate or bicarbonate supplements. Calcium-phosphate-parathyroid hormone (PTH) balance improved (PTH-pre 576; post 286 pg/mL). Three out of 4 hypertensive patients discontinued, 1 decreased antihypertensives. None experienced severe side effects. Patient satisfaction was high (9 on a 0-10 analog scale). Personalized, incremental hemodialysis schedules allow patient enrollment in intensive personalized weight loss programs, with promising results. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  5. Effects of an ad libitum, high carbohydrate diet and aerobic exercise training on insulin action and muscle metabolism in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Hays, Nicholas P; Starling, Raymond D; Sullivan, Dennis H; Fluckey, James D; Coker, Robert H; Williams, Rick H; Evans, William J

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise training and weight loss have independent effects on insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (ISGD). We hypothesized that ad libitum consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet would result in weight loss and improved ISGD, and that aerobic exercise training would facilitate greater improvements in ISGD compared with diet alone. Older participants (13 women, 9 men; age = 66 +/- 1 year) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to an ad libitum diet alone (18% fat, 19% protein, 63% carbohydrate) or this diet plus aerobic exercise training (4 d/wk, 45 min/d, 80% VO(2peak)) for 12 weeks. ISGD, abdominal fat distribution, muscle glycogen, and glycogen synthase activity were assessed pre- and postintervention. Consumption of the diet resulted in significant weight loss and an improvement in ISGD. Consumption of the diet plus exercise training also resulted in weight loss and increased ISGD, but results were not significantly different from those in the diet-alone group. Mean abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue cross-sectional areas were smaller postintervention compared to baseline with no difference between groups. Exercise training and consumption of the diet increased muscle glycogen content (344.7 +/- 21.3 to 616.7 +/- 34.4 micromol.g(-1)) and decreased glycogen synthase activity (0.21 +/- 0.02 to 0.13 +/- 0.01) compared to the diet alone. These results demonstrate that consumption of an ad libitum, high-carbohydrate diet alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training results in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, exercise combined with this diet appears to limit additional increases in insulin sensitivity due to muscle glycogen supercompensation with a concomitant adaptive response of glycogen synthase.

  6. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics study of cloned versus normal pigs fed either restricted or ad libitum high-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kirstine L; Hedemann, Mette S; Jørgensen, Henry; Stagsted, Jan; Knudsen, Knud Erik B

    2012-07-06

    Genetically identical cloned pigs should in principle eliminate biological variation and provide more pronounced effects when subjected to, e.g., dietary interventions, but little is known about how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning. Therefore, an investigation of the metabolome of cloned pigs compared to normal control pigs was performed to elucidate the variation and possible differences in the metabolic phenotypes during a dietary intervention. A total of 19 control pigs and 17 cloned pigs were given the same high-energy dense diet either ad libitum or in a restricted manner (60% of ad libitum) for ∼6 months, and plasma was subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry nontargeted metabolomics and biochemical analyses. Low systemic levels of IGF-1 could indicate altered growth conditions and energy metabolism in cloned pigs. In response to ad libitum feeding, clones had a decreased energy intake and lower weight gain compared to controls, and plasma lipid profiles were changed accordingly. Elevated lactate and decreased creatine levels implied an increased anaerobic metabolism in ad libitum fed clones. Less interindividual variation between cloned pigs was however not established, suggesting a strong role for epigenetics and/or the gut microbiota to develop variation.

  7. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; < 0.01) when heifers were fed the NI diet compared with the UR diet. The amount of feed consumed increased ( < 0.01) at 0 to 3 h and decreased ( ≤ 0.03) at 3 to 24 h for restrictive vs. ad libitum feeding of both the UR and NI diets. Compared to the UR diet, the NI diet decreased ( < 0.01) feed consumption at 0 to 3 h and increased ( < 0.02) feed consumption at 3 to 24 h (except feed consumption at 9 to 12 h; = 0.90), indicating nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( < 0.01; = 0.75) blood methemoglobin, and plasma NO + NO among other rumen and blood variables had the greatest correlation (sigmoid response; < 0.01, = 0.47) with feed consumption (0 to 3 h). Particle size distribution of orts was partially altered ( = 0.02 to 0

  8. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  9. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27766082

  10. The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Claessens, M; van Baak, M A; Monsheimer, S; Saris, W H M

    2009-03-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance. The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects. Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet. Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups. These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications.

  11. Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: the McDougall Program cohort.

    PubMed

    McDougall, John; Thomas, Laurie E; McDougall, Craig; Moloney, Gavin; Saul, Bradley; Finnell, John S; Richardson, Kelly; Petersen, Katelin Mae

    2014-10-14

    Epidemiologic evidence, reinforced by clinical and laboratory studies, shows that the rich Western diet is the major underlying cause of death and disability (e.g, from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) in Western industrialized societies. The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Retrospective analysis of measurements of weight, blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids and estimation of cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and day 7 from 1615 participants in a 10-day residential dietary intervention program from 2002 to 2011. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used for testing the significance of changes from baseline. The median (interquartile range, IQR) weight loss was 1.4 (1.8) kg (p < .001). The median (IQR) decrease in total cholesterol was 22 (29) mg/dL (p < .001). Even though most antihypertensive and antihyperglycemic medications were reduced or discontinued at baseline, systolic blood pressure decreased by a median (IQR) of 8 (18) mm Hg (p < .001), diastolic blood pressure by a median (IQR) of 4 (10) mm Hg (p < .001), and blood glucose by a median (IQR) of 3 (11) mg/dL (p < .001). For patients whose risk of a cardiovascular event within 10 years was >7.5% at baseline, the risk dropped to 5.5% (>27%) at day 7 (p < .001). A low-fat, starch-based, vegan diet eaten ad libitum for 7 days results in significant favorable changes in commonly tested biomarkers that are used to predict future risks for cardiovascular disease and metabolic diseases.

  12. The effect of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Munsters, Marjet J M; Saris, Wim H M

    2010-01-01

    The increased incidence of obesity coincides with an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study investigated the effect of SSB intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet in a reanalysis of the CARMEN data. Forty-seven overweight-to-obese men and women participated in the Maastricht centre of the randomized controlled CARMEN study. They were allocated to a control (habitual) diet group (CD), a low-fat (-10 energy percent, En%) high simple carbohydrate (SCHO) or low-fat high complex carbohydrate group (CCHO) (SCHO vs. CCHO: 1.5 vs. 0.5) using a controlled laboratory shop system. Reanalyses were made for the energy, amount and density of all drinks and in particular of sweetened beverages (SBs). The SCHO and CD group could select non-diet SBs, including soft drinks and fruit juices, while the CCHO group received SB alternatives. Energy intake decreased in the CCHO and SCHO groups versus the CD group (-2.7 ± 0.4 MJ/day CCHO group vs. -0.2 ± 0.5 MJ/day CD group, p < 0.01; -1.4 ± 0.4 MJ/day SCHO group, not significant). Simple carbohydrate intake increased significantly in the SCHO group versus the CCHO and CD groups (+10.8 ± 1.6 vs. -2.0 ± 0.9 and -0.5 ± 1.1 En%; p < 0.001). In the SCHO and CD groups, energy intake from SBs increased significantly (+187 ± 114 and +101 ± 83 kJ/day, respectively; -432 ± 72 kJ/day in the CCHO group; p < 0.001). Simple carbohydrate intake increased through enhanced intake of non-diet SBs in the SCHO group. Fat reduction combined with only diet SBs in an ad libitum situation has a greater impact on energy intake than fat reduction combined with non-diet SBs. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The contrasting effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding of a diet very high in saturated fats on sex ratio and metabolic hormones in mice.

    PubMed

    Alexenko, Andrei P; Mao, Jiude; Ellersieck, Mark R; Davis, Angela M; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Roberts, R Michael

    2007-10-01

    Skewing of the sex ratio towards males occurs among pups born to mice fed a very high saturated fat (VHF) diet. In the present study, we tested whether the fat content of the VHF diet rather than the number of calories consumed is responsible for this effect. Eight-week-old NIH Swiss mice were placed on the VHF diet either ad libitum (VHF) or in a restricted manner (VHF-R). The VHF-R mice gained weight at a similar rate to controls fed a standard chow diet. Mice were bred at 15 wk and subsequently at 26 wk and 35 wk of age. Overall, the VHF, VHF-R, and control groups delivered 244, 242, and 274 pups, respectively, with male proportions of 0.60, 0.43, and 0.48, respectively. The pup sex ratios of the VHF group (favoring males) and VHF-R group (favoring females) each differed from 0.5 (P < 0.01). The sex ratios also differed (P < 0.0001) between the VHF and control groups, and between the VHF and VHF-R groups. Within the diet groups, maternal body weight had no effect on sex ratio. Serum leptin concentrations among the dams were similar in the VHF and VHF-R groups but higher than in the control group, while the IGF1 and corticosterone levels were comparable in all three groups. Therefore, the atypical sex ratios of offspring born to dams on the VHF diet seem to be influenced by the amount of fat consumed. Since males fed the VHF diet had neither more Y-sperm nor sired more sons than daughters, the dietary effects are manifested exclusively through the female.

  14. Diet-induced obesity in ad libitum-fed mice: food texture overrides the effect of macronutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Charles; Ludwig, Tobias; Scheundel, Ronny; Rink, Nadine; Bader, Bernhard L; Klingenspor, Martin; Daniel, Hannelore

    2013-04-28

    Diet-induced obesity in mice can be achieved through the use of diets with different macronutrient compositions and textures. We aimed at determining the contribution of macronutrient composition to obesity development and associated pathophysiological changes in mice. C57BL/6N mice were offered a control, a high-fat or a Western-style diet, either as pellet (H for hard) or with identical composition in powder form (S for soft), resulting in C-S, C-H, HF-H, HF-S, W-H and W-S groups, respectively. Body fat distribution, expression levels of selected target genes in adipose tissues, clinical chemistry and hormone concentration in the blood, as well as liver TAG content were measured. The most striking finding was that all mice fed the different powder diets developed obesity with similar weight gain, whereas among the mice fed the pellet diets, only those given the HF and W diets became obese. This allowed us to separate diet-specific effects from obesity-mediated effects. Irrespective of the food texture, the W diet induced a more severe hepatosteatosis and higher activities of serum transaminases compared with the two other diets. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis revealed that leptin and adiponectin levels were not affected by the dietary composition per se, whereas uncoupling protein 1 and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 levels were decreased by both dietary composition and changes in body weight. In conclusion, diets differing in macronutrient composition elicit specific pathophysiological changes, independently of changes in body weight. A diet high in both fat and sugars seems to be more deleterious for the liver than a HF diet.

  15. Ad libitum intake of low-fat diets rich in either starchy foods or sucrose: effects on blood lipids, factor VII coagulant activity, and fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Marckmann, P; Raben, A; Astrup, A

    2000-06-01

    People are advised to reduce their intake of saturated fat and replace it by carbohydrate to avoid coronary heart disease. It is unknown whether sucrose and starchy foods, two major sources of carbohydrates, have similar effects on cardiovascular risk markers if incorporated as a replacement for saturated fat into diets eaten ad libitum. We served 20 healthy, normal-weight women aged 21 to 52 years three strictly controlled diets ad libitum: FAT, high in total fat (46% of total energy [E%]) and saturated fat (21 E%); STARCH, high in total carbohydrates (59 E%) and low in sucrose (2.5 E%); and SUCROSE, high in total carbohydrates (59 E%) and sucrose (23.2 E%). The diets were eaten in randomized order for a period of 2 weeks. Blood lipids, factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), and fibrinogen concentrations were measured with subjects in the fasted state (9:45 AM) and the postabsorptive state (6:00 PM). STARCH was associated with lower total cholesterol (mean difference, 0.34 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.50), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (0.25 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.37), fasting triglycerides (0.15 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.23), nonfasting triglycerides (0.44 mmol/L; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.58), and nonfasting FVIIc (9.8%; 95% CI, 3.8 to 15.8) than SUCROSE. Compared with FAT, STARCH resulted in a desirable decrease of LDL cholesterol and nonfasting FVIIc. STARCH was also associated with a minor weight loss (0.7 kg) that was not found on the other 2 diets. We conclude that starchy foods with a natural content of dietary fiber can be recommended as substitutes for saturated fat in the dietary prevention of coronary heart disease. According to the present short-term findings in healthy females, substitution with sucrose is not advisable.

  16. Long-term effects of ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on body weight and serum lipids in overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Poppitt, Sally D; Keogh, Geraldine F; Prentice, Andrew M; Williams, Desmond E M; Sonnemans, Heidi M W; Valk, Esther E J; Robinson, Elizabeth; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2002-01-01

    Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary vascular disease. Weight gain and features of the syndrome may be ameliorated by dietary intervention. We investigated the effects of replacing one-quarter of daily fat intake by complex or simple carbohydrate on body weight and intermediary metabolism. Forty-six subjects with > or =3 metabolic syndrome risk factors were randomly assigned to receive a control diet; a low-fat, complex carbohydrate diet (LF-CC); or a low-fat, simple carbohydrate diet (LF-SC) for 6 mo. Thirty-nine subjects completed the trial. About 60% of daily dietary intake was provided free of charge through a grocery store. Energy intake was ad libitum. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and blood lipids were measured at months 0, 2, 4, and 6. There was a significant diet x time interaction on body weight and BMI (P < 0.001). Weight loss was greatest with the LF-CC diet [change in body weight: control diet, 1.03 kg (NS); LF-CC diet, -4.25 kg (P < 0.01); LF-SC diet, -0.28 kg (NS)]. Total cholesterol decreased by 0.33 mmol/L, 0.63 mmol/L, and 0.06 mmol/L in subjects consuming the control, LF-CC, and LF-SC diets, respectively (difference between the LF-CC and LF-SC groups: P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in LDL cholesterol, whereas HDL cholesterol decreased over time in all 3 groups (P < 0.0001). Triacylglycerol concentrations were higher in the LF-SC group than in the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). A low-fat, high-polysaccharide diet in overweight individuals with abnormal intermediary metabolism led to moderate weight loss and some improvement in serum cholesterol. Increasing simple carbohydrates did not promote weight gain, but nor was there improvement in body weight or lipid profile.

  17. Chickpeas may influence fatty acid and fiber intake in an ad libitum diet, leading to small improvements in serum lipid profile and glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, Jane K; Robertson, Iain K; Ball, Madeleine J

    2008-06-01

    Optimal replacement macronutrient/s for dietary saturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk remains controversial. Chickpeas are rich in dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This exploratory study, conducted from September 2004 to May 2005, assessed the effect of incorporating chickpeas in the ad libitum diet of 45 free-living adults. Participants consumed a minimum of 728 g of canned, drained chickpeas per week (the amount in four 300-g cans) as part of their habitual diet for 12 weeks (chickpea phase), followed by 4 weeks of habitual diet without chickpeas (usual phase). In the chickpea phase, mean dietary fiber intake was 6.77 g/day more and mean polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption (as a percentage of total fat) was 2.66% more (both P<0.001), causing the polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio to change from 0.39 to 0.47 (P=0.045). Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were 7.7 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 7.3 mg/dL (0.19 mmol/L) less, respectively, after the chickpea phase (P

  18. Effects of an Ad Libitum Consumed Low-Fat Plant-Based Diet Supplemented with Plant-Based Meal Replacements on Body Composition Indices

    PubMed Central

    Jakše, Boštjan; Pinter, Stanislav; Jakše, Barbara; Bučar Pajek, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To document the effect of a diet free from animal-sourced nutrients on body composition indices. Methods. This was a nonrandomized interventional (n = 241)-control (n = 84) trial with a 10-week, low-fat, plant-based diet supplemented with two daily meal replacements. The meals were allowed to be eaten to full satiety without prespecified calorie restrictions. Control subjects received weekly lectures on the rationale and expected benefits of plant-based nutrition. Body composition indices were measured with bioimpedance analysis. Results. Relative to controls, in cases, postintervention body fat percentage was reduced by 4.3 (95% CI 4.1–4.6)% points (a relative decrement of −13.4%), visceral fat by 1.6 (95% CI 1.5–1.7) fat cross-sectional surface units, and weight by 5.6 kg (95% CI 5.2–6), while muscle mass was reduced by 0.3 kg (95% CI 0.06–0.5) with a relative increase of muscle mass percentage of 4.2 (3.9–4.4)% points. Analysis of covariance showed significantly larger adjusted fat reductions in cases compared to controls. Late follow-up revealed further weight loss in 60% of cases and no significant change in controls. Conclusions. Low-fat, plant-based diet in free-living nonresidential conditions eaten ad libitum enables significant and meaningful body fat reductions with relative preservation of muscle mass. This trial is registered with NCT02906072, ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:28459071

  19. Ad libitum and restricted day and night sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Korompeli, Anna St; Muurlink, Olav; Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Fildissis, Georgios; Baltopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first controlled comparison of restricted versus unrestricted sleep in both day and night sleep categories. A repeated measures study of a homogenous group of young women without sleep disorders (n=14) found that stage 1, 2, 3 and REM sleep, as well as sleep latency were not statistically different between day ad libitum sleep (DAL) and day interrupted (DI) sleep categories, while night interrupted (NI) and ad libitum (NAL) sleep showed strikingly different architecture.

  20. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition, and fat distribution in older men and women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hays, Nicholas P; Starling, Raymond D; Liu, Xiaolan; Sullivan, Dennis H; Trappe, Todd A; Fluckey, James D; Evans, William J

    2004-01-26

    The efficacy of ad libitum low-fat diets in reducing body weight and fat in overweight and obese adults remains controversial. We examined the effect of a 12-week low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet alone (HI-CHO) and in combination with aerobic exercise training (HI-CHO + EX) on body weight and composition in 34 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (20 women and 14 men; mean +/- SEM age, 66 +/- 1 years). Participants were randomly assigned to a control diet (41% fat, 14% protein, 45% carbohydrates, and 7 g of fiber per 1000 kcal), a HI-CHO diet (18% fat, 19% protein, 63% carbohydrates, and 26 g of fiber per 1000 kcal), or a HI-CHO diet plus endurance exercise 4 d/wk, 45 min/d, at 80% peak oxygen consumption (HI-CHO + EX). Participants were provided 150% of estimated energy needs and were instructed to consume food ad libitum. Total food intake, body composition, resting metabolic rate, and substrate oxidation were measured. There was no significant difference in total food intake among the 3 groups and no change in energy intake over time. The HI-CHO + EX and HI-CHO groups lost more body weight (-4.8 +/- 0.9 kg [P=.003] and -3.2 +/- 1.2 kg [P=.02]) and a higher percentage of body fat (-3.5% +/- 0.7% [P=.01] and -2.2% +/- 1.2% [P=.049]) than controls (-0.1 +/- 0.6 kg and 0.2% +/- 0.6%). In addition, thigh fat area decreased in the HI-CHO (P=.003) and HI-CHO + EX (P<.001) groups compared with controls. High carbohydrate intake and weight loss did not result in a decreased resting metabolic rate or reduced fat oxidation. A high-carbohydrate diet consumed ad libitum, with no attempt at energy restriction or change in energy intake, results in losses of body weight and body fat in older men and women.

  2. Short-term isocaloric manipulation of carbohydrate intake: effect on subsequent ad libitum energy intake.

    PubMed

    Penesova, Adela; Venti, Colleen A; Bunt, Joy C; Bonfiglio, Susan M; Votruba, Susanne B; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Isocaloric manipulation of carbohydrate or fat intake could alter subsequent ad libitum food intake. In a controlled inpatient study, we investigated whether isocaloric manipulation of carbohydrate or fat would alter subsequent ad libitum energy intake. Eighteen non-diabetic subjects (age range 19-53 years.; 15 M/3F; % body fat 38.5 ± 9.1 (mean ± SD)) were fed for 3 days an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet (HC; 60% carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein) and a high-fat diet (HF; 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate, 20% protein) in random order each followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake. There were no differences in mean daily energy intake (EI) following each diet (HC vs. HF: 4,811 ± 1,190 vs. 4,823 ± 1,238 kcal/d; P = 0.7) or in the percent of weight maintenance energy needs (%EN-WM; 173 ± 41 vs. 173 ± 46%, P = 0.5). However, the individual difference in EI between the HF versus HC diet (ΔEI) both on day one and over the 3 days of each ad libitum period was negatively associated with % body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (day 1: ΔEI vs. %BF, r = -0.49, P = 0.04; mean day 1-3 kcal ΔEI vs. %BF, r = -0.66, P = 0.003, and ΔEI vs. waist, r = -0.65, P = 0.004). A short-term isocaloric HC diet did not result in overall lower EI compared with a HF diet in the same individuals. However, we did find that increasing body fat was associated with less decline in EI following the HC versus HF diet indicating that increasing adiposity is associated with altered regulation of EI in response to macronutrient changes.

  3. Drinking to Thirst Versus Drinking Ad Libitum During Road Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Johnson, Evan C.; Kunces, Laura J.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Judelson, Daniel A.; Kupchak, Brian R.; Vingren, Jakob L.; Munoz, Colleen X.; Huggins, Robert A.; Hydren, Jay R.; Moyen, Nicole E.; Williamson, Keith H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The sensation of thirst is different from the complex behavior of drinking ad libitum. Rehydration recommendations to athletes differ, depending on the source, yet no previous researchers have systematically compared drinking to thirst (DTT) versus ad libitum drinking behavior (DAL). Objective: To compare 2 groups of trained cyclists (DTT and DAL) who had similar physical characteristics and training programs (P > .05). The DTT group (n = 12, age = 47 ± 7 years) drank only when thirsty, whereas the DAL group (n = 12, age = 44 ± 7 years) consumed fluid ad libitum (ie, whenever and in whatever volume desired). Design: Cohort study. Setting: Road cycling (164 km) in the heat (36.1°C ± 6.5°C). Patients or Other Participants: Ultraendurance cyclists (4 women, 20 men). Intervention(s): We recorded measurements 1 day before the event, on event day before the start, at 3 roadside aid stations, at the finish line, and 1 day after the event. Main Outcome Measure(s): Body mass, urinary hydration indices, and food and fluids consumed. Results: No between-groups differences were seen on event day for total exercise time (DTT = 6.69 ± 0.89 hours, DAL = 6.66 ± 0.77 hours), urinary indices (specific gravity, color), body mass change (DTT = −2.22% ± 1.73%, DAL = −2.29% ± 1.62%), fluid intake (DTT = 5.63 ± 2.59 L/6.7 h, DAL = 6.04 ± 2.37 L/6.7 h), dietary energy intake, macronutrient intake, ratings of thirst (DTT start = 2 ± 1, DTT finish = 6 ± 1, DAL start = 2 ± 1, DAL finish = 6 ± 1), pain, perceived exertion, or thermal sensation. Total fluid intake on recovery day +1 was the primary significant difference (DAL = 5.13 ± 1.87 L/24 h, DTT = 3.13 ± 1.53 L/24 h, t18 = 2.59, P = .02). Conclusions: Observations on event day indicated that drinking to thirst and drinking ad libitum resulted in similar physiologic and perceptual outcomes. This suggests that specific instructions to “drink to thirst” were unnecessary. Indeed, if athletes drink ad libitum

  4. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  5. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-05-23

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations.

  6. The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, N; Mars, M; de Wijk, R A; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; de Graaf, C

    2008-04-01

    Energy-yielding liquids elicit weak suppressive appetite responses and weak compensatory responses, suggesting that liquid calories might lead to a positive energy balance. However, data is often derived from foods differing in many characteristics other than viscosity. To investigate the effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake in real-life setting and to investigate whether a difference in ad libitum intake is related to eating rate and/or eating effort. In real-life setting 108 nonrestrained subjects (26+/-7 years, BMI 22.7+/-2.4 kg m(-2)) received a chocolate flavored liquid, semi-liquid and semi-solid milk-based product, similar in palatability, macronutrient composition and energy density. In laboratory setting 49 nonrestrained subjects (24+/-6 years, BMI 22.2+/-2.3 kg m(-2)) received the liquid or semi-solid product. Effort and eating rate were controlled by means of a peristaltic pump. In real-life setting the intake of the liquid (809+/-396 g) was respectively 14 and 30% higher compared to the semi-liquid (699+/-391 g) and semi-solid product (566+/-311 g; P<0.0001). In laboratory setting, removing eating effort, resulted in a 29% (P<0.0001) intake difference between liquid (319+/-176 g) and semi-solid (226+/-122 g). Standardizing eating rate resulted in 12% difference between liquid (200+/-106 g) and semi-solid (176+/-88 g; P=0.24). If not controlled, the difference in intake between liquid (419+/-216 g) and semi-solid (277+/-130 g) was comparable to the real-life setting (34%; P<0.0001). Products different in viscosity but similar in palatability, macronutrient composition and energy density lead to significant differences in intake. This difference is partially explained by the higher eating rate of liquids.

  7. Circadian patterns of ad libitum smoking by menstrual phase

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alicia M.; Mooney, Marc; Chakraborty, Rima; Allen, Sharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research suggests nicotine metabolism may be influenced by sex hormones. Thus, we hypothesized that circadian smoking patterns would vary by menstrual phase. Methods Healthy female smokers (n = 31) between the ages of 18 and 40 with regular menstrual cycles, and not using hormones or psychotropic medications, were recruited for a randomized clinical study. Subjects recorded the time of each cigarette smoked and their menstrual phase with daily diaries prospectively for one complete menstrual cycle of ad libitum smoking. Analyses included Poisson regression to assess variations in the rate of smoking during waking hours (i.e., 6:00 a.m. and 12:00 midnight) and circadian smoking patterns by menstrual phase. Results Participants were 29.61 ± 5.44 years of age and smoked 16.93 ± 5.37 cigarettes per day. Participants had a lower rate of smoking during waking hours in the follicular phase as compared to the menses phase. There were no significant menstrual phase differences in the circadian smoking patterns. Conclusions These results offer further support for the influence of sex hormones on smoking behavior, but not on circadian patterns of smoking. Additional research is needed to study the direct relationship between nicotine metabolism, sex hormones, menstrual phase, and smoking behavior. PMID:19517420

  8. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of a 3-day high-fat feeding period on carbohydrate balance and ad libitum energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Galgani, J E; de Jonge, L; Most, M M; Bray, G A; Smith, S R

    2010-05-01

    A reduction in glycogen after the switch to an isoenergetic high-fat diet (HFD) might promote a compensatory increase in food intake to reestablish carbohydrate balance. We assessed the effect of an isoenergetic switch from a 49%-carbohydrate to 50%-fat diet on nutrient balance and ad libitum food intake. We hypothesized that carbohydrate balance would be inversely related to ad libitum energy intake. In 47 men and 11 women (22.6+/-0.4 years; 26.1+/-0.5 kg m(-2)), fuel balance was measured in a respiration chamber over 4 days. During the first day, an isoenergetic, high-carbohydrate diet was provided followed by a 3-day isoenergetic, HFD. At the end of this period and after 16 h of fasting, three options of foods (cookies, fruit salad and turkey sandwich) were offered ad libitum for 4 h. The relationships between post-chamber ad libitum intake and macronutrient oxidation and balance measured day-to-day and over the 4-day respiration chamber stay were studied. After switching to a HFD, 24-h respiratory quotient decreased from 0.87+/-0.02 to 0.83+/-0.02 (P<0.0001) resulting in a 4-day cumulative carbohydrate, fat and protein balances of -183+/-368, 342+/-480 and 65+/-267 kcal, respectively. Cumulative energy balance (224+/-362 kcal per 4 days) did not influence ad libitum energy intake. However, we detected that 4-day carbohydrate balance was a positive and independent predictor of post-chamber ad libitum energy intake (R (2)=0.10; P=0.01), whereas no significant influence of fat and protein balances was found. In response to an isoenergetic change from a high-carbohydrate to HFD, higher carbohydrate balance related to increased energy intake.

  10. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  11. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  12. Measurement of Ad Libitum Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Time in Response to Overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianying; Votruba, Susanne; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Bonfiglio, Susan; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines), core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry) following a short term (3-day) weight maintaining (WM) vs overfeeding (OF) diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m2, 73.6% male). During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41), and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75) or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88). However, during OF (but not WM), sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight). In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732 PMID:22629311

  13. Ad libitum fluid consumption via self- or external administration.

    PubMed

    Yeargin, Susan W; Finn, Megan E; Eberman, Lindsey E; Gage, Matthew J; McDermott, Brendon P; Niemann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    During team athletic events, athletic trainers commonly provide fluids with water bottles. When a limited number of water bottles exist, various techniques are used to deliver fluids. To determine whether fluid delivered via water-bottle administration influenced fluid consumption and hydration status. Crossover study. Outdoor field (22.2°C ± 3.5°C). Nineteen participants (14 men, 5 women, age = 30 ± 10 years, height = 176 ± 8 cm, mass = 72.5 ± 10 kg) were recruited from the university and local running clubs. The independent variable was fluid delivery with 3 levels: self-administration with mouth-to-bottle direct contact (SA-DC), self-administration with no contact between mouth and bottle (SA-NC), and external administration with no contact between the mouth and the bottle (EA-NC). Participants warmed up for 10 minutes before completing 5 exercise stations, after which an ad libitum fluid break was given, for a total of 6 breaks. We measured the fluid variables of total volume consumed, total number of squirts, and average volume per squirt. Hydration status via urine osmolality and body-mass loss, and perceptual variables for thirst and fullness were recorded. We calculated repeated-measures analyses of variance to assess hydration status, fluid variables, and perceptual measures to analyze conditions across time. The total volume consumed for EA-NC was lower than for SA-DC (P = .001) and SA-NC (P = .001). The total number of squirts for SA-DC was lower than for SA-NC (P = .009). The average volume per squirt for EA-NC was lower than for SA-DC (P = .020) and SA-NC (P = .009). Participants arrived (601.0 ± 21.3 mOsm/L) and remained (622.3 ± 38.3 mOsm/L) hydrated, with no difference between conditions (P = .544); however, the EA-NC condition lost more body mass than did the SA-DC condition (P = .001). There was no main effect for condition on thirst (P = .147) or fullness (P = .475). External administration of fluid decreased total volume consumed via a

  14. Ad Libitum Fluid Consumption via Self- or External Administration

    PubMed Central

    Yeargin, Susan W.; Finn, Megan E.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Gage, Matthew J.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Niemann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Context: During team athletic events, athletic trainers commonly provide fluids with water bottles. When a limited number of water bottles exist, various techniques are used to deliver fluids. Objective: To determine whether fluid delivered via water-bottle administration influenced fluid consumption and hydration status. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Outdoor field (22.2°C ± 3.5°C). Patients or Other Participants: Nineteen participants (14 men, 5 women, age = 30 ± 10 years, height = 176 ± 8 cm, mass = 72.5 ± 10 kg) were recruited from the university and local running clubs. Intervention(s): The independent variable was fluid delivery with 3 levels: self-administration with mouth-to-bottle direct contact (SA-DC), self-administration with no contact between mouth and bottle (SA-NC), and external administration with no contact between the mouth and the bottle (EA-NC). Participants warmed up for 10 minutes before completing 5 exercise stations, after which an ad libitum fluid break was given, for a total of 6 breaks. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured the fluid variables of total volume consumed, total number of squirts, and average volume per squirt. Hydration status via urine osmolality and body-mass loss, and perceptual variables for thirst and fullness were recorded. We calculated repeated-measures analyses of variance to assess hydration status, fluid variables, and perceptual measures to analyze conditions across time. Results: The total volume consumed for EA-NC was lower than for SA-DC (P = .001) and SA-NC (P = .001). The total number of squirts for SA-DC was lower than for SA-NC (P = .009). The average volume per squirt for EA-NC was lower than for SA-DC (P = .020) and SA-NC (P = .009). Participants arrived (601.0 ± 21.3 mOsm/L) and remained (622.3 ± 38.3 mOsm/L) hydrated, with no difference between conditions (P = .544); however, the EA-NC condition lost more body mass than did the SA-DC condition (P = .001). There was no main effect for

  15. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.

  16. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  17. The 24-h carbohydrate oxidation rate in a human respiratory chamber predicts ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Pannacciulli, Nicola; Salbe, Arline D; Ortega, Emilio; Venti, Colleen A; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    The 24-h respiratory quotient (24-h RQ) and 24-h carbohydrate balance (24-h CHO-Bal) are predictors of weight change. Whether these relations are mediated by the effects of substrate oxidation and balance on food intake is not known. We tested whether substrate oxidation and balance predict future ad libitum food intake. Substrate oxidation and balance were measured in a respiratory chamber in 112 normoglycemic subjects (83 Pima Indians and 29 whites; 67 men and 45 women) in energy balance for 3 d before tests were performed. The subjects then self-selected their food ad libitum for the following 3 d. The 24-h RQ, 24-h carbohydrate oxidation (24-h CHO-Ox), and 24-h CHO-Bal in the respiratory chamber predicted subsequent ad libitum food intake over 3 d (as a percentage of weight maintenance energy needs; %EN-WM). The 24-h CHO-Ox explained 15% of the variance in %EN-WM. The weight change over the 3-d ad libitum period was associated positively with 24-h CHO-Ox and negatively with 24-h CHO-Bal in the chamber; these associations were no longer significant after adjustment for %EN-WM. Carbohydrate oxidation and balance predict subsequent ad libitum food intake and can influence short-term weight changes, which indicates that carbohydrate balance is a contributing metabolic factor affecting food intake.

  18. Influence of ad Libitum Feeding of Piglets With Bacillus Subtilis Fermented Liquid Feed on Gut Flora, Luminal Contents and Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuyong; Mao, Chunxia; Wen, Hong; Chen, Zhiyu; Lai, Tao; Li, Lingyu; Lu, Wei; Wu, Huadong

    2017-01-01

    Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0.05), higher intestinal fungal diversity (P > 0.05), more Firmicutes (P > 0.05), fewer Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria (P > 0.05), higher concentrations of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (P < 0.05), orotic acid (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (P < 0.01), lactic acid (P < 0.01), deoxycholic acid (P > 0.05) and lithocholic acid (P < 0.01) and a higher incidence of diarrhoea (P > 0.05). The data show that ad libitum feeding of piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet during the suckling and early post-weaning periods promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria, bile salt hydrolase-active bacteria and 7a-dehydroxylase-active bacteria in the intestinal lumen; disturbs the normal production of lactic acid, orotic acid and unconjugated bile acids; and increases circulating interleukin-6 levels and diarrhoea incidence. PMID:28291252

  19. Influence of ad Libitum Feeding of Piglets With Bacillus Subtilis Fermented Liquid Feed on Gut Flora, Luminal Contents and Health.

    PubMed

    He, Yuyong; Mao, Chunxia; Wen, Hong; Chen, Zhiyu; Lai, Tao; Li, Lingyu; Lu, Wei; Wu, Huadong

    2017-03-14

    Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0.05), higher intestinal fungal diversity (P > 0.05), more Firmicutes (P > 0.05), fewer Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria (P > 0.05), higher concentrations of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (P < 0.05), orotic acid (P < 0.05), interleukin-6 (P < 0.01), lactic acid (P < 0.01), deoxycholic acid (P > 0.05) and lithocholic acid (P < 0.01) and a higher incidence of diarrhoea (P > 0.05). The data show that ad libitum feeding of piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet during the suckling and early post-weaning periods promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria, bile salt hydrolase-active bacteria and 7a-dehydroxylase-active bacteria in the intestinal lumen; disturbs the normal production of lactic acid, orotic acid and unconjugated bile acids; and increases circulating interleukin-6 levels and diarrhoea incidence.

  20. Effects of disordered eating and obesity on weight, craving, and food intake during ad libitum smoking and abstinence.

    PubMed

    Saules, Karen K; Pomerleau, Cynthia S; Snedecor, Sandy M; Brouwer, Rebecca Namenek; Rosenberg, Erin E M

    2004-11-01

    Although there is empirical support for the association between smoking, disordered eating, and subsequent weight gain upon smoking cessation, there have been no prospective studies to track changes in eating patterns during smoking abstinence and explore underlying biobehavioral processes. To help fill these gaps, we recruited four groups of women (N=48, 12/group) based on presence vs. absence of obesity and on low vs. high risk of severe dieting and/or binge-eating to participate in a laboratory study of eating in the context of ad libitum smoking and smoking abstinence. Participants [mean age 31.3 years; Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) 4.3; smoking rate 18.7 cigarettes/day] completed two sessions: one after ad libitum smoking, the other after 2 days' smoking abstinence, in counterbalanced order. After a half-day's restricted eating, participants watched a video, with measured amounts of preselected preferred food available throughout. Cigarettes were available during the ad libitum smoking session. High-risk women weighed more after 2 days' abstinence than during the ad libitum smoking condition, whereas low-risk women did not differ across conditions. Nicotine craving changed significantly more in anticipation of nicotine deprivation for high-BMI women than their low-BMI counterparts. Caloric intake was marginally attenuated during abstinence for low-BMI compared with high-BMI participants (P<.10), an effect primarily accounted for by differences in protein intake (P<.10). These findings suggest that low-BMI women may be less prone to weight gain during early abstinence, possibly because they compensate for metabolic changes induced by nicotine washout by eating less. Craving increases experienced by high-BMI women during abstinence under conditions of food deprivation may contribute to difficulty quitting in these women.

  1. Ad libitum vs. restricted fluid replacement on hydration and performance of military tasks.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D; Nolte, Kim

    2013-02-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum vs. restricted fluid replacement protocol on hydration markers and performance in selected military tasks. The secondary objective was to determine if 300 ml x h(-1) could be considered a safe minimum fluid intake under the experimental conditions. Data were collected simulating a route march over 16 km. There were 57 subjects who participated in the study. The mean pre-exercise body mass of the ad libitum group was 70.4 +/- 13.3 (SD) kg compared to 69.3 +/- 8.9 kg in the restricted group. The mean total fluid intake of the ad libitum group was 2.1 +/- 0.9 L compared to 1.2 +/- 0.0 L in the restricted group. The ad libitum and restricted intake groups, respectively, lost a mean of 1.05 kg +/- 0.77 (1.5%) and 1.34 kg +/- 0.37 (1.9%). Calculated sweat rate was 608 +/- 93 ml x h(-1) compared to 762 +/- 162 ml x h(-1) in the ad libitum group. There were no significant differences for either urine specific gravity (USG) or urine osmolality (UOsm) before or after the exercise. It is not clear whether fluid intake and calculated sweat rates are causally related or explained by their codependence on a third variable; for example, the exercising metabolic rate. Thus, 300 ml x h(-1) intake could be considered a current safe minimum water intake for soldiers of similar mass under similar experimental conditions, namely similar exercise durations at equivalent exercise intensities in a moderate, dry climate.

  2. Ad Libitum Fluid Intake and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Hypertonic Saline, or Deionized Water Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Scott; Miller, Kevin C.; Albrecht, Jay; Garden-Robinson, Julie; Blodgett-Salafia, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adding sodium (Na+) to drinks improves rehydration and ad libitum fluid consumption. Clinicians (∼25%) use pickle juice (PJ) to treat cramping. Scientists warn against PJ ingestion, fearing it will cause rapid plasma volume restoration and thereby decrease thirst and delay rehydration. Advice about drinking PJ has been developed but never tested. Objective: To determine if drinking small volumes of PJ, hypertonic saline (HS), or deionized water (DIW) affects ad libitum DIW ingestion, plasma variables, or perceptual indicators. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen, euhydrated (urine specific gravity ≤ 1.01) men (age = 22 ± 2 years, height = 178 ± 6 cm, mass = 82.9 ± 8.4 kg). Intervention(s): Participants completed 3 testing days (≥72 hours between days). After a 30-minute rest, a blood sample was collected. Participants completed 60 minutes of hard exercise (temperature = 36 ± 2°C, relative humidity = 16 ± 1%). Postexercise, they rested for 30 minutes; had a blood sample collected; rated thirst, fullness, and nausea; and ingested 83 ± 8 mL of PJ, HS, or DIW. They rated drink palatability (100-mm visual analog scale) and were allowed to drink DIW ad libitum for 60 minutes. Blood samples and thirst, fullness, and nausea ratings (100-mm visual analog scales) were collected at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes posttreatment drink ingestion. Main Outcome Measure(s): Ad libitum DIW volume, percentage change in plasma volume, plasma osmolality (OSMp,) plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]p), and thirst, fullness, nausea, and palatability ratings. Results: Participants consumed more DIW ad libitum after HS (708.03 ± 371.03 mL) than after DIW (532.99 ± 337.14 mL, P < .05). Ad libitum DIW ingested after PJ (700.35 ± 366.15 mL) was similar to that after HS and DIW (P > .05). Plasma sodium concentration, OSMp, percentage change in plasma volume, thirst, fullness, and nausea did not differ among treatment drinks

  3. Ad libitum fluid intake and plasma responses after pickle juice, hypertonic saline, or deionized water ingestion.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott; Miller, Kevin C; Albrecht, Jay; Garden-Robinson, Julie; Blodgett-Salafia, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Adding sodium (Na(+)) to drinks improves rehydration and ad libitum fluid consumption. Clinicians (∼25%) use pickle juice (PJ) to treat cramping. Scientists warn against PJ ingestion, fearing it will cause rapid plasma volume restoration and thereby decrease thirst and delay rehydration. Advice about drinking PJ has been developed but never tested. To determine if drinking small volumes of PJ, hypertonic saline (HS), or deionized water (DIW) affects ad libitum DIW ingestion, plasma variables, or perceptual indicators. Crossover study. Laboratory. Fifteen, euhydrated (urine specific gravity ≤ 1.01) men (age = 22 ± 2 years, height = 178 ± 6 cm, mass = 82.9 ± 8.4 kg). Participants completed 3 testing days (≥ 72 hours between days). After a 30-minute rest, a blood sample was collected. Participants completed 60 minutes of hard exercise (temperature = 36 ± 2°C, relative humidity = 16 ± 1%). Postexercise, they rested for 30 minutes; had a blood sample collected; rated thirst, fullness, and nausea; and ingested 83 ± 8 mL of PJ, HS, or DIW. They rated drink palatability (100-mm visual analog scale) and were allowed to drink DIW ad libitum for 60 minutes. Blood samples and thirst, fullness, and nausea ratings (100-mm visual analog scales) were collected at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes posttreatment drink ingestion. Ad libitum DIW volume, percentage change in plasma volume, plasma osmolality (OSMp,) plasma sodium concentration ([Na(+)]p), and thirst, fullness, nausea, and palatability ratings. Participants consumed more DIW ad libitum after HS (708.03 ± 371.03 mL) than after DIW (532.99 ± 337.14 mL, P < .05). Ad libitum DIW ingested after PJ (700.35 ± 366.15 mL) was similar to that after HS and DIW (P > .05). Plasma sodium concentration, OSMp, percentage change in plasma volume, thirst, fullness, and nausea did not differ among treatment drinks over time (P > .05). Deionized water (73 ± 14 mm) was more palatable than HS (17 ± 13 mm) or PJ (26 ± 16 mm, P

  4. Exchanging carbohydrate or protein for fat improves lipid-related cardiovascular risk profile in overweight men and women when consumed ad libitum

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Mario; Weigle, David S.; Breen, Patricia A.; Meeuws, Kaatje E.; Burden, Verna R.; Callahan, Holly S.; Matthys, Colleen C.; Purnell, Jonathan Q.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of low-fat diets on the plasma lipoprotein profile is incompletely understood. We conducted two 16-week dietary studies to compare the effects of a moderate fat (mod-FAT) baseline diet with isocaloric and ad libitum low-fat diets rich in either carbohydrates (high-CHO, n=16) or protein (high-PRO, n=19) on plasma lipids, post-heparin lipase activities, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). Switching from the mod-FAT to the isocaloric high-CHO diet lowered plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p<0.001) and tended to increase triglyceride levels (p=0.087). Cholesterol content in the larger, buoyant LDL-fractions decreased while those of the VLDL, IDL, and smaller, denser LDL-fractions tended to increase. These changes were largely reversed when subjects lost weight by consuming this high-CHO diet ad libitum. Switching from the mod-FAT diet to the isocaloric high-PRO diet did not increase cholesterol content in the small dense LDL-fraction, and led to decreases in both LDL- and HDL-cholesterol in plasma (p<0.001 for both). Consumption of the high-PRO ad libitum diet accompanied by weight loss did not change plasma lipids further, except for a shift of cholesterol from dense LDL fractions to more buoyant LDL fractions. CETP concentrations decreased with high-CHO feeding, whereas CETP concentrations and hepatic lipase and PLTP activities all decreased during high-PRO feeding. Both high-CHO and high-PRO diets improve plasma lipid-related risk of cardiovascular disease when consumed ad libitum. PMID:20305576

  5. Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity.

  6. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance.

  7. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R.; Murray, Jeannie A.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive and directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Methods Eleven cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00–22:00h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). Results As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (∆time; range, 0.0–17.4h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min post smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689µg/L, 116µg/L, and 147ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4µg/L, 2.4µg/L, and 87.6ng/L after 10h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Conclusions Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by ∆time and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance. PMID:25220020

  8. Ad libitum fluid replacement in military personnel during a 4-h route march.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich; Noakes, Timothy D; Van Vuuren, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    Opportunities to determine optimal rates of fluid ingestion could reduce the mass soldiers might need to carry on military missions. The first objective was to evaluate the effects of an ad libitum fluid replacement strategy on total body water (TBW), core temperature, serum sodium concentrations [Na+], and plasma osmolality (POsm). The second objective was to determine if an ad libitum water intake was sufficient to maintain these variables during exercise. A third objective was to determine if changes in body mass are an accurate measure of changes in TBW. A field study was conducted with 15 soldiers performing a 16.4-km route march. The average age of 15 subjects was 27 yr (SD = 4.6 yr). Their mean hourly ad libitum fluid intake was 383 mL (SD = 150 mL). Predicted sweat rate was 626 +/-122 mL.h-1. Despite an average body mass loss of 1.0 kg (SD = 0.50 kg) TBW, POsm and serum [Na+] did not change significantly during exercise. There was a significant (P < 0.05) linear relationship with a negative slope between postexercise serum [Na+] and changes in both body mass and percentage of TBW. Postexercise POsm and serum [Na+] were significantly related (P < 0.05). Higher postexercise percentage of TBW was associated with lower postexercise POsm and serum [Na+] levels. There was no relation between percent body mass loss and postexercise core temperature (38.1 degrees C +/- 0.6 degrees C). A mean ad libitum water intake of 383 mL.h-1, replacing approximately 61% of body mass losses during 4 h of exercise, maintained TBW, core temperature, POsm, and serum [Na+] despite a 1.4% body mass loss. A reduction in body mass of 1.4% (1.0 kg) was not associated with a reduction in TBW.

  9. Brisk walking reduces ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters during a workplace simulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2012-02-01

    Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15 years, BMI: 23.56±3.78 kg/m(2) abstained for 2 days. They were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, involving either a 15 min brisk walk or quiet rest, and then computerised Stroop tasks with low or high demanding conditions, in three 180 s blocks with a 90 s interval. Throughout, a pre-weighed bowl of chocolates was available for ad libitum eating. A two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction effect of exercise and stress on total chocolate consumption, or main effect of stress, but a main effect of exercise [F(1, 74)=7.12, p<.01]. Mean (SD) chocolate consumption was less (t(73.5)=2.69, 95% CI for difference 3.4-22.9, ES=0.61) for the exercise (15.6 g) than control (28.8 g) group. Exercise also increased affective activation, but there was no mediating effect of change in affect on chocolate consumption. A brief walk may help to reduce ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative relationship between fasting plasma ghrelin concentrations and ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Salbe, Arline D; Tschöp, Matthias H; DelParigi, Angelo; Venti, Colleen A; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2004-06-01

    Ghrelin is a novel GH secretagogue with orexigenic effects. We hypothesized that high fasting plasma ghrelin concentrations (FxGhr) might predict high ad libitum food intake. FxGhr were measured in 30 normoglycemic subjects: 15 Pima Indians (8 male/7 female; age, 32 +/- 7 yr; body weight, 87 +/- 21 kg; mean +/-sd) and 15 Caucasians (12 male/3 female, 36 +/- 8 yr, 94 +/- 26 kg) in energy balance for 3 d before testing. Subjects then self-selected their food ad libitum for the following 3 d. Mean daily energy intake (DEI) was calculated from the weight of foods consumed and expressed as a percent of weight maintenance energy needs. FxGhr were twice as high in Caucasians as in Pima Indians (103 +/- 53 vs. 52 +/- 18 fmol/ml, P < 0.001) and remained higher after adjustment for age, gender, and body weight (P < 0.0001). Neither DEI, nor percent of weight maintenance energy needs, nor percent of calories from fat differed between the races. In both groups, FxGhr were negatively correlated with DEI (r = -0.61, P = 0.01; r = -0.54, P = 0.04, respectively). These negative relationships were not explained by interindividual differences in age, gender, or body weight. This unexpected finding that low FxGhr predict ad libitum food intake suggests that the role of endogenous ghrelin in the regulation of energy homeostasis remains uncertain.

  11. Increased 24-hour ad libitum food intake is associated with lower plasma irisin concentrations the following morning in adult humans

    PubMed Central

    Schlögl, Mathias; Piaggi, Paolo; Votruba, Susanne B.; Walter, Mary; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between food intake and irisin concentrations in humans is unclear. Objectives To determine whether the previous day’s intake impacts fasting plasma irisin concentrations, or whether fasting irisin concentrations associate with subsequent ad libitum food intake. Methods Sixty-six nondiabetic adults (42 men) were admitted for a study of the determinants of energy intake. After 6 days of a weight maintaining diet, ad libitum energy intake over 3 days was assessed using a vending machine paradigm. Fasting plasma irisin concentrations were measured on the morning of the second day of the vending period. Results There were no correlations between irisin and demographic or anthropometric parameters. On day 1, subjects consumed 144 ± 52% of weight maintaining energy needs. Every additional 500 kcal consumed on day 1 associated with a 3.4% lower irisin concentration the following morning (95% CI −6.2, −0.4%, p = 0.01; adjusted for age, sex and race). If energy intake was expressed as a percentage of weight maintaining energy needs, every 10% increase associated with a 1.9% lower irisin concentration (95% CI −3.7, −0.1%; adjusted p = 0.02). A 100 kcal increase in carbohydrate or fat consumption associated with a 1.3% (95% CI −2.5, −0.1%, p = 0.01) and a 0.6% (95% CI −1.1, −0.0%, p = 0.02) lower irisin concentration, respectively. There was no association between fasting irisin concentrations and subsequent energy intake on day 2 (r = 0.19, p = 0.1). Conclusions Higher ad libitum 24 h energy intake was associated with lower fasting irisin concentrations the following morning, but fasting irisin concentrations did not predict subsequent energy intake. The decrease in irisin concentrations with increased energy intake is consistent with the detrimental metabolic effects of overeating. PMID:25765248

  12. Effects of encapsulated nitrate on eating behavior, rumen fermentation, and blood profile of beef heifers fed restrictively or ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-05-01

    A slow-release form of nitrate (encapsulated nitrate [EN]) was investigated for effects on risk of toxicity, feed consumption rates, and feed sorting behavior in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 5 beef heifers (806 ± 72 kg BW) were fed once daily at 75% of ad libitum intake. Supplementary EN (85.6% DM; 71.4% NO3(-) on a DM basis) was increased by 1% every 4 d from 0 to 1.0, 2.0, 2.9, 3.9, 4.8, and 5.8% of dietary DM (from 10.3 to 15.6% CP and 0.11 to 4.8% total NO3(-)). During the study, a heifer was removed due to nitrate poisoning with 59% blood methemoglobin (MetHb; % of total hemoglobin) at 2.9% EN and another due to refusal to eat the 2% EN diet. When dietary EN increased from 0 to 5.8%, DMI (8.8 to 7.6 kg/d; P < 0.001) and feed consumption from 0 to 3 h were decreased (70.3 to 48.6% of total feed offered on an as-is basis; P = 0.001) and feed consumption from 12 to 24 h was increased (0.6 to 22.6%; P < 0.001). Blood MetHb at 1% EN was negligible (<1.5% of total hemoglobin). However, MetHb levels were greater (average 9.8 vs. 3.1% and maximum 23.6 vs. 13.6% at 3 h) at 2.0 and 2.9% EN than at 3.9, 4.8, and 5.8% EN. In Exp. 2, 8 beef heifers (451 ± 21 kg BW) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed for ad libitum intake, once daily, diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% EN (isonitrogenous, 12.7% CP, and 0.15 to 2.5% total NO3(-) in dietary DM). Each period consisted of 14 d for adaption and 14 d for sampling followed by a 7-d washout. During adaptation, EN was provided to heifers in a stepwise manner (an increase by 1% every 4 d). In Exp. 2 with ad libitum feeding, feed consumption rates were not different (41.8% of total feed consumed from 0 to 3 h; P = 0.56) among EN levels, but DMI tended to decrease linearly (0 to 3% EN; 10.4 to 10.1 kg/d; P = 0.06) and feed was sorted (linear, P < 0.05) against concentrates (containing EN) with EN inclusion. Potential toxicity of nitrate based on blood MetHb was not observed (all samples <2.0% of total hemoglobin

  13. Feed intake of sheep when allowed ad libitum access to feed in methane respiration chambers.

    PubMed

    Bickell, S L; Revell, D K; Toovey, A F; Vercoe, P E

    2014-05-01

    The patterns of feed intake when animals are allowed ad libitum access to feed in a respiration chamber is not known, nor are the potential effects of the artificial environment of chambers on voluntary feed intake. The objectives of the study were to describe the pattern of hourly feed intake of sheep when fed for ad libitum intake in respiration chambers and determine the repeatability of this pattern and the correlation between feed intake and methane production calculated at hourly intervals. Daily and hourly measurements of methane production and feed intake of 47 Merino wethers were measured in respiration chambers twice, 4 wk apart. We found that hourly feed intake of sheep with ad libitum access to feed in respiration chambers showed a repeatable pattern over the 2 measurement periods (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). During both measurements, sheep ate continuously throughout the 23 h period, but most of the eating occurred during the first 8 h in the respiration chambers. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.22) between hourly feed intake and hourly methane production (P < 0.001). An unexpected result from this study was that despite using an accepted and published acclimatization procedure to habituate the animals to the respiration chambers, sheep had 15 to 25% lower feed intake in the respiration chambers compared with their feed intake during the previous week in the animal house pens. In addition, daily feed intake in the respiration chamber was not correlated with feed intake in any of the 7 d before entering the chamber (P > 0.05). Future methane research may consider using feed intake and changes in intake levels as a quantitative indicator of habituation to the methane measurement procedure and environment, which, given the tight association between feed intake and methane production, will be crucial in providing accurate values for methane production.

  14. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  15. Midbrain response to milkshake correlates with ad libitum milkshake intake in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Geha, Paul; Small, Dana M

    2013-01-01

    There is now widespread agreement that individual variation in the neural circuits representing the reinforcing properties of foods may be associated with risk for overeating and obesity. What is currently unknown is how and whether brain response to a food is related to immediate subsequent intake of that food. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether response to a palatable milkshake is associated with subsequent ad libitum milkshake consumption. We predicted that enhanced responses in key reward regions (insula, striatum, midbrain, medial orbitofrontal cortex) and decreased responses in regions implicated in self-control (lateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex) would be associated with greater intake. We found a significant positive association between response to milkshake in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain and ad libitum milkshake intake. Although strong bilateral insular responses were observed during consumption of the milkshake this response did not correlate with subsequent intake. The associations observed in the midbrain and orbitofrontal cortex were uninfluenced by ratings of hunger, which were near neutral. We conclude that midbrain response to a palatable food is related to eating in the absence of hunger.

  16. Midbrain Response to Milkshake Correlates with Ad Libitum Milkshake Intake in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Geha, Paul; Small, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    There is now widespread agreement that individual variation in the neural circuits representing the reinforcing properties of foods may be associated with risk for overeating and obesity. What is currently unknown is how and whether brain response to a food is related to immediate subsequent intake of that food. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether response to a palatable milkshake is associated with subsequent ad libitum milkshake consumption. We predicted that enhanced responses in key reward regions (insula, striatum, midbrain, medial orbitofrontal cortex) and decreased responses in regions implicated in self-control (lateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex) would be associated with greater intake. We found a significant positive association between response to milkshake in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain and ad libitum milkshake intake. Although strong bilateral insular responses were observed during consumption of the milkshake this response did not correlate with subsequent intake. The associations observed in the midbrain and orbitofrontal cortex were uninfluenced by ratings of hunger, which were near neutral. We conclude that midbrain response to a palatable food is related to eating in the absence of hunger. PMID:23064394

  17. Protocol versus ad libitum feeds after laparoscopic pyloromyotomy: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Adibe, Obinna O; Iqbal, Corey W; Sharp, Susan W; Juang, David; Snyder, Charles L; Holcomb, George W; Ostlie, Daniel J; St Peter, Shawn D

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, randomized trial comparing protocol to ad libitum (ad lib) feeding after laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy were randomized to protocol versus ad lib feeding strategies. The protocol started with Pedialyte® two hours post-operative. This was repeated by another round of Pedialyte®, then two rounds of half-strength formula or breast milk, followed by two rounds of full strength formula or breast milk, followed by the home feeding regimen, at which time the patient was discharged if feeding well. The ad lib group was allowed formula or breast milk two hours after the operation and considered for discharge after tolerating three consecutive feeds. The primary outcome variable was the length of postoperative hospitalization. One hundred fifty infants were enrolled between January 2010 and December 2011. There were no differences in patient characteristics at presentation. While the ad lib group reached goal feeds sooner than the protocol group, this did not translate into a difference in duration of postoperative hospitalization. There were more patients with emesis in the ad lib group after goal feeding was reached, but no difference in readmissions. Ad lib feeding allows patients to reach goal feeds more rapidly than protocol feeding following laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. However, this goal is usually reached beyond discharge hours, resulting in a similar duration of hospitalization. © 2014.

  18. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Queiroz, Regina H.C.; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2–0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1–14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106–112 h (4–5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden. PMID:26378131

  19. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Queiroz, Regina H C; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-10-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2-0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1-14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106-112 h (4-5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. High-intensity intermittent exercise attenuates ad-libitum energy intake.

    PubMed

    Sim, A Y; Wallman, K E; Fairchild, T J; Guelfi, K J

    2014-03-01

    To examine the acute effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on energy intake, perceptions of appetite and appetite-related hormones in sedentary, overweight men. Seventeen overweight men (body mass index: 27.7±1.6 kg m(-2); body mass: 89.8±10.1 kg; body fat: 30.0±4.3%; VO(2peak): 39.2±4.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed four 30-min experimental conditions using a randomised counterbalanced design. CON: resting control, MC: continuous moderate-intensity exercise (60% VO(2peak)), HI: high-intensity intermittent exercise (alternating 60 s at 100% VO(2peak) and 240 s at 50% VO(2peak)), VHI: very-high-intensity intermittent exercise (alternating 15 s at 170% VO(2peak) and 60 s at 32% VO(2peak)). Participants consumed a standard caloric meal following exercise/CON and an ad-libitum meal 70 min later. Capillary blood was sampled and perceived appetite assessed at regular time intervals throughout the session. Free-living energy intake and physical activity levels for the experimental day and the day after were also assessed. Ad-libitum energy intake was lower after HI and VHI compared with CON (P=0.038 and P=0.004, respectively), and VHI was also lower than MC (P=0.028). Free-living energy intake in the subsequent 38 h remained less after VHI compared with CON and MC (P≤0.050). These observations were associated with lower active ghrelin (P≤0.050), higher blood lactate (P≤0.014) and higher blood glucose (P≤0.020) after VHI compared with all other trials. Despite higher heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during HI and VHI compared with MC (P≤0.004), ratings of physical activity enjoyment were similar between all the exercise trials (P=0.593). No differences were found in perceived appetite between trials. High-intensity intermittent exercise suppresses subsequent ad-libitum energy intake in overweight inactive men. This format of exercise was found to be well tolerated in an overweight population.

  1. Prescribed Drinking Leads to Better Cycling Performance than Ad Libitum Drinking.

    PubMed

    Bardis, Costas N; Kavouras, Stavros A; Adams, J D; Geladas, Nickos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Sidossis, Labros S

    2017-06-01

    Drinking ad libitum during exercise often leads to dehydration ranging from -1% to -3% of body weight. This article aimed to study the effect of a prescribed hydration protocol matching fluid losses on a simulated 30-km criterium-like cycling performance in the heat (31.6°C ± 0.5°C). Ten elite heat-acclimatized male endurance cyclists (30 ± 5 yr, 76.5 ± 7.2 kg, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, V˙O2peak = 61.3 ± 5.2 mL·min·kg, body fat = 10.5% ± 3.3%, Powermax = 392 ± 33 W) performed three sets of criterium-like cycling, which consisted of a 5-km cycling at 50% power max followed by a 5-km cycling all out at 3% grade (total 30 km). Participants rode the course on two separate occasions and in a counterbalanced order, during either ad libitum drinking (AD; drink water as much as they wished) or prescribed drinking (PD; drink water every 1 km to much fluid losses). To design the fluid intake during PD, participants performed a familiarization trial to calculate fluid losses. After the exercise protocol, the cyclist dehydrated by -0.5% ± 0.3% and -1.8% ± 0.7% of their body weight for the PD and AD trial, respectively. The mean cycling speed for the third bout of the 5-km hill cycling was greater in the PD trial (30.2 ± 2.4 km·h) compared with the AD trial (28.8 ± 2.6 km·h) by 5.1% ± 4.8% (P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal, mean skin, and mean body temperatures immediately after the last hill climbing were greater in the AD compared with the PD trial (P < 0.05). Overall, sweat sensitivity during the three climbing bouts was lower in the AD (15.6 ± 5.7 g·W·m) compared with the PD trial (22.8 ± 3.4 g·W·m, P < 0.05). The data suggested that PD to match fluid losses during exercise in the heat provided a performance advantage because of lower thermoregulatory strain and greater sweating responses.

  2. Effects of ad libitum ingestion of monosodium glutamate on weight gain in C57BL6/J mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueying; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; Kondoh, Takashi; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2011-01-01

    Although the umami compound monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used flavor enhancer, controversy still persists regarding the effects of MSG intake on body weight. It has been claimed, in particular, that chronic MSG intake may result in excessive body weight gain and obesity. In this study we assessed the effects of chronic (16 weeks) ad libitum MSG on body weight and metabolism of C57BL6/J mice. Adult male mice were divided in four experimental groups and fed with either a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet and with either two bottles of plain water or one bottle containing 1% MSG and another one containing water according to a factorial design. Mice were monitored weekly for body weight and food/fluid intake for 15 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the circulating levels of leptin, insulin, total protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, and non-esterified fatty acids were also analyzed. Our results show that MSG intake did not influence body weight in either LF or HF groups. Interestingly, although animals overall displayed strong preferences for MSG against water, preferences were relatively higher in LF compared to HF group. Consistent with the body weight data, while significant differences in leptin, insulin, total cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids were found between HF and LF groups, such an effect was not influenced by MSG intake. Finally, indirect calorimetry measurements revealed similar energy expenditure levels between animals being presented water only and MSG only. In summary, our data does not support the notion that ad libitum MSG intake should trigger the development of obesity or other metabolic abnormalities.

  3. Trained humans can exercise safely in extreme dry heat when drinking water ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D; Van Vuuren, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Guidelines to establish safe environmental exercise conditions are partly based on thermal prescriptive zones. Yet there are reports of self-paced human athletic performances in extreme heat. Eighteen participants undertook a 25-km route march in a dry bulb temperature reaching 44.3°C. The mean (± s) age of the participants was 26.0 ± 3.7 years. Their mean ad libitum water intake was 1264 ± 229 mL · h(-1). Predicted sweat rate was 1789 ± 267 mL · h(-1). Despite an average body mass loss of 2.73 ± 0.98 kg, plasma osmolality and serum sodium concentration did not change significantly during exercise. Total body water fell 1.47 kg during exercise. However, change in body mass did not accurately predict changes in total body water as a 1:1 ratio. There was a significant relationship (negative slope) between post-exercise serum sodium concentration and changes in both body mass and percent total body water. There was no relationship between percent body mass loss and peak exercise core temperature (39 ± 0.9°C) or exercise time. We conclude that participants maintained plasma osmolality, serum sodium concentration, and safe core temperatures by (1) adopting a pacing strategy, (2) high rates of ad libitum water intake, and (3) by a small reduction in total body water to maintain serum sodium concentration. Our findings support the hypothesis that humans are the mammals with the greatest capacity for exercising in extreme heat.

  4. Immunogenicity of ad libitum drinking water administration of bovine serum albumin in Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Ameiss, K A; Danforth, H D; McElroy, A P; Barri, A; Berghman, L R; Caldwell, D J

    2004-09-01

    Oral administration of protein antigen in solution routinely leads to development of oral tolerance in most mammals but has been reported to be fully immunogenic in chickens. Previous studies, including several performed by our laboratory, have demonstrated that oral administration of discrete amounts of BSA for 6 consecutive days is fully immunogenic. This study was performed to determine immunoresponsiveness to protein antigen administered ad libitum at low levels in drinking water compared with i.p. and oral gavage routes of administration. Seven days following the last oral immunization, serum was assayed for IgG, bile for IgA, and tissue culture supernatant from 3 distinct lower intestinal regions for IgG and IgA in immunized and nonimmunized single-comb White Leghorn chickens. Systemic responses in the serum of experimental birds revealed a greater (P < 0.001) IgG response when BSA was administered via i.p. injection or by drinking water compared with gavage administration or nonimmunized controls. Responses measured in bile revealed that BSA administration in the drinking water resulted in a greater (P < 0.001) secretory IgA response compared with i.p. or gavage administration, and negative control groups. Intestinal antigen specific IgG, but not IgA, was elevated (P < 0.05) in all intestinal areas tested in birds immunized against BSA by drinking water and i.p. routes of administration, compared with other experimental groups. Taken together, the present experiments demonstrate that ad libitum drinking water administration of a protein antigen is as effective as i.p. administration or gavage routes of antigen exposure and potentially describe a novel approach to immunization of commercial poultry with purified protein antigens.

  5. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance.

  6. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P <0.01). Using a paired design and a power of 0.8, a minimum of 12 participants would be needed to detect a 10 mm change in 5 h postprandial mean ratings and 17 to detect a 500 kJ difference in ad libitum EI. Intra-individual variability of appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sugar Restriction Leads to Increased Ad Libitum Sugar Intake by Overweight Adolescents in an Experimental Test Meal Setting.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, P<0.05; sugar exposure: b=.034, standard error=.01, P<0.05). Findings suggest that overweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake

  8. Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Stappers, L J N; van Hees, H M J; Gerrits, W J J; Kemp, B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency

  9. Individual fluid plans versus ad libitum on hydration status in minor professional ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Dawn M; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Charles C; LaSalle, Teri L

    2017-01-01

    Despite exercising in cool environments, ice hockey players exhibit several dehydration risk factors. Individualized fluid plans (IFPs) are designed to mitigate dehydration by matching an individual's sweat loss in order to optimize physiological systems and performance. A randomized control trial was used to examine IFP versus ad libitum fluid ingestion on hydration in 11 male minor professional ice hockey players (mean age = 24.4 ± 2.6 years, height = 183.0 ± 4.6 cm, weight = 92.9 ± 7.8 kg). Following baseline measures over 2 practices, participants were randomly assigned to either control (CON) or intervention (INT) for 10 additional practices. CON participants were provided water and/or carbohydrate electrolyte beverage to drink ad libitum. INT participants were instructed to consume water and an electrolyte-enhanced carbohydrate electrolyte beverage to match sweat and sodium losses. Urine specific gravity, urine color, and percent body mass change characterized hydration status. Total fluid consumed during practice was assessed. INT consumed significantly more fluid than CON (1180.8 ± 579.0 ml vs. 788.6 ± 399.7 ml, p = 0.002). However, CON participants replaced only 25.4 ± 12.9% of their fluid needs and INT 35.8 ± 17.5%. Mean percent body mass loss was not significantly different between groups and overall indicated minimal dehydration (<1.2% loss). Pre-practice urine specific gravity indicated CON and INT began hypohydrated (mean = 1.024 ± 0.007 and 1.024 ± 0.006, respectively) and experienced dehydration during practice (post = 1.026 ± 0.006 and 1.027 ± 0.005, respectively, p < 0.001). Urine color increased pre- to post-practice for CON (5 ± 2 to 6 ± 1, p < 0.001) and INT (5 ± 1 to 6 ± 1, p < 0.001). Participants consistently reported to practice hypohydrated. Ad libitum fluid intake was not significantly different than IFP on hydration status. Based on urine measures, both methods were

  10. Alterations in energy balance from an exercise intervention with ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (-1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (-1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI.

  11. Fluid, energy and nutrient recovery via ad libitum intake of different fluids and food.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, Nadia; Iudakhina, Elizaveta; Irwin, Christopher; Schubert, Matthew; Cox, Gregory R; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-03-15

    This study compared the effects of ad libitum consumption of different beverages and foods on fluid retention and nutrient intake following exercise. Ten endurance trained males (mean±SD; Age=25.3±4.9years, VO2max=63.0±7.2mL·kg·min(-1)) performed four trials employing a counterbalanced, crossover design. Following 60min of exercise (matched for energy expenditure and fluid loss) participants consumed either water (W1 and W2), a sports drink (Powerade® (P)) or a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport® (SS)) over a four hour recovery period. Additionally, participants had access to snack foods on two occasions within the first 2h of recovery on all trials. All beverages and food were consumed ad libitum. Total nutrient intake, urine volume, USG, body weight as well as subjective measures of gastrointestinal tolerance and thirst were obtained hourly. Plasma osmolality was measured pre, post, 1 and 4h after exercise. Total fluid volume ingested from food and beverages in W1 (2.28±0.42L) and P (2.82±0.80L) trials were significantly greater than SS (1.94±0.54L). Total urine output was not different between trials (W1=644±202mL, W2=602±352mL, P=879±751mL, SS=466±129mL). No significant differences in net body weight change was observed between trials (W1=0.01±0.28kg, W2=0.08±0.30kg, P=-0.02±0.24kg, SS=-0.05±0.24kg). Total energy intake was higher on P (10,179±1484kJ) and SS (10,577±2210kJ) compared to both water trials (W1=7826±888kJ, W2=7578±1112kJ). With the co-ingestion of food, fluid restoration following exercise is tightly regulated and not influenced by the choice of either water, a carbohydrate-electrolyte (sports drink) or a milk-based beverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term impact of sugar consumption on hunger and ad libitum food intake in young women.

    PubMed

    Penaforte, Fernanda Ro; Japur, Camila C; Pigatto, Letícia P; Chiarello, Paula G; Diez-Garcia, Rosa W

    2013-04-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that greater sugar consumption at breakfast promotes a stronger sensation of hunger and a later increase in energy consumption. The objective was to assess the relation between sugar consumption in a meal and the subsequent sensations of hunger and ad libitum food consumption. Sixteen women consumed a breakfast accompanied by 2 drinks sweetened ad libitum with sugar. After 3 h, a lunch was offered to evaluate ad libitum food consumption. During the period from breakfast to lunch, hunger sensations were evaluated at 30 min intervals. Women were divided according to the median amount of sugar used to sweeten the breakfast drinks (20 g). The group who consumed sugar above the median showed a greater hunger sensation in the preprandial period, and a greater ad libitum intake at lunch (390 ± 130 g × 256 ± 67 g, P = 0.002), compared to the group who had a lower sugar consumption. The amount of sugar consumed at breakfast was correlated positively with the sensation of preprandial hunger and food intake at lunch. We concluded that foods with a high glycemic index can modulate the appetite within a short period of time.

  13. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure.

    PubMed

    Seng, John E; Agrawal, Nalini; Horsley, Elizabeth T M; Leakey, Tatiana I; Scherer, Erin M; Xia, Shijun; Allaben, William T; Leakey, Julian E A

    2003-12-01

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction.

  14. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women.

    PubMed

    Clayton, David J; Burrell, Kirsty; Mynott, Georgina; Creese, Mark; Skidmore, Nicola; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9.3 ± 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 ± 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records. Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P < 0.05) during ER but not significantly different on day 3 (P = 0.557). Subjective appetite was greater during ER on the morning of day 2 (P < 0.05) but was not significantly different thereafter (P > 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P < 0.05), whereas glucose (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 17-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P < 0.01). In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.uk as NCT02696772. © 2016 American Society for

  15. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  16. Effects of experimental negative affect manipulations on ad libitum smoking: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Bryan W; Carpenter, Matthew J; Correa, John B; Wray, Jennifer M; Saladin, Michael E; Froeliger, Brett; Drobes, David J; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the effect of negative affect (NA), when manipulated experimentally, upon smoking as measured within laboratory paradigms. Quantitative meta-analyses tested the effects of NA versus neutral conditions on (1) latency to smoke and (2) number of puffs taken. Twelve experimental studies tested the influence of NA induction, relative to a neutral control condition (n = 1190; range = 24-235). Those providing relevant data contributed to separate random-effects meta-analyses to examine the effects of NA on two primary smoking measures: (1) latency to smoke (nine studies) and (2) number of puffs taken during ad libitum smoking (11 studies). Hedge's g was calculated for all studies through the use of post-NA cue responses relative to post-neutral cue responses. This effect size estimate is similar to Cohen's d, but corrects for small sample size bias. NA reliably decreased latency to smoke (g = -0.14; CI = -0.23 to -0.04; P = 0.007) and increased number of puffs taken (g = 0.14; CI = 0.02 to 0.25; P = 0.02). There was considerable variability across studies for both outcomes (I(2)  = 51 and 65% for latency and consumption, respectively). Potential publication bias was indicated for both outcomes, and adjusted effect sizes were smaller and no longer statistically significant. In experimental laboratory studies of smokers, negative affect appears to reduce latency to smoking and increase number of puffs taken, but this could be due to publication bias. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Independent, additive effects of five dietary variables on ad libitum energy intake in a residential study.

    PubMed

    Urban, Lorien E; McCrory, Megan A; Rasmussen, Helen; Greenberg, Andrew S; Fuss, Paul J; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary characteristics of self-selected foods and energy balance in a cafeteria-style dining hall. Ad libitum dietary intake from a self-selection menu was measured over two days in 151 adults (70% female, mean age 41 years, mean BMI 24.9 kg/m(2) ). The associations of dietary variables with energy balance (calculated as measured energy intake/predicted energy requirements, pER) were assessed. Measured energy intake was significantly correlated with pER (R(2) =0.83, P < 0.001). In mixed multiple regression models, percent energy from protein was negatively associated with energy balance (R(2) =0.04, P = 0.02), and percent energy from liquid sources (R(2)  = 0.02, P = 0.05), total dietary variety in females (R(2)  = 0.39, P < 0.001), and energy density (R(2)  = 0.57, P < 0.001) were positively associated with energy balance. In addition, glycemic index was inversely associated with energy balance in normal-weight individuals (R(2)  = 0.14, P < 0.001) but not in overweight or obese individuals. There are independent associations of dietary protein, liquid calories, energy density, dietary variety, and glycemic index with energy balance, indicating additive effects of these dietary factors on energy intake and energy balance. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether dietary prescriptions combining these dietary factors facilitate long-term prevention of weight gain. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  18. Body composition and energy expenditure predict ad-libitum food and macronutrient intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Weise, C M; Hohenadel, M G; Krakoff, J; Votruba, S B

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. In 184 humans (73 females/111 males; age 34.5±8.8 years; percentage body fat: 31.6±8.1%), we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI, kg m(-2)), FM index (FMI, kg m(-2)); and 24-h energy expenditure (EE, n=127) with ad-libitum food intake using a 3-day vending machine paradigm. Mean daily calories (CAL) and macronutrient intake (PRO, CHO, FAT) were determined and used to calculate the relative caloric contribution of each (%PRO, %CHO, %FAT) and percent of caloric intake over weight maintaining energy needs (%WMENs). FFMI was positively associated with CAL (P<0.0001), PRO (P=0.0001), CHO (P=0.0075) and FAT (P<0.0001). This remained significant after adjusting for FMI. Total EE predicted CAL and macronutrient intake (all P<0.0001). FMI was positively associated with CAL (P=0.019), PRO (P=0.025) and FAT (P=0.0008). In models with both FFMI and FMI, FMI was negatively associated with CAL (P=0.019) and PRO (P=0.033). Both FFMI and FMI were negatively associated with %CHO and positively associated with %FAT (all P<0.001). EE and FFMI (adjusted for FMI) were positively (EE P=0.0085; FFMI P=0.0018) and FMI negatively (P=0.0018; adjusted for FFMI) associated with %WMEN. Food and macronutrient intake are predicted by FFMI and to a lesser degree by FMI. FFM and FM may have opposing effects on energy homeostasis.

  19. Body Composition and Energy Expenditure Predict Ad-Libitum Food and Macronutrient Intake in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Christopher M; Hohenadel, Maximilian G; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. Methods In 184 humans (73F/111M; age 34.5±8.8y; % body fat [PFAT] 31.6±8.1%) we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI kg*m2), FM index (FMI kg*m2;), and 24-hour energy expenditure (EE, n=127) with ad-libitum food intake using a 3d vending machine paradigm. Mean daily calories (CAL), and macronutrient intake (PRO, CHO, FAT) were determined and used to calculate the relative caloric contribution of each (%PRO, %CHO, %FAT) and percent of caloric intake over weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN). Results FFMI was positively associated with CAL (p<0.0001), PRO (p=0.0001), CHO (p=0.0075), and FAT (p<0.0001). This remained significant after adjusting for FMI. Total EE predicted CAL and macronutrient intake (all p<0.0001). FMI was positively associated with CAL (p=0.019), PRO (p=0.025) and FAT (p=0.0008). In models with both FFMI and FMI, FMI was negatively associated with CAL (p=0.019) and PRO (p=0.033). Both FFMI and FMI were negatively associated with %CHO and positively associated with %FAT (all p<0.001). EE and FFMI (adjusted for FMI) were positively (EE p=0.0085; FFMI p=0.0018) and FMI negatively (p=0.0018; adjusted for FFMI) associated with %WMEN. Conclusion Food and macronutrient intake is predicted by FFMI and to a lesser degree by FMI. FFM and FM may have opposing effects on energy homeostasis. PMID:23736368

  20. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  1. Modification of aftertaste with a menthol mouthwash reduces food wanting, liking, and ad libitum intake of potato crisps.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Scott C; Horner, Katy M; Dible, Victoria A; Grigor, John M V; O'Riordan, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated the effect of modifying the aftertaste of potato crisps on (1) temporal sensory perception and (2) appetite using three mouthwash conditions (no mouthwash, a water mouthwash, and a menthol mouthwash). For the sensory study, 17 screened female subjects were trained on the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methodology. Subjects undertook TDS to monitor all sensory attributes during the mastication of a 2 g crisp until swallowing (at 20s), then conducted the mouthwash, and then continued the TDS task to monitor aftertaste until 90s. For the appetite study, 36 subjects (18 male, 18 female) completed 100 mm Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for desire, liking, hunger, and thirst, followed by an ad libitum eating task. For the VAS scales testing, subjects chewed and swallowed a 2 g crisp, and then immediately conducted the mouthwash before completing the VAS scales. For the ad libitum task, subjects were given 12 min to consume as many crisps as they desired on a plate (up to 50 g). Every three minutes they were required to conduct a mouthwash. TDS results showed that in comparison with no mouthwash, the water mouthwash significantly reduced aftertaste attributes such as savoury, salty, and fatty mouthcoating, and the menthol mouthwash significantly increased aftertaste attributes of cooling, minty, and tingly. The water mouthwash did not influence desire and liking of crisps, or hunger and thirst. The water mouthwash did not influence ad libitum intake of the crisps over a 12 min period. The menthol mouthwash significantly reduced desire and liking of the crisps, as well as hunger and thirst. Furthermore, the menthol mouthwash significantly reduced ad libitum crisp intake by 29% over the 12 min period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of hydration status and fluid availability on ad-libitum energy intake of a semi-solid breakfast.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert A; Horina, Anja; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis J

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of hydration status and fluid availability on appetite and energy intake. Sixteen males completed four 24 h trials, visiting the laboratory overnight fasted on two consecutive days. Standardised foods were provided during the 24 h and on day two an ad-libitum semi-solid porridge breakfast was provided. Water intake during the 24 h (0 or 40 mL⋅kg(-1)) and fluid provision during the ad-libitum breakfast were manipulated so subjects were euhydrated with (EU-F) and without fluid (EU-NF) available at breakfast; and hypohydrated with (HYPO-F) and without fluid (HYPO-NF) available at breakfast. Blood samples (0 and 24 h), urine samples (0-24 h) and subjective responses (0, 24 and 24.5 h) were collected. HYPO trials decreased body mass by ~1.8%. Serum and urine osmolality increased and plasma volume decreased during HYPO trials (P <0.001). Total urine output was greater during EU than HYPO trials (P <0.001). Ad-libitum energy intake was not different between trials: 2658 (938) kJ (EU-F), 2353 (643) kJ (EU-NF), 2295 (529) kJ (HYPO-F), 2414 (954) kJ (HYPO-NF), (P = 0.131). Fluid intake was ~200 mL greater during HYPO-F than EU-F (P <0.01). There was an interaction effect for thirst (P < 0.001), but not hunger or fullness. These results demonstrate that mild hypohydration produced by inadequate fluid intake and fluid availability during eating does not influence ad-libitum energy intake of a semi-solid breakfast, at least in healthy young males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-08-28

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use.

  4. Imbalance Between Postprandial Ghrelin and Insulin Responses to an Ad Libitum Meal in Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Japur, Camila Cremonezi; Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda; de Oliveira Penaforte, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Sá, Marcos Felipe Silva

    2014-08-01

    Obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may have impairment in the regulation of food intake associated with ghrelin and insulin. In order to compare postprandial ghrelin and insulin responses to an ad libitum meal, we assessed 30 obese women with PCOS and 23 obese women without PCOS (control group). Blood samples were taken under fasting conditions, preprandially, and 15, 45, 75, and 135 minutes after the beginning of an ad libitum meal and ghrelin and insulin concentrations were analyzed. Insulin resistance (IR) was classified using basal insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and homeostasis model assessment index. Mean ad libitum food intake was similar between the groups (468 ± 150 vs 444 ± 165 g, P = .60). The IR was found in 56.6% in PCOS group compared with 30.4% in the control group (P < .01). The postprandial ghrelin response was similar in both the groups but the insulin area under the curve (AUC) tend to be greater in the PCOS group (12807 ± 8149.4 vs 8654.4 ± 7232.3 μIU/mL/min; P = .057). The ghrelin AUC was negatively correlated with the insulin AUC (r = -.5138; P = .01) only in the control group. The imbalance in the feedback mechanisms between insulin and ghrelin, present in obese women, especially those with IR, may affect food intake throughout the day and that could be a mechanism for the development of obesity in PCOS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme in liver and adipose tissue: effect of dietary trilinolein level in starved-refed and ad libitum-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nace, C S; Szepesi, B; Michaelis, O E

    1979-06-01

    The responses of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) (EC 1.1.1.49) and malic enzyme (ME) (EC 1.1.1.40) were studied in liver and adipose tissue of rats fed for 2 days a high glucose diet containing levels of synthetic trilinolein ranging from 0 to 25% (w/w) of the diet (trilinolein was substituted for glucose). One group of rats was starved for 2 days before the trilinolein-containing diets were fed (starved-refed); a second group of rats was fed a fat-free diet for 7 days before the trilinolein-containing diets were fed (ad libitum). Liver G6PD activity decreased exponentially and liver ME activity decreased linearly with increasing dietary trilinolein in starved-refed rats, but did not decrease significantly in ad libitum fed rats. Total liver lipid decreased exponentially with increasing trilinolein in starved-refed rats, but increased exponentially in ad libitum fed rats. Adipose tissue G6PD and ME activities decreased slightly with increasing trilinolein in starved-refed rats, but did not decrease in ad libitum fed rats. When the data were adjusted by analysis of covariance for differences in glucose intake, the liver responses in starved-refed rats were still significant but the adipose tissue responses were not, indicating that the responses of adipose tissue (but not of liver) may have resulted from decreased glucose intake rather than from increased trilinolein intake. The results suggest that dietary trilinolein inhibits the characteristic increase in liver G6PD, ME and total lipids upon starvation-refeeding. However, after the levels of these parameters have been increased by feeding a fat-free diet they cannot be decreased by dietary trilinolein in 2 days.

  6. Reproducibility of an in-laboratory test meal to assess ad libitum energy intake in adolescents with obesity.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Genin, Pauline Manon; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Pereira, Bruno; Metz, Lore

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to test the reproducibility of a personalized in-laboratory ad libitum buffet meal in assessing energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents. Twelve 13.5 ± 1.5 years old obese adolescent girls were asked to complete three identical experimental sessions during which an ad libitum buffet meal was presented at lunch time. The buffet was personalized based on food preference questionnaires, presented usually consumed food items and excluded preferred foods. Total energy intake and the energy ingested derived from each macronutrient were assessed by investigators using the Bilnuts nutritional software. Mean body mass was 87.0 ± 13.7 kg and mean BMI was 32.2 ± 4.9 kg/m(2). Mean FM percentage was 39.1 ± 4.4% and FFM was 50.6 ± 7.7 kg. There was no significant difference between total energy intake, the percentage of intake related to fat, protein or Carbohydrates (CHO) between the three sessions. The Intraclass Correlations (ICC) observed for total energy intake was 0.99. ICC for Protein, Fat and CHO were 0.38; 0.96 and 0.81 respectively. The Bland & Altman visual analysis revealed an important agreement between meals. The proposed personalized in-laboratory ad libitum test meal produces is a reproducible methods to assess energy and macronutrients intake in obese adolescent girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating.

    PubMed

    Piaggi, Paolo; Thearle, Marie S; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2015-08-01

    Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m(2); body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R(2) = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R(2) = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m(2) or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake.

  8. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. Methods: This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). Results: The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. Conclusions: These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Implications: Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and

  9. Fattening Holstein heifers by feeding high-moisture corn (whole or ground) ad libitum separately from concentrate and straw.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Quintana, B; Aris, A; Bach, A

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of high-moisture corn (HMC), either whole or ground, fed separately from concentrate and straw on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, whole tract digestibility, and nitrogen balance. Twenty-four Holstein heifers (199 ± 5.5 kg BW and 157 ± 6.9 d age) housed in individual pens were assigned to 3 treatments: 1) whole (unprocessed) HMC fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (WHMC); 2) HMC ground through a 0.4-cm screen before ensiling and fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (GHMC); and 3) a concentrate composed of mainly corn meal, ground through a roller mill with screen openings of 6 mm, and barley straw, both fed separately and ad libitum (Control). Concentrate, HMC, and straw were offered separately ad libitum in a free-choice situation and consumption was recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. Apparent nutrient digestibility and N balance were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. At the same time points, rumen fluid was collected through rumenocentesis to determine rumen pH and VFA concentrations. Feeding behavior was monitored throughout the study. Animals were harvested after 134 d and HCW, rumen and cecum wall lesions, and liver abscesses were recorded. Treatment did not affect total DMI, feed efficiency, ADG, final BW, and carcass weight or classification. Concentrate consumption (6.6 ± 0.35 kg/d) of Control heifers was greater ( < 0.001) than that of GHMC (4.1 ± 0.35 kg/d) and WHMC heifers (2.8 ± 0.35 kg/d), and GHMC heifers consumed less ( < 0.001) HMC than WHMC heifers (2.3 ± 0.31 and 4.2 ± 0.31 kg/d, respectively). Dietary treatments did not affect rumination, self-grooming, nonnutritive oral behaviors, and rumen pH. However, rumen acetate to propionate ratio decreased when heifers received HMC (1.77 ± 0.276) compared with when heifers received the Control (2.82 ± 0.276). Total

  10. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf; Lüdicke, Frank

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4 ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and combustion by heating tobacco at a much lower temperature

  11. Minimum length of the adaptation and collection period in digestibility trials with sheep fed ad libitum only forage or forage plus concentrate.

    PubMed

    Farenzena, R; Kozloski, G V; Gindri, M; Stefanello, S

    2017-10-01

    Two in vivo digestibility trials with sheep were conducted to identify the minimum period length of feeding a new diet to obtain reproducible values of nutritional variables onward and the minimum length of collection period as to obtain maximal precision for each variable. Trial 1 was conducted with ten Polwarth male sheep (34 ± 5 kg body weight (BW)) throughout three 21-day periods, in a completely randomized two-way crossover design. The animals were divided into two groups (Group A and B, n = 5 per group) which were fed ad libitum with a sequence of the following diets throughout the periods: Group A: hay - hay plus concentrate - hay; Group B: hay plus concentrate - hay - hay plus concentrate. The concentrate was included in a proportion of 0.33 of the total diet. The intake, and the faecal and urinary excretion were measured daily throughout the experiment. For evaluating rumen fermentation variables, in Trial 2 four Santa Inês male sheep (65 ± 5 kg BW) fitted with ruminal cannula were used. The animals were randomly divided into two groups (n = 2 per group), and the trial was conducted through four 21 days experimental period, in a three-way crossover design, using experimental diets and feeding management similar to Trial 1. The results indicated that, even though no clear or consistent steady-state condition was identified for rumen fermentation or urinary excretion variables, the adaptation period for measuring OM digestibility in in vivo trials with sheep fed ad libitum where the diet shifts from one of only hay to another containing concentrate, or vice-versa, should be at least 12 days long. Moreover, although no precision improvement was obtained by increasing the collection period above 1 day for measuring OM digestibility, the minimal length of collection period should be 4 days for measuring faecal excretion variables and 7 days for measuring urinary excretion variables. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016

  12. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  13. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-02-01

    Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval -54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone-acylated ghrelin during the afternoon

  14. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval −54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=−1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval −1645 kJ, −2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine–tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of

  15. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, N T; Belza, A; Jensen, M G; Ritz, C; Bitz, C; Hels, O; Frandsen, E; Mela, D J; Astrup, A

    2013-02-14

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.

  16. Leptin extends the anorectic effects of chronic PYY(3-36) administration in ad libitum-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Unniappan, Suraj; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Acute administration of peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] results in a reduction in food intake in several different vertebrates. However, long-term continuous administration of PYY(3-36) causes only a transient reduction in food intake, thus potentially limiting its therapeutic efficacy. We hypothesized that a fall in leptin levels associated with reduced food intake could contribute to the transient anorectic effects of continuous PYY(3-36) infusion and thus that leptin replacement might prolong the anorectic effects of PYY(3-36). Seven-day administration of 100 microg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1) PYY(3-36) using osmotic minipumps caused a significant reduction in food intake of ad libitum-fed rats, but only for the first 2 days postimplantation. Circulating levels of leptin were reduced 1 day following continuous infusion of PYY(3-36), and combined leptin infusion at a dose of leptin that had no anorectic effects on its own (100 microg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1)) prolonged the anorectic actions of PYY(3-36) in ad libitum-fed rats for up to 6 days postimplantation and yielded reduced weight gain compared with either peptide alone. The inhibitory effects of 100 microg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1) PYY(3-36) on food intake were absent in rats refed after a 24-h fast and substantially reduced at a dose of 1,000 microg x kg body wt(-1) x day(-1) PYY(3-36). Leptin replacement was unable to recover the anorectic effects of PYY(3-36) in fasted rats. Our results suggest that an acute fall in leptin levels is not solely responsible for limiting duration of action of chronic PYY(3-36) infusion, yet chronic coadministration of a subanorectic dose of leptin can extend the anorectic effects of PYY(3-36).

  17. Influence of a pig respiratory disease on the pharmacokinetic behaviour of amoxicillin after oral ad libitum administration in medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Godoy, C; Castells, G; Martí, G; Capece, B P S; Pérez, F; Colom, H; Cristòfol, C

    2011-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin in healthy and respiratory-diseased pigs were studied, after ad libitum administration of medicated feed. In addition, amoxicillin dose linearity and drug penetration into respiratory tract tissues were evaluated in diseased animals. The respiratory disease involves porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and bacterial agents such as Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis. Typical clinical signs and gross lesions of respiratory disease were observed. The plasma pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by means of a noncompartmental approach. After single intravenous bolus administration of amoxicillin to healthy pigs, the steady-state volume of distribution was 0.61 L/kg, the total plasma clearance was 0.83 L/h/kg and the mean residence time was 0.81 h. After oral bolus administration, the mean absorption time was 1.6 h and the peak plasma concentration (3.09 μg/mL) reached at 1.1 h postadministration. The oral bioavailability was 34%. For oral ad libitum administration, plasma concentration-time profiles were related to the feeding behaviour. Plasma concentrations at steady-state were established between 12 and 120 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated (C(maxss) , C(minss) , C(avss) and AUC(24ss) ) showed significantly lower values in healthy pigs compared to diseased animals. This was in accordance with the significantly higher amoxicillin bioavailability (44.7% vs. 14.1%) and longer absorption period observed in diseased pigs. Amoxicillin dose linearity in diseased animals was established in a dose range of 4-18 mg/kg. On the other hand, tissue distribution ratio in diseased animals was 0.65 for bronchial mucosa, 0.48 for lung tissue and 0.38 for lymph nodes. Our results suggest that the pharmacokinetic properties and disposition of amoxicillin can be influenced by the disease state or by related factors such as changes in the gastrointestinal transit.

  18. Control of feeding in aplysia with ad libitum access to food: presence of food increases the intervals between feeding bouts.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Itay; Harel, Anat; Markowitz, Silvia; Noy, Ohad; Susswein, Abraham J

    2006-01-01

    The patterning of feeding and the quantity eaten in Aplysia californica with ad libitum food access cannot be explained by the effects of three variables previously shown to control the patterning of consummatory feeding responses and the quantity eaten in animals hand-fed individual meals. Feeding in ad libitum conditions is regulated primarily by varying the time between feeding bouts rather than by modulating bout lengths or the efficacy of consummatory movements within a bout. Aplysia with steady-state food access are in a newly characterized feeding state in which they are relatively unresponsive to food. They eat very little (1-4% of the time), and the quantity eaten is unrelated to the quantity of food in the anterior gut. The steady state can be maintained by the presence of food, even if animals do not contact food. The chemosensory rhinophores signal the presence of food that maintains the steady state. Up to 24 h without food is needed for animals to recover from the inhibition of feeding by steady-state presence of food. Recovery from the steady state is partially governed by postingestion stimuli as shown by a faster recovery in animals that have not been in contact with food. Inhibition of feeding during the steady-state is mediated in part via humoral factors because bathing the cerebral and buccal ganglia in hemolymph from animals in the steady state inhibits the ability to elicit buccal motor programs via a cholinomimetic thought to simulate stimulation of the lips with food. After food deprivation that is sufficiently long so that the steady-state decays, animals eat a large meal the size and dynamics of which are consistent with regulation via the three variables previously identified. This large meal is modulated by pheromones secreted by conspecifics even in sexually immature Aplysia.

  19. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  20. Perseveration augments the effects of cognitive restraint on ad libitum food intake in adults seeking weight loss.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alexis L; Gluck, Marci E; Votruba, Susanne B; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S

    2014-11-01

    As executive function may influence eating behaviors, our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predict ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. 78 obese, healthy individuals (40 female/38 male; age 36 ± 10 y; BMI 37.8 ± 7.2 kg/m(2)) completed the Iowa Gambling Task to evaluate decision making, the Stroop Word Color Task to assess attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task to measure perseveration, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire to measure disinhibition and cognitive restraint. Ad libitum energy intake over 3-days was then collected using a validated vending paradigm. When expressed as a percentage of an individual's weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN), intake correlated positively with perseveration (r=0.24, p=0.03) and negatively with restraint (r=-0.51, p<0.0001). In a regression model of %WMEN (r(2)=0.59, p<0.0001), an interaction between perseveration and restraint was observed (p=0.05). Increased perseveration intensified the effect of restraint such that subjects with both high restraint and perseveration ate the least (median (IQR)=70 (62, 94) %WMEN), while those with low restraint and high perseveration ate the most (130 (102, 153) %WMEN). Subjects with low perseveration and high versus low restraint ate a median of 84 (70, 86) and 112 (98, 133) %WMEN, respectively. The effects of perseveration on food intake are conditional on restraint, and may contribute to extremes of dietary intake in some individuals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effects of modified foodservice practices in military dining facilities on ad libitum nutritional intake of US army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Aaron P; Funderburk, LesLee K; Smith, Tracey J; McGraw, Susan M; Walker, Leila A; Champagne, Catherine M; Allen, H Raymond; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, Holly L; Young, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    Modifying foodservice practices in military dining facilities could influence ad libitum nutritional intake patterns of soldiers. We aimed to determine how changes in foodservice operations consistent with 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans affected soldiers' ad libitum nutritional intake in military dining facilities (DFACs). Ten DFACs participated, and the intervention was implemented in five DFACs in an independently sampled, partial crossover design. Nutrient intake of diners was assessed during a test meal using digital photography, and customer satisfaction with foodservice was assessed via surveys at baseline (n=602), and again at 6 months (n=519) and 12 months (n=458) after the intervention was implemented. Volunteers were US Army active duty soldiers recruited from among diners at 10 DFACs on Fort Bragg, NC. Primary outcomes were intakes of energy and total fat, and percent energy from fat and saturated fat. Differences between diners' intakes in control and intervention DFACs were assessed using independent samples t tests. At 6 months after implementing the intervention, diners at intervention DFACs had significantly lower lunchtime intakes of energy (945±338 kcal vs 1,061±380 kcal), total fat (38±19 g vs 47±25 g), percent energy from fat (35%±10% vs 39%±11%) and saturated fat (4.7%±1.7% vs 5.6%±2.3%), discretionary fat (30±18 g vs 39±24 g), and refined grains (2.3±1.7 oz equivalents vs 2.8±2.4 oz equivalents) compared with diners at control DFACs. Further, diners at intervention DFACs rated customer satisfaction higher than diners at control DFACs. These findings suggest that modest changes in military DFAC serving practices to promote healthy eating and food selection can facilitate positive changes in soldiers' nutritional intake. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Net flux of nutrients across splanchnic tissues in wethers consuming grasses of different sources and physical forms ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Goetsch, A L; Patil, A R; Galloway, D L; Kouakou, B; Wang, Z S; Park, K K; Rossi, J E

    1997-05-01

    Crossbred sheep (n 16, 8.5 months of age and 33 (SE 0.9) kg) were used in a 21 d experiment (2 x 2 factorial) to determine effects on net flux of nutrients across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver of ad libitum consumption of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon; B) v. ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)-wheat (Triticum aestivum; RW) hay, coarsely chopped (CC) or finely ground and pelleted (GP). Crude protein concentrations were 86, 81, 113 and 119 g/kg and neutral-detergent fibre concentrations were 710, 688, 654 and 672 g/kg (dry matter basis) for B-CC, B-GP, RW-CC and RW-GP respectively. Digestible energy intake (6.0, 9.6, 10.2 and 13.8 MJ/d) differed (P < 0.01) with grass source and form, and digestible N intake values were 4.4, 7.0, 8.4 and 14.1 (SEM 0.82) g/d for B-CC, B-GP, RW-CC and RW-GP diets respectively. Consumption of O2 by the PDV (118, 165, 144 and 155 mmol/h) and splanchnic bed (196, 273, 247 and 266 mmol/h for B-CC, B-GP, RW-CC and RW-GP respectively) was greater (P = 0.07) for GP than for CC. The ratio splanchnic heat energy production: digestible energy intake was greater (P = 0.06) for B than for RW (0.374, 0.300, 0.278 and 0.219 for B-CC, B-GP, RW-CC and RW-GP respectively). alpha-Amino-N release by the PDV (P < 0.01; 11.6, 12.8, 23.0 and 18.7 mmol/h) and uptake by the liver (P = 0.07; 15.2, 6.1, 17.0 and 19.3 mmol/h for B-CC, B-GP, RW-CC and RW-GP respectively) were greater for RW than for B. Release of NH3-N by the PDV was greater (P = 0.02) for CC than for GP (12.5, 6.2, 15.7 and 8.9 mmol/h), and hepatic urea-N release differed between grass sources (P = 0.03) and physical forms (P = 0.07; 22.6, 12.7, 31.4 and 24.8 mmol/h for B-CC, B-GP, RW-CC and RW-GP respectively). In conclusion, decrease in forage particle size elicited by grinding and pelleting did not affect the difference between grass sources in splanchnic tissue heat energy production relative to digestible energy intake.

  3. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ("Ad lib") larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ("Ration") larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V(total) (Control, "C"), 109 ppm (Low, "L"), and 363 ppm (High, "H"). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at alpha=0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited.

  4. Individual differences in acute alcohol impairment of inhibitory control predict ad libitum alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Research has begun to examine how acute cognitive impairment from alcohol could contribute to alcohol abuse. Specifically, alcohol-induced impairment of inhibitory control could compromise the drinker’s ability to stop the self-administration of alcohol, increasing the risk of binge drinking. Objective The present study was designed to test this hypothesis by examining the relation between acute alcohol impairment of inhibitory control and alcohol consumption during a single drinking episode. Materials and methods Twenty-six healthy adults performed a cued go/no-go task that measured inhibitory control. The study tested the degree to which their inhibitory control was impaired by a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) versus a placebo and the extent to which individual differences in this impairment predicted levels of alcohol consumption as assessed by ad lib drinking in the laboratory. Results In accord with the hypothesis, greater impairment of inhibitory control from alcohol was associated with increased ad lib consumption. Conclusion Acute impairment of inhibitory control might be an important cognitive effect that contributes to abuse in addition to the positive rewarding effects of the drug. PMID:18758758

  5. Perseveration Augments the Effects of Cognitive Restraint on ad libitum Food Intake in Adults Seeking Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Alexis L.; Gluck, Marci E.; Votruba, Suzanne B.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Differences in executive function have been associated with eating behaviors. Our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predicted ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. METHODS This cross-sectional study involved 78 obese, otherwise healthy, individuals (40 female /38 male; age 36±10y; BMI 37.8±7.2 kg/m2) enrolled in weight loss studies, but prior to any intervention. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task to evaluate decision making, the Stroop Word Color Task to assess attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) to measure perseverative errors, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) to measure disinhibition and cognitive restraint. Ad libitum energy intake over 3-days was then collected using a validated vending paradigm. RESULTS Only results from the WCST and the TFEQ correlated with mean daily energy intake. When expressed as a percentage of an individual's calculated weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN; [mean daily energy consumed/WMEN]*100), intake correlated positively with number of perseverative errors (r = 0.24, p = 0.03) and negatively with cognitive restraint (r2 = −0.51, p<0.0001). In a regression model of %WMEN (r2 = 0.59, p<0.0001) including age, sex, race, disinhibition, restraint, and perseverative error T-score, an interaction between perseveration and restraint was observed (p = 0.05). Greater numbers of perseverative errors intensified the effect of restraint such that subjects with both high restraint and high perseveration, per manual-defined cut-offs, ate the least (median (IQR) = 70 (62, 94) % WMEN), while those with low restraint and high perseveration ate the most (130 (102, 153) %WMEN). Subjects with low perseveration and high versus low restraint ate a median of 84 (70, 86) and 112 (98, 133) %WMEN, respectively. CONCLUSION In obese subjects seeking weight loss, the effects of perseveration on food intake are conditional on the level of dietary restraint, and

  6. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  7. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    PubMed

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal.

  8. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of coprophagy in the adult rat on rate of passage of digesta and on digestibility of food fed ad libitum and in restricted amounts.

    PubMed

    Williams, V J; Senior, W

    1985-09-01

    The rate of passage of digesta and the digestibility of a nonpurified diet were studied in adult female rats prevented from coprophagy on alternate weeks by confinement to their normal feeding tunnels in metabolism cages. In food-restricted rats a decrease in the time for the first appearance in the feces of a digesta marker was noted when prevention of coprophagy was followed by permitting rats to feed on their feces while being maintained on a restricted food intake, as compared to control rats permitted coprophagy throughout. The prevention of coprophagy had no effect on the rate of passage of digesta along the small intestine. The prevention of coprophagy had no effect on the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, energy or protein when the rats were fed ad libitum. However, when rats had lost 20% or more of their body weight by restricted feeding, digestibility of the measured constituents of the food offered in restricted amounts increased, but this effect was abolished when coprophagy was prevented.

  10. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  11. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  12. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself. PMID:23055994

  13. Facing temptation in the bar: counteracting the effects of self-control failure on young adults' ad libitum alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Otten, Roy; Cladder-Micus, Mira B; Pouwels, J Loes; Hennig, Maximilian; Schuurmans, Angela A T; Hermans, Roel C J

    2014-05-01

    The self-control strength model suggests that exertion of self-control leads to poorer subsequent self-control performance. Failure of self-control has been suggested as an important underlying mechanism of excessive drinking. This study tested the effects of self-control failure on ad libitum drinking, and the potential moderating role of glucose and self-awareness on this relationship. The current research examined in two experiments whether the effects of self-control failure were different for males and females, and whether glucose (experiment 1) and self-awareness (experiment 2) would counteract the effects of self-control failure. A between-participants design with four conditions was employed in each experiment. A semi-naturalistic drinking setting in the form of a laboratory bar. Undergraduate students recruited at Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands (experiment 1: n = 106; experiment 2: n = 108). The total amount of alcohol consumed during an experimental break (observational data) and questionnaire data on drinking patterns. Self-control failure led to increased levels of drinking in males (P < 0.05), whereas females drank less after being depleted (P < 0.01). Self-awareness, but not glucose, was found to counteract the effects of self-control failure among males (P < 0.05). Self-control failure leads to increased drinking of alcohol in males and decreased levels of drinking alcohol in females. However, increasing self-awareness appears to be a promising strategy in facing the temptation to drink when cognitive resources to inhibit intake are low. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p <0.05), fat mass, skinfold thicknesses and the volume of the arm remained unchanged (p >0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p <0.05). The decrease in the lower leg volume was unrelated to fluid intake (p >0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  15. Circadian variation in heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and EEG of immature broiler breeder chickens in restricted-fed and ad libitum-fed states.

    PubMed

    Savory, C J; Kostal, L; Nevison, I M

    2006-10-01

    1. Heart rate, intra-aortic blood pressure, deep body temperature and telencephalic EEG were monitored by radiotelemetry in 6 freely moving immature broiler breeders (three in each of two years), during routine food restriction and then ad libitum feeding, over two 24-h periods in each feeding state.2. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were all higher during ad libitum than restricted feeding, and heart rate and body temperature were higher by day (12 h) than at night (12 h). The decreases in heart rate and body temperature at night were greater during restricted than ad libitum feeding. Blood pressure tended to be higher at night, except in year 2 during restricted feeding. Body temperature and ambient temperature were higher in year 2 than year 1.3. During restricted feeding, marked peaks in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature in the 15 min after provision of the daily food ration at 09:00 h, when birds were eating, were equivalent to corresponding values seen during ad libitum feeding.4. Relative powers in delta (1 to 4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) frequency bands of the EEG power spectrum were higher at night in year 2 only, while power in the alpha (8 to 12 Hz) band was higher at night in both years.5. It is concluded that most of the variation in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature between feeding states and times of day/night can be accounted for in terms of variation in food intake and energy expenditure. The greater slow wave (delta, theta) EEG activity seen after lights-off in year 2 may reflect non-paradoxical sleep at that time.

  16. Effect of ad Libitum Ice-Slurry and Cold-Fluid Ingestion on Cycling Time-Trial Performance in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Maunder, Ed; Laursen, Paul B; Kilding, Andrew E

    2017-01-01

    To compare the physiological and performance effects of ad libitum cold-fluid (CF) and ice-slurry (IS) ingestion on cycling time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Seven well-trained male triathletes and cyclists completed 2 maximaleffort 40-km cycling TTs in hot (35°C) and humid (60% relative humidity) conditions. In randomized order, participants ingested CF or IS (initial temperatures 4°C and -1°C, respectively) ad libitum during exercise. At each 5-km interval, time elapsed, power output, rectal and skin temperature, heart rate, and perceptual measures were recorded. The actual CF and IS temperatures during the 40-km TT were determined post hoc. Performance time (2.5% ± 2.6%, ES = 0.27) and mean power (-2.2% ± 3.2%, ES = -0.15) were likely worse in the IS trial. Differences in thermoregulatory and cardiovascular measures were largely unclear between trials, while feeling state was worse in the later stages of the IS trial (ES = -0.31 to -0.95). Fluid-ingestion volume was very likely lower in the IS trial (-29.7% ± 19.4%, ES = -0.97). The temperatures of CF and IS increased by 0.37°C/min and 0.02°C/min, respectively, over the mean TT duration. Ad libitum ingestion of CF resulted in improved 40-km cycling TT performance compared with IS. Participants chose greater fluid-ingestion rates in the CF trial than in the IS trial and had improved feeling state. These findings suggest that ad libitum CF ingestion is preferable to IS during cycling TTs under conditions of environmental heat stress.

  17. Effects of a high-fat meal on postprandial incretin responses, appetite scores and ad libitum energy intake in women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Penaforte, Fernanda Rodrigues O; Japur, Camila C; Diez-Garcia, Rosa W; Chiarello, Paula G

    2017-03-30

    Considering the possible role of triglycerides (TG), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the regulation of appetite, this study aimed to compare high fat meal-induced response of GIP and GLP-1, appetite scores and ad libitum energy intake in women with obesity, according to postprandial increment in triglyceridemia (∆TG).  Methods: Thirty-three no-diabetic women (BMI = 35.0 ± 3.2 kg.m-2) were divided into two groups: Group with ∆TG ≤ median were called "Low TG change -LTG" and ∆TG > median, "High TG change - HTG". Plasma concentrations of GIP, GLP-1 and appetite sensations were measured prior to, and every 30 min for 180 min after ingestion of a high-fat breakfast. An ad libitum lunch was served 3 h after the test meal. The AUC incrementalGIP were significant lower in HTG vs. LTG group (p = 0.03). The same was observed for GIP levels at 150 min (p = 0.03) and at 180 min (p < 0.01). Satiety was lower in HTG at 120 min (p = 0.03) and 150 min (p < 0.01). The AUC totalGLP1 were similar between groups and there were no between-group differences for the GLP-1 at each time point. Ad libitum food intake were also similar between groups. The HTG group exhibited differences in satiety scores and lower postprandial secretion of GIP, however with no impact on ad libitum food intake in short term.

  18. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior.

  19. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  20. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-04

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  1. Episodic Sucrose Intake During Food Restriction Increases Synaptic Abundance of AMPA Receptors in Nucleus Accumbens and Augments Intake of Sucrose Following Restoration of Ad Libitum Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xing-Xiang; Lister, Amanda; Rabinowitsch, Ariana; Kolaric, Rhonda; de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Ziff, Edward B.; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic “breakthrough” intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for ten occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-hour chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  2. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    Kontrollgruppe eher der amerikanischen Idealgruppe entsprach. In der Pilot-Studie waren die Unterschiede in der Nährstoffzufuhr zwischen den beiden Gruppen viel geringer als in der DASH-Studie; für eine blutdrucksenkende Ernährungsumstellung bestand somit nur ein geringer Spielraum. Eine weitere Erklärung besteht in der unterschiedlichen Zusammensetzung der Studienpopulation. Bei DASH wurden vorwiegend farbige Probanden (40% höhere Hypertonieprävalenz) untersucht. Die Studienergebnisse lassen also den Schluss zu, dass Ernährungs- und Lebensstilgewohnheiten sowie der genetische Hintergrund der entsprechenden Bevölkerungsgruppe bei der Formulierung von nährstoff- oder lebensmittelbezogenen Empfehlungen zur Senkung des Bluthochdruckes Berücksichtigung finden müssen. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial (DASH), a randomized well-controlled feeding study conducted at 4 medical centers, demonstrated that a low-fat diet, rich in fruits, vegetables and dairy products is able to lower blood pressure of borderline-hypertensive people significantly. Body weight, sodium intake and alcohol consumption were kept constant during the whole study period, due to the known influence on hypertension. Aim of our study project was to investigate whether the results of the DASH study can be confirmed by (i) using a German hypertensive population and (ii) replacing the well-controlled feeding design by allowing ad libitum intake according to dietary ad-vice. The participants were asked to keep their body weight, sodium urine excretion (un-der this study design more valid than sodium intake) and their alcohol consumption con-stant. Our pilot study population consisted of 53 mainly overweight participants with borderline hypertension and without medication or any metabolic disorders. They were randomly assigned to either an ideal diet low in fat and rich in dairy products, fruits and vegetables (similar to the DASH I-group) or a habitual diet as control (C-group). During five

  3. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  4. Impact of fluid restriction and ad libitum water intake or an 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on skill performance of elite adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Oliveira, Bruno; Barros, Renata; Padrão, Patricia; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo

    2011-06-01

    Twelve adolescent athletes underwent, in a crossover-design study, 3 separate 90-min training sessions in the following conditions: no fluid ingestion allowed (NF), ad libitum ingestion of water (W), and ad libitum ingestion of a commercial 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverage (CSB). After each session athletes performed a set of basketball drills (2-point, 3-point, and free-throw shootout, suicide sprints, and defensive zigzags). Body weight (before and after sessions), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), urine color, and beverage acceptability were determined in each session. Athletes also completed a survey about their knowledge and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement. The percentage of weight loss was significantly higher in NF (2.46% ± 0.87%) than in the other 2 conditions (W, 1.08% ± 0.67%, p = .006; CSB, 0.65% ± 0.62%, p = .001) but also higher in W than CSB (p = .012). RPE was higher in NF (16.8 ± 1.96) than in the W (14.2 ± 1.99, p = .004) and CSB (13.3 ± 2.06, p = .002) trials. Athletes' fluid intake was positively correlated with proper self-reported behaviors (r = .75, p = .005) and knowledge (r = .76, p = .004) about fluid and hydration. In conclusion, fluid restriction during exercise was associated with a greater level of dehydration and increased perceived exertion but had no impact on basketball performance compared with ad libitum drinking of water or a CSB. Athletes with more knowledge about hydration and better self-reported hydration behaviors ingested more fluids during training sessions.

  5. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  6. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink.

  7. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial1

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. Objective: We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. Design: We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)–sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. Results: In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P < 0.003 for each), with no difference between the fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject’s estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). Conclusions: In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The

  8. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P < 0.003 for each), with no difference between the fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject's estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals consuming

  9. Total Body Water, Electrolyte, and Thermoregulatory Responses to Ad Libitum Water Replacement Using Two Different Water Delivery Systems During a 19-km Route March.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Nolte, Kim; van der Meulen, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Hands-free hydration systems are often advocated for improved hydration and performance in military populations. The aim was to assess whether such systems indeed result in improved hydration in exercising soldiers. Subjects were required to complete a route march while consuming water ad libitum from either a hydration bladder (BG) or traditional canteen (CG). Water intakes of 538 ml·h⁻¹ (BG) and 533 ml·h⁻¹ (CG) resulted in no differences for changes in body mass, serum [Na], plasma osmolality, total body water, or time required to complete the march. There were no differences between peak exercise core temperature of the BG (38.9° C) and CG (38.7° C) groups. There were no differences between the groups for fluid balance, thermoregulation, or performance. This is a not a surprising finding because the amount of fluid consumed ad libitum is determined by changes in serum osmolality and not the fluid delivery system as often proposed.

  10. Voluntary feed intake and leptin sensitivity in ad libitum fed obese ponies following a period of restricted feeding: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Swennen, Q; Janssens, G P J

    2013-08-01

    The relation between plasma leptin and daily ad libitum roughage intake was evaluated during a 14-day period in eight obese Shetland ponies. When the feeding strategy was changed from maintenance feeding to ad libitum feeding, feed intake increased the first day, decreased the second day and increased again during the following days to reach a constant level after 8 days. Plasma leptin concentration increased during the first 2 days, but remained constant afterwards. Although the same pattern was found in all ponies, the magnitude of the increase in leptin on day 1 and the resulting decrease in feed intake on day 2 differed between ponies. A lower anorectic effect was seen in ponies with higher initial leptin concentration, suggesting the presence of different degrees in leptin sensitivity in obese ponies. High leptin production in a attempt to compensate for the decrease in leptin sensitivity might explain large variations in plasma leptin among obese ponies with similar body condition score. Further research is necessary to clarify whether the reduced leptin sensitivity precedes obesity in equines or vice versa. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  12. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  13. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  14. The Influence of a Mouthpiece-Based Topography Measurement Device on Electronic Cigarette User's Plasma Nicotine Concentration, Heart Rate, and Subjective Effects Under Directed and Ad Libitum Use Conditions.

    PubMed

    Spindle, Tory R; Hiler, Marzena M; Breland, Alison B; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed in 29 experienced e-cigarette users using their preferred e-cigarette battery and liquid (≥12mg/mL nicotine) in two sessions differing only by the presence of a mouthpiece-based device. In both sessions, participants completed a directed e-cigarette use bout (10 puffs, 30-s interpuff interval) and a 90-min ad libitum bout. Puff topography was recorded in the session with the topography mouthpiece. Plasma nicotine, heart rate, and subjective effects, aside from "Did the e-cigarette Taste Good?" were independent of topography measurement (higher mean taste ratings were observed in the no topography condition). Mean (SEM) plasma nicotine concentration following the ad libitum bout was 34.3ng/mL (4.9) in the no topography condition and 35.7ng/mL (4.3) in the topography condition. Longer puff durations, longer interpuff intervals, and larger puff volumes were observed in the ad libitum relative to the directed bout. E-cigarette use significantly increased plasma nicotine concentration and heart rate while suppressing abstinence symptoms. These effects did not differ when a topography mouthpiece was present. Future studies using ad libitum e-cigarette use bouts would facilitate understanding of e-cigarette toxicant yield. No prior study has examined whether mouthpiece-based topography recording devices influence e-cigarette associated nicotine delivery, heart rate, or subjective effects under ad libitum conditions or assessed ad

  15. CH4 and N2O emissions from China's beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198gCH4animal(-1)d(-1) and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1)) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1) and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China's beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors.

  16. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting.

  17. Increased satiety after intake of a chocolate milk drink compared with a carbonated beverage, but no difference in subsequent ad libitum lunch intake.

    PubMed

    Harper, Angela; James, Anita; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2007-03-01

    The rising rate of obesity has been blamed on increased consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks, such as carbonated sodas, which fail to satisfy hunger. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect on appetite and energy intake of a sugar-sweetened beverage (cola) and a chocolate milk drink, matched for energy content and volume. It was hypothesised that chocolate milk may be more satiating because of its protein content. Twenty-two healthy young men (age 23 (SD 1 x 8) years) of normal weight (BMI 22 x 2 (SD 1 x 5) kg/m2) were recruited to the randomised cross-over study. Visual analogue scales were used to record subjective appetite ratings every 30 min on each of two test days. A drink of 500 ml cola or chocolate milk (900 kJ) was ingested 30 min before an ad libitum lunch. Satiety and fullness were significantly greater (P=0 x 0007, P=0 x 0004, respectively) 30 min after chocolate milk than after cola. Ratings of prospective consumption and hunger were significantly greater after cola than after chocolate milk, both immediately after preload intake (P=0 x 008, P=0 x 01, respectively) and 30 min afterwards (P=0 x 004, P=0 x 01, respectively). There was no significant difference (P=0 x 42) in ad libitum lunch intake after ingestion of chocolate milk (3145 (SD 1268) kJ) compared with cola (3286 (SD 1346) kJ). The results support the hypothesis that sweetened soft drinks are different from milk products in their impact on short-term hunger and satiety, although differences in subjective appetite scores were not translated into differences in energy intake.

  18. Ad libitum fluid intake does not prevent dehydration in suboptimally hydrated young soccer players during a training session of a summer camp.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Kotsis, Yiannis P; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Makrillos, Michalis; Bardis, Costas N

    2013-06-01

    There is a lack of studies concerning hydration status of young athletes exercising in the heat. To assess preexercise hydration status in young soccer players during a summer sports camp and to evaluate body- water balance after soccer training sessions. Initial hydration status was assessed in 107 young male soccer players (age 11-16 yr) during the 2nd day of the camp. Seventy-two athletes agreed to be monitored during 2 more training sessions (3rd and 5th days of the camp) to calculate dehydration via changes in body weight, while water drinking was allowed ad libitum. Hydration status was assessed via urine specific gravity (USG), urine color, and changes in total body weight. Mean environmental temperature and humidity were 27.2 ± 2 °C and 57% ± 9%, respectively. According to USG values, 95 of 107 of the players were hypohydrated (USG ≥ 1.020) before practice. The prevalence of dehydration observed was maintained on both days, with 95.8% and 97.2% of the players being dehydrated after the training sessions on the 3rd and 5th days, respectively. Despite fluid availability, 54 of the 66 (81.8%) dehydrated players reduced their body weight (-0.35 ± 0.04 kg) as a response to training, while 74.6% (47 out of the 63) further reduced their body weight (-0.22 ± 0.03 kg) after training on the 5th day. Approximately 90% of the young soccer players who began exercising under warm weather conditions were hypohydrated, while drinking ad libitum during practice did not prevent further dehydration in already dehydrated players.

  19. Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jane; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2006-08-01

    Although dietary protein produces higher acute satiety relative to carbohydrate, the influence of protein source and body mass index (BMI) has not been clearly described. The objective of the study was to assess postprandial responses to different protein sources, compared with glucose, in males with normal and high BMI. This was a randomized, crossover study of four preloads followed by blood sampling (+15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180 min) and buffet meal. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinic. The study population included 72 men, with a BMI range 20.6-39.9 kg/m(2). Interventions consisted of liquid preloads (1.1 MJ, 450 ml) containing 50 g whey, soy, gluten, or glucose. Fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (n = 38), ad libitum energy intake, and appetite ratings were measured. Energy intake was 10% lower after all protein preloads, compared with the glucose treatment (P < 0.05), independent of BMI status and protein type. All protein loads prolonged the postprandial suppression of ghrelin (P < 0.01) and elevation of GLP-1 (P < 0.01) and cholecystokinin (P < 0.05). Fasting GLP-1 concentrations [overweight, 17.5 +/- 1.3; lean, 14.7 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (5.2 +/- 0.4 and 4.4 +/- 0.1 pmol/liter, respectively); P < 0.001] and postprandial responses (P = 0.038) were higher in overweight subjects. Whey, soy, and gluten similarly tend to reduce ad libitum food intake 3 h later in lean and overweight males relative to glucose. Postprandial ghrelin, GLP-1, insulin, and cholecystokinin may contribute to this higher satiety after protein consumption. GLP-1 concentrations are increased in overweight subjects, which may affect satiety responses in this group.

  20. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits.

  1. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P < 0.0001) respectively; however, the relative intake of fluid to food (mL/kcal) increased (P < 0.0001). Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P < 0.001) and diet cola (P < 0.0001). Baseline thirst correlated positively with both fluid (r = 0.28; P < 0.001) and food (r = 0.16; P < 0.05) intakes at the meal, whereas baseline appetite associated positively only with mealtime food intake (r = 0.23; P<0.01). In conclusion, mealtime fluid and food intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  3. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( < 0.0001). There was no line effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( < 0.0001) but no difference in the meat-to-bone ratio of the hind leg. On the contrary, the ADGrestrict line had a higher proportion of forelegs plus thoracic cage ( = 0.03). We also found lower perirenal ( < 0.0001) and scapular fat yields ( < 0.0001) in ConsoResidual rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( < 0.0001) and higher water loss (drip and cooking loss; < 0.002) compared with the G0 and ADGrestrict rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass

  4. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  5. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women.

  6. Hepatic metabolism of glucose and linoleic acid varies in relation to susceptibility to fatty liver in ad libitum-fed Muscovy and Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Saez, Gladys; Baéza, Elisabeth; Davail, Stéphane; Durand, Denys; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2009-02-01

    The susceptibility to develop hepatic steatosis is known to differ between duck species, especially between Muscovy and Pekin ducks. This difference could be explained by either differential responses of species to overfeeding or genetic differences in hepatic lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to compare the intensities of the different hepatic pathways (oxidation, lipogenesis, esterification, secretion, etc.) of the two main nutrients (glucose and linoleic acid (LA)) reaching the liver of ad libitum-fed Muscovy (n 6) and Pekin (n 6) ducks using the ex vivo method of liver slices incubated for 16 h with [U-14C]glucose, [1-14C]LA and [35S]methionine added to the survival medium. In such experimental conditions, the lipogenesis pathway from glucose was 2-fold higher (P<0.05) in the liver of the Muscovy duck than in that of the Pekin duck. Furthermore, the hepatic uptake of LA was 2-fold higher (P<0.05) in the Muscovy duck than in the Pekin duck leading to a 2-fold higher (P<0.05) esterification of this fatty acid in the liver of the Muscovy duck. The hepatic secretion of VLDL was higher (P<0.01) in the Muscovy duck than in the Pekin duck but insufficient to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver of the Muscovy duck. In conclusion, these results show the influence of the species on the hepatic metabolism of ducks in relation to their susceptibility to develop fatty liver. These results should shed light on the metabolic regulations that might underlie susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in the the human liver.

  7. Sensitivity of ad libitum meals to detect changes in hunger. Restricted-item or multi-item testmeals in the design of preload appetite studies.

    PubMed

    Wiessing, Katy R; Xin, Liping; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Strik, Caroline M; Poppitt, Sally D

    2012-06-01

    The aims of the study were to determine whether restricted single-item or multi-item testmeals are better able to detect prior changes in hunger and fullness when assessing ad libitum eating behaviour. Thirty male participants were given a low- (L(E), 0.5 MJ) or high-energy (H(E), 4.0 MJ) breakfast preload designed to induce or suppress hunger, followed 3h later by a restricted-item (R(I)) or multi-item (M(I)) testmeal. The R(I) testmeal comprised pasta+meat sauce, whilst the M(I) testmeal comprised pasta+meat sauce plus bread, chicken, ham, cheese, salad, cake and fruit. The four conditions were (i) L(E)/R(I); (ii) L(E)/M(I); (iii) H(E)/R(I); (iv) H(E)/M(I). Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to rate appetite sensations and EI was measured at the lunch testmeal. As expected, increasing the energy content of the preload significantly altered VAS ratings and decreased EI at the testmeal. Following both L(E) and H(E) breakfasts, EI was lower at the R(I) (L(E)=4566 kJ, H(E)=3583 kJ) compared with the M(I) (L(E)=6142 kJ, H(E)=5149 kJ) testmeal. However, the compensatory decrease in EI in response to the H(E) breakfast was not significantly greater at the R(I) testmeal (R(I): -983 kJ, 28.1% compensation; M(I): -993 kJ, 28.4% compensation). In preload studies measuring EI, increasing the variety of an ad lib testmeal may not decrease the sensitivity to detect changes in hunger and fullness.

  8. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  9. The temperature of water ingested ad libitum does not influence performance during a 40-km self-paced cycling trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M V; De Andrade, M T; Ramos, G P; Maia-Lima, A; Pereira, E R; Mendes, T T; Marins, J C; Amorim, F T; Silami-Garcia, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the temperature of ingested water on performance during a 40-km self-paced cycling trial in the heat (35º C and 60% relative humidity). The study was randomized, counterbalanced, crossover and single-blinded. Ten well-trained male cycling athletes (cyclists, mountain bikers or triathletes) who were non-acclimatized to heat were subjected to four experimental situations divided into two sets. In the first set, the participants performed two trials, during which they were given either cold (10º C) or warm water (37º C) ad libitum. In these situations, the volume and timing of the water ingestion (when each bolus was ingested) were recorded and replicated in the second set, but the water temperature was reversed. The performance times were unaffected by the water intake volume (P=0.425), but the water at a temperature of 37º C tended to induce lower performance times (P=0.078) during the trials (AL10=93.0±3.5 min; AL37=94.4±4.1 min; SC10=93.4±4.0; SC37=97.4±4.3 min). The water intake was greater when the water was cold (P<0.05), but the temperature did not affect the heat storage rate, rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, blood glucose level, sweat loss, sweat rate, perceived exertion rate or plasma volume changes. However, a significant reduction in the plasma volume change from pre- to postexercise was observed (P<0.01). The performance, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular and metabolic responses during a 40-km self-paced cycling trial in the heat were unaffected by different water temperatures.

  10. The effect of CART on pituitary hormones release from cultured pituitary cells harvested from fasted and fed ad libitum male rats.

    PubMed

    Chmielowska, M; Baranowska, B; Wolinska-Witort, E; Martynska, L; Kalisz, M; Litwiniuk, A; Bik, W

    2017-05-01

    Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and in several endocrine organs. CART is an important factor in the regulation of energy homeostasis. The aim of the study was to assess the role of CART in physiological response of pituitary cells in a course of starvation. The pituitary cells harvested from starved and fed ad libitum male rats were cultured for 48h and treated with: 0.1nM, 1nM, 10nM or 100nM doses of CART. The medium was collected after 60min and stored at -70°C until samples were further assayed for: LH, FSH, PRL, GH, TSH and ACTH. We revealed that in cultures of pituitary cells collected from fasted rats the basal levels of the examined hormones were reduced. Incubation of pituitary cells of non-starved rats with any dose of CART reduced the concentration of LH and TSH, while the levels of the other hormones were decreased after administration only specific doses of CART. In cells of fasted rats no change in the concentration of gonadotrophins was observed. The PRL level was increased only in the 1nM dose of CART, while the 10nM and 100nM CART doses markedly enhanced GH and TSH. Moreover, administration of 1nM, 10nM and 100nM of CART to cultured cells of fasted rats resulted in a significant rise of the ACTH. Our results indicate that CART can directly affect the physiological release of PRL, ACTH, TSH and GH in pituitary cells of starved animals. Moreover, CART did not alter the LH and FSH suppression level, which is correlated with food deprivation. This data stays in contrast with the already proposed role of CART as an anorexigenic hypothalamic factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Mapping of Whole Brain Activity Patterns Associated with the Intake of Snack Food in Ad Libitum Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet’s molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g. dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g. arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+-accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+-accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior. PMID:23408973

  12. Induced regenerative cell proliferation in livers and kidneys of male F-344 rats given chloroform in corn oil by gavage or ad libitum in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Larson, J L; Wolf, D C; Butterworth, B E

    1995-01-06

    These studies were designed to establish the dose response relationships for the induction of cytolethality and regenerative cell proliferation in the liver and kidneys of male F-344 rats given chloroform by gavage or in drinking water. Rats were administered oral doses of 0, 10, 34, 90 or 180 mg/kg/day chloroform dissolved in corn oil by gavage for 4 days or for 5 days/week for 3 weeks. A second group of rats was given chloroform ad libitum in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 60, 200, 400, 900 or 1800 ppm for 4 days or 3 weeks. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered via an implanted osmotic pump 3.5 days prior to necropsy to label cells in S-phase. Cells having incorporated BrdU were visualized in tissue sections immunohistochemically and the labelling index (LI) evaluated as the percentage of S-phase cells. Rats treated with 90 or 180 mg/kg/day by gavage for 4 days had mild to moderate degeneration of renal proximal tubules and centrilobular hepatocytes. These alterations were absent or slight after 3 weeks of treatment. LI were increased in the kidney cortex only in the rats treated with 180 mg/kg/day for 4 days. A dose-dependent increase in LI was seen in rat liver after 4 days of treatment with 90 and 180 mg/kg/day by gavage, but the LI remained elevated after 3 weeks of treatment only at the 180 mg/kg/day dose. When chloroform was administered in the drinking water, no microscopic alterations were seen in the kidneys after 4 days of treatment. As a general observation, rats treated for 3 weeks with 200 ppm chloroform and greater had slightly increased numbers of focal areas of regenerating renal proximal tubular epithelium and cell proliferation than were noted in the controls, but no clear dose response relationship was evident. However, the overall renal LI was not increased at any dose or time point. Similarly, only mild hepatocyte vacuolation was observed in rats given 1800 ppm chloroform in the water for 3 weeks with no increase in the

  13. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  14. Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy Does Not Affect Food Preferences When Assessed by an Ad libitum Buffet Meal.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mette S; Christensen, Bodil J; Ritz, Christian; Rasmussen, Simone; Hansen, Thea T; Bredie, Wender L P; le Roux, Carel W; Sjödin, Anders; Schmidt, Julie B

    2017-04-14

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) lead to a reduction in energy intake. It is uncertain whether this reduction is simply due to eating smaller portions or if surgery changes food preferences towards less energy-dense food. Previous results rely on verbal reports, which may be prone to recall bias and underestimation of especially unhealthy foods. Using an ad libitum buffet meal targeting direct behavior, we investigated if RYGB and SG surgery leads to changes in food preferences. In addition, we assessed food preferences by a picture display test to explore differences between a method relying on verbal report and a method assessing direct behavior. Forty-one subjects (BMI 45.0 ± 6.8 kg/m(2)) completed a visit pre- and 6 months post-RYGB (n = 31) and SG (n = 10). Mean BMI decreased with 11.7 ± 0.6 kg/m(2) and total energy intake at the buffet meal with 54% (4491 ± 208 kJ vs. 2083 ± 208 kJ, P < 0.001), respectively. However, relative energy intake from the following food categories: high-fat, low-fat, sweet, savory, high-fat-savory, high-fat-sweet, low-fat-savory, and low-fat-sweet, as well as energy density did not change following surgery (all P ≥ 0.18). In contrast, the picture display test showed that food from the low-fat-savory group was chosen more often post-surgery (34 ± 8% vs. 65 ± 9%, P = 0.02). The reduction in energy intake after RYGB and SG surgery and the subsequent weight loss seems to be primarily related to a reduction in portion sizes and not by changes in food preferences towards less energy-dense foods. These results underline the necessity of investigating eating behavior by targeting direct behavior.

  15. Changes in total body water content during running races of 21.1 km and 56 km in athletes drinking ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Tam, Nicholas; Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D

    2011-05-01

    To measure changes in body mass (BM), total body water (TBW), fluid intake, and blood biochemistry in athletes during 21.1-km and 56-km foot races. Observational study. 2009 Two Oceans Marathon, South Africa. Twenty-one (21.1 km) and 12 (56 km) participants were advised to drink according to thirst or their own race drink plan (ad libitum). Body mass, TBW, plasma osmolality, plasma sodium (p[Na]), and plasma total protein ([TP]) concentrations were measured before and after race. Fluid intake was recorded from recall after race. Significant BM loss occurred in both races (21.1 km; -1.4 ± 0.6 kg; P < 0.000 and 56 km; -2.5 ± 1.1 kg; P < 0.000). Total body water was reduced in the 56-km race (-1.4 ± 1.1 kg; P < 0.001). A negative linear relationship was found between percentage change (%Δ) in TBW and %Δ in BM in the 56-km runners (r = 0.6; P < 0.01). Plasma osmolality and [TP] increased significantly in the 56-km runners (6.8 ± 8.2 mOsm/kg H2O; P < 0.05 and 5.4 ± 4.4 g/L; P < 0.01, respectively), but all other biochemical measures were within the normal range. Although TBW decreased in the 56-km race and was maintained in the 21.1-km race, the change in TBW over both races was less than the BM, suggesting that not all BM lost during endurance exercise is a result purely of an equivalent reduction in TBW. These findings support the interpretation that the body primarily defends p[Na] and not BM during exercise and that a reduction in BM can occur without an equivalent reduction in TBW during prolonged exercise. Furthermore, these data support that drinking without controlling for BM loss may allow athletes to complete these events. 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  16. Effects of intraduodenal infusion of the branched-chain amino acid leucine on ad libitum eating, gut motor and hormone functions, and glycemia in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Robert E; Landrock, Maria F; Ullrich, Sina S; Standfield, Scott; Otto, Bärbel; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), particularly leucine, act as nutrient signals regulating protein synthesis and degradation as well as glucose metabolism. In addition, leucine has been demonstrated in animal experiments to modulate eating and energy homeostasis. We aimed to characterize the effects of physiologic and supraphysiologic loads of intraduodenal leucine on eating, gut hormone and motor functions, and blood glucose in humans. Twelve lean men were studied on 3 occasions in a randomized, double-blind order. Antropyloroduodenal motility, plasma ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, insulin, glucagon, blood glucose, appetite perceptions, and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during 90-min intraduodenal infusions of leucine at 0.15 kcal/min (total 3.3 g, 13.5 kcal), 0.45 kcal/min (total 9.9 g, 40.5 kcal), or saline (control). Ad libitum eating from a buffet lunch was quantified immediately after the infusions. Leucine at 0.45 kcal/min inhibited eating (energy intake by ∼13%, P < 0.05), increased plasma cholecystokinin, slightly reduced blood glucose and increased plasma insulin, and decreased antral pressures (all P < 0.05). Leucine at 0.15 kcal/min had no effect on food intake, blood glucose, or antral pressures but also slightly increased plasma cholecystokinin (P < 0.05). Neither dose affected plasma ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY, or pyloric and duodenal pressures. Plasma leucine concentrations were related to the dose of intraduodenal leucine, with substantial increases during both 0.15 and 0.45 kcal/min. The effects of intraduodenal infusions of free leucine on eating are probably not primarily mediated by changes in gut motor and hormone functions, with perhaps the exception of cholecystokinin. Instead, increased plasma leucine concentrations may be a potential signal mediating the eating-inhibitory effect of leucine. The study was registered as a clinical trial with the Australia and New

  17. Protection of total body water content and absence of hyperthermia despite 2% body mass loss ('voluntary dehydration') in soldiers drinking ad libitum during prolonged exercise in cool environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D; van Vuuren, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    The extent to which humans need to replace fluid losses during exercise remains contentious despite years of focused research. The primary objective was to evaluate ad libitum drinking on hydration status to determine whether body mass loss can be used as an accurate surrogate for changes in total body water (TBW) during exercise. Data were collected during a 14.6-km route march (wet bulb globe temperature of 14.1°C ). 18 subjects with an average age of 26 ± 2.5 (SD) years participated. Their mean ad libitum total fluid intake was 2.1 ± 1.4 litres during the exercise. Predicted sweat rate was 1.289 ± 0.530 l/h. There were no significant changes (p>0.05) in TBW, urine specific gravity or urine osmolality despite an average body mass loss (p<0.05) of 1.3 ± 0.45 kg during the march. Core temperature rose as a function of marching speed and was unrelated to the % change in body mass. This suggests that changes in mass do not accurately predict changes in TBW (r=-0.16) because either the body mass loss during exercise includes losses other than water or there is an endogenous body water source that is released during exercise not requiring replacement during exercise, or both. Ad libitum water replacement between 65% and 70% of sweat losses maintained safe levels of hydration during the experiment. The finding that TBW was protected by ad libitum drinking despite approximately 2% body mass loss suggests that the concept of 'voluntary dehydration' may require revision.

  18. Food sources of added sweeteners in the diets of Americans.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, J F; Morton, J F

    2000-01-01

    To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet. A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database. A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged 2 years and older (N = 15,010). Mean intakes of added sweeteners from all food sources and from specific food categories; percentage contribution of added sweeteners to total energy intake; and percentage contribution of each food category to total intake of added sweeteners. All analyses were conducted for the total sample and for 12 age-gender groups. During 1994 to 1996, Americans aged 2 years and older consumed the equivalent of 82 g carbohydrate per day from added sweeteners, which accounted for 16% of total energy intake. In absolute terms, adolescent males consumed the most; as a percentage of energy, male and female adolescents had the highest intakes (averaging 20% of total energy from added sweeteners). The largest source of added sweeteners was regular soft drinks, which accounted for one third of intake. Other sources were table sugars, syrups, and sweets; sweetened grains; regular fruitades/drinks; and milk products. Intakes of added sweeteners exceed levels compatible with meeting current dietary recommendations. Knowing food sources of added sweeteners for the overall population and for specific age-gender groups can help dietitians provide appropriate nutrition education.

  19. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Azevedo de Meneses, J; Junqueira Lopes, C A; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.

  20. Calcium and dairy products inhibit weight and fat regain during ad libitum consumption following energy restriction in Ap2-agouti transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaocun; Zemel, Michael B

    2004-11-01

    We demonstrated previously that dietary calcium suppression of calcitriol reduces adipocyte Ca(2+), suppresses lipogenesis, and increases lipid utilization during energy restriction. Notably, dairy calcium sources exert markedly greater effects. To determine the effects of dietary calcium and dairy products on energy partitioning during subsequent refeeding, we induced obesity in aP2-agouti transgenic mice with a high-fat/high-sucrose diet, then restricted energy intake from a high-calcium (1.3%) diet for 6 wk to induce fat loss, and then provided free access to a low-calcium (0.4%) diet or to high-calcium (1.3%) diets that utilized either calcium-fortified foods or dairy products (milk or yogurt) for 6 wk. Refeeding the low-calcium diet caused the regain of all weight and fat, whereas all high-calcium diets reduced fat gain by 55% (P < 0.01). All high-calcium diets stimulated adipose tissue uncoupling protein (UCP)2 and skeletal muscle UCP3 expression (P < 0.001) and slightly increased core temperature (P = 0.136), but only the dairy-based diets elicited a marked (>10-fold, P < 0.001) increase in skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha expression. All 3 high-calcium diets produced significant increases in lipolysis, decreases in fatty acid synthase expression and activity, and reduced fat regain (P < 0.03), but the 2 dairy-containing high-calcium diets exerted significantly greater effects on regain (P < 0.01). Thus, high-Ca diets elicit a shift in energy partitioning and reduction of weight gain during refeeding, with dairy Ca sources exerting markedly greater effects.

  1. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  2. Binge-like consumption of caloric and non-caloric palatable substances in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice: pharmacological and molecular evidence of orexin involvement.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Valor, Luis Miguel; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The orexin (OX) system has been implicated in food-reinforced behavior, food-seeking and food overconsumption. Recent evidence suggests that OX signaling might influence consumption of palatable foods with high reinforcing value depending upon the caloric status of the animal. The present study evaluates from a pharmacological and a molecular approach the contribution of OX to excessive binge-like consumption of highly preferred palatable substances (sucrose and saccharin) in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice. The main findings of this study are: (1) intraperitoneal (ip) injection of SB-334867 (10, 20 or 30mg/kg), a selective OXR1 antagonist, significantly decreased binge-like consumption of sucrose (10%, w/v) and saccharin (0.15%, w/v) during the test day in a Drinking in the Dark procedure in ad libitum-fed animals, without evidence of any significant alteration of locomotor activity. (2) Four repetitive, 2-h daily episodes of sucrose and saccharin (but not water) binge-like drinking significantly dampened OX mRNA expression in the LH. Present findings show for the first time a role for OXR1 signaling in binge-like consumption of palatable substances in animals under no caloric needs. Targeting OXR1 could represent a novel pharmacological approach to treat binge-eating episodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: III. Digestion and excretion of nitrogen and minerals.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Bannelier, C; Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Chemit, M L; Segura, M; Benitez, F; Richard, F; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2017-03-01

    Two rabbit lines have been created to result in better feed efficiency: the ConsoResidual line was selected for a lower residual feed intake under ad libitum feeding, and the ADGrestrict line was selected for higher ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of ad libitum). The present study aimed to analyze the digestion and excretion of N and minerals from 29 to 63 d of age of these 2 lines compared with an unselected control line (G0) under 2 feeding levels (ad libitum or restricted). The ADGrestrict line had greater digestibility compared with G0 (+1.3% for OM and N; < 0.05), and the ConsoResidual line had intermediate values. There was no genetic line effect on the digestibility of N and P and on minerals concentrations (P, Zn, and Cu) in the feces and in the urine. The N balance was improved for the 2 selected lines (+5%; < 0.05), leading to a reduced N output through the feces (0.06 g/d compared with G0; < 0.001) and the urine (-0.07 g/d; < 0.05) and to an improved N retention ratio (+3% compared with G0). Over the whole fattening period (d 29-63), significant differences were observed among lines only when fed ad libitum, with 13% greater DM fecal output and 5% greater N fecal output for G0. The N excretion in urine was 2 g less in the 2 selected lines, leading to a reduction of total N release of 4.4 g (compared with G0). The P excretion in feces (12 g) or urine (0.1 g) did not differ among the 3 lines. Over the whole fattening period and for ad libitum-fed rabbits, the 5% improvement in feed efficiency ( < 0.01) for the 2 selected lines corresponded to 400 g less feed intake (-8%) and to 20 g less N intake. The fecal excretion of the ADGrestrict and ConsoResidual lines were reduced by 200 g DM ( < 0.01), corresponding to 417 g fresh matter and 5 g of N. The excretion in minerals (P, Zn, and Cu) was not affected by the line. The feeding level strongly reduced the fecal and urine outputs (-50 and -60%, respectively; < 0.001). Higher digestibility coefficients ( < 0

  4. Effects of Feeding Milk Replacer Ad Libitum or in Restricted Amounts for the First Five Weeks of Life on the Growth, Metabolic Adaptation, and Immune Status of Newborn Calves

    PubMed Central

    Schäff, Christine T.; Gruse, Jeannine; Maciej, Josefine; Mielenz, Manfred; Wirthgen, Elisa; Hoeflich, Andreas; Schmicke, Marion; Pfuhl, Ralf; Jawor, Paulina; Stefaniak, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The pre-weaning period is critical for calf health and growth, and intensive milk feeding programs may assist postnatal development by improving body growth and organ maturation. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of ad libitum milk replacer (MR) feeding on the growth, metabolic adaptation, health, and immune status of newborn calves. Twenty-eight newborn Holstein and Holstein x Charolais crossbred calves were fed ad libitum (ADLIB) or in restricted amounts (6 liters per day; RES) during the first five weeks of life. The MR intake in the ADLIB treatment was gradually reduced at weeks 6 and 7, and all calves then received 6 liters of MR per day until day 60. Blood samples were collected to measure the plasma concentrations of metabolites, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), immunoglobulins, and acute phase proteins. The expression of mRNA associated with both the somatotropic axis and gluconeogenic enzymes was measured in the liver on day 60. Intensive feeding improved MR intake and growth in ADLIB without influencing concentrate intake. Carcass weight, perirenal fat, and muscle mass were greater in ADLIB. Plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, and IGF-I were greater, whereas plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, IGFBP-2 and -4, and fibrinogen were lower at distinct time points in ADLIB. The hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was greater in ADLIB. Most metabolic and endocrine differences occurred during the MR feeding period, but a slightly greater concentrate intake was associated with increased plasma IGF-I and insulin at the end of the study. The immune and health status of the calves were not affected by MR feeding. However, increased plasma fibrinogen in the RES group suggested differences in the acute phase response. PMID:28036351

  5. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  6. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an Ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4.5 year old children – Results from the GUSTO cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R.; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S. Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P.; Meaney, Michael J.; Broekman, Birit F.P.; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but less is known about the relationship between children’s eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesized that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). Body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n=153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r=0.61, p<0.001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children’s BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75% more calories than slower eating children (Δ131 kcal, 95%CI [107.6, 154.4], p<0.001), and had higher whole-body (p<0.05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118.3 cc; 95%CI [24.0, 212.7], p=0.014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b=13.59, 95% CI [7.48, 21.83]). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMIz and adiposity. PMID:28462734

  7. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (P<0.001) than LU steers. Thus, adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the level of dietary lipid through the use of cold-pressed RSC, did not adversely affect health or performance of finishing beef steers when used within the diets studied.

  8. Differential effects of methamphetamine on expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA in hypothalamus and on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in ad libitum-fed and schedule-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Crowley, W R; Ramoz, G; Keefe, K A; Torto, R; Kalra, S P; Hanson, G R

    2005-01-01

    Relatively little is known concerning the interaction of psychostimulants with hypothalamic neuropeptide systems or metabolic hormones implicated in regulation of energy balance. The present studies tested whether methamphetamine alters the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), two important orexigenic neuropeptides, or proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor for the anorexigenic peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, or the secretion of leptin, insulin and ghrelin, concomitant with inhibition of food intake. Female rats were either fed ad libitum (AL) or placed on a scheduled feeding (SF) regimen, with access to food limited to 4 h/day. Administration of (+/-)-methamphetamine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 h prior to food presentation significantly inhibited food intake in SF animals, but did not affect intake in AL animals. In a separate study, AL and SF animals were killed just prior to expected food presentation, and expression of NPY, AgRP and POMC mRNAs in hypothalamus was determined using in situ hybridisation; concentrations of leptin, insulin and ghrelin in serum were determined with radioimmunoassays. In saline-treated, SF controls, NPY and AgRP mRNA expression in arcuate nucleus and serum ghrelin were significantly elevated, and serum leptin and insulin were significantly reduced. Methamphetamine reversed the up-regulation of NPY mRNA expression observed in the SF condition, without affecting AgRP mRNA or the serum concentrations of metabolic hormones. However, in AL animals, NPY mRNA expression in arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei was significantly increased by methamphetamine, which also reduced serum leptin and insulin and increased serum ghrelin concentrations. These findings suggest that the inhibition of NPY expression in SF animals may be a mechanism underlying the anorexigenic effect of methamphetamine seen in this condition. The increase in NPY expression produced by methamphetamine in AL animals may be mediated by the

  9. Association between intake of total vs added sugar on diet quality: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Given its potential effect on nutrient and energy density, the sugar content of the diet is a subject of controversy. The aim of this review was to examine the cross-sectional or prospective evidence for associations between the intake of total sugar or added sugar (high vs low intakes) and diet quality or nutrient intakes in the general population. The following databases were searched for English-language articles published between 1972 and 2012: CINAHL Plus, EBM Reviews, ERIC, MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The search identified studies that examined the association between intake of total sugar and/or added sugar and diet quality (n = 22) or nutrient intakes (n = 30). The following data were extracted: sample size and population, dietary assessment method, source of added sugar data, source of funding, comparator, association between total sugar or added sugar and diet quality, and the direction and magnitude of the association. Of 22 studies, all except 1 found a higher intake of added sugar to be associated with poorer diet quality, and the exceptional study did not adjust for total energy intake. Twenty-one of 30 studies found a negative association between added sugar and micronutrient intakes. The same association was not found for total sugar intake. Any negative association between dietary sugar and diet quality is better exposed by referring to added sugar rather than total sugar. There was substantial variation in features of study quality, including sample size, so the magnitude of the observed effect was generally small and may not be of clinical significance. Furthermore, the positive influence that core foods such as fruit and milk exert on total sugar values may bias the association between total sugar and diet quality. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Lipid metabolism and mitochondrial energy production are key pathways involved in adipose tissue of cows transitioning from feed restriction to ad libitum diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feed costs account for over 70% of the annual expenditures in cow/calf production. The majority of the nutrients are used to support the cow’s maintenance requirements and substrate cycling has been identified as one of the major contributors toward this type of energy expenditure. The objective of ...

  11. Adélie Penguin Population Diet Monitoring by Analysis of Food DNA in Scats

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Simon N.; McInnes, Julie C.; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M.; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches. PMID:24358158

  12. Adélie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Simon N; McInnes, Julie C; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  13. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  14. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources.

  15. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  16. The role of added sugars in the diet quality of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Forshee, R A; Storey, M L

    2001-02-01

    The associations between added sugars intake and consumption of vitamins, minerals and servings of foods in the USDA Food Guide Pyramid were examined. Data from the USDA 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were used in multivariate regression analyses to assess the statistical and practical significance of added sugars intake for diet and nutrient adequacy. The association of added sugars with consumption of vitamins, minerals and servings of foods in the USDA Food Guide Pyramid was usually statistically significant. For the model of all individuals over two years of age, individuals who consume more added sugars are predicted to consume more grains, lean meat and iron and to consume fewer vegetables and fruits and less dairy, vitamin A, calcium and folates. Children who consume more added sugars are predicted to consume more grains, vitamin C, iron and folates and to consume less dairy. Adolescents who consume more added sugars are predicted to consume more grains, vitamin C and iron and less fruit. The associations, whether positive or negative, however, were always small from either a practical perspective or in comparison to the associations of other sources of energy.

  17. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the Chilean diet (2010).

    PubMed

    Cediel, Gustavo; Reyes, Marcela; da Costa Louzada, Maria Laura; Martinez Steele, Euridice; Monteiro, Carlos A; Corvalán, Camila; Uauy, Ricardo

    2017-06-19

    To assess the consumption of ultra-processed foods and analyse its association with the content of added sugars in the Chilean diet. Cross-sectional study of national dietary data obtained through 24 h recalls and classified into food groups according to the extent and purpose of food processing (NOVA classification). Chile. A probabilistic sample of 4920 individuals (aged 2 years or above) studied in 2010 by a national dietary survey (Encuesta Nacional de Consumo Alimentario). Ultra-processed foods represented 28·6 (se 0·5) % of total energy intake and 58·6 (se 0·9) % of added sugars intake. The mean percentage of energy from added sugars increased from 7·7 (se 0·3) to 19·7 (se 0·5) % across quintiles of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods. After adjusting for several potential sociodemographic confounders, a 5 percentage point increase in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods determined a 1 percentage point increase in the dietary content of added sugars. Individuals in the highest quintile were three times more likely (OR=2·9; 95 % CI 2·4, 3·4) to exceed the 10 % upper limit for added sugars recommended by the WHO compared with those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. This association was strongest among individuals aged 2-19 years (OR=3·9; 95 % CI 2·7, 5·9). In Chile, ultra-processed foods are important contributors to total energy intake and to the consumption of added sugars. Actions aimed at limiting consumption of ultra-processed foods are being implemented as effective ways to achieve WHO dietary recommendations to limit added sugars and processed foods, especially for children and adolescents.

  18. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-11-15

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD{sub 100} dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereas all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha} and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 {+-}14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 {+-} 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMP{alpha}2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}mol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 {+-} 1.9 {mu}mol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway.

  19. Effects of adding yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract to diets of layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, E; Balevi, T; Kurtoglu, V; Oznurlu, Y

    2011-10-01

    This research was conducted to determine the impact of diet supplementation with yeast cell walls and Yucca schidigera extract on the growth performance, antibody titres, and intestinal tissue histology of layer chicks. White, 1-d-old, Hy-Line hybrid chicks (n = 840) were divided into 4 main groups, each comprising 7 replicates of 30 chicks (n = 210): (1) control; (2) 1000 mg/kg yeast cell walls (YCW) added; (3) 1000 mg/kg Yucca schidigera extract (YE) added; and (4) 500 mg/kg YE + 500 mg/kg YCW added. The trial lasted 60 d. Daily weight gain of the chicks was positively affected between d 45-60 in the YE and YCW + YE groups compared with the control group. Overall, feed consumption did not differ between the control and YCW, YE, YCW + YE groups during the 60 d study period. Feed efficiency was better in the YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control group between d 1-60. During the 60 d evaluation period, live weight gain, and final live weight were higher in YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control group. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease did not differ among the 4 treatments, but those for Newcastle disease were higher in the YE + YCW groups than in the control, YCW and YE groups on d 45. There were differences in intestinal histomorphometry between the 4 treatments. The height of the jejunal and ileal villi was greater in the YE and YCW + YE groups than in the control and YCW groups. It can be concluded that YCW and YE supplementation for layer chicks is beneficial for growth performance and intestinal histology during the 1-60 d growing period.

  20. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed

    Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1997-01-04

    To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P < 0.07). Ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet was superior to fixed energy intake

  1. Freely accessible water does not decrease consumption of ethanol liquid diets.

    PubMed

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2003-02-01

    In experimental studies, liquid ethanol diets are usually given as the sole source of nutrition and fluid. Two series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of freely accessible water on the consumption of ethanol liquid diets in male Long-Evans rats. The consumption of diets and subsequent learning ability of rats were first examined in animals given twice-daily saline injections. One group received diet with no access to water for 12 weeks and was subsequently given free access to water with diets for an additional 12 weeks. A second group was given diet and water ad libitum for 24 weeks. Control animals received an isocaloric sucrose-containing diet (with or without ad libitum access to water). Subsequently, rats were tested for active avoidance learning. In the first 12 weeks, animals with ad libitum access to water drank more diet than did water-restricted animals, and previously water-restricted animals increased their diet consumption when access to water was freely available. All water-restricted animals, in both ethanol- and sucrose-treated groups, showed deficits in active avoidance learning, whereas only ethanol-treated animals in groups with ad libitum access to water showed learning deficits. In the second series of experiments, the effect of saline injections on diet consumption, both in the presence and absence of water, was examined. Although saline injections were associated with decreased diet consumption, there was no effect of free access to water. No differences in blood ethanol concentration were seen among groups. Findings obtained from both series of studies demonstrate that consumption of a Sustacal-based liquid ethanol diet does not decrease if access to water is freely available.

  2. A low-energy-dense diet adding fruit reduces weight and energy intake in women.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Maria Conceição; Sichieri, Rosely; Venturim Mozzer, Renzo

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of adding fruit or oats to the diet of free-living women on energy consumption and body weight. Fruit and oat cookies had the same amount of fiber and total calories ( approximately 200 kcal), but differed in energy density. We analyzed data from a clinical trial conducted in a primary care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty-nine women, ages ranging from 30 to 50 years, with body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m2, were randomly chosen to add three apples (0.63 kcal/g energy density) or three pears (0.64 kcal/g energy density) or three oat cookies (3.7 kcal/g energy density) to their usual diet for 10 weeks. Fiber composition was similar ( approximately 6g). Statistical analysis of the repeated measures of dietary composition and body weight were analyzed using mixed model procedures. Results showed a significant decrease in the energy density during the follow-up (-1.23 kcal/g, p<0.04, and -1.29 kcal/g, p<0.05) for apples and pears, respectively, compared to the oat group. The energy intake also decreased significantly (-25.05 and -19.66 kcal/day) for the apple and pear group, respectively, but showed a small increase (+0.93) for the oat group. Apples and pears were also associated (p<0.001) with weight reduction (-0.93 kg for the apple and -0.84 for the pear group), whereas weight was unchanged (+0.21; p=0.35) in the oat group. Results suggest that energy densities of fruits, independent of their fiber amount can reduce energy consumption and body weight over time.

  3. Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-α level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a

  4. Effects of adding essential oil to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-α level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a

  5. DHA diet reduces AD pathology in young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic mice: possible gender effects.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sylvia E; Berg, Brian M; Moore, Kenneth A; He, Bin; Counts, Scott E; Fritz, Jason J; Hu, Yuan-Shih; Lazarov, Orly; Lah, James J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological and clinical trial findings suggest that consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lowers the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the effects of short-term (3 months) DHA enriched diet on plaque deposition and synaptic defects in forebrain of young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic (tg) and non-transgenic (ntg) mice. Gas chromatography revealed a significant increase in DHA concomitant with a decrease of arachidonic acid in both brain and liver in mice fed with DHA. Female tg mice consumed relatively more food daily than ntg female mice, independent of diet. Plaque load was significantly reduced in the cortex, ventral hippocampus and striatum of female APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 tg mice on DHA diet compared to female tg mice on control diet. Immunoblot quantitation of the APOE receptor, LR11, which is involved in APP trafficking and A beta production, were unchanged in mice on DHA or control diets. Moreover drebrin levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus of tg mice on the DHA diet. Finally, in vitro DHA treatment prevented amyloid toxicity in cell cultures. Our findings support the concept that increased DHA consumption may play and important role in reducing brain insults in female AD patients. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Tailored nutritional guidance for home-dwelling AD families: the Feasibility of and Elements Promoting Positive Changes in Diet (NuAD-Trial).

    PubMed

    Puranen, T M; Pitkala, K H; Suominen, M H

    2015-04-01

    To describe the process and feasibility of our randomised, controlled intervention study (NuAD trial) that positively affected the nutrition and quality of life, and prevented falls of home-dwelling persons with Alzheimer disease (AD). This qualitative study comprised 40 persons with AD and spousal caregivers of our trial. Our intervention during one year involved tailored nutritional guidance for these couples. The nutritionist's field notes (about 100 pages) and the participant feedback questionnaires (N = 28) served to analyse the feasibility of intervention, factors promoting the application of intervention and challenges hindering it. Thematic content analysis served to analyse our data with the grounded theory approach. We identified several positive elements promoting better nutrition: positive attitudes on nutrition to participants including a participant-centred approach, positive feedback, findings of food diaries and practical suggestions. Home visits by the nutritionist were convenient and participants felt that someone cares. Group meetings which included protein-rich snacks strengthened the nutritional message by enabling discussions and socialising. The oral nutritional supplements (ONS) helped participants to regain their energy and to motivate them to exercise and make changes in their diets. Obstacles to making changes in diets included participants' false ideas about nutrition, especially with regard to weight gain. Health problems and functional limitations hampered food management, and some families had inveterate eating habits. The positive feedback from participants indicated the feasibility of our tailored nutritional guidance. Assessment-based, tailored nutritional guidance implemented with a personal and positive approach may inspire and empower AD families to make positive changes in their diets, leading them to improved nutrition and quality of life.

  7. Effect of selenium on rat growth, growth hormone and diet utilization.

    PubMed

    Ewan, R C

    1976-05-01

    Female rats were fed a selenium-deficient diet composed of Torula yeast, sucrose, vitamins (including tocopheryl acetate) and minerals from weaning and during breeding, gestation and lactation. The offspring were used to study the effects of selenium on growth, diet utilization and growth hormon status. The Torula yeast diet containing 200 IU dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate was fed alone or supplemented with 0.025 or 0.1 ppm of selenium as selenite. Rats fed the selenium-supplemented diets grew significently faster and consumed significantly more diet than rats fed the unsupplemented diet. Anterior pituitary weights were lower in selenium-deficient rats, but if expressed per unit of body weight, were similar to pituitary weight of selenium-supplemented animals. Total growth hormone in the anterior pituitary was reduced in selenium-deficient rats. A metabolism study indicated that rats allowed ad libitum access to supplemented diets consumed more diet and obtained more metabolizable energy from the diet than rats fed the deficient diet. It the intake of rats fed the supplemented diets was limited to that of rats allowed ad libitum access to deficient diet, growth of rats was similar. However, metabolizable energy content of the diet increased quadratically and nitrogen digestibility increased linearly as thelevel of selenium increased. Selenium deficiency reduced growth primarily by decreased diet consumption, but also reduced the utilization of energy and nitrogen.

  8. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P

  9. Diet and lifestyle variables as risk factors for chronic renal failure in pet cats.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K L; Slater, M R; Geller, S; Burkholder, W J; Fitzgerald, C

    2002-09-10

    A case-control study examining diet and lifestyle variables to generate hypotheses of potential risk factors for chronic renal failure in pet cats was conducted in five private practices in Texas, USA and at the Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. A telephone questionnaire was used to gather information from owners of 38 cats newly diagnosed with CRF between December 1994 and 1995 and from owners of 56 control cats. Factor analysis was used to determine whether composite variables should be constructed to summarize the nutritional predictors adequately. The composite variables and other lifestyle variables were analyzed with logistic-regression. Three final exploratory models were developed: ad libitum feeding with fiber; ad libitum with Factor-2 (a composite variable composed of fiber, magnesium, protein, sodium and ash); and fiber alone. Ad libitum feeding and increased ash intake were associated with increased odds of CRF; increased dietary fiber, magnesium, protein and sodium were associated with decreased odds of CRF.

  10. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  11. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on fatty acid digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fatty acids in diets containing 0 or 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 0, 5, or 10% tallow. Barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 25 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs (n = 4/diet) were randomly assigned to diets: corn-soybean meal control (CON), CON plus 5% tallow (5T0D), CON plus 10% tallow (10T0D), CON plus 30% DDGS (0T30D), CON plus 5% tallow and 30% DDGS (5T30D), and CON plus 10% tallow and 30% DDGS (10T30D). Eight replicates per treatment were achieved by randomizing diets among pigs for a second collection period. Each pig was fed their respective diet for a 5-d adaptation period followed by 3-d fecal collection and 2-d ileal digesta collection periods. The AID and ATTD of fatty acids was calculated using the index method and acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. When tallow was added to diets with 0% DDGS, there was no effect on AID of palmitic acid (C16:0) or SFA, while AID of stearic acid (C18:0) was increased (66.87% for CON, 72.06% for 5T0D, and 76.81% for 10T0D; P < 0.01). However, when diets contained 30% DDGS, the AID of all SFA was reduced as levels of tallow increased C16:0 (77.62% for 0T30D, 69.66% for 5T30D, and 68.43% for 10T30D), C18:0 (85.87% for 0T30D, 64.08% for 5T30D, and 61.25% for 10T30D), and SFA (79.88% for 0T30D, 68.23% for 5T30D, and 66.29% for 10T30D). The AID of MUFA was not affected when tallow was added to diets with 30% DDGS but actually increased in 5T0D and 10T0D. The amount of apparent ileal digested fatty acids increased with the addition of DDGS and tallow regardless of their digestibility. Amounts of ileal digested MUFA and PUFA increased when both DDGS (P < 0.01) and tallow (P < 0.01) were included in the diet compared to when either ingredient was excluded. For ileal digestible SFA, an interaction (P < 0.01) between DDGS and tallow was

  12. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-08

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  13. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  14. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of commercial laying hens when six percent corn oil is added to the diet at various ages and with different levels of tryptophan and protein.

    PubMed

    Antar, R S; Harms, R H; Shivazad, M; Faria, D E; Russell, G B

    2004-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of corn oil in the diet of commercial layers as a method of increasing egg weight. In the first experiment, the performance of commercial layers receiving 6% added corn oil beginning at 18 to 30 wk at 2-wk intervals was evaluated. In the second experiment, comparisons were made between performance of young and old commercial layers when 6% corn oil was added to the diet. The third experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects upon commercial layers when 6% corn oil was added to diets varying in Trp content. In experiment 1, egg weights increased during the first 2 wk that corn oil was added to the diet. During this time, the intake of Trp was greater than or equal to the hen requirements. However, during the last 2 wk of the experiment, when Trp intakes were low, egg weights decreased when corn oil was added to the diet. In experiment 2, egg weights from young and old hens increased during the first 2 wk after corn oil was added to the diet. During the last 2 wk, egg weights from young hens decreased, whereas egg weights from old hens increased. In experiment 3, egg weight was not affected when the diet contained 0.166 or 0.176% Trp. However, egg weights significantly increased when corn oil was added to the diet containing 0.193% Trp. The data in these experiments indicate that the diet of a laying hen must contain a high level of Trp to get an increase in egg weight from the addition of corn oil to the diet. Also the need for other amino acids must be met. Therefore, the hen eats to meet her energy requirement for maximum egg production, and her amino acid intake determines the egg weight.

  16. The effects of adding xylanase, vitamin C and copper sulphate to wheat-based diets on broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Marron, L; Bedford, M R; McCracken, K J

    2001-09-01

    1. The study used a 3 x 3 factorial design to evaluate the effects of 3 additives (none; vitamin C [250 mg/kg]; copper sulphate [250 mg/kg]) and 3 enzyme additions (none; Avizyme 1300 [Finnfeeds Ltd, 1 g/kg in food]; Avizyme 1310 [liquid spray, post-pelleting, 0.5 g/kg]). All experimental diets were mixed, heat-conditioned (80 degrees C for 2 min) and pelleted. Copper sulphate (diets NCu; DCu; LCu) and Avizyme 1300 (diets DN; DC; DCu) were added during mixing. Vitamin C was sprayed at 10 ml per kg (diets NC; DC; LC) and the liquid enzyme was diluted 20-fold and sprayed at the same rate (diets LN; LC; LCu), post-pelleting. 2. Additive or enzyme addition did not significantly affect DM intake or liveweight gain (LWG). Enzyme addition improved gain:food (P=0.014), AME:GE (P<0.001), ileal apparent digestibility of DM (P=0.008) and starch (P<0.001), faecal apparent digestibility of starch, crude fat and NDF (P=0.008; <0.001; <0.001 respectively) and reduced in vivo viscosity (P<0.001). 3. Copper sulphate addition depressed gain:food (P=0.047), AME:GE (P=0.002), ileal apparent digestibility of starch (P<0.001) and faecal apparent digestibility of starch (P=0.003) and crude fat (P<0.001) due to a negative additive x enzyme interaction when copper sulphate and dry enzyme were included together. 4. Vitamin C decreased in vivo viscosity by 20% but failed to have any effect on performance. Both enzyme forms gave similar improvements in performance in the absence of copper sulphate.

  17. Effects of adding poultry fat in the finishing diet of steers on performance, carcass characteristics, sensory traits, and fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, S; Kegley, E B; Apple, J K; Wistuba, T J; Dikeman, M E; Rule, D C

    2006-09-01

    Use of poultry fat in the finishing diets of steers has not been studied as a potential source of added energy. Therefore, 60 Angus crossbred steers were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments consisting of 1) a corn-soybean meal control diet devoid of added fat; 2) the control diet formulated with 4% tallow; or 3) the control diet formulated with 4% poultry fat. Addition of fat did not (P = 0.17) affect ADG for the 112-d study. The inclusion of tallow in the diet reduced (P < 0.05) ADFI of steers compared with those on the control diet; however, ADFI of steers fed poultry fat did not differ from those fed the control (P = 0.06) or the tallow (P = 0.36) diets. At d 55, steers consuming either fat source had improved (P < 0.05) G:F compared with steers fed the control diet. For the entire 112 d, steers consuming the poultry fat diet gained more efficiently (P < 0.05) than the control steers, and the tallow-fed steers were intermediate and not different from the other groups (P > or = 0.14). The inclusion of fat in the diet did not (P > or = 0.15) affect carcass characteristics. Steaks from the steers consuming diets with added fat were darker (lower L* value; P < 0.05) than the controls; however, dietary treatments did not (P > or = 0.10) affect any other objective color measurements or discoloration scores during retail display. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances for LM steaks did not differ (P = 0.21) by dietary treatment. The cooked LM steaks from steers fed poultry fat did not (P > or = 0.80) differ in juiciness or flavor intensity from steaks of steers fed the control or tallow diets. There were also no differences (P = 0.18) in off flavors as a result of added dietary fat. In the LM and adipose tissue, percentages of total SFA were increased (P = 0.05) by adding supplemental fat to the diet, regardless of source. In the LM, total MUFA were decreased (P = 0.02) by adding supplemental fat. Conversely, diet did not (P > or = 0.14) affect the proportions of total PUFA

  18. Effects of different yeast cell wall supplements added to maize- or wheat-based diets for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Morales-López, R; Auclair, E; Van Immerseel, F; Ducatelle, R; García, F; Brufau, J

    2010-06-01

    1. Three experiments were carried out to study the effects of two experimental yeast cell wall (YCW) supplements, one from the yeast extract industry and the other from the brewery industry, added to maize or wheat based-diets, on performance and intestinal parameters of broiler chickens (Ross 308). 2. In the first and second experiments, a completely randomised block design with 4 experimental treatments was used: T-1) Negative control, no additives T-2) Positive control, avilamycin group (10 mg/kg feed), T-3) Yeast extract-YCW (500 mg/kg), and T-4) Brewery-YCW (500 mg/kg feed). There were 6 replicates of 20 (experiment 1) and 22 (experiment 2) chicks per treatment. 3. In experiment 1 (wheat based diets), yeast extract-YCW increased BW and daily feed intake (42 d). The effects were comparable to those of avilamycin. In experiment 2 (maize based diet), avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW treatments improved the feed conversion ratio with respect to the negative control group (0 to 14 d). 4. At 24 d, in both experiments, the ileal nutrient digestibility and ileal bacterial counts were not affected by any experimental treatment. In maize diets, lower intestinal viscosity was obtained with avilamycin, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW than with the negative control. In wheat diets, yeast extract-YCW and brewery-YCW reduced intestinal viscosity. 5. A third experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast extract-YCW on animal performance, intestinal mucosa morphology and intestinal viscosity. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used; one factor was the dietary yeast extract-YCW supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg feed) and the other the cereal in the diet (maize or wheat). 6. At 43 d, the heaviest BW was in chickens fed on yeast extract-YCW compared to those given the negative control. At 22 d, yeast extract-YCW increased villus height, mucus thickness and number of goblet cells with respect to negative control. 7. Results of these experiments

  19. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children.

    PubMed

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-07-01

    Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7-12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study-a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated with adverse cardiovascular health factors in children

  20. Evaluating marine diets through radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis of victims of the AD79 eruption of Vesuvius.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Bondioli, Luca; Fattore, Luciano; Higham, Tom; Hedges, Robert

    2013-11-01

    The stable carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope values of bone collagen are frequently used in paleodietary studies to assess the marine contribution to an individual's diet. Surprisingly, the relationship between stable isotope these values characteristics and the percentage of marine foods in diet has never been effectively demonstrated. To clarify this relationship, the stable isotope values and radiocarbon dates of nine humans and one sheep from Herculaneum, all who perished simultaneously during the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius, were determined. Significant differences were found in the radiocarbon dates which are attributable to the incorporation of "old" carbon from the marine reservoir. The magnitude of the observed differences was linearly correlated with both δ(13) C and δ(15) N values allowing the response of each isotope to increasing marine carbon in collagen to be independently verified. Regression analyses showed that for every 1‰ enrichment in δ(13) C and δ(15) N, 56 years and 34 years were added to the radiocarbon age, respectively. Predictions of the maximum marine reservoir age differed considerably depending on which stable isotope was considered. This discrepancy is attributed to some degree of macronutrient scrambling whereby nitrogen from marine protein is preferentially incorporated in collagen over marine carbon. It is suggested that the macronutrient scrambling explains the observed relationship between δ(13) C and δ(15) N from Roman coastal sites and should be considered when interpreting any diet which is not dominated by protein. Nevertheless, without knowing the degree of macronutrient scrambling in different dietary scenarios, the accuracy of dietary reconstructions is severely compromised.

  1. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N

    2015-05-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence of overweight and obesity among their children and had consistent beneficial effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and inflammation in both parents and children. After 1 year, mainly the HP effects were maintained. Putative genes have been identified that suggest this diet to be particularly effective in 67% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books in several languages.

  2. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence of overweight and obesity among their children and had consistent beneficial effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and inflammation in both parents and children. After 1 year, mainly the HP effects were maintained. Putative genes have been identified that suggest this diet to be particularly effective in 67% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books in several languages. PMID:25540980

  3. Sex-Based Differences in Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Katie M; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1) faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  4. Sex-Based Differences in Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) Chick Growth Rates and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Katie M.; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact the

  5. Simultaneous DNA-based diet analysis of breeding, non-breeding and chick Adélie penguins

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Julie C.; Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin; Faux, Cassandra; Jarman, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    As central place foragers, breeding penguins are restricted in foraging range by the need to return to the colony to feed chicks. Furthermore, breeding birds must balance energetic gain from self-feeding with the costs of returning to provision young. Non-breeding birds, however, are likely to be less restricted in foraging range and lack the high energy demands of provisioning, therefore may consume different prey to breeders. We used DNA dietary analysis to determine whether there was a difference in provisioning and self-feeding diet by identifying prey DNA in scat samples from breeding and chick Adélie penguins at two locations in East Antarctica. We also investigated diet differences between breeders and non-breeders at one site. Although previous work shows changing foraging behaviour between chick provisioning and self-feeding, our results suggest no significant differences in the main prey groups consumed by chicks and breeders at either site or between breeding stages. This may reflect the inability of penguins to selectively forage when provisioning, or resources were sufficient for all foraging needs. Conversely, non-breeders were found to consume different prey groups to breeders, which may reflect less restricted foraging ranges, breeders actively selecting particular prey during breeding or reduced foraging experience of non-breeders. PMID:26909171

  6. Effect of added zinc in diets with ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Paulk, C B; Burnett, D D; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Hill, G M; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing the dietary Zn content on growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma Zn, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs fed diets containing ractopamine HCl (RAC; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; 94 kg BW) were used in a 27-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 26 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal diet (control; 0.66% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; and the RAC diet plus 50, 100, or 150 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or 50 mg Zn/kg from a Zn AA complex (ZnAA; Availa-Zn; Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN). All diets also contained 83 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 in the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet without added Zn had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, carcass yield, and loin weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing Zn from ZnO in diets containing RAC tended to increase (linear, P = 0.067) G:F and loin weight (quadratic, P = 0.064). Pigs fed diets with 50 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA tended to have increased (P = 0.057) ADG compared with pigs fed the RAC diet. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC; 98 kg BW) were used in a 35-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Treatments included a control diet (0.66% SID Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; or the RAC diet plus 75, 150, and 225 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or ZnAA. All diets also contained 55 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 from the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, loin depth, percentage lean, and liver weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. No Zn level or source effects or level × source interactions were observed for growth performance. A Zn level × source interaction (quadratic, P = 0.007) was observed in liver Zn concentrations. This resulted from liver Zn concentrations plateauing at 150 mg Zn/kg when Zn

  7. Effect of cholesterol-rich diets with and without added vitamins E and C on the severity of atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, M M; Kawano, H; Kummerow, F A

    1997-11-01

    Oxysterols as oxidation products of cholesterol are considered an atherogenic factor in the development of atherosclerosis in the arteries of cholesterol-fed rabbits. We compared the atherogenic effects of diets enriched either with 0.5% oxidized cholesterol (OC; characterized by high amounts of oxysterols) or with pure cholesterol (PC). The effects of antioxidant vitamins E and C added to the PC diet were also evaluated in view of their antioxidative properties for lipoproteins and cholesterol and how this could affect the severity of atherosclerosis. Four groups of rabbits were fed the following for 11 wk: 1) a nonpurified stock diet, 2) this stock diet plus 0.5% OC, 3) the stock diet plus 0.5% PC, and 4) the stock diet plus 0.5% PC and 1000 mg vitamin E and 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet (PC + antioxidants). The OC and PC diets were equally hyperlipidemic and hypercholesterolemic. The severity of atherosclerotic lesions was highest with the OC diet and lowest with the PC + antioxidants diet. The plasma oxysterol concentration was proportional to the severity of atherosclerosis in all three groups of cholesterol-fed rabbits. beta-Very-low-density-lipoprotein modification was minimized by vitamins E and C as indicated by its polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern and its increased binding to the rabbit liver membrane in vitro. This study indicated that OC and PC were equally atherogenic but that the addition of antioxidants to the PC diet significantly reduced its severity, even when hypercholesterolemia persisted. This indicated that atherogenesis can result from an excessive accumulation of oxidation products of cholesterol in the plasma.

  8. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  9. Effects of Added Lipids on Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance in Oiled Common Murres ( Uria aalge ) and Western Grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ) Fed Four Formulations of a Critical Care Diet.

    PubMed

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Klasing, Kirk C

    2017-06-01

    Nutritional support is a primary therapy administered to oiled animals during responses to oil spills, but data informing nutritional decision-making during events are limited. In this study, 44 common murres ( Uria aalge ) and 6 Western grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ), naturally oiled by oceanic seeps off the coast of Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, CA, USA, were assigned to 1 of 4 groups fed diets with varying levels (6.8% [no added oil], 11%, and 20%) and types (salmon, corn) of oil added to a partially purified basal diet. Birds used in the study ranged from extremely emaciated to thin body condition (62%-80% wild bird mean body mass). Acid-insoluble ash was used as an indigestible dietary marker to quantify nitrogen retention, apparent nitrogen digestibility, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, energy digestibility, fat retention, fat digestibility, and estimated fat excretion. Fat excretion is important in these species because once birds have been cleaned they are at risk of plumage recontamination from excreted fat during care. Lower fat diets resulted in lower fat excretion but higher nitrogen retention, higher apparent nitrogen digestibility, and higher apparent metabolizable energy. Decreases in nitrogen retention were significantly related to increases in fat excretion. Regardless of diet, energy digestibility significantly declined with declines in body mass, suggesting severity of emaciation reduced a birds' ability to extract energy from food. Energy digestibility was highest in the 11% (low) salmon oil diet; hence, this diet had the highest effective energy content despite a lower gross kcal/kg diet. Diets fed during oil spills historically have had high fat concentrations to provide maximum caloric support. Results of this study suggest that lower fat diets may be more efficacious for nutritionally depleted seabirds. This study provides valuable data to guide clinical decision making regarding nutritional support during oil

  10. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P < 0.10) to have less ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed the control diet. Barrows had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and less (P < 0.001) G:F than gilts. Pigs fed the DDGS diet had reduced (P < 0.05) loin eye area compared with pigs fed the control diet, but diet had no effect on other carcass characteristics. Barrows had greater (P < 0.001) final BW at the end of both phases, greater (P < 0.001) HCW and backfat thickness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater dressing percentage, but less (P < 0.001) fat-free lean percentage than gilts. Backfat of pigs fed the 5 DDGS-containing diets had less (P < 0.05) L* values than pigs fed the control diet and backfat of gilts had greater (P < 0.001) a* and b* values than barrows. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) belly flop distance compared with pigs fed

  11. Ketogenic diet does not disturb neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in rats.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Joakim; Kondziella, Daniel; Thorlin, Torleif; Asztely, Fredrik

    2008-08-06

    The ketogenic diet, a high-fat diet, is a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of refractory epilepsy, especially in children. However, there are concerns that a high-fat diet may influence the normal development of the central nervous system and cognition. In this study we investigated the influence of ketogenic diet on adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Rats were provided with either a high-fat diet (80% fat) or a standard rat diet (5% fat) ad libitum for 4 weeks. In both female and male rats, the amounts of bromodeoxyuridine immunoreactive cells in the dentate gyrus were the same in the different groups. Our results suggest that the ketogenic diet does not disturb the neurogenesis in the rat dentate gyrus.

  12. Effect of white wheat bread and white wheat bread added with bioactive compounds on hypercholesterolemic and steatotic mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, Luisa; Pucci, Laura; Buonamici, Guglielmo; Giorgetti, Lucia; Maltinti, Maristella; Longo, Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    The effects of white wheat bread and white wheat bread added with a bioactive compound mixture (Cyclanthera pedata, Glycine max, Monascus-fermented red mold rice, Cynara scolymus and Medicago sativa) were examined on hypercholesterolemic and steatotic mice, divided into four groups: control diet (CTR), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet with white wheat bread added with 1.5 g kg(-1) of mixture (HFD+AB) and high-fat diet with white wheat bread (HFD+B). Total serum cholesterol in the HFD+AB and HFD+B groups and hepatic triglycerides in the HFD+AB group decreased compared with the HFD group. Liver histology confirmed lower lipid drop accumulation in the HFD+AB group than in the HFD and HFD+B groups. HFD+AB caused a 7.0-fold increase and a 3.5-fold reduction in CYP7A1 and SREBP-1c gene expression respectively compared with the HFD group. Moreover, the HFD+B group showed a 2.2-, 8.4- and 1.5-fold increase in HMG CoA reductase, CYP7A1 and LDLr gene expression respectively compared with the HFD group. Both the white wheat bread and the added white wheat bread induced cholesterol reduction by increasing CYP7A1. Moreover, the added white wheat bread improved steatosis by decreasing SREBP-1c gene expression. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effects of adding saturated fat to diets with sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 112 barrows (avg BW of 72 kg) was used in a 65-day growth assay to determine the effects of adding a source of saturated fat (beef tallow) into diets with sorghum-based distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The pigs were sorted by ancestry and blocked by BW with seven pigs/pen an...

  14. Stable isotopes reveal Holocene changes in the diet of Adélie penguins in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony E; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) modern and fossil eggshells and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils in Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea) were processed for carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios with the aim of detecting past penguin dietary changes. A detailed and greatly expanded Adélie penguin dietary record dated back to 7,200 years BP has been reconstructed for the investigated area. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7,200 to 2,000 years BP, δ(13)C and δ(15)N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2,000 years BP, when the δ(13)C values reveal a change in the penguin feeding behavior. Modern eggshell and guano samples reveal a major dietary contribution of krill but not a krill-dominated diet, since δ(13)C values remain much too high if krill prevail in the diet. According to the Holocene environmental background attested for Victoria Land, Adélie penguin dietary shifts between fish and krill seem to reflect penguin paleoecological responses to different paleoenvironmental settings with different conditions of sea-ice extension and persistence. Furthermore, Adélie penguin diet appears to be particularly affected by environmental changes in a very specific period within the breeding season, namely the egg-laying period when penguin dietary and feeding habit shifts are clearly documented by the δ(13)C of eggshell carbonate.

  15. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-12-09

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions.

  16. Dietary mercury exposure resulted in behavioral differences in mice contaminated with fish-associated methylmercury compared to methylmercury chloride added to diet.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  17. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets. PMID:22899888

  18. The role of high-protein diets in body weight management and health.

    PubMed

    Te Morenga, Lisa; Mann, Jim

    2012-08-01

    Studies examining the health benefits of high-protein diets typical of most affluent and many developing countries are not consistent. Prospective epidemiological studies relating dietary protein to clinical and metabolic endpoints suggest increased weight gain and increased risk of diabetes amongst those with a high protein intake and an increased risk of cancer with high intakes of red meat, but lower blood pressure and possibly a reduced risk of heart disease with higher protein intakes. The potential for high-protein diets to confer greater benefit than other diets has been examined using ad libitum and energy restricted diets. Of greatest interest have been the comparisons between high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets. Many trials have reported greater weight loss especially in the context of ad libitum diets over the short-to medium-term, sparing of lean body mass, lowering of triglyceride levels, improved HDL: total cholesterol ratio and improved glycaemic control. Limited data regarding insulin sensitivity are less consistent. A major difficulty in interpreting the results of these studies is that carbohydrate quality has not been taken into account. Furthermore, longer term comparisons of weight reducing diets differing in macronutrient composition have reported similar outcomes, suggesting that compliance is a more important consideration. Nevertheless dietary patterns with high-protein intakes are appropriate for weight reduction and weight maintenance and may be useful for those who have high triglyceride levels and other features of the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Silage or limit-fed grain growing diets for steers: I. Growth and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Gallavan, R H; Williams, C B; Phillips, W A; Volesky, J D; Rodriguez, S; Bennett, G L

    1995-09-01

    The influence of energy source (silage- [S] or grain- [G] based) on organ growth, carcass quality, and meat acceptability independent of rate of gain was examined. Sixty-four Angus steers were allotted to one of the two treatments and given ad libitum access to silage or limit-fed grain for 145 d. All steers were then given ad libitum access to a grain diet for 45, 75, or 105 d. Eight steers from each treatment were slaughtered at the end of the growing phase and at each of the termination dates. The silage-based growing diet consisted (DM basis) of 55% sorghum silage (averaged 23.6% dry matter), 22% alfalfa hay, 10.8% ground shelled corn, and 10.8% soybean meal and contained 12.8% CP. Dry matter in the grain-based diet, composed of 76.5% ground shelled corn, 5% soybean meal, 13.6% cottonseed hulls, 3.5% molasses, and .4% salt and 1% limestone, contained 12.1% CP. It was limit-fed to produce rates of gain similar to the silage diet eaten ad libitum, using net energy for gain of each diet calculated from organic matter digestibility determined in digestion trials. The finishing diet was similar to the grain growing diet except that alfalfa hay replaced the cottonseed hulls. No implants or ionophores were used. High silage moisture decreased ADG the first 45 d, so steers fed grain gained faster, but thereafter gains were similar. At the end of the growing phase, steers fed grain had heavier shrunk and empty body weights and larger livers. However, liver size was not different when adjusted for growing ADG. By 45 d with ad libitum access to the finishing diet, 75% of the carcasses from steers fed both diets graded Choice. Steers fed silage had tougher (P < .05) steaks with less flavor intensity (P < .05) at the end of the growing phase; these differences diminished after 75 d on feed. These results suggest that choice beef can be produced in only 45 d in the feedlot, but tenderness and flavor among Choice carcasses remained inferior for steers fed silage for at least

  20. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Rupinder K; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors) in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v), and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days)] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  1. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  2. Effect of diet composition on pregnancy outcome in overnourished rapidly growing adolescent sheep.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Redmer, Dale A; Aitken, Raymond P

    2006-12-01

    When pregnant adolescent sheep are overnourished to promote maternal growth during pregnancy, growth of the placenta is impaired and results in the premature delivery of low birth weight lambs relative to control-fed adolescents of equivalent age. These effects have been achieved by feeding two levels of the same complete diet. The present study evaluated the role of protein in pregnancy outcome in our adolescent sheep paradigm. Adolescent ewes were implanted with single embryos on day 4 post-oestrus. Thereafter ewes were offered ad libitum an isoenergetic diet (11.4 MJ metabolisable energy/kg DM) containing either 12% (basic, B) or 17% (extra, E) crude protein. At day 75 of gestation, half the pregnant ewes on each protein level were switched to yield four groups, BB, EE, BE and EB protein. A further optimally nourished control group received a moderate quantity of a ration (14% crude protein) designed to provide 100% of the estimated energy and protein requirement of the adolescent sheep according to stage of pregnancy. Pregnancy outcome was determined at term. Feed intakes were independent of protein level in the four groups of ewes fed ad libitum and were higher (P<0.001) than in the control group throughout. Maternal plasma urea concentrations reflected the current crude protein content of the diet offered and were elevated in the 17% compared with 12% protein groups (P<0.001). Within groups fed ad libitum, maternal plasma insulin, glucose, NEFA and homocysteine concentrations were largely independent of protein level. Gestation length, placental weight, lamb birth weight and initial colostrum yield were reduced (P<0.05) in all groups fed ad libitum relative to the optimally nourished control group. Similarly, total colostrum IgG, butterfat, lactose and crude protein content at parturition were attenuated in the ad libitum compared with the control groups. However, within ad libitum groups pregnancy outcome parameters were largely unaffected by level or timing

  3. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics.

  4. Associations between added sugars and micronutrient intakes and status: further analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Young People aged 4 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid; Boyd, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Added sugars are often viewed as 'empty calories', negatively impacting micronutrient intakes, yet reviews consider the evidence inconclusive. This study aimed to quantify associations between dietary added sugars (as a percentage of energy) and micronutrient intake and biochemical status in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Using data from 1688 British children aged 4-18 years who completed 7 d weighed dietary records in 1997, micronutrient intakes were examined across quintiles of added sugars. After excluding low energy reporters, mean dietary intakes of most nutrients exceeded the reference nutrient intake, except for zinc. Compared with quintile 1 (9% added sugars), high consumers in quintile 5 (23% added sugars) had micronutrient intakes ranging from 24% lower to 6% higher (mean 14% lower). Zinc intakes in quintile 1 v. quintile 5 averaged 93% v. 78% of reference nutrient intake; magnesium 114% v. 94%; iron 115% v. 100%; and vitamin A 111% v. 92%, respectively. Plasma levels of magnesium, zinc and carotenoids did not vary across quintiles, but weak negative correlations were observed with serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Plasma selenium was inversely correlated with added sugars (r -0.17; P < 0.0001) but there was no association with glutathione peroxidase. The impact of added sugars on micronutrient intakes appears modest overall but may have relevance for children consuming inadequate amounts of nutrient-rich foods coupled with a diet high in added sugars (approximately 23%). Further work is needed to explore the impact of different sources of added sugars and to refine assessments of inadequate intakes and status.

  5. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss?

    PubMed

    Astrup, Arne; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Harper, Angela

    The Atkins diet books have sold more than 45 million copies over 40 years, and in the obesity epidemic this diet and accompanying Atkins food products are popular. The diet claims to be effective at producing weight loss despite ad-libitum consumption of fatty meat, butter, and other high-fat dairy products, restricting only the intake of carbohydrates to under 30 g a day. Low-carbohydrate diets have been regarded as fad diets, but recent research questions this view. A systematic review of low-carbohydrate diets found that the weight loss achieved is associated with the duration of the diet and restriction of energy intake, but not with restriction of carbohydrates. Two groups have reported longer-term randomised studies that compared instruction in the low-carbohydrate diet with a low-fat calorie-reduced diet in obese patients (N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 2082-90; Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 778-85). Both trials showed better weight loss on the low-carbohydrate diet after 6 months, but no difference after 12 months. WHERE NEXT?: The apparent paradox that ad-libitum intake of high-fat foods produces weight loss might be due to severe restriction of carbohydrate depleting glycogen stores, leading to excretion of bound water, the ketogenic nature of the diet being appetite suppressing, the high protein-content being highly satiating and reducing spontaneous food intake, or limited food choices leading to decreased energy intake. Long-term studies are needed to measure changes in nutritional status and body composition during the low-carbohydrate diet, and to assess fasting and postprandial cardiovascular risk factors and adverse effects. Without that information, low-carbohydrate diets cannot be recommended.

  6. Identification of N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate amyloid-β in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit and AD brain.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garmendia, Roxanna; Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Morales, Miguel Angel; Luna-Muñoz, José; Mena, Raul; Nava-Catorce, Miriam; Acero, Gonzalo; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Viramontes-Pintos, Amparo; Cribbs, David H; Gevorkian, Goar

    2014-01-01

    The main amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) variants detected in the human brain are Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42; however, a significant proportion of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain also consists of N-terminal truncated/modified species. AβN3(pE), Aβ peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3, has been demonstrated to be a major N-truncated/modified constituent of intracellular, extracellular, and vascular Aβ deposits in AD and Down syndrome brain tissue. It has been previously demonstrated that rabbits fed a diet enriched in cholesterol and given water containing trace copper levels developed AD-like pathology including intraneuronal and extracellular Aβ accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, vascular inflammation, astrocytosis, microgliosis, reduced levels of acetylcholine, as well as learning deficits and thus, may be used as a non-transgenic animal model of sporadic AD. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of AβN3(pE) in blood vessels in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit brain. In addition, we detected AβN3(pE) immunoreactivity in all postmortem AD brain samples studied. We believe that our results are potentially important for evaluation of novel therapeutic molecules/strategies targeting Aβ peptides in a suitable non-transgenic animal model.

  7. Effects of copper sulfate supplement on growth, tissue concentration, and ruminal solubilities of molybdenum and copper in sheep fed low and high molybdenum diets

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan, M.; Veira, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Each of four groups of six wethers were fed one of a low molybdenum, high molybdenum, high molybdenum plus copper sulfate, or high molybdenum plus copper sulfate corn silage-based diet for ad libitum intake for 221 days. Average daily gains and ratios of feed/gain were depressed for the high molybdenum diet as compared with the low molybdenum diet suggesting molybdenum toxicity in sheep fed the high molybdenum diet. This was alleviated partly by the copper sulfate supplement. The supplement also decreased solubility of both copper and molybdenum in the rumen but had no effect on copper concentration in blood plasma. Concentration of molybdenum was higher in both liver and kidney in sheep fed high-molybdenum diets as compared with low-molybdenum diets. Copper concentration was higher in kidneys of sheep fed high-molybdenum diets, but no difference was significant in liver copper between sheep fed diets high or low in molybdenum.

  8. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Mohamed S.; Hassan, Marwa A.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Nabtiti, Adel S. El; Ahmed, Ali Meawad; Moawed, Sherief A.; El-Sayed, Ahmed Kamel; Cui, Hengmi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP) was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD])- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet) on growth performance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old). Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05) of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP)/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP)/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP)/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP)/kg VPD and 2 g (SP)/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP)/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP) may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails. Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet. PMID:27956783

  9. A low glycemic index diet does not affect postprandial energy metabolism but decreases postprandial insulinemia and increases fullness ratings in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Sloth, Birgitte; Dimitrov, Dimiter; Tetens, Inge; Björck, Inger; Flint, Anne; Holst, Jens J; Astrup, Arne; Elmståhl, Helena; Raben, Anne

    2011-09-01

    At present, it is difficult to determine whether glycemic index (GI) is an important tool in the prevention of lifestyle diseases, and long-term studies investigating GI with diets matched in macronutrient composition, fiber content, energy content, and energy density are still scarce. We investigated the effects of 2 high-carbohydrate (55%) diets with low GI (LGI; 79) or high GI (HGI; 103) on postprandial blood profile, subjective appetite sensations, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) from a corresponding test meal (LGI or HGI) after consuming the diets ad libitum for 10 wk. Two groups of a total of 29 healthy, overweight women (age: 30.5 ± 6.6 y; BMI: 27.6 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in the 10-wk intervention and a subsequent 4-h meal test. The breakfast test meals differed in GI but were equal in total energy, macronutrient composition, fiber content, and energy density. The LGI meal resulted in lower plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and higher plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations than the HGI meal (P ≤ 0.05). Ratings of fullness were slightly higher and the desire to eat something fatty was lower after the test meal in the LGI group (P < 0.05). Postprandial plasma GLP-2, plasma glucagon, serum leptin, plasma ghrelin, EE, substrate oxidation rates, and ad libitum EI at lunch did not differ between groups. In conclusion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and subjective appetite ratings after a test meal were better after 10-wk ad libitum intake of a LGI compared to a HGI diet. EE and substrate oxidation rates were, however, not affected. These findings give some support to recommendations to consume a LGI diet.

  10. Fish oil supplementation to rats fed high-fat diet during pregnancy prevents development of impaired insulin sensitivity in male adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2017-07-17

    We examined whether maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy could prevent development of insulin resistance in adult male offspring of rat dams fed a high-fat diet. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rat dams were randomised into four treatment groups: Con-Con, dams fed a control diet (fat: 15% kcal) and administered water by gavage; Con-FO, control diet with unoxidised fish oil by gavage; HF-Con, high-fat diet (fat: 45% kcal) and water by gavage; and HF-FO, high-fat diet and unoxidised fish oil by gavage. Dams were fed the allocated diet ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation, but daily gavage occurred only during pregnancy. After weaning, male offspring consumed a chow diet ad libitum until adulthood. Maternal high-fat diet led to increased food consumption, adiposity, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides and plasma leptin in adult HF-Con offspring. HF-Con offspring also exhibited lower insulin sensitivity than Con-Con rats. Male offspring from HF-FO group were similar to HF-Con regarding food consumption and most metabolic parameters. However, insulin sensitivity in the HF-FO group was improved relative to the HF-Con offspring. Supplementation with unoxidised n-3 PUFA rich oils in the setting of a maternal obesogenic diet improved insulin sensitivity, but had no impact on body composition of adult male offspring.

  11. Rosuvastatin reduces microglia in the brain of wild type and ApoE knockout mice on a high cholesterol diet; implications for prevention of stroke and AD.

    PubMed

    Famer, D; Wahlund, L-O; Crisby, M

    2010-11-12

    We have previously shown that a high cholesterol (HC) diet results in increases in microglia load and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the brains of wild type (WT) and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. In the present investigation, we analyzed whether treatment with rosuvastatin, an inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, would prevent the increases in inflammatory microglia and IL-6 levels in the brain and plasma of WT and ApoE-/- mice. We report that a HC diet resulted in an increased microglia load in the brains of WT and ApoE-/- mice, in support of our previous study. Treatment with rosuvastatin significantly decreased the microglia load in the brains of WT and ApoE-/- mice on a HC diet. Rosuvastatin treatment resulted in lowered plasma IL-6 levels in WT mice on a HC diet. However, in the present study the number of IL-6 positive cells in the brain was not significantly affected by a HC diet. A recent clinical study has shown that rosuvastatin reduces risk of ischemic stroke in patients with high plasma levels of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein by 50%. The results from our study show that rosuvastatin reduces inflammatory cells in the brain. This finding is essential for furthering the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and stroke.

  12. Adding diet and exercise counseling to the health promotion plan alleviates anthropometric and metabolic complications in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morita-Suzuki, S; Fujioka, Y; Mitsuoka, H; Tashiro, M; Harada, M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of individual (IC) and group (GC) diet and exercise counseling in men with metabolic syndrome. Participants received exercise instruction and exercise load was monitored. IC participants received individual diet counseling sessions and general consultations at baseline and monthly. GC participants received a group diet counseling session at baseline and general consultations at baseline and monthly. In the IC group, body mass index (BMI) percent body fat, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and liver function levels were reduced significantly after 3 months, whereas in the GC group, waist circumference and levels of liver function were reduced. Exercise load was negatively correlated with change in BMI and waist circumference in the IC group, and positively correlated with changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all subjects and in the GC group. Diet and exercise counseling, especially IC, may benefit patients with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  14. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  15. The effects of adding fat to diets of lactating dairy cows on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weld, K A; Armentano, L E

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supplemental fat on fiber digestibility in lactating dairy cattle. Published papers that evaluated the effects of adding fat to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (ttNDFd) and dry matter intake (DMI) were compiled. The final data set included 108 fat-supplemented treatment means, not including low-fat controls, from 38 publications. The fat-supplemented treatment means exhibited a wide range of ttNDFd (49.4% ± 9.3, mean ± standard deviation) and DMI (21.3 kg/d ± 3.5). Observations were summarized as the difference between the treatment means for fat-supplemented diets minus their respective low-fat control means. Additionally, those differences were divided by the difference in diet fatty acid (FA) concentration between the treatment and control diets. Treatment means were categorized by the type of fat supplement. Supplementing 3% FA in the diet as medium-chain fats (containing predominately 12- and 14-carbon saturated FA) or unsaturated vegetable oil decreased ttNDFd by 8.0 and 1.2 percentage units, respectively. Adding 3% calcium salts of long-chain FA or saturated fats increased ttNDFd by 3.2 and 1.3 percentage units, respectively. No other fat supplement type affected ttNDFd. Except for saturated fats and animal-vegetable fats, supplementing dietary fat decreased DMI. When the values for changes in ttNDFd are regressed on changes in DMI there was a positive relationship, though the coefficient of determination is only 0.20. When changes in ttNDFd were regressed on changes in DMI, within individual fat supplement types, there was no relationship within calcium salt supplements. There was a positive relationship between changes in ttNDFd and changes in DMI for saturated fats. Neither relationship suggested that the increased ttNDFd with calcium salts or saturated FA was due to decreased DMI for these fat sources. A subset of the means

  16. Effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs to the diet of young pigs on growth performance, intestinal cytokines, and circulating acute-phase proteins.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J; Kerr, B J

    2008-04-01

    The effects of feeding different types of fiber to weanling pigs on growth performance, intestinal and liver cytokine expression, circulating acute-phase proteins, and IGF-I were evaluated. Intestinal tissue abundance of DNA, protein, and phosphorylated S6 kinase were also determined. Pigs (n = 120; initially 5.2 kg and 24 d of age) were randomly assigned to diets containing 1 of 4 fiber sources: 1) control diets containing no added fiber source, 2) diets containing 7.5% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), 3) diets containing 7.5% soybean hulls, or 4) diets containing 7.5% citrus pulp. The experimental diets were fed for 4 wk in 2 phases (phase 1, wk 1 and 2; phase 2, wk 3 and 4). Intestinal tissue samples, liver samples, and blood samples were collected from a subset (n = 24; 6 pigs/treatment) of the pigs on d 7, and blood samples were collected from another subset (n = 24; 6 pigs/ treatment) of pigs on d 28 of the experiment. Dietary treatment had no effect on ADG, ADFI, or G:F throughout the experiment. Likewise, pig BW variability (CV), plasma IGF-I, or the plasma concentration of the acute-phase proteins, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin, were not affected by dietary treatment. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that on d 7, pigs fed DDGS had a greater (P < 0.05) relative abundance of the mRNA encoding IL-6, IL-1beta, and IL-10 in ileum tissue than pigs fed all other diets. Diets containing DDGS had no effect on the relative abundance of tumor necrosis factor alpha or interferon-gamma mRNA in ileum tissue on d 7. The d-7 mRNA expression of cytokines was not altered in jejunum, colon, or liver tissue by dietary treatment. Intestinal tissue protein content or jejunum and ileum DNA concentrations were not affected by diet. Western blot analysis found no effect of dietary treatment on the activation of S6 kinase in jejunum, ileum, or colon tissue on d 7. These results indicate that feeding 7.5% of a fiber source as DDGS

  17. Diet composition exacerbates or attenuates soman toxicity in rats: implied metabolic control of nerve agent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Myers, Todd M; Langston, Jeffrey L

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the role of diet composition on nerve agent toxicity, rats were fed four distinct diets ad libitum for 28 d prior to challenge with 110 μg/kg (1.0 LD(50), sc) soman. The four diets used were a standard rodent diet, a choline-enriched diet, a glucose-enriched diet, and a ketogenic diet. Body weight was recorded throughout the study. Toxic signs and survival were evaluated at key times for up to 72 h following soman exposure. Additionally, acquisition of discriminated shuttlebox avoidance performance was characterized beginning 24h after soman challenge and across the next 8 d (six behavioral sessions). Prior to exposure, body weight was highest in the standard diet group and lowest in the ketogenic diet group. Upon exposure, differences in soman toxicity as a function of diet became apparent within the first hour, with mortality in the glucose-enriched diet group reaching 80% and exceeding all other groups (in which mortality ranged from 0 to 6%). At 72 h after exposure, mortality was 100% in the glucose-enriched diet group, and survival approximated 50% in the standard and choline-enriched diet groups, but equaled 87% in the ketogenic diet group. Body weight loss was significantly reduced in the ketogenic and choline-enriched diet groups, relative to the standard diet group. At 1 and 4h after exposure, rats in the ketogenic diet group had significantly lower toxic sign scores than all other groups. The ketogenic diet group performed significantly better than the standard diet group on two measures of active avoidance performance. The exacerbated soman toxicity observed in the glucose-enriched diet group coupled with the attenuated soman toxicity observed in the ketogenic diet group implicates glucose availability in the toxic effects of soman. This increased glucose availability may enhance acetylcholine synthesis and/or utilization, thereby exacerbating peripheral and central soman toxicity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Seimon, Radhika V; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A; Nguyen, Amy D; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)-(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative to energy

  19. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  20. Ammonia Nitrogen Added to Diets Deficient in Dispensable Amino Acid Nitrogen Is Poorly Utilized for Urea Production in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Wilfredo D; Silva, Kayla E; Zhu, Cuilan L; Nyachoti, Charles M; Htoo, John K; Cant, John P; de Lange, Cornelis Fm

    2017-10-11

    Background: Including ammonia in low-crude protein (CP) diets deficient in dispensable amino acid (DAAs) increases nitrogen retention in growing pigs.Objective: We investigated the absorption and metabolism of dietary ammonia nitrogen in the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver of pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA nitrogen.Methods: Eight pigs with an initial mean ± SD body weight (BW) of 26.5 ± 1.4 kg were surgically fitted with 4 catheters each (portal, hepatic and mesenteric veins, and carotid artery). The pigs were fed (2.8 × 191 kcal/kg BW(0.60)), for 7 d and every 8 h, a diet deficient in DAA nitrogen supplemented with increasing amounts of ammonia nitrogen (CP: 7.76%, 9.27%, and 10.77%; indispensable amino acid nitrogen:total nitrogen ratio: 0.71, 0.59, and 0.50 for control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively). The treatment sequence was based on a Latin square design with 3 consecutive periods. On the last day of each period, blood flows in the portal and hepatic veins were determined with a continuous infusion of ρ-amino hippuric acid into the mesenteric vein. Serial blood samples were taken to determine ammonia and urea nitrogen concentration. Net balances of ammonia and urea nitrogen were calculated for the PDV and liver.Results: Cumulative (8 h) ammonia nitrogen appearance in the portal vein increased (P ≤ 0.05) with ammonia intake (433, 958, and 1629 ± 60 mg ammonia nitrogen/meal for control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively). The cumulative hepatic uptake of ammonia nitrogen increased (P ≤ 0.05) with ammonia nitrogen supply. The cumulative urea nitrogen appearance in the hepatic vein tended to increase (P ≤ 0.10) only in high-ammonia treatment (-92.5, -59.4, and 209.7 ± 92 mg urea nitrogen/meal for control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively) and, relative to the control diet, represented -6.0% and 11% of ammonia nitrogen intake.Conclusion: Dietary ammonia nitrogen is poorly utilized for urea production

  1. Effects of a high protein diet on body weight and comorbidities associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Red meat intake has been frequently associated with the development of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes but vegetable protein has been associated with protection from these diseases. Whether this is related to the protein per se or to the increased polyunsaturated fat or higher fibre levels associated with more vegetarian diets is not clear. High protein diets are associated with greater satiety and in some studies are associated with greater weight loss compared with high carbohydrate diets especially in an ad libitum design. These diets also lower plasma triglyceride and blood pressure and sometimes spare lean mass. There appear to be no harmful effects of high protein diets on bone density or renal function in weight loss studies.

  2. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  3. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gotthardt, Juliet D.; Verpeut, Jessica L.; Yeomans, Bryn L.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Bello, Nicholas T.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%–52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%–13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%–42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%–60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%–32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%–75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760

  4. Effects of cadmium in herbage on the apparent absorption of elements by sheep in comparison with inorganic cadmium added to their diet

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.J.C. . E-mail: c.phillips@uq.edu.au; Chiy, P.C.; Zachou, E.

    2005-10-01

    A meta-analysis of existing scientific literature recently suggested that Cd is absorbed more efficiently by sheep if it is in the organic form in grass, than if it is added as an inorganic supplement to the diet. We tested this experimentally by feeding sheep grass from contaminated soil, compared with uncontaminated grass and with Cd added to the diet. To produce contaminated herbage, Cd nitrate was added to soil in 11 lysimeters sown with perennial ryegrass, with a further 11 lysimeters receiving no Cd to produce uncontaminated herbage. In the Cd-treated lysimeters, soil had increased exchangeable K, Mg, and Ca, leachate had increased K, Mg, Ca, Na, and P, grass had increased Cd and reduced Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Cr, Al, and Ni, and there was some reduction in grass yield compared with untreated lysimeters. Grass from Cd-treated or untreated lysimeters was fed to groups of 12 ewes for 2 days, with Cd intake equated by adding Cd nitrate to the concentrate feed of ewes receiving the uncontaminated grass. The apparent absorption of Cd, Zn, Mo, Cr, and Al was increased for ewes receiving Cd-enriched grass, and apparent absorption of Cu was reduced, compared to those receiving supplementary inorganic Cd. Most of the unabsorbed Cd was excreted in feces within 4 days of feeding. The ewes consuming Cd in grass had increased B concentrations in their urine, possibly due to adverse effects of Cd on kidney function. Finally, the ewes were offered a choice of the two herbages and they ate significantly more of the uncontaminated grass. It is concluded that the apparent absorption of Cd and other heavy metals by sheep in a short-term experiment was greater when Cd was in the grass than when the Cd was added in in an inorganic form and that sheep partially avoided herbage with a high Cd concentration.

  5. The effects of a high-energy diet on hippocampal-dependent discrimination performance and blood-brain barrier integrity differ for diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Terry L; Monnot, Andrew; Neal, Adelai U; Martin, Ashley A; Horton, J Josiah; Zheng, Wei

    2012-08-20

    Rats that consume high-energy (HE) diets (i.e., diets high in saturated fats and sugar) show impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (e.g., Kanoski and Davidson (2011) [1]). To further investigate this effect, we trained rats given restricted access to low-fat lab chow on hippocampal-dependent serial feature-negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. When training was completed, Group Chow received ad libitum lab chow. The remaining rats received ad libitum HE diet. Performance on both discrimination problems was tested following 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of HE diet exposure. FN, but not simple discrimination, was abolished initially for all rats, and then re-emerged for Group Chow. For rats fed HE diet, those that weighed the least and had the lowest amount of body fat (HE-diet resistant (HE-DR) rats), performed like Group Chow on both discrimination problems. However, HE diet-induced obese (HE-DIO) rats (i.e., rats that weighed the most weight and had the most body fat) performed like Group Chow on the simple discrimination problem, but were impaired throughout testing on the FN problem. Subsequent assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability revealed that concentrations of an exogenously administered dye were elevated in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum or prefrontal cortex for HE-DIO rats relative to the HE-DR and Chow groups. The results indicate that the adverse consequences of HE diet on hippocampal-dependent cognitive functioning are associated with detrimental effects on the BBB and that both of these outcomes vary with sensitivity to HE diet-induced increases in weight and adiposity.

  6. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes added to a Andropogon gayanus grass silage-concentrate diet on rumen fermentation in batch cultures and the artificial rumen (Rusitec).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, G O; Gonçalves, L C; Pereira, L G R; Chaves, A V; Wang, Y; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A

    2015-07-01

    In vitro batch cultures were used to screen four fibrolytic enzyme mixtures at two dosages added to a 60 : 40 silage : concentrate diet containing the C(4) tropical grass Andropogon gayanus grass ensiled at two maturities - vegetative stage (VS) and flowering stage (FS). Based on these studies, one enzyme mixture was selected to treat the same diets and evaluate its impact on fermentation using an artificial rumen (Rusitec). In vitro batch cultures were conducted as a completely randomized design with two runs, four replicates per run and 12 treatments in a factorial arrangement (four enzyme mixtures×three doses). Enzyme additives (E1, E2, E3 and E4) were commercial products and contained a range of endoglucanase, exoglucanase and xylanase activities. Enzymes were added to the complete diet 2 h before incubation at 0, 2 and 4 μl/g of dry matter (DM). Gas production (GP) was measured after 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of incubation. Disappearance of DM (DMD), NDF (NDFD) and ADF (ADFD) were determined after 24 and 48 h. For all four enzyme mixtures, a dosage effect (P>0.05) DM, N, NDF or ADF disappearance after 48 h of incubation nor daily ammonia-N, volatile fatty acids or CH(4) production. However, enzyme application increased (P<0.05) microbial N production in feed particle-associated (loosely-associated) and silage feed particle-bound (firmly associated) fractions. With A. gayanus silage diets, degradation may not be limited by microbial colonization, but rather by the ability of fibrolytic enzymes to degrade plant cell walls within this recalcitrant forage.

  7. Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Prostate Cancer: How Low Is “Low Enough”?

    PubMed Central

    Masko, Elizabeth M.; Thomas, Jean A.; Antonelli, Jodi A.; Lloyd, Jessica C.; Phillips, Tameika E.; Poulton, Susan H.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Pizzo, Salvatore V.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that carbohydrate intake influences prostate cancer biology, as mice fed a no-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (NCKD) had significantly smaller xenograft tumors and longer survival than mice fed a Western diet. As it is nearly impossible for humans to consume and maintain NCKD, we determined whether diets containing 10% or 20% carbohydrate kcal showed similar tumor growth as NCKD. A total of 150 male severe combined immunodeficient mice were fed a Western diet ad libitum, injected with the human prostate cancer cell line LAPC-4, and then randomized 2 weeks later to one of three arms: NCKD, 10% carbohydrate, or 20% carbohydrate diets. Ten mice not injected were fed an ad libitum low-fat diet (12% fat kcal) serving as the reference in a modified-paired feeding protocol. Mice were sacrificed when tumors reached 1,000 mm3. Despite consuming extra calories, all mice receiving low-carbohydrate diets were significantly lighter than those receiving a low-fat diet (P < 0.04). Among the low-carbohydrate arms, NCKD-fed mice were significantly lighter than the 10% or 20% carbohydrate groups (P < 0.05). Tumors were significantly larger in the 10% carbohydrate group on days 52 and 59 (P < 0.05), but at no other point during the study. Diet did not affect survival (P = 0.34). There were no differences in serum insulin-like growth factor-I or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 at sacrifice among the low-carbohydrate arms (P = 0.07 and P = 0.55, respectively). Insulin was significantly lower in the 20% carbohydrate arm (P = 0.03). LAPC-4 xenograft mice fed a low-carbohydrate diet (10–20% carbohydrate kcal) had similar survival as mice consuming NCKD (0% carbohydrate kcal). PMID:20716631

  8. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Participants We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Main outcome measures Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Data analysis Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Results Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Conclusions Decreasing the consumption of ultra

  9. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-03-09

    To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Decreasing the consumption of ultra-processed foods could be an effective way of reducing the excessive intake of added sugars in the USA

  10. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA) content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM), because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of the study was to determine whether an n-3 FA additive added to a control diet is as effective in increasing EM n-3 FA content as feeding an n-3 FA enriched diet. Furthermore the time course of the incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into canine EM was investigated. Methods Thirty dogs were randomly divided into three dietary groups with ten dogs per group. CONT got a dry dog food diet which did not contain EPA or DHA. FO got a dry dog food diet with a high EPA and DHA content. ADD got the CONT diet combined with an n-3 FA additive rich in DHA and EPA. After a feeding period of 12 weeks the additive was discontinued in ADD and these dogs were fed CONT diet for another four weeks to observe washout effects. Erythrocyte lipids were extracted from venous blood samples and their FA composition was determined by gas chromatography. The Mann-Whitney-U-test was used to detect significant differences between the different groups and time points. Results After one week the proportions of n-3 FA, DHA and EPA were already significantly increased in ADD and FO, apparently reaching a plateau within eight weeks. In our study DHA and not EPA was preferably incorporated into the EM. After discontinuing the administration of the additive in ADD, the n-3 FA values declined slowly without reaching baseline levels within four weeks. Conclusions In dogs, an increase of dietary n-3 FA content leads to a rapid inclusion of n-3 FA into EM, regardless of whether the n-3 FA are offered as an enriched diet or as a

  11. Effects of non-fat dairy products added to the routine diet on vascular function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Machin, D R; Park, W; Alkatan, M; Mouton, M; Tanaka, H

    2015-04-01

    High consumption of low- and non-fat dairy products is associated with reduced risk of high blood pressure (BP) and central arterial stiffness. However, interventional studies to determine if the addition of non-fat dairy products to the diet is capable of reducing central BP and improving vascular function are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine if the solitary addition of non-fat dairy products to the normal routine diet would reduce central BP and improve vascular function in middle-aged and older adults with elevated BP. Using a randomized, crossover intervention study design, forty-nine adults (44% men, 53 ± 2 years, 170 ± 2 cm, 88 ± 3 kg; mean ± SEM) with elevated BP (134 ± 1/81 ± 1 mm Hg) underwent a High Dairy condition (+4 servings/day of conventional non-fat dairy products) and No Dairy condition (+4 servings/day fruit products) in which all dairy products were removed. Both dietary conditions lasted 4 weeks with a 2-week washout before crossing over into the alternate condition. The High Dairy condition produced reductions in central systolic BP (-3 ± 1 mm Hg) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (-0.5 ± 0.1 m/sec), with a concomitant increase in brachial flow-mediated dilation (+1.1 ± 0.4%) and cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (+5 ± 1 ms/mm Hg) (P < 0.05 for all vs. baseline). In the No Dairy condition, brachial flow-mediated dilation was reduced (-1.0 ± 0.1%, P < 0.05 vs. baseline). The solitary manipulation of conventional dairy products in the normal routine diet modulates levels of central BP and vascular function in middle-aged and older adults with elevated BP. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01577030. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children123

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. Objective: This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. Design: BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7–12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study—a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Results: Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. Conclusions: These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated

  13. Effect of increasing levels of seven tree species extracts added to a high concentrate diet on in vitro rumen gas output.

    PubMed

    Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Kholif, Ahmed E; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Hernandez, Saul R; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio A; Mellado, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of increasing levels of extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, Celtis pallida, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Fraxinus excelsior, Ficus trigonata, Phoradendrom brevifolium and Prunus domestica on in vitro gas production (GP) and ruminal fermentation of a high concentrate diet. Plant extracts were prepared at 1 g dry matter (DM)/8 mL of solvent mixture (methanol : ethanol : water, 1:1:8) and added at levels of 0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mL/g DM of a high concentrate diet. In vitro GP was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. Increasing addition of extracts linearly increased (P < 0.001), the GP24 , GP48 and GP72 (mL/g DM), and linearly decreased (P < 0.001), the discrete GP lag time. Moreover, increasing extract doses linearly increased (P < 0.001) the asymptotic GP and decreased (P < 0.001) the rate of GP. GP6 was not impacted by treatments and GP12 increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing addition of extracts. Rumen pH declined linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing doses of extracts added. As no interactions (P > 0.05) occurred between the extracts and doses, it could be conclude that all extracts positively modified rumen fermentation at doses of 1.2 to 1.8 mL extract/g diet DM. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Effects of exposure to unrealistic promises about dieting: are unrealistic expectations about dieting inspirational?

    PubMed

    Trottier, Kathryn; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2005-03-01

    The false-hope syndrome suggests that unrealistic expectations about dieting set dieters up for failure and then promote renewed efforts at weight loss. Many dieters believe the inflated promises typical of diet advertisements, which may be the source of at least some of their unrealistic expectations. Diet advertisements promoting unrealistic expectations were expected to inspire restrained eaters to diet and lead to enhanced self-perceptions, relative to more circumspect advertisements. Female undergraduates rated their expectations in response to a control advertisement or to advertisements containing realistic, moderately unrealistic, or highly unrealistic promises of dieting. Participants then rated their self-perceptions and participated in an apparent "taste-test". Restrained eaters had higher expectations for themselves than did unrestrained eaters, and restrained and unrestrained eaters had similar expectations concerning dieting for others. Those who viewed the advertisements containing unrealistic expectations ate fewer cookies ad libitum than did those who viewed the realistic or control advertisements. This finding is consistent with the suggestion that unrealistic expectations contribute to the decision to change oneself. (c) 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet.

  16. Bacterial and protozoal communities and fatty acid profile in the rumen of sheep fed a diet containing added tannins.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C(18:2) c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C(18:2) c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C(18:1) t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C(18:0) (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P < 0.005) VA in the rumen compared to the tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P < 0.005) for the tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (-30.6%; P < 0.1), and B. fibrisolvens and protozoan populations were higher (+107% and +56.1%, respectively; P < 0.05) in the rumen of lambs fed the tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations.

  17. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  18. Determining optimum age of Holstein dairy calves when adding chopped alfalfa hay to meal starter diets based on measures of growth and performance.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the optimum age of Holstein dairy calves for an effective inclusion of alfalfa hay (AH) in starter feed on performance, apparent digestibility and feeding behavior. A total of 40 Holstein dairy calves (20 female and 20 male) were used in a completely randomized design in which calves were randomly assigned to one of four different dietary treatments including control (CON) calves fed starter feed without any forage and three treatments consisting of the same starter feed plus 15% chopped AH fed when calves were at the 2nd (AH2), 4th (AH4) or 6th (AH6) week of age. Calves were individually housed and bedded with sand that was replaced every other day. Feed and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment. Calves were fed milk at 10% of birth BW twice daily until d 57. The study concluded when calves were 73 days old. Starter intake was recorded daily and BW was measured weekly. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design by MIXED procedures of SAS. Results demonstrate that calves receiving AH treatments numerically consumed more starter feed (0.62 v. 0.78, 0.71 and 0.65 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (ADG) compared with CON (0.48 v. 0.57, 0.49 and 0.49 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6), although the significant difference was observed only between AH2 and CON. Among AH treatments, calves in AH2 had better performance than AH6 in several cases including starter intake, ADG. No detectable differences were observed, however, in apparent dry matter, organic matter or CP digestibility among treatments. Ruminal pH and NH3 concentrations, measured on weeks 4, 6, 8 and 10, were lower for calves fed CON compared with other treatments, with ammonia concentrations decreasing over time. Calves in the AH treatments spent more time eating and ruminating compared with CON. Calves fed CON, however, spent more time on laying down compared with other treatments

  19. Low-carbohydrate diets and performance.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Haub, Mark D

    2007-07-01

    Athletes are continually searching for means to optimize their performance. Within the past 20 years, athletes and scientists have reported or observed that consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet may improve performance. The original theories explaining the purported benefits centered on the fact that fat oxidation increases, thereby "sparing" muscle glycogen. More recent concepts that explain the plausibility of the ergogenicity of low-carbohydrate, or high-fat, diets on exercise performance pertain to an effect similar to altitude training. We and others have observed that although fat oxidation may be increased, the ability to maintain high-intensity exercise (above the lactate threshold) seems to be compromised or at least indifferent when compared with consumption of more carbohydrate. That said, clinical studies clearly demonstrate that ad libitum low-carbohydrate diets elicit greater decreases in body weight and fat than energy-equivalent low-fat diets, especially over a short duration. Thus, although low-carbohydrate and high-fat diets appear detrimental or indifferent relative to performance, they may be a faster means to achieve a more competitive body composition.

  20. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  1. Interaction of caffeine and diets on fetal brain

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, T.; Yazdani, M.

    1986-03-01

    Growing human fetuses were frequently exposed to caffeine (C). The object was to determine the C effects on growing fetal rats and how protein malnutrition can modify these potential effects. Timed pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups (G) on day 10 of gestation. G1 received a 20% protein diet (P) ad libitum: G2 was pair-fed with G1 with 20% P + C (2 mg/100 g BW): G3 received an 8% P ad libitum and G4 was pair-fed with G3 and a 6% P + C. At day 22, /sup 3/H-thymidine was injected into randomly selected dams to study DNA synthesis of brain. Fetuses from other dams were also removed to study DNA, RNA and protein contents of brain. Body weight of the 20% P + C was lower than the non-C, whereas no difference in weight was shown in 8% P between C and non-C, percent reduction was greater in 8% P than 20% P. Protein contents of C in both groups were greater than the non-C, but percent increase was less than non + C, but that of the 8% P + C was greater than non + C. It is concluded that C supplemented to the maternal diet during pregnancy produces differential effects on fetal brain depending on dietary protein content.

  2. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Edgar; Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  3. Ghrelin-induced sleep responses in ad libitum fed and food-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, E; Hajdu, I; Obal, F; Krueger, James M

    2006-05-09

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and a well-characterized food intake regulatory peptide. Hypothalamic ghrelin-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, and orexin-containing neurons form a feeding regulatory circuit. Orexins and NPY are also implicated in sleep-wake regulation. Sleep responses and motor activity after central administration of 0.2, 1, or 5 microg ghrelin in free-feeding rats as well as in feeding-restricted rats (1 microg dose) were determined. Food and water intake and behavioral responses after the light onset injection of saline or 1 microg ghrelin were also recorded. Light onset injection of ghrelin suppressed non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) for 2 h. In the first hour, ghrelin induced increases in behavioral activity including feeding, exploring, and grooming and stimulated food and water intake. Ghrelin administration at dark onset also elicited NREMS and REMS suppression in hours 1 and 2, but the effect was not as marked as that, which occurred in the light period. In hours 3-12, a secondary NREMS increase was observed after some doses of ghrelin. In the feeding-restricted rats, ghrelin suppressed NREMS in hours 1 and 2 and REMS in hours 3-12. Data are consistent with the notion that ghrelin has a role in the integration of feeding, metabolism, and sleep regulation.

  4. Increased phosphorus content of preload suppresses ad libitum energy intake at subsequent meal.

    PubMed

    Obeid, O A; Dimachkie, S; Hlais, S

    2010-09-01

    Food intake is believed to be partially controlled by hepatic signals related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) status. We hypothesized that increased phosphorus content of one meal can stimulate hepatic ATP synthesis of the next meal, which in turn contributes to satiation. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the energy intake after phosphorus addition to several preloads. The phosphorus content of the different preloads was found to be inversely related to the energy intake at a subsequent meal, although the exact mechanism behind such effects was not studied. Such findings point to a potential role for phosphorus in the control of food intake.

  5. Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD)--mplications for differences in diet.

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.

  6. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  7. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renò, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities.

  8. Energy allowances for solid fats and added sugars in nutritionally adequate U.S. diets estimated at 17-33% by a linear programming model.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-02-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that no more than 5-15% of total dietary energy should be derived from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The guideline was based on USDA food pattern modeling analyses that met the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and Dietary Guidelines and followed typical American eating habits. This study recreated food intake patterns for 6 of the same gender-age groups by using USDA data sources and a mathematical optimization technique known as linear programming. The analytic process identified food consumption patterns based on 128 food categories that met the nutritional goals for 9 vitamins, 9 minerals, 8 macronutrients, and dietary fiber and minimized deviation from typical American eating habits. Linear programming Model 1 created gender- and age-specific food patterns that corresponded to energy needs for each group. Model 2 created food patterns that were iso-caloric with diets observed for that group in the 2001-2002 NHANES. The optimized food patterns were evaluated with respect to MyPyramid servings goals, energy density [kcal/g (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)], and energy cost (US$/2000 kcal). The optimized food patterns had more servings of vegetables and fruit, lower energy density, and higher cost compared with the observed diets. All nutrient goals were met. In contrast to the much lower USDA estimates, the 2 models placed SoFAS allowances at between 17 and 33% of total energy, depending on energy needs.

  9. A stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) perspective on human diet on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) ca. AD 1400-1900.

    PubMed

    Commendador, Amy S; Dudgeon, John V; Finney, Bruce P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Esh, Kelley S

    2013-10-01

    Ecological and environmental evidence suggests that Rapa Nui was among the most marginally habitable islands in Eastern Polynesia, with only a fraction of the biotic diversity found on archipelagos to the west, and capable of sustaining many fewer cultigens traditionally transported by Polynesian colonizers. However, archaeological evidence for human dietary adaptations under such restrictions is limited. Little is known about the particulars of the subsistence base and dietary changes on Rapa Nui that may be associated with a hypothesized late prehistoric decline in the quality and diversity of food sources. To better understand prehistoric Rapa Nui diet we examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of human teeth along with archaeological faunal material thought to comprise the Rapa Nui food web. Our results indicate that contrary to previous zooarchaeological studies diet was predominantly terrestrial throughout the entire sequence of occupation, with reliance on rats, chickens and C3 plants. While a few individuals may have had access to higher trophic level marine resources, this is evident only later in time (generally post-AD 1600). A decline in (15)N through time was observed, and may be attributed to declines in available terrestrial proteins; however, presently we cannot rule out the effect of changing soil and plant baseline δ(15)N. Our results also suggest differential access to higher trophic level marine resources among contemporaneous populations, but more research is required to clarify this observation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing 30% distillers dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J

    2015-01-01

    backfat were correlated (P < 0.01) with the IV product of the diet fed in phase 3 (r = 0.49 and r = 0.81, respectively). In conclusion, adding 5% tallow to 30% DDGS diets improved G:F and carcass yield while reducing the IV of belly fat. However, pork fat firmness as measured by belly flop angle was not improved.

  11. Dental health in Northern Chile's Atacama oases: evaluating the Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000) impact on local diet.

    PubMed

    Hubbe, Mark; Torres-Rouff, Christina; Neves, Walter Alves; King, Laura M; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Costa, Maria Antonietta

    2012-05-01

    As one of the few areas apt for horticulture in Northern Chile's arid landscape, the prehistory of the Atacama oases is deeply enmeshed with that of the inter-regional networks that promoted societal development in the south central Andes. During the Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000), local populations experienced a cultural apex associated with a substantial increase in inter-regional interaction, population density, and quantity and quality of mortuary assemblages. Here, we test if this cultural peak affected dietary practices equally among the distinct local groups of this period. We examine caries prevalence and the degree of occlusal wear in four series recovered from three cemeteries. Our results show a reduction in the prevalence of caries for males among an elite subsample from Solcor 3 and the later Coyo 3 cemeteries. Dental wear tends to increase over time with the Late Middle Horizon/Late Intermediate Period cemetery of Quitor 6 showing a higher average degree of wear. When considered in concert with archaeological information, we concluded that the Middle Horizon was marked by dietary variability wherein some populations were able to obtain better access to protein sources (e.g., camelid meat). Not all members of Atacameño society benefited from this, as we note that this dietary change only affected men. Our results suggest that the benefits brought to the San Pedro oases during the Middle Horizon were not equally distributed among local groups and that social status, relationship to the Tiwanaku polity, and interment in particular cemeteries affected dietary composition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of an organic acid blend and phytase added to a rapeseed cake-containing diet on performance, intestinal morphology, caecal microflora activity and thyroid status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Smulikowska, S; Czerwiński, J; Mieczkowska, A

    2010-02-01

    The experiment was carried out on 96 female broilers, allocated to eight groups of 12 birds kept in individual cages. Two basal wheat- and soyabean meal-based diets containing 150 g/kg of rapeseed expeller cake were formulated, differing in the level of P: 7.1 g/kg in diet H or 5.9 g/kg in diet L. Rapeseed cake supplied 3.15 micromol alkenyl glucosinolates per gram of diet. The eight treatments were: basal diets only, basal diets + phytase (1000 U/kg), basal diets + organic acid blend (OA, 6 g/kg), or basal diets + both additives. Diets were fed from day 8 to 28 of life. The results showed that the lower dietary P content and OA supplementation did not significantly affect feed intake or BWG, while both increased (p < 0.001) after phytase supplementation. Tibia ash content as well as tibia ultimate strength were lower (p < 0.001) in birds fed diets L compared with diets H, and increased (p < 0.01) with phytase supplementation of diet L, while OA had no influence on either parameter. Dietary P levels and OA supplementation had no influence on the pH of gut digesta, but the pH of jejunal digesta increased following phytase supplementation (p < 0.01). Morphological measurements of the small intestinal mucosa of chicks indicated that OA added to diet L depressed villi height (p < 0.001) and crypt depth (p < 0.001); both parameters increased after phytase supplementation (p < 0.01). The lower total SCFA as well as acetic, propionic and butyric acid concentrations in caecal digesta indicated lower activity of caecal microflora in birds fed diets L compared with H. OA supplementation had no influence, while phytase supplementation increased the concentration of acetic acid in caecal digesta. Supplementation of diets with either phytase or OA increased thyroid weight by 16% (p < 0.01) and 11% (p < 0.05) respectively. The increase in thyroid weight because of phytase supplementation was greater at the lower dietary P level, and the greatest when both phytase and OA were

  13. Effect of elevated dietary amino acid levels in high canola meal diets on productive traits and cecal microbiota population of broiler chickens in a pair-feeding study.

    PubMed

    Toghyani, M; Girish, C K; Wu, S B; Iji, P A; Swick, R A

    2017-05-01

    A pair-feeding study was conducted to determine if reduced feed intake (FI) in broiler chickens fed high canola meal (CM) diets per se accounts for reduced growth performance and whether this lower growth rate can be mitigated by increasing dietary amino acid (AA) levels. Five experimental wheat-based diets were formulated as follows: soybean meal (SBM) diet, high CM diet with normal AA concentration, and high CM diets with 3, 6, or 9% additional AA concentration (Lys, Met+Cys, Thr, Ile, Arg, and Val). Another group of birds was pair-fed with SBM diet to the consumption levels of birds fed CM diet with normal AA. There were 6 replicates of 17 male 10-day-old Ross 308 chicks per treatment over grower and finisher periods. Birds fed the CM diets had reduced FI and BWG, but improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM ad libitum fed birds. The SBM pair-fed birds gained the same weight and exhibited similar FCR compared to CM fed birds. Additional 9% AA improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM and CM diets with normal AA. No significant differences were observed in ileal digestibility of DM, energy, crude protein, and AA between CM with normal AA and SBM diets. The additional 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased digestibility of crude protein and some AA (P < 0.05). SBM ad libitum and CM + 6 and 9% AA fed birds had the highest and lowest relative weight of abdominal fat, respectively (P < 0.05). Addition of 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased relative carcass and breast yields (P < 0.01). Serum triglyceride level was higher in SBM ad libitum fed birds (P < 0.05). The composition of microbiota in the ceca was not affected by treatments. This study showed that reduced growth of birds fed high CM diets is primarily mediated through reduced FI. This growth depression could partially be ameliorated by increasing dietary AA levels. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Influence of diet and physical exercise on plasma lipid concentrations in an homogeneous sample of young Spanish Air Force pilots.

    PubMed

    Moreno Vazquez, J M; Garcia Alcon, J L; Campillo Alvarez, J E

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of diet and physical exercise on plasma lipid concentrations--total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and the TC:HDL-C ratio, in a homogeneous (age, sex and anxiety levels) group of young pilots divided into the following groups: A. uncontrolled diet and exercise programme; B. controlled diet and uncontrolled exercise programme; C. controlled diet and exercise programme (n = 90). The dietary intake was a typical Mediterranean diet, which was supervised by the Flight Surgeon. The exercise was based on a physical training programme for pilots, directed by the Physical Training Officer. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test was performed to evaluate the anxiety levels. This test was supervised by a psychologist. The results showed a marked difference in all the lipid parameters studied between groups with an ad libitum diet versus groups with a controlled diet, this difference being demonstrated by TC and TG concentrations lower in the group with a controlled diet, than in the group with an ad libitum diet. A difference in HDL-C concentrations and TC:HDL-C ratio was found between groups with regular physical training (high HDL-C concentration and low TC:HDL-C ratio) versus groups with unlimited exercise (low HDL-C concentrations and high TC:HDL-C ratio). No differences in the state and trait of anxiety were found among any of the groups. Nevertheless, all the pilots showed a considerable increase in their anxiety state over their own anxiety trait.

  15. Growth, carcass yield and meat quality attributes of Red Maasai sheep fed wheat straw-based diets.

    PubMed

    Safari, John G; Mushi, Daniel E; Mtenga, Louis A; Kifaro, George C; Eik, Lars O

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two castrated Red Maasai sheep (12.7 kg initial body weight, aged 12-18 months), were used in an 84-day experiment to evaluate diets based on treated straw upon growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality. The animals were blocked by weight into four similar groups and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with eight individually fed animals per treatment. The dietary treatments were ad libitum untreated wheat straw (UTS), wheat straw treated with urea and lime (TS), straw and ad libitum hay (UTSH), and TS and ad libitum hay (TSH). In addition, each experimental animal received 220 g/day (on as fed basis) of a concentrate diet. Treatment of straw increased (P < 0.05) dry matter intake (42.3 vs. 33.7 g/kg W (75)/day), energy intake (4.6 vs. 3.7 MJ ME/d) and the average daily gain (40.7 vs. 23.1 g). Animals on TS produced heavier (P < 0.05) carcasses (6.6 vs. 5.4 kg) with superior conformation than animals on UTS. Percentage cooking loss was higher in carcasses from animals fed TS compared to those from other diets. Except M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosus, tenderness of muscles was not affected by diet but ageing of meat improved (P < 0.001) tenderness. Overall, straw treatment increased carcass yields with limited effects on meat quality attributes.

  16. Strong and persistent effect on liver fat with a Paleolithic diet during a two-year intervention.

    PubMed

    Otten, J; Mellberg, C; Ryberg, M; Sandberg, S; Kullberg, J; Lindahl, B; Larsson, C; Hauksson, J; Olsson, T

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to investigate changes in liver fat and insulin sensitivity during a 2-year diet intervention. An ad libitum Paleolithic diet (PD) was compared with a conventional low-fat diet (LFD). Seventy healthy, obese, postmenopausal women were randomized to either a PD or a conventional LFD. Diet intakes were ad libitum. Liver fat was measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated with oral glucose tolerance tests and calculated as homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)/liver insulin resistance (Liver IR) index for hepatic insulin sensitivity and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS)/Matsuda for peripheral insulin sensitivity. All measurements were performed at 0, 6 and 24 months. Forty-one women completed the examinations for liver fat and were included. Liver fat decreased after 6 months by 64% (95% confidence interval: 54-74%) in the PD group and by 43% (27-59%) in the LFD group (P<0.01 for difference between groups). After 24 months, liver fat decreased 50% (25-75%) in the PD group and 49% (27-71%) in the LFD group. Weight reduction between baseline and 6 months was correlated to liver fat improvement in the LFD group (rs=0.66, P<0.01) but not in the PD group (rs=0.07, P=0.75). Hepatic insulin sensitivity improved during the first 6 months in the PD group (P<0.001 for Liver IR index and HOMA-IR), but deteriorated between 6 and 24 months without association with liver fat changes. A PD with ad libitum intake had a significant and persistent effect on liver fat and differed significantly from a conventional LFD at 6 months. This difference may be due to food quality, for example, a higher content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the PD. Changes in liver fat did not associate with alterations in insulin sensitivity.

  17. A simulated insect diet as a water source for quail: effects on body mass and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, W M; Lutz, R S; Patiño, R

    1995-06-01

    Compared with control birds receiving ad libitum free-water, the total water intake of male and female northern bobwhite declined when only mealworms were available as a source of water. Male northern bobwhite sustained tissue mass and reproductive function with mealworms as their only source of water. Female northern bobwhite could not sustain body, ovary, and oviduct mass, and rate of egg production with mealworms as their only source of water. We suggest that, without free-water, breeding females require a diet with a water:dry matter ratio of greater than 1:1.29 (> 44% water).

  18. Adding wheat middlings, microbial phytase, and citric acid to corn-soybean meal diets for growing pigs may replace inorganic phosphorus supplementation.

    PubMed

    Han, Y M; Roneker, K R; Pond, W G; Lei, X G

    1998-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 96 growing Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc crossbreds to determine the collective effectiveness of cereal phytase from wheat middlings, microbial phytase, and citric acid in improving phytate-P bioavailability in corn-soy diets. In Exp. 1, 40 gilts (7 wk old) were fed five diets for 8 wk. Diets 1, 2, and 3 were low-P, corn-soybean meal diets (CSB) + 0, .1, or .2% inorganic P (Pi) as calcium phosphate, respectively. Diet 4 was a similar corn-soy diet that included 15% wheat middlings (461 cereal phytase U/kg). Diet 5 was the CSB + microbial phytase (1,200 U/kg; Natuphos, BASF, Mount Olive, NJ). In Exp. 2, 16 barrows (8 wk old) were fed two diets for 6 wk. Diet 1 was the same as Diet 3 of Exp. 1 (.2% Pi). Diet 2 was Diet 4 of Exp. 1 + microbial phytase (300 U/kg). In Exp. 3, 40 barrows and gilts (6 wk old) were fed four diets for 6 wk. Diets 1 and 2 were the same as those in Exp. 2. Diet 3 was Diet 2 of Exp. 2 + 1.5% citric acid. Diet 4 was similar to Diet 3 but contained 10 instead of 15% wheat middlings. In Exp. 1, pigs fed the low-P, CSB (Diet 1) had lower (P < .05) ADG, ADFI, plasma Pi concentration, bone strength, and mobility score than pigs of the other four treatments. Measurements for pigs fed the 15% wheat middlings diet were not significantly different from those of pigs fed the CSB + .1% Pi or microbial phytase. In Exp. 2, ADG (P=.06) during wk 1 to 3 and gain:feed ratio (P < .02) and plasma Pi concentration (P < .005) during all weeks favored pigs fed the CSB + .2% Pi compared with the other diet including 15% wheat middlings. In Exp. 3, identical ADG during all weeks and similar plasma Pi concentrations at wk 4 and 6 were observed between pigs fed the two citric acid diets (Diets 3 and 4) and the CSB + .2% Pi (Diet 1). Pigs fed Diet 4 (10% wheat middlings) had even higher (P < .02) gain:feed ratio during wk 1 to 3 than those fed Diet 1. It seems feasible to completely replace calcium phosphate with 10 to 15% wheat

  19. Resveratrol supplementation restores high-fat diet-induced insulin secretion dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial function in islet

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wen; Zheng, Juan; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Xiang; Zeng, Tian-shu; Hu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a natural compound, is known for its effects on energy homeostasis. Here we investigated the effects of RSV and possible mechanism in insulin secretion of high-fat diet rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: NC group (animals were fed ad libitum with normal chow for 8 weeks), HF group (animals were fed ad libitum with high-fat diet for 8 weeks), and HFR group (animals were treated with high-fat diet and administered with RSV for 8 weeks). Insulin secretion ability of rats was assessed by hyperglycemic clamp. Mitochondrial biogenesis genes, mitochondrial respiratory chain activities, reactive oxidative species (ROS), and several mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in islet. We found that HF group rats clearly showed low insulin secretion and mitochondrial complex dysfunction. Expression of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog- 1 (SIRT1) and related mitochondrial biogenesis were significantly decreased. However, RSV administration group (HFR) showed a marked potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was associated with elevated SIRT1 protein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities, resulting in increased mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and decreased ROS level. This study suggests that RSV may increase islet mitochondrial complex activities and antioxidant function to restore insulin secretion dysfunction induced by high-fat diet. PMID:25228148

  20. Resveratrol supplementation restores high-fat diet-induced insulin secretion dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial function in islet.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wen; Chen, Lu-lu; Zheng, Juan; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Xiang; Zeng, Tian-shu; Hu, Di

    2015-02-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a natural compound, is known for its effects on energy homeostasis. Here we investigated the effects of RSV and possible mechanism in insulin secretion of high-fat diet rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: NC group (animals were fed ad libitum with normal chow for 8 weeks), HF group (animals were fed ad libitum with high-fat diet for 8 weeks), and HFR group (animals were treated with high-fat diet and administered with RSV for 8 weeks). Insulin secretion ability of rats was assessed by hyperglycemic clamp. Mitochondrial biogenesis genes, mitochondrial respiratory chain activities, reactive oxidative species (ROS), and several mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated in islet. We found that HF group rats clearly showed low insulin secretion and mitochondrial complex dysfunction. Expression of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog- 1 (SIRT1) and related mitochondrial biogenesis were significantly decreased. However, RSV administration group (HFR) showed a marked potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect was associated with elevated SIRT1 protein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities, resulting in increased mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and decreased ROS level. This study suggests that RSV may increase islet mitochondrial complex activities and antioxidant function to restore insulin secretion dysfunction induced by high-fat diet. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  1. Intestinal epithelial cell surface glycosylation in mice. I. Effect of high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Jaswal, V M; Meenu Mahmood, A

    1992-01-01

    The effects of variation in dietary protein content have been investigated on brush border glycosylation and enzyme activities in mice small intestine. The comparison of different parameters was made between the mice fed 30% (high protein, HP) and 18% protein (pair-fed, PF, and ad libitum-fed) for 21 days. The activities of brush border sucrase, lactase, p-nitrophenyl (PNP)-beta-D-glucosidase and PNP-beta-D-galactosidase were reduced in the HP diet-fed mice compared to PF and ad libitum-fed controls. Alkaline phosphatase and leucine amino-peptidase activities were significantly enhanced while gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was unaltered under these conditions. Total hexoses and sialic acid content in the brush borders were reduced significantly in the test group compared to the controls while hexosamine and fucose contents remained essentially similar in different groups. The results on the binding of wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus agglutininI to microvillus membranes corroborated the chemical analysis data on sialic acid and fucose contents of the membranes. Peanut agglutinin binding was enhanced in mice from the HP group. Incorporation of (14C)-mannose into membranes was significantly less in HP diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the feeding of HP diet to mice brings about marked alterations in small intestinal epithelial cell surface glycosylation and enzyme functions.

  2. Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was

  3. Plant-based, no-added-fat or American Heart Association diets: impact on cardiovascular risk in obese children with hypercholesterolemia and their parents.

    PubMed

    Macknin, Michael; Kong, Tammie; Weier, Adam; Worley, Sarah; Tang, Anne S; Alkhouri, Naim; Golubic, Mladen

    2015-04-01

    To perform a randomized trial to determine whether there is cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction from a plant-based (PB), no-added-fat diet and the American Heart Association (AHA) diet in children. A 4-week (April 20, 2013 to May 18, 2013), prospective randomized trial was undertaken in a large, Midwestern hospital system's predominantly middle class outpatient pediatric practices. Thirty children (9-18 years of age) parent pairs with a last recorded child body mass index >95th percentile and child cholesterol >169 mg/dL were randomized to PB or AHA with weekly 2-hour classes of nutrition education. Children on PB had 9 and children on AHA had 4 statistically significant (P < .05) beneficial changes from baseline (mean decreases): body mass index z-score(PB) (-0.14), systolic blood pressure(PB) (-6.43 mm Hg), total cholesterol(PB) (-22.5 mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein(PB) (-13.14 mg/dL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(PB) (-2.09 mg/L), insulin(PB) (-5.42 uU/mL), myeloperoxidase(PB/AHA) (-75.34/69.23 pmol/L), mid-arm circumference(PB/AHA) (-2.02/-1.55 cm), weight(PB/AHA) (-3.05/-1.14 kg), and waist circumference(AHA) (-2.96 cm). Adults on PB and AHA had 7 and 2, respectively, statistically significant (P < .05) beneficial changes. The significant change favoring AHA was a 1% difference in children's waist circumference. Difficulty shopping for food for the PB was the only statistically significant acceptability barrier. PB and the AHA in both children and adults demonstrated potentially beneficial changes from baseline in risk factors for CVD. Future larger, long-term randomized trials with easily accessible PB foods will further define the role of the PB in preventing CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of levels of concentrate in feedlot diets on the health status of beef calves

    PubMed Central

    Mwansa, Pius B.; Makarechian, Mahmoud; Berg, Roy T.

    1992-01-01

    In this two year study we investigated the effect that the level of concentrate in feedlot diet had on the occurrence of health problems in bull calves belonging to two multibreed groups. In each of the two years, the 168 day feedlot period was divided into two equal periods of 77 days with an intervening 14 day adjustment period. During the first period, the animals in half of the pens within each breed-group received a high concentrate (85% grain) diet (H) while the rest of the pens received a diet (L) of hay ad libitum and half as much concentrate as the bulls on high concentrate. The L diet contained an average of 48% grain. In the second period, diets of bulls in half of the pens within each breed-group were switched from L to H and vice versa. During the feedlot period, the incidence of sickness among bulls was recorded. Disease incidence was higher in the second year compared to the first. In the second year, 49 out of 56 (87.5%) calves on the high concentrate diet required treatment for respiratory infections compared to only four (7.14%) in bulls on the low concentrate diet. The results suggest that a high concentrate diet for animals in feedlots may be more stressful to calves coming directly to the feedlot following weaning compared to a low concentrate diet, thereby acting as an additional predisposing factor to respiratory infections. PMID:17424092

  5. Effects of high-calcium diets with different whey proteins on weight loss and weight regain in high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Pilvi, Taru K; Harala, Saara; Korpela, Riitta; Mervaala, Eero M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of different whey protein-containing high-Ca diets on weight loss and weight regain in a model of diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat (60 % of energy) diet. Weight loss by energy restriction was performed on four different high-Ca diets (1.8 % CaCO3) containing different whey proteins (18 % of energy): alpha-lactalbumin (ALA), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), lactoferrin (LF) and whey protein isolate (WPI). After 7 weeks of energy restriction some of the mice were killed and the rest were fed with the same diets ad libitum for 7 weeks. The mice on the LF diet lost significantly more weight than mice on the WPI diet. The body fat content in the ALA and LF groups was significantly lower than in the WPI group (P < 0.05) and the LF group differed significantly even from the BLG group (P < 0.05). Ad libitum feeding after weight loss resulted in weight regain in all groups and only the ALA diet significantly reduced fat accumulation during weight regain. The weight regain was most pronounced in the LF group, but the adipocyte size was still significantly smaller than in the other groups. There were no differences in food intake or apparent fat digestibility between the groups. It can be concluded that a high-Ca diet with ALA significantly improves the outcome of weight loss and subsequent weight regain during the feeding of a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, in comparison with WPI.

  6. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  7. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  8. Influence of mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and digesta passage in steers fed a forage and a concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Whetsell, M S; Prigge, E C; Nestor, E L

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and ruminal function, five ruminally cannulated steers (550 kg) were fed an orchard grass hay diet ad libitum in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment. The mass of ruminal contents was altered by adding varying weights of modified tennis balls to the rumen before the initiation of each 15-d experimental period. Treatments consisted of 50 balls with a specific gravity of 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, or 1.4; the total weight of the balls was 7.45, 8.50, 9.25, 10.55, and 11.55 kg, respectively. Increasing the specific gravity of the balls added to the rumen decreased DMI and particle passage rate (P < 0.05) in a linear manner. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and ruminal function of both forage and concentrate diets. Five ruminally cannulated steers (580 kg) were fed a 70% concentrate (DM basis) or an orchardgrass hay diet ad libitum in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment. The mass of ruminal contents was altered as in the first experiment. Treatments consisted of 0 balls added to the rumen of steers fed concentrate diet (control), 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.1 given to steers fed a concentrate diet, 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.4 given to steers fed a concentrate diet, 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.1 given to steers fed a hay diet, and 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.4 given to steers fed hay diet. The addition of balls to the rumen of steers fed the concentrate diet decreased DMI (P < 0.05) compared with the 0-ball treatment, and increasing specific gravity of balls also decreased DMI (P < 0.01) for both concentrate and hay diets. Adding balls to the rumen of steers fed the concentrate diet decreased particle passage rate (P < 0.05), whereas increasing specific gravity of balls decreased particle passage rate for both concentrate and hay diet. The results of this study suggest that the density of ruminal

  9. Influence of feed flavors and nursery diet complexity on preweaning and nursery pig performance.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Tokach, M D; Derouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2010-12-01

    In Exp. 1, 50 sows and their litters were used to determine the effects of adding a feed flavor to the creep diet on the proportion of pigs consuming creep feed ("eaters") and preweaning performance. Sows were blocked according to parity and date of farrowing and allotted to 2 experimental treatments: 1) litters fed a creep diet with no flavor (negative control) or 2) negative control diet with the feed flavor (Luctarom) included at 1,500 mg/kg. Both creep diets contained 1.0% chromic oxide and were offered ad libitum from d 18 until weaning at d 21. Adding flavor to the creep diet did not (P > 0.41) affect weaning weights, total BW gain, ADG, total creep feed intake, daily creep feed intake, or the proportion of creep feed eaters in whole litters. In Exp. 2, 480 weanling pigs (6.58 ± 0.41 kg; 20 ± 2 d) from Exp. 1 were randomly selected by preweaning treatment group, blocked by initial BW, and allotted to 1 of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design to determine the interactive effects of preweaning exposure to flavor (exposed vs. unexposed), nursery diet complexity (complex vs. simple), and flavor addition to nursery diets (with vs. without flavor). Each treatment had 10 replications (pens) with 6 pigs per pen. Diets with flavor were supplemented with the flavor at 1,500 mg/kg in phase 1 diets and 1,000 mg/kg in phase 2 diets. A tendency for a 3-way interaction for ADG from d 5 to 10 (P = 0.10), 10 to 28 (P = 0.09), and 0 to 28 (P = 0.06) was observed. Postweaning ADG of pigs exposed to flavor in creep feed and fed flavored complex diets in the nursery was greater than pigs in any other treatment combination. Increasing diet complexity improved (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI during both postweaning phases. Adding flavor to creep feed had no effect on G:F (P > 0.34) and pig BW (P > 0.45) in both postweaning periods. Adding flavor to starter diets tended to improve ADFI (P = 0.06) during d 0 to 5. In conclusion, adding flavor to the creep feed did not affect

  10. Behaviour of captive canvasbacks Aythya valisineria fed different diets during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Williams, B.K.; Obrecht, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    Time activity budget studies were conducted on captive Canvasbacks manintained on ad libitum diets with varying levels of protein and energy during the winter of 1978-79 and 1979-80. No differences could be detected in the behaviour of the ducks as a result of the diets they received. Differences due to season and sex were observed for some behaviours. Activity decreased (P<0.05) during the winter apparently as a mechanism to conserve energy. This decrease occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of the Canvasbacks' annual cycle. This behaviour pattern has been observed in the wild and seems to persist in captive Canvasbacks.

  11. In vivo effects of adding singular or combined anti-oxidative vitamins and/or minerals to diets on the immune system of tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids) peripheral blood monocyte-derived, anterior kidney-derived, and spleen-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shao-Wen; Tu, Ching-Yu; Wang, Way-Shyan

    2007-01-15

    Macrophage function is an important factor for resistance to infection and anti-oxidative vitamins and minerals can affect how macrophages function in fish. We report the in vivo effect of adding singular or combined vitamins (A, C, and E) and/or minerals (Se, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe) in diets on the immune system of tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids) peripheral blood monocyte-derived, anterior kidney-derived, and spleen-derived macrophages. An optimal dose of vitamins and/or minerals in diets increased macrophage proliferation and protective activity, maintained macrophage viability, increased body weight and length, and increased lysozyme activity, however, at improper doses and combinations of vitamins or minerals a decrease was observed. Furthermore, vitamins and/or minerals at any doses and combinations in diets decreased superoxide and nitric oxide production. Therefore, appropriate doses and combinations of vitamins and/or minerals in diets may increase tilapia macrophages immunity.

  12. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (P<0.05) and tended to increase the digestibility of CP (P=0.05) compared with the control diet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (P<0.05) lactation diet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  13. A 3-week feed restriction after weaning as an alternative to a medicated diet: effects on growth, health, carcass and meat traits of rabbits of two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Alabiso, M; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; Maniaci, G; Vitale, F; Bonanno, A

    2016-12-21

    Feed restriction after weaning is widely used in meat rabbit farms to promote health and reduce mortality, but this practice impacts negatively on rabbit growth and slaughter performance. This study compared a 3-week post-weaning feed restriction with ad libitum medicated feeding, evaluating effects on feed intake, growth, health, carcass and meat quality of rabbits of two genotypes: Italian White pure breed and Hycole hybrid×Italian White crossbred. A total of 512 rabbits at 36 days of age, of both sexes and two genotypes, were divided into four homogeneous groups assigned, from 36 to 57 days of age, to different feeding programmes (FP): restricted non-medicated (R-N), ad libitum non-medicated (L-N), restricted medicated (R-M) and ad libitum medicated (L-M). The diets were medicated with oxytetracycline (1540 mg/kg) and colistin sulphate (240 mg/kg). The restriction, performed by giving 70, 80 and 90 g/day of feed for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd week, was followed by ad libitum feeding in the successive 5 weeks, up to slaughter at 92 days of age. Restricted feeds were ingested at a level of 64% of the feed intake recorded in the ad libitum fed rabbits; it was significantly associated, regardless of medication and rabbit genotype, with a lower feed intake (-22 to -24 g dry matter/day) during the entire experiment, compensatory growth and a lower feed conversion ratio in the ad libitum period, and a lower final live weight (-150 g) than ad libitum feeding (P<0.001). During restriction, mortality was lower in the restricted rabbits (6.25%, 5.47% v. 12.5%, 14.8% for R-N, R-M, L-N and L-M; P<0.05), whereas in the ad libitum period mortality did not differ among the groups (9.23%, 9.90%, 11.0% and 4.59% for R-N, R-M, L-N and L-M). Dressing out percentage was not affected by FP or genotype; heavier carcasses were produced by rabbits fed ad libitum (+100 g; P<0.001) and crossbred rabbits (+122 g; P<0.001). Restriction did not alter meat quality, except for a tendency towards a

  14. Cocos nucifera water improves metabolic functions in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kunle-Alabi, Olufadekemi T; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Raji, Yinusa

    2017-10-09

    Maternal high fat diet has been implicated in the aetiology of metabolic diseases in their offspring. The hypolipidaemic actions of Cocos nucifera water improve metabolic indices of dams consuming a high fat diet during gestation. This study investigated the effects of C. nucifera water on metabolism of offspring of dams exposed to high fat diet during gestation. Four groups of pregnant Wistar rat dams (n=6) were treated orally from Gestation Day (GD) 1 to GD 21 as follows: standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (Control), standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water, high fat feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (high fat diet), and high fat feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water (high fat diet+C. nucifera water). The feeds were given ad libitum and all dams received standard rodent feed after parturition. Fasting blood glucose was measured in offspring before being euthanized on Postnatal Day (PND) 120. Serum insulin, leptin, lipid profile and liver enzymes were measured. Serum total cholesterol (TC), insulin, alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) in high fat diet offspring compared with controls. Similar changes were not observed in high fat diet+C. nucifera water offspring. Results suggest that the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring's metabolism can be ameliorated by C. nucifera water.

  15. Growth and Survival of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Fed Different Commercial and Laboratory Diets

    PubMed Central

    Garris, Heath W.; Jones, Warren T.; Moseley, Dorothy B.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The need to develop standardized diets to support zebrafish (Danio rerio) research is supported by the knowledge that specific dietary ingredients, nutrients, or antinutritional factors in diets have been shown to affect development and growth of adult D. rerio and their offspring. In this study, there were seven dietary treatments consisting of five commercially available diets and two laboratory-prepared diets, three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed ad libitum twice daily for 9 weeks. At 9 weeks, both weight and length were recorded to determine condition indices. D. rerio fed one of the laboratory-prepared diets had significantly higher weights than individuals fed any of the other diets and exhibited significantly higher lengths than those fed five of the six remaining diets. Although there were significant differences in general growth demographics (length/weight) after the 9-week feeding trial, no significant differences in overall health of D. rerio were observed for the different dietary treatments as determined by statistical analysis of condition factor indices (K=[weight×100]/length3). The success achieved with the laboratory-prepared diets represents the foundation for establishing an open-formulation nutritional standard to ensure that the D. rerio model for research does not generate confounding research results caused by nutritional vagaries. PMID:19566408

  16. Growth and survival of zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed different commercial and laboratory diets.

    PubMed

    Siccardi, Anthony J; Garris, Heath W; Jones, Warren T; Moseley, Dorothy B; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2009-09-01

    The need to develop standardized diets to support zebrafish (Danio rerio) research is supported by the knowledge that specific dietary ingredients, nutrients, or antinutritional factors in diets have been shown to affect development and growth of adult D. rerio and their offspring. In this study, there were seven dietary treatments consisting of five commercially available diets and two laboratory-prepared diets, three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed ad libitum twice daily for 9 weeks. At 9 weeks, both weight and length were recorded to determine condition indices. D. rerio fed one of the laboratory-prepared diets had significantly higher weights than individuals fed any of the other diets and exhibited significantly higher lengths than those fed five of the six remaining diets. Although there were significant differences in general growth demographics (length/weight) after the 9-week feeding trial, no significant differences in overall health of D. rerio were observed for the different dietary treatments as determined by statistical analysis of condition factor indices (K = [weight x 100]/length(3)). The success achieved with the laboratory-prepared diets represents the foundation for establishing an open-formulation nutritional standard to ensure that the D. rerio model for research does not generate confounding research results caused by nutritional vagaries.

  17. Obesity induced by cafeteria diet disrupts fertility in the rat by affecting multiple ovarian targets.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, M V; Torelli, C; Pustovrh, M C; Paz, D A; Elia, E M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity constitutes a health problem of increasing worldwide prevalence. Among the health detriments caused by obesity, reproduction is disrupted. However, the mechanisms involved in this disruption are not fully understood. Animals fed a cafeteria diet constitute the model for the study of obesity that most closely reflects Western diet habits. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a cafeteria diet affects ovarian function and to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved. For that purpose, 22-day-old female Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (control group; n = 20) or cafeteria diet (CAF group; n = 20). The cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycaemia, without altering serum triglycerides, cholesterol or C-reactive protein concentrations. This diet also altered ovarian function: the rats showed prolonged dioestrous phases, decreased serum oestradiol concentrations and increased number of antral atretic follicles. Moreover, follicular cysts were detected in the CAF group, concomitantly with a decrease in the number of anti-Müllerian hormone immunoreactive pre-antral follicles and COX-2-positive antral and pre-ovulatory follicles. The authors conclude that a cafeteria diet reduces ovarian reserve, induces the presence of follicular cysts and disturbs the ovulatory process, leading to the delayed pregnancy observed in these animals. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of heat shock protein 70 is altered by age and diet at the level of transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, A R; Wu, B; Takahashi, R; Strong, R; Richardson, A

    1993-01-01

    Because heat shock proteins have been shown to play a critical role in protecting cells from hyperthermia and other types of physiological stresses, it was of interest to determine what effect age and caloric restriction have on the ability of cells to regulate the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), the most prominent and most evolutionarily conserved of the heat shock proteins. Caloric restriction is the only experimental manipulation known to retard aging and increase survival of mammals. The ability of hepatocytes isolated from young/adult (4- to 7-month-old) and old (22- to 28-month-old) male Fischer F344 rats fed ad libitum or a caloric restriction diet (60% of the content of the ad libitum diet) to express hsp70 was determined after a mild heat shock (42.5 degrees C for 30 min). We found that the induction of hsp70 synthesis and mRNA levels by heat shock was 40 to 50% lower in hepatocytes isolated from old rats than in hepatocytes isolated from young rats. Using in situ hybridization, we found that essentially all hepatocytes from the young/adult and old rats expressed hsp70 in response to heat shock; therefore, the age-related decrease in the induction of hsp70 expression was not due to an age-related accumulation of cells that do not respond to heat shock. Measurements of hsp70 mRNA stability and hsp70 transcription demonstrated that the age-related decline in hsp70 expression arose from a decline in hsp70 transcription. Interestingly, the age-related decline in the induction of hsp70 expression was reversed by caloric restriction; e.g., the induction of hsp70 synthesis, mRNA levels, and nuclear transcription were significantly higher in hepatocytes isolated from old rats fed the caloric restricted diet than in hepatocytes isolated from old rats fed ad libitum. The levels of the heat shock transcription factor in nuclear extracts isolated from heat-shocked hepatocytes were measured in a gel shift assay. Binding of the heat shock transcription

  19. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M B; Pedersen, L J; Theil, P K; Yde, C C; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5 diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period included 2 periods of 4 wk each. Restricted-fed sows were fed once daily (0800 h) during the first period and twice daily (0800 and 1500 h) during the second period, or vice versa. Semi ad libitum fed sows had access to feed 6 times a day in both periods. In each period, the feeding motivation was assessed in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any of the time points post feeding, but semi ad libitum fed sows had a decreased feeding motivation (P < 0.001). Among the restricted-fed sows, feeding twice daily resulted in decreased feeding motivation at 1900 h (P < 0.001) and at 0700h (P < 0.05) compared with feeding once daily, but not at 0900 and 1200 h, indicating that feeding twice daily reduced feeding motivation during the night compared with feeding once daily. Among restricted-fed sows, plasma concentrations of short

  20. Survival and Cardioprotective Benefits of Long-Term Blueberry Enriched Diet in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Following Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmet, Ismayil; Spangler, Edward; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Ingram, Donald K.; Talan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering, and effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD) attenuated necroapoptosis and inflammation in periinfarct area in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives To test the hypothesis that BD will attenuate the course of CHF, including mortality and cardiac remodeling during the first year after induction of MI in rats. Method and Results Two weeks after coronary artery ligation, rats were divided into two groups of similar average MI size, measured by echocardiography, and then12-mo dietary regimens were initiated as follows: ad libitum regular diet (control, CD, n = 27) and isocaloric food with 2% blueberry supplement (BD, n = 27) also available ad libitum. These dietary groups were compared to each other and to sham group (SH). Mortality over the 12 mo was reduced by 22% in BD compared with CD (p<0.01). In the course of developing CHF, BD had no effect on the body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Bi-monthly Echo revealed significant attenuation of the LV chamber remodeling, LV posterior wall thinning, and MI expansion in BD compared with CD. In fact, BD arrested the MI expansion. Conclusion This is the first experimental evidence that a blueberry-enriched diet has positive effects on the course of CHF and thus warrants consideration for clinical evaluation. PMID:19936253

  1. Shift of circadian feeding pattern by high-fat diets is coincident with reward deficits in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Morales, Lidia; Del Olmo, Nuria; Valladolid-Acebes, Ismael; Fole, Alberto; Cano, Victoria; Merino, Beatriz; Stucchi, Paula; Ruggieri, Daniela; López, Laura; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Ruiz-Gayo, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that high-fat diets (HF) trigger both i) a deficit of reward responses linked to a decrease of mesolimbic dopaminergic activity, and ii) a disorganization of circadian feeding behavior that switch from a structured meal-based schedule to a continuous snacking, even during periods normally devoted to rest. This feeding pattern has been shown to be a cause of HF-induced overweight and obesity. Our hypothesis deals with the eventual link between the rewarding properties of food and the circadian distribution of meals. We have investigated the effect of circadian feeding pattern on reward circuits by means of the conditioned-place preference (CPP) paradigm and we have characterized the rewarding properties of natural (food) and artificial (cocaine) reinforcers both in free-feeding ad libitum HF mice and in HF animals submitted to a re-organized feeding schedule based on the standard feeding behavior displayed by mice feeding normal chow ("forced synchronization"). We demonstrate that i) ad libitum HF diet attenuates cocaine and food reward in the CPP protocol, and ii) forced synchronization of feeding prevents this reward deficit. Our study provides further evidence that the rewarding impact of food with low palatability is diminished in mice exposed to a high-fat diet and strongly suggest that the decreased sensitivity to chow as a positive reinforcer triggers a disorganized feeding pattern which might account for metabolic disorders leading to obesity.

  2. Ketogenic diets and thermal pain: dissociation of hypoalgesia, elevated ketones, and lowered glucose in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruskin, David N.; Suter, Tracey A.C.S.; Ross, Jessica L.; Masino, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are high-fat, low-carbohydrate formulations effective in treating medically-refractory epilepsy, and recently we demonstrated lowered sensitivity to thermal pain in rats fed a ketogenic diet for 3–4 weeks. Regarding anticonvulsant and hypoalgesic mechanisms, theories are divided as to direct effects of increased ketones and/or decreased glucose, metabolic hallmarks of these diets. To address this point, we characterized the time course of ketogenic diet-induced thermal hypoalgesia, ketosis, and lowered glucose in young male rats fed ad libitum on normal chow or ketogenic diets. A strict 6.6:1 (fat:(carbohydrates + protein), by weight), ketogenic diet increased blood ketones and reduced blood glucose by two days of feeding, but thermal hypoalgesia did not appear until 10 days. Thus, ketosis and decreased glucose are not sufficient for hypoalgesia. After feeding a 6.6:1 ketogenic diet for 19 days, decreased thermal pain sensitivity and changes in blood chemistry reversed one day after return to normal chow. Effects on were consistent between two different diet formulations: a more moderate and clinically-relevant ketogenic diet formula (3.0:1) produced hypoalgesia and similar changes in blood chemistry as the 6.6:1 diet, thus increasing translational potential. Furthermore, feeding the 3.0:1 diet throughout an extended protocol (10–11 weeks) revealed that significant hypoalgesia and increased ketones persisted whereas low glucose did not, demonstrating that ketogenic diet-induced hypoalgesia does not depend on reduced glucose. In separate experiments we determined that effects on thermal pain responses were not secondary to motor or cognitive changes. Together, these findings dissociate diet-related changes in nociception from direct actions of elevated ketones or decreased glucose, and suggest mechanisms with a slower onset in this paradigm. Overall, our data indicate that metabolic approaches can relieve pain. PMID:23499319

  3. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    PubMed

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior.

  4. Stable-isotope analysis of canvasback winter diet in upper Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Macko, S.A.; Walker, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A major decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay has altered the diet of wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from historically plant to a combination of benthic animal foods, especially the ubiquitous Baltic clam (Macoma balthica), supplemented with anthropogenic corn (Zea mays). Because the isotopic signature of corn is readily discriminated from bay benthos, but not SAV, we used stable-isotope methodology to investigate the corn-SAV component of the winter diet of Canvasbacks. Feeding trials with penned Canvasbacks were conducted to establish turnover rates and fractionation end-point loci of *13C and *15N signatures of whole blood for individual ducks fed ad libitum diets of (1) Baltic clams, (2) Baltic clams and corn, and (3) tubers of wild celery (Vallisneria americana). Turnover time constants averaged 4.5 weeks, indicating that signatures of wild ducks would be representative of bay diets by late February. Isotopic signatures of wild Canvasbacks sampled in February fell on a continuum between end-point loci for the Baltic clam and the combination Baltic clam and corn diet. Although that finding verifies a clear dependence on corn-SAV for wintering Canvasbacks, it also reveals that not enough corn-SAV is available to establish ad libitum consumption for the 15,000+ Canvasbacks wintering in the upper bay. On the basis of mean *13C signature of bay Canvasbacks (n=59) and ingestion rates from feeding trials, we estimated that 258 kg corn per day would account for the observed *13C enrichment and supply 18% of daily energetic needs for 15,000 Canvasbacks. That level of corn availability is so realistic that we conclude that SAV is likely of little dietary importance to Canvasbacks in that portion of the bay.

  5. Stable-isotope analysis of canvasback winter diet in upper Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Macko, S.A.; Walker, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A major decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay has altered the diet of wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from historically plant to a combination of benthic animal foods, especially the ubiquitous Baltic clam (Macoma balthica), supplemented with anthropogenic corn (Zea mays). Because the isotopic signature of corn is readily discriminated from bay benthos, but not SAV, we used stable-isotope methodology to investigate the corn–SAV component of the winter diet of Canvasbacks. Feeding trials with penned Canvasbacks were conducted to establish turnover rates and fractionation end-point loci of δ13C and δ15N signatures of whole blood for individual ducks fed ad libitum diets of (1) Baltic clams, (2) Baltic clams and corn, and (3) tubers of wild celery (Vallisneria americana). Turnover time constants averaged 4.5 weeks, indicating that signatures of wild ducks would be representative of bay diets by late February. Isotopic signatures of wild Canvasbacks sampled in February fell on a continuum between end-point loci for the Baltic clam and the combination Baltic clam and corn diet. Although that finding verifies a clear dependence on corn–SAV for wintering Canvasbacks, it also reveals that not enough corn–SAV is available to establish ad libitum consumption for the 15,000+ Canvasbacks wintering in the upper bay. On the basis of mean δ13C signature of bay Canvasbacks (n = 59) and ingestion rates from feeding trials, we estimated that 258 kg corn per day would account for the observed δ13C enrichment and supply 18% of daily energetic needs for 15,000 Canvasbacks. That level of corn availability is so realistic that we conclude that SAV is likely of little dietary importance to Canvasbacks in that portion of the bay.

  6. Effects of Proportions of Dietary Macronutrients on Glucocorticoid Metabolism in Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stimson, Roland H.; Lobley, Gerald E.; Maraki, Ioanna; Morton, Nicholas M.; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and inactivation by 5α- and 5β-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11β-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum ‘Western’ diet (37% fat, n = 36) for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12) or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12) or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12) diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12) throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11β-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7±0.0 vs 0.9±0.1 AU; p<0.01), but did not alter 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5α-Reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11β-HSD1 activity (1.6±0.1 vs 2.8±0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001) and increased 5α-reductase and 5β-reductase mRNAs (1.9±0.3 vs 1.0±0.2 and 1.6±0.1 vs 1.0±0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01) in the liver, and reduced 11β-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01) in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue), a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11β-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans. PMID:20098742

  7. Effects of increasing supplementation of magnesium in diets on productive performance and eggshell quality of aged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Ho; Paik, In Kee; Kil, Dong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) concentrations in diets have been associated with performance and eggshell quality of laying hens, but the results have been inconclusive. In this experiment, the effects of increasing concentrations of dietary Mg on productive performance and eggshell quality of aged laying hens were evaluated. A total of 640 Hy-Line Brown laying hens of 72 weeks of age were randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments with four replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet containing 1.6 g/kg Mg was prepared, and three additional diets were prepared to contain 2.3, 2.6, or 3.0 g/kg Mg in diets by adding 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 g of MgO to the basal diet. The diets were fed to hens ad libitum for 5 weeks. Results indicated that Mg concentrations in eggshells were increased (linear, P < 0.01) with increasing concentrations of Mg in diets. Increasing concentrations of Mg in diets decreased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01) broken and shell-less egg production, but improved (linear, P < 0.05) eggshell strength. Feed intake was decreased (linear, P < 0.05) with the concentrations of Mg in diets, but hen-day egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, and Haugh unit were not affected by increasing concentrations of Mg in diets. Hunter L* and a* values of eggshell were decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as the concentrations of Mg in diets increased. In conclusion, feeding aged laying hens with diets containing increasing concentrations of Mg up to 3.0 g/kg improves eggshell strength, but has no detrimental effects on laying performance.

  8. Inter-relationships among Diet, Obesity and Hippocampal-dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Terry L.; Hargrave, Sara L.; Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Fu, Xue; Kinzig, Kimberly P.; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Intake of a Western diet (WD), which is high in saturated fat and sugar, is associated with deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes as well as with markers of hippocampal pathology. In the present study, rats were trained to asymptote on hippocampal-dependent serial feature negative (FN) and hippocampal-independent simple discrimination problems. Performance was then assessed following 7 days on ad libitum chow and after 10, 24, 40, 60, and 90 days of maintenance on WD, on ketogenic (KETO) diet which is high in saturated fat and low in sugar and other carbohydrates, or continued maintenance on chow (CHOW). Confirming and extending previous findings, diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed WD showed impaired FN performance, increased BBB permeability, and increased fasting blood glucose levels compared to CHOW controls and to diet resistant (DR) rats that did not become obese when maintained on WD. For rats fed the KETO diet, FN performance and BBB integrity was more closely associated with level of circulating ketone bodies than with obesity phenotype (DR or DIO) with higher levels of ketones appearing to provide a protective effect. The evidence also indicated that FN deficits preceded and predicted increased body weight and adiposity. This research (a) further substantiates previous findings of WD-induced deficits in hippocampal-dependent feature negative discriminations, (b) suggests that ketones may be protective against diet-induced cognitive impairment, and (c) provides evidence that diet-induced cognitive impairment precedes weight gain and obesity. PMID:23999121

  9. Effects of lipoic acid on growth and biochemical responses of common carp fed with carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Santos, R A; Caldas, S; Primel, E G; Tesser, M B; Monserrat, J M

    2016-12-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant that also favors glucose uptake in mammals. Until now, there are no studies evaluating the potential effect of this molecule on glycemic control in fish. It was evaluated LA effects on glucose uptake in common carp Cyprinus carpio fed with carbohydrate diets from two carbohydrate sources: glucose (GLU) and starch (STA), and supplemented or not with LA, being the diets: +GLU/-LA (GLU); +GLU/+LA (GLU + LA); +STA/-LA (STA); and +STA/+LA (STA + LA). Carp juveniles (6.5 ± 0.1 g) were fed with each diet ad libitum 4 times a day, during 68 days. Muscle glycogen concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in GLU and GLU + LA than in STA and STA + LA groups. On fish fed with starch, muscle cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in fish fed diets supplemented with LA. Muscle protein levels were higher in fish fed with LA, independent of the diet carbohydrate source. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in fish muscle on fish fed the STA + LA diets when compared with the STA diet. Our findings indicate that LA modulates lipid, proteins and carbohydrate metabolism together with the well-known antioxidant effect. Also, LA showed to enhance starch utilization taking into account muscle cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

  10. Effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F; DeMars, Lana C; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigated effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were assigned into 4 groups offered the AIN93G or the wheat-modified diet in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 2, mice were pair-fed the powdered diets to the ad libitum level of food intake of those fed the pelleted form of the respective diets. Body weight, food intake, and fecal excretion were recorded, and body composition was assessed on mice 1 wk before termination of the experiment. Mice fed the powdered diets showed greater increases in body weight in 2 wk of feeding than did mice fed the pelleted diets. Compared with the pelleted diets, the powdered diets supported an approximately 85% increase in the fat-mass:body-mass ratio and a 2-fold increase in the abdominal-fat-weight:carcass-weight ratio. In addition, mice fed the powdered diet showed significantly greater plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin and significantly lower plasma adiponectin, compared with their pellet-fed counterparts. Food intake of mice fed the powdered diet was 11% greater for the AIN93G and 16% greater for the wheat diet compared with that of the respective pelleted diet. These results demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice responded to the physical form of these diets in terms of food intake, which affected their growth, body composition, and plasma concentrations of insulin and adipocytokines.

  11. Effects of the Physical Form of the Diet on Food Intake, Growth, and Body Composition Changes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F; DeMars, Lana C; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were assigned into 4 groups offered the AIN93G or the wheat-modified diet in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 2, mice were pair-fed the powdered diets to the ad libitum level of food intake of those fed the pelleted form of the respective diets. Body weight, food intake, and fecal excretion were recorded, and body composition was assessed on mice 1 wk before termination of the experiment. Mice fed the powdered diets showed greater increases in body weight in 2 wk of feeding than did mice fed the pelleted diets. Compared with the pelleted diets, the powdered diets supported an approximately 85% increase in the fat-mass:body-mass ratio and a 2-fold increase in the abdominal-fat-weight:carcass-weight ratio. In addition, mice fed the powdered diet showed significantly greater plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin and significantly lower plasma adiponectin, compared with their pellet-fed counterparts. Food intake of mice fed the powdered diet was 11% greater for the AIN93G and 16% greater for the wheat diet compared with that of the respective pelleted diet. These results demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice responded to the physical form of these diets in terms of food intake, which affected their growth, body composition, and plasma concentrations of insulin and adipocytokines. PMID:21838977

  12. Effects of adding exercise to a 16-week very low-calorie diet in obese, insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Snel, Marieke; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Ouwens, D Margriet; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Schaart, Gert; Buzzigoli, Emma; Frölich, Marijke; Romijn, Johannes A; Pijl, Hanno; Meinders, A Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2012-07-01

    Reduction of 50% excess body weight, using a very low-calorie diet (VLCD; 450 kcal/d) improves insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether adding exercise to the VLCD has additional benefits. This was a randomized intervention study. The study was conducted at a clinical research center in an academic medical center. Twenty-seven obese [body mass index 37.2 ± 0.9 kg/m(2) (mean ± sem)] insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Patients followed a 16-wk VLCD. Thirteen of them simultaneously participated in an exercise program (E) consisting of 1-h, in-hospital training and four 30-min training sessions on a cycloergometer weekly. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Insulin signaling, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and intramyocellular lipid content was measured in skeletal muscle biopsies. Baseline characteristics were identical in both groups. Substantial weight loss occurred (-23.7 ± 1.7 kg VLCD-only vs. -27.2 ± 1.9 kg VLCD+E, P = NS within groups). The exercise group lost more fat mass. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal increased similarly in both study groups [15.0 ± 0.9 to 39.2 ± 4.7 μmol/min(-1) · kg lean body mass (LBM(-1)) VLCD-only vs. 17.0 ± 1.0 to 37.5 ± 3.5 μmol/min(-1) · kg LBM(-1) in VLCD+E], as did phosphorylation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B/AKT insulin signaling pathway. In contrast, skeletal muscle mtDNA content increased only in the VLCD+E group (1211 ± 185 to 2288 ± 358, arbitrary units, P = 0.016 vs. 1397 ± 240 to 1196 ± 179, P = NS, VLCD-only group). Maximum aerobic capacity also only increased significantly in the VLCD+E group (+6.6 ± 1.7 ml/min(-1) · kg LBM(-1) vs. +0.7 ± 1.5 ml/min(-1) · kg LBM(-1) VLCD-only, P = 0.017). Addition of exercise to a 16-wk VLCD induces more fat loss. Exercise augments maximum aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle mtDNA content. These changes are

  13. Effects of adding MIN-AD to steam-flaked corn-based diets with or without wet corn distiller's grain plus solubles on performance by beef cattle during receiving and finishing phases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of wet corn distillers grain (WCDG) and MIN-AD (MIN-AD Inc., Amarillo, TX), a commercial source of calcium-magnesium carbonate, on cattle performance and carcass measurements were evaluated in a 42-d receiving phase (220 steers; initial BW = 279.3 kg) and a subsequent finishing phase (192 s...

  14. Glycogen storage disease type III: modified Atkins diet improves myopathy.

    PubMed

    Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Hartmann, Hans; Das, Anibh Martin

    2014-11-28

    Frequent feeds with carbohydrate-rich meals or continuous enteral feeding has been the therapy of choice in glycogen storage disease (Glycogenosis) type III. Recent guidelines on diagnosis and management recommend frequent feedings with high complex carbohydrates or cornstarch avoiding fasting in children, while in adults a low-carb-high-protein-diet is recommended. While this regimen can prevent hypoglycaemia in children it does not improve skeletal and heart muscle function, which are compromised in patients with glycogenosis IIIa. Administration of carbohydrates may elicit reactive hyperinsulinism, resulting in suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and activation of glycogen synthesis. Thus, heart and skeletal muscle are depleted of energy substrates. Modified Atkins diet leads to increased blood levels of ketone bodies and fatty acids. We hypothesize that this health care intervention improves the energetic balance of muscles. We treated 2 boys with glycogenosis IIIa aged 9 and 11 years with a modified Atkins diet (10 g carbohydrate per day, protein and fatty acids ad libitum) over a period of 32 and 26 months, respectively. In both patients, creatine kinase levels in blood dropped in response to Atkins diet. When diet was withdrawn in one of the patients he complained of chest pain, reduced physical strength and creatine kinase levels rapidly increased. This was reversed when Atkins diet was reintroduced. One patient suffered from severe cardiomyopathy which significantly improved under diet. Patients with glycogenosis IIIa benefit from an improved energetic state of heart and skeletal muscle by introduction of Atkins diet both on a biochemical and clinical level. Apart from transient hypoglycaemia no serious adverse effects were observed.

  15. Intestinal morphology, brush border and digesta enzyme activities of broilers fed on a diet containing Cu2+-loaded montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y L; Guo, T

    2008-01-01

    1. A total of 320 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of Cu(2+)-loaded montmorillonite (CM) on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and activities of brush border enzyme in the intestinal mucosa and digestive enzyme in the intestinal digesta of broilers. 2. The chicks were assigned randomly into 4 groups with 80 chicks per treatment. The 4 dietary treatments were: basal diet only (control group), basal diet + 2 g montmorillonite/kg, basal diet + 1 g CM/kg, and basal diet + 2 g CM/kg. The chicks were raised in cages and feed and water were provided ad libitum for a period of 42 d. 3. The addition of CM to the diet of broilers significantly increased body weight and feed efficiency. Similarly, birds receiving montmorillonite had higher feed efficiency than the control after 42 d of feeding. 4. Data on villus height and crypt depth for duodenum, jejunum and ileum indicated that treating the diet of broilers with either CM or montmorillonite improved the mucosal morphology of the small intestine. 5. The presence of CM in the diet of broilers significantly increased the activities of maltase, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase in small intestinal mucosa. However, the activities of protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase in small intestinal digesta of broilers fed on the CM-supplemented diet were slightly higher than control values.

  16. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effects of added fermentable carbohydrates in the diet on intestinal proinflammatory cytokine-specific mRNA content in weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Pié, S; Awati, A; Vida, S; Falluel, I; Williams, B A; Oswald, I P

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that dietary supplementation with prebiotics can be effective in the treatment of intestinal inflammation. Because weaning time is characterized by rapid intestinal inflammation, this study investigated the effect of a diet supplemented with a combination of 4 fermentable carbohydrates (lactulose, inulin, sugarbeet pulp, and wheat starch) on the mRNA content of proinflammatory cytokines in newly weaned piglets. Cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) were analyzed using a semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR technique on d 1, 4, and 10 in the ileum and colon of piglets fed either a test diet (CHO) or a control diet. In addition to the diet, the effect of enforced fasting on cytokine mRNA content was also evaluated. No effect of fasting was observed on the pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA content. Our results showed that the CHO diet induced an up-regulation of IL-6 mRNA content in the colon of piglets 4 d postweaning. This up-regulation was specific for the animals fed the CHO diet and was not observed in animals fed the control diet. An increase in IL-1beta mRNA content was also observed on d 4 postweaning in all of the piglets. Correlations between proinflammatory cytokines and the end-products of fermentation indicated that the regulation of cytokines may be linked with some of the fermentation end-products such as branched-chain fatty acids, which are in turn end-products of protein fermentation.

  18. Sex determines effect of physical activity on diet preference: Association of striatal opioids and gut microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jenna R; Muckerman, Julie E; Wright, Anna M; Davis, Daniel J; Childs, Tom E; Gillespie, Catherine E; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Booth, Frank W; Ericsson, Aaron C; Will, Matthew J

    2017-09-15

    Previous studies suggest an interaction between the level of physical activity and diet preference. However, this relationship has not been well characterized for sex differences that may exist. The present study examined the influence of sex on diet preference in male and female Wistar rats that were housed under either sedentary (no wheel access) (SED) or voluntary wheel running access (RUN) conditions. Following a 1 week acclimation period to these conditions, standard chow was replaced with concurrent ad libitum access to a choice of 3 pelleted diets (high-fat, high-sucrose, and high-corn starch) in the home cage. SED and RUN conditions remained throughout the next 4 week diet preference assessment period. Body weight, running distance, and intake of each diet were measured daily. At the conclusion of the 4 week diet preference test, animals were sacrificed and brains were collected for mRNA analysis. Fecal samples were also collected before and after the 4 week diet preference phase to characterize microbiota composition. Results indicate sex dependent interactions between physical activity and both behavioral and physiological measures. Females in both RUN and SED conditions preferred the high-fat diet, consuming significantly more high-fat diet than either of the other two diets. While male SED rats also preferred the high-fat diet, male RUN rats consumed significantly less high-fat diet than the other groups, instead preferring all three diets equally. There was also a sex dependent influence of physical activity on both reward related opioid mRNA expression in the ventral striatum and the characterization of gut microbiota. The significant sex differences in response to physical activity observed through both behavioral and physiological measures suggest potential motivational or metabolic difference between males and females. The findings highlight the necessity for further exploration between male and female response to physical activity and feeding

  19. Green and black tea suppress hyperglycemia and insulin resistance by retaining the expression of glucose transporter 4 in muscle of high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Nishiumi, Shin; Bessyo, Hiroaki; Kubo, Mayuko; Aoki, Yukiko; Tanaka, Akihito; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2010-12-22

    To investigate the preventive effects of tea on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, male C57BL/6J mice were given a high-fat diet containing 29% lard and also green or black tea ad libitum for 14 weeks. Both teas suppressed body weight gain and deposition of white adipose tissue caused by the diet. In addition, they improved hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance by stimulating glucose uptake activity accompanied by the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 to the plasma membrane in muscle. Long-term consumption of the high-fat diet reduced levels of insulin receptor β-subunit, GLUT4 and AMP-activated protein kinase α in muscle, and green and black tea suppressed these decreases. The results strongly suggest that green and black tea suppress high-fat diet-evoked hyperglycemia and insulin resistance by retaining the level of GLUT4 and increasing the level of GLUT4 on the plasma membrane in muscle.

  20. Propolis prevents diet-induced hyperlipidemia and mitigates weight gain in diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Koya-Miyata, Satomi; Arai, Norie; Mizote, Akiko; Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Ushio, Shimpei; Iwaki, Kanso; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2009-12-01

    We examined the hypolipidemic effect of propolis in a mouse obesity model induced by a high fat-diet. C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum and given propolis extract intragastrically at 0 mg/kg (control), 5 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg twice daily for 10 d. Compared with mice in the control group, mice in the propolis extract-administrated groups displayed a reduction in all of the following parameters: body weight gain, weight of visceral adipose tissue, liver and serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of the liver showed down-regulation of mRNA expression associated with fatty acid biosynthesis, including fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, and sterol regulatory element binding protein in the propolis-administrated mice. Subsequently, obese C57BL/6N mice that had been administered a high-fat diet were given propolis extract at 0 mg/kg (control), 2.5 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The propolis extract treated mice showed a decrease in weight gain, a reduction of serum non-esterified fatty acids, and lipid accumulation in the liver. These results suggest that propolis extract prevented and mitigated high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia by down-regulating the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism.

  1. A weekly alternating diet between caloric restriction and medium fat protects the liver from fatty liver development in middle-aged C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Rusli, Fenni; Boekschoten, Mark V; Zubia, Arantza Aguirre; Lute, Carolien; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Scope We investigated whether a novel dietary intervention consisting of an every-other-week calorie-restricted diet could prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development induced by a medium-fat (MF) diet. Methods and results Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice received either a (i) control (C), (ii) 30E% calorie restricted (CR), (iii) MF (25E% fat), or (iv) intermittent (INT) diet, a diet alternating weekly between 40E% CR and an ad libitum MF diet until sacrifice at the age of 12 months. The metabolic, morphological, and molecular features of NAFLD were examined. The INT diet resulted in healthy metabolic and morphological features as displayed by the continuous CR diet: glucose tolerant, low hepatic triglyceride content, low plasma alanine aminotransferase. In contrast, the C- and MF-exposed mice with high body weight developed signs of NAFLD. However, the gene expression profiles of INT-exposed mice differed to those of CR-exposed mice and showed to be more similar with those of C- and MF-exposed mice with a comparable body weight. Conclusions Our study reveals that the INT diet maintains metabolic health and reverses the adverse effects of the MF diet, thus effectively prevents the development of NAFLD in 12-month-old male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:25504628

  2. Significance of coprophagy for the fatty acid profile in body tissues of rabbits fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Leiber, Florian; Meier, Janina S; Burger, Bettina; Wettstein, Hans-Rudolf; Kreuzer, Michael; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-09-01

    Four groups of eight New Zealand hybrid rabbits were fattened with ad libitum access to the following pelleted experimental diets: ryegrass meal or alfalfa meal fed either alone or with oats meal in a ratio of 1:1. After 25 weeks they were slaughtered and dissected. Fatty acid (FA) profiles of caecotrophs (re-ingested fermentation products of the caecum), perirenal adipose tissue and intramuscular fat in the Musculus quadriceps were determined. With high proportions of branched-chain FA (BFA) and trans FA, and increased proportions of saturated FA relative to the diets, the caecotroph FA profile showed a clear fingerprint of anaerobe microbial lipid metabolism including biohydrogenation. By contrast, the FA profiles of adipose and lean tissue comprised high proportions of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), whilst BFA and trans FA occurred in much lower proportions compared to the caecotrophs. Thus, coprophagy did not substantially modify the FA composition of the tissues investigated. Use of forage-only diets, compared to the oats supplemented diets, led to extraordinary high proportions of n-3 PUFA (including 18:3 and long-chain n-3) in the fat of adipose (21.3 vs. 6.7%) and lean tissue (15.4 vs. 5.7%). The forage type diet (grass vs. alfalfa) had smaller effects on the FA profiles. Indications of diet effects on endogenous desaturation, chain elongation and differential distribution of functional FA between the two tissues investigated were found.

  3. Effects of replacing groundnut cake with blood vegetable waste meal in the diets of weaner rabbits.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Adedayo Abiodun

    2012-01-01

    A total of seventy-two weaner rabbits of eight weeks of age were used to assess the effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with blood vegetable waste meal (BVWM) in the diets of rabbits. The BVWM was fed to replace dietary GNC at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, with GNC being 15% in the control diet. The four experimental diets were fed ad libitum for a period of eight weeks. BVWM was analyzed to contain a crude protein value of 62.35%. There were comparable feed intake values by rabbits on all the diets although the rabbits in the higher replacement levels of BVWM tended to have consumed more of the feed. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in body weight gain by rabbits as the BVWM level increased in the diet. Similarly, the feed to gain ratio improved and nitrogen digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with higher levels of BVWM in the diet. This study shows that rabbits can tolerate the 45% BVWM replacement of groundnut cake effectively.

  4. Added dietary sulfur and molybdenum has a greater influence on hepatic copper concentration, intake, and performance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows offered a grass silage-rather than corn silage-based diet.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, L A; Johnson, D; Wilson, S; Mackenzie, A M

    2017-03-29

    To test the hypothesis that the metabolism of Cu in dairy cows is affected by basal forage and added S and Mo, 56 dairy cows that were 35 (standard error ± 2.2) days postcalving and yielding 38.9 kg of milk/d (standard error ± 0.91) were offered 1 of 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design for a 14-wk period. The 4 diets contained approximately 20 mg of Cu/kg of dry matter (DM), and had a corn silage-to-grass silage ratio of 0.75:0.25 (C) or 0.25:0.75 (G) and were either unsupplemented (-) or supplemented (+) with an additional 2 g of S/kg of DM and 6.5 mg of Mo/kg of DM. We found an interaction between forage source and added S and Mo on DM intake, with cows offered G+ having a 2.1 kg of DM lower intake than those offered G-, but no effect on the corn silage-based diets. Mean milk yield was 38.9 kg/d and we observed an interaction between basal forage and added S and Mo, with yield being decreased in cows offered G+ but increased on C+. No effect of dietary treatment on milk composition or live weight was noted, but body condition was lower in cows fed added S and Mo irrespective of forage source. We found an interaction between forage source and added S and Mo on milk somatic cell count, which was higher in cows offered G+ compared with G-, but not in cows fed the corn silage-based diets, although all values were low (mean values of 1.72, 1.50, 1.39, and 1.67 log10/mL for C-, C+, G-, and G+, respectively). Mean plasma Cu, Fe, and Mn concentrations were 13.8, 41.3, and 0.25 µmol/L, respectively, and were not affected by dietary treatment, whereas plasma Mo was 0.2 µmol/L higher in cows receiving added S and Mo. The addition of dietary S and Mo decreased liver Cu balance over the study period in cows fed either basal forage, but the decrease was considerably greater in cows receiving the grass silage-based diet. Similarly, hepatic Fe decreased more in cows receiving G than C when S and Mo were included in the diet. We concluded that added S and Mo reduces hepatic

  5. Effects of dry matter intake restriction on diet digestion, energy partitioning, phosphorus retention, and ruminal fermentation by beef steers.

    PubMed

    Clark, J H; Olson, K C; Schmidt, T B; Linville, M L; Alkire, D O; Meyer, D L; Rentfrow, G K; Carr, C C; Berg, E P

    2007-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of DMI restriction on diet digestion, ruminal fermentation, ME intake, and P retention by beef steers. In Exp. 1, twelve Angus x steers (average initial BW = 450 +/- 18 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at intake levels corresponding approximately to 100% (ad libitum, AL), 90% (IR90), or 80% (IR80) of ad libitum DMI. In Exp. 2, twelve crossbred steers (average initial BW = 445 +/- 56 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at AL or IR80. All diets delivered similar total NE, MP, Ca, and P per day. During both experiments, fecal DM output by IR80 was less (P /= 0.20) among treatments during both experiments, whereas P retention was similar (P >/= 0.46) among treatments during Exp. 1. Total VFA and the molar proportion of acetate of AL were greater (P diet digestion or ME intake.

  6. Nutritional compensation to exercise- vs. diet-induced acute energy deficit in adolescents with obesity.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Doucet, Eric; Julian, Valérie; Cardenoux, Charlotte; Boirie, Yves; Duclos, Martine

    2017-07-01

    To compare the energy and macronutrient intake responses to equivalent energy deficits induced by diet (food restriction) and exercise in adolescents with obesity. Fourteen 12-15years old obese adolescents completed three experimental conditions (08:00am to 07:30pm) in a randomized crossover design: i) control session (CON); ii) diet-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EI), iii) and an exercise-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EX). The sessions order was either CON/Def-EI/Def-EX or CON/Def-EX/Def-EI as the deficit corresponded to 25% of the energy ingested at lunch on the control day (CON) and was imposed either by exercise (Def-EX) or diet (Def-EI). Ad libitum EI and macronutrients preferences were assessed at dinner and appetite sensations assessed using visual analogue scales. Mean BMI was 36.6±5.0kg/m(2) (z-BMI: 2.40±0.29). The individually calibrated 25% energy deficit represented 254±92kcal. Ad libitum EI was significantly higher during both Def-EX (971±225kcal) and Def-EI (949±246kcal) compared with CON (742±297) (p<0.05). The relative energy ingested derived from fat was significantly higher on both Def-EX (36.6±10.9%) and Def-EI (36.9±13.1%) compared with CON (21.6±7.8%) (p<0.05). The energy derived from carbohydrates was significantly lower on both Def-EX (48.3±9.0%) and Def-EI (44.4±17.3%) compare with CON (61.1±10.1%) (p<0.05). Appetite sensations were not different between conditions. The induced energy deficit was negatively correlated with the ad libitum EI difference between the exercise and the control session (EI Def-EX - EI CON) (r=-0,643 p<0.05) and positively correlated with the EI difference between the dietary restriction and the control session (EI Def-EI - EI CON) (r=0,569 p<0.05). Equicaloric exercise- or diet-induced energy deficits could lead to similar EI compensation in obese adolescents but this EI compensation might be influenced by the magnitude of the deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006).

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-08-08

    The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003-2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to "as consumed" food categorizations. Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended

  8. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  9. Effects of sequential feeding with low- and high-protein diets on growth performances and plasma metabolite levels in geese.

    PubMed

    Ho, S-Y; Chen, Y-H; Yang, S-K

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted by two trials to investigate effects of sequential feeding with low- and high-protein diets on growth traits and plasma metabolites in geese. In Trial I, the effect of sequential feeding under time-restricted feeding system was investigated. Seventy-two White Roman goslings were randomly allotted into either sequential feeding (S1) or control feeding (C1) group. All goslings were fed for 1 h at morning and at evening, respectively, from 2 to 8 weeks of age. S1 group was offered 13% CP diet at morning and 19% CP diet at evening. C1 group was offered the same diet (16% CP; mixed equally with the two diets mentioned above) at both morning and evening. Blood samples were hourly collected for 4 h after feeding at both morning and evening for the determination of the postprandial plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerol and uric acid at the end of experiment. Results showed that BW, average daily gain (ADG), and daily feed intake (FI) were not different between groups, but the feed efficiency (FE) in S1 group was significantly higher than that in C1 group (P<0.05). The areas under curve (AUC) of plasma postprandial levels of glucose, triacylglycerol and uric acid were not affected by treatment, but the AUC of triacylglycerol and uric acid in morning were lower than those in evening (P<0.05). In Trial II, the effect of sequential feeding under ad libitum feeding system was investigated. Twenty-four goslings were randomly allotted into either sequential feeding (S2) or control feeding (C2) group. Diets were altered at 0600 and 1800 h, respectively, and geese were fed ad libitum from 4 to 8 weeks of age. S2 group was offered 14% CP diet at morning and 20% CP diet at evening. C2 group was supplied the same diet (mixed with the two diets according to the ratio of diets consumed by S2 group on the preceded day) at both morning and evening. Results showed that the ADG in S2 group was higher than those in C2 group (P<0.05). Summarized data from both

  10. Walnut ingestion in adults at risk for diabetes: effects on body composition, diet quality, and cardiac risk measures

    PubMed Central

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Ayettey, Rockiy; Petraro, Paul; Treu, Judith A; Katz, David L

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their energy density, walnuts can be included in the diet without adverse effects on weight or body composition. The effect of habitual walnut intake on total calorie intake is not well studied. Effects on overall diet quality have not been reported. Methods Randomized, controlled, modified Latin square parallel design study with 2 treatment arms. The 112 participants were randomly assigned to a diet with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake. Within each treatment arm, participants were further randomized to 1 of the 2 possible sequence permutations to receive a walnut-included diet with 56 g (providing 366 kcal) of walnuts per day and a walnut-excluded diet. Participants were assessed for diet quality, body composition, and cardiac risk measures. Results When compared with a walnut-excluded diet, a walnut-included diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, significantly improved diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (9.14±17.71 vs 0.40±15.13; p=0.02 and 7.02±15.89 vs -5.92±21.84; p=0.001, respectively). Endothelial function, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol improved significantly from baseline in the walnut-included diet. Body mass index, percent body fat, visceral fat, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and blood pressure did not change significantly. Conclusions The inclusion of walnuts in an ad libitum diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake, significantly improved diet quality, endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol, but had no effects on anthropometric measures, blood glucose level, and blood pressure. Trial registration number: NCT02330848 PMID:26688734

  11. Effect of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbiota of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cangyou; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Qing; Peng, Qian; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the experiment on 180 weaned piglets (8.9 kg body weight) was to investigate the influence of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea incidence and numbers of faecal microbiota. The dietary treatments included a Control diet and five high fibre diets formulated with different fibre sources including wheat bran, soybean hulls, naked oat hulls, palm kernel expeller and bamboo fibre. The high fibre diets averaged 14.6% neutral detergent fibre with different non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) components and were fed ad libitum for 28 d. Faecal samples were collected during the last 3 d of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fibre components were determined. Pigs fed the Control and wheat bran diets had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than pigs fed the palm kernel expeller and bamboo meal diets. The reduced ADG for pigs appeared to be related to reductions in the digestibility of gross energy and dry matter, respectively. The feed-to-gain ratio was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the fibre diets. The digestibility of NSP components was different among the treatments. The diarrhoea incidence was not affected by treatments. The abundance of faecal bifidobacteria was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the wheat bran diet than for pigs fed the bamboo meal diet. It was concluded that the diets formulated with different fibre sources when fed to weaned piglets have different effects on pig performance, nutrient digestibility and numbers of faecal microbiota. The wheat bran diet rich in arabinoxylans enabled a better performance than the other tested diets with fibre addition.

  12. Restricting feeding to the active phase in middle-aged mice attenuates adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M J; Smith, J T; Narbaiza, J; Mueez, F; Bustle, L B; Qureshi, S; Fieseler, C; Legan, S J

    2016-12-01

    Time-restricted feeding ameliorates the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on body weight and metabolism in young adult mice. Because obesity is highly prevalent in the middle-aged population, this study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding alleviates the adverse effects of a high-fat diet in male middle-aged (12months) mice. C57BL6/J mice were fed one of three diets for 21-25weeks: 1) high-fat diet (60% total calories from fat) ad-libitum (HFD-AL), 2) HFD, time-restricted feeding (HFD-TRF), and 3) low-fat diet (10% total calories from fat) ad-libitum (LFD-AL) (n=15 each). HFD-TRF mice only had food access for 8h/day during their active period. HFD-TRF mice gained significantly less weight than HFD-AL mice (~20% vs 55% of initial weight, respectively). Caloric intake differed between these groups only during the first 8weeks and accounted for most but not all of their body weight difference during this time. TRF of a HFD lowered glucose tolerance in terms of incremental area under the curve (iAUC) (p<0.02) to that of LFD-AL mice. TRF of a HFD lowered liver weight (p<0.0001), but not retroperitoneal or epididymal fat pad weight, to that of LFD-AL mice. Neither HFD-AL nor HFD-TRF had any effect on performance in the novel object recognition or object location memory tests. Circulating corticosterone levels either before or after restraint stress were not affected by diet. In conclusion, TRF without caloric restriction is an effective strategy in middle-aged mice for alleviating the negative effects of a HFD on body weight, liver weight, and glucose tolerance.

  13. Effects of wet corn gluten feed and intake level on diet digestibility and ruminal passage rate in steers.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S P; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Sindt, J J; Farran, T B; Pike, J N; Coetzer, C M; Trater, A M; Higgins, J J

    2004-12-01

    Twelve ruminally cannulated Jersey steers (BW = 534 kg) were used in an incomplete Latin square design experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effects of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and total DMI level on diet digestibility and ruminal passage rate. Treatments consisted of diets formulated to contain (DM basis) steam-flaked corn, 20% coarsely ground alfalfa hay, and either 0 or 40% WCGF offered once daily for ad libitum consumption or limited to 1.6% of BW (DM basis). Two consecutive 24-d periods were used, each consisting of 18 d for adaptation, 4 d for collection, and a 2-d in situ period. Rumens of all steers were evacuated once daily at 0, 4, 8, and 12 h after feeding. Chromic oxide (10 g/[steer*d]) was fed as a digestibility marker, and steers were pulse-dosed with Yb-labeled alfalfa hay to measure ruminal particulate passage rate. Dacron bags containing 5 g of steam-flaked corn, WCGF, or ground (2-mm screen) alfalfa hay were placed into the rumens of all steers and removed after 3, 6, 12, or 48 h. Wet corn gluten feed increased percent apparent total-tract digestion of OM (P < 0.01), NDF (P < 0.01), and starch (P < 0.03), decreased (P < 0.01) ruminal total VFA concentration, increased (P < 0.01) ruminal NH3 concentration, and increased (P < 0.01) ruminal pH. Wet corn gluten feed also increased (P < 0.01) ruminal passage rate of Yb. Limit feeding decreased (P < 0.01) percent apparent total-tract digestion of both OM and NDF, ruminal total VFA concentration (P < 0.01), and ruminal fill (P < 0.01), but increased (P < 0.01) ruminal NH3 concentration. Apparent total-tract digestion of starch was not affected (P = 0.70) by level of DMI. A DMI level x hour interaction (P < 0.01) occurred for ruminal pH. Limit feeding increased ruminal pH before and 12 h after feeding, but decreased ruminal pH 4 h after feeding compared with diets offered ad libitum. A diet x DMI level interaction (P < 0.02) occurred for in situ degradation of

  14. Alternate-day fasting diet improves fructose-induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Beigy, M; Vakili, S; Berijani, S; Aminizade, M; Ahmadi-Dastgerdi, M; Meshkani, R

    2013-12-01

    Increased fructose consumption is linked to insulin resistance, weight gain, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Although the advantages of several dietary restriction regimens have been demonstrated, the effects of alternate-day fasting (ADF) on fructose-induced insulin resistance have not yet been studied. This study is based on a new modification on ADF by combining the fructose-rich solution (10% w/v) and regular mice diet. Mice were randomly allocated into four groups: ADF50% (50% restriction in chow food intake but ad libitum fructose drink), ADF100% (100% restriction for chow food but ad libitum fructose drink), control (ad libitum chow food intake plus tap water) and daily food and fructose (DFF) (had free access to both chow and fructose solution). Biweekly fasting blood sugar (FBS), glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were conducted. All groups gained weight during the study (p < 0.05). Body weights of DFF and control groups did not differ from that of ADF groups, but ADF50% gained more (p < 0.01) weights than ADF100% through the study. Total calorie intake (feed + fast days) of ADF50% was higher than that of ADF100% (p < 0.001) and control (p < 0.03). In addition, ADF groups consumed more energy than the control and DFF groups in feed (ad libitum) days (p < 0.05). At the end of the study, the mean FBS levels in the control and ADF100% groups were similar and significantly lower in relation to that of DFF and ADF50% groups (p < 0.01). Measurements of area under the curve in GTT and ITT revealed that the ADF100% group was more insulin-sensitive than the DFF and ADF50% groups. In conclusion, these data suggest that the ADF100% improves fructose-induced insulin resistance in mice. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Silage or limit-fed grain growing diets for steers: II. Empty body and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Gallavan, R H; Phillips, W A; Volesky, J D; Rodriguez, S

    1995-09-01

    The influence of energy source (silage- or grain-based) on empty body and carcass composition and adipocyte cellularity independent of rate of gain was tested. Sixty-four Angus steers were allotted to either a forage (ad libitum) or grain (limit-fed) diet for a growing phase (145 d) followed by 45, 75, or 105 d of ad libitum access to a grain-based diet. Eight steers were slaughtered initially and eight from each treatment were slaughtered at the end of the growing phase, and at each of the termination dates. The silage growing diet consisted (DM basis) of 55% sorghum silage (approximately 24% dry matter), 22% alfalfa hay, 11% ground shelled corn, and 11% soybean meal. The grain-based growing diet was composed of 77% ground shelled corn, 5% soybean meal, 14% cottonseed hulls, 3% molasses, and 1% salt and mineral; it was limit-fed to produce the same rate of gain as the silage diet. No implants or ionophores were used. At the end of the growing phase, the steers fed grain were heavier and had a higher percentage of fat in the empty body (24 vs 19% fat) and the carcass (26 vs 21% fat) than did steers fed forage. Rate of gain during the growth phase was related positively to percentage of carcass fat; when corrected for fill, data for both diets fit one regression line for fat vs rate of gain. When adjusted for gain during the growing phase, fat content was not different in empty body or carcass, but internal fat was higher (P < .10) for steers fed grain. After 45 d on the finishing diet, carcass fat remained low (23%), but after 75 and 105 d, fat content reached 27%. Source of energy did not detectably affect carcass composition independent of rate of gain. Cell size of adipocytes from four adipose depots increased with time on feed but were not affected by diet during the growing phase. Lean Choice beef can be produced in only 45 d in the feedlot with medium-framed Angus cattle.

  16. A ketogenic diet delays weight loss and does not impair working memory or motor function in the R6/2 1J mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Ruskin, David N; Ross, Jessica L; Kawamura, Masahito; Ruiz, Tiffany L; Geiger, Jonathan D; Masino, Susan A

    2011-07-06

    Ketogenic diets are high in fat and low in carbohydrates, and have long been used as an anticonvulsant therapy for drug-intractable and pediatric epilepsy. Additionally, ketogenic diets have been shown to provide neuroprotective effects against acute and chronic brain injury, including beneficial effects in various rodent models of neurodegeneration. Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurological, behavioral and metabolic dysfunction, and ketogenic diets have been shown to increase energy molecules and mitochondrial function. We tested the effects of a ketogenic diet in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease (R6/2 1J), with a focus on life-long behavioral and physiological effects. Matched male and female wild-type and transgenic mice were maintained on a control diet or were switched to a ketogenic diet fed ad libitum starting at six weeks of age. We found no negative effects of the ketogenic diet on any behavioral parameter tested (locomotor activity and coordination, working memory) and no significant change in lifespan. Progressive weight loss is a hallmark feature of Huntington's disease, yet we found that the ketogenic diet-which generally causes weight loss in normal animals-delayed the reduction in body weight of the transgenic mice. These results suggest that metabolic therapies could offer important benefits for Huntington's disease without negative behavioral or physiological consequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Adding Super Dose Phytase to the Phosphorus-deficient Diets of Young Pigs on Growth Performance, Bone Quality, Minerals and Amino Acids Digestibilities

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Z. K.; Wang, D.; Piao, X. S.; Li, P. F.; Zhang, H. Y.; Shi, C. X.; Yu, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of feeding an Escherichia coli (E. coli) derived phytase to pigs fed P deficient, corn-soybean meal diets. In Exp. 1, one hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (9.53±0.84 kg) were allocated to one of five treatments which consisted of four low P diets (0.61% Ca, 0.46% total P and 0.24% non-phytate P) supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 20,000 FTU/kg E. coli phytase as well as a positive control formulated to be adequate in all nutrients (0.77% Ca, 0.62% total P and 0.42% non-phytate P). The treatments were applied to six pens with four pigs per pen for 28 days. In Exp. 2, ten crossbred pigs (19.66±1.16 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were used in a nutrient balance study. The pigs were assigned to treatments similar to those used in Exp. 1 in a doubly replicated 5×4 incomplete Latin square design (5 diets with 4 periods). Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine and then a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. Supplementation with phytase linearly increased (p<0.05) weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, bone breaking strength and fat-free dry and ash bone weight. There were linear increases (p<0.01) in the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of DM, GE, CP, Ca, total P, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and some AA with increasing dose of E. coli phytase. Pigs fed 20,000 FTU/kg had a greater (p<0.05) AID of IP6 (80% vs 59% or 64%, respectively) than pigs fed diets with 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg phytase. There were linear increases (p<0.05) in the total tract digestibility of Ca, total P, Na, K, Mg, and Zn as well as in the retention of Mg and Zn with increased phytase dose. The retention and utilization of Cu, and the total tract digestibility of CP and Cu quadratic increased (p<0.05) with increased phytase dose. In conclusion, supplementation of 500 FTU of phytase/kg and above effectively hydrolyzed phytate in low-P corn-soybean diets for pigs. In addition, a

  18. Characterization of early changes in fetoplacental hemodynamics in a diet-induced rabbit model of IUGR.

    PubMed

    López-Tello, J; Barbero, A; González-Bulnes, A; Astiz, S; Rodríguez, M; Formoso-Rafferty, N; Arias-Álvarez, M; Rebollar, P G

    2015-10-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and late-onset diseases in offspring. Eating disorders, voluntary caloric restriction and maternal undernutrition can all induce IUGR but a relevant model is required to measure all its possible consequences. In this work, pregnant rabbits were used as an IUGR model. Control females (n=4) received ad libitum diet throughout pregnancy, whereas underfed females (n=5) were restricted to 50% of their daily requirements. Offspring size was measured by ultrasonography and in vivo at birth. Hemodynamic features of the umbilical cords and middle cerebral arteries (systolic peak velocity, end diastolic velocity, pulsatility index and resistance index) were characterized by Doppler ultrasonography. At day 21, maternal underfeeding resulted in a significant reduction of fetal size (occipito-nasal length). At birth, the size of kits from the underfed group was significantly lower (lower crown-rump length, biparietal and transversal thoracic diameters) and a reduced weight with respect to the control group. Feed restriction altered blood flow perfusion compared with does fed ad libitum (significant higher systolic peak, time-averaged mean velocities and lower end diastolic velocity). Fetuses affected by IUGR presented with compensative brain-sparing effects when compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study supports using rabbits and the underfeeding approach as a valuable model for IUGR studies. These results may help to characterize IUGR alterations due to nutrient restriction of mothers in future research.

  19. Added sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and beverages and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ying; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Jiao, Li; Silverman, Debra T; Subar, Amy F; Park, Yikyung; Leitzmann, Michael F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S

    2008-08-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are involved in the development of pancreatic cancer, results from epidemiologic studies of added sugar intake are inconclusive. Our objective was to investigate whether the consumption of total added sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In 1995 and 1996, we prospectively examined 487 922 men and women aged 50-71 y and free of cancer and diabetes. Total added dietary sugar intake (in tsp/d; based on the US Department of Agriculture's Pyramid Servings Database) was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated with adjustment for total energy and potential confounding factors. During an average 7.2 y of follow-up, 1258 incident pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained. The median intakes for the lowest and highest quintiles of total added sugar intake were 12.6 (3 tsp/d) and 96.2 (22.9 tsp/d) g/d, respectively. No overall greater risk of pancreatic cancer was observed in men or women with high intake of total added sugar or sugar-sweetened foods and beverages. For men and women combined, the multivariate RRs of the highest versus lowest intake categories were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.06; P for trend = 0.07) for total added sugar, 1.01 (0.82,1.23; P for trend = 0.58) for sweets, 0.98 (0.82,1.18; P for trend = 0.49) for dairy desserts, 1.12 (0.91,1.39; P for trend = 0.35) for sugar added to coffee and tea, and 1.01 (0.77,1.31; P for trend = 0.76) for regular soft drinks. Our results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of added sugar or of sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with overall risk of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Added sugar, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ying; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Jiao, Li; Silverman, Debra T.; Subar, Amy F.; Park, Yikyung; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been hypothesized to be involved in the development of pancreatic cancer, results from epidemiologic studies on added sugar intake are inconclusive. Objective Our objective was to investigate whether the consumption of total added sugar, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Design We prospectively examined 487922 men and women aged 50–71 years and free of cancer and diabetes in 1995–96. Total added dietary sugar intake in teaspoons per day (based on USDA’s Pyramid Servings Database) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with adjustment for total energy and potential confounding factors. Results During an average 7.2 years of follow-up, 1258 incident pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained. The median intakes for the lowest and highest quintiles of total added sugar intake were 12.6 g/day and 96.2 g/day. No overall increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed in men or women with high intake of total added sugar or sugar-sweetened foods and beverages. For men and women combined, the multivariate RRs of the highest versus lowest intake categories were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.06; P trend= 0.07) for total added sugar, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.82,1.23; P trend= 0.58) for sweets, 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82,1.18; P trend= 0.49) for dairy desserts, 1.12 (95% CI: 0.91,1.39; P trend= 0.35) for sugar added to coffee and tea, and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.77,1.31; P trend= 0.76) for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of added sugar, or sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with overall risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:18689380

  1. Diet and Gastrointestinal Bypass–Induced Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Chandarana, Keval; Gelegen, Cigdem; Karra, Efthimia; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Drew, Megan E.; Fauveau, Veronique; Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Withers, Dominic J.; Batterham, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bariatric surgery causes durable weight loss. Gut hormones are implicated in obesity pathogenesis, dietary failure, and mediating gastrointestinal bypass (GIBP) surgery weight loss. In mice, we determined the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO), subsequent dieting, and GIBP surgery on ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). To evaluate PYY’s role in mediating weight loss post-GIBP, we undertook GIBP surgery in PyyKO mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Male C57BL/6 mice randomized to a high-fat diet or control diet were killed at 4-week intervals. DIO mice underwent switch to ad libitum low-fat diet (DIO-switch) or caloric restriction (CR) for 4 weeks before being killed. PyyKO mice and their DIO wild-type (WT) littermates underwent GIBP or sham surgery and were culled 10 days postoperatively. Fasting acyl-ghrelin, total PYY, active GLP-1 concentrations, stomach ghrelin expression, and colonic Pyy and glucagon expression were determined. Fasting and postprandial PYY and GLP-1 concentrations were assessed 30 days postsurgery in GIBP and sham pair-fed (sham.PF) groups. RESULTS DIO progressively reduced circulating fasting acyl-ghrelin, PYY, and GLP-1 levels. CR and DIO-switch caused weight loss but failed to restore circulating PYY to weight-appropriate levels. After GIBP, WT mice lost weight and exhibited increased circulating fasting PYY and colonic Pyy and glucagon expression. In contrast, the acute effects of GIBP on body weight were lost in PyyKO mice. Fasting PYY and postprandial PYY and GLP-1 levels were increased in GIBP mice compared with sham.PF mice. CONCLUSIONS PYY plays a key role in mediating the early weight loss observed post-GIBP, whereas relative PYY deficiency during dieting may compromise weight-loss attempts. PMID:21292870

  2. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity. PMID:28223912

  3. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity.

  4. Ketogenic diets improve behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder in a sex-specific manner in the EL mouse.

    PubMed

    Ruskin, David N; Fortin, Jessica A; Bisnauth, Subrina N; Masino, Susan A

    2017-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are poorly treated with current medications. Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are frequently comorbid with a diagnosis of epilepsy and vice versa. Medically-supervised ketogenic diets are remarkably effective nonpharmacological treatments for epilepsy, even in drug-refractory cases. There is accumulating evidence that supports the efficacy of ketogenic diets in treating the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders in animal models as well as limited reports of benefits in patients. This study tests the behavioral effects of ketogenic diet feeding in the EL mouse, a model with behavioral characteristics of autism spectrum disorder and comorbid epilepsy. Male and female EL mice were fed control diet or one of two ketogenic diet formulas ad libitum starting at 5weeks of age. Beginning at 8weeks of age, diet protocols continued and performance of each group on tests of sociability and repetitive behavior was assessed. A ketogenic diet improved behavioral characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in a sex- and test-specific manner; ketogenic diet never worsened relevant behaviors. Ketogenic diet feeding improved multiple measures of sociability and reduced repetitive behavior in female mice, with limited effects in males. Additional experiments in female mice showed that a less strict, more clinically-relevant diet formula was equally effective in improving sociability and reducing repetitive behavior. Taken together these results add to the growing number of studies suggesting that ketogenic and related diets may provide significant relief from the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, and suggest that in some cases there may be increased efficacy in females.

  5. Effects of adding protein, condensed tannins, and polyethylene glycol to diets of sheep and goats fed one-seed juniper and low quality roughage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biochemical mechanisms that limit voluntary intake of one-seed juniper by browsing ruminants are not well understood. Twelve Rambouillet ewes (78 ± 2.3 kg BW) and 12 Boer-Spanish does (54 ± 1.4 kg BW) were used in a split-plot sequence design to investigate the effects of adding protein, quebrac...

  6. Polysaccharidase preparations added to a wheat-based diet: effects on performance and digestive parameters of broiler chickens held at three different locations.

    PubMed

    García, V; Catalá, P; Madrid, J; Orengo, J; Hernández, F

    2008-03-01

    1. Three experiments of 39 d were simultaneously conducted to assess the efficacy of three carbohydrase combinations on performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and digestive organ relative weights of chickens fed on a wheat-based diet. 2. Experiment 1 was performed under laboratory conditions, with the birds housed in cages. In experiment 2, the birds were placed in floor pens built in a commercial farm, and raised with their contemporaries at the farm. In experiment 3, broilers were reared under industrial management circumstances in commercial farms. A two-phase feeding programme was used: starter from 1 to 21 d of age and finisher from 22 to 39 d. The basal diet without supplementation (BD) and three enzyme preparations (BDF, BDP and BDR) were evaluated. 3. No differences in growth traits were observed among treatments in experiments 1 and 2. 4. When overall growing period was evaluated, all enzyme combinations improved apparent DM ileal digestibility of feed in the three experiments, but significant differences were only found in experiments 2 and 3. For this same period, an increase in apparent CP ileal digestibility of broiler chickens fed supplemented diets against the control group was found in experiment 3. Moreover, a significant greater apparent ileal fat digestibility in the enzyme treatments compared with the control group was shown when broilers were raised under industrial conditions (experiment 3). 5. Enzyme combinations had no effect on villus heights and crypt depths of broilers in experiment 1, whereas, in experiment 2, a greater villus height was found in BDF and BDP treatments than in control birds. 6. There were no differences in digestive organ relative weights among dietary treatments except for pancreas in experiment 1.

  7. Inclusion of bilberry pomace in rabbit diets: Effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Dabbou, Sihem; Gai, Francesco; Renna, Manuela; Rotolo, Luca; Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Kovitvadhi, Attawit; Brugiapaglia, Alberto; De Marco, Michele; Helal, Ahmed Noureddine; Zoccarato, Ivo; Gasco, Laura

    2017-02-01

    A trial was performed to evaluate bilberry pomace (BP) as alternative source of nutrients for rabbits. One hundred and forty-four Grimaud weaned rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 36 animals each and fed ad libitum with a basal diet (BP0) tested against three assay diets developed by substituting 50, 100 and 150g/kg of the BP0 diet with BP (BP5, BP10 and BP15 diets, respectively). Carcass characteristics of rabbits were not affected by treatment, with the exception of liver weight. Dietary inclusion of BP did not affect proximate composition and oxidative status of longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. Dietary BP significantly ameliorated, in the same muscle, the nutritional quality and health properties of fat. Consumer acceptance of cooked rabbit meat was not significantly affected by treatment. In conclusion, BP can be included in rabbit diets to improve the lipid composition of meat, without adverse effects on carcass characteristics, other physico-chemical properties, oxidative status and meat sensorial traits.

  8. Exercise and diet, independent of weight loss, improve cardiometabolic risk profile in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Gaesser, Glenn A; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Sawyer, Brandon J

    2011-05-01

    Diet and/or exercise are routinely advised as methods for weight loss in overweight/obese individuals, particularly those who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, physical activity and structured exercise programs rarely result in significant loss of body weight or body fat, and weight-loss diets have extraordinarily high recidivism rates. Despite only modest effects on body weight, exercise and ad libitum nutrient-dense diets for overweight/obese individuals have many health benefits, including skeletal muscle adaptations that improve fat and glucose metabolism, and insulin action; enhance endothelial function; have favorable changes in blood lipids, lipoproteins, and hemostatic factors; and reduce blood pressure, postprandial lipemia and glycemia, and proinflammatory markers. These lifestyle-induced adaptations occur independently of changes in body weight or body fat. Thus, overweight/obese men and women who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes as a result of sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, and excess body weight should be encouraged to engage in regular physical activity and improve their diet, regardless of whether the healthier lifestyle leads to weight loss.

  9. Low residue or normal diet in Crohn's disease: a prospective controlled study in Italian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Levenstein, S; Prantera, C; Luzi, C; D'Ubaldi, A

    1985-01-01

    Seventy patients with non-stenosing Crohn's disease were randomly assigned to follow a low residue diet or a normal Italian diet for a mean of 29 months. The two groups were comparable at the onset in various measures of disease severity and diet. Patients complied well with the diet prescriptions, the low residue group eating a mean of 8.1 portions a week of fibre containing foods and the liberalized group a mean of 26.6 portions (p less than 0.005). There was no difference in outcome between the two groups, including symptoms, need for hospitalisation, need for surgery, new complications, nutritional status, or postoperative recurrence. Eighty six per cent of patients eating ad libitum and 65% of patients who avoided roughage eliminated one or more permitted foods because of subjective intolerance. Lifting of dietary restrictions, which results in a more appetizing and nutritious diet, does not cause symptomatic deterioration or precipitate intestinal obstruction in Crohn's disease. PMID:2996991

  10. Persistence of diet-induced obesity despite access to voluntary activity in mice lacking sarcolipin.

    PubMed

    Gamu, Daniel; Trinh, Anton; Bombardier, Eric; Tupling, A Russell

    2015-09-01

    Several rodent models of obesity have been shown to develop excessive adiposity only when voluntary cage ambulation is restricted. We have previously shown that mice lacking the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase pump regulatory protein sarcolipin (Sln(-/-)), an uncoupler of Ca(2+) uptake, develop excessive diet-induced obesity under standard housing conditions. However, it is unclear whether this phenotype is due, in part, to the sedentary housing environment in which these animals are kept. To address this, we allowed wild-type and Sln(-/-) animals ad libitum access to voluntary wheel running while consuming a standard chow or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. During this period, wheel revolutions were monitored along with weekly mass gain. Postdiet glucose tolerance and visceral adiposity were also taken. The volume of wheel running completed was similar between genotype, regardless of diet. Although voluntary activity reduced mass gain relative to sedentary controls within each diet (P < 0.05), visceral adiposity was surprisingly unaltered with activity. However, Sln(-/-) mice developed excessive obesity (P < 0.05) and glucose intolerance (P < 0.05) with high-fat feeding relative to wild-type controls. These findings indicate that the excessive diet-induced obese phenotype previously observed in Sln(-/-) mice is not the result of severely restricted daily ambulation, but in fact the inability to recruit uncoupling of the Ca(2+)-ATPase pump.

  11. Urinary folate excretion in chronic ethanol- and diet-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.D.; McMartin, K.E.; Bairnsfather, L.

    1986-03-05

    Acute ethanol treatment of rats produces a marked increase in urinary folate excretion, which accumulates in correlation with the duration of ethanol treatment. In order to study the role of excess urinary folate excretion in the development of folate deficiency by chronic ethanol feeding, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for four months on one of the following liquid diets: ethanol, pair-fed control, ethanol minus folic acid, and pair-fed control minus folic acid. A fifth group was provided a control chow diet ad libitum. Blood ethanol levels were generally maintained between 80-150 mg/dl at various times of the day. Decrease in plasma and tissue folate levels occurred within four weeks in all liquid diet groups compared to chow rats and within two weeks for urinary folate levels. Greater effects were generally observed in both folate-deficient groups than in the control or ethanol group. Acute ethanol treatment of rats from the various diet groups produced increases in urinary folate excretion in all groups except the ethanol minus folic acid diet group. When the folate system of rats are compromised by dietary deprivation and/or chronic ethanol treatment, these results suggest that urinary folate excretion is greatly reduced as a conservation measure.

  12. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input–output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy. PMID:26009636

  13. Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Kratz, Mario; Weigle, David S.; Callahan, Holly S.; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Horgan, Angela M.; de Boer, Ian H.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: High-protein diets, which are popular for weight loss, contain large quantities of phosphorus. Phosphorus excess and consequent changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones are implicated in vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a moderate increase in dietary phosphorus during a high-protein diet leads to changes in phosphorus-responsive hormones. Design, Participants, and Setting: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a sequential dietary modification trial in 19 healthy volunteers in the general community. Intervention: Participants received 2 weeks of a weight-maintaining, low-protein (15%) diet, followed by 2 weeks of an isocaloric, high-protein (30%) diet, followed by 12 weeks of an ad libitum high-protein (30%) diet. Main Outcome Measures: Using previously collected samples, plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured at 8 time points to assess 24-hour variability and in 24-hour pooled samples to delineate changes at the end of each diet period. Results: Mean dietary phosphorus intake during each study period was 1556, 2071, and 1622 mg/d, respectively. Plasma concentrations of FGF-23 and vitamin D metabolites varied in a diurnal pattern; plasma PTH concentrations varied in a bimodal pattern. After changing from a low- to high-protein isocaloric diet, plasma FGF-23 concentrations decreased slightly (mean −4.48 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval 1.88–7.07). There were no other statistically significant changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones in response to diet modifications. Conclusions: Among healthy people, an approximate 33% increase in dietary phosphorus after institution of a high-protein diet does not cause large changes in measured concentrations of phosphorus regulatory hormones. PMID:23393178

  14. Effects of a high-protein diet on regulation of phosphorus homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kremsdorf, Robin A; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Kratz, Mario; Weigle, David S; Callahan, Holly S; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Horgan, Angela M; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan R

    2013-03-01

    High-protein diets, which are popular for weight loss, contain large quantities of phosphorus. Phosphorus excess and consequent changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones are implicated in vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that a moderate increase in dietary phosphorus during a high-protein diet leads to changes in phosphorus-responsive hormones. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a sequential dietary modification trial in 19 healthy volunteers in the general community. Participants received 2 weeks of a weight-maintaining, low-protein (15%) diet, followed by 2 weeks of an isocaloric, high-protein (30%) diet, followed by 12 weeks of an ad libitum high-protein (30%) diet. Using previously collected samples, plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured at 8 time points to assess 24-hour variability and in 24-hour pooled samples to delineate changes at the end of each diet period. Mean dietary phosphorus intake during each study period was 1556, 2071, and 1622 mg/d, respectively. Plasma concentrations of FGF-23 and vitamin D metabolites varied in a diurnal pattern; plasma PTH concentrations varied in a bimodal pattern. After changing from a low- to high-protein isocaloric diet, plasma FGF-23 concentrations decreased slightly (mean -4.48 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval 1.88-7.07). There were no other statistically significant changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones in response to diet modifications. Among healthy people, an approximate 33% increase in dietary phosphorus after institution of a high-protein diet does not cause large changes in measured concentrations of phosphorus regulatory hormones.

  15. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet in the 6-Hz seizure test

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Adam L.; Lyle, Megan; Rogawski, Michael A.; Gasior, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose Since the ketogenic diet is effective in drug-resistant epilepsies, we sought to determine whether it is active in the 6-Hz seizure test, which identifies agents with a broader spectrum of activity than conventional antiepileptic screening tests. Methods Male (3–4 week old) NIH Swiss mice were fed a normal or ketogenic diet ad libitum for 2–21 days. The intensity of the corneal stimulation current required to elicit seizures in the 6-Hz test was measured. Blood glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured on the day of seizure testing. Results CC50 (current intensity producing seizures in 50% of mice tested) was 50.6 mA and 15 mA in mice fed for 12 days with a ketogenic or normal diet, respectively (p < 0.001). CC50 was elevated in separate experiments after 16, but not 2, 5, and 21 days of ketogenic diet exposure. CC50 values of growing mice fed the normal diet does not differ, indicating CC50 does not vary with mouse weight during a rapid growth phase. β-Hydroxybutyrate was significantly higher, and glucose was significantly lower in mice fed the ketogenic diet than those fed the normal diet. Blood glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate levels did not correlate with CC50. Discussion The ketogenic diet significantly elevates the seizure threshold in the 6-Hz test in a time-specific manner. Protection from seizures in this model was not related to level of ketosis. CC50 was insensitive to body weight in mice fed the normal diet, demonstrating that the 6-Hz model can assess anticonvulsant regimens where weight is a confounding factor. PMID:18070095

  16. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-05-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input-output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Western-diet consumption induces alteration of barrier function mechanisms in the ileum that correlates with metabolic endotoxemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Guerville, Mathilde; Leroy, Anaïs; Sinquin, Annaëlle; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Boudry, Gaëlle

    2017-08-01

    Obesity and its related disorders have been associated with the presence in the blood of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, the factors underlying this low-grade elevation in plasma LPS, so-called metabolic endotoxemia, are not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the effects of Western diet (WD) feeding on intestinal and hepatic LPS handling mechanisms in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Rats were fed either a standard chow diet (C) or a Western Diet (WD, 45% fat) for 6 wk. They were either fed ad libitum or pair-fed to match the caloric intake of C rats for the first week, then fed ad libitum for the remaining 5 wk. Six-week WD feeding led to a mild obese phenotype with increased adiposity and elevated serum LPS-binding protein (LBP) levels relative to C rats, irrespective of initial energy intake. Serum LPS was not different between dietary groups but exhibited strong variability. Disrupted ileal mucus secretion and decreased ileal Reg3-γ and -β gene expression along with high ileal permeability to LPS were observed in WD compared with C-fed rats. Ileal and cecal intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity as well as Verrucomicrobia and Bifidobacterium cecal levels were increased in WD-fed rats compared with C-fed rats. WD consumption did not impact mRNA levels of LPS-handling hepatic enzymes. Correlation analysis revealed that ileal passage of LPS, IAP activity, Proteobacteria levels and hepatic aoah gene expression correlated with serum LPS and LBP, suggesting that ileal mucosal defense impairment induced by WD feeding contribute to metabolic endotoxemia. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Raben, Anne; Møller, Bente K.; Flint, Anne; Vasilaras, Tatjana H.; Christina Møller, A.; Juul Holst, Jens; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks. Design Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (∼2 g/kg body weight) (n = 12) or artificial sweeteners (n = 11) as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (∼80 weight%) and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits). The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0) and after the intervention (week 10) fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch). Results After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10), postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet. Conclusion A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects. PMID:21799667

  19. The effect of weaner diet protein content and diet quality on the long-term performance of pigs to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Wellock, I J; Houdijk, J G M; Miller, A C; Gill, B P; Kyriazakis, I

    2009-04-01

    Short and long-term effects of manipulating dietary CP content and diet quality in weaner diets on health and performance of pigs were investigated in a 2 x 2 factorial combination of CP inclusion (high-CP, 230 g of CP/kg vs. low-CP, 170 g of CP/kg) and diet quality (high-quality, cooked cereals, and animal protein vs. low-quality, raw cereals, and plant protein). Diets were fed ad libitum for 14 d postweaning to pigs weaned at 29.4+/-3.1 d of age and 9.9+/-1.0 kg of BW. From d 14 to slaughter at 104+/-3 kg, all pigs were fed the same series of standard commercial diets. There were 15 replicates per treatment in the weaner phase (<30 kg) and 5 replicates per treatment in the grower-finisher phase (>30 kg). High-quality diets promoted gut health as indicated by improved fecal lactobacilli to coliform ratio (P=0.002) and decreased fecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli counts on d 11 postweaning (P=0.028), reducing the risk of postweaning diarrhea and improving pig health from weaning to the end of the weaner phase. Reducing CP content had no effect on gut health. High-CP (P=0.053) and high-quality (P=0.025) diets independently increased ADG during the first 14 d postweaning compared with low-CP and low-quality diets, respectively. There were no interactions between dietary CP content and quality on any of the response criteria investigated. Despite differences in the immediate postweaning period, there was no effect of manipulating diet quality or CP content for 2 wk postweaning on lifetime performance with pigs reaching slaughter weight in 128+/-7 d. These results indicate that high-quality diets may protect pig gut health during the immediate postweaning period. However, it may be possible to use less expensive, decreased quality weaner diets without any adverse effects on long-term performance when weaning older, heavier pigs and where health status, environmental control, and stock management are all maintained to a high standard.

  20. An oxidized/reduced state of plasma albumin reflects malnutrition due to an insufficient diet in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Hasegawa, Mari; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Yasuaki; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether protein- and food-intake restrictions modulate the oxidized/reduced state of plasma albumin in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were fed a 3%, 5%, 10% or 20% casein diet for 2 weeks. The plasma albumin concentration significantly decreased with decreasing protein intake. However, no significant difference in plasma albumin concentration was seen between rats fed the 5% or 10% casein diet. In rats fed the 5% casein diet, the percentage of mercaptalbumin within total plasma albumin was significantly lower and that of nonmercaptalbumin-1 was significantly higher than in rats fed the 10% casein diet. In experiments with food-intake restriction for 2 weeks, rats were fed 50% or 75% of the amount of a 20% casein diet consumed by control rats. The percentage of mercaptalbumin was significantly lower and that of nonmercaptalbumin-2 was significantly higher in rats with food-intake restriction than in control rats. When rats with malnutrition were refed with the 20% casein diet ad libitum, the percentage of mercaptalbumin rapidly increased. The change in the percentage of mercaptalbumin was correlated with the plasma transthyretin concentration. These results indicate that the oxidized/reduced state of plasma albumin may be applied as a sensitive marker of nutritional status reflecting dietary pattern. PMID:28163385

  1. Supplementing high-quality fresh forage to growing lambs fed a total mixed ration diet led to higher intake without altering nutrient utilization.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruchel, A; Repetto, J L; Cajarville, C

    2017-05-08

    The effect of supplementing high-quality fresh forage, mainly based on alfalfa, to growing lambs fed with decreasing levels of total mixed ration (TMR) was studied on intake, digestion and ruminal environment. In total, 24 catheterized lambs (25.2±3.67 kg) housed in individual metabolism cages were assigned to one of four treatment diets: 'TMR100': TMR offered ad libitum; 'TMR75' and 'TMR50': TMR at a level of 0.75 and 0.50 of potential intake, respectively, complemented with fresh forage without restriction; 'TMR0': only fresh forage ad libitum. The feeding behavior, nutrient intake and digestibility, kinetics of passage and rumen environment were evaluated. As the level of TMR in the diet decreased, lambs increased the forage intake and spent more time eating and ruminating, less time resting and demonstrated a higher rate of intake. Those changes resulted in a higher nutrient intake of dry matter, organic matter, nitrogen, NDF and ADF, but a slightly lower organic matter digestibility, while no differences were detected in the output rate of particles. As a consequence, with the decrease of TMR and increase of forage intake, the ingested energy increased. Higher ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were observed for lower levels of TMR in the diet. The total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate concentrations presented a quadratic response. Total volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate concentration was lower in lambs consuming mixed diets (TMR50 and TMR75). We concluded that the inclusion of high-quality fresh forage in a combined diet with TMR in lambs had positive effects on nutrient intake without negative consequences on digestion and rumen environment.

  2. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  4. Isotopic evidence for divergent diets and mobility patterns in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile, during the Late Intermediate Period (AD 900-1450).

    PubMed

    Santana-Sagredo, Francisca; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Schulting, Rick; Uribe, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    The decline of the Tiwanaku state saw the emergence of two new cultures-Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama-during the Late Intermediate Period in northern Chile. Archeological evidence suggests that both groups practised maize agriculture and pastoralism, but that their interaction zones differed significantly. Marine resources are common at Pica-Tarapacá sites, even those far from coast, while Atacama sites in the desert oases and precordilleran area seem to have directed their networks towards the highlands. Here we apply stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope analysis on human bone and enamel to test dietary patterns and residential mobility at two sites, Pica 8 and Quitor 6, representing the Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama cultures, respectively. Our results show that diet at the two sites indeed differed: significant but variable consumption of marine resources and maize is indicated at Pica 8, despite being an inland site, while diet at Quitor 6 was based mainly on terrestrial resources. The use of seabird guano and llama dung as fertilizers and extreme aridity may have contributed to the high nitrogen isotope values observed in Pica 8 humans. The δ(18) O values in Pica 8 individuals are generally lower than for Quitor in spite of its greater distance from the Andes. All three isotopes suggest the presence of at least five nonlocals in the 30 measured at Pica 8. This evidence for human mobility is consistent with the high levels of trade and interaction observed in the archeological record, and begins to quantify the degree of movement of specific individuals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Decreases in High-Fat and/or High-Added-Sugar Food Group Intake Occur when a Hypocaloric, Low-Fat Diet Is Prescribed Within a Lifestyle Intervention: A Secondary Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie A

    2016-10-01

    When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. To examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Secondary cohort analysis. One hundred sixty-nine participants (aged 52.0±8.6 years, body mass index 34.9±4.5, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% women) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. From three 24-hour telephone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from Nutrition Data System for Research software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher-fat and/or added-sugar food groups vs naturally lower-fat and/or added-sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of nonmodified vs fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Significant reductions (P<0.05) in intake of high-fat and/or high-added-sugar food groups (Higher-Fat Dairy; Higher-Fat Eggs; Higher-Fat Fats; Higher-Fat Fruit; Higher-Fat Meat; Nonmodified Higher-Fat Fats, Oils, and Sweets; Nonmodified Higher-Fat Sugar-Sweetened Fats, Oils, and Sweets; Nonmodified Regular-Fat Dairy; and Nonmodified Regular-Fat Sugar-Sweetened Dairy) occurred. Decreases in the Higher-Fat Meat group were significantly (P<0.05) related to decreases in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight. When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added-sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  6. The effect of diet and exercise on incidence of 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in virgin BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.T.; Lane, H.W.; Teer, P.; Keith, R.E.; Strahan, S. NASA, Houston, TX )

    1991-03-15

    The effects of rotating-drum treadmill exercise and diet on 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors were investigated in virgin female BALB/c mice. The animals were fed one of three diets: AIN 76 (SD), high-fat diet (HFD), or a restricted calorie diet (RCD). All diets were begun at 6 weeks of age and fed ad libitum except for the restricted diet which was fed at 70% of the SD. At 8 weeks of age all animals received the first of 6 consecutive DMBA doses via gastric tube. Each diet had an exercise and no exercise subgroup. Exercise began at 10 wks of age (6 m/min for 60 min, 5 d/wk) and continued throughout the 9.5 mo. study. Exercise reduced feed consumption in SD and HFD groups. Body weight was similar in all groups with HFDEx having the lowest body wt. Calorie restriction had no effect on body wt. but reduced mammary tumor incidence in the SD groups; however, exercise did affect mammary tumor incidence in the other groups as follows: RCD = 28%, RCDEx = 13%; HFD = 31%, HFDEx = 19%. Caloric consumption appeared to be related to mammary tumor incidence rather than body wt. or dietary fat.

  7. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Cláudio A.; Lira, Fábio S.; Rosa Neto, José C.; Pimentel, Gustavo D.; Souza, Gabriel I. H.; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Souza, Cláudio T.; Ribeiro, Eliane B.; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Oyama, Lila M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water); CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract); HW (high-fat diet and water); HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract). The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage) with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.). The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice. PMID:23431242

  8. Green tea extract supplementation induces the lipolytic pathway, attenuates obesity, and reduces low-grade inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cláudio A; Lira, Fábio S; Rosa Neto, José C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Gabriel I H; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Souza, Cláudio T; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Oyama, Lila M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water); CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract); HW (high-fat diet and water); HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract). The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage) with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.). The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  9. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-08-06

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility.

  10. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  11. High sugar and butter (HSB) diet induces obesity and metabolic syndrome with decrease in regulatory T cells in adipose tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; Gonçalves, Juliana Lauar; Miranda, Mariana Camila Gonçalves; Martins, Vinícius Dantas; Horta, Laila Sampaio; Moreira, Thais Garcias; Godard, Ana Lucia Brunialti; Santiago, Andrezza Fernanda; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a novel diet based on standard AIN93G diet that would be able to induce experimental obesity and impair immune regulation with high concentrations of both carbohydrate and lipids. To compare the effects of this high sugar and butter (HSB) diet with other modified diets, male C57BL/6 mice were fed either mouse chow, or AIN93G diet, or high sugar (HS) diet, or high-fat (HF) diet, or high sugar and butter (HSB) diet for 11 weeks ad libitum. HSB diet induced higher weight gain. Therefore, control AIN93G and HSB groups were chosen for additional analysis. Regulatory T cells were studied by flow cytometry, and cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Although HF and HSB diets were able to induce a higher weight gain compatible with obesity in treated mice, HSB-fed mice presented the higher levels of serum glucose after fasting and the lowest frequency of regulatory T cells in adipose tissue. In addition, mice that were fed HSB diet presented higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, hyperleptinemia, increased resistin and leptin levels as well as reduced adiponectin serum levels. Importantly, we found increased frequency of CD4(+)CD44(+) effector T cells, reduction of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) and Th3 regulatory T cells as well as decreased levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in adipose tissue of HSB-fed mice. Therefore, HSB represents a novel model of obesity-inducing diet that was efficient in triggering alterations compatible with metabolic syndrome as well as impairment in immune regulatory parameters.

  12. Food quality and motivation: a refined low-fat diet induces obesity and impairs performance on a progressive ratio schedule of instrumental lever pressing in rats.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Aaron P; Lau, Yan Lam Matthew; Telminova, Ekatherina; Lim, Hwee Cheei; Fan, Boyang; Fast, Cynthia D; Garlick, Dennis; Pendergrass, David C

    2014-04-10

    Purified high-fat diet (HFD) feeding causes deleterious metabolic and cognitive effects when compared with unrefined low-fat diets in rodent models. These effects are often attributed to the diet's high content of fat, while less attention has been paid to other mechanisms associated with the diet's highly refined state. Although the effects of HFD feeding on cognition have been explored, little is known about the impact of refined vs. unrefined food on cognition. We tested the hypothesis that a refined low-fat diet (LFD) increases body weight and adversely affects cognition relative to an unrefined diet. Rats were allowed ad libitum access to unrefined rodent chow (CON, Lab Diets 5001) or a purified low-fat diet (REF, Research Diets D12450B) for 6 months, and body weight and performance on an instrumental lever pressing task were recorded. After six months on their respective diets, group REF gained significantly more weight than group CON. REF rats made significantly fewer lever presses and exhibited dramatically lower breaking points than CON rats for sucrose and water reinforcement, indicating a chronic reduction of motivation for instrumental performance. Switching the rats' diet for 9 days had no effect on these measures. Diet-induced obesity produces a substantial deficit in motivated behavior in rats, independent of dietary fat content. This holds implications for an association between obesity and motivation. Specifically, behavioral traits comorbid with obesity, such as depression and fatigue, may be effects of obesity rather than contributing causes. To the degree that refined foods contribute to obesity, as demonstrated in our study, they may play a significant contributing role to other behavioral and cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intestinal villus recovery in chickens refed semi-purified protein-, fat-, or fibre-free pellet diets.

    PubMed

    Maneewan, B; Yamauchi, K

    2004-04-01

    1. To determine which macronutrient, protein, fat, or fibre is most effective at inducing structural recovery of intestinal villi after feed withdrawal, male layer chickens were allotted to the following groups: intact control (IC), 3-d feed withdrawal (F), ad libitum refeeding of a formula mash diet (AFM), or force-feeding of a formula (FFP) or semi-purified well-balanced (FSP), protein-free (FSPP), fat-free (FSPF), or fibre-free (FSPFi) pellet diets for one day after 3-d feed withdrawal. 2. After refeeding, the formula diet groups increased in villus height and apparent area. However, not all of the semi-purified groups recovered to the levels of the formula diet groups in all light microscopic variables, except in terms of a further decrease in cell mitosis in the FSPP group compared to the F group. Of the semi-purified groups, the FSPFi group tended to be the highest for all variables. This result suggests that the semi-purified diets did not induce villus recovery faster than the formula diet, especially in the case of the protein-free pellet diet. 3. After refeeding, a smooth surface of villus tip in the F group changed to a rough surface, with cell protuberances in the AFM group. This morphological recovery was clearer in the FFP group. Compared with the FFP group, the semi-purified groups had cell protuberances which extended further into the intestinal lumen, and more cell clusters. Among the semi-purified groups, epithelial cells were smaller in the FSPP and larger in the FSPFi than in the other groups. This result suggests that the semi-purified diet can induce a quicker cell recovery than the formula diet but that the protein-free diet is the slowest. 4. The present study demonstrates that protein is the most important nutrient for the recovery of intestinal villi after feed withdrawal.

  14. Fatty acid and energy metabolism in broiler chickens fed diets containing either beef tallow or an oil blend.

    PubMed

    Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis.

  15. Strawberries Added to the Usual Diet Suppress Fasting Plasma Paraoxonase Activity and Have a Weak Transient Decreasing Effect on Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Nonobese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Zasowska-Nowak, Anna; Nowak, Piotr J; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P; Nowak, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Strawberries can improve oxidants-antioxidants balance and reduce some cardiovascular risk factors in obese subjects. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme with antioxidant properties that can protect from coronary artery disease in humans. We examined the effect of strawberry consumption on plasma PON-1 activity and lipid profile in healthy nonobese subjects. Thirty-one subjects (body mass index [BMI] 24.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2)) on their usual diet consumed 500 g of strawberry pulp daily for 30 days (first course) and after a 10-day washout the cycle was repeated (second course). Fasting blood and spot morning urine samples were collected before, during, and after each strawberry course (8 time points) for determination of paraoxonase and arylesterase PON-1 activities and lipid profile. Twenty subjects served as controls with respect to cholesterol and PON-1 activities changes over the study period. Strawberries decreased mean plasma paraoxonase PON-1 activity and this effect was more evident after the second course (by 11.6%, p < 0.05) than after the first course (5.4%, p = 0.06), whereas arylesterase activity was constant. Strawberries altered total cholesterol levels (p < 0.05) with a tendency to transiently decrease it (by 5.1%) only after 15 days of the first course. Triglycerides and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not change in response to fruit consumption. No changes in PON-1 activities and lipid profile were noted in controls. Paraoxonase correlated with arylesterase activity (ƿ from 0.33 to 0.46 at the first 7 time points, p < 0.05). This association disappeared at the end of study (ƿ = 0.07) when the strongest inhibition of paraoxonase was noted. Supplementation of the usual diet with strawberries decreased paraoxonase PON-1 activity and did not improve lipid profiles in healthy nonobese subjects. Further studies are necessary to establish the clinical significance of paraoxonase suppression and to

  16. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β were determined by a Luminex™ assay system. Results Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1α and IL-13. Conclusions The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:20587038

  17. High-fat diet preference and overeating mediated by postingestive factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Lucas, F; Ackroff, K; Sclafani, A

    1998-11-01

    The role of postingestive factors in the preference for and overconsumption of high-fat (HF) foods, relative to high-carbohydrate (HC) foods, was investigated using a self-regulated intragastric feeding procedure. On one-bottle training days, rats drank one flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS) + HF] paired with intragastric infusions of an HF liquid diet, a second flavored solution (CS+HC) paired with an HC liquid diet, and a third flavored solution (CS-) paired with intragastric water. The diets had the same energy and protein content; the CS solutions and infusions along with chow were available ad libitum. The rats drank more CS and self-infused more diet on HF than HC training days. In two-bottle choice tests, the rats preferred the CS+HF to the CS+HC and both CS+HF and CS+HC to the CS-. The rats consumed more CS+HF than CS+HC by taking more bouts per day; bout sizes did not reliably differ. In a subsequent experiment, rats preferred the CS+HF even though diet intakes in training were matched. In a final experiment, the CS+HC and CS+HF intakes were equated in training by diluting the HC diet. Now the rats did not reliably prefer the CS+HF to the CS+HC, yet caloric intakes were much higher on CS+HF than CS+HC training days. Thus, relative to an isocaloric HC diet, the postingestive effects of HF diets stimulate overeating and condition a stronger flavor preference. Reduced satiety rather than increased reinforcement may be the direct promoter of overeating. However, postingestive reinforcement may enhance the selection of HF foods when a choice of HF and HC foods is available.

  18. Effects of linseed and quercetin added to the diet of fattening lambs on the fatty acid profile and lipid antioxidant status of meat samples.

    PubMed

    Andrés, S; Morán, L; Aldai, N; Tejido, M L; Prieto, N; Bodas, R; Giráldez, F J

    2014-06-01

    Thirty-two Merino lambs fed barley straw and a concentrate formulated either with palm oil (CTRL group) or with linseed (+LS group), both alone or supplemented with quercetin (+QCT group or +LS+QCT group) were used to assess the effects of these dietary supplements on meat quality attributes. After being slaughtered, the longissimus thoracis muscles were used to study the fatty acid (FA) profile in detail, whilst longissimus lumborum slices were stored under refrigerated conditions to determine the lipid stability. Linseed increased the content of highly unsaturated n-3 long-chain fatty acid (20:5n-3; 22:5n-3; 22:6n-3). Interestingly, a significant increment of rumenic acid content (9c,11t-18:2) was observed when this seed was administered together with dietary quercetin. Moreover, the feeding of quercetin resulted in a reduction in the proportion of saturated FA and a decrease in lipid peroxidation of meat when the lambs were fed linseed. In conclusion, from both a nutritional and a commercial (shelf-life) point of view, it may be useful to include a source of quercetin when lambs are fed linseed diets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Almond hulls in diets for lactating goats: effects on yield and composition of milk, feed intake, and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Reed, B A; Brown, D L

    1988-02-01

    Four cubed rations of similar chemical composition were fed ad libitum to 16 lactating yearling Alpine goats. The rations contained 0, 15, 25, and 35% almond hulls; 0, .5, 1, and 1% urea; and 58.4, 42.5, 32.0, and 22.0% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Chromic oxide was added as a digestibility marker. Average nutrient composition of diets was 91% DM, 20% CP, 32% NDF, 9% ash, and 4.39 Mcal gross energy/kg. Goats were randomly assigned to one of four diet orders in four replications of a 4 X 4 Latin square, blocked by goat and period. Data were collected in the 3rd wk of each period. Diets containing 25 and 35% almond hulls increased DM intake and reduced milk protein percent and digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ash, and NDF. Dry matter intake and weight gain were highest for the diet containing 35% almond hulls and 1% urea. Results indicate that almond hulls and urea can be fed to lactating goats up to these amounts without adversely affecting lactation.

  20. Effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts on metabolic syndrome status: one-year results of the PREDIMED randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel; Fitó, Montserrat; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fiol, Miquel; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Arós, Fernando; Flores, Gemma; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Bulló, Mònica; Basora, Josep; Covas, María-Isabel

    2008-12-08

    Epidemiological studies suggest that the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) may reduce the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We compared the 1-year effect of 2 behavioral interventions to implement the MedDiet vs advice on a low-fat diet on MetS status. A total of 1224 participants were recruited from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) Study, a multicenter, 3-arm, randomized clinical trial to determine the efficacy of the MedDiet on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Participants were older subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Interventions were quarterly education about the MedDiet plus provision of either 1 L/wk of virgin olive oil (MedDiet + VOO) or 30 g/d of mixed nuts (MedDiet + nuts), and advice on a low-fat diet (control diet). All diets were ad libitum, and there was no increase in physical activity for any of the interventions. Lifestyle variables and MetS features as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were assessed. At baseline, 61.4% of participants met criteria for the MetS. One-year prevalence was reduced by 6.7%, 13.7%, and 2.0% in the MedDiet + VOO, MedDiet + nuts, and control diet groups, respectively (MedDiet + nuts vs control groups, P = .01; MedDiet + VOO vs control group, P = .18). Incident rates of the MetS were not significantly different among groups (22.9%, 17.9%, and 23.4%, respectively). After adjustment for sex, age, baseline obesity status, and weight changes, the odds ratios for reversion of MetS were 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.1) for the MedDiet + VOO group and 1.7 (1.1-2.6) for the MedDiet + nuts group compared with the control diet group. A traditional MedDiet enriched with nuts could be a useful tool in the management of the MetS.

  1. A ketogenic diet delays weight loss and does not impair working memory or motor function in the R6/2 1J mouse model of Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruskin, David N.; Ross, Jessica L.; Kawamura, Masahito; Ruiz, Tiffany L.; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Masino, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are high in fat and low in carbohydrates, and have long been used as an anticonvulsant therapy for drug-intractable and pediatric epilepsy. Additionally, ketogenic diets have been shown to provide neuroprotective effects against acute and chronic brain injury, including beneficial effects in various rodent models of neurodegeneration. Huntington’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurological, behavioral and metabolic dysfunction, and ketogenic diets have been shown to increase energy molecules and mitochondrial function. We tested the effects of a ketogenic diet in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington’s disease (R6/2 1J), with a focus on life-long behavioral and physiological effects. Matched male and female wild-type and transgenic mice were maintained on a control diet or were switched to a ketogenic diet fed ad libitum starting at six weeks of age. We found no negative effects of the ketogenic diet on any behavioral parameter tested (locomotor activity and coordination, working memory) and no significant change in lifespan. Progressive weight loss is a hallmark feature of Huntington’s disease, yet we found that the ketogenic diet - which generally causes weight loss in normal animals - delayed the reduction in body weight of the transgenic mice. These results suggest that metabolic therapies could offer important benefits for Huntington’s disease without negative behavioral or physiological consequences. PMID:21501628

  2. Safety of Adding Oats to a Gluten-Free Diet for Patients With Celiac Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical and Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sánchez, María Inés; Causada-Calo, Natalia; Bercik, Premysl; Ford, Alexander C; Murray, Joseph A; Armstrong, David; Semrad, Carol; Kupfer, Sonia S; Alaedini, Armin; Moayyedi, Paul; Leffler, Daniel A; Verdú, Elena F; Green, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Patients with celiac disease should maintain a gluten-free diet (GFD), excluding wheat, rye, and barley. Oats might increase the nutritional value of a GFD, but their inclusion is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety of oats as part of a GFD in patients with celiac disease. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for clinical trials and observational studies of the effects of including oats in GFD of patients with celiac disease. The studies reported patients' symptoms, results from serology tests, and findings from histologic analyses. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We identified 433 studies; 28 were eligible for analysis. Of these, 6 were randomized and 2 were not randomized controlled trials comprising a total of 661 patients-the remaining studies were observational. All randomized controlled trials used pure/uncontaminated oats. Oat consumption for 12 months did not affect symptoms (standardized mean difference: reduction in symptom scores in patients who did and did not consume oats, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.56 to 0.13; P = .22), histologic scores (relative risk for histologic findings in patients who consumed oats, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.01-4.8; P = .35), intraepithelial lymphocyte counts (standardized mean difference, 0.21; 95% CI, reduction of 1.44 to increase in 1.86), or results from serologic tests. Subgroup analyses of adults vs children did not reveal differences. The overall quality of evidence was low. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found no evidence that addition of oats to a GFD affects symptoms, histology, immunity, or serologic features of patients with celiac disease. However, there were few studies for many endpoints, as well as limited geographic distribution and low quality of evidence. Rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials, using commonly available oats sourced from

  3. Lipid Emulsion Added to a Liquid High-Carbohydrate Diet and Voluntary Running Exercise Reduce Lipogenesis and Ameliorate Early-Stage Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Hsun; Hao, Lei; Smith, Philip B; Rogers, Connie J; Patterson, Andrew D; Ross, A Catharine

    2017-05-01

    Background: The use of parenteral nutrition formulas is often associated with the development of hepatic steatosis. We have shown previously that the addition of a lipid emulsion (LE) rich in n-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) ameliorated triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the livers of nonobese mice fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 5 wk. However, it remains unclear how rapidly this condition develops and whether it can be prevented by LE with or without a running wheel for voluntary exercise (Exe).Objective: We investigated in an 8-d study whether mice develop steatosis and whether the administration of LE with or without Exe reduces the concentration of total FAs and prevents an increase in the expression of genes in the liver associated with lipogenesis.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice aged 5 wk were randomized into 5 groups: standard feed pellet (SFP); a liquid HCD (77% of total energy from carbohydrates and 0.5% from fat); HCD + Exe; HCD + 13.5% LE (67% carbohydrates and 13.5% fat); or HCD + 13.5% LE + Exe. Hepatic TG concentration, lipogenic genes, and total FAs were measured on day 8.Results: Oil Red O staining and TG quantification showed hepatic TG accumulation on day 8; the addition of 13.5% LE either with or without Exe suppressed the TG accumulation compared with HCD (P < 0.005). With the use of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the expression concentrations of lipogenic genes [ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1, FA synthase (Fasn), and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1)] in the HCD + 13.5% LE group were 26-60% of HCD (P < 0.01) and 11-38% of HCD in the HCD + 13.5% LE + Exe group (P < 0.001), with interactions for Fasn and Scd1 (P < 0.05). With the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the HCD + 13.5% LE group had lower monounsaturated fatty acids (38.7% of HCD) but higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (164% of HCD) (P < 0.001).Conclusions: In short-term studies designed to resemble the

  4. Moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats programs their offspring for a better response to HF diet feeding in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Palou, Mariona; Torrens, Juana María; Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to assess the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats on the expression of key genes involved in energy balance of their adult offspring (CR) and their adaptations under high-fat (HF) diet. Dams were fed with either ad libitum normal-fat (NF) diet or a 30% caloric restricted diet throughout lactation. After weaning, the offspring were fed with NF diet until the age of 15 weeks and then with an NF or a HF diet until the age of 28 weeks, when they were sacrificed. Body weight and food intake were followed. Blood parameters and the expression of selected genes in hypothalamus and white adipose tissue (WAT) were analysed. CR ate fewer calories and showed lower body weight gain under HF diet than their controls. CR males were also resistant to the increase of insulin and leptin occurring in their controls under HF diet, and HF diet exposed CR females showed lower circulating fasting triglyceride levels than controls. In the hypothalamus, CR males had higher ObRb mRNA levels than controls, and CR females displayed greater InsR mRNA levels than controls and decreased neuropeptide Y mRNA levels when exposed to HF diet. CR males maintained WAT capacity of fat uptake and storage and of fatty-acid oxidation under HF diet, whereas these capacities were impaired in controls; female CR showed higher WAT ObRb mRNA levels than controls. These results suggest that 30% caloric restriction in lactating dams ameliorates diet-induced obesity in their offspring by enhancing their sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling, but in a gender-dependent manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish.

  6. Effects of weight loss via high fat vs. low fat alternate day fasting diets on free fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Dam, Vi T; Klempel, Monica C; Horne, Matthew; Cruz, Rani; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Santosa, Sylvia

    2015-01-05

    Cardiovascular disease risk is associated with excess body weight and elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. This study examines how an alternate-day fasting (ADF) diet high (HF) or low (LF) in fat affects plasma FFA profiles in the context of weight loss, and changes in body composition and lipid profiles. After a 2-week weight maintenance period, 29 women (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2)) 25-65 years old were randomized to an 8-week ADF-HF (45% fat) diet or an ADF-LF (25% fat) diet with 25% energy intake on fast days and ad libitum intake on feed days. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were assessed weekly and body composition was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and individual FFA and plasma lipid concentrations were measured before and after weight loss. Body weight, BMI, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in both groups. Total FFA concentrations also decreased (P < 0.001). In the ADF-LF group, decreases were found in several more FFAs than in the ADF-HF group. In the ADF-HF group, FFA concentrations were positively correlated with waist circumference. Depending on the macronutrient composition of a diet, weight loss with an ADF diet decreases FFA concentrations through potentially different mechanisms.

  7. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    SciTech Connect

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  8. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  9. Diet-induced obesity exacerbates metabolic and behavioral effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in a rodent model.

    PubMed