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Sample records for ad libitum intake

  1. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  2. Evidence for hepatic involvement in control of ad libitum food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M I; Sawchenko, P E

    1984-07-01

    Sectioning the hepatic branch of the anterior abdominal vagal trunk attenuated but did not abolish the normal nocturnal bias in the day-night distribution of food intake in female rats. Neither total daily food intake nor body weight was affected by hepatic vagotomy. This effect appeared to be specific to the hepatic branch of the nerve because sectioning the remaining (gastric and celiac) abdominal vagal branches did not influence daily feeding rhythms and appeared to be specific to feeding behavior, because the day-night rhythms of drinking behavior and wheel-running activity were not affected by hepatic vagotomy. In male rats, hepatic vagotomy also produced an increase in daytime food consumption but without commensurate reduction in nighttime eating. As a result, male rats with hepatic vagotomy displayed a modest chronic hyperphagia and body weight gain, which was associated primarily with increased linear growth. The effect of nerve section on daytime food intake was expressed quite rapidly. Daytime food intake increased within 8 h after hepatic vagotomy, which was produced at light onset by pulling on a previously implanted suture. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hepatic vagotomy changes daily feeding rhythms and suggest that the liver and perhaps its vagal innervation are involved in the control of ad libitum eating behavior.

  3. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  4. Food intake and blood glucose in normal and diabetic cats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Martin, G J; Rand, J S

    1999-12-01

    Ten diabetic cats were studied at intervals for up to 12 months with twice-daily insulin injections. Ten clinically healthy cats were also studied. Diets fed were based on the individual cat's performance, using mainly commercial dry or canned cat foods and fresh meat. In most cases more than one food was offered. Food was given fresh twice daily, and the cats allowed to eat ad libitum. The food intake and blood glucose were measured every 2 h in diabetic cats after insulin injection and in diabetic and normal cats without insulin injections. Food was quantified by the energy consumed (kJ ME), crude protein (g), crude fat (g), and carbohydrate (g). The blood glucose in 10 diabetic cats was measured for 2 h following a 20-min meal. Both diabetic cats and normal cats showed similar patterns of eating, with a higher food intake in the 2 h after fresh food was placed. Both groups of cats ate multiple small meals spread through the day and night. There was little or no correlation between the blood glucose and the amount of food consumed over the previous 2-h period, in insulin- or non-insulin-treated diabetic cats, or in normal cats. An overnight fast did not significantly alter morning blood glucose in diabetic cats. No demonstrable appetite stimulation occurred following an occurrence of low blood glucose; however, recorded incidences were few. No post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen in the 10 diabetic cats during a 2-h period following the ingestion of typical cat foods.

  5. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  6. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  7. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  8. The Ratio of Macronutrients, Not Caloric Intake, Dictates Cardiometabolic Health, Aging, and Longevity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ballard, J. William O.; Ruohonen, Kari; Wu, Lindsay E.; Cogger, Victoria C.; Warren, Alessandra; Huang, Xin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Melvin, Richard G.; Gokarn, Rahul; Khalil, Mamdouh; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J.; Sinclair, David A.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fundamental questions of what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet and how this maintains health and longevity remain unanswered. Here, the Geometric Framework, a state-space nutritional modeling method, was used to measure interactive effects of dietary energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate on food intake, cardiometabolic phenotype, and longevity in mice fed one of 25 diets ad libitum. Food intake was regulated primarily by protein and carbohydrate content. Longevity and health were optimized when protein was replaced with carbohydrate to limit compensatory feeding for protein and suppress protein intake. These consequences are associated with hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and mitochondrial function and, in turn, related to circulating branched-chain amino acids and glucose. Calorie restriction achieved by high-protein diets or dietary dilution had no beneficial effects on lifespan. The results suggest that longevity can be extended in ad libitum-fed animals by manipulating the ratio of macronutrients to inhibit mTOR activation. PMID:24606899

  9. Predicting ad libitum dry matter intake and yields of Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Holter, J B; West, J W; McGilliard, M L; Pell, A N

    1996-05-01

    Two data files were used that contained weekly mean values for ad libitum DMI of lactating Jersey cows along with appropriate cow, ration, and environmental traits for predicting DMI. One data file (n = 666) was used to develop prediction equations for DMI because that file represented a number of separate experiments and contained more diversity in potential predictors, especially those related to ration, such as forage type. The other data file (n = 1613) was used primarily to verify these equations. Milk protein yield displaced 4% FCM output as a prediction variable and improved the R2 by several units but was not used in the final equations, however, for the sake of simplicity. All equations contained adjustments for the effects of heat stress, parity (1 vs. > 1), DIM > 15, BW, use of recombinant bST, and other significant independent variables. Equations were developed to predict DMI of cows fed individually or in groups and to predict daily yields of 4% FCM and milk protein; equations accounted for 0.69, 0.74, 0.81, and 0.76 of the variation in the dependent variables with standard deviations of 1.7, 1.6, 2.7, and 0.084 kg/ d, respectively. These equations should be applied to the development of software for computerized dairy ration balancing.

  10. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval −54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=−1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval −1645 kJ, −2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine–tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of

  11. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. PMID:26763471

  12. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  13. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  14. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p <0.05), fat mass, skinfold thicknesses and the volume of the arm remained unchanged (p >0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p <0.05). The decrease in the lower leg volume was unrelated to fluid intake (p >0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  15. Ad libitum food intake on a "cafeteria diet" in Native American women: relations with body composition and 24-h energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Larson, D E; Tataranni, P A; Ferraro, R T; Ravussin, E

    1995-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies consistently report associations between obesity and dietary fat but not total energy intake. We measured ad libitum food intake in a laboratory setting and evaluated its relation to body weight and composition, energy expenditure, and macronutrient utilization in 28 women of Pima-Papago heritage (aged 27 +/- 7 y, 85.3 +/- 19.0 kg, 44 +/- 6% body fat; means +/- SD). All women were studied during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. After a 4-d weight-maintenance period, the volunteers selected their food for 5 d from computerized vending machines offering a variety of familiar and preferred foods, ie, a "cafeteria diet". Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured in a respiratory chamber on the 4th d o weight maintenance and the 5th d of ad libitum intake. Average ad libitum intake was 13,732 +/- 4238 kJ/d (11 +/- 1% protein, 40 +/- 1% fat, 49 +/- 4% carbohydrate), ie, moderate overeating by 27 +/- 37% above weight maintenance requirements (range: -27% to 124%). Percent body fat correlated with daily energy intake (r = 0.53, P < 0.01), the degree of overeating (r = 0.41, P < 0.05), and the selection of a diet higher in fat and lower in carbohydrate (r = 0.70 and r = -0.63, respectively, P < 0.001). Excess carbohydrate intake caused an increase in carbohydrate oxidation (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), whereas excess fat intake resulted in a decrease in fat oxidation (r = -0.53, P < 0.01) and thus a positive fat balance of 85 +/- 65 g/d. The positive relations among degrees of obesity, dietary fat intake and overeating, and the fact that dietary fat does not induce fat oxidation, support the hypothesis that dietary fat promotes obesity in women. PMID:7572735

  16. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  17. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    PubMed

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal.

  18. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  19. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  20. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  1. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake. PMID:26394259

  2. Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety.

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, P S; Mars, M; Stafleu, A; de Graaf, C

    2012-10-01

    Food intake and a food's expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food's satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a randomised cross-over study, participants (n=53; age: 21±2.9 y; BMI: 21.8±2.0 kg/m²) consumed one of two iso-energetic dairy foods (liquid or semi-solid) for breakfast in each 5-day test condition. Expectations regarding satiety were measured on days 1, 2, and 5. Foods were offered ad libitum on days 1 and 5 and in a fixed volume on days 2-4. Appetite sensations were rated up to 180 min after the start of the session on fixed time points. Expected satiety effects of the semi-solid food were higher than of the liquid food on all days (p<0.0001). Ad libitum intake of the liquid food was higher than of the semi-solid food on day 1 (liquid: 391±177 g, semi-solid: 277±98 g; p<0.0001) and day 5 (liquid: 477±161 g, semi-solid: 375±148 g; p<0.0001). On day 2, hunger was rated lower and fullness rated higher after the semi-solid compared with the liquid food; on day 4, no differences were observed (significant product∗ exposure interaction AUC). Changes in hunger and fullness indicated that the fixed volumes of liquid and solid food were perceived to be equally satiating after repeated consumption, but this did not result in the anticipated changes: expected satiety effects remained lower, and ad libitum intake higher for the liquid compared with the semi-solid food. The effect of texture on a food's expected satiety effects and its ad libitum intake appears to be large, also after repeated consumption. Expectations based on sensory cues are not easily changed.

  3. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  4. Voluntary feed intake and leptin sensitivity in ad libitum fed obese ponies following a period of restricted feeding: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Swennen, Q; Janssens, G P J

    2013-08-01

    The relation between plasma leptin and daily ad libitum roughage intake was evaluated during a 14-day period in eight obese Shetland ponies. When the feeding strategy was changed from maintenance feeding to ad libitum feeding, feed intake increased the first day, decreased the second day and increased again during the following days to reach a constant level after 8 days. Plasma leptin concentration increased during the first 2 days, but remained constant afterwards. Although the same pattern was found in all ponies, the magnitude of the increase in leptin on day 1 and the resulting decrease in feed intake on day 2 differed between ponies. A lower anorectic effect was seen in ponies with higher initial leptin concentration, suggesting the presence of different degrees in leptin sensitivity in obese ponies. High leptin production in a attempt to compensate for the decrease in leptin sensitivity might explain large variations in plasma leptin among obese ponies with similar body condition score. Further research is necessary to clarify whether the reduced leptin sensitivity precedes obesity in equines or vice versa.

  5. Impact of fluid restriction and ad libitum water intake or an 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on skill performance of elite adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Oliveira, Bruno; Barros, Renata; Padrão, Patricia; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo

    2011-06-01

    Twelve adolescent athletes underwent, in a crossover-design study, 3 separate 90-min training sessions in the following conditions: no fluid ingestion allowed (NF), ad libitum ingestion of water (W), and ad libitum ingestion of a commercial 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverage (CSB). After each session athletes performed a set of basketball drills (2-point, 3-point, and free-throw shootout, suicide sprints, and defensive zigzags). Body weight (before and after sessions), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), urine color, and beverage acceptability were determined in each session. Athletes also completed a survey about their knowledge and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement. The percentage of weight loss was significantly higher in NF (2.46% ± 0.87%) than in the other 2 conditions (W, 1.08% ± 0.67%, p = .006; CSB, 0.65% ± 0.62%, p = .001) but also higher in W than CSB (p = .012). RPE was higher in NF (16.8 ± 1.96) than in the W (14.2 ± 1.99, p = .004) and CSB (13.3 ± 2.06, p = .002) trials. Athletes' fluid intake was positively correlated with proper self-reported behaviors (r = .75, p = .005) and knowledge (r = .76, p = .004) about fluid and hydration. In conclusion, fluid restriction during exercise was associated with a greater level of dehydration and increased perceived exertion but had no impact on basketball performance compared with ad libitum drinking of water or a CSB. Athletes with more knowledge about hydration and better self-reported hydration behaviors ingested more fluids during training sessions.

  6. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts. PMID:26435259

  7. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  8. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior. PMID:23408973

  9. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  10. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, N T; Belza, A; Jensen, M G; Ritz, C; Bitz, C; Hels, O; Frandsen, E; Mela, D J; Astrup, A

    2013-02-14

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.

  11. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  12. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food. PMID:19481125

  13. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  14. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  15. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  16. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  17. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  18. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake.

  19. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity. PMID:26647154

  20. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  1. Biomedical responses of rats to chronic exposure to dietary cadmium fed in ad libitum and equalized regimes.

    PubMed

    Cousins, R J; Squibb, K S; Feldman, S L; de Bari, A; Silbon, B L

    1977-03-01

    Forty 100 g male rats were fed, in groups of eight, either 0, 5, or 25 ppm cadmium in a purified diet for 14 wk. Three groups were fed each of the levels of cadmium on an ad libitum basis. Two other groups were fed either 0 or 5 ppm cadmium in amounts that were equalized to that consumed by the 25 ppm group fed ad libitum. Cadmium ingestion decreased daily diet consumption, weight gain, and terminal body weight. These parameters were not significantly different in rats whose diet consumption was equalized. Packed cell volume and serum iron as well as serum zinc were decreased in the rats fed 25 ppm cadmium. These effects were not related to diet intake. No major differences were observed in serum ceruloplasmin, glucose, protein, leucine aminopeptidase activity, or copper in any of the groups. Blood urea nitrogen and renal leucine aminopeptidase activity were decreased by cadmium ingestion in the rats fed ad libitum only. In contrast, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated by cadmium in the equalized-intake groups only. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were elevated and the iron concentration was decreased in the kidney, liver, and intestinal mucosa of the cadmium-fed rats irrespective of level of diet consumption. The increased uptake of cadmium in these tissues was coincident with the increased content of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein, in the cytosol fraction. The results indicate that some parameters of chronic cadmium toxicity are associated with diet consumption whereas others are not.

  2. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  3. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than fat from the other depots. Generally, there were no differences (P > .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P < .05) than those for T and R. Marbling was greatest (P < .05) for S and did not differ (P > .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  4. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than fat from the other depots. Generally, there were no differences (P > .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P < .05) than those for T and R. Marbling was greatest (P < .05) for S and did not differ (P > .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle.

  5. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    PubMed

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted. PMID:21039925

  6. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance. PMID:25220020

  7. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance.

  8. Brisk walking reduces ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters during a workplace simulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2012-02-01

    Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15 years, BMI: 23.56±3.78 kg/m(2) abstained for 2 days. They were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, involving either a 15 min brisk walk or quiet rest, and then computerised Stroop tasks with low or high demanding conditions, in three 180 s blocks with a 90 s interval. Throughout, a pre-weighed bowl of chocolates was available for ad libitum eating. A two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction effect of exercise and stress on total chocolate consumption, or main effect of stress, but a main effect of exercise [F(1, 74)=7.12, p<.01]. Mean (SD) chocolate consumption was less (t(73.5)=2.69, 95% CI for difference 3.4-22.9, ES=0.61) for the exercise (15.6 g) than control (28.8 g) group. Exercise also increased affective activation, but there was no mediating effect of change in affect on chocolate consumption. A brief walk may help to reduce ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters. PMID:22100187

  9. Walking reduces cue-elicited cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and delays ad libitum smoking.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adrian; Katomeri, Magdalena

    2007-11-01

    Stress and exposure to smoking cues influence smoking cravings and behavior. Exercise appears to reduce cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms, but no study has investigated the effects of exercise on cue-elicited cravings and withdrawal symptoms, or ad libitum smoking behavior. In this study, 60 regular smokers, invited by public advertisements, were assessed at baseline following 2 hr of abstinence, and randomized to a 15-min brisk walk or passive condition. Both groups then completed three tasks (Stroop color-word interference task, speech task, and handling a lit cigarette). Cravings were assessed with two single items, and withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the seven-item Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. After the laboratory session, ad libitum smoking was determined from the subject's cell phone text message. Exercise (mean heart rate reserve = 24%) attenuated increases in strength of desire to smoke, tension, poor concentration, and stress, in response to a lit cigarette, but had minimal effects on increases in cravings and withdrawal symptoms in response to the stressors. Absolute levels of cravings and withdrawal symptoms were reduced during and following exercise. Exercisers engaged in ad libitum smoking a net 57 min (CI = 31-83) later than those in the passive condition. A 15-min brisk walk not only reduced cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms but also could attenuate increases in cue-elicited cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and increase the time between cigarettes smoked.

  10. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink. PMID:20199991

  11. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. PMID:24971700

  12. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  13. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Queiroz, Regina H C; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-10-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2-0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1-14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106-112 h (4-5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden. PMID:26378131

  14. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Queiroz, Regina H.C.; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2–0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1–14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106–112 h (4–5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden. PMID:26378131

  15. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Queiroz, Regina H C; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-10-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2-0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1-14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106-112 h (4-5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden.

  16. Spending one's time: the hedonic principle in ad libitum viewing of pictures.

    PubMed

    Kron, Assaf; Pilkiw, Maryna; Goldstein, Ariel; Lee, Daniel H; Gardhouse, Katherine; Anderson, Adam K

    2014-12-01

    The hedonic principle maintains that humans strive to maximize pleasant feelings and avoid unpleasant feelings. Surprisingly, and contrary to hedonic logic, previous experiments have demonstrated a relationship between picture viewing time and arousal (activation) but not with valence (pleasure vs. displeasure), suggesting that arousal rather than the hedonic principle accounts for how individuals choose to spend their time. In 2 experiments we investigated the arousal and hedonic principles underlying viewing time behavior while controlling for familiarity with stimuli, picture complexity, and demand characteristics. Under ad libitum conditions of picture viewing, we found strong relationships between viewing time, valence, and facial corrugator electomyographic (EMG) activity with familiar but not novel pictures. Viewing time of novel stimuli was largely associated with arousal and visual complexity. We conclude that only after initial information about the stimulus is gathered, where we choose to spend our time is guided by the hedonic principle.

  17. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance.

  18. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  19. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  20. Circadian variation in heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and EEG of immature broiler breeder chickens in restricted-fed and ad libitum-fed states.

    PubMed

    Savory, C J; Kostal, L; Nevison, I M

    2006-10-01

    1. Heart rate, intra-aortic blood pressure, deep body temperature and telencephalic EEG were monitored by radiotelemetry in 6 freely moving immature broiler breeders (three in each of two years), during routine food restriction and then ad libitum feeding, over two 24-h periods in each feeding state.2. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were all higher during ad libitum than restricted feeding, and heart rate and body temperature were higher by day (12 h) than at night (12 h). The decreases in heart rate and body temperature at night were greater during restricted than ad libitum feeding. Blood pressure tended to be higher at night, except in year 2 during restricted feeding. Body temperature and ambient temperature were higher in year 2 than year 1.3. During restricted feeding, marked peaks in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature in the 15 min after provision of the daily food ration at 09:00 h, when birds were eating, were equivalent to corresponding values seen during ad libitum feeding.4. Relative powers in delta (1 to 4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) frequency bands of the EEG power spectrum were higher at night in year 2 only, while power in the alpha (8 to 12 Hz) band was higher at night in both years.5. It is concluded that most of the variation in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature between feeding states and times of day/night can be accounted for in terms of variation in food intake and energy expenditure. The greater slow wave (delta, theta) EEG activity seen after lights-off in year 2 may reflect non-paradoxical sleep at that time.

  1. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism. PMID:26004166

  2. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  3. A return to ad libitum feeding following caloric restriction promotes hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Linden, Melissa A; Fletcher, Justin A; Meers, Grace M; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2016-09-01

    Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats develop obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but lifestyle modifications, such as caloric restriction (CR), can prevent these conditions. We sought to determine if prior CR had protective effects on metabolic health and NAFLD development following a 4-wk return to ad libitum (AL) feeding. Four-week-old male OLETF rats (n = 8-10/group) were fed AL for 16 wk (O-AL), CR for 16 wk (O-CR; ∼70% kcal of O-AL), or CR for 12 wk followed by 4 wk of AL feeding (O-AL4wk). CR-induced benefit in prevention of NAFLD, including reduced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and markers of Kupffer cell activation/number, was largely lost in AL4wk rats. These findings occurred in conjunction with a partial loss of CR-induced beneficial effects on obesity and serum triglycerides in O-AL4wk rats, but in the absence of changes in serum glucose or insulin. CR-induced increases in hepatic mitochondrial respiration remained significantly elevated (P < 0.01) in O-AL4wk compared with O-AL rats, while mitochondrial [1-(14)C]palmitate oxidation, citrate synthase activity, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity did not differ among OLETF groups. NAFLD development in O-AL4wk rats was accompanied by increases in the protein content of the de novo lipogenesis markers fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and decreases in phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC)/ACC compared with O-CR rats (P < 0.05 for each). The beneficial effects of chronic CR on NAFLD development were largely lost with 4 wk of AL feeding in the hyperphagic OLETF rat, highlighting the importance of maintaining energy balance in the prevention of NAFLD. PMID:27445343

  4. The interdependence of glycolytic and pentose cycle intermediates in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Casazza, J P; Veech, R L

    1986-01-15

    .0008. These data indicate the interdependence of the liver content of glycolytic intermediates and pentose cycle intermediates in ad libitum fed rats.

  5. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  6. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-08-28

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use. PMID:24950430

  7. Total Body Water, Electrolyte, and Thermoregulatory Responses to Ad Libitum Water Replacement Using Two Different Water Delivery Systems During a 19-km Route March.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Nolte, Kim; van der Meulen, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Hands-free hydration systems are often advocated for improved hydration and performance in military populations. The aim was to assess whether such systems indeed result in improved hydration in exercising soldiers. Subjects were required to complete a route march while consuming water ad libitum from either a hydration bladder (BG) or traditional canteen (CG). Water intakes of 538 ml·h⁻¹ (BG) and 533 ml·h⁻¹ (CG) resulted in no differences for changes in body mass, serum [Na], plasma osmolality, total body water, or time required to complete the march. There were no differences between peak exercise core temperature of the BG (38.9° C) and CG (38.7° C) groups. There were no differences between the groups for fluid balance, thermoregulation, or performance. This is a not a surprising finding because the amount of fluid consumed ad libitum is determined by changes in serum osmolality and not the fluid delivery system as often proposed. PMID:26506205

  8. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; < 0.01) when heifers were fed the NI diet compared with the UR diet. The amount of feed consumed increased ( < 0.01) at 0 to 3 h and decreased ( ≤ 0.03) at 3 to 24 h for restrictive vs. ad libitum feeding of both the UR and NI diets. Compared to the UR diet, the NI diet decreased ( < 0.01) feed consumption at 0 to 3 h and increased ( < 0.02) feed consumption at 3 to 24 h (except feed consumption at 9 to 12 h; = 0.90), indicating nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( < 0.01; = 0.75) blood methemoglobin, and plasma NO + NO among other rumen and blood variables had the greatest correlation (sigmoid response; < 0.01, = 0.47) with feed consumption (0 to 3 h). Particle size distribution of orts was partially altered ( = 0.02 to 0

  9. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits.

  10. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. Methods: This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). Results: The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. Conclusions: These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Implications: Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and

  11. Fattening Holstein heifers by feeding high-moisture corn (whole or ground) ad libitum separately from concentrate and straw.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Quintana, B; Aris, A; Bach, A

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of high-moisture corn (HMC), either whole or ground, fed separately from concentrate and straw on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, whole tract digestibility, and nitrogen balance. Twenty-four Holstein heifers (199 ± 5.5 kg BW and 157 ± 6.9 d age) housed in individual pens were assigned to 3 treatments: 1) whole (unprocessed) HMC fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (WHMC); 2) HMC ground through a 0.4-cm screen before ensiling and fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (GHMC); and 3) a concentrate composed of mainly corn meal, ground through a roller mill with screen openings of 6 mm, and barley straw, both fed separately and ad libitum (Control). Concentrate, HMC, and straw were offered separately ad libitum in a free-choice situation and consumption was recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. Apparent nutrient digestibility and N balance were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. At the same time points, rumen fluid was collected through rumenocentesis to determine rumen pH and VFA concentrations. Feeding behavior was monitored throughout the study. Animals were harvested after 134 d and HCW, rumen and cecum wall lesions, and liver abscesses were recorded. Treatment did not affect total DMI, feed efficiency, ADG, final BW, and carcass weight or classification. Concentrate consumption (6.6 ± 0.35 kg/d) of Control heifers was greater ( < 0.001) than that of GHMC (4.1 ± 0.35 kg/d) and WHMC heifers (2.8 ± 0.35 kg/d), and GHMC heifers consumed less ( < 0.001) HMC than WHMC heifers (2.3 ± 0.31 and 4.2 ± 0.31 kg/d, respectively). Dietary treatments did not affect rumination, self-grooming, nonnutritive oral behaviors, and rumen pH. However, rumen acetate to propionate ratio decreased when heifers received HMC (1.77 ± 0.276) compared with when heifers received the Control (2.82 ± 0.276). Total

  12. Quantifying hepatic glycogen synthesis by direct and indirect pathways in rats under normal ad libitum feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana F; Viega, Francisco J; Carvalho, Rui A; Jones, John G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic glycogen synthesis from intact hexose (direct pathway) relative to that from gluconeogenic precursors (indirect pathway) was quantified in ad libitum-fed rats. Following (2)H(2)O administration and overnight feeding, the livers were removed and glycogen (2)H-enrichment was measured by (2)H NMR. Six controls and six rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (STZ; fasting blood glucose = 385 +/- 31 mg/dl) were studied. The indirect pathway contribution, estimated as glycogen hydrogen 5 relative to hydrogen 2 enrichment, was 54% +/- 4% for control rats-similar to values from healthy, meal-fed humans. In STZ-treated rats, the indirect pathway contribution was significantly higher (68% +/- 4%, P < 0.05 vs. controls), similar to that of Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. In conclusion, sources of hepatic glycogen synthesis in rats during ad libitum nocturnal feeding were quantified by analysis of glycogen enrichment from (2)H(2)O. STZ caused alterations resembling the pathophysiology of hepatic glycogen synthesis in T1D patients.

  13. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  14. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss. PMID:26693643

  15. CH4 and N2O emissions from China's beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198gCH4animal(-1)d(-1) and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1)) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1) and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China's beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors.

  16. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  17. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  18. Data on the phospholipid fatty acyl composition of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue in ad libitum fed and fasted mice

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Kristin A.; Marvyn, Phillip M.; Henao, Juan J. Aristizabal; Bradley, Ryan M.; Stark, Ken D.; Duncan, Robin E.

    2016-01-01

    Data are presented on the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid from retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of female mice that were either given ad libitum access to food or fasted for 16 h overnight prior to sacrifice. Our data show that total adipose phospholipid concentrations were more than 2-fold higher in the fasted animals compared with the fed animals (33.48±7.40 versus 16.57±4.43 μg phospholipid fatty acids/100 mg tissue). Concentrations of several individual phospholipid fatty acyl species, including palmitic acid (16:0), vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as well as total phospholipid saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, were significantly higher in adipose tissue from the fasted animals compared with the fed animals. However, when the relative abundance of phospholipid fatty acyl species was analyzed, only 20:4n-6 was specifically enriched (by ~2.5-fold) in adipose phospholipid with fasting. PMID:27014729

  19. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  20. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( < 0.0001). There was no line effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( < 0.0001) but no difference in the meat-to-bone ratio of the hind leg. On the contrary, the ADGrestrict line had a higher proportion of forelegs plus thoracic cage ( = 0.03). We also found lower perirenal ( < 0.0001) and scapular fat yields ( < 0.0001) in ConsoResidual rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( < 0.0001) and higher water loss (drip and cooking loss; < 0.002) compared with the G0 and ADGrestrict rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass

  1. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    Kontrollgruppe eher der amerikanischen Idealgruppe entsprach. In der Pilot-Studie waren die Unterschiede in der Nährstoffzufuhr zwischen den beiden Gruppen viel geringer als in der DASH-Studie; für eine blutdrucksenkende Ernährungsumstellung bestand somit nur ein geringer Spielraum. Eine weitere Erklärung besteht in der unterschiedlichen Zusammensetzung der Studienpopulation. Bei DASH wurden vorwiegend farbige Probanden (40% höhere Hypertonieprävalenz) untersucht. Die Studienergebnisse lassen also den Schluss zu, dass Ernährungs- und Lebensstilgewohnheiten sowie der genetische Hintergrund der entsprechenden Bevölkerungsgruppe bei der Formulierung von nährstoff- oder lebensmittelbezogenen Empfehlungen zur Senkung des Bluthochdruckes Berücksichtigung finden müssen. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial (DASH), a randomized well-controlled feeding study conducted at 4 medical centers, demonstrated that a low-fat diet, rich in fruits, vegetables and dairy products is able to lower blood pressure of borderline-hypertensive people significantly. Body weight, sodium intake and alcohol consumption were kept constant during the whole study period, due to the known influence on hypertension. Aim of our study project was to investigate whether the results of the DASH study can be confirmed by (i) using a German hypertensive population and (ii) replacing the well-controlled feeding design by allowing ad libitum intake according to dietary ad-vice. The participants were asked to keep their body weight, sodium urine excretion (un-der this study design more valid than sodium intake) and their alcohol consumption con-stant. Our pilot study population consisted of 53 mainly overweight participants with borderline hypertension and without medication or any metabolic disorders. They were randomly assigned to either an ideal diet low in fat and rich in dairy products, fruits and vegetables (similar to the DASH I-group) or a habitual diet as control (C-group). During five

  2. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  3. The effect of an incremental increase in exercise on appetite, eating behaviour and energy balance in lean men and women feeding ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, Stephen; Hughes, Darren A; Ritz, Patrick; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Horgan, Graham W; King, Neil; Blundell, John E; Stubbs, R James

    2008-11-01

    The effects of incremental exercise on appetite, energy intake (EI), expenditure (EE) and balance (EB) in lean men and women were examined. Six men (age 29.7 (SD 5.9) years, weight 75.2 (SD 15.3) kg, height 1.75 (SD 0.11) m) and six women (age 24.7 (SD 5.9) years, weight 66.7 (SD 9.10) kg, height 1.70 (SD 0.09) m) were each studied three times during a 16 d protocol, corresponding to no additional exercise (Nex), moderate-intensity exercise (Mex; 1.5-2.0 MJ/d) and high-intensity exercise (Hex; 3.0-4.0 MJ/d) regimens. Subjects were fed to EB during days 1-2, and during days 3-16 they fed ad libitum from a medium-fat diet of constant composition. Daily EE, assessed using the doubly labelled water method, was 9.2, 11.6 and 13.7 MJ/d (P < 0.001; SED 0.45) for the women and 12.2, 14.0 and 16.7 MJ/d (P = 0.007; SED 1.11) for the men on the Nex, Mex and Hex treatments, respectively. EI was 8.3, 8.6 and 9.9 MJ/d (P = 0.118; SED 0.72) for the women and 10.6, 11.6 and 12.0 MJ/d (P = 0.031; SED 0.47) for the men, respectively. On average, subjects compensated for about 30 % of the exercise-induced energy deficit. However, the degree of compensation varied considerably among individuals. The present study captured the initial compensation in EI for exercise-induced energy deficits. Total compensation would take a matter of weeks.

  4. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    Kontrollgruppe eher der amerikanischen Idealgruppe entsprach. In der Pilot-Studie waren die Unterschiede in der Nährstoffzufuhr zwischen den beiden Gruppen viel geringer als in der DASH-Studie; für eine blutdrucksenkende Ernährungsumstellung bestand somit nur ein geringer Spielraum. Eine weitere Erklärung besteht in der unterschiedlichen Zusammensetzung der Studienpopulation. Bei DASH wurden vorwiegend farbige Probanden (40% höhere Hypertonieprävalenz) untersucht. Die Studienergebnisse lassen also den Schluss zu, dass Ernährungs- und Lebensstilgewohnheiten sowie der genetische Hintergrund der entsprechenden Bevölkerungsgruppe bei der Formulierung von nährstoff- oder lebensmittelbezogenen Empfehlungen zur Senkung des Bluthochdruckes Berücksichtigung finden müssen. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial (DASH), a randomized well-controlled feeding study conducted at 4 medical centers, demonstrated that a low-fat diet, rich in fruits, vegetables and dairy products is able to lower blood pressure of borderline-hypertensive people significantly. Body weight, sodium intake and alcohol consumption were kept constant during the whole study period, due to the known influence on hypertension. Aim of our study project was to investigate whether the results of the DASH study can be confirmed by (i) using a German hypertensive population and (ii) replacing the well-controlled feeding design by allowing ad libitum intake according to dietary ad-vice. The participants were asked to keep their body weight, sodium urine excretion (un-der this study design more valid than sodium intake) and their alcohol consumption con-stant. Our pilot study population consisted of 53 mainly overweight participants with borderline hypertension and without medication or any metabolic disorders. They were randomly assigned to either an ideal diet low in fat and rich in dairy products, fruits and vegetables (similar to the DASH I-group) or a habitual diet as control (C-group). During five

  5. Ad libitum Pasture Feeding in Late Pregnancy Does Not Improve the Performance of Twin-bearing Ewes and Their Lambs.

    PubMed

    Corner-Thomas, R A; Back, P J; Kenyon, P R; Hickson, R E; Ridler, A L; Stafford, K J; Morris, S T

    2015-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of controlled ryegrass-white clover herbage availability from day 128 until day 142 of pregnancy in comparison to unrestricted availability, on the performance of twin-bearing ewes of varying body condition score (BCS; 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0) and their lambs. It was hypothesised that under conditions of controlled herbage availability, the performance of lambs born to ewes with a greater BCS would be greater than those born to ewes with a lower BCS. During the period that the nutritional regimens were imposed, the pre- and post-grazing herbage masses of the Control regimen (1,070±69 and 801±30 kg dry matter [DM]/ha) were lower than the ad libitum regimen (1,784±69 and 1,333±33 kg DM/ha; p<0.05). The average herbage masses during lactation were 1,410±31 kg DM/ha. Nutritional regimen had no effect on ewe live weight, BCS and back fat depth or on lamb live weight, indices of colostrum uptake, maximal heat production, total litter weight weaned or survival to weaning (p>0.05). The difference in ewe BCSs and back fats observed among body condition groups was maintained throughout pregnancy (p<0.05). At weaning, ewes from the BCS2.0 group had lower BCS and live weight (2.4±0.2, 74.3±2.6 kg) than both the BCS2.5 (2.6±0.2, 78.6±2.4 kg) and BCS3.0 ewes (2.7±0.2, 79.0±2.6 kg; p<0.05), which did not differ (p>0.05). Ewe BCS group had no effect on lamb live weight at birth or weaning or on maximal heat production (p>0.05). Serum gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations of lambs born to BCS3.0 ewes were higher within 36 hours of birth than lambs born to BCS2.0 ewes and BCS2.5 ewes (51.8±1.9 vs 46.5±1.9 and 45.6±1.9 IU/mL, respectively [p<0.05]). There was, however, no effect of ewe body condition on lamb plasma glucose concentration (p>0.05). Lamb survival was the only lamb parameter that showed an interaction between ewe nutritional regimen and ewe BCS whereby survival of lambs born to BCS2.5 and BCS3.0 ewes differed but only

  6. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27766082

  7. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  8. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  9. Demonstration of tank effect on growth indices of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during an ad libitum feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Speare, D J; MacNair, N; Hammell, K L

    1995-10-01

    Growth indices were examined in 24 identically managed tanks, each containing 120 diploid juvenile rainbow trout (initial mean body weight, 9.3 g) during a 12-week study to examine tank effects associated with tank location in a multi user research facility. Growth indices included mean body weight, feed intake, feed conversion index, and specific growth rate. The null hypothesis that tank effect had no effect on growth over the 12-week period was rejected (P = 0.038), and mean weight in individual tanks differed by as much as 18.7%). During the study it was determined that the proximity of tanks to common-use walkways in the facility could affect growth indices. This was indicated by significant differences in the mean fish weights among blocks of tanks served by different header tanks after 4 (P = 0.001) and 8 (P = 0.024) week. The block containing tanks of fish with the highest them weight was nearest to the 2 common-use walkways in the facility. Fish in this block of tanks, compared with those in other blocks, had significantly greater feed intake but no significant differences in conversion efficiency. Compensatory growth, a well known growth attribute in fishes, diminished the difference in mean weight be tween these blocks of tanks by the end of the study. Comparison of paired ranks within header tank blocks indicated that fish in those located nearest to walkways had higher feeding rates over the 12-week period (P = 0.048), but less efficient feed conversion (P = 0.040) than did fish in matched tanks located farthest from walkways. However, there were no differences in mean weight of fish. Results of this trial document the risks involved in identifying fish in a tank as the experimental unit when treatments are administered to the tank of fish, the latter being the true experimental unit.

  10. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    PubMed

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  11. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    PubMed

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar. PMID:27222405

  12. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ("Ad lib") larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ("Ration") larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V(total) (Control, "C"), 109 ppm (Low, "L"), and 363 ppm (High, "H"). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at alpha=0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited.

  13. Exercise and food ad libitum reduce the impact of early in life nutritional inbalances on nitrergic activity of hippocampus and striatum.

    PubMed

    Viana, Lane Coelho; Torres, João Bento; Farias, José Augusto; Kawhage, Rafael; Lins, Nara; Passos, Aline; Quintairos, Amanda; Trévia, Nonata; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional imbalances were produced by varying litter size pups per dam: 3 (small), 6 (medium), and 12 (large). On the 21st day, 4 subjects of each litter, were sacrificed and the remaining were grouped, 2 per cage, with or without running wheels, with food and water ad libitum. Adult subjects were tested in water maze, their brains processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and quantified by densitometry. No differences were detected in water maze. At 21st day, S and L compared with M presented reduced NADPH-d in the stratum molecular of dentate gyrus (DG), stratum lacunosum of CA1 and in all CA3 layers but not in the striatum. On the 58th day, actvity remained low in S and L in CA3 and striatum and L in CA1 and DG. Voluntary exercise increased NADPH-d in DG, CA1, CA3, and striatum in S, and in the stratum lacunosum of CA1 and CA3 in L.

  14. Differential effects of methamphetamine on expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA in hypothalamus and on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in ad libitum-fed and schedule-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Crowley, W R; Ramoz, G; Keefe, K A; Torto, R; Kalra, S P; Hanson, G R

    2005-01-01

    Relatively little is known concerning the interaction of psychostimulants with hypothalamic neuropeptide systems or metabolic hormones implicated in regulation of energy balance. The present studies tested whether methamphetamine alters the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), two important orexigenic neuropeptides, or proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor for the anorexigenic peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, or the secretion of leptin, insulin and ghrelin, concomitant with inhibition of food intake. Female rats were either fed ad libitum (AL) or placed on a scheduled feeding (SF) regimen, with access to food limited to 4 h/day. Administration of (+/-)-methamphetamine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 h prior to food presentation significantly inhibited food intake in SF animals, but did not affect intake in AL animals. In a separate study, AL and SF animals were killed just prior to expected food presentation, and expression of NPY, AgRP and POMC mRNAs in hypothalamus was determined using in situ hybridisation; concentrations of leptin, insulin and ghrelin in serum were determined with radioimmunoassays. In saline-treated, SF controls, NPY and AgRP mRNA expression in arcuate nucleus and serum ghrelin were significantly elevated, and serum leptin and insulin were significantly reduced. Methamphetamine reversed the up-regulation of NPY mRNA expression observed in the SF condition, without affecting AgRP mRNA or the serum concentrations of metabolic hormones. However, in AL animals, NPY mRNA expression in arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei was significantly increased by methamphetamine, which also reduced serum leptin and insulin and increased serum ghrelin concentrations. These findings suggest that the inhibition of NPY expression in SF animals may be a mechanism underlying the anorexigenic effect of methamphetamine seen in this condition. The increase in NPY expression produced by methamphetamine in AL animals may be mediated by the

  15. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Quanhe; Zhang, Zefeng; Gregg, Edward W; Flanders, W Dana; Merritt, Robert; Hu, Frank B

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Epidemiologic studies have suggested that higher intake of added sugar is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Few prospective studies have examined the association of added sugar intake with CVD mortality. OBJECTIVE To examine time trends of added sugar consumption as percentage of daily calories in the United States and investigate the association of this consumption with CVD mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1988-1994 [III], 1999-2004, and 2005-2010 [n = 31,147]) for the time trend analysis and NHANES III Linked Mortality cohort (1988-2006 [n = 11 733]), a prospective cohort of a nationally representative sample of US adults for the association study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cardiovascular disease mortality. RESULTS Among US adults, the adjusted mean percentage of daily calories from added sugar increased from 15.7% (95% CI, 15.0%-16.4%) in 1988-1994 to 16.8% (16.0%-17.7%; P = .02) in 1999-2004 and decreased to 14.9% (14.2%-15.5%; P < .001) in 2005-2010. Most adults consumed 10% or more of calories from added sugar (71.4%) and approximately 10% consumed 25% or more in 2005-2010. During a median follow-up period of 14.6 years, we documented 831 CVD deaths during 163,039 person-years. Age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CVD mortality across quintiles of the percentage of daily calories consumed from added sugar were 1.00 (reference), 1.09 (95% CI, 1.05-1.13), 1.23 (1.12-1.34), 1.49 (1.24-1.78), and 2.43 (1.63-3.62; P < .001), respectively. After additional adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, HRs were 1.00 (reference), 1.07 (1.02-1.12), 1.18 (1.06-1.31), 1.38 (1.11-1.70), and 2.03 (1.26-3.27; P = .004), respectively. Adjusted HRs were 1.30 (95% CI, 1.09-1.55) and 2.75 (1.40-5.42; P = .004), respectively, comparing participants who consumed 10.0% to 24.9% or 25.0% or

  16. Vinasse added to the concentrate for fattening lambs: intake, animal performance, and carcass and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Ó; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Frutos, P; Andrés, S; Giráldez, F J

    2011-04-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs (mean BW 15.4 ± 0.13 kg, 6 to 7 wk old) were used to study the effects of the addition of 0 (control), 100 (V10), and 200 (V20) g of vinasse per kilgram of concentrate on intake, animal performance, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets and fed barley straw and the corresponding concentrate ad libitum. When the animals reached 25 kg of BW, a sample of blood was taken and the lambs were slaughtered. Feed intake, growth rate, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics were assessed. Lambs that received the concentrates with vinasse showed a reduced concentrate intake (linear contrast, P = 0.029) and ADG (linear contrast, P = 0.004) and an increased length of fattening period (linear contrast, P = 0.002) as well as feed:gain ratio (linear contrast P = 0.011). Vinasse enhanced ruminal pH (orthogonal contrast control vs. V10 + V20; P = 0.007). Plasma glucose concentrations declined in lambs fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.003), whereas plasma urea concentration increased in animals fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.036). The plasma concentrations of creatinine, triglycerides, and lactate and the enzyme profile studied (alkaline phosphate, alanine transaminase, glutamate oxal-acetate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase) were not modified in response to vinasse inclusion. Lambs in the vinasse groups had less Na(+) and nitrate and greater K(+) and nitrite plasma concentrations (linear contrasts, P < 0.05). None of the carcass characteristics studied was affected by vinasse (P > 0.10). Meat chemical composition and characteristics were unaffected (P > 0.10), but shear force was greater for lambs that received vinasse (orthogonal contrast, control vs. V10 + V20, P = 0.007). The addition of 100 or 200 g vinasse/kg of concentrate for fattening lambs reduced feed intake and growth rate and increased the feed:gain ratio

  17. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  18. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing. PMID:24512899

  19. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing. PMID:24511620

  20. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  1. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  2. Effect of CSN1S1 genotype and its interaction with diet energy level on milk production and quality in Girgentana goats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Renato Italo; Pennisi, Pietro; Valenti, Bernardo; Lanza, Massimiliano; Di Trana, Adriana; Di Gregorio, Paola; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella

    2010-05-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate how the energy level of the diet can affect milk production and quality in Girgentana lactating goats in relation to polymorphism at the alphas1-casein (CSN1S1) genotype locus. Twenty-seven goats, homogeneous for milk production (1.5+/-0.3 kg/d), days of lactation (90+/-10 d) and body weight (35.8+/-5.5 kg) were selected on the basis of their CSN1S1 genotype, as follows: nine goats homozygous for strong (AA) alleles, nine goats homozygous for weak alleles (FF) and nine goats heterozygous (AF). The goats were used in a 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with three genotypes (AA, FF, AF) and three diets at different energy levels (100%, 65% and 30% of hay inclusion). The experiment consisted of three simultaneous 3x3 Latin squares for the three genotypes, with one square for each level of hay inclusion in the diet. All the animals were housed in individual pens. Each experimental period lasted 23 d and consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 8 d for data and sample collection, during which the goats received the scheduled diet ad libitum. The animals were fed three different diets designed to have the same crude protein content (about 15%) but different energy levels: a pelleted alfalfa hay (H100) and two feeds including 65% (H65) and 30% (H30) of alfalfa hay (respectively 1099, 1386 and 1590 kcal NE for lactation/kg DM). All the diets were ground and pelleted (6 mm diameter). AA goats were more productive than AF and FF goats (respectively: 1419 v. 1145 and 1014 g/d; P=0.002). Indeed the interaction energy levelxgenotype was significant (P=0.018): in fact AA goats showed their milk increase only when fed with concentrates. Differences in protein and in casein levels between the three genotypes were in line with results expected from the different allele contribution to alphas1-casein synthesis. Milk urea levels were significantly lower in AA goats compared with AF and FF genotypes (respectively 32.7 v. 40.4 and 40.4 mg/dl; P=0

  3. Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Werner, D; Lehrer, H; Zachut, M; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Shamay, A

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30 min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1 kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long

  4. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  5. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  6. Sociodemographic and Behavioral Factors Associated with Added Sugars Intake among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Thompson, Frances E.; McGuire, Lisa C.; Pan, Liping; Galuska, Deborah A.; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing added sugars intake is one of the Healthy People 2020 objectives. High added sugars intake may be associated with adverse health consequences. Objective This cross-sectional study identified sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with added sugars intake among US adults (18 years and older) using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey data (n=24,967). Methods The outcome variable was added sugars intake from foods and beverages using scoring algorithms to convert dietary screener frequency responses on nine items to estimates of individual dietary intake of added sugars in teaspoons per day. Added sugars intake was categorized into tertiles (lowest, middle, highest) stratified by sex. The explanatory variables were sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for the highest and middle tertile added sugars intake groups as compared with the lowest tertile group. Results Estimated median added sugars intake was 17.6 tsp/d for men and 11.7 tsp/d for women. For men and women, those who had significantly greater odds for being in the highest tertile of added sugars intake (men: ≥22.0 tsp/d; women: ≥14.6 tsp/d) were younger, less educated, had lower income, were less physically active, were current smokers, and were former or current infrequent/light drinkers, whereas non-Hispanic other/multiracial and those living in the West had significantly lower odds for being in the highest tertile of added sugars intake. Different patterns were found by sex. Non-Hispanic black men had lower odds for being in the highest tertile of added sugars intake, whereas non-Hispanic black women had greater odds for being in the highest tertile. Conclusions One in three men consumed ≥22.0 tsp added sugars and one in three women consumed ≥14.6 tsp added sugars daily. Higher added sugars intake was associated with various sociodemographic and behavioral

  7. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating. PMID:21276218

  8. Added Sugar, Macro- and Micronutrient Intakes and Anthropometry of Children in a Developing World Context

    PubMed Central

    Maunder, Eleni M. W.; Nel, Johanna H.; Steyn, Nelia P.; Kruger, H. Salome; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between added sugar and dietary diversity, micronutrient intakes and anthropometric status in a nationally representative study of children, 1–8.9 years of age in South Africa. Methods Secondary analysis of a national survey of children (weighted n = 2,200; non weighted n = 2818) was undertaken. Validated 24-hour recalls of children were collected from mothers/caregivers and stratified into quartiles of percentage energy from added sugar (% EAS). A dietary diversity score (DDS) using 9 food groups, a food variety score (FVS) of individual food items, and a mean adequacy ratio (MAR) based on 11 micronutrients were calculated. The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was also determined. Results Added sugar intake varied from 7.5–10.3% of energy intake for rural and urban areas, respectively. Mean added sugar intake ranged from 1.0% of energy intake in Quartile 1 (1–3 years) (Q1) to 19.3% in Q4 (4–8 years). Main sources of added sugar were white sugar (60.1%), cool drinks (squash type) (10.4%) and carbonated cool drinks (6.0%). Added sugar intake, correlated positively with most micronutrient intakes, DDS, FVS, and MAR. Significant negative partial correlations, adjusted for energy intake, were found between added sugar intake and intakes of protein, fibre, thiamin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin E, calcium (1–3 years), phosphorus, iron (4–8 years), magnesium and zinc. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in children aged 4–8 years in Q4 of %EAS than in other quartiles [mean (95%CI) % prevalence overweight 23.0 (16.2–29.8)% in Q4 compared to 13.0 (8.7–17.3)% in Q1, p = 0.0063]. Conclusion Although DDS, FVS, MAR and micronutrient intakes were positively correlated with added sugar intakes, overall negative associations between micronutrients and added sugar intakes, adjusted for dietary energy, indicate micronutrient dilution. Overweight/obesity was

  9. Intake of total and added sugars and nutrient dilution in Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-14

    This analysis aimed to examine the association between intake of sugars (total or added) and nutrient intake with data from a recent Australian national nutrition survey, the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS). Data from participants (n 4140; 51 % male) who provided 2×plausible 24-h recalls were included in the analysis. The values on added sugars for foods were estimated using a previously published ten-step systematic methodology. Reported intakes of nutrients and foods defined in the 2007ANCNPAS were analysed by age- and sex-specific quintiles of %energy from added sugars (%EAS) or %energy from total sugars (%ETS) using ANCOVA. Linear trends across the quintiles were examined using multiple linear regression. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the OR of not meeting a specified nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand per unit in %EAS or %ETS. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI z-score and total energy intake. Small but significant negative associations were seen between %EAS and the intakes of most nutrient intakes (all P<0·001). For %ETS the associations with nutrient intakes were inconsistent; even then they were smaller than that for %EAS. In general, higher intakes of added sugars were associated with lower intakes of most nutrient-rich, 'core' food groups and higher intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods. In conclusion, assessing intakes of added sugars may be a better approach for addressing issues of diet quality compared with intakes of total sugars.

  10. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  11. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  12. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite.

  13. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite. PMID:26619790

  14. Effect of caloric intake on Western-style diet-induced intestinal tumors in a mouse model for hereditary colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Itano, Osamu; Fan, Kunhua; Yang, Kan; Suzuki, Keiich; Quimby, Fred; Dong, Zhiqian; Jin, Bo; Edelmann, Winfried; Lipkin, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Increased caloric intake has been associated with increased risk for cancer of the large intestine. We studied caloric intake effect on tumor formation in Apc1638( N/+ ) mice, a preclinical model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice were fed a controlled AIN-76A diet or a new Western-style diet (NWD). Intestinal tumor development was evaluated after 6 mo of feeding 1) AIN-76A diet (fed ad libitum) vs. AIN-76A (caloric intake reduced 30%); 2) NWD (fed ad libitum) vs. NWD (caloric intake reduced 30%); and 3) AIN-76A (fed ad libitum) vs. NWD (paired-fed with NWD providing equal caloric intakes to AIN-76A). Intestinal tumor incidences were 78-100% with intergroup variation P > 0.05; however, tumor multiplicity responded differently to dietary treatment: 1) Tumor multiplicity was unchanged after AIN-76A (caloric intake reduced 30% vs. mice fed AIN-76A ad libitum); 2) tumor multiplicity was unchanged after NWD (caloric intake reduced 30% vs. NWD ad libitum); and 3) tumor multiplicity increased 130% after NWD was paired-fed with the same caloric intake as mice fed AIN-76A ad libitum (P < 0.05). Body weights showed no association with tumor development. Findings indicated modified nutrients in NWD were mainly responsible for increased tumors in mice fed NWD vs. AIN-76A in this preclinical mouse model for human FAP.

  15. Reduction in Added Sugar Intake and Improvement in Insulin Secretion in Overweight Latina Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jaimie N.; Ventura, Emily E.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Watanabe, Richard M.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, no study has assessed the effects of modifying carbohydrate intake (specifically decreasing added sugar and increasing fiber) on insulin secretion, nor has any study used an overweight Latino adolescent population. The objective of this study was to examine whether changes in dietary intake, specifically reductions in added sugar and/or increases in fiber, following a 12-week, modified carbohydrate dietary intervention, were associated with changes in insulin secretion and other metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants were 16 overweight (≥85th percentile BMI) Latina adolescent females (12–17 years) who completed a 12-week modified carbohydrate intervention. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day diet records, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin dynamics by an extended 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and post-intervention. Results There was a trend for unadjusted change in reported added sugar intake (% of kcals) to be associated with change in insulin secretion, i.e. IAUC (r = 0.47; p = 0.075), and this relationship became significant after controlling for age, baseline insulin secretion, added sugar and adiposity, and change in adiposity (r = 0.85; p < 0.05). No other changes in dietary variables were related to changes in insulin secretion or other metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Participants with greater reductions in added sugar intake showed significantly greater improvements in insulin secretion following a modified carbohydrate nutrition intervention. These findings suggest that interventions focused on decreasing added sugar intake have the potential to reduce type 2 diabetes risk in overweight youth. PMID:18370826

  16. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods.

  17. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. PMID:26794833

  18. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CA...

  19. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights. PMID:25084314

  20. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  1. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on feed intake and performance in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Furini, P M; Rufino, S R A; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on feed intake, heifer performance, and health of increasing the total solids (TS) content of liquid feed (whole milk) by adding increasing amounts of milk replacer powder during the pre- and postweaning periods. Crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=15 per group), which consisted of different TS concentrations: 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% of liquid feed. Heifers received 6 L of liquid feed per day, divided into 2 equal meals (0800 and 1600h) and provided in buckets, from 5 to 55d of age. From 56 to 59d of age, the total amount of liquid feed was reduced by half, maintaining only morning feedings. Heifers were weaned at 60d and monitored until 90d of age. Water and starter were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. Corn silage was included in the diet during the postweaning period (70d of age). Feed intake and health scores were evaluated daily. Body weight and body frame development were recorded weekly. Starting at 14d, ruminal pH was measured every other week. Laboratory analysis determined that the actual TS contents of the liquid feed were 13.5, 16.1, 18.2, and 20.4%, for the proposed 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% TS treatments, respectively. The osmolality of liquid feed treatments was 265 to 533mOsm/L. Intake of liquid feed was similar among treatments from 4wk of age. During the preweaning period, starter intake, fecal score, and days with diarrhea were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH at weaning averaged 6.2 and was similar among treatments. Increasing concentrations of TS in the liquid feed were associated with linear increases in average daily gain, final body weight, and growth performance, but linear decreases in feed efficiency. During the postweaning period, intake of starter, corn silage, and water were similar among treatments, as well as average daily gain and feed efficiency. Final body weight and growth performance during the postweaning period

  2. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern.

  3. [TV, overweight and nutritional surveillance. Ads content, food intake and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity. PMID:14969315

  4. Solid Fat and Added Sugar Intake Among U.S. Children

    PubMed Central

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role of location in U.S. children’s excess intake of energy from solid fat and added sugar, collectively referred to as SoFAS. Purpose The goal of the study was to compare the SoFAS content of foods consumed by children from stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants and to determine whether trends from 1994–2010 differ across these locations. Methods Children aged 2–18 years (n=22,103) from five nationally representative surveys of dietary intake from 1994 to 2010 were studied. SoFAS content was compared across locations for total intake and key foods. Regression models were used to test and compare linear trends across locations. Data were analyzed in 2012. Results The mean percentage of total energy intake consumed from each location that was provided by SoFAS remained above recommendations, despite significant improvements between 1994 and 2010 at stores (38.3% to 33.2%); schools (38.7% to 31.2%); and fast-food restaurants (43.3% to 34.6%). For each key food, SoFAS content decreased significantly at stores and schools, yet progress at schools was comparatively slower. Milk was higher in SoFAS at schools compared to stores due to shifts toward flavored milk at schools. Schools provided french fries that were higher in solid fat than store-bought versions and pizza that was not substantially different in SoFAS content than fast-food pizza. However, schools made substantially greater progress for sugar-sweetened beverages, as lower-sugar beverages replaced regular sodas. Key fast foods showed little improvement. Conclusions These findings can inform future strategies targeted to reduce SoFAS consumption in specific locations. PMID:24139767

  5. Trends in intakes and sources of solid fats and added sugars among US children and adolescents: 1994-2010

    PubMed Central

    Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective There are increasing global concerns about improving the dietary intakes of children and adolescents. In the United States (U.S.) the focus is on reducing energy from foods and beverages that provide empty calories from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). We examine trends in intakes and sources of solid fat and added sugars among U.S. 2- to 18- year olds from 1994-2010. Methods Data from five nationally representative surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals Surveys (1994-1996) and the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010) were used to examine key food sources and energy from solid fats and added sugars. Sample sizes ranged from 2,594 to 8,259 per survey period, for a total of 17,268 observations across the five surveys. Food files were linked over time to create comparable food groups and nutrient values. Differences were examined by age, race/ethnicity and family income. Results Daily intake of energy from SoFAS among U.S. 2-18 year olds decreased from 1994-2010, with declines primarily detected in the recent time periods. Solid fats accounted for a greater proportion of total energy intake than did added sugars. Conclusions Although the consumption of solid fats and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States decreased between 1994–1998 and 2009–2010, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits. PMID:23554397

  6. Association of δ¹³C in fingerstick blood with added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    PubMed

    Davy, Brenda M; Jahren, A Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L

    2011-06-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added-sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related comorbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of ¹³C, a naturally occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary dietary source, might be reflected in the δ¹³C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay because of its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the δ¹³C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Individuals aged 21 years and older (n = 60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire, sequence two: 4-day food intake record). Sequence one participants completed a food intake record at visit two, and nonfasting blood samples were obtained via routine fingersticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a beverage intake questionnaire at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for δ¹³C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. δ¹³C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added-sugar intake. Reported mean added-sugar consumption was 66 ± 5 g/day, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was 330 ± 53 g/day and 134 ± 25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick δ¹³C value was -19.94‰ ± 0.10‰, which differed by body mass index status. δ¹³C value was associated (all P < 0

  7. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague–Dawley rats—normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency. PMID:25966980

  8. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Tie-mei

    2016-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague-Dawley rats--normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency.

  9. A low-energy-dense diet adding fruit reduces weight and energy intake in women.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Maria Conceição; Sichieri, Rosely; Venturim Mozzer, Renzo

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of adding fruit or oats to the diet of free-living women on energy consumption and body weight. Fruit and oat cookies had the same amount of fiber and total calories ( approximately 200 kcal), but differed in energy density. We analyzed data from a clinical trial conducted in a primary care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty-nine women, ages ranging from 30 to 50 years, with body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m2, were randomly chosen to add three apples (0.63 kcal/g energy density) or three pears (0.64 kcal/g energy density) or three oat cookies (3.7 kcal/g energy density) to their usual diet for 10 weeks. Fiber composition was similar ( approximately 6g). Statistical analysis of the repeated measures of dietary composition and body weight were analyzed using mixed model procedures. Results showed a significant decrease in the energy density during the follow-up (-1.23 kcal/g, p<0.04, and -1.29 kcal/g, p<0.05) for apples and pears, respectively, compared to the oat group. The energy intake also decreased significantly (-25.05 and -19.66 kcal/day) for the apple and pear group, respectively, but showed a small increase (+0.93) for the oat group. Apples and pears were also associated (p<0.001) with weight reduction (-0.93 kg for the apple and -0.84 for the pear group), whereas weight was unchanged (+0.21; p=0.35) in the oat group. Results suggest that energy densities of fruits, independent of their fiber amount can reduce energy consumption and body weight over time.

  10. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  11. Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced intake of unsweetened ethanol.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Carrillo, Carmen A; Needham, Lance; Leibowitz, Sarah F; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2004-01-01

    Rats show signs of dependence on sugar when it is available intermittently, including bingeing, withdrawal, and cross-sensitization with amphetamine. In the current study, we sought to determine whether sugar-dependent rats would show increased intake of unsweetened ethanol and, conversely, whether intermittent access to ethanol would augment sugar consumption. In Experiment 1, with intermittent versus ad libitum access to ethanol, Sprague-Dawley rats were given escalating concentrations of ethanol (1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, and 9%) over the course of 20 days. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group, with 12-h daily access, consumed more 4%, 7%, and 9% ethanol during the first hour of access, and more 9% ethanol daily, than did rats in the ad libitum ethanol access group. In Experiment 2, with ethanol as a gateway to sugar intake, the rats from Experiment 1 were switched to 10% sucrose with 12-h daily access for 1 week. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group consumed significantly more sugar than was consumed by rats in a control group with no prior ethanol experience. In Experiment 3, with sugar as a gateway to ethanol to determine whether sugar dependence leads to increased ethanol intake, four groups were maintained for 21 days according to the following designations: intermittent access to sugar and chow, ad libitum access to sugar and chow, intermittent access to chow, or ad libitum access to chow. Four days later, all groups were switched to intermittent ethanol access, as described in Experiment 1. The group with intermittent access to sugar and chow consumed the most 9% ethanol, supporting the suggestion that sugar dependence alters a rat's proclivity to drink ethanol. These results may relate to the co-morbidity between binge-eating disorders and alcohol intake and the tendency of people abstaining from alcohol to consume excessive amounts of sugar. In conclusion, bingeing on either ethanol or sugar fosters intake of the other.

  12. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, S H F; Pasman, W J; Schaafsma, G; Kardinaal, A F M

    2003-05-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differences in weight loss were observed after use of aspartame as compared to sugar in obese subjects following a controlled energy-restricted diet. However, consumption of aspartame was associated with improved weight maintenance after a year. In two short-term studies in which energy intake was not restricted, substitution of sucrose by artificial sweeteners, investigated mostly in beverages, resulted in lower energy intake and lower body weight. Similarly, two short-term studies, comparing the effect of sucrose and starch on weight loss in obese subjects did not find differences when the total energy intake was equal and reduced. An ad libitum diet with complex carbohydrates resulted in lower energy intake compared to high-sugar diets. In two out of three studies, this was reflected in lower body weight in subjects consuming the complex carbohydrate diet. In conclusion, a limited number of relatively short-term studies suggest that replacing (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or by complex carbohydrates in an ad libitum diet might result in lower energy intake and reduced body weight. In the long term, this might be beneficial for weight maintenance. However, the number of studies is small and overall conclusions, in particular for the long term, cannot be drawn.

  13. Sex differences in acute energy intake regulation.

    PubMed

    Davy, Brenda M; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Orr, Jeb S

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if energy intake compensation is more accurate in males compared to females matched for age, habitual physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and dietary cognitive restraint. Healthy, nonobese young men (n=12) and women (n=12) were provided with an ad libitum lunch meal on two occasions. Thirty minutes prior to the lunch meals, subjects were given either a yogurt preload (YP; 500 mL, 1988 kJ, men; 375 mL, 1507 kJ, women) or no preload (NP). Energy intake at the two lunch meals was measured. Visual analog scales were used to assess changes in hunger and fullness. Blood glucose concentrations were also determined. Energy intake compensation for the YP was significantly more accurate in the male compared to the female subjects (86.2+/-5.0 vs. 73.6+/-4.8% compensation). There were no sex differences in perceptions of hunger and satiety. In the pooled sample, hunger ratings were significantly higher in the NP condition, but there were no significant differences in fullness ratings between test meals. In the YP condition, glycemic response to the preload and the ad libitum meal was significantly higher in males compared to females. These results suggest that under acute test meal conditions, energy intake regulation is more accurate in males. Relative inability to regulate energy intake may predispose females to gain weight over time.

  14. Phytosterol oxidation products (POP) in foods with added phytosterols and estimation of their daily intake: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Knol, Diny; Trautwein, Elke A.

    2016-01-01

    1 To evaluate the content of phytosterol oxidation products (POP) of foods with added phytosterols, in total 14 studies measuring POP contents of foods with added phytosterols were systematically reviewed. In non‐heated or stored foods, POP contents were low, ranging from (medians) 0.03–3.6 mg/100 g with corresponding oxidation rates of phytosterols (ORP) of 0.03–0.06%. In fat‐based foods with 8% of added free plant sterols (FPS), plant sterol esters (PSE) or plant stanol esters (PAE) pan‐fried at 160–200°C for 5–10 min, median POP contents were 72.0, 38.1, and 4.9 mg/100 g, respectively, with a median ORP of 0.90, 0.48, and 0.06%. Hence resistance to thermal oxidation was in the order of PAE > PSE > FPS. POP formation was highest in enriched butter followed by margarine and rapeseed oil. In margarines with 7.5–10.5% added PSE oven‐heated at 140–200°C for 5–30 min, median POP content was 0.3 mg/100 g. Further heating under same temperature conditions but for 60–120 min markedly increased POP formation to 384.3 mg/100 g. Estimated daily upper POP intake was 47.7 mg/d (equivalent to 0.69 mg/kg BW/d) for foods with added PSE and 78.3 mg/d (equivalent to 1.12 mg/kg BW/d) for foods with added FPS as calculated by multiplying the advised upper daily phytosterol intake of 3 g/d with the 90% quantile values of ORP. In conclusion, heating temperature and time, chemical form of phytosterols added and the food matrix are determinants of POP formation in foods with added phytosterols, leading to an increase in POP contents. Practical applications: Phytosterol oxidation products (POP) are formed in foods containing phytosterols especially when exposed to heat treatment. This review summarising POP contents in foods with added phytosterols in their free and esterified forms reveals that heating temperature and time, the chemical form of phytosterols added and the food matrix itself are determinants of POP

  15. Adding glycaemic index and glycaemic load functionality to DietPLUS, a Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator.

    PubMed

    Shyam, Sangeetha; Wai, Tony Ng Kock; Arshad, Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records.

  16. Protein leverage and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J

    2014-03-01

    Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F = 6.9, P < 0.0001) irrespective of whether carbohydrate (F = 0, P = 0.7) or fat (F = 0, P = 0.5) were the diluents of protein. The analysis strongly supports a role for protein leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks.

  17. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    PubMed

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat.

  18. Dose-dependent effects of beverage protein content upon short-term intake.

    PubMed

    Bertenshaw, Emma J; Lluch, Anne; Yeomans, Martin R

    2009-06-01

    Protein is considered to be more satiating than carbohydrate, quantified by energy adjustment and subjective appetite. However, the effect of increasing protein content upon short-term energy adjustment in beverage contexts is unclear. This study used a repeated-measures, cross-over design. 28 male volunteers (18-35 years) ate a standard breakfast in the laboratory and 210 min later consumed one of four preloads 30 min prior to an ad libitum pasta meal. Three of the preloads were isocaloric ( approximately 1155 kJ) mixed composition dairy fruit drinks (300 g) of low (13% protein energy/87% carbohydrate energy), medium (25% protein energy/75% carbohydrate energy) and high (50% protein energy/50% carbohydrate energy) protein content. The control drink was a low energy (328 kJ) alternative. Results indicated a dose response effect of preload protein level on intake (g) at the ad libitum meal. Ad libitum intake was: control (637.6g+/-39.7), low (596.9 g+/-40.5), medium (546.9 g+/-34.7), and high protein (533.6g+/-42.3). 100% compensation was not achieved; however total energy intake after the medium and high protein drinks did not differ significantly from control. There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings. Our findings support the view that increasing the protein composition of beverages relative to carbohydrate proportionally affects short-term subsequent intake in controlled conditions. PMID:19501753

  19. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S; Rippe, James M

    2015-10-23

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  20. TRH decreases food intake and increases water intake and body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yang-Ho; Hartzell, Diane; Azain, Michael J; Baile, Clifton A

    2002-09-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a key regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, which plays an important role in energy homeostasis and is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic TRH treatment on water intake, body temperature and feeding behavior in rats. TRH (0, 4, 16 and 64 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously twice a day (06:00 and 18:00 h) in rats fed ad libitum. TRH decreased food and water intake in the first few hours (P < .05). There was a small reduction in food intake over the 24-h period, but body weight was not affected (P < .05). When TRH was injected at a dose of 32 mg/kg twice a day (06:00 and 18:00 h) for 5 days, T(3) and T(4) concentrations were increased (P < .05). TRH increased body temperature for 2 h after injection. Water intake was markedly increased (P < .05), but there was no effect on food intake or body weight. These results show that whereas a single injection of TRH decreases short-term food and water intake in rats, repeated daily treatments stimulate water intake but not food intake, and, thus, the increase in water consumption is mediated independently of food intake under these conditions.

  1. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  2. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S; Rippe, James M

    2015-10-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  3. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  4. The impact of sugar sweetened beverage intake on hunger and satiety in minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shearrer, Grace E; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Belcher, Britini R; Daniels, Michael J; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2016-02-01

    Limited research has examined the effects of habitual SSB consumption on hunger/fullness ratings and gut hormones. This study hypothesized that high versus low intakes of habitual SSBs would result in greater hunger, decreased fullness, and a blunted gut hormone response, however the high versus low fiber group would exhibit decreased hunger and increased fullness. This was a randomized crossover feeding trial with 47 African American and Hispanic adolescents. The experiment included three 24-hour recalls to assess habitual dietary intake. During the test meal phase, subjects were served breakfast and lunch. During the ad libitum meal phase, subjects were fed an ad libitum dinner. During the test meal phase, blood was drawn every 30 minutes for 3 hours. During the ad libitum meal phase, hunger and fullness visual analogue scales were completed. For this analysis, subjects were grouped into the following habitual SSB categories: low SSB (≤1 SSB serv/day), medium SSB (>1 - <2 serv/day), and high SSB (≥2 serv/day). Fiber categories were created based on quartiles of intake. Mixed modeling was used to explore how SSB and fiber categories predicted ghrelin/PYY values and hunger/fullness ratings across time within and between test meals. The following a priori covariates included: sex, ethnicity, age, and obesity status. The low SSB group had higher fullness ratings over the ad libitum meal compared to the high SSB group (β =-0.49, CI=(-0.89, -0.08), p=0.02) and higher ghrelin concentrations than the medium and high SSB group over the test meal phase (β =-1.86, CI=(-2.81, -0.92), p<0.01). Habitual SSB intake appears to play a key role in moderating fullness responses possibly via ghrelin.

  5. The impact of sugar sweetened beverage intake on hunger and satiety in minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shearrer, Grace E; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Belcher, Britini R; Daniels, Michael J; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Davis, Jaimie N

    2016-02-01

    Limited research has examined the effects of habitual SSB consumption on hunger/fullness ratings and gut hormones. This study hypothesized that high versus low intakes of habitual SSBs would result in greater hunger, decreased fullness, and a blunted gut hormone response, however the high versus low fiber group would exhibit decreased hunger and increased fullness. This was a randomized crossover feeding trial with 47 African American and Hispanic adolescents. The experiment included three 24-hour recalls to assess habitual dietary intake. During the test meal phase, subjects were served breakfast and lunch. During the ad libitum meal phase, subjects were fed an ad libitum dinner. During the test meal phase, blood was drawn every 30 minutes for 3 hours. During the ad libitum meal phase, hunger and fullness visual analogue scales were completed. For this analysis, subjects were grouped into the following habitual SSB categories: low SSB (≤1 SSB serv/day), medium SSB (>1 - <2 serv/day), and high SSB (≥2 serv/day). Fiber categories were created based on quartiles of intake. Mixed modeling was used to explore how SSB and fiber categories predicted ghrelin/PYY values and hunger/fullness ratings across time within and between test meals. The following a priori covariates included: sex, ethnicity, age, and obesity status. The low SSB group had higher fullness ratings over the ad libitum meal compared to the high SSB group (β =-0.49, CI=(-0.89, -0.08), p=0.02) and higher ghrelin concentrations than the medium and high SSB group over the test meal phase (β =-1.86, CI=(-2.81, -0.92), p<0.01). Habitual SSB intake appears to play a key role in moderating fullness responses possibly via ghrelin. PMID:26606887

  6. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders. PMID:26455957

  7. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders.

  8. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  9. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation. PMID:25495101

  10. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Bennett, Lorianne J; Hurton, Evelyn; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P < 0.001). However, weight of raisins consumed was similar to potato chips (about 75 g) and lower compared to grapes and cookies (P < 0.009). Raisins and grapes led to lower cumulative food intake (breakfast + morning snack + lunch + after-school snack) (P < 0.001), while the cookies increased cumulative food intake (P < 0.001) compared to the other snacks. Grapes lowered appetite compared to all other snacks (P < 0.001) when expressed as a change in appetite per kilocalorie of the snack. Ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner, similar to grapes, compared to potato chips, and cookies in children 8 to 11 y old. PMID:23789934

  11. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Bennett, Lorianne J; Hurton, Evelyn; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P < 0.001). However, weight of raisins consumed was similar to potato chips (about 75 g) and lower compared to grapes and cookies (P < 0.009). Raisins and grapes led to lower cumulative food intake (breakfast + morning snack + lunch + after-school snack) (P < 0.001), while the cookies increased cumulative food intake (P < 0.001) compared to the other snacks. Grapes lowered appetite compared to all other snacks (P < 0.001) when expressed as a change in appetite per kilocalorie of the snack. Ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner, similar to grapes, compared to potato chips, and cookies in children 8 to 11 y old.

  12. Food intake rates of inactive fish are positively linked to boldness in three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Jolles, J W; Manica, A; Boogert, N J

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the link between personality and maximum food intake of inactive individuals, food-deprived three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus at rest in their home compartments were provided with ad libitum prey items. Bolder individuals ate considerably more than shyer individuals, even after accounting for body size, while sociability did not have an effect. These findings support pace-of-life theory predicting that life-history strategies are linked to boldness. PMID:26940195

  13. Food intake rates of inactive fish are positively linked to boldness in three‐spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus

    PubMed Central

    Manica, A.; Boogert, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the link between personality and maximum food intake of inactive individuals, food‐deprived three‐spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus at rest in their home compartments were provided with ad libitum prey items. Bolder individuals ate considerably more than shyer individuals, even after accounting for body size, while sociability did not have an effect. These findings support pace‐of‐life theory predicting that life‐history strategies are linked to boldness. PMID:26940195

  14. Variety enhances food intake in humans: role of sensory-specific satiety.

    PubMed

    Brondel, L; Romer, M; Van Wymelbeke, V; Pineau, N; Jiang, T; Hanus, C; Rigaud, D

    2009-04-20

    Twenty-one subjects were studied to evaluate the effect of renewal of sensory stimulations of previously eaten foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. The subjects ate French fries then brownie cakes ad libitum in three situations: "monotonous" - fries then brownies were consumed alone; "simultaneous" - condiments (ketchup and mayonnaise for the fries, vanilla cream and whipped cream for the brownies) were added during intakes; "successive" - after intake of fries alone, ketchup then mayonnaise were available with fries and, after intake of brownies alone, vanilla cream then whipped cream were offered with brownies. The quantities eaten in the "simultaneous" and "successive" situations were higher (p<0.001) than those in the "monotonous" one (1485+/-582 and 1682+/-777 kcal vs 1195+/-552 kcal, respectively). In the "successive" situation, hedonic ratings for fries diminished during intake but increased after the introduction of ketchup, leading to additional intake of fries. Similarly, hedonic ratings for brownies diminished during intake and increased after the introduction of vanilla cream leading to additional brownie intake (mayonnaise and whipped cream had no significant effect). Food variety, obtained by adding condiments can increase food intake in the short term. The mechanism by which food consumption is increased after the addition of condiments is introduced is at least partly related to the attenuation of sensory-satiety for a given food.

  15. Variety enhances food intake in humans: role of sensory-specific satiety.

    PubMed

    Brondel, L; Romer, M; Van Wymelbeke, V; Pineau, N; Jiang, T; Hanus, C; Rigaud, D

    2009-04-20

    Twenty-one subjects were studied to evaluate the effect of renewal of sensory stimulations of previously eaten foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. The subjects ate French fries then brownie cakes ad libitum in three situations: "monotonous" - fries then brownies were consumed alone; "simultaneous" - condiments (ketchup and mayonnaise for the fries, vanilla cream and whipped cream for the brownies) were added during intakes; "successive" - after intake of fries alone, ketchup then mayonnaise were available with fries and, after intake of brownies alone, vanilla cream then whipped cream were offered with brownies. The quantities eaten in the "simultaneous" and "successive" situations were higher (p<0.001) than those in the "monotonous" one (1485+/-582 and 1682+/-777 kcal vs 1195+/-552 kcal, respectively). In the "successive" situation, hedonic ratings for fries diminished during intake but increased after the introduction of ketchup, leading to additional intake of fries. Similarly, hedonic ratings for brownies diminished during intake and increased after the introduction of vanilla cream leading to additional brownie intake (mayonnaise and whipped cream had no significant effect). Food variety, obtained by adding condiments can increase food intake in the short term. The mechanism by which food consumption is increased after the addition of condiments is introduced is at least partly related to the attenuation of sensory-satiety for a given food. PMID:19419673

  16. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Kilkus, Jennifer M.; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-hour profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet, and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Methods Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24-hours during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Results Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep (p<0.01). Overall, sleep restriction did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in total calories from snacks by 328 ± 140 Kcal (p=0.03), primarily from carbohydrates (p=0.02). The increase in evening ghrelin during sleep restriction was correlated with higher consumption of calories from sweets (r=0.48, p=0.04). Conclusions Sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. The increase in ghrelin is associated with more consumption of calories. Elevated ghrelin may be a mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased food intake and the development of obesity. PMID:26467988

  17. Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J; Roe, Liane S; Kral, Tanja V E; Meengs, Jennifer S; Wall, Denise E

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how the portion size of a packaged snack affects energy intake of the snack and of the subsequent meal. On five separate days, 60 subjects (34 women and 26 men) ate an afternoon snack and dinner in individual cubicles. For each snack, subjects were served one of five packages of potato chips (28, 42, 85, 128, or 170 g), which they consumed ad libitum directly from the unlabelled, opaque package. Subjects returned to the lab three hours later for a standard dinner, which was also consumed ad libitum. Results showed that snack intake increased significantly as the package size increased for both males and females (p < 0.001). The combined energy intake from snack and dinner also increased as the package size increased. On average, when served the largest snack package compared to the smallest, subjects consumed an additional 596 kJ (143 kcal) at snack and dinner combined. Results from this study demonstrate that short-term energy intake increases with increasing package size of a snack. These data suggest that the availability of large packages of energy-dense snacks may be one of the environmental influences associated with excess energy intake. PMID:15036784

  18. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P

  19. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture.

    PubMed

    Karthikeya Sharma, T

    2015-11-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine's performance within the range studied.

  20. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeya Sharma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine’s performance within the range studied. PMID:26644918

  1. Energy and macronutrient intake in the Midwest Exercise Trial-2 (MET-2)

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Richard A.; Honas, Jeff J.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K.; Lambourne, Kathleen; Willis, Erik A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To examined the effect of exercise training over 10 months at 2 levels of energy expenditure on energy and macronutrient intake in a sample of previously sedentary, overweight/obese young adults. METHODS We conducted a 10 month trial in 141 young adults who were randomized to supervised exercise, 5 days•wk−1 at 400 and 600 kcal•session−1, or non-exercise control. Participants were instructed to maintain their usual ad-libitum diets. Energy/macronutrient intake was assessed at baseline, 3.5, 7 and 10 months over 7-day periods of ad libitum eating in a university cafeteria using digital photography. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria were assessed using multiple-pass recalls. RESULTS There were no significant between group differences in absolute energy intake at baseline or any other time point in the total sample or in men. In women, absolute energy intake was significantly greater in the 600 kcal•session−1 group vs. controls at both 3.5 and 7 months. There were no significant between group differences in relative energy intake (kcal•kg•d−1) at any time point in the total sample, men or women. There were no significant within or between group differences of change in absolute or relative energy intake in any of the 3 study groups in the total sample, or in men or women. No clinically relevant changes in macronutrient intake were observed. CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise training does not significantly alter energy or macronutrient intake in overweight and obese young adults. The possibility of a threshold level beyond which increased exercise energy expenditure fails to produce a more negative energy balance, and potential sex differences in the energy intake response to increased levels of exercise are potentially important. PMID:25574796

  2. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686

  3. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  4. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686

  5. Acute exercise and subsequent energy intake. A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Desbrow, Ben; Sabapathy, Surendran; Leveritt, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The precise magnitude of the effect of acute exercise on subsequent energy intake is not well understood. Identifying how large a deficit exercise can produce in energy intake and whether this is compensated for, is important in design of long-term exercise programs for weight loss and weight maintenance. Thus, this paper sought to review and perform a meta-analysis on data from the existing literature. Twenty-nine studies, consisting of 51 trials, were identified for inclusion. Exercise duration ranged from 30 to 120min at intensities of 36-81% VO(2)max, with trials ranging from 2 to 14h, and ad libitum test meals offered 0-2h post-exercise. The outcome variables included absolute energy intake and relative energy intake. A random effects model was employed for analysis due to expected heterogeneity. Results indicated that exercise has a trivial effect on absolute energy intake (n=51; ES=0.14, 95% CI: -0.005 to 0.29) and a large effect on relative energy intake (creating an energy deficit, n=25; ES=-1.35, 95% CI: -1.64 to -1.05). Despite variability among studies, results suggest that exercise is effective for producing a short-term energy deficit and that individuals tend not to compensate for the energy expended during exercise in the immediate hours after exercise by altering food intake.

  6. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  7. Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration...

  8. Inadequate food intake at high temperatures is related to depressed mitochondrial respiratory capacity.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K; Anderson, Graeme J; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-05-01

    Animals, especially ectotherms, are highly sensitive to the temperature of their surrounding environment. Extremely high temperature, for example, induces a decline of average performance of conspecifics within a population, but individual heterogeneity in the ability to cope with elevating temperatures has rarely been studied. Here, we examined inter-individual variation in feeding ability and consequent growth rate of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta acclimated to a high temperature (19°C), and investigated the relationship between these metrics of whole-animal performances and among-individual variation in mitochondrial respiration capacity. Food was provided ad libitum, yet intake varied ten-fold amongst individuals, resulting in some fish losing weight whilst others continued to grow. Almost half of the variation in food intake was related to variability in mitochondrial capacity: low intake (and hence growth failure) was associated with high leak respiration rates within liver and muscle mitochondria, and a lower coupling of muscle mitochondria. These observations, combined with the inability of fish with low food consumption to increase their intake despite ad libitum food levels, suggest a possible insufficient capacity of the mitochondria for maintaining ATP homeostasis. Individual variation in thermal performance is likely to confer variation in the upper limit of an organism's thermal niche and might affect the structure of wild populations in warming environments. PMID:26944497

  9. Validity of energy intake estimated by digital photography + recall in overweight and obese young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Washburn, Richard A.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent reports have questioned the adequacy of self-report measures of dietary intake as the basis for scientific conclusions regarding the associations of dietary intake and health, and reports have recommended the development and evaluation of better methods for the assessment of dietary intake in free-living individuals. We developed a procedure that utilized pre- and post-meal digital photographs in combination with dietary recalls (DP+R) to assess energy intake during ad libitum eating in a cafeteria setting. Objective To compare mean daily energy intake of overweight and obese young adults assessed by a DP+R method with mean total daily energy expenditure assessed by doubly labelled water (TDEEDLW). Methods Energy intake was assessed using the DP+R method in 91 overweight and obese young adults (age = 22.9±3.2 yrs., BMI=31.2 ± 5.6 kg·m2, female = 49%) over 7-days of ad libitum eating in a University cafeteria. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria (i.e., snacks, non-cafeteria meals) were assessed using multiple-pass recall procedures using food models and standardized, neutral probing questions. TDEEDLW was assessed in all participants over the 14-day period. Results The mean energy intakes estimated by DP+R and TDEEDLW were not significantly different (DP+R = 2912 ± 661 kcal/d; TDEEDLW = 2849 ± 748 kcal/d, p = 0.42). The DP+R method overestimated TDEEDLW by 63 ± 750 kcal/d (6.8 ± 28%). Conclusion Results suggest that the DP+R method provides estimates of energy intake comparable to those obtained by TDEEDLW. PMID:26122282

  10. A randomized study of oral nutritional support versus ad lib nutritional intake during chemotherapy for advanced colorectal and non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Evans, W K; Nixon, D W; Daly, J M; Ellenberg, S S; Gardner, L; Wolfe, E; Shepherd, F A; Feld, R; Gralla, R; Fine, S

    1987-01-01

    One hundred ninety-two patients with previously untreated metastatic cancer (102 non-small-cell lung cancer [NSCLC]; 90 colorectal cancer) were randomized to receive either ad lib nutritional intake (control group) or specific nutritional intervention during a 12-week study period when chemotherapy was administered. Those patients randomized to nutritional interventions were counselled to take oral nutrients with caloric intake equal to 1.7 to 1.95 times their basal energy expenditure, depending on their pretreatment nutritional status ("standard" group). An augmented group was counselled to have a caloric intake equivalent to that of the standard group but with 25% of calories provided as protein and additional supplements of zinc and magnesium. Counselling increased caloric intake in both tumor types but reduced weight loss in the short term only for lung cancer patients. Ninety-three NSCLC patients were evaluable for tumor response to vindesine and cisplatin. Overall, only 20.4% of the patients responded, and there were no significant differences in response rates, median time to progression, or overall duration of survival between the nutrition intervention groups and the control group. The tumor response rate to time-sequenced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and methotrexate in the 81 evaluable patients with colorectal cancer was only 14.8%, and no significant differences in tumor response rates were noted between the three groups. Furthermore, the median time to progression and overall duration of survival were not different for the control, standard, and augmented groups. Nutritional interventions using dietary counselling had no impact on the percent of planned chemotherapy dose administered, the degree of toxicity experienced by patients, or the frequency of treatment delays. A multivariate prognostic factor analysis demonstrated that for lung cancer, the percent of weight loss, serum albumin concentration, and presence of liver metastases were significant (P less

  11. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a time-dependent effect of the diet composition on energy homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chow ad libitum (chow group) or a choice diet with saturated fat, a 30% sugar solution, chow and tap water. The choice diet was provided either with all components ad libitum (AL), with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and a 30% sugar solution, but with access to saturated fat only during the light period (LF), or with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and saturated fat, but access to a 30% sugar solution only during the light period (LS). Caloric intake and body weight gain were monitored during 31 days. Energy expenditure was measured in the third week in calorimetric cages. All rats on a choice diet showed hyperphagia and gained more body weight compared to the chow group. Within the choice diet groups, rats on the LS diet were most food efficient (i.e. gained most body weight per ingested calorie) and showed a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) with an anti-phasic pattern, whereas no differences in locomotor activity or heat production were found. Collectively these data indicate that the timing of the diet composition affects food efficiency, most likely due to a shifted oxidation pattern, which can predispose for obesity. Further studies are underway to assess putative mechanisms involved in this dysregulation.

  12. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P<.001 for both), with the CLA and MCT resulting in a lower intake than the control throughout the day. There were no significant differences in satiety from visual analog scale scores (P>.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. PMID:27188898

  13. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P<.001 for both), with the CLA and MCT resulting in a lower intake than the control throughout the day. There were no significant differences in satiety from visual analog scale scores (P>.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance.

  14. Insulin Resistance, Hyperinsulinemia, and Energy Intake in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joan C.; Rutledge, Margaret S.; Kozlosky, Merel; Salaita, Christine G.; Gustafson, Jennifer K.; Keil, Margaret F.; Fleisch, Abby F.; Roberts, Mary D.; Ning, Cong; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between energy intake during a buffet meal and indices of insulin dynamics in overweight children. Study design 95 non-diabetic, overweight (BMI ≥95th percentile) children (age 10.3±1.4y) selected lunch from a 9,835kcal buffet eaten ad libitum after an overnight fast. The associations between energy intake and measures of insulin dynamics, in the post-absorptive state and during a 2h-hyperglycemic clamp, were determined. Covariates in the statistical model included race, sex, skeletal age, fat-free mass, fat mass, socioeconomic status, and number of foods in the buffet rated as acceptable. Results Energy intake was positively associated with the fasting homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR; β=0.24, p=0.042), fasting insulin/glucose ratio (β=0.24, p=0.044), 1st-phase insulin (β=0.23, p=0.032), and 1st-phase C-peptide (β=0.21, p=0.046); energy intake was negatively associated with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (SIclamp; β= -0.29, p=0.042). Each 10% decrease in SIclamp predicted 27 kcal greater energy intake. Conclusions Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are associated with greater energy intake after an overnight fast in overweight children. These associations suggest mechanisms whereby insulin resistance may contribute to excessive weight gain in children. PMID:18410761

  15. Raised FGF-21 and Triglycerides Accompany Increased Energy Intake Driven by Protein Leverage in Lean, Healthy Individuals: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gosby, Alison K.; Lau, Namson S.; Tam, Charmaine S.; Iglesias, Miguel A.; Morrison, Christopher D.; Caterson, Ian D.; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    A dominant appetite for protein drives increased energy intake in humans when the proportion of protein in the diet is reduced down to approximately 10% of total energy. Compensatory feeding for protein is apparent over a 1–2 d period but the mechanisms driving this regulation are not fully understood. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) has been identified as a candidate protein signal as levels increase in the circulation when dietary protein is low. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess whether changes in percent dietary protein over a 4 d ad libitum experimental period in lean, healthy participants influenced energy intake, metabolic health, circulating FGF-21 and appetite regulating hormones including ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin. Twenty-two lean, healthy participants were fed ad libitum diets containing 10, 15 and 25% protein, over three, 4 d controlled, in-house experimental periods. Reduced dietary protein intake from 25% to 10% over a period of 4 d was associated with 14% increased energy intake (p = 0.02) as previously reported, and a 6-fold increase in fasting circulating plasma FGF-21 levels (p<0.0001), a 1.5-fold increase in serum triglycerides (p<0.0001), and a 0.9-fold decrease in serum total cholesterol (p = 0.02). Serum HDL cholesterol was reduced with a reduction in dietary protein from 15% to 10% (p = 0.01) over 4 d but not from 25% to 10% (p = 0.1) and the change from baseline was not different between diets. Plasma fasting insulin levels following the 4 d study period were significantly lower following the 25% ad libitum study period compared to the 15% protein period (p = 0.014) but not the 10% protein period (p = 0.2). Variability in interstitial glucose during each study period increased with a decrease in dietary protein from 25% to 15% and 10% (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin were unchanged. Increases in energy intake, plasma FGF-21

  16. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-07-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 4 weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667 ± 77 kcal/day; 11,166 ± 322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396 ± 44 kcal/day (1658 ± 184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308 ± 41 kcal/day (1290 ± 172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230 ± 35 kcal/day (963 ± 147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake.

  17. The relationship between daytime and nighttime food intake in an obese night-eater.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, N J; Geliebter, A; Hashim, S A; Zammit, G K

    1994-03-01

    Some obese individuals consume food during awakenings from nighttime sleep. Three studies were conducted on a 28-year-old morbidly obese male with chronic sleeping complaints and insignificant weight loss, despite self-reported daily caloric restriction: I. For 3 mo, the subject recorded food intake for 24-h periods. Mean daytime intake was 1286 kcal +/- 386 (SD), and mean nighttime intake was 1036 kcal +/- 487 (SD). Caloric values of daytime and nighttime intake were negatively correlated, r = -0.22, df= 82, p < .05. II. Seven consecutive 24-h food intake recordings were obtained with an automated formula dispenser when the subject was an inpatient on a metabolic ward and received ad libitum formula as his sole food source. Mean daytime intake was 1245 +/- 662 (SD), and mean nighttime intake was 231 +/- 236 (SD). There was a non-significant negative correlation between daytime and nighttime intake, r = -0.32, df = 5, NS. III. The subject underwent polysomnographic studies on 2 non-consecutive nights, following the administration of either a low (600 kcal) or high (1800 kcal) daytime caloric condition. The subject, upon awakening from nighttime sleep, could eat from a platter of sandwich quarters placed at his bedside. The addition of 1200 kcal to daytime intake decreased nighttime intake by 654 kcal, or by 55% of the additional calories delivered during the day. The three studies (I, II, and III) show that daytime food intake can be negatively correlated with nighttime intake, and that daytime intake can influence nighttime intake in a documented obese night-eater.

  18. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THI<70 environment and pair-fed with heat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THI<70 environment with ad libitum feeding (TN-AL). A subsequent recovery period (7 d), with THI<70 and ad libitum feeding followed. Intake accounted for only part of the effects of heat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THI<70 and ad libitum intake were restored. Heat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy.

  19. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  20. Influence of fluid intake on soccer performance in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    Owen, Julian Andrew; Kehoe, Steven John; Oliver, Samuel James

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to examine the effect of fluid intake and dehydration on soccer-skill and high-intensity, intermittent-running performance after 90-minutes intermittent exercise (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test). Thirteen semi-professional, men soccer-players completed, the 90-minute intermittent exercise on three fluid trials: prescribed fluid equal to sweat loss (1.65 ± 0.17 litres: Mean ± s), ad libitum fluid (0.85 ± 0.19 litres) and no fluid. After the intermittent exercise, dehydration was equivalent to 0.3 ± 0.1, 1.1 ± 0.2, 2.5 ± 0.4% body mass loss on the prescribed-fluid, ad libitum-fluid and no-fluid trials, respectively. Soccer-skill and high-intensity, intermittent-running performance, as assessed by the Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, declined after the intermittent exercise compared with assessments made before. The decline in performance was however similar on all fluid trials (P > 0.34 for interactions and effect sizes were trivial or small). These effect sizes suggest larger fluid intakes had limited and inconsistent (both beneficial and detrimental) effects on performance. In conclusion the results suggest that fluid intake during 90-minutes of intermittent exercise and modest dehydration have limited and inconsistent effects on soccer passing and shooting skill or high-intensity, intermittent-running in a temperate environment.

  1. Investigations on the physiological controls of water and saline intake in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph F; Beltz, Terry G; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2003-08-01

    To examine the behavioral and neural control of body fluid homeostasis, water and saline intake of C57BL/6 mice was monitored under ad libitum conditions, after treatments that induce water or salt intake, and after ablation of the periventricular tissue of the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V). Mice have nocturnal drinking that is most prevalent after the offset and before the onset of lights. When given ad libitum choice, C57BL/6 mice show no preference for saline over water at concentrations up to 0.9% NaCl and a progressive aversion to saline above that concentration. Systemic hypertonic saline, isoproterenol, and polyethylene glycol treatments are dipsogenic; however, systemic ANG II is not. Intracerebroventricular injections of both hypertonic saline and ANG II are dipsogenic, and diuretic treatment followed by a short period of sodium deprivation induces salt intake. After ablation of the AV3V, mice can be nursed to recovery from initial adipsia and, similar to rats, show chronic deficits to dipsogenic treatments. Taken together, the data indicate that mechanisms controlling thirst in response to cellular dehydration in C57BL/6 mice are similar to rats, but there are differences in the efficacy of extracellular dehydration-related mechanisms, especially for systemic ANG II, controlling thirst and salt appetite.

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  3. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2008-07-01

    Although reducing eating rate is frequently advocated for control of food intake and thus body weight, empirical evidence is extremely limited and inconsistent. We sought to compare the impact of slow and quick eating rates on development of satiation in healthy women. In a randomized design, 30 healthy women (22.9+/-7.1 years; body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 22.1+/-2.9) were studied on two test visits to compare slow and quick eating rates. Satiation was examined as the main outcome, using the objective measure of energy intake during ad libitum meals. At designated times, subjects also rated perceived hunger, satiety, desire to eat, thirst and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Slow rates of ingestion led to significant decreases in energy intake (quick: 645.7+/-155.9 kcal; slow: 579.0+/-154.7 kcal; P<0.05) and significant increases in water consumption (quick: 289.9+/-155.1 g; slow: 409.6+/-205.8 g; P<0.05). Despite higher energy intake upon meal completion under the quick condition, satiety was significantly lower than the slow condition (P<0.05). Accordingly, the quick condition showed a lower Satiating Efficiency Index (quick: 0.1; slow: 0.2; P<0.05). After meal completion, pleasantness ratings tended to be higher under the slow condition (P=0.04; but not significant after Bonferroni adjustment). Ad libitum energy intake was lower when the meal was eaten slowly, and satiety was higher at meal completion. Although more study is needed, these data suggest that eating slowly may help to maximize satiation and reduce energy intake within meals.

  4. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  5. Seasonal Variation in the Voluntary Food Intake of Domesticated Cats (Felis Catus)

    PubMed Central

    Serisier, Samuel; Feugier, Alexandre; Delmotte, Sébastien; Biourge, Vincent; German, Alexander James

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous reports about seasonal cycles on food intake in animals but information is limited in dogs and cats. A 4-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted to assess differences in food intake in 38 ad-libitum-fed adult colony cats, of various breeds, ages and genders. Individual food intake was recorded on a daily basis, and the mean daily intake for each calendar month was calculated. These data were compared with climatic data (temperature and daylight length) for the region in the South of France where the study was performed. Data were analysed using both conventional statistical methods and by modelling using artificial neural networks (ANN). Irrespective of year, an effect of month was evident on food intake (P<0.001), with three periods of broadly differing intake. Food intake was least in the summer months (e.g. June, to August), and greatest during the months of late autumn and winter (e.g. October to February), with intermediate intake in the spring (e.g. March to May) and early autumn (e.g. September). A seasonal effect on bodyweight was not recorded. Periods of peak and trough food intake coincided with peaks and troughs in both temperature and daylight length. In conclusion, average food intake in summer is approximately 15% less than food intake during the winter months, and is likely to be due to the effects of outside temperatures and differences in daylight length. This seasonal effect in food intake should be properly considered when estimating daily maintenance energy requirements in cats. PMID:24759851

  6. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: effects of glucose intake, antimuscarinic activity and anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Celik, Pinar Yamantürk; Açikmeşe, Bariş

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to further evaluate the contribution of antimuscarinic activity and hypoglycaemia to the development of scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake. The effects of anticonvulsant drugs on convulsions were also evaluated. Antimuscarinic drugs atropine (3 mg/kg) and biperiden (10 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p) to animals fasted for 48 h. Like scopolamine, both drugs induced convulsions after animals were allowed to eat ad libitum. Another group of animals was given glucose (5%) in drinking water during fasting. These animals, although they had normoglycaemic blood levels after fasting, also developed convulsions after treated with scopolamine i.p. (3 mg/kg), atropine (3 mg/kg) or biperiden (10 mg/kg) and allowed to eat ad libitum. Among the drugs studied, only valproate (340 mg/kg), gabapentin (50 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) markedly reduced the incidence of scopolamine-induced convulsions. The present results indicate that antimuscarinic activity, but not hypoglycaemia, underlies these convulsions which do not respond to most of the conventional anticonvulsant drugs.

  7. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  8. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:27235735

  9. Consuming polydextrose in a mid-morning snack increases acute satiety measurements and reduces subsequent energy intake at lunch in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hull, Sarah; Re, Roberta; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Viscione, Luisa; Wickham, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Polydextrose (Litesse®, DuPont) is a polysaccharide that is partially fermented in the colon. Evidence suggests that polydextrose increases satiety when consumed over several weeks; however studies assessing its acute effects on satiety are lacking. This study therefore aimed to assess the impact of different doses of polydextrose on satiety and energy intake at subsequent meals during a test day. Three yogurt-based drinks containing different amounts of polydextrose (0, 6.25 and 12.5g) were tested using a randomised, single-blinded, placebo controlled, cross-over design. Thirty-four healthy male and female volunteers were provided with a standard breakfast, then consumed the test product mid-morning, 90min before an ad libitum lunch, which was followed by an ad libitum dinner. Visual analogue scales were used to measure subjective ratings of appetite, liking and discomfort. Consuming 6.25 and 12.5g polydextrose increased satiety and decreased appetite compared to control immediately after consumption. A reduction in energy intake (218.8kJ) at lunchtime was observed for 12.5g polydextrose. This reduction in energy intake was not compensated for at dinner. This study suggests that polydextrose may aid in increasing satiety feelings post consumption and also reduce energy intake as a result. PMID:22885981

  10. FTO Polymorphisms Moderate the Association of Food Reinforcement with Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Jennifer L.; Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles S.; Allison, David B.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2015-01-01

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251K bp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9 - 7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. Rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. PMID:24768648

  11. FTO polymorphisms moderate the association of food reinforcement with energy intake.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Jennifer L; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-10

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251kbp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9-7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. PMID:24768648

  12. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    PubMed

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior. PMID:22963737

  13. Marginal B-6 intake affects protein synthesis in rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, D.A.; Kretsch, M.J.; Young, L.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1986-03-05

    The role of vitamin B-6 in amino acid metabolism suggests that inadequate B-6 intake may impair protein synthesis. To test this hypothesis, 30 male rats (initially 227 g) were fed AIN76A diets that contained control, marginal or devoid levels of B-6 (5.8, 1.2 or 0.1 mg B-6/kg diet, by analysis) ad libitum for 9 weeks. Protein synthesis rates (PSRs) were measured in liver, kidney and calf muscle using a flooding dose of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. Marginal and control groups ate and gained weight at similar rates. The marginal diet did not elevate xanthurenic acid (XA) excretion following a tryptophan load. However, marginal B-6 intake did depress liver PSR by 29% (2182 vs 1549 mg/day, P<.05), liver wet weight by 15% (19.0 vs 16.1 g, P<.05) and muscle PSR by 23% (3.0 vs 2.3%/day, P<.10). Unexpectedly, marginal B-6 intake increased PSR in kidney 47% (90 vs 132 mg/day, P<.05). The devoid diet, which increased XA excretion following a tryptophan load by more than 3-fold, depressed PSRs 56% in liver and 31% in muscle. However, the devoid diet decreased food intake by 40% (25.0 vs 15.0 g/day); therefore effects of devoid B-6 intake on PSRs may have been confounded by deficits in protein-energy intake in devoid vs control groups. These data demonstrate that marginal B-6 intake alters protein synthesis in tissues of the rat.

  14. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  15. Episodic future thinking reduces delay discounting and energy intake in children.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Said, Michele; Stanton, Christina M; Epstein, Leonard H

    2015-08-01

    Discounting of larger future rewards in favor of smaller immediate rewards is known as delay discounting. High delay discounting or a bias towards immediate gratification impedes self-regulation and is associated with maladaptive eating behaviors. Children in general show greater delay discounting than adults. Obese children in particular, have greater difficulty delaying gratification for edible rewards. Episodic future thinking (EFT) which is mental self-projection to pre-experience future events reduces delay discounting and reduces energy intake in overweight/obese adults. However, these EFT effects have not been examined in children. We evaluated the effects of EFT versus control episodic recent thinking (ERT) on delay discounting and ad libitum energy intake while thinking about episodic cues in 42 overweight/obese 9 to 14year olds. Results showed that EFT led to less delay discounting and lowered energy intake, and EFT had the greatest effect on reducing energy intake in children with a higher desire to restrict food intake. This suggests that EFT may be useful in pediatric obesity treatment programs to help children regulate energy intake.

  16. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    PubMed

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury. PMID:25523027

  17. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    PubMed

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury.

  18. Digestibility, apparent mineral absorption, and voluntary intake by horses fed alfalfa, tall fescue, and caucasian bluestem.

    PubMed

    Crozier, J A; Allen, V G; Jack, N E; Fontenot, J P; Cochran, M A

    1997-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), low-endophyte (< 5%) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica [Trin.] C.E. Hubbard) were fed as chopped hay to six Arabian geldings (BW 441 kg; SE 2) in intake and digestibility experiments to determine nutritional value for horses at maintenance. Each experimental design was a replicated Latin square. Alfalfa was higher in DM and CP digestibility, IVDMD, apparent absorption of Ca, K, and S, and voluntary intake than the grasses (P < .05). Caucasian bluestem was higher in Zn but was lower in CP, TNC, Mg, P, K, S, and Cu concentrations than tall fescue. Crude protein digestibility and apparent absorption of Mg, K, and S were higher (P < .05) for tall fescue than for caucasian bluestem. Geldings fed alfalfa for ad libitum intake had higher serum concentrations of vitamin A, blood urea nitrogen, P, S, and Cu than geldings fed grass hays. Serum Zn was higher (P < .05), whole blood Se tended to be higher (P < .06), and BUN was lower (P < .05) in geldings fed caucasian bluestem than in those fed tall fescue. All forages met requirements for CP, Ca, Mg, K, and Fe when fed for ad libitum intake but were deficient in Cu for horses at maintenance. Caucasian bluestem was borderline in CP and was deficient in P but was the only forage that met the Zn requirement for the horses. Based on these results, caucasian bluestem could be a useful hay for horses but may require supplementation of CP and P. PMID:9250529

  19. Influence of nutrients on feed intake and condition of captive canvasbacks in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.

  20. The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Ellis, Vanessa

    2010-10-01

    Different dietary proteins vary in their ability to influence satiety and reduce food intake. The present study compared the effects of four protein meals, whey, tuna, turkey and egg albumin, on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations as well as on appetite measures and energy intake in twenty-two lean, healthy men. This was a randomised, cross-over design study where participants consumed four liquid test meals on separate occasions followed by the collection of regular blood samples (fasting, +30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min). They were then offered a buffet meal 4 h later. The blood glucose response after the consumption of the test meal, as an incremental area under the curve (AUC), was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the turkey (P < 0.023) and egg (P < 0.001) meals, but it was not lower than with the tuna meal (P < 0.34). The AUC blood insulin after the consumption of the test meal was significantly higher with the whey meal than with the tuna, turkey and egg meals (all P < 0.001). The AUC rating of hunger was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the tuna (P < 0.033), turkey (P < 0.001) and egg (P < 0.001) meals. Mean energy intake at the ad libitum meal was significantly lower (P < 0.001) with the whey meal than with the tuna, egg and turkey meals. There was a strong relationship between self-rated appetite, postprandial insulin response and energy intake at lunch. Whey protein meal produced a greater insulin response, reduced appetite and decreased ad libitum energy intake at a subsequent meal compared with the other protein meals, indicating a potential for appetite suppression and weight loss in overweight or obese individuals.

  1. The effect of very low food intake on digestive physiology and forage digestibility in horses.

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Schiele, K; Ortmann, S; Fritz, J; Codron, D; Hummel, J; Kienzle, E

    2014-02-01

    Equid digestion is often conceptualized as a high-throughput/low-efficiency system, in particular compared with ruminants. It is commonly assumed that ruminants have an advantage when resources are limited; the effect of low food intake on digestive physiology of horses has, however, not been explored to our knowledge. We used four adult ponies [initial body mass (BM) 288 ± 65 kg] in two subsequent trials with grass hay-only diets [in dry matter (DM): hay1, mid-early cut, crude protein (CP) 10.5%, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) 67.6%; hay2, late cut, CP 5.8%, NDF 69.5%], each fed subsequently at four different dry matter intake (DMI) levels: ad libitum and at 75, 55 and 30 g/kg(0.75) /day. We particularly expected digesta mean retention times (MRT) to increase, and hence fibre digestibility to increase, with decreasing DMI. Ponies maintained BM on the first, but lost BM and body condition on DMI55 and DMI30. MRTs were negatively correlated to DMI and ranged (for particles <2 mm) from 23/31 h (hay1/2) on the ad libitum to 38/48 h on DMI30. Digestibilities of DM, nutrients and fibre components decreased from DMI75 to DMI30; apparent digestibilities of organic matter and NDF (hay1/2) dropped from 47/43% and 42/37%, respectively, on the ad libitum DMI to 35/35% and 30/28% on DMI30. Additional differences evident between the two hays included a higher estimated 'true' protein digestibility for hay1 and finer faecal particles on hay2; there were no differences in faecal particle size between intake levels. The results suggest that below a certain food intake threshold, the major digestive constraint is not fermentation time but nutrient supply to gut bacteria. The threshold for such an effect probably varies between feeds and might differ between ruminants and equids.

  2. Maternal Influence, Not Diabetic Intrauterine Environment, Predicts Children’s Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Gluck, Marci E.; Venti, Colleen A.; Lindsay, Robert S.; Knowler, William C.; Salbe, Arline D.; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Offspring of women with diabetes during pregnancy are at increased risk of accelerated weight gain and diabetes, effects partly mediated by the in utero environment. Whether differences in energy intake can explain this increased risk is unknown. We compared diet composition, eating patterns, and physiological responses to a mixed meal in 63 nondiabetic children whose mothers developed diabetes either before (offspring of diabetic mothers, ODMs, n = 31, age 9.2 ± 1.7 years, mean ± s.d.) or after (offspring of prediabetic mothers, OPDMs, n = 32, 9.6 ± 1.3 years) the pregnancy. After consuming a standardized diet for 3 days, participants ate ad libitum from a computer-operated vending machine stocked with foods they had rated favorably on a food preferences questionnaire. Mothers and children always ate together. A subset of 35 children underwent a meal test with blood draws to measure insulin and glucose. Children’s energy intake was associated with age, sex, and percent body fat, and strongly with mother’s energy intake (r = 0.57, P < 0.0001). After adjustment for these variables, there were no differences between ODM and OPDM in energy intake or diet composition. The insulin area under the curve (AUC) following the meal test was significantly correlated with total energy intake but not after adjustment for the above covariates. Differences in energy intake were not observed between ODM and OPDM. Mother’s energy intake was a significant predictor of children’s energy intake. These findings indicate that in this subset of children in a controlled in-patient setting, maternal influence may outweigh intrauterine effects on energy intake. PMID:19148117

  3. Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Porikos, K P; Booth, G; Van Itallie, T B

    1977-10-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of a new experimental approach for studying the effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals. Eight obese subjects were studied as inpatients on a metabolic unit for 15 days during which time they were unaware that their food intake was being monitored. A platter method of food presentation encouraged ad libitum ingestion. Caloric dilution was achieved by replacing sucrose-containing products with aspartame-sweetened analogues in an otherwise normal diet. During the base-line period the subjects spontaneously ate sufficient conventional food to maintain or even slightly increase body weight. Covert substitution of aspartame-sweetened products for their sucrose counterparts resulted in an immediate reduction in spontaneous energy intake of approximately 25%. The aspartame analogues were as well accepted as their conventional counterparts, as indicated by the equal quantity of each consumed. These preliminary results demonstrate that, in a metabolic ward setting, it is possible to maintain the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals at levels sufficient to preserve body weight and arbitrarily to decrease those levels of intake by 25% or more through covert changes in the caloric density of the diet.

  4. Acute Heat Stress and Reduced Nutrient Intake Alter Intestinal Proteomic Profile and Gene Expression in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Lonergan, Steven M.; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress and reduced feed intake negatively affect intestinal integrity and barrier function. Our objective was to compare ileum protein profiles of pigs subjected to 12 hours of HS, thermal neutral ad libitum feed intake, or pair-fed to heat stress feed intake under thermal neutral conditions (pair-fed thermal neutral). 2D-Differential In Gel Electrophoresis and gene expression were performed. Relative abundance of 281 and 138 spots differed due to heat stress, compared to thermal neutral and pair-fed thermal neutral pigs, respectively. However, only 20 proteins were different due to feed intake (thermal neutral versus pair-fed thermal neutral). Heat stress increased mRNA expression of heat shock proteins and protein abundance of heat shock proteins 27, 70, 90-α and β were also increased. Heat stress reduced ileum abundance of several metabolic enzymes, many of which are involved in the glycolytic or TCA pathways, indicating a change in metabolic priorities. Stress response enzymes peroxiredoxin-1 and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A were decreased in pair-fed thermal neutral and thermal neutral pigs compared to heat stress. Heat stress increased mRNA abundance markers of ileum hypoxia. Altogether, these data show that heat stress directly alters intestinal protein and mRNA profiles largely independent of reduced feed intake. These changes may be related to the reduced intestinal integrity associated with heat stress. PMID:26575181

  5. Individual intake of free-choice mineral mix by grazing beef cows may be less than typical formulation assumptions and form of selenium in mineral mix affects blood Se concentrations of cows and their suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer D; Burris, Walter R; Boling, James A; Matthews, James C

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the individual ad libitum intake of mineral mix by beef cows managed under a year-long, fall-calving, forage-based production regimen and (2) if Se form in the mineral mix affected the blood Se concentrations of cows and suckling calves. Twenty-four late-gestation (6 to 8 months) Angus-cross cows (2.7 ± 0.8 years; body weight [BW] = 585 ± 58 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned (n = 8) to a mineral supplement treatment (TRT) containing 35 ppm Se as either inorganic (ISe; sodium selenite), organic (OSe; Sel-Plex®), or a 1:1 combination of ISe/OSe (MIX). Cows commonly grazed a 10.1-ha predominately tall fescue pasture and had individual ad libitum access to TRT using in-pasture Calan gates. Cows calved from August to November and calves had common ad libitum access to creep feed and a mineral supplement that lacked Se. Cow jugular blood was taken at 28-day intervals (13 periods) and calf blood was taken with cows from birth through weaning. Individual cow mineral mix (mean = 54.0 ± 7.0 g/day, range = 97.3 to 27.9 ± 7.4 g/day) and Se (mean = 1.82 ± 0.25 mg/day, range = 3.31 to 0.95 ± 0.25 mg/day) intakes were affected by period (P < 0.0001), but not by cow Se TRT (P > 0.30). Cow blood Se (0.109 to 0.229 ± 0.01 μg/mL) was affected (P < 0.002) by period, Se form, and their interaction, with ISe < MIX for periods 8 and 11, ISe < OSe for all periods except period 1, and MIX < OSe for periods 2 to 4, 7, 8, 10, and 12. Calf blood Se (in micrograms Se per milliliter) was correlated with cow blood Se and affected (P < 0.0001) by cow Se TRT, with ISe (0.07 to 0.11) < MIX (0.10 to 0.15) = OSe (0.16 to 0.19). These data reveal that (1) mean supplemental ad libitum cow mineral intake was 36% less than the typical formulation intake expectations (85 g/day) and, correspondingly, mean supplemental Se intake was 33% less than that allowed by the FDA and (2) cow Se TRT differentially affected both cow and calf blood

  6. Relationships between acceptance of sour taste and fruit intakes in 18-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Blossfeld, Ivonne; Collins, Aoife; Boland, Suzanne; Baixauli, Raquel; Kiely, Mairead; Delahunty, Conor

    2007-11-01

    The present study examined whether infants show an acceptance for extreme sour tastes and whether acceptance of sour taste is related to infants' fruit intake. Fruit intake of fifty-three infants at 6, 12 and 18 months was assessed using 3 d food records. Sour acceptance of these infants was studied at 18.1 (SD 1.5) months. Acceptance for four solutions differing in citric acid concentrations (0.00 M, 0.013 M, 0.029 M and 0.065 M) was measured by allowing infants ad libitum ingestion of each solution over brief time periods. The base solution to which citric acid was added was blackcurrant squash diluted in water. Infants' relative intake of each solution was used as a measure of sour acceptance. At 18 months, twelve infants readily accepted the two highest citric acid concentrations, whereas the remaining infants rejected these. Infants who accepted the most sour solutions had a significantly higher fruit intake (P = 0.025) and a higher fruit variety (P = 0.015) at 18 months than the infants who rejected the highly sour taste. Furthermore, infants who accepted the most sour solutions consumed fruits more frequently at 18 months (chi2 5.1; P = 0.024). Infants who accepted the sourest solutions also had a higher fruit intake at 6 months, and a significantly higher increase in their fruit intake from 12 to 18 months. This is the first scientific study that demonstrates the acceptance of sour tastes in some infants at the age of 18 months. Furthermore, the present results suggest a relationship between acceptance of sour tastes and infants' fruit intakes.

  7. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  8. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  9. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. PMID:23207186

  10. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation.

  11. Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L

    2011-10-01

    Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum

  12. Protein and energy intake during weaning. III. Effects on plasma amino acids.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, I; Borulf, S; Abildskov, K; Heird, W; Räihä, N

    1988-01-01

    Preprandial plasma amino acid concentrations were measured at 5 and 6 months of age in 30 healthy term infants who were either breast-fed ad libitum or fed one of two different formulas (1.9 g of protein per 100 ml with a whey:casein ratio of 50:50; 2.9 g of protein per 100 ml with a whey:casein ratio of 20:80) ad libitum, plus the same supplementary food regimen. The mean plasma concentrations of total amino acids and especially total essential amino acids were higher in the formula-fed infants. Those fed formula also had plasma concentrations of methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, leucine, valine, threonine, aspartate, proline, lysine, tyrosine, histidine that exceeded plasma concentrations of breast-fed infants by 2 or more standard deviations. Concentrations of arginine, glutamic acid, glutamine, ornithine, serine, cystine did not differ and taurine was higher in the breast-fed infants. The data indicate that formulas in common use today during weaning (4-6 months) provide excessive protein intakes when compared to the breast-fed control infants. A lowering of protein concentration and a further manipulation of the whey:casein ratio is necessary if plasma amino acid patterns similar to those found in breast-fed infants is to be achieved with artificial feeding.

  13. Vegetable variety: an effective strategy to increase vegetable intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Meengs, Jennifer S; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-08-01

    Effective strategies are needed to increase vegetable intake in accordance with health recommendations. Previous research has shown that increasing the variety of foods leads to increased consumption, yet this strategy has not been investigated for promoting vegetable intake. This crossover study, conducted in 2008 and 2009, tested whether filling half the plate with a variety of vegetables influences vegetable consumption and meal energy intake. Once a week for 4 weeks, a meal of pasta and cooked vegetables was consumed ad libitum by 66 adults (34 women, 32 men). The meals were varied in the type of vegetables offered: at three meals 600 g of a single vegetable was served (broccoli, carrots, or snap peas) and at one meal 200 g of each of the three vegetables was served side by side. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model with repeated measures. In this study, serving a variety of vegetables increased vegetable intake at the meal (P<0.0001). Subjects ate more vegetables when served the variety than when served any single type; the mean increase was 48±6 g, or more than one-half serving. This increase remained significant when intake of the variety of vegetables was compared with the preferred vegetable of each participant (mean 25±8 g; P=0.002). Vegetable intake was not significantly related to energy intake at the meal. The results of this study demonstrate that increasing the variety of low-energy-dense vegetables served at a meal can be used as a strategy to increase vegetable intake.

  14. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meghan A; Green, Benjamin P; James, Lewis J; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H₂O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H₂O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: -2.28, -0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H₂O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H₂O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  15. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meghan A; Green, Benjamin P; James, Lewis J; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-06-08

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H₂O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H₂O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: -2.28, -0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H₂O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H₂O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage.

  16. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan A.; Green, Benjamin P.; James, Lewis J.; Stevenson, Emma J.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H2O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H2O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: −2.28, −0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H2O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H2O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  17. Molecular weight of barley β-glucan does not influence satiety or energy intake in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Miriam E; Thondre, Pariyarath S

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the ability of high molecular weight barley β-glucan with increased viscosity to attenuate glycemic response, gastric emptying and in vitro starch digestion. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of molecular weight of barley β-glucan in a semisolid meal on energy intake and subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption in healthy male subjects. In a randomised, controlled, crossover trial, 23 healthy male subjects (BMI 24.2 ± 2.5 kg/m²) tested soups equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate containing high or low molecular weight barley β-glucan (~3 g) as preload after a standard breakfast. The viscosity of soup with high molecular weight β-glucan was 350 Pa·s whereas the soup with low molecular weight β-glucan had a viscosity of 100 Pa·s. Appetite ratings before and for two hours after consumption of β-glucan soups and subsequent ad libitum energy intake at lunch were recorded and compared with a control soup with no β-glucan. There was no significant difference in food intake at the ad libitum meal or for the remainder of the day following consumption of the three test foods (p > 0.05). Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in hunger, fullness, desire to eat or prospective food consumption following β-glucan soups. The current study provides evidence that the molecular weight of barley β-glucan may not impact on perceived feelings of hunger or food intake at the current dose and viscosity.

  18. Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual Motivation and Food Hoarding, but not Sexual Performance and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Klingerman, Candice M.; Williams, Wilbur P.; Simberlund, Jessica; Brahme, Nina; Prasad, Ankita; Schneider, Jill E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin, and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food-restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of energetically challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH. PMID:22649396

  19. Individual Effects of Estradiol and Progesterone on Food Intake and Body Weight in Ovariectomized Binge Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhiping; Geary, Nori; Corwin, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    The individual roles of estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) in the control of food intake and body weight in ovariectomized (OVX) rats were investigated. Six groups of OVX Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were assigned to one of three 4-day cyclic hormone treatments: two groups were treated with E benzoate; two groups were treated with P; two groups were treated with both (EP). All rats had continuous access to chow and water throughout this 4-week study. One group of rats within each hormone treatment condition was fed chow ad libitum, and the second was subjected to a binge schedule: chow ad libitum plus 1-h access to an optional fat source on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. A seventh OVX group (n = 8) received the oil vehicle and chow. This group was included to monitor body weight and to verify hormone efficacy. The main findings were: (1) relative to rats receiving only P, E alone or EP attenuated 24-h chow intake tonically and cyclically, i.e. intake on Day 4, which models estrus, was lower in E and EP than in P, and also was lower than intake on Day 2, which models diestrus. In contrast, (2) neither E nor EP detectably affected optional fat intake during the 1-h fat access period relative to rats receiving only P when data were collapsed across the entire study. However, (3) E and EP had large effects on fat intake relative to P during the 1-h fat access period at the start of the study, but not at the end, when bingeing was fully established. (4) E and EP led to lower and apparently normal levels of body weight compared to rats receiving only the oil vehicle or only P. These results indicate that (1) administration of E alone has similar effects as co-administration of E and P on feeding and body weight in rats bingeing on fat, (2) with or without P, the inhibitory effects of E on meal size are compromised when bingeing on fat, and (3) the effects of E on binge size change dynamically as bingeing develops. PMID:21801735

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. PMID:25636235

  1. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMI<25 kg/m2) and seventy-one obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were given three meals per d under ad libitum conditions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental labelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.

  2. Fluid intake rates in ants correlate with their feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Roces, F

    2003-04-01

    This study investigates the techniques of nectar feeding in 11 different ant species, and quantitatively compares fluid intake rates over a wide range of nectar concentrations in four species that largely differ in their feeding habits. Ants were observed to employ two different techniques for liquid food intake, in which the glossa works either as a passive duct-like structure (sucking), or as an up- and downwards moving shovel (licking). The technique employed for collecting fluids at ad libitum food sources was observed to be species-specific and to correlate with the presence or absence of a well-developed crop in the species under scrutiny. Workers of ponerine ants licked fluid food during foraging and transported it as a droplet between their mandibles, whereas workers of species belonging to phylogenetically more advanced subfamilies, with a crop capable of storing liquids, sucked the fluid food, such as formicine ants of the genus Camponotus. In order to evaluate the performance of fluid collection during foraging, intake rates for sucrose solutions of different concentrations were measured in four ant species that differ in their foraging ecology. Scaling functions between fluid intake rates and ant size were first established for the polymorphic species, so as to compare ants of different size across species. Results showed that fluid intake rate depended, as expected and previously reported in the literature, on sugar concentration and the associated fluid viscosity. It also depended on both the species-specific feeding technique and the extent of specialization on foraging on liquid food. For similarly-sized ants, workers of two nectar-feeding ant species, Camponotus rufipes (Formicinae) and Pachycondyla villosa (Ponerinae), collected fluids with the highest intake rates, while workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Myrmicinae) and a predatory ant from the Rhytidoponera impressa-complex (Ponerinae) did so with the lowest rate. Calculating the

  3. The effects of subacute ruminal acidosis on sodium bicarbonate-supplemented water intake for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cottee, G; Kyriazakis, I; Widowski, T M; Lindinger, M I; Cant, J P; Duffield, T F; Osborne, V R; McBride, B W

    2004-07-01

    Four multiparous ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in an 8-wk experiment utilizing a repeated measures block design to determine the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on supplemented water intake. Animals were subjected to SARA, which was induced by replacing 25% of the ad libitum intake of the total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with 50:50 wheat:barley pellets utilizing a grain challenge model. Cows had free choice from 2 water bowls. One bowl contained water with sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplemented at 2.5 g/L. The other bowl contained unsupplemented water. Ruminal pH was monitored continuously during the trial using indwelling pH probes. The induction of SARA reduced daily mean ruminal pH and increased the duration when ruminal pH was below 6. The total mixed ration intake by the cows decreased during the SARA periods. The overall preference for SB-supplemented water did not change, as the preference ratio was similar during the control and SARA periods. During the period of greatest ruminal pH depression, total water intake was higher during the SARA periods than during the control periods. During SARA, there was no difference in the preference of a SB water source to unsupplemented water. During the period of day with the most severe ruminal pH depression, the lactating dairy cows subjected to SARA increased their total water intake. PMID:15328239

  4. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution.

  5. Initial evidence that GLP-1 receptor blockade fails to suppress postprandial satiety or promote food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Melhorn, Susan J; Tyagi, Vidhi; Smeraglio, Anne; Roth, Christian L; Schur, Ellen A

    2014-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has incretin effects that are well-documented, but the independent role of GLP-1 action in human satiety perception is debated. We hypothesized that blockade of GLP-1 receptors would suppress postprandial satiety and increase voluntary food intake. After an overnight fast, eight normal weight participants (seven men, BMI 19-24.7 kg/m(2), age 19-29 year) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the GLP-1 antagonist Exendin-[9-39] (Ex-9) to determine if the satiating effects of a meal are dependent on GLP-1 signaling in humans. Following a fasting blood draw, iv infusion of Ex-9 (600-750 pmol/kg/min) or saline began. Thirty minutes later, subjects consumed a standardized breakfast followed 90 min later (at the predicted time of maximal endogenous circulating GLP-1) by an ad libitum buffet meal to objectively measure satiety. Infusions ended once the buffet meal was complete. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger and fullness and serial assessments of plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 concentrations were done throughout the experiment. Contrary to the hypothesis, during Ex-9 infusion subjects reported a greater decrease in hunger due to consumption of the breakfast (Ex-9 -62 ± 5; placebo -41 ± 9; P=0.01) than during placebo. There were no differences in ad libitum caloric intake between Ex-9 and placebo. Ex-9 increased glucose, insulin, and endogenous GLP-1, which may have counteracted any effects of Ex-9 infusion to block satiety signaling. Blockade of GLP-1 receptors failed to suppress subjective satiety following a standardized meal or increase voluntary food intake in healthy, normal-weight subjects.

  6. Effects of high and low glycemic load meals on energy intake, satiety and hunger in obese Hispanic American youth

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nazrat M.; Klein, Catherine J.; Palmer, Matilde G.; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Ludwig, David S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Some short-term pediatric studies have suggested beneficial effects of low glycemic load (LGL) meals on feelings of hunger and on energy intake. No systematic studies of the effects of LGL diets have been conducted in obese US Hispanic children even though Hispanic children have a particularly high prevalence of obesity and thus stand to benefit from successful interventions. Objective To examine the effects of LGL and high-GL (HGL) meals on appetitive responses and ad libitum energy intake of obese Hispanic youth. Methods 88 obese Hispanic youth ages 7-15y were randomly assigned to consume meals designed to be either LGL (n=45) or HGL (n=43). Following the morning test meal, subjects serially reported hunger, fullness, and satiety using a visual analog scale and provided samples for analysis of serum insulin and plasma glucose. Participants were then fed another test meal and given a snack platter from which to eat ad libitum. Energy, macronutrients, and glycemic load (GL) of consumed foods were calculated for each meal. Results Subjects in the HGL group had significantly higher insulin (p=0.0005) and glucose (p=0.0001) responses to the breakfast meal compared to the LGL group. However, there were no significant between-group differences in the total energy consumed from the snack platter (1303 vs. 1368 kcal, p=0.5), or in the subjective feelings of hunger (p=0.3), fullness (p=0.5) or satiety (p=0.3) between the two groups. Conclusions Our study provides no evidence that, for obese Hispanic youth, changing the GL of the diet affects short-term hunger, fullness, satiety, or energy intake. PMID:21309658

  7. Effects of Forced Alcohol Intake Associated with Chronic Stress on the Severity of Periodontitis: An Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; Vedove Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle; Pedro, Fabio Miranda; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Cortelli, José Roberto; Costa, Fernando de Oliveira; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca

    2012-01-01

    This study histometrically evaluated the effect of forced alcohol intake by stressed animals on the severity of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided in four groups: group GAL—alcohol and ligature; group GASL—alcohol, chronic physical stress, and ligature; GNC—negative control; GPC—positive control. GAL and GASL received 20% ethanol ad libitum, and GNC received water ad libitum for 60 days. After 24 hours of exposition to alcohol intake—by GAL and GASL—immobilization was applied as a chronic stressor in the GASL group for a two-month period, six times a week, in random hours. The means of the respective groups were statistically compared (Analysis of Variance and Tukey tests, P < 0.05). The most severe periodontal breakdown was observed in nonstressed animals which drank alcohol (GAL), followed by stressed animals exposed to alcohol (GASL). GASL did not differ from the positive control group (GPC). The negative control group showed the lowest values of periodontal breakdown (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Non-stressed alcohol consumer animals showed the most severe pattern of periodontal breakdown. Although stressed animals which were forced to drink alcohol showed poorer periodontal status than the negative controls, their results were similar to those of positive controls. PMID:23209469

  8. Effect of maternal alcohol and nicotine intake, individually and in combination, on fetal growth in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Leichter, J. )

    1991-03-15

    The effect of maternal ethanol and nicotine administration, separately and in combination, on fetal growth of rats was studied. Nicotine was administered by gavage for the entire gestational period. Alcohol was given in drinking water for 4 weeks prior to mating and 30% throughout gestation. Appropriate pair-fed and ad libitum control animals were included to separate the effect of ethanol and nicotine on the outcome of pregnancy from those produced by the confounding variables of malnutrition. Body weights of fetuses exposed to alcohol alone or in combination with nicotine were significantly lower than those of the pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, the difference in fetal body weight between the alcohol plus nicotine and the alcohol alone group was not significant. Similarly, in the rats administered nicotine only, fetal weight was not significantly different compared to control animals. The results of this study indicate that maternal alcohol intake impairs fetal growth and nicotine does not, regardless whether it is administered separately or in combination with alcohol for the entire gestational period.

  9. Effect of fat-free potato chips with and without nutrition labels on fat and energy intakes.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Castellanos, V H; Shide, D J; Peters, J C; Rolls, B J

    1998-08-01

    This study investigated the effect on fat and energy intakes of fat-free potato chips made with olestra compared with regular potato chips. Ninety-five participants (unrestrained and restrained males and females) were tested in 2 conditions. In the information condition, participants were given nutrition information about the chips and were aware that the chips differed in fat and energy contents. In the no-information condition, participants were not aware of the differences. In both conditions, participants ate either regular or fat-free potato chips ad libitum for an afternoon snack in a crossover design in two 10-d periods. To assess 24-h intake, participants completed food diaries twice in each 10-d period. The results showed that all groups significantly reduced their fat and energy intakes in the snack when eating the fat-free chips compared with the regular chips (P< 0.0001). Also, potato chip intake did not differ across time for either type of chip. Over 24 h all participants had lower fat intakes (P< 0.05) when eating the fat-free potato chips compared with the regular chips, but 24-h energy intake was not significantly different between groups. When information was provided, restrained participants ate more of the fat-free chips than the regular chips; however, this increase did not negate the reductions in fat and energy associated with eating the fat-free chips. This study showed that substituting fat-free (olestra-containing) potato chips for regular-fat chips can help reduce fat and energy intakes in short-term (within meal) situations and reduce fat intake over 24 h. PMID:9701184

  10. Ethanol intake is increased by injection of galanin in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced by a galanin antagonist.

    PubMed

    Rada, Pedro; Avena, Nicole M; Leibowitz, Sarah F; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2004-06-01

    Ethanol intake stimulates expression of galanin in several hypothalamic sites, including the paraventricular nucleus. Because injection of galanin in the paraventricular nucleus induces eating, we hypothesized that galanin might also affect ethanol intake. Rats were given ad libitum access to 4% ethanol for 4 weeks and assigned to one of two groups according to levels of ethanol consumption: high levels (>1.5 g/ kg/day) or low levels (<1.0 g/kg/day). In Experiment 1, galanin (1.0 nmol) or Ringer's solution was injected unilaterally into the paraventricular nucleus, with food and water absent during the first 4 h. Galanin significantly increased ethanol intake only in rats that drank high levels of ethanol. In Experiment 2, injection of galanin (0.5 and 1.0 nmol) in the paraventricular nucleus dose-dependently increased ethanol intake with food and water available. The higher dose was also effective in eliciting ethanol intake when tested with food and water absent. In Experiment 3, a test of receptor specificity was provided by injecting rats with the galanin antagonist M-40 (0.5 nmol) or Ringer's solution. Injection of M-40 in the paraventricular nucleus significantly decreased ethanol consumption. In Experiment 4, an anatomic control, with galanin injected 2 mm dorsal to the paraventricular nucleus in the same animals, caused no change in ethanol intake. In conclusion, injection of galanin in the paraventricular nucleus, at a dose known to induce feeding, acted by means of a galanin receptor to potentiate intake of 4% ethanol, even with food and water available as alternate sources of calories and fluid, respectively. Because ethanol can increase expression of galanin mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus, this could set the stage for a positive feedback loop between galanin and ethanol intake. PMID:15528006

  11. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls

    PubMed Central

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G.; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T.; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L.; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69–80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18–34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0–180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  12. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  13. Divergent selection for residual feed intake affects the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of pig skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L

    2015-06-01

    Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) between RFI lines. Only 10% of those probes were also affected by feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P < 0.05) between RFI lines. Differentially expressed proteins were generally not significantly affected by feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs

  14. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  15. Ventral tegmental area orexin 1 receptors promote palatable food intake and oppose postingestive negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Sarah J; Hyde, Kellie M; Kay, Kristen E; Greene, Hayden E; Maske, Calyn B; Knierim, Amanda E; Davis, Jon F; Williams, Diana L

    2016-09-01

    Hypothalamic orexin neurons project to numerous brain areas, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is involved in motivation and food-seeking behavior. Here we address how exogenously administered orexin-A and endogenous orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) activation in the VTA affects feeding behavior. We hypothesized that orexin-A and OX1R antagonist SB334867 delivered to the VTA, at doses that were subthreshold for effect when injected into the ventricle, would affect intake of palatable foods in multiple test situations. We first used a hedonic feeding model in which satiated rats selectively consume a high-fat diet (HFD). Intra-VTA orexin-A stimulated additional consumption of chow and increased HFD intake in this model. In ad libitum-fed rats given daily 30-min test sessions, intra-VTA orexin-A also increased intake of HFD and 0.1 M sucrose. Further analysis of licking patterns revealed that that VTA orexin-A increased meal size and licking burst size only toward the end of the meal. Consistent with this finding, a subthreshold dose of VTA orexin-A prevented intake suppression induced by gastrointestinal nutrient infusion. Surprisingly, intra-VTA orexin-A had no effect on operant responding for sucrose pellets on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. A role for endogenous VTA OX1R stimulation is supported by our finding that bilateral VTA injection of the selective OX1R antagonist SB334867 suppressed 0.1 M sucrose intake. Together, our data suggest that OX1R activity in the VTA facilitates food intake, potentially by counteracting postingestive negative feedback that would normally suppress feeding later in a meal. PMID:27385732

  16. Increasing the size of portion options affects intake but not portion selection at a meal.

    PubMed

    Zuraikat, Faris M; Roe, Liane S; Privitera, Gregory J; Rolls, Barbara J

    2016-03-01

    In an environment with large portion sizes, allowing consumers more control over their portion selection could moderate the effects on energy intake. We tested whether having subjects choose a portion from several options influenced the amount selected or consumed when all portion sizes were systematically increased. In a crossover design, 24 women and 26 men ate lunch in the lab once a week for 3 weeks. At each meal, subjects chose a portion of macaroni and cheese from a set of 3 portion options and consumed it ad libitum. Across 3 conditions, portion sizes in the set were increased; the order of the conditions was counterbalanced across subjects. For women the portion sets by weight (g) were 300/375/450, 375/450/525, and 450/525/600; for men the portions were 33% larger. The results showed that increasing the size of available portions did not significantly affect the relative size selected; across all portion sets, subjects chose the smallest available portion at 59% of meals, the medium at 27%, and the largest at 15%. The size of portions offered did, however, influence meal intake (P < 0.0001). Mean intake (±SEM) was 16% greater when the largest set was offered (661 ± 34 kcal) than when the medium and smallest sets were offered (both 568 ± 18 kcal). These results suggest that portions are selected in relation to the other available options, and confirm the robust effect of portion size on intake. Although presenting a choice of portions can allow selection of smaller amounts, the sizes offered are a critical determinant of energy intake. Thus, the availability of choices could help to moderate intake if the portions offered are within an appropriate range for energy needs. PMID:26721718

  17. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens. PMID:22005425

  18. Feed Intake, Digestibility, and N Retention in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage

    PubMed Central

    Sath, K.; Sokun, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

    2012-01-01

    Eight male cattle of Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava foliage supplementation (Manihot esculenta) on intake, digestibility and N retention. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cattle selected cassava leaves in preference to petioles. Petiole intake decreased from 64 to 48% of offered petioles when the cassava foliage proportion increased from the lowest to the highest level. The cattle consumed all the leaves at the two lower levels of cassava foliage inclusion and 91% at the highest level. Rice straw intake decreased significantly as the level of cassava foliage increased. Intake of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage. Daily DM intake per 100 kg BW increased from 2.7 to 3.2 kg with increasing cassava foliage intake. No effect on CP digestibility was detected when the level of cassava foliage increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in the group fed no cassava foliage than in the other groups. N retention increased from 16 to 28 g/d with the first level of cassava foliage inclusion, but levelled out at the two highest levels. N excretion increased in both faeces and urine as a response to higher intake of cassava foliage. Maximum N retention occurred when 40% of total N intake came from cassava foliage (equivalent to 1.3 g CP/kg BW). PMID:25049650

  19. Cannabinoid type-1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus inhibit stimulated food intake.

    PubMed

    Soria-Gómez, E; Massa, F; Bellocchio, L; Rueda-Orozco, P E; Ciofi, P; Cota, D; Oliet, S H R; Prospéro-García, O; Marsicano, G

    2014-03-28

    Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-dependent signaling in the brain is known to modulate food intake. Recent evidence has actually shown that CB1 can both inhibit and stimulate food intake in fasting/refeeding conditions, depending on the specific neuronal circuits involved. However, the exact brain sites where this bimodal control is exerted and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not fully understood yet. Using pharmacological and electrophysiological approaches, we show that local CB1 blockade in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) increases fasting-induced hyperphagia in rats. Furthermore, local CB1 blockade in the PVN also increases the orexigenic effect of the gut hormone ghrelin in animals fed ad libitum. At the electrophysiological level, CB1 blockade in slices containing the PVN potentiates the decrease of the activity of PVN neurons induced by long-term application of ghrelin. Hence, the PVN is (one of) the site(s) where signals associated with the body's energy status determine the direction of the effects of endocannabinoid signaling on food intake.

  20. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Schiöth, Helgi B.; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R.; Benedict, Christian; Elmståhl, Helena; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.

    2015-01-01

    Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain. PMID:26115087

  1. Effect of a moderate exercise on the regulatory hormones of food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Ebal, Edmond; Cavalie, Hélian; Michaux, Odile; Lac, Gérard

    2007-09-01

    Strategies used to counteract overweight include generally endurance exercise. Force-resistance exercise has not been tested yet with this objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of the main regulatory hormones of food intake (insulin, adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin) and corticosterone, to a short force resistance exercise. Two groups of 16 rats, 65 days old, weighing 330g, were constituted. A standard diet (containing glucid: 72.2, lipid: 7.7, protid: 20% calories) was given "ad libitum". One group served as control, the second group was submitted to exercise training during 5 weeks. Training reduced the rats body weight by 6.4% and the total food intake during the 5 weeks by 11%. Training lowered the insulin and ghrelin levels, while corticosterone level was increased. Insulin, ghrelin and corticosterone only reached the significant threshold p<0.05. Thus, it seems that exercise, even of low intensity and duration, induces changes on hormones that regulate food intake and limit overweight. PMID:17462789

  2. Body mass, composition, and food intake in rabbits during altered acceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katovich, M. J.; Smith, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Mature male Polish rabbits were subjected to varying gravitational fields in an animal centrifuge in order to evaluate the effects of acceleration and deacceleration on body mass, body composition, and food intake. The acceleration field intensity was increased by 0.25-G increments to a maximum of 2.5 G at intervals which permitted physiological adaptation at each field. Control animals of the same age were maintained at earth gravity under identical conditions of constant-light environment at a room temperature of 23 + or - 5 C. It is shown that increasing the acceleration-field intensity leads to a decrease in body mass. The regulated nature of this decreased body mass is tested by the response to an additional three-day fasting of animals adapted physiologically to 2.5 G. Ad libitum food intake per kg body mass per day tends to increase in chronically accelerated animals above 1.75 G. Increase in water content in centrifuged animals after physiological adaptation to 2.5 G is the result of decreasing body fat. Body mass and food intake returned to the precentrifuged levels of control animals within six weeks after cessation of centrifugation.

  3. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  4. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to escribe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch) and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental) effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550 000 rounds each, from which 50 000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult. PMID:11929625

  5. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to describe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch) and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental) effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550000 rounds each, from which 50000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult.

  6. N-alkanes v. ytterbium/faecal index as two methods for estimating herbage intake of dairy cows fed on diets differing in the herbage: maize silage ratio and feeding level.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the n-alkanes and the ytterbium (Yb)/faecal index techniques as two methods for estimating the herbage intake of dairy cows fed indoors on different herbage : supplement ratios and feeding levels. The supplement was a mixture of maize silage and soyabean meal (ratio of 87 : 13 on a dry matter (DM) basis). In all, four treatments were studied. The herbage : supplement ratio in the diet was 25 : 75, 50 : 50, 75 : 25 and 50 : 50 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Animals were offered for treatments 1, 2 and 3, 100% of ad libitum intake measured before the experiment and 70% of ad libitum intake for treatment 4. Cows were fed herbage in the morning and supplement in the evening. A total of six lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 14-day periods. Herbage and supplement intakes, faecal output (FO), in vivo organic matter (OM) digestibility and faecal recovery of markers were measured on the last 5 days of each period. Intake was estimated with the two methods and from two faecal sampling techniques, that is, total faecal collection v. grab sampling during milking. Mean herbage intake as fed, or estimated from n-alkanes or from the Yb/faecal index was 7.7, 8.1 and 10.2 kg DM, respectively. The mean prediction error, expressed as a fraction of actual herbage intake, was 0.10 and 0.50 for the n-alkanes and Yb/faecal index methods, respectively. The n-alkanes method clearly showed much better accuracy than the Yb/faecal index method for estimating intake, irrespective of the faecal sampling method, herbage : silage proportion or feeding level. For the n-alkanes method, herbage intake was slightly overestimated (7%) when herbage proportion in the diet was high, due to a ratio of faecal C33 : C32 recovery >1. The high bias for the Yb/faecal index was due to the cumulative effect of overestimation of FO (mean recovery of Yb = 0.92) and underestimation of the diet indigestible fraction (-8

  7. Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants.

    PubMed

    Maloiy, G M O; Kanui, T I; Towett, P K; Wambugu, S N; Miaron, J O; Wanyoike, M M

    2008-10-01

    Comparative investigations were made between wild and domestic ruminants from arid and semi-arid regions and those species from non-arid areas in an attempt to evaluate the adaptations of these ruminants in terms of the effects of heat stress and dehydration on food intake and digestibility. The effect of (a) an intermittent heat load (a daily light cycle of 12 h at 22 degrees C and 12 h at 40 degrees C) compared to 22 degrees C throughout the day and (b) dehydration level of 15% weight loss, with and without the heat load, on the intake and digestibility of a poor quality hay was investigated in the Grant's gazelle, Oryx, the domestic Turkana goats, fat-tailed sheep, zebu cattle, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest. The intermittent heat load with water available ad libitum depressed the food intake of zebu cattle and Turkana goats by more than 40%. It had no significant effect on the food intake of the other species. The Thomson's and Grants gazelle, oryx, wildebeest and fat-tailed sheep appear well adapted to withstanding a periodic heat load. Dehydration at 22 degrees C caused a marked depression on food intake of all the species investigated. Dehydration together with a heat load caused no further reduction in the food intake by the Grants's gazelle, oryx, and goats but it did cause a further reduction in the intake in the other species. The small non-domestic ruminants (i.e. Grant's and Thomson's gazelle) appear much more digestive efficient than any of their domestic counterpart. PMID:18644247

  8. Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants.

    PubMed

    Maloiy, G M O; Kanui, T I; Towett, P K; Wambugu, S N; Miaron, J O; Wanyoike, M M

    2008-10-01

    Comparative investigations were made between wild and domestic ruminants from arid and semi-arid regions and those species from non-arid areas in an attempt to evaluate the adaptations of these ruminants in terms of the effects of heat stress and dehydration on food intake and digestibility. The effect of (a) an intermittent heat load (a daily light cycle of 12 h at 22 degrees C and 12 h at 40 degrees C) compared to 22 degrees C throughout the day and (b) dehydration level of 15% weight loss, with and without the heat load, on the intake and digestibility of a poor quality hay was investigated in the Grant's gazelle, Oryx, the domestic Turkana goats, fat-tailed sheep, zebu cattle, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest. The intermittent heat load with water available ad libitum depressed the food intake of zebu cattle and Turkana goats by more than 40%. It had no significant effect on the food intake of the other species. The Thomson's and Grants gazelle, oryx, wildebeest and fat-tailed sheep appear well adapted to withstanding a periodic heat load. Dehydration at 22 degrees C caused a marked depression on food intake of all the species investigated. Dehydration together with a heat load caused no further reduction in the food intake by the Grants's gazelle, oryx, and goats but it did cause a further reduction in the intake in the other species. The small non-domestic ruminants (i.e. Grant's and Thomson's gazelle) appear much more digestive efficient than any of their domestic counterpart.

  9. Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Natalia; Gallaher, Daniel D; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Marquart, Len

    2009-12-01

    This study compared the effect of whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat and refined rice-based foods on energy intake and satiety. Forty-seven healthy subjects consumed a breakfast of hot cereal and a snack mix containing either barley, wheat, or refined rice, followed by an ad libitum smorgasbord lunch using a crossover design. Energy intake was measured at the lunch using plate waste. Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, amount of food consumed, and thirst were assessed using a modified Visual Analog Scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, snack and lunch. Energy intake at lunch did not differ among products. There were no differences in the area under the time curve in modified VAS scores among products for any parameter. However, subjects reported significantly less hunger before lunch compared to their hunger before breakfast when consuming the barley, but there was no significant reduction in hunger before lunch after consumption of wheat or rice. In conclusion, intake of a whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat, or refined rice breakfast and snack did not decrease energy intake acutely, but consumption of whole grain high-fiber barley foods significantly decreased hunger whereas whole wheat and refined rice foods did not.

  10. Circadian pattern of large neutral amino acids, glucose, insulin, and food intake in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, W; Schweiger, U; Werner, D; Brunner, G; Tuschl, R J; Laessle, R G; Krieg, J C; Fichter, M M; Pirke, K M

    1991-05-01

    Insulin, glucose, and large neutral amino acids (LNAA) were studied in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa, 13 patients with bulimia nervosa, and 15 healthy controls. Blood samples were collected at hourly intervals during the day and at two-hour intervals during the night over a 24-hour period. Ad libitum caloric and relative carbohydrate intake was significantly reduced in the anorectic and bulimic patients. Elevated concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) were seen in the bulimic group, and low triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in the anorectic group. Mean plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly lowered in both groups. The tryptophan (Trp) to LNAA ratio was reduced in anorectic, but not in bulimic patients. These findings suggest that Trp influx into the brain is reduced in anorectic patients, possibly impairing central serotonergic function.

  11. Using a smaller dining plate does not suppress food intake from a buffet lunch meal in overweight, unrestrained women.

    PubMed

    Yip, Wilson; Wiessing, Katy R; Budgett, Stephanie; Poppitt, Sally D

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether plate size affects ad libitum energy intake (EI) at a buffet-style lunch in overweight, yet unrestrained women. Twenty overweight/obese (BMI=25-40 kg/m(2)) women attended two study visits, and were randomly assigned to small (19.5 cm) or large (26.5 cm) diameter plate size at a free choice lunch meal. At 9 am participants were given a small (0.5 MJ) breakfast, followed at 12 noon by the lunch meal from which they ate ad lib until comfortably full. Mean (SEM) EI at lunch was 3975 (239)kJ and 3901 (249) kJ respectively for small and large plate size. There was no detectable difference in EI between the two plate sizes (P>0.05). When in a raised state of hunger and offered a palatable buffet meal, altering the diameter of the dining plate onto which food was self-served did not significantly alter ad lib EI. We conclude there was no evidence that a smaller plate suppressed EI in a group of unrestrained, overweight women encouraged to eat to appetite from a wide choice of items. Whether plate size is a useful cue for portion size, and hence control of EI, in individuals actively restricting intake however remains possible, and requires investigation.

  12. Using a smaller dining plate does not suppress food intake from a buffet lunch meal in overweight, unrestrained women.

    PubMed

    Yip, Wilson; Wiessing, Katy R; Budgett, Stephanie; Poppitt, Sally D

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether plate size affects ad libitum energy intake (EI) at a buffet-style lunch in overweight, yet unrestrained women. Twenty overweight/obese (BMI=25-40 kg/m(2)) women attended two study visits, and were randomly assigned to small (19.5 cm) or large (26.5 cm) diameter plate size at a free choice lunch meal. At 9 am participants were given a small (0.5 MJ) breakfast, followed at 12 noon by the lunch meal from which they ate ad lib until comfortably full. Mean (SEM) EI at lunch was 3975 (239)kJ and 3901 (249) kJ respectively for small and large plate size. There was no detectable difference in EI between the two plate sizes (P>0.05). When in a raised state of hunger and offered a palatable buffet meal, altering the diameter of the dining plate onto which food was self-served did not significantly alter ad lib EI. We conclude there was no evidence that a smaller plate suppressed EI in a group of unrestrained, overweight women encouraged to eat to appetite from a wide choice of items. Whether plate size is a useful cue for portion size, and hence control of EI, in individuals actively restricting intake however remains possible, and requires investigation. PMID:23727256

  13. The effects of potatoes and other carbohydrate side dishes consumed with meat on food intake, glycemia and satiety response in children

    PubMed Central

    Akilen, R; Deljoomanesh, N; Hunschede, S; Smith, C E; Arshad, M U; Kubant, R; Anderson, G H

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) foods on blood glucose (BG) is ranked by their glycemic index (GI). Boiled and mashed potatoes (BMPs) are ranked as high GI foods, whereas pasta and rice have moderate GI rankings. The objective of this study was to compare ad libitum consumption of common CHO dishes consumed with meat on meal-time food intake and post-meal satiety, BG, insulin and gut hormones in 11- to 13-year-old normal weight children. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted. At weekly intervals, children (experiment 1: 12 males (M), 8 females (F); experiment 2: 6M, 6 F) received in random order 1 of 5 CHO side dishes of rice, pasta, BMP, fried French fries (FFF) or baked French fries (BFF) eaten freely together with a fixed amount of lean beef (100 g). In experiment-1, food intake over 30 min and subjective appetite were measured for 120 min. In experiment-2, the same outcomes were measured along with BG, plasma insulin and gut hormones. Results: The results for boys and girls were pooled as sex was not a factor. In both experiments, children consumed 30–40% less calories at meals with BMP (P<0.0001) compared with all other treatments, which were similar. BMP increased satiety, expressed as a change in appetite per kilocalorie, more than all other treatments (P<0.0001). FFF resulted in the lowest (P<0.0001) glucose and insulin at meal end and post-meal and peptide YY (PYY) post-meal. Blood measures were similar among all other treatments. Conclusions: The physiological functions of CHO foods consumed ad libitum at meal time on food intake, appetite, BG, insulin and gut hormone responses in children is not predicted by the GI. PMID:26878318

  14. The opposing effects of ghrelin on hypothalamic and systemic inflammatory processes are modulated by its acylation status and food intake in male rats.

    PubMed

    García-Cáceres, Cristina; Fuente-Martín, Esther; Díaz, Francisca; Granado, Miriam; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Frago, Laura M; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Barrios, Vicente; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2014-08-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous hormone that stimulates appetite and adipose tissue accrual. Both the acylated (AG) and non-acylated (DAG) isoforms of this hormone are also reported to exert anti-inflammatory and protective effects systemically and in the central nervous system. As inflammatory processes have been implicated in obesity-associated secondary complications, we hypothesized that this natural appetite stimulator may protect against negative consequences resulting from excessive food intake. Adult male Wistar rats were treated icv (5 μg/day) with AG, DAG, the ghrelin mimetic GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6, AG, and pair-fed with controls (AG-pf) or saline for 14 days. Regardless of food intake AG increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and decreased circulating cytokine levels. However, AG reduced cytokine production in VAT only in rats fed ad libitum. Hypothalamic cytokine production was increased in AG-treated rats fed ad libitum and by DAG, but intracellular inflammatory signaling pathways associated with insulin and leptin resistance were unaffected. Gliosis was not observed in response to any treatment as glial markers were either reduced or unaffected. AG, DAG, and GHRP-6 stimulated production of hypothalamic insulin like-growth factor I that is involved in cell protective mechanisms. In hypothalamic astrocyte cell cultures AG decreased tumor necrosis factorα and DAG decreased interleukin-1β mRNA levels, suggesting direct anti-inflammatory effects on astrocytes. Thus, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake and weight gain, it may also induce mechanisms of cell protection that help to detour or delay systemic inflammatory responses and hypothalamic gliosis due to excess weight gain, as well as its associated pathologies.

  15. Increased male offspring's risk of metabolic-neuroendocrine dysfunction and overweight after fructose-rich diet intake by the lactating mother.

    PubMed

    Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Gaillard, Rolf C; Spinedi, Eduardo; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2010-09-01

    An adverse endogenous environment during early life predisposes the organism to develop metabolic disorders. We evaluated the impact of intake of an iso-caloric fructose rich diet (FRD) by lactating mothers (LM) on several metabolic functions of their male offspring. On postnatal d 1, ad libitum eating, lactating Sprague-Dawley rats received either 10% F (wt/vol; FRD-LM) or tap water (controls, CTR-LM) to drink throughout lactation. Weaned male offspring were fed ad libitum a normal diet, and body weight (BW) and food intake were registered until experimentation (60 d of age). Basal circulating levels of metabolic markers were evaluated. Both iv glucose tolerance and hypothalamic leptin sensitivity tests were performed. The hypothalamus was dissected for isolation of total RNA and Western blot analysis. Retroperitoneal (RP) adipose tissue was dissected and either kept frozen for gene analysis or digested to isolate adipocytes or for histological studies. FRD rats showed increased BW and decreased hypothalamic sensitivity to exogenous leptin, enhanced food intake (between 49-60 d), and decreased hypothalamic expression of several anorexigenic signals. FRD rats developed increased insulin and leptin peripheral levels and decreased adiponectinemia; although FRD rats normally tolerated glucose excess, it was associated with enhanced insulin secretion. FRD RP adipocytes were enlarged and spontaneously released high leptin, although they were less sensitive to insulin-induced leptin release. Accordingly, RP fat leptin gene expression was high in FRD rats. Excessive fructose consumption by lactating mothers resulted in deep neuroendocrine-metabolic disorders of their male offspring, probably enhancing the susceptibility to develop overweight/obesity during adult life. PMID:20660072

  16. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women. PMID:25138661

  17. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Langeveld, M; Tan, C Y; Virtue, S; Ambler, G K; Watson, L P E; Murgatroyd, P R; Chatterjee, V K; Vidal-Puig, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold) or 24°C (thermoneutrality) for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure. PMID:26864459

  18. Time of day influences the voluntary intake and behavioral response to methamphetamine and food reward.

    PubMed

    Keith, Diana R; Hart, Carl L; Robotham, Margaret; Tariq, Maliha; Le Sauter, Joseph; Silver, Rae

    2013-09-01

    The circadian timing system influences a vast array of behavioral responses. Substantial evidence indicates a role for the circadian system in regulating reward processing. Here we explore time of day effects on drug anticipation, locomotor activity, and voluntary methamphetamine (MA) and food intake in animals with ad libitum food access. We compared responses to drug versus a palatable treat during their normal sleep times in early day (zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400) or late day (ZT 1000). In the first study, using a between-subjects design, mice were given daily 1-h access to either peanut butter (PB-Alone) or to a low or high concentration of MA mixed in PB (MA+PB). In study 2, we repeated the experiment using a within-subjects design in which mice could choose between PB-Alone and MA+PB at either ZT 0400 or 1000. In study 3, the effects of MA-alone were investigated by evaluating anticipatory activity preceding exposure to nebulized MA at ZT 0400 vs. ZT 1000. Time of day effects were observed for both drug and palatable treat, such that in the between groups design, animals showed greater intake, anticipatory activity, and post-ingestional activity in the early day. Furthermore, there were differences among mice in the amount of MA ingested but individuals were self-consistent in their daily intake. The results for the within-subjects experiment also revealed robust individual differences in preference for MA+PB or PB-Alone. Interestingly, time of day effects on intake were observed only for the preferred substance. Anticipatory activity preceding administration of MA by nebulization was also greater at ZT 0400 than ZT 1000. Finally, pharmacokinetic response to MA administered intraperitoneally did not vary as a function of time of administration. The results indicate that time of day is an important variable mediating the voluntary intake and behavioral effects of reinforcers.

  19. Time of day influences the voluntary intake and behavioral response to methamphetamine and food reward.

    PubMed

    Keith, Diana R; Hart, Carl L; Robotham, Margaret; Tariq, Maliha; Le Sauter, Joseph; Silver, Rae

    2013-09-01

    The circadian timing system influences a vast array of behavioral responses. Substantial evidence indicates a role for the circadian system in regulating reward processing. Here we explore time of day effects on drug anticipation, locomotor activity, and voluntary methamphetamine (MA) and food intake in animals with ad libitum food access. We compared responses to drug versus a palatable treat during their normal sleep times in early day (zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400) or late day (ZT 1000). In the first study, using a between-subjects design, mice were given daily 1-h access to either peanut butter (PB-Alone) or to a low or high concentration of MA mixed in PB (MA+PB). In study 2, we repeated the experiment using a within-subjects design in which mice could choose between PB-Alone and MA+PB at either ZT 0400 or 1000. In study 3, the effects of MA-alone were investigated by evaluating anticipatory activity preceding exposure to nebulized MA at ZT 0400 vs. ZT 1000. Time of day effects were observed for both drug and palatable treat, such that in the between groups design, animals showed greater intake, anticipatory activity, and post-ingestional activity in the early day. Furthermore, there were differences among mice in the amount of MA ingested but individuals were self-consistent in their daily intake. The results for the within-subjects experiment also revealed robust individual differences in preference for MA+PB or PB-Alone. Interestingly, time of day effects on intake were observed only for the preferred substance. Anticipatory activity preceding administration of MA by nebulization was also greater at ZT 0400 than ZT 1000. Finally, pharmacokinetic response to MA administered intraperitoneally did not vary as a function of time of administration. The results indicate that time of day is an important variable mediating the voluntary intake and behavioral effects of reinforcers. PMID:23711589

  20. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.

  1. Lipase inhibition attenuates the acute inhibitory effects of oral fat on food intake in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Deirdre; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Wishart, Judith; Horowitz, Michael

    2003-11-01

    The lipase inhibitor, orlistat, is used in the treatment of obesity and reduces fat absorption by about 30%. However, the mean weight loss induced by orlistat is less than expected for the degree of fat malabsorption. It was hypothesised that lipase inhibition with orlistat attenuates the suppressive effects of oral fat on subsequent energy intake in normal-weight subjects. Fourteen healthy, lean subjects (nine males, five females; aged 25 +/- 1.3 years) were studied twice, in a double-blind fashion. The subjects received a high-fat yoghurt 'preload' (males 400 g (2562 kJ); females 300 g (1923 kJ)), containing orlistat (120 mg) on one study day (and no orlistat on the other 'control' day), 30 min before ad libitum access to food and drinks; energy intake was assessed during the following 8 h. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals for the measurement of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK). Each subject performed a 3 d faecal fat collection following each study. Energy intake during the day was greater following orlistat (10,220 (SEM 928) kJ) v. control (9405 (SEM 824) kJ) (P=0.02). On both days plasma CCK increased (P<0.05) after the preload. Plasma CCK 20 min following ingestion of the preload was less after orlistat (4.1 (SEM 0.9) pmol/l) v. control (5.3 (SEM 0.9) pmol/l (P=0.028); however there was no difference in the area under the curve 0-510 min between the two study days. Fat excretion was greater following orlistat (1017 (SEM 168) kJ) v. control (484 (SEM 90) kJ) (P=0.004). In conclusion, in healthy, lean subjects the acute inhibitory effect of fat on subsequent energy intake is attenuated by orlistat and the increase in energy intake approximates the energy lost due to fat malabsorption. PMID:14667178

  2. Influence of caloric intake on experimental carcinogenesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Kritchevsky, D; Klurfeld, D M

    1986-01-01

    The effect of caloric intake on tumor growth has been recognized for over 70 years. Inhibition of tumor growth depends primarily on the extent of caloric restriction, but tumor type, animal strain, and dietary composition all exert some influence. Caloric restriction is most effective when maintained during both initiation and promotion, but if limited to one of these phases, restriction during promotion appears to be the more effective modality. The types of tumor that have been studied include spontaneous mammary and lung tumors as well as tumors induced by organ-specific carcinogens or irradiation with ultraviolet light. Numerous investigators have studied the effects of fat, and a diet low in calories but high in fat is generally significantly more effective in inhibiting carcinogenesis than is a diet high in calories but low in fat. Mice fed high fat, low calorie diets exhibited 48% fewer chemically induced skin tumors and 61% fewer tumors induced by ultraviolet irradiation than did mice fed low fat, high calorie diets. Mice fed a diet containing 2% fat exhibited a 66% incidence of skin tumors, whereas mice fed an isocaloric diet containing 61% fat showed a 78% incidence. Rats whose diet was restricted in calories by 40% exhibited no mammary tumors (coconut oil as primary dietary fat) or 75% fewer tumors (corn oil as dietary fat) compared to ad libitum-fed controls; they also exhibited 47% fewer colonic tumors. The mechanism by which caloric restriction exerts its tumor-inhibiting effects remains to be elucidated.

  3. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    PubMed

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p < .05). Participants ingested on average 392 ± 85 ml/hr of fluid, but fluid intake decreased after km 618 (p < .05). Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise.

  4. Effects of activation and blockade of orexin A receptors in the medial preoptic area on food intake in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Emam, Amir Hossein; Panah, Mohammad Hosseini; Komaki, Alireza; Seif, Sadegh; Vafaeirad, Majid; Alaii, Elham

    2015-09-14

    It has been shown that activation of type 1 orexinergic receptors (ORX1) in several parts of the hypothalamus stimulate food intake. Orexin A receptive sites for food intake exist primarily in a narrow band of the hypothalamus that is known to be involved in control of energy homeostasis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of orexin receptors in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) on food intake in rats. Twenty-four male rats weighing 200-250g were divided into three groups (n=8 in each group). Rats were cannulated using stereotaxic coordinates above the MPOA. Normal saline was microinjected into the MPOA in the control group. Another group received intra MPOA microinjection of SB334867, a selective antagonist for ORX1 receptors. In the other group, orexin A was microinjected (0.5μl of 1μmol) into the MPOA. Food intake was measured in metabolic cages. The statistical significance of differences between groups was detected by a one way ANOVA. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant. There was no significant difference in food consumption between saline and SB334867 treated groups. However, activation of the orexin receptor in the MPOA significantly increased food intake during the 2 and 8h after orexin A microinjection. Our results showed that during ad libitum access to food, activation but not blockade of the MPOA ORX1 receptor can increase food intake in a time-dependent manner. The role of these receptors in hunger and appetite stimulation requires further study.

  5. Effects of ambient temperature and soybean meal supplementation on intake and digestion of two sheep breeds differing in mature size.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, A L; Cone, J W; Fontes, P; Dias-da-Silva, A A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the intake and digestive physiology of mature ewes of two breeds--Ile-de-France (mature weight: 75-80 kg) and Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ; mature weight: 45-50 kg)--and evaluate the effects of ambient temperature and protein supplementation in the comparison. The temperature (25 °C vs. 11 °C) and soybean meal supplementation (150 g/kg of ingested hay on dry matter basis vs. unsupplemented control) were evaluated in 48 adult ewes of two breeds fed hay ad libitum and at a restricted level of intake. The intake, digestibility, rumen pH and NH(3)-N, rumen outflow rates, faeces particle size and thyroid hormones levels were measured. These hormones can be related with gastrointestinal motility, thus explaining rumen outflow rate patterns. Dry matter intake per kg of body weight was higher in CTQ ewes (p < 0.05). This breed also exhibited lower organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility (p < 0.001) and higher solid (p < 0.001) and liquid (p < 0.01) rumen outflow rates irrespective of intake level, supplementation or temperature. Rumen pH remained above 6.6 in all treatments. NH(3)-N rumen content was similar (p > 0.05) when breeds were fed only hay. There was no breed effect (p > 0.05) on faeces particle size. Triiodothyronine was not affected (p > 0.05) by breed and thyroxine was higher (p < 0.10) in the CTQ breed but only at the lower temperatures (breed × temperature, p < 0.05). Ile-de-France sheep showed a lack of adaptation to lower temperatures. This study suggests that the native CTQ breed fulfils its metabolic needs by having a higher intake and inherits faster flow through the gastrointestinal tract, as a result, its digestive ability is diminished.

  6. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving.

  7. Sex Differences in the Effects of Mental Work and Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity on Energy Intake in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Vicky; Sénécal, Caroline; Tremblay, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on various components of energy balance in young and healthy adults. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 35 participants aged 24 ± 3 years completed three 45-min conditions, namely, (i) resting in a sitting position (control), (ii) reading and writing (mental work (MW)), and (iii) exercising on a treadmill at 40% of peak oxygen uptake (exercise), followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), appetite sensations, and EI for the remainder of the day. We observed that the energy cost of the control and MW conditions was about the same whereas the exercise condition increased EE to a greater extent in men than women. Exercise induced a decrease in EI relative to EE compared to the control condition that was more pronounced in men than women. However, women tended to increase their energy intake after the MW condition compared to the control one whereas an opposite trend was observed in men. None of the appetite sensation markers differed significantly between both sexes. In conclusion, men and women have specific food intake patterns when submitted to cognitive and physical stimuli. PMID:24967260

  8. Intake of a milk-based wolfberry formulation enhances the immune response of young-adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Karine; Benyacoub, Jalil; Sanchez-Garcia, José; Foata, Francis; Segura-Roggero, Iris; Serrant, Patrick; Moser, Mireille; Blum, Stephanie

    2010-02-01

    Aging is associated with alterations of immune responses. Wolfberry, a popular Chinese functional ingredient, is prized for its anti-aging properties; however, little is known about the immunological effect of wolfberry intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dietary intake of a milk-based formulation of wolfberry, named Lacto-Wolfberry, on in vivo and ex vivo parameters of adaptive immunity in young-adult and aged mice. Over 44 days, young-adult (2 months) and aged (21 months) C57BL/6J mice were fed ad libitum with a controlled diet and received drinking water supplemented or not with 0.5% (wt/vol) Lacto-Wolfberry. All mice were immunized on day 15 and challenged on day 22 with a T cell- dependent antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Lacto-Wolfberry supplementation significantly increased in vivo systemic immune markers that are known to decline with aging. Indeed, both antigen-(KLH) specific humoral response and cell-mediated immune responses in young-adult and aged mice were enhanced when compared to their respective controls. No significant effect of Lacto-Wolfberry supplementation was observed on ex vivo spleen cells proliferative response to mitogens and on splenocyte T cell subsets. In conclusion, dietary intake of Lacto-Wolfberry may favorably modulate the poor responsiveness to antigenic challenge observed with aging. PMID:20230278

  9. Whether or not to eat: A controlled laboratory study of discriminative cueing effects on food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Ridley-Siegert, Thomas L; Crombag, Hans S; Yeomans, Martin R

    2015-12-01

    There is a wealth of data showing a large impact of food cues on human ingestion, yet most studies use pictures of food where the precise nature of the associations between the cue and food is unclear. To test whether novel cues which were associated with the opportunity of winning access to food images could also impact ingestion, 63 participants participated in a game in which novel visual cues signalled whether responding on a keyboard would win (a picture of) chocolate, crisps, or nothing. Thirty minutes later, participants were given an ad libitum snack-intake test during which the chocolate-paired cue, the crisp-paired cue, the non-winning cue and no cue were presented as labels on the food containers. The presence of these cues significantly altered overall intake of the snack foods; participants presented with food labelled with the cue that had been associated with winning chocolate ate significantly more than participants who had been given the same products labelled with the cue associated with winning nothing, and in the presence of the cue signalling the absence of food reward participants tended to eat less than all other conditions. Surprisingly, cue-dependent changes in food consumption were unaffected by participants' level of contingency awareness. These results suggest that visual cues that have been pre-associated with winning, but not consuming, a liked food reward modify food intake consistent with current ideas that the abundance of food associated cues may be one factor underlying the 'obesogenic environment'.

  10. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake, palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gitte; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity. Methods: The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar. To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DIO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome, the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats. Liraglutide (200 μg/kg, sc) was administered bi-daily, and sibutramine (5 mg/kg, po) was administered once daily for 23 d. Results: Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake, body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance. Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubra-diet, the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet, indicating a shift in food preference. Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index, primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusion: This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference. PMID:22301859

  11. Whether or not to eat: A controlled laboratory study of discriminative cueing effects on food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Ridley-Siegert, Thomas L; Crombag, Hans S; Yeomans, Martin R

    2015-12-01

    There is a wealth of data showing a large impact of food cues on human ingestion, yet most studies use pictures of food where the precise nature of the associations between the cue and food is unclear. To test whether novel cues which were associated with the opportunity of winning access to food images could also impact ingestion, 63 participants participated in a game in which novel visual cues signalled whether responding on a keyboard would win (a picture of) chocolate, crisps, or nothing. Thirty minutes later, participants were given an ad libitum snack-intake test during which the chocolate-paired cue, the crisp-paired cue, the non-winning cue and no cue were presented as labels on the food containers. The presence of these cues significantly altered overall intake of the snack foods; participants presented with food labelled with the cue that had been associated with winning chocolate ate significantly more than participants who had been given the same products labelled with the cue associated with winning nothing, and in the presence of the cue signalling the absence of food reward participants tended to eat less than all other conditions. Surprisingly, cue-dependent changes in food consumption were unaffected by participants' level of contingency awareness. These results suggest that visual cues that have been pre-associated with winning, but not consuming, a liked food reward modify food intake consistent with current ideas that the abundance of food associated cues may be one factor underlying the 'obesogenic environment'. PMID:26145752

  12. Short-term effects of a snack including dried prunes on energy intake and satiety in normal-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Farajian, Paul; Katsagani, Maria; Zampelas, Antonis

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a preload including dried prunes consumed as a snack before a meal, compared to an isoenergetic and equal weighed bread product preload would: (a) have greater short-term effect on satiety measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) induce greater satiety as assessed by visual analogue scales (VAS), and (c) reduce appetite for dessert offered shortly after lunch. Forty-five healthy, normal-weight subjects participated in this randomised within-subject crossover study. Statistical analysis of the results showed that when subjects consumed the preload that included dried prunes, also consumed less amount of dessert and had lower total energy intake at meal. Additionally, subjects' feeling of hunger, desire and motivation to eat, as assessed with the use of VAS, were lower at all time points between snack and meal. Since macronutrients content of both preloads were similar, the satiating power of prunes could be due to their relatively high fiber content. Identifying meal patterns and foods that promote satiety without increasing considerably the overall energy intake is very important. The addition of dried prunes to a snack seems to promote satiety besides providing valuable nutrients.

  13. Field use of D sub 2 sup 18 O to measure energy expenditure of soldiers at different energy intakes

    SciTech Connect

    DeLany, J.P.; Schoeller, D.A.; Hoyt, R.W.; Askew, E.W.; Sharp, M.A. )

    1989-11-01

    To test the application of doubly labeled water under adverse field conditions, energy expenditures of 16 special operations soldiers were measured during a 28-day field training exercise. Subjects were matched by fat-free mass and divided equally between an ad libitum ready-to-eat meal diet and a 2,000 kcal/day lightweight ration. Subjects recorded intakes daily, and body composition was measured before and after the exercise. At the beginning of the study, subjects moved to a new northerly location and, therefore, a new water supply. To compensate for this, a group of soldiers who did not receive heavy water was followed to measure isotopic base-line changes. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was in agreement with intake/balance (3,400 {plus minus} 260 vs. 3,230 {plus minus} 520 kcal/day). The overall coefficient of variation of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was half that of intake/balance (7.6 vs. 16.1%). The coefficient of variation of repeat measures with doubly labeled water was 7.3%. Energy expenditure of the ready-to-eat meal group, 3,540 {plus minus} 180 kcal/day, was not significantly different from the lightweight ration group, 3,330 {plus minus} 301 kcal/day. Doubly labeled water was valid under field conditions.

  14. Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Janet H W; Mars, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Observational research has indicated that modeling of eating style might occur when eating in the presence of an eating companion. This experiment investigated the effect of bite frequency of a same-sex eating companion on bite frequency, meal size and meal duration. A total of 30 normal weight young adults (m/f = 8/22, age: 21.2 ± 1.9 years, BMI: 21.2 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) had three ad libitum meals together with a same-sex confederate (i.e. instructed eating companion). Confederates were instructed to eat at a slow (3 bites/min), medium (5 bites/min) or fast (7 bites/min) bite frequency in randomized order. Eating style was assessed through video registration and weighing left-overs. It was found that the participants' bite frequency was similar during all three conditions, i.e. slow: 3.9 ± 1.3, medium: 4.0 ± 1.1, fast: 4.0 ± 1.3 bites/min (p = 0.75), as was average bite size (11 ± 2.6 g). Time eaten of the participants was shorter in the medium (14.9 ± 3.6 min) and fast condition (14.4 ± 3.7 min) compared to the slow condition (16.8 ± 4.8 min) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.01), and intake was lower in the medium (634 ± 183 g) and fast condition (624 ± 190 g) compared to the slow condition (701 ± 220 g) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.05). This experimental study suggests that bite frequency is not affected by the confederate. However, the meal duration of the confederates showed a significant effect on the meal duration and meal size of the participants. It seems that intake was influenced as a result of copying meal termination.

  15. Influence of milk production potential on forage dry matter intake by multiparous and primiparous Brangus females.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Lalman, D L; Brown, M A; Appeddu, L A; Buchanan, D S; Wettemann, R P

    2003-07-01

    Brangus cows (n = 29) were used in three experiments to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs. primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs. low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based on their sire's EPD for milk production (MEPD). Cows had ad libitum access to (130% of previous 2-d average intake) low-quality hay (5.3% CP and 76% NDF), and cottonseed meal was supplemented to ensure adequate degradable intake protein. All females were adapted to diets for at least 7 d, and individual intake data were collected for 9 d. During the lactation trials, actual milk production was determined using a portable milking machine following a 12-h separation from calves. During late gestation, multiparous cows consumed 24% more (P = 0.01) forage DM (kg/d) than primiparous cows; however, parity class did not influence forage intake when intake was expressed relative to BW. Furthermore, MEPD did not influence forage intake during late gestation. During early lactation, multiparous cows produced 66% more (P < 0.001) milk than primiparous cows, and high MEPD tended (P = 0.10) to produce more milk than low MEPD. Multiparous cows consumed 19% more (P < 0.0001) forage DM than did primiparous cows when expressed on an absolute basis, but not when expressed on a BW basis. High-MEPD cows consumed 8% more (P < 0.05) forage DM than did low-MEPD cows. During late lactation, multiparous cows produced 84% more milk than primiparous cows, although MEPD did not influence (P = 0.40) milk yield. In addition, multiparous cows consumed 17% more (P < 0.01) forage DM per day than primiparous cows, but when intake was expressed relative to BW, neither parity nor MEPD influenced forage DMI during late lactation. Milk yield and BW explained significant proportions of the variation in forage DMI during early and late lactation. Each kilogram increase in milk yield was associated with a 0

  16. Influence of mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and digesta passage in steers fed a forage and a concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Whetsell, M S; Prigge, E C; Nestor, E L

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and ruminal function, five ruminally cannulated steers (550 kg) were fed an orchard grass hay diet ad libitum in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment. The mass of ruminal contents was altered by adding varying weights of modified tennis balls to the rumen before the initiation of each 15-d experimental period. Treatments consisted of 50 balls with a specific gravity of 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, or 1.4; the total weight of the balls was 7.45, 8.50, 9.25, 10.55, and 11.55 kg, respectively. Increasing the specific gravity of the balls added to the rumen decreased DMI and particle passage rate (P < 0.05) in a linear manner. A second experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of mass of ruminal contents on voluntary intake and ruminal function of both forage and concentrate diets. Five ruminally cannulated steers (580 kg) were fed a 70% concentrate (DM basis) or an orchardgrass hay diet ad libitum in a 5 x 5 Latin square experiment. The mass of ruminal contents was altered as in the first experiment. Treatments consisted of 0 balls added to the rumen of steers fed concentrate diet (control), 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.1 given to steers fed a concentrate diet, 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.4 given to steers fed a concentrate diet, 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.1 given to steers fed a hay diet, and 75 balls with a specific gravity of 1.4 given to steers fed hay diet. The addition of balls to the rumen of steers fed the concentrate diet decreased DMI (P < 0.05) compared with the 0-ball treatment, and increasing specific gravity of balls also decreased DMI (P < 0.01) for both concentrate and hay diets. Adding balls to the rumen of steers fed the concentrate diet decreased particle passage rate (P < 0.05), whereas increasing specific gravity of balls decreased particle passage rate for both concentrate and hay diet. The results of this study suggest that the density of ruminal

  17. Effects of increasing increments of fat- and sugar-rich snacks in the diet on energy and macronutrient intake in lean and overweight men.

    PubMed

    Mazlan, Nik; Horgan, Graham; Whybrow, Stephen; Stubbs, James

    2006-09-01

    Two studies have examined the effect on energy intake and macronutrient selection of increasing increments of mandatory high-fat or high-sugar snacks into the diet in men. The present study used a within-subject, repeated-measures design. In each experiment, six lean and six overweight, unrestrained men were each studied over three 7 d treatment periods, during which they were given mandatory snacks of the same energy density (550 kJ/100 g) comprising the following (in terms of percentage energy as fat-carbohydrate-protein): high-fat, 80:10:10; high-sugar, 10:80:10, of which 65 % was sugar, and 15 % starch. Subjects were given 0, 1.5 or 3.0 MJ/d snacks, in a randomised counterbalanced design, to be consumed mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Throughout each day, subjects had access ad libitum to fifteen high-protein, fifteen high-fat and fifteen high-carbohydrate foods, rotated on a 3 d menu. Mandatory high-fat snacks significantly elevated energy intake and fat intake, whereas high-sugar snacks elevated energy intake and carbohydrate intake (all P<0.02). Mandatory increases in sugar intake did not displace fat from the diet or vice versa. It was concluded that the ingestion of up to 3 MJ/d high-fat and high-sugar foods promoted weak compensation (18 % and 30 %, respectively) and therefore elevated daily energy intake by approximately 2.0-2.5 MJ.

  18. Effect of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley on appetite and energy intake in healthy Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Seiichiro; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kohashi, Chieko; Kakumoto, Keiji; Kohda, Noriyuki

    2014-12-01

    White rice is a dominant grain-based food in Japan, but excess intake of polished rice may cause obesity. Barley is a grain-based food, similar to white rice, but it has the potential to control appetite and reduce energy intake. We investigated the effect of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley on appetite and energy intake. The study was conducted as a randomized crossover design with twenty-one healthy Japanese women [mean ± standard deviation body mass index (BMI) 23.3 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)]. Subjects consumed a breakfast of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley (BAR) or white rice (WR), followed by an ad libitum lunch and dinner. Energy intake was measured at the lunch and the dinner using plate waste. Subjects' perception scores on hunger, fullness, satiety, and prospective food consumption were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, lunch and dinner. BAR significantly reduced the VAS scores of hunger and prospective food consumption, and increased fullness before lunch compared to WR (P = 0.032, 0.019 and 0.038, respectively). Energy intake at lunch and the cumulative energy intake (lunch + dinner) subsequent to BAR consumption were significantly lower than WR (P = 0.035 and 0.021, respectively). BAR was able to modulate appetite and reduce energy intake. The combination of white rice with high β-glucan barley could play a beneficial role in preventing and treating obesity and other obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  19. The effect of supplementing maize stover with cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata) haulms on the intake and growth performance of Ethiopian sheep.

    PubMed

    Koralagama, K D N; Mould, F L; Fernandez-Rivera, S; Hanson, J

    2008-06-01

    This study compared the effect of supplementing maize stover (MS) with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) haulms or commercial concentrate (CC) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, live weight gain and carcass yield of male Ethiopian Highland sheep. Two cowpea genotypes, 12688 (forage) and IT96D-774 (dual-purpose), were used. A randomised block design was applied with groups of eight sheep, blocked by weight, allocated to one of six treatments; MS ad libitum either unsupplemented or supplemented daily with 150 or 300 g dry matter (DM) of either cowpea or CC. MS contained more neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and lignin than either cowpeas or CC. Crude protein (CP) content of the forage-type cowpeas was higher than either dual-purpose or CC, while MS had the lowest CP content. Relative to the negative control group, cowpea at either level significantly (P < 0.01) increased both MS intake and total NDF and lignin. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.01) increased nitrogen (N) intakes relative to the negative control, with N intake for CC and dual-purpose cowpea (high level) being similar to the intakes for cowpeas at 150 g. N intake with the forage-type cowpea offered at higher levels was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than the other groups. No significant differences (P > 0.01) in MS intake were identified between cowpeas at either level or CC and, although intake level of CC increased, it did not differ significantly from the negative control group. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.01) improved average daily gain, with the negative control group losing weight over the experimental period, and increased final live weight, carcass cold weight and dressing percentage. Supplementation significantly improved the apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter and NDF, with no significant difference found between cowpeas at either level. N retention was negative for sheep offered only MS, but positive with all supplements, with cowpeas improving N

  20. Voglibose administration regulates body weight and energy intake in high fat-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Do, Hyun Ju; Jin, Taeon; Chung, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Ji Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-17

    We tested whether long-term administration of voglibose (VO) prevents diet induced obesity in addition to hypoglycemic effects in high fat fed mice and further investigated the underlying mechanisms by which voglibose exerts its weight lowering effect. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with the control diet (CTL), high-fat diet (HFD) or the HFD with VO supplementations. Blood lipid profile, plasma leptin levels and hepatic triglyceride content, as well as expressions of genes involved in appetite and mitochondrial function were examined. The results showed that VO significantly reduced body weight, fat mass and energy intakes in high fat fed mice. VO showed improved metabolic profiles including blood glucose, triglyceride and free fatty acid. Elevated levels of plasma leptin in HFD were significantly reduced with the VO, furthermore, VO modulated the hypothalamic expressions of leptin receptors and appetite related genes. VO showed the upregulated expressions of PGC-1 in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. In conclusion, VO may exert antiobesity properties through reductions in energy intake and improvement in mitochondrial function, indicating that VO has potential therapeutic use in patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related complications.

  1. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  2. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  3. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  4. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI. PMID:26596899

  5. Energy intake and appetite-related hormones following acute aerobic and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Balaguera-Cortes, Liliana; Wallman, Karen E; Fairchild, Timothy J; Guelfi, Kym J

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that resistance and aerobic exercise have differing effects on perceived hunger and circulating levels of appetite-related hormones. However, the effect of resistance and aerobic exercise on actual energy intake has never been compared. This study investigated the effect of an acute bout of resistance exercise, compared with aerobic exercise, on subsequent energy intake and appetite-regulating hormones. Ten active men completed 3 trials in a counterbalanced design: 45 min of resistance exercise (RES; free and machine weights), aerobic exercise (AER; running), or a resting control trial (CON). Following exercise or CON, participants had access to a buffet-style array of breakfast foods and drinks to consume ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of a range of appetite-regulating hormones were measured throughout each trial. Despite significantly higher energy expenditure with AER compared with RES (p < 0.05), there was no difference in total energy intake from the postexercise meal between trials (p = 0.779). Pancreatic polypeptide was significantly higher prior to the meal after both RES and AER compared with CON. In contrast, active ghrelin was lower following RES compared with both CON and AER (p ≤ 0.05), while insulin was higher following RES compared with CON (p = 0.013). In summary, the differential response of appetite-regulating hormones to AER and RES does not appear to influence energy intake in the postexercise meal. However, given the greater energy expenditure associated with AER compared with RES, AER modes of exercise may be preferable for achieving short-term negative energy balance. PMID:22111518

  6. Milk consumption following exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate-vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V̇O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V̇O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

  7. No effects of Korean pine nut triacylglycerol on satiety and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Triacylglycerols (TAG) have been shown to have potential appetite suppressing effects. This study examined the effects of 3 g and 6 g Korean pine nut triacylglycerols (PinnoThin) on appetite and energy intake. Methods 130 g Isoenergetic yogurt containing either placebo (milk fat) or PinnoThin TAG was consumed as a breakfast, after an overnight fast, in a double blind randomized crossover design. Appetite profile ratings were determined by visual analogue scale at regular intervals for a period of 4 h after the breakfast. In phase I, 6 g PinnoThin TAG and placebo was tested in thirty-three healthy women (mean ± SD, BMI 26.4 ± 3.8 kg/m2; age 28 ± 10 y) to determine the appetite suppressing effect in time. In phase II, an additional dose of 3 g PinnoThin TAG, as well as 6 g PinnoThin TAG and placebo, was tested in thirty-four women (BMI 25.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2; age 25 ± 9 y) to determine energy intake from an ad libitum lunch offered at 210 min after the breakfast, at which maximal differences in appetite profile ratings were present in phase I. Results Area under the curve of appetite profile ratings was not significantly different between the conditions. Energy intake was 9.5% lower after 6 g PinnoThin TAG compared with 3 g PinnoThin TAG, but there was no significant difference with the placebo. Conclusion A dosage of 6 g PinnoThin TAG is not sufficient to suppress appetite and energy intake. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01034605 PMID:22074178

  8. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI.

  9. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  10. The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and sensory effects of adding fiber to bread. Methods A double-blind pair of randomized crossover trials with a two-week washout in which two fiber-containing breads were compared with control bread. The functional fiber (fruit fiber and FibreMax™) was added to yield 10 g fiber per serve (two slices). Eighty participants (n = 37 fruit fiber and n = 43 FibreMax™) consumed one serve of bread (fiber or control) followed three hours later by a pasta meal consumed ad libitum. Outcome measures included glycemia, satiety, palatability, gastrointestinal wellbeing, visual appeal and subsequent energy intake of the pasta meal. Multivariate regression was undertaken to test for differences between treatment and control for blood glucose, satiety, and cumulative energy intake. Satiety responses were also compared by splitting the data into an immediate response after eating (0–30 min) and a return to hunger analysis (30–180 min). A Wilcoxon sign rank test was used for the first component (0–30 min) and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the second component (30–180 min). Between treatment differences for gastrointestinal wellbeing were tested using Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. Results Consumption of the fruit fiber bread reduced postprandial glycemia by 35% (95% CI 13 to 51; P = 0.004) and cumulative energy intake by 368 kJ (95% CI 163 to 531; P = 0.001). There was little influence on satiety and the bread was rated as having poor taste and smell whilst generating feelings of nausea in some participants. FibreMax™ enriched bread reduced glycemia by 43% (95% CI 17 to 61; P = 0.004) without influence on energy

  11. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    PubMed

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. PMID:27213451

  12. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    PubMed Central

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L.; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G.; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L.; Mercer Moss, Felix J.; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. PMID:27213451

  13. Increasing dietary leucine intake reduces diet-induced obesity and improves glucose and cholesterol metabolism in mice via multimechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiying; Guo, Kaiying; LeBlanc, Robert E; Loh, Daniella; Schwartz, Gary J; Yu, Yi-Hao

    2007-06-01

    Leucine, as an essential amino acid and activator of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), promotes protein synthesis and suppresses protein catabolism. However, the effect of leucine on overall glucose and energy metabolism remains unclear, and whether leucine has beneficial effects as a long-term dietary supplement has not been examined. In the present study, we doubled dietary leucine intake via leucine-containing drinking water in mice with free excess to either a rodent chow or a high-fat diet (HFD). While it produced no major metabolic effects in chow-fed mice, increasing leucine intake resulted in up to 32% reduction of weight gain (P < 0.05) and a 25% decrease in adiposity (P < 0.01) in HFD-fed mice. The reduction of adiposity resulted from increased resting energy expenditure associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 in brown and white adipose tissues and in skeletal muscle, while food intake was not decreased. Increasing leucine intake also prevented HFD-induced hyperglycemia, which was associated with improved insulin sensitivity, decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucogenic amino acids, and downregulation of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. Additionally, plasma levels of total and LDL cholesterol were decreased by 27% (P < 0.001) and 53% (P < 0.001), respectively, in leucine supplemented HFD-fed mice compared with the control mice fed the same diet. The reduction in cholesterol levels was largely independent of leucine-induced changes in adiposity. In conclusion, increases in dietary leucine intake substantially decrease diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in mice with ad libitum consumption of HFD likely via multiple mechanisms.

  14. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

    PubMed Central

    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  15. Influence of environmental factors on food intake and choice of beverage during meals in teenagers: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Péneau, Sandrine; Mekhmoukh, Amira; Chapelot, Didier; Dalix, Anne-Marie; Airinei, Gheorghe; Hercberg, Serge; Bellisle, France

    2009-12-01

    Environmental conditions influence meal size in adults and children. Intake of sweet drinks could contribute significantly to energy intake and potentially affect body weight, particularly in young individuals. The objectives of the present study were to measure the lunch intake of food and drinks under controlled laboratory settings in teenagers and to compare the influence of different meal conditions. Normal-weight adolescents (fourteen males and fifteen females) participated in four standardised lunches, scheduled 1 week apart. The same popular items (meat dish, dessert, water, juice, soda) were served at all meals. Ad libitum intake was measured under four conditions: subjects ate alone; in groups; alone while viewing television; alone while listening to music. Visual analogue scales were used to assess pre- and post-meal hunger and thirst and meal palatability. Energy, solid food and fluid intake was different (significantly lower) only in the 'eating in group' condition, in spite of identical intensity of pre-meal hunger. More soda was consumed when participants were watching television, and more water was consumed while listening to music. Across all conditions, more soda than water was consumed. Post-meal ratings of hunger, thirst and palatability did not differ between conditions. We concluded that, in teenagers, a 'social inhibition' effect appears rather than the 'social facilitation' previously reported in adults. Although teenagers do not respond to the presence of television or another 'distractor' such as music by eating more, they do ingest more soda when the television is on. The social significance of meals, conditioned responses and habituation to 'distractors' may be different between adolescents and adults. PMID:19682398

  16. Influence of environmental factors on food intake and choice of beverage during meals in teenagers: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Péneau, Sandrine; Mekhmoukh, Amira; Chapelot, Didier; Dalix, Anne-Marie; Airinei, Gheorghe; Hercberg, Serge; Bellisle, France

    2009-12-01

    Environmental conditions influence meal size in adults and children. Intake of sweet drinks could contribute significantly to energy intake and potentially affect body weight, particularly in young individuals. The objectives of the present study were to measure the lunch intake of food and drinks under controlled laboratory settings in teenagers and to compare the influence of different meal conditions. Normal-weight adolescents (fourteen males and fifteen females) participated in four standardised lunches, scheduled 1 week apart. The same popular items (meat dish, dessert, water, juice, soda) were served at all meals. Ad libitum intake was measured under four conditions: subjects ate alone; in groups; alone while viewing television; alone while listening to music. Visual analogue scales were used to assess pre- and post-meal hunger and thirst and meal palatability. Energy, solid food and fluid intake was different (significantly lower) only in the 'eating in group' condition, in spite of identical intensity of pre-meal hunger. More soda was consumed when participants were watching television, and more water was consumed while listening to music. Across all conditions, more soda than water was consumed. Post-meal ratings of hunger, thirst and palatability did not differ between conditions. We concluded that, in teenagers, a 'social inhibition' effect appears rather than the 'social facilitation' previously reported in adults. Although teenagers do not respond to the presence of television or another 'distractor' such as music by eating more, they do ingest more soda when the television is on. The social significance of meals, conditioned responses and habituation to 'distractors' may be different between adolescents and adults.

  17. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229

  18. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  19. The effect of 6 days of sodium phosphate supplementation on appetite, energy intake, and aerobic capacity in trained men and women.

    PubMed

    West, Jessica S; Ayton, Tom; Wallman, Karen E; Guelfi, Kym J

    2012-12-01

    Ingestion of an acute dose of phosphate has been shown to attenuate energy intake in the subsequent meal. This raises the question of whether the practice of phosphate supplementation over a number of days by athletes to enhance performance also influences energy intake. This study investigated the effect of 6 d of phosphate supplementation on appetite and energy intake, as well as aerobic capacity, in trained individuals. Twenty participants completed two 6-d phases of supplementation with either sodium phosphate (50 mg/kg of fat-free mass per day) or a placebo in a double-blinded, counterbalanced design. On Days 1, 2, and 6 of supplementation, a laboratory meal was provided to assess appetite and ad libitum energy intake. All other food and drink consumed during each supplementation phase were recorded in a food diary. After the 6 d of supplementation, peak aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) was assessed. There was no difference in energy intake at the laboratory meal after an acute dose (i.e., on Day 1; placebo 2,471 ± 919 kJ, phosphate 2,353 ± 987 kJ; p = .385) or prolonged supplementation with sodium phosphate (p = .581) compared with placebo. Likewise, there was no difference in VO(2peak) with phosphate supplementation (placebo 52.6 ± 5.2 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1), phosphate 53.3 ± 6.1 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p = .483). In summary, 6 d of sodium phosphate supplementation does not appear to influence energy intake. Therefore, athletes supplementing with sodium phosphate can do so without hindering their nutritional status. However, given that phosphate supplementation failed to improve aerobic capacity, the ergogenic benefit of this supplement remains questionable.

  20. The level of carbonation of a sugar-sweetened beverage preload affects satiety and short-term energy and food intakes.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, S Anne; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Dunne, Adrian; Welch, Robert W

    2008-06-01

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with increased incidence of overweight and obesity, and a factor underlying this putative link could be the relatively low levels of satiety that may be induced by these beverages. Although many sugar-sweetened beverages are carbonated, little attention has been given to the potential effects of level of carbonation on satiety and subsequent intakes. We hypothesized that increasing the level of carbonation in a sugar-sweetened beverage would increase satiety and decrease intakes in the short term. Using a randomized, within-subject cross-over design, thirty non-obese subjects (fifteen women, fifteen men) participated on three occasions, 1 week apart. Following a standard breakfast, subjects consumed a beverage preload 10 min before consuming a lunch ad libitum. Preloads were the same sugar-sweetened beverage (400 ml, 639 kJ) with three levels of carbonation, which were low (1.7 volumes), medium (2.5 volumes) and high (3.7 volumes). Satiety was assessed using visual analogue scales and intakes were measured at the lunch and for the rest of the day. Compared with the beverage with low carbonation, consumption of the beverages with medium and high carbonation led to significantly (P < 0.05) higher satiety until lunch, when intakes of food and energy were significantly (P < 0.05) lower. There were no significant effects on satiety following lunch or on intakes for the rest of the day. This short-term study suggests that the level of carbonation may need to be taken into account when assessing potential effects of beverages on satiety and intake.

  1. Effects of eating breakfast compared with skipping breakfast on ratings of appetite and intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children123

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Tanja VE; Whiteford, Linda M; Heo, Moonseong; Faith, Myles S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional data indicate an inverse relation between breakfast consumption and child weight. It has been suggested that skipping breakfast may adversely affect appetite in children, which could lead to overeating later in the day. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the effects of consuming breakfast compared with omitting breakfast on appetite ratings and energy intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children. Design: Twenty-one children participated in 2 test visits during which they were served either a compulsory breakfast or no breakfast. On both visits, subjects were also served lunch, which was consumed ad libitum. Subjects rated their appetite throughout the morning; parents completed food records that captured children's intake for the remainder of the day. Results: There was no significant main effect of breakfast condition on energy intake at lunch (P = 0.36) or throughout the remainder of the day (P = 0.85). There was a significant main effect of breakfast condition (P = 0.04) on total daily energy intake, which indicated that on the day when the subjects did not eat breakfast, they consumed 362 fewer calories over the course of the day than when they did eat breakfast. On the day when no breakfast was served, subjects indicated that they were significantly hungrier, less full, and could consume more food before lunch than on the day when they did eat breakfast (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Omitting breakfast affected children's appetite ratings but not their energy intake at subsequent meals. The dissonance between children's subjective ratings of prospective consumption and their actual intake should be further examined. PMID:21084650

  2. REM sleep predicts subsequent food intake.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J M

    1975-10-01

    REM sleep time in a 12 hr period was found to predict accurately food intake in the subsequent 12 hr period in undisturbed cats fed ad lib. In all but one of the cats, the correlation between REM sleep and subsequent food intake was negative. REM sleep was a better predictor of food intake than either waking, slow wave sleep or previous food intake. Cats were then fed only during the 12 hr day period. It was found that REM sleep at night, during which no food was available, no longer predicted food intake.

  3. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P < 0.001). Daily weight gain of R males was close to zero and significantly lower than in the other groups (-1.42 g/day; P < 0.001). Variability of DFI was significantly (P < 0.01) lower for R males (7%) than for males of dietary treatments CS (13%), with SF males showing intermediate values (11%). Semen from R males presented lower sperm abnormalities (-5.9%; P < 0.05) and higher percentages of normal and motile spermatozoa (-3.4% than SF males; P < 0.05). Dietary treatments formulated to reduce DFI variability (SF and R) led to an improvement of kindling to pregnant and kindling to insemination ratio (+0.039 and + 0.060 ± 0.015, respectively; P < 0.05) compared with CS treatment. In conclusion, a moderate restriction of rabbit

  4. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  5. The effects of the combination of egg and fiber on appetite, glycemic response and food intake in normal weight adults - a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Bonnema, Angela L; Altschwager, Deena K; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated appetite and glycemic effects of egg-based breakfasts, containing high and moderate protein (30 g protein and 20 g protein +7 g fiber, respectively) compared to a low-protein cereal breakfast (10 g protein) examined in healthy adults (N = 48; age 24 ± 1 yr; BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2); mean ± SE). Meals provided 390 kcal/serving and equal fat content. Food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch meal and blood glucose response was measured. Visual analog scales (VAS) were used to assess hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and prospective food intake. The egg-based breakfast meal with high protein produced greater overall satiety (p < 0.0001), and both high protein and moderate protein with fiber egg-based breakfasts reduced postprandial glycemic response (p < 0.005) and food intake (p < 0.05) at subsequent meal (by 135 kcal and 69 kcal; effect sizes 0.44 and 0.23, respectively) compared to a cereal-based breakfast with low protein and fiber. PMID:27306734

  6. Influence of crambe meal as a protein source on intake, site of digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency in beef steers fed grass hay.

    PubMed

    Caton, J S; Burke, V I; Anderson, V L; Burgwald, L A; Norton, P L; Olson, K C

    1994-12-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated beef steers (558 +/- 37 kg) were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the influence of crambe meal as a protein source on intake, digestion, and microbial efficiency. Steers were offered chopped (10.2 cm) brome hay (6.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption and one of four supplements. Protein sources used were soybean and crambe meals (CM). Protein sources were blended to provide four levels of supplemental CM protein (0, 33, 67, and 100%). Protein supplements were fed to provide similar amounts of protein and energy. Amounts of supplements fed were 831, 885, 950, and 996 g of DM/steer daily for 0, 33, 67, and 100% CM treatments, respectively. Crambe meal represented 0, 2.00, 3.83, and 5.88% of the DM intake for respective treatments. Steers were allowed a 21-d adaptation to diets before each collection period. Supplements were offered at 0800 and forage at 0830. Crambe meal had no influence (P > .10) on forage and total DM intake (grams/kilogram of BW). Apparent total tract, ruminal, and postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, ADF, and N were unaffected (P > .10) by CM supplementation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The effects of the combination of egg and fiber on appetite, glycemic response and food intake in normal weight adults - a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Bonnema, Angela L; Altschwager, Deena K; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated appetite and glycemic effects of egg-based breakfasts, containing high and moderate protein (30 g protein and 20 g protein +7 g fiber, respectively) compared to a low-protein cereal breakfast (10 g protein) examined in healthy adults (N = 48; age 24 ± 1 yr; BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2); mean ± SE). Meals provided 390 kcal/serving and equal fat content. Food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch meal and blood glucose response was measured. Visual analog scales (VAS) were used to assess hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and prospective food intake. The egg-based breakfast meal with high protein produced greater overall satiety (p < 0.0001), and both high protein and moderate protein with fiber egg-based breakfasts reduced postprandial glycemic response (p < 0.005) and food intake (p < 0.05) at subsequent meal (by 135 kcal and 69 kcal; effect sizes 0.44 and 0.23, respectively) compared to a cereal-based breakfast with low protein and fiber.

  8. Evidence for the Association of a Deleted Variant in the 5′-Flanking Region of the Chicken serotonin transporter (5-HTT) Gene with a Temporary Increase in Feed Intake and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Joergen B.; Phi-van, Loc

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The serotonergic system has been shown to be implicated in the regulation of mood and feeding behavior. Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene of Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens. In this study, the impact of three genotypes (W/W, W/D, and D/D) at the 5-HTT gene on feed intake and body weight was investigated. After hatching, hens of the three genotypes were kept under ad libitum feeding conditions, and their feed intake and body weight were recorded weekly. From 5 weeks of age, D/D and W/D hens were significantly heavier than wild-type W/W hens. Further, it is found that D/D hens had a temporarily higher feed intake and growth rate than W/W hens between 4 and 7 weeks. We suggest that the increased body weight is due to a transiently increased appetite of D/D hens. Abstract The serotonergic system has been shown to be implicated in the regulation of mood and feeding behavior. Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene of Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens. The deleted variant D was found to be associated with increased body weight. The objective of this study was to address whether the increased body weight may be due to an increased feed intake. After hatching, hens were kept under ad libitum feeding conditions, and their body weight and feed intake were weekly determined. From 5 weeks of age, the body weight of hens with the D/D and W/D genotypes was significantly greater than that of W/W carrying hens. Interestingly, we found that the feed intake of D/D carrying hens, relative to body weight, was transiently increased only between 4 and 7 weeks of age (p < 0.05), leading to a higher growth rate (p < 0.05), compared with that of W/W carrying hens. These results suggest that the presence of variant D may be correlated with a transiently increased appetite of D/D carrying hens. PMID:27754399

  9. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.

  10. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region. PMID:27113453

  11. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P < 0.05). Cattle in outside lots with access to overhead shelter had similar DMI compared to those in open lots ( P = 0.065). Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  12. Liquid and solid meal replacement products differentially affect postprandial appetite and food intake in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Apolzan, John W; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E; Iglay, Heidi B; Campbell, Wayne W

    2008-07-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macronutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a "comfortable level of fullness." Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults.

  13. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  14. The Main Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats

    PubMed Central

    Van Thang, Tran; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kishi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Go

    2012-01-01

    In large-type goats that were fed on dry forage twice daily, dry forage intake was markedly suppressed after 40 min of feeding had elapsed. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are mainly caused by the two factors, that is, ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst produced by dry forage feeding. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing 85.1±4.89 kg) were used in two experiments. The animals were fed ad libitum a diet of roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h from 10:00 to 12:00 am during two experiments. Water was withheld during feeding in both experiments but was available for a period of 30 min after completion of the 2 h feeding period. In experiment 1, saliva lost via the esophageal fistula was replenished by an intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva (RIAPS) in sham feeding conditions (SFC) control, and the treatment was maintained under normal feeding conditions (NFC). In experiment 2, a RIAPS and non-insertion of a balloon (RIAPS-NB) control was conducted in the same manner as the SFC control of experiment 1. The intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution and insertion of a balloon (RIHS-IB) treatment was carried out simultaneously to reproduce the effects of changing salt content and ruminal distension due to feed entering the rumen. The results of experiment 1 showed that due to the effects of multiple dry forage suppressing factors when feed boluses entered the rumen, eating rates in the NFC treatment decreased (p<0.05) after 40 min of feeding and cumulative dry forage intake for the 2 h feeding period reduced to 43.8% of the SFC control (p<0.01). The results of experiment 2 indicated that due to the two suppressing factors of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst, eating rates in the RIHS-IB treatment were, as observed

  15. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P < 0.05), whereas CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW and LMF calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P < 0.05) in the CMF calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that

  16. Chronic marginal iron intakes during early development in mice alter brain iron concentrations and behavior despite postnatal iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kwik-Uribe, C L; Golub, M S; Keen, C L

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the behavioral and cognitive outcomes associated with chronic marginal iron (Fe) intakes during early development. Offspring (3 males and 3 females/litter) of Swiss-Webster female mice who had been fed a control Fe diet (75 microg Fe/g diet) or marginal Fe diet (14 microg Fe/g diet) for 9 wk before mating were weaned on postnatal (PND) 21. Offspring of marginal Fe dams were fed either the marginal Fe diet (marginal group) or a control diet (replete group) from PND 21 throughout the duration of the study, whereas offspring of control dams consumed the control diet ad libitum (control group). On PND 30, 45 and 60, one male and female per litter underwent grip strength and auditory startle testing. A Morris maze was used to assess cognitive function in males starting at PND 50. Marginal Fe mice consistently demonstrated significantly lower grip strength, which was independent of differences in body weight. In addition, marginal Fe males demonstrated attenuated startle responsiveness, as well as altered performance in the Morris water maze. These differences in performance were found in association with lower brain Fe concentrations. Postnatal Fe supplementation did not reverse all of these disturbances because differences in brain Fe concentrations and maze learning persisted. This study demonstrates that chronic marginal Fe intakes during early development can result in persistent biochemical and behavioral changes in mice.

  17. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Adam, Clare L; Thomson, Lynn M; Williams, Patricia A; Ross, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  18. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    PubMed Central

    Wijlens, Anne G. M.; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration. PMID:26821045

  19. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  20. Shift work or food intake during the rest phase promotes metabolic disruption and desynchrony of liver genes in male rats.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C; Saderi, Nadia; Basualdo, María del Carmen; Guerrero-Vargas, Natali N; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2013-01-01

    In the liver, clock genes are proposed to drive metabolic rhythms. These gene rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) mainly by food intake and via autonomic and hormonal pathways. Forced activity during the normal rest phase, induces also food intake, thus neglecting the signals of the SCN, leading to conflicting time signals to target tissues of the SCN. The present study explored in a rodent model of night-work the influence of food during the normal sleep period on the synchrony of gene expression between clock genes and metabolic genes in the liver. Male Wistar rats were exposed to forced activity for 8 h either during the rest phase (day) or during the active phase (night) by using a slow rotating wheel. In this shift work model food intake shifts spontaneously to the forced activity period, therefore the influence of food alone without induced activity was tested in other groups of animals that were fed ad libitum, or fed during their rest or active phase. Rats forced to be active and/or eating during their rest phase, inverted their daily peak of Per1, Bmal1 and Clock and lost the rhythm of Per2 in the liver, moreover NAMPT and metabolic genes such as Pparα lost their rhythm and thus their synchrony with clock genes. We conclude that shift work or food intake in the rest phase leads to desynchronization within the liver, characterized by misaligned temporal patterns of clock genes and metabolic genes. This may be the cause of the development of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in individuals engaged in shift work.

  1. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men.

    PubMed

    Wijlens, Anne G M; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-26

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m²) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100 kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  2. Appetite, appetite hormone and energy intake responses to two consecutive days of aerobic exercise in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jessica A; King, James A; McFarlane, Ewan; Baker, Luke; Bradley, Chloe; Crouch, Nicole; Hill, David; Stensel, David J

    2015-09-01

    Single bouts of exercise do not cause compensatory changes in appetite, food intake or appetite regulatory hormones on the day that exercise is performed. It remains possible that such changes occur over an extended period or in response to a higher level of energy expenditure. This study sought to test this possibility by examining appetite, food intake and appetite regulatory hormones (acylated ghrelin, total peptide-YY, leptin and insulin) over two days, with acute bouts of exercise performed on each morning. Within a controlled laboratory setting, 15 healthy males completed two, 2-day long (09:00-16:00) experimental trials (exercise and control) in a randomised order. On the exercise trial participants performed 60 min of continuous moderate-high intensity treadmill running (day one: 70.1 ± 2.5% VO2peak, day two: 70.0 ± 3.2% VO2max (mean ± SD)) at the beginning of days one and two. Across each day appetite perceptions were assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite regulatory hormones were measured from venous blood samples. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were determined from meals provided two and six hours into each day and from a snack bag provided in-between trial days. Exercise elicited a high level of energy expenditure (total = 7566 ± 635 kJ across the two days) but did not produce compensatory changes in appetite or energy intake over two days (control: 29,217 ± 4006 kJ; exercise: 28,532 ± 3899 kJ, P > 0.050). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA did not reveal any main effects for acylated ghrelin or leptin (all P > 0.050). However a significant main effect of trial (P = 0.029) for PYY indicated higher concentrations on the exercise vs. control trial. These findings suggest that across a two day period, high volume exercise does not stimulate compensatory appetite regulatory changes.

  3. Shift Work or Food Intake during the Rest Phase Promotes Metabolic Disruption and Desynchrony of Liver Genes in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C.; Saderi, Nadia; Basualdo, María del Carmen; Guerrero-Vargas, Natali N.; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2013-01-01

    In the liver, clock genes are proposed to drive metabolic rhythms. These gene rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) mainly by food intake and via autonomic and hormonal pathways. Forced activity during the normal rest phase, induces also food intake, thus neglecting the signals of the SCN, leading to conflicting time signals to target tissues of the SCN. The present study explored in a rodent model of night-work the influence of food during the normal sleep period on the synchrony of gene expression between clock genes and metabolic genes in the liver. Male Wistar rats were exposed to forced activity for 8 h either during the rest phase (day) or during the active phase (night) by using a slow rotating wheel. In this shift work model food intake shifts spontaneously to the forced activity period, therefore the influence of food alone without induced activity was tested in other groups of animals that were fed ad libitum, or fed during their rest or active phase. Rats forced to be active and/or eating during their rest phase, inverted their daily peak of Per1, Bmal1 and Clock and lost the rhythm of Per2 in the liver, moreover NAMPT and metabolic genes such as Pparα lost their rhythm and thus their synchrony with clock genes. We conclude that shift work or food intake in the rest phase leads to desynchronization within the liver, characterized by misaligned temporal patterns of clock genes and metabolic genes. This may be the cause of the development of the metabolic syndrome and obesity in individuals engaged in shift work. PMID:23565183

  4. Fibrolytic enzyme and ammonia application effects on the nutritive value, intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass hay in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of

  5. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  6. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  7. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  8. Activation of physiological stress responses by a natural reward: Novel vs. repeated sucrose intake.

    PubMed

    Egan, Ann E; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2015-10-15

    Pharmacological rewards, such as drugs of abuse, evoke physiological stress responses, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is not clear to what extent the natural reward of palatable foods elicits similar physiological responses. In order to address this question, HPA axis hormones, heart rate, blood pressure and brain pCREB immunolabeling were assessed following novel and repeated sucrose exposure. Briefly, adult, male rats with ad libitum food and water were given either a single (day 1) or repeated (twice-daily for 14 days) brief (up to 30 min) exposure to a second drink bottle containing 4 ml of 30% sucrose drink vs. water (as a control for bottle presentation). Sucrose-fed rats drank more than water-fed on all days of exposure, as expected. On day 1 of exposure, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma corticosterone, and locomotion were markedly increased by presentation of the second drink bottle regardless of drink type. After repeated exposure (day 14), these responses habituated to similar extents regardless of drink type and pCREB immunolabeling in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) also did not vary with drink type, whereas basolateral amygdala pCREB was increased by sucrose intake. Taken together, these data suggest that while sucrose is highly palatable, physiological stress responses were evoked principally by the drink presentation itself (e.g., an unfamiliar intervention by the investigators), as opposed to the palatability of the offered drink.

  9. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. PMID:26210606

  10. Length and site of the small intestine exposed to fat influences hunger and food intake.

    PubMed

    Maljaars, P W Jeroen; Peters, Harry P F; Kodde, Andrea; Geraedts, Maartje; Troost, Fred J; Haddeman, Edward; Masclee, Ad A M

    2011-11-01

    The site of intestinal fat delivery affects satiety and may affect food intake in humans. Animal data suggest that the length of the small intestine exposed to fat is also relevant. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure and the way it is exposed would affect satiety parameters and food intake. In the present single-blind, randomised, cross-over study, fifteen volunteers, each intubated with a naso-ileal tube, received four treatments on consecutive days. The oral control (control treatment) was a liquid meal (LM) containing 6 g fat ingested at t = 0 min, with saline infusion at t = 30-120 min. Experimental treatments were a fat-free LM at t = 0 min, with either 6 g oil delivered sequentially (2 g duodenal, t = 30-60 min; 2 g jejunal, t = 60-90 min; 2 g ileal, t = 90-120 min), simultaneously (2 g each to all sites, t = 30-120 min) or ileal only (6 g ileal, t = 30-120 min). Satiety parameters (hunger and fullness) and cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) secretion were measured until t = 180 min, when ad libitum food intake was assessed. Only the ileum treatment reduced food intake significantly over the control treatment. The ileum and simultaneous treatments significantly reduced hunger compared with the control treatment. Compared with control, no differences were observed for PYY, CCK and GLP-1 with regard to 180 min integrated secretion. Ileal fat infusion had the most pronounced effect on food intake and satiety. Increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure only affected hunger when fat was delivered simultaneously, not sequentially, to the exposed areas. These results demonstrate that ileal brake activation offers an interesting target for the regulation of ingestive behaviour.

  11. Voluntary fluid intake, hydration status, and aerobic performance of adolescent athletes in the heat.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W; Bar-Or, Oded

    2010-12-01

    We determined whether beverage flavoring and composition would stimulate voluntary drink intake, prevent dehydration, and maintain exercise performance in heat-acclimated adolescent males running in the heat. Eight adolescent (age, 13.7 ± 1.1 years) runners (peak oxygen uptake, 59.5 ± 4.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) underwent at least four 80-min exercise heat-acclimation sessions before completing 3 experimental sessions. All sessions were performed at 30 °C and 60%-65% relative humidity. Each experimental session consisted of five 15-min treadmill runs at a speed eliciting 65% peak oxygen uptake, with a 5 min rest prior to each run. Ten minutes after the final run, a time to exhaustion test was performed at a speed eliciting 90% peak oxygen uptake. Counterbalanced experimental sessions were identical, except for fluid intake, which consisted of tap water (W), flavored water (FW), and FW with 6% carbohydrate and 18 mmol·L-1 NaCl (CNa) consumed ad libitum. Fluid intake and body weight were monitored to calculate dehydration. Voluntary fluid intake was similar to fluid losses in W (1032 ± 130 vs. 1340 ± 246 g), FW (1086 ± 86 vs. 1451 ± 253 g), and CNa (1259 ± 119 vs. 1358 ± 234 g). As a result, significant dehydration was avoided in all trials (-0.45% ± 0.68% body weight in W, -0.66% ± 0.50% body weight in FW, and -0.13% ± 0.71% body weight in CNa). Core temperature increased by ~1 °C during exercise, but was not different between trials. Time to exhaustion was not different between trials and averaged 8.8 ± 1.7 min. Under exercise conditions more closely reflecting real-life situations, heat-acclimatized adolescent male runners can appropriately gauge fluid intake regardless of the type of beverage made available, resulting in consistency in exercise performance. PMID:21164555

  12. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  13. Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and postprandial insulin release without altering glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations in healthy overweight and obese adults: a randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bottin, Jeanne H; Swann, Jonathan R; Cropp, Eleanor; Chambers, Edward S; Ford, Heather E; Ghatei, Mohammed A; Frost, Gary S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary mycoprotein decreases energy intake in lean individuals. The effects in overweight individuals are unclear, and the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of mycoprotein on energy intake, appetite regulation, and the metabolic phenotype in overweight and obese volunteers. In two randomised-controlled trials, fifty-five volunteers (age: 31 (95 % CI 27, 35) years), BMI: 28·0 (95 % CI 27·3, 28·7) kg/m2) consumed a test meal containing low (44 g), medium (88 g) or high (132 g) mycoprotein or isoenergetic chicken meals. Visual analogue scales and blood samples were collected to measure appetite, glucose, insulin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Ad libitum energy intake was assessed after 3 h in part A (n 36). Gastric emptying by the paracetamol method, resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were recorded in part B (n 14). Metabonomics was used to compare plasma and urine samples in response to the test meals. Mycoprotein reduced energy intake by 10 % (280 kJ (67 kcal)) compared with chicken at the high content (P=0·009). All mycoprotein meals reduced insulin concentrations compared with chicken (incremental AUClow (IAUClow): -8 %, IAUCmedium: -12 %, IAUChigh: -21 %, P=0·004). There was no significant difference in glucose, PYY, GLP-1, gastric emptying rate and energy expenditure. Following chicken intake, paracetamol-glucuronide was positively associated with fullness. After mycoprotein, creatinine and the deamination product of isoleucine, α-keto-β-methyl-N-valerate, were inversely related to fullness, whereas the ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate, was positively associated. In conclusion, mycoprotein reduces energy intake and insulin release in overweight volunteers. The mechanism does not involve changes in PYY and GLP-1. The metabonomics analysis may bring new understanding to the appetite regulatory properties of food.

  14. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P < .001]). Relative to baseline, within-group mean changes from WPC were significant for appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition (P < .001). In the SPI group, mean changes were significant, relative to baseline, for all variables except lean muscle (P = .37). According to this 12-week study, WPC preloads conducted 30 minutes prior to the ad libitum main meal exerted stronger beneficial effects than did SPI preloads on appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men.

  15. Different dietary energy intake affects skeletal muscle development through an Akt-dependent pathway in Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J X; Liu, X D; Li, K; Liu, W Z; Ren, Y S; Zhang, J X

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the mechanisms through which different levels of dietary energy affect postnatal skeletal muscle development in ewe lambs. Twelve Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred ewe lambs (100 d of age; 20 ± 0.5 kg BW) were selected randomly and divided into 2 groups in a completely randomized design. Animals were offered identical diets at 100% or 65% of ad libitum intake. Lambs were euthanized when BW in the ad libitum group reached 35 kg and the semitendinosus muscle was sampled. Final BW and skeletal muscle weight were decreased (P < 0.01) by feed restriction. Both muscle fiber size distribution and myofibril cross-sectional area were altered by feed restriction. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) content was decreased (P < 0.05) when lambs were underfed, whereas no difference for IGF-2 mRNA expression was observed (P > 0.05). Feed restriction altered phosphor-Akt protein abundance (P < 0.01). Moreover, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was inhibited by feed restriction, which was associated with decreased phosphor-mTOR, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (phosphor-4EBP1), and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase (phosphor-S6K). Both mRNA expression of myostatin and its protein content were elevated in feed-restricted ewe lambs (P < 0.05). In addition, mRNA expression of both muscle RING finger 1 and muscle atrophy F-box was increased when ewe lambs were underfed. In summary, feed restriction in young growing ewe lambs attenuates skeletal muscle hypertrophy by inhibiting protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation, which may act through the Akt-dependent pathway.

  16. Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Azevedo de Meneses, J; Junqueira Lopes, C A; Coca Velarde, L G; Teles Boaventura, G

    2011-01-01

    Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6): FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.

  17. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p < 0.001) compared with control and glucose in pre-early pubertal children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children. PMID:27507005

  18. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (P<0.05) and tended to increase the digestibility of CP (P=0.05) compared with the control diet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (P<0.05) lactation diet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  19. The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Rottman, L. Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A.; Harvatine, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22–0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. PMID:24963033

  20. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Cho, Jacob; Kim, Ronald; Michaelides, Michael; Primeaux, Stefany; Bray, George; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) and DA D₂ receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  1. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  2. Effect of degradable intake protein level on finishing cattle performance and ruminal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shain, D H; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Herold, D W

    1998-01-01

    Two finishing trials and a metabolism trial were conducted to evaluate level of supplemental degradable intake (crude) protein (DIP) in finishing diets on cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal metabolism. Finishing trials were conducted in two consecutive years using 128 crossbred yearling steers (BW = 343+/-5 kg, Trial 1) and 176 crossbred yearling steers (BW = 375+/-4 kg, Trial 2) in a randomized complete block design. Steers were fed dry-rolled corn diets containing urea at 0, .88, 1.34, or 1.96% (DM basis). No differences in DMI, daily gain, or feed efficiency were noted among steers receiving diets containing supplemental urea. However, steers fed diets supplemented with urea were 5.4% more efficient (P < .01) and gained 6.6% faster (P < .01) than steers receiving no supplemental urea. Metabolizable protein (MP) content of all diets exceeded the steers' requirements. However, diets containing no urea were deficient in DIP. In the metabolism trial, four ruminally fistulated steers (BW = 380+/-22 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design and fed (ad libitum) diets similar to those used in the finishing trials. Nitrogen intake and ruminal ammonia N concentration increased linearly (P < .05) with increasing level of urea supplementation. Diets containing no supplemental urea were calculated to be deficient in DIP, resulting in reduced bacterial synthesis. Results indicate that dry-rolled corn finishing diets containing no supplemental N are deficient in ruminally degradable N. Supplementing these diets with an inexpensive source of ruminally degradable N improved animal performance. However, supplementation with urea above .88% was not beneficial. PMID:9464905

  3. Uninephrectomy in rats on a fixed food intake results in adipose tissue lipolysis implicating spleen cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Cajot, Jean-François; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX) compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2, and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups. UniNX resulted in the reduction of fat pad weight. UniNX was associated with increased circulating levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol, as well as increased fat pad mRNA of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, suggesting enhanced lipolysis. No decrease in fat pad lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase activity was observed. Circulating hormones known to regulate lipolysis such as leptin, T3, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, angiotensin 1, and angiotensin 2 were not different between the two groups. In contrast, a select group of circulating lipolytic cytokines, including interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, were increased after UniNX. These cytokine levels were elevated in the spleen, but decreased in the kidney, liver, and fat pads. This could be explained by anti-inflammatory factors SIRT1, a member of the sirtuins, and the farnesoid x receptor (FXR), which were decreased in the spleen but elevated in the kidney, liver, and fat pads (inguinal and epididymal). Our study suggests that UniNX induces adipose tissue lipolysis in response to increased levels of a subset of lipolytic cytokines of splenic origin. PMID:26217234

  4. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P < 0.05). A trend for reduced energy and fat intake compared with CON (-718 kJ; -8 g) (P = 0.055) was observed. Consequently, EX+CAF created a greater energy deficit (P < 0.05). Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P < 0.05). Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated. PMID:25123196

  5. Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Silage on Intake and Nutrient Digestibility in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Cottonseed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25049834

  6. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    PubMed

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-02

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  7. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    PubMed

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  8. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    PubMed

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  9. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Stookey, Jodi J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  10. Effect of two bakery products on short-term food intake and gut-hormones in young adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Santaliestra-Pasías, A M; Garcia-Lacarte, M; Rico, M C; Aguilera, C M; Moreno, L A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of conventional bread and a whole grain bread on appetite and energy intake, satiety and satiety gut-hormones. A randomized controlled crossover pilot study was carried out in 11 university students (age: 18.7 ± 0.9 years; body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)). Participants consumed two different mid-morning cereal-based snacks, including a conventional or whole grain bread. Two testing days were completed, including satiety questionnaires, blood sampling and consumption of standardized breakfast, mid-morning test-snacks and ad libitum lunch. Several gut-hormones were analysed and satiation was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores. The consumption of whole grain bread increased satiety perception, decreased the remained energy intake during the testing day, and decreased the postprandial response of peptide YY, compared with conventional bread (p < 0.005). These data suggest that the consumption of whole grain bread might be a useful strategy to improve satiety. PMID:27199158

  11. Comparative effects of TV watching, recreational computer use, and sedentary video game play on spontaneous energy intake in male children. A randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jiang, Yannan; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    To compare the effects of three screen-based sedentary behaviours on acute energy intake (EI) in children. Normal-weight males aged 9-13 years participated in a randomised crossover trial conducted in a laboratory setting between November 2012 and February 2013 in Auckland, New Zealand. EI during an ad libitum meal was compared for three 1-hour conditions: (1) television (TV) watching, (2) sedentary video game (VG) play, and (3) recreational computer use. The primary endpoint was total EI from food and drink. Mixed regression models were used to evaluate the treatment conditions adjusting for age, BMI, and appetite at baseline. A total of 20 participants were randomised and all completed the three conditions. Total EI from food and drink in the TV, computer, and VG conditions was estimated at 820 (SE 73.15), 685 (SE 73.33), and 696 (SE 73.16) kcal, respectively, with EI being significantly greater in the TV versus computer condition (+135; P = 0.04), a trend towards greater intake in the TV versus VG condition (+124; P = 0.06), but not significantly different between the computer and VG conditions (-10; P = 0.87). TV watching was associated with greater EI compared with computer use, and a trend towards greater EI compared with VG play.

  12. Anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer inhibits exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food intake, hoarding, and neural activation, but not food deprivation-induced increases

    PubMed Central

    Teubner, Brett J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating concentrations of the stomach-derived “hunger-peptide” ghrelin increase in direct proportion to the time since the last meal. Exogenous ghrelin also increases food intake in rodents and humans, suggesting ghrelin may increase post-fast ingestive behaviors. Food intake after food deprivation is increased by laboratory rats and mice, but not by humans (despite dogma to the contrary) or by Siberian hamsters; instead, humans and Siberian hamsters increase food hoarding, suggesting the latter as a model of fasting-induced changes in human ingestive behavior. Exogenous ghrelin markedly increases food hoarding by ad libitum-fed Siberian hamsters similarly to that after food deprivation, indicating sufficiency. Here, we tested the necessity of ghrelin to increase food foraging, food hoarding, and food intake, and neural activation [c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir)] using anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11–2 (SPM), an l-oligonucleotide that specifically binds active ghrelin, inhibiting peptide-receptor interaction. SPM blocked exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding the first 2 days after injection, and foraging and food intake at 1–2 h and 2–4 h, respectively, and inhibited hypothalamic c-Fos-ir. SPM given every 24 h across 48-h food deprivation inconsistently inhibited food hoarding after refeeding and c-Fos-ir, similarly to inabilities to do so in laboratory rats and mice. These results suggest that ghrelin may not be necessary for food deprivation-induced foraging and hoarding and neural activation. A possible compensatory response, however, may underlie these findings because SPM treatment led to marked increases in circulating ghrelin concentrations. Collectively, these results show that SPM can block exogenous ghrelin-induced ingestive behaviors, but the necessity of ghrelin for food deprivation-induced ingestive behaviors remains unclear. PMID:23804279

  13. Decreased food intake rather than zinc deficiency is associated with changes in plasma leptin, metabolic rate, and activity levels in zinc deficient rats( small star, filled).

    PubMed

    Gaetke, Lisa M.; Frederich, Robert C.; Oz, Helieh S.; McClain, Craig J.

    2002-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that the reduced food intake and poor weight gain in zinc deficient rats is due to: increased plasma leptin concentration, increased physical activity and/or increased metabolic rate. Weanling rats were assigned to three groups: controls fed ad libitum (C), zinc deficient (ZD), and pair-fed controls (PF), and tested in a metabolic chamber and activity monitor at baseline and weekly for four weeks. At the end of the study, all groups were compared for differences in plasma leptin concentrations. ZD and PF animals had markedly reduced food intake and weight gain. ZD had reduced stereotypic and locomotor activity compared to PF animals and both groups demonstrated an abolished peri-nocturnal activity spike and were much less active than controls. This was associated with a reduced total metabolic rate by day 30: ZD (0.73 +/- 0.07 kcal/hr, p = 0.0001) and PF (0.83 +/- 0.06 kcal/hr, p = 0.0001) groups vs. controls (1.82 +/- 0.09 kcal/hr). Plasma leptin concentrations in ZD (1.55 +/- 0.06 &mgr;g/L) were lower than controls (2.01 +/- 0.18 &mgr;g/L, p < 0.03), but neither ZD nor controls were statistically different from PF (1.68 +/- 0.05 &mgr;g/L). Both low leptin concentrations and low metabolic rates in the ZD and PF rats were associated with decreased food intake rather than zinc deficiency. The reduced food intake and poor weight gain observed in zinc deficient rats could not be explained by elevated leptin concentrations, hypermetabolism, or increased activity. Low serum leptin concentrations, hypometabolism, and decreased activity are more likely the result of the anorexia of zinc deficiency.

  14. Dose-dependent effects of a soluble dietary fibre (pectin) on food intake, adiposity, gut hypertrophy and gut satiety hormone secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A; Garden, Karen E; Thomson, Lynn M; Ross, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    Soluble fermentable dietary fibre elicits gut adaptations, increases satiety and potentially offers a natural sustainable means of body weight regulation. Here we aimed to quantify physiological responses to graded intakes of a specific dietary fibre (pectin) in an animal model. Four isocaloric semi-purified diets containing 0, 3.3%, 6.7% or 10% w/w apple pectin were offered ad libitum for 8 or 28 days to young adult male rats (n = 8/group). Measurements were made of voluntary food intake, body weight, initial and final body composition by magnetic resonance imaging, final gut regional weights and histology, and final plasma satiety hormone concentrations. In both 8- and 28-day cohorts, dietary pectin inclusion rate was negatively correlated with food intake, body weight gain and the change in body fat mass, with no effect on lean mass gain. In both cohorts, pectin had no effect on stomach weight but pectin inclusion rate was positively correlated with weights and lengths of small intestine and caecum, jejunum villus height and crypt depth, ileum crypt depth, and plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations, and at 8 days was correlated with weight and length of colon and with caecal mucosal depth. Therefore, the gut's morphological and endocrine adaptations were dose-dependent, occurred within 8 days and were largely sustained for 28 days during continued dietary intervention. Increasing amounts of the soluble fermentable fibre pectin in the diet proportionately decreased food intake, body weight gain and body fat content, associated with proportionately increased satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY and intestinal hypertrophy, supporting a role for soluble dietary fibre-induced satiety in healthy body weight regulation. PMID:25602757

  15. Effect of palm kernel cake as protein source in a concentrate diet on intake, digestibility and live weight gain of goats fed Napier grass.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Abdullah, Ramli Bin; Wan Embong, Wan Khadijah; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Akashi, Ryo

    2013-03-01

    The effects of palm kernel cake (PKC) as a protein source in a concentrate diet (comprising 35 % crushed maize, 30 % rice bran, 32 % PKC, 2 % vitamin mineral premix and 1 % salt) were examined on intake, live weight (LW) gain and digestibility in female goats (average LW of 12.4 ± 2.6 kg). Four goats were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: (a) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) offered ad libitum (T1), (b) T1 + concentrate at 0.5 % of LW (T2), (c) T1 + concentrate at 1.0 % of LW (T3) and (d) T1 + concentrate at 2.0 % of LW (T4). A 7-day digestibility trial and an 82-day growth experiment were conducted. No differences were observed among diets for intakes of roughage dry matter (DM), total DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The crude protein (CP) intake increased (P < 0.05) as the level of concentrate in the diets increased. Goats fed the T2, T3 and T4 diets gained 10.2, 34.1 and 52.5 g/head/day, respectively, while the control group (T1) lost weight (-12.7 g/head/day). The apparent digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary NDF decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference between T2 and T3 diets. Supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with PKC-based concentrate improved CP intake and LW gain. The PKC-based concentrate diet can therefore be exploited for the use of local feed resources for goat production; however, further research is required to achieve the best growth response.

  16. Genetic parameters of a random regression model for daily feed intake of performance tested French Landrace and Large White growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus

    2001-01-01

    Daily feed intake data of 1 279 French Landrace (FL, 1 039 boars and 240 castrates) and 2 417 Large White (LW, 2 032 boars and 385 castrates) growing pigs were recorded with electronic feed dispensers in three French central testing stations from 1992–1994. Male (35 to 95 kg live body weight) or castrated (100 kg live body weight) group housed, ad libitum fed pigs were performance tested. A quadratic polynomial in days on test with fixed regressions for sex and batch, random regressions for additive genetic, pen, litter and individual permanent environmental effects was used, with two different models for the residual variance: constant in model 1 and modelled with a quadratic polynomial depending on the day on test dm as follows in model 2: . Variance components were estimated from weekly means of daily feed intake by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of (co)variances were calculated using 800 000 samples from four chains (200 000 each). Heritability estimates of regression coefficients were 0.30 (FL model 1), 0.21 (FL model 2), 0.14 (LW1) and 0.14 (LW2) for the intercept, 0.04 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2), 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the linear, 0.03 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2) 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the quadratic term. Heritability estimates for weekly means of daily feed intake were the lowest in week 4 (FL1: 0.11, FL2: 0.11) and week 1 (LW1: 0.09, LW2: 0.10), and the highest in week 11 (FL1: 0.25, FL2: 0.24) and week 8 (LW1: 0.19, LW2: 0.18), respectively. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by selection is difficult. PMID:11742633

  17. Anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer inhibits exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food intake, hoarding, and neural activation, but not food deprivation-induced increases.

    PubMed

    Teubner, Brett J W; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-08-15

    Circulating concentrations of the stomach-derived "hunger-peptide" ghrelin increase in direct proportion to the time since the last meal. Exogenous ghrelin also increases food intake in rodents and humans, suggesting ghrelin may increase post-fast ingestive behaviors. Food intake after food deprivation is increased by laboratory rats and mice, but not by humans (despite dogma to the contrary) or by Siberian hamsters; instead, humans and Siberian hamsters increase food hoarding, suggesting the latter as a model of fasting-induced changes in human ingestive behavior. Exogenous ghrelin markedly increases food hoarding by ad libitum-fed Siberian hamsters similarly to that after food deprivation, indicating sufficiency. Here, we tested the necessity of ghrelin to increase food foraging, food hoarding, and food intake, and neural activation [c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir)] using anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11-2 (SPM), an l-oligonucleotide that specifically binds active ghrelin, inhibiting peptide-receptor interaction. SPM blocked exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding the first 2 days after injection, and foraging and food intake at 1-2 h and 2-4 h, respectively, and inhibited hypothalamic c-Fos-ir. SPM given every 24 h across 48-h food deprivation inconsistently inhibited food hoarding after refeeding and c-Fos-ir, similarly to inabilities to do so in laboratory rats and mice. These results suggest that ghrelin may not be necessary for food deprivation-induced foraging and hoarding and neural activation. A possible compensatory response, however, may underlie these findings because SPM treatment led to marked increases in circulating ghrelin concentrations. Collectively, these results show that SPM can block exogenous ghrelin-induced ingestive behaviors, but the necessity of ghrelin for food deprivation-induced ingestive behaviors remains unclear.

  18. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  19. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  20. Mineralocorticoid receptor in the NTS stimulates saline intake during fourth ventricular infusions of aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Bhuvaneswari; Bathina, Chandra Sekhar; Cherry, Brandon H; Mifflin, Steve W

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether neurons within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) that express the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) play a role in aldosterone stimulation of salt intake. Adult Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats received microinjections into the NTS of a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) for the MR, to site specifically reduce levels of the MR by RNA interference (shRNA; n = 9) or scrambled RNA as a control (scRNA; n = 8). After injection of the viral construct, aldosterone-filled osmotic minipumps were implanted subcutaneously and connected to a cannula extending into the fourth ventricle to infuse aldosterone at a rate of 25 ng/h. Before and after surgeries, rats had ad libitum access to normal sodium (0.26%) rat chow and two graduated drinking bottles filled with either distilled water or 0.3 M NaCl. Before the surgeries, basal saline intake was 1.6 ± 0.6 ml in the scRNA group and 1.56 ± 0.6 ml in the shRNA group. Twenty-four days postsurgery, saline intake was elevated to a greater extent in the scRNA group (5.9 ± 1.07 ml) than in the shRNA group (2.41 ± 0.6 ml). Post mortem immunohistochemistry revealed a significant reduction in the number of NTS neurons exhibiting immunoreactivity for MR in shRNA-injected rats (23 ± 1 cells/section) versus scRNA-injected rats (33 ± 2 cells/section; P = 0.008). shRNA did not alter the level of 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD2) protein in the NTS as judged by the number of HSD2 immunoreactive neurons. These results suggest that fourth ventricular infusions of aldosterone stimulate saline intake, and that this stimulation is at least in part mediated by hindbrain NTS neurons that express MR.

  1. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  2. Use of NaHCO3 and MgO as additives for sheep fed only pasture for a restricted period of time per day: effects on intake, digestion and the rumen environment.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruchel, A; Repetto, J L; Cajarville, C

    2014-12-01

    Effects of NaHCO3 and MgO buffer addition on intake and digestive utilization of a pasture were studied in wethers allowed a restricted time of access to forage. Twelve wethers housed in metabolic cages and fed fresh forage (predominantly Lotus corniculatus) ad libitum for 6 h/d were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: a control forage without buffer (C) or a forage plus buffer composed of a mixture of 750 g/kg NaHCO3 and 250 g/kg MgO at 20 g/kg dry matter intake (B). Feeding behaviour, feed and water intake and digestibility, urine output, Na urine elimination, kinetics of passage, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration, N balance and ruminal microbial N synthesis were determined in vivo, and the ruminal liquor activity was evaluated in vitro by fermentation of wheat straw. Addition of buffer increased total water intake (p = 0.05), Na urinary output (p = 0.01), purine derivative excretion in urine (p = 0.05) and tended to decrease mean total retention time in the digestive tract (p = 0.09). However, buffer addition increased ruminal pH (p < 0.001) and tended to decrease the ammonia concentration (p = 0.05). That use of buffer decreased ruminal activity was evidenced by a lower volume of gas produced in vitro (p = 0.01) possibly due to a lower microbial concentration in rumen liquor. The higher rumen dilution rate, likely due to a higher water intake, seems to have been the key driver of the actions of buffer supplementation on the rumen environment. Moreover, addition of NaHCO3 led to an increased urinary Na excretion, which should be considered due to its likely negative environmental impacts.

  3. Effects of milk replacer program fed 2 or 4 times daily on nutrient intake and calf growth.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; da Silva, D N L; Linn, J G; Litherland, N B

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if feeding frequency (FF) of milk replacer (MR; meals/d) alters starter intake, growth, and efficiency of growth in nursery calves fed a conventional or accelerated MR. We hypothesized that smaller and more frequent MR meals would increase starter intake and growth when greater amounts of MR nutrients are fed to nursery calves. Forty-eight Holstein and Holstein-cross heifer and bull calves were assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR and FF. Treatments included (1) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of body weight (BW; 2 meals/d; STD2), (2) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of BW (4 meals/d; STD4), (3) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (2 meals/d; MOD2), and (4) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (4 meals/d; MOD4; n=12). All calves were fed at 0600 and 1700 h and STD4 and MOD4 calves were fed 2 additional meals at 1100 and 1400 h, resulting in the same amount of MR offered for the 2 × and 4 × treatments. Treatments were fed from d 2 to 42 of age and all MR feeding rates were adjusted weekly to maintain MR solids intakes at 1.5 or 2.0% of BW for STD and MOD diets, respectively, and were reconstituted to 15% total solids. Milk replacer FF was reduced by 50% on d 36 and calves were weaned on d 42. Calves were housed in hutches bedded with straw and offered water and a texturized 18% CP starter ad libitum. Calf body weight and body structure were measured weekly and starter intake and fecal scores were measured daily. Through both 42 and 56 d, calves fed MOD had greater CP and fat intake, resulting in increased average daily gain, heart girth, circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and muscle total lipid compared with calves fed STD diets. Calves fed MOD diets consumed less starter grain than STD calves but total dry matter intake was similar among treatments. Increased FF for STD calves resulted in greater starter intake at weaning but increasing FF

  4. Hormonal responses and test meal intake among obese teenagers before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding123

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Michael J; Schebendach, Janet; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Zimmerli, Ellen; Korner, Judith; Yanovski, Jack A; Zitsman, Jeffrey L; Walsh, B Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about changes in eating behavior or hormonal responses to food after bariatric surgery in adolescents. Objective: This study compared eating behavior and hormones among adolescents in a bariatric surgery program with those in nonoverweight control adolescents and evaluated changes before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Design: Fasting leptin, peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin concentrations were obtained, and postprandial ghrelin and PYY area under the curve (AUC) were assessed after a single-item breakfast. Intake from an ad libitum lunchtime multi-item meal was measured. Results: Compared with controls (n = 9), all presurgical candidates (n = 20) had significantly greater fasting leptin, lower fasting ghrelin, and lower AUC ghrelin but similar PYY and AUC PYY. Preoperative candidates did not differ from controls in total energy consumed during the test meal. Postoperatively, among the 11 participants with data both before and after surgery, BMI (in kg/m2) decreased by 3.5 (P < 0.001), significantly less energy was consumed in the test meal, and a smaller number of foods were selected. AUC ghrelin and PYY did not significantly change before or after LAGB. Conclusions: Few significant short-term changes were observed in appetitive hormones after LAGB. It is unclear whether objective measures of eating behavior will prove useful in evaluating the impact of bariatric surgery on outcomes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as CT00764127. PMID:23985807

  5. The scientific basis of recent US guidance on sugars intake.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Johnson, Rachel K

    2003-10-01

    Most fruits and dairy products are high in sugars, and thus naturally occurring sugars are consumed as part of a healthy diet. Sugars are also added to foods during processing or preparation, primarily to enhance taste. Monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods are chemically indistinguishable from naturally occurring forms. However, concern has been expressed about the apparent increasing consumption of added sugars and their possible role in displacing or diluting nutrients in the diet and contributing to the epidemic of obesity in developed countries. One of the 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans states, "Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars." The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee discussed whether to specify added sugars rather than the broader term sugars but decided that it was not possible to conclude that added sugars per se play a negative role in the public's health. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee issued a call for more definitive studies of the role of sugars in current diets and the potential effect of a reduction in added sugars on both dietary quality and energy intake. The American Heart Association recently released a statement advising consumers to limit sugars consumption. The macronutrient report for the dietary reference intakes addresses many of these same issues; the expert panel concluded that it was not appropriate to set a tolerable upper intake level for added sugars but suggested a maximal intake level of 25% of energy from added sugars because of concerns about reduced intakes of essential micronutrients. PMID:14522746

  6. The effects of whole grain high-amylose maize flour as a source of resistant starch on blood glucose, satiety, and food intake in young men.

    PubMed

    Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Mollard, Rebecca C; Yurchenko, Svitlana; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Berengut, Shari; Liu, Ting Ting; Smith, Christopher E; Pelkman, Christine L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose response effect of whole grain high-amylose maize (HAM) flour as a source of resistant starch (RS) on blood glucose, appetite and short-term food intake. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, healthy men (n = 30, 22.9 ± 0.6 y, BMI of 22.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 3 cookies once a week for 3 wk. Cookies were control (100% wheat flour), low-dose (63% wheat flour,37% HAM flour), and high-dose (33% wheat flour, 67% HAM flour) providing 53.5, 43.5, and 36.3 g of available carbohydrate, respectively. Ad libitum food intake was measured 120 min at a pizza meal, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured after consumption of the cookie (0 to 120 min) and after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min). Blood glucose concentrations were lower at 30 and 45 min after high-dose treatment, and at 120 min after both high- and low-dose treatments compared to control (P < 0.05). Blood glucose AUC before the pizza meal (0 to 120 min) was 44% and 14% lower, and higher by 43% and 41% after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min) compared with control. Yet despite the higher response following the meal, cumulative AUC (0 to 200 min) was still 22% lower after the high-dose treatment (P < 0.05). All treatments equally suppressed subjective appetite and there was no effect on food intake. In conclusion, HAM flour as a source of RS and incorporated into a cookie was associated with better glycemic control in young men.

  7. Prolonged Calorie Restriction Downregulates Skeletal Muscle mTORC1 Signaling Independent of Dietary Protein Intake and Associated microRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Berrone, Maria; Ezzyat, Yassine; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    Short-term (5–10 days) calorie restriction (CR) downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR). Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or calorie restricted (CR; 40%) adequate (10%, AIN-93M) or high (32%) protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05) in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6, and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05) in CR vs. AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36). Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein. PMID:27761114

  8. Effects of a breakfast spread out over time on the food intake at lunch and the hormonal responses in obese men.

    PubMed

    Allirot, Xavier; Seyssel, Kevin; Saulais, Laure; Roth, Hubert; Charrié, Anne; Drai, Jocelyne; Goudable, Joelle; Blond, Emilie; Disse, Emmanuel; Laville, Martine

    2014-03-29

    The effects of frequent eating on health and particularly on appetite and metabolism are unclear. We have previously shown that frequent eating decreased appetite and energy intake at the subsequent meal in lean men. In the present study, we tested the same pattern in obese subjects. Seventeen obese men participated in: (i) two sessions consisting of a breakfast consumed in one eating episode at T0 (F1), or in four isocaloric eating episodes at T0, T60, T120, and T180min (F4), followed by an ad libitum buffet (T240) in an experimental restaurant. Subjects rated their appetite throughout the sessions. (ii) two sessions consisting of the same breakfasts F1 and F4 in a Clinical Centre, followed by a standardized meal. Blood sampling was performed to study ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and metabolic kinetics. Indirect calorimetry measurements were performed. After F4, at T240min, ghrelin concentration (P=0.03) and hunger ratings (P<0.001) were lower while GLP-1 concentration (P=0.006) and satiety ratings (P=0.02) were higher. In F4, subjects consumed at the buffet, less food in grams (P=0.04) and less energy from low energy dense foods (P=0.01), but total energy intakes were not different between conditions. In F4, the area under the curve was lower for insulin (P=0.02) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) (P=0.03). Diet induced thermogenesis was reduced in F4 (P=0.03) between T0 and T240. Even if subjective and physiological data suggest a beneficial effect of frequent eating on appetite in obese men, no effect was demonstrated on energy intake. Moreover, the decrease in diet induced thermogenesis and lipolysis, reflected by NEFA profiles, could be deleterious on energy balance in the long run. PMID:24472321

  9. Coffee intake mitigated inflammation and obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huijuan; Aw, Wanping; Egashira, Kenji; Takahashi, Shoko; Aoyama, Shinya; Saito, Kenji; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic findings offer the promise that coffee or its many constituents may be useful as a dietary intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention. We aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the ameliorative effects of caffeinated coffee (CC), decaffeinated coffee (DC) and unroasted caffeinated green coffee (GC) on skeletal muscle gene expression profiles and their relationships in an obesity animal model. Eight-week-old male C57BL6 mice were raised for 9 weeks ad libitum on a normal diet, a high-fat diet, or high-fat diet containing 2 % freeze-dried CC, or DC, or GC. Total RNA and protein were extracted from skeletal muscle and subjected to microarray (Mouse Genome 430 2.0, Affymetrix) and western blotting analyses, respectively. Coffee intake mitigated the insulin resistance by decreasing plasma glucose levels during an insulin tolerance test and by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), p85/IRS-1 complex and pAkt/PKB (protein kinase B). In addition, coffee intake down-regulated the anti-inflammatory genes activating transcription factor 3, FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene, heat shock protein 1A, heat shock protein 1B and synuclein, gamma and the inflammation-associated insulin signaling genes stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 and secreted phosphoprotein 1. These results provide scientific insight on the probable positive effects of coffee intake on impaired insulin signaling, inflammation and obesity, thereby providing a new perspective on the prevention of obesity and T2D.

  10. Agavins from Agave angustifolia and Agave potatorum affect food intake, body weight gain and satiety-related hormones (GLP-1 and ghrelin) in mice.

    PubMed

    Santiago-García, Patricia Araceli; López, Mercedes G

    2014-12-01

    Agavins act as a fermentable dietary fiber and have attracted attention due to their potential for reducing the risk of disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation using 10% agavins with a short-degree of polymerization (SDP) from Agave angustifolia Haw. (AASDP) or Agave potatorum Zucc. (APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice. We evaluated the energy intake daily and weight gain every week. At the end of the experiment, portal vein blood samples as well as intestinal segments and the stomach were collected to measure glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin using RIA and ELISA kits, respectively. Colon SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The energy intake, body weight gain, and triglycerides were lower in the fructan-fed mice than in the STD-fed mice. The AASDP, APSDP, and RSE diets increased the serum levels of GLP-1 (40, 93, and 16%, respectively vs. STD) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas ghrelin was decreased (16, 38, and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Butyric acid increased significantly in the APSDP-fed mice (26.59 mmol g(-1), P ≤ 0.001) compared with that in the AASDP- and RSE-fed mice. We concluded that AASDP and APSDP are able to promote the secretion of the peptides involved in appetite regulation, which might help to control obesity and its associated metabolic disorder. PMID:25367106

  11. The Effects of a Beef-Based Meal Compared to a Calorie Matched Bean-Based Meal on Appetite and Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Bonnema, Angela L; Altschwager, Deena; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2015-09-01

    Protein and fiber have strong satiety-inducing potential. Beef is a high quality, protein-rich food. Beans contain moderate levels of protein as well as fiber. To determine the effects of a high protein meal (beef) compared to a moderate protein, high fiber meal (beans) on subjective appetite and energy intake at a subsequent meal twenty-eight adults, 14 men (ages 24 ± 5 y, BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m(2) ) and 14 women (ages 25 ± 5 y, BMI 22 ± 2 kg/m(2) ) consumed 2 test lunches containing a "meatloaf" made from either beef or beans. The beef meal provided 26 g of protein and 3 g of fiber while the bean meal provided 17 g of protein and 12 g of fiber. An ad libitum snack was given 3 h after the test meal. Visual analogue scales were used to assess hunger, satiety, fullness, and prospective food intake. Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance was assessed over 24 h. No difference between the beef and bean was observed for appetite ratings over 3 h, food intake at the subsequent meal (632 ± 75 kcal compared with 611 ± 75 kcal, respectively), or sum of GI score (2.2 ± 0.5 compared with 2.9 ± 0.5, respectively). Gas and bloating were reported more often after the bean meal than the beef meal (2.0 ± 0.4 compared with 1.3 ± 0.4, P value 0.057). A beef-based meal with high protein and a bean-based meal with moderate protein and high fiber produced similar satiety, while the bean-based meal resulting in higher, yet moderate, gas and bloating.

  12. Coffee intake mitigated inflammation and obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huijuan; Aw, Wanping; Egashira, Kenji; Takahashi, Shoko; Aoyama, Shinya; Saito, Kenji; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic findings offer the promise that coffee or its many constituents may be useful as a dietary intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention. We aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the ameliorative effects of caffeinated coffee (CC), decaffeinated coffee (DC) and unroasted caffeinated green coffee (GC) on skeletal muscle gene expression profiles and their relationships in an obesity animal model. Eight-week-old male C57BL6 mice were raised for 9 weeks ad libitum on a normal diet, a high-fat diet, or high-fat diet containing 2 % freeze-dried CC, or DC, or GC. Total RNA and protein were extracted from skeletal muscle and subjected to microarray (Mouse Genome 430 2.0, Affymetrix) and western blotting analyses, respectively. Coffee intake mitigated the insulin resistance by decreasing plasma glucose levels during an insulin tolerance test and by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), p85/IRS-1 complex and pAkt/PKB (protein kinase B). In addition, coffee intake down-regulated the anti-inflammatory genes activating transcription factor 3, FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene, heat shock protein 1A, heat shock protein 1B and synuclein, gamma and the inflammation-associated insulin signaling genes stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 and secreted phosphoprotein 1. These results provide scientific insight on the probable positive effects of coffee intake on impaired insulin signaling, inflammation and obesity, thereby providing a new perspective on the prevention of obesity and T2D. PMID:24599575

  13. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  14. Agavins from Agave angustifolia and Agave potatorum affect food intake, body weight gain and satiety-related hormones (GLP-1 and ghrelin) in mice.

    PubMed

    Santiago-García, Patricia Araceli; López, Mercedes G

    2014-12-01

    Agavins act as a fermentable dietary fiber and have attracted attention due to their potential for reducing the risk of disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation using 10% agavins with a short-degree of polymerization (SDP) from Agave angustifolia Haw. (AASDP) or Agave potatorum Zucc. (APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice. We evaluated the energy intake daily and weight gain every week. At the end of the experiment, portal vein blood samples as well as intestinal segments and the stomach were collected to measure glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin using RIA and ELISA kits, respectively. Colon SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The energy intake, body weight gain, and triglycerides were lower in the fructan-fed mice than in the STD-fed mice. The AASDP, APSDP, and RSE diets increased the serum levels of GLP-1 (40, 93, and 16%, respectively vs. STD) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas ghrelin was decreased (16, 38, and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Butyric acid increased significantly in the APSDP-fed mice (26.59 mmol g(-1), P ≤ 0.001) compared with that in the AASDP- and RSE-fed mice. We concluded that AASDP and APSDP are able to promote the secretion of the peptides involved in appetite regulation, which might help to control obesity and its associated metabolic disorder.

  15. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  16. Pre-meal video game playing and a glucose preload suppress food intake in normal weight boys.

    PubMed

    Branton, Alyson; Akhavan, Tina; Gladanac, Branka; Pollard, Damion; Welch, Jo; Rossiter, Melissa; Bellissimo, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Increased food intake (FI) during television viewing has been reported in children, but it is unknown if this occurs following pre-meal video game playing (VGP). The objective was to determine the effect of pre-meal VGP for 30 min on subjective appetite and emotions, and FI in normal weight (NW) boys after a glucose or control preload. On four test mornings, NW boys (n = 19) received equally sweetened preloads of a non-caloric sucralose control or 50 g glucose in 250 mL of water, with or without VGP for 30 min. Food intake from an ad libitum pizza meal was measured immediately after. Subjective appetite was measured at 0, 15, 30, and 60 min. Subjective emotions were determined by visual analog scale at baseline and immediately before lunch. Both VGP (p = 0.023) and glucose (p <0.001) suppressed FI. Pre-meal VGP compared with no-VGP, and glucose compared with the non-caloric control, decreased FI by 59 and 170 kcal, respectively. Subjective average appetite increased to 30 min (p = 0.003), but was lower after glucose (p = 0.01) in both the VGP and no-VGP conditions compared with the control. Frustration and aggression scores increased after VGP (p <0.05), but did not correlate with FI. However, baseline and pre-meal happiness and excitement scores were inversely associated with FI. In conclusion, both pre-meal VGP and the glucose preload suppressed FI, supporting the roles of both physiologic and environmental factors in the regulation of short-term FI in 9- to 14-year-old NW boys. PMID:25150911

  17. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2015-01-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05) while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05). Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05) while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:26104399

  18. Effects of acute changes in neonatal leptin levels on food intake and long-term metabolic profiles in rats.

    PubMed

    Granado, Miriam; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Fuente-Martín, Esther; Díaz, Francisca; Mela, Virginia; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2011-11-01

    In rodents there is a rise in serum leptin levels between postnatal days (PND) 5 and 14, with this neonatal leptin surge reported to modulate the maturation of hypothalamic circuits involved in appetite regulation. We hypothesized that acute changes in neonatal leptin levels have different long-term metabolic effects depending on how and when this surge is modified. To advance the timing of the normal leptin peak, male Wistar rats were injected with leptin (sc, 3 μg/g) on PND 2. To ablate the leptin peak on PND 10, a pegylated leptin antagonist (sc, 9 μg/g) was injected. Controls received vehicle. All rats were allowed to eat ad libitum until PND 150. Increased leptin on PND 2 reduced food intake (P<0.01) after 3 months of age with no effect on body weight. Levels of total ghrelin were reduced (P<0.001) and acylated ghrelin increased (P<0.05), with no other modifications in metabolic hormones. In contrast, treatment with the leptin antagonist on PND 9 did not affect food intake but reduced body weight beginning around PND 60 (P<0.02). This was associated with a reduction in fat mass, insulin (P<0.01), and leptin (P<0.007) levels and an increase in testosterone levels (P<0.01). Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) and leptin receptor (P<0.005) mRNA levels were reduced, whereas mRNA levels for uncoupling protein 2 (P<0.005) were increased in visceral fat, which may indicate an increase in energy expenditure. In conclusion, acute changes in neonatal leptin levels induce different metabolic profiles depending on how and when leptin levels are modified.

  19. Effects of cottonseed meal supplementation time on ruminal fermentation and forage intake by Holstein steers fed fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Judkins, M B; Krysl, L J; Barton, R K; Holcombe, D W; Gunter, S A; Broesder, J T

    1991-09-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (average BW 303 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design digestion trial to study the influence of daily cottonseed meal (CSM; 1.6 g of CP/kg of BW) supplementation time on forage intake and ruminal fluid kinetics and fermentation. Steers were housed individually in tie stalls and were fed chopped fescue hay on an ad libitum basis at 0600 and 1400. Treatments were 1) control, grass hay only (CON) and grass hay and CSM fed once daily at 2) 0600 (EAM) 3) 1000 (MAM), or 4) 1400 (PM). Ruminal NH3 N concentrations reflected a time of supplementation x sampling time interaction (P less than .05); CON steers had the lowest (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 N concentrations at all times other than at 0600, 1000, 1200, and 2400, when they did not differ (P greater than .05) from at least one of the supplemented groups. Forage intake, ratio of bacterial purine:N, rate of DM and NDF disappearance, and ruminal fluid kinetics were not influenced (P greater than .05) by supplementation time. Total ruminal VFA differed (P less than .05) between CON and supplemented steers, as well as among supplemented steers (linear and quadratic effects P less than .05). Acetate, propionate, and valerate proportions were influenced (P less than .05) by a sampling time X supplementation time interaction. Under the conditions of this study, greater peak ammonia concentrations with morning supplementation than with afternoon supplementation did not stimulate ruminal fermentation or rate of NDF disappearance.

  20. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  1. Pre-meal video game playing and a glucose preload suppress food intake in normal weight boys.

    PubMed

    Branton, Alyson; Akhavan, Tina; Gladanac, Branka; Pollard, Damion; Welch, Jo; Rossiter, Melissa; Bellissimo, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Increased food intake (FI) during television viewing has been reported in children, but it is unknown if this occurs following pre-meal video game playing (VGP). The objective was to determine the effect of pre-meal VGP for 30 min on subjective appetite and emotions, and FI in normal weight (NW) boys after a glucose or control preload. On four test mornings, NW boys (n = 19) received equally sweetened preloads of a non-caloric sucralose control or 50 g glucose in 250 mL of water, with or without VGP for 30 min. Food intake from an ad libitum pizza meal was measured immediately after. Subjective appetite was measured at 0, 15, 30, and 60 min. Subjective emotions were determined by visual analog scale at baseline and immediately before lunch. Both VGP (p = 0.023) and glucose (p <0.001) suppressed FI. Pre-meal VGP compared with no-VGP, and glucose compared with the non-caloric control, decreased FI by 59 and 170 kcal, respectively. Subjective average appetite increased to 30 min (p = 0.003), but was lower after glucose (p = 0.01) in both the VGP and no-VGP conditions compared with the control. Frustration and aggression scores increased after VGP (p <0.05), but did not correlate with FI. However, baseline and pre-meal happiness and excitement scores were inversely associated with FI. In conclusion, both pre-meal VGP and the glucose preload suppressed FI, supporting the roles of both physiologic and environmental factors in the regulation of short-term FI in 9- to 14-year-old NW boys.

  2. Design and Conduct of the CALERIE Study: Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Connie W.; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.; Holloszy, John O.; Racette, Susan B.; Roberts, Susan B.; Das, Sai Krupa; Romashkan, Sergei; Galan, Katherine M.; Hadley, Evan C.; Kraus, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In a robust and consistent manner, sustained caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to retard the aging process in a variety of animal species. Nonhuman primate studies suggest that CR may have similar effects in longer-lived species. The CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy) research program is the first systematic investigation of CR in nonobese human beings. In the phase 2 study, it is hypothesized that 2 years of sustained CR, involving a 25% reduction of ad libitum energy intake, results in beneficial effects similar to those observed in animal studies. This article presents the design and implementation of this study. Methods. The study is a multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. A sample of 225 participants (22.0 ≤ body mass index [BMI] < 28.0 kg/m2) is being enrolled with 2:1 allocation to CR. Results. An intensive dietary and behavioral intervention was developed to achieve 25% CR and sustain it over the 2 years. Adherence is monitored using a doubly labeled water technique. Primary outcomes are resting metabolic rate and core temperature, and are assessed at baseline and at 6-month intervals. Secondary outcomes address oxyradical formation, cardiovascular risk markers, insulin sensitivity and secretion, immune function, neuroendocrine function, quality of life and cognitive function. Biologic materials are stored in a central repository. Conclusions. An intricate protocol has been developed to conduct this study. Procedures have been implemented to safeguard the integrity of the data and the conclusions drawn. The results will provide insight into the detrimental changes associated with the human aging process and how CR mitigates these effects. PMID:20923909

  3. Exercise-associated hyponatremic encephalopathy and exertional heatstroke in a soldier: High rates of fluid intake during exercise caused rather than prevented a fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Noakes, Timothy D; Duvenage, Cornelia S J

    2015-02-01

    Athletes are often advised to drink in order to "fully replace bodyweight losses" in order to prevent exertional heatstroke (EHS) during exercise in the heat. There is little evidence that "dehydration" in the range experienced by athletes adversely affects thermoregulation or is the exclusive cause of EHS. In contrast it is established that excess fluid intake can cause exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) sometimes associated with encephalopathy (EAHE). As part of a series of experiments to determine optimal fluid replacement during exercise in the heat, we studied a group of exceptionally well-conditioned and heat-adapted members of the South African National Defence Force. A 20 year old male started a time restricted 50 km route-march in a dry bulb temperature that reached 37.5°C (WBGT of 33.6°C, relative humidity of 85%). Pre-march plasma osmolality, serum [Na(+)] and total body water measures indicated euhydration. Fluid was available ad libitum and isotonic sports drinks at 5 km intervals. Fluid intake and core body temperature (Tc) were recorded throughout while he was tracked by a global positioning system measuring distance travelled, position and speed. Comparing the total fluid intake of the soldier (12930 mL) to the rest of the participants (mean intake of 9 038 mL) up to 40 km, it is evident that his intake was 3892 mL (approximately 300 mL h(-1)) more than the mean for group. At approximately 17h14 the soldier was found lying by himself at the side of the route, 2.24 km from the finish point. He passed away the next day in a medical care facility. This tragic event provides the valuable opportunity to present data on the pacing, temperature regulation and fluid consumption of an exceptional athlete during the development of a fatal case of combined EAHE and EHS. Pacing, fluid intake, Tc and environmental condition data are presented for 5 km intervals throughout the march. We propose a novel hypothesis on the possible contribution of EAHE to the

  4. The clinical effect of dentifrices containing stabilized stannous fluoride on plaque formation and gingivitis--a six-month study with ad libitum brushing.

    PubMed

    Beiswanger, B B; Doyle, P M; Jackson, R D; Mallatt, M E; Mau, M s; Bollmer, B W; Crisanti, M M; Guay, C B; Lanzalaco, A C; Lukacovic, M F

    1995-01-01

    The effects of stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrices on supragingival plaque, gingival inflammation and gingival bleeding were studied in 549 adult male and female subjects who completed a six-month, double blind clinical study. Following an oral prophylaxis, subjects were randomly assigned to brush with one of the following dentifrices: 1) 0.454% SnF2 stabilized with 2.08% sodium gluconate, 2) 0.454% SnF2 stabilized with 4.16% sodium gluconate, 3) an experimental dentifrice, or 4) 0.243% NaF control dentifrice. Follow-up examinations were conducted at 3 and 6 months. Compared to the control dentifrice at 6 months, stannous fluoride dentifrices stabilized with 2.08% or 4.16% sodium gluconate significantly reduced gingivitis by 18.8% and 18.0%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two stabilized SnF2 groups with respect to their beneficial effects on gingival health. Gingival bleeding was also reduced, relative to the control dentifrice, for both stabilized SnF2 dentifrices. However, these differences were not statistically significant at p=0.05. The stabilized SnF2 dentifrices were not significantly different from the control dentifrice in their effects on supragingival plaque. No significant differences in adverse oral soft tissue effects were observed between the test and control groups. As expected, accumulation of extrinsic tooth stain increased in the stabilized SnF2 groups. However, the difficulty in removing accumulated dental stain was similar between the control and stabilized SnF2 dentifrices. Since use of SnF2 dentifrices has been reported to produce tooth stain, gingivitis examinations were done with and without custom-made tooth covers to evaluate the potential for examiner bias. Comparable gingivitis and gingival bleeding benefits were observed when the evaluations were conducted with or without the tooth covers. Results from this study support that 0.454% stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrices can provide an important adjunct to the prevention and control of gingivitis when used in combination with regular personal oral hygiene procedures and professional care.

  5. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  6. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (P<0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm (P<0.05) with the acrophase at the second feed and a decrease over the next 12 h. Average daily trypsin, lipase and amylase levels of FA fish were significantly lower than those of TR fish (P<0.01); however, the growth performance of both groups was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  7. Drinking guidelines for exercise: what evidence is there that athletes should drink "as much as tolerable", "to replace the weight lost during exercise" or "ad libitum"?

    PubMed

    Noakes, T D

    2007-05-01

    The most recent (1996) drinking guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) propose that athletes should drink "as much as tolerable" during exercise. Since some individuals can tolerate rates of free water ingestion that exceed their rates of free water loss during exercise, this advice has caused some to overdrink leading to water retention, weight gain and, in a few, death from exercise-associated hyponatraemic encephalopathy. The new drinking guidelines of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), recently re-published in this Journal, continue to argue that athletes must drink enough to replace all their weight lost during exercise and to ingest sodium chloride since sodium is "the electrolyte most critical to performance and health". In this rebuttal to that Consensus Document, I argue that these new guidelines, like their predecessors, lack an adequate, scientifically proven evidence base. Nor have they been properly evaluated in appropriately controlled, randomized, prospective clinical trials. In particular, these new guidelines provide erroneous recommendations on five topics. If novel universal guidelines for fluid ingestion during exercise are to be promulgated by important international bodies including the IOC, they should first be properly evaluated in appropriately controlled, randomized, prospective clinical trials conducted under environmental and other conditions that match those found in "out-of-doors" exercise. This, and the potential influence of commercial interests on scientific independence and objectivity, are the two most important lessons to be learned from the premature adoption of those 1996 ACSM drinking guidelines that are not evidence-based. These concerns need to be addressed before the novel IOC guidelines are accepted uncritically. Otherwise the predictable consequences of the premature adoption of the 1996 ACSM guidelines will be repeated.

  8. DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE OF BOAT UNDER THE WATERLINE. ZINCS ARE ALSO ADDED HERE TO PRESERVE THE METAL. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  9. Effects of fat and/or methionine hydroxy analog added to a molasses-urea-based supplement on ruminal and postruminal digestion and duodenal flow of nutrients in beef steers consuming low-quality lovegrass hay.

    PubMed

    Lopez, R; Pulsipher, G D; Guerra-Liera, J E; Soto-Navarro, S A; Balstad, L A; Petersen, M K; Dhuyvetter, D V; Brown, M S; Krehbiel, C R

    2016-06-01

    Five crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 338.6 ± 7.8 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the effects of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) and/or yellow grease (fat) added to a molasses-urea-based supplement on intake and characteristics of digestion. Steers were fed low-quality hay (long-stem lovegrass : 3.3% CP, 76.8% NDF; DM basis) ad libitum and supplemented with 0.91 kg/d (as fed) of 1 of 4 supplements in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Supplemental treatments were 1) control (no supplement, NC); 2) molasses-urea liquid supplement (U); 3) U containing (as-fed basis) 1.65% MHA (UM); 4) U containing (as-fed basis) 12% fat (UF); and 5) U containing (as-fed basis) 1.65% MHA and 12% fat (UMF). Total and forage OM intake (kg/d and as % of BW) increased ( < 0.01) with molasses-urea, decreased ( ≤ 0.04) with MHA, and were not affected ( = 0.61) with fat supplementation. Total tract NDF digestibility increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation, and was less ( = 0.01) for fat than for nonfat supplementation. Total and microbial N flowing to the duodenum increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation. Although, total N flowing to duodenum was not affected ( = 0.27), microbial N decreased ( = 0.01), and nonammonia nonmicrobial N (NANMN) increased ( = 0.01) with fat supplementation. Extent of in situ OM and NDF digestibility at 96 h increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation, but were not affected ( ≥ 0.14) by either MHA or fat supplementation. Duodenal flow of total AA, essential AA, and nonessential AA increased ( ≤ 0.02) with molasses-urea supplementation. Total and nonessential serum AA concentration decreased ( < 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation. Total ruminal VFA concentration increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation, and was not affected ( ≥ 0.14) by MHA or fat supplementation. Fat can be used in molasses-urea liquid

  10. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p <0.05), no significant differences were detected for appetite sensations or plasma glucose between treatments (p > 0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance

  11. Feeding preferences and voluntary feed intake of dairy cows: Effect of conservation and harvest time of birdsfoot trefoil and chicory.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, D; Vasseur, E; Berthiaume, R; DeVries, T J; Bergeron, R

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive forages contain compounds, such as tannins, that are active against pathogens. They have been successfully used in ruminants to control parasite infections. Because cattle may find bioactive forages unpalatable, it is of interest to know if an afternoon harvest time, which has been shown to increase the percentage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), hence palatability, may mitigate this. The objectives of this study were to quantify voluntary intake and preference of dairy cows for 2 bioactive forages, harvested in the morning and evening, in addition to determining their time spent grazing on each forage species. The forage species evaluated were fresh chicory harvested at 0700 h (FCAM) and 1800 h (FCPM), fresh birdsfoot trefoil harvested at 0700 h (FBAM) and 1800 h (FBPM), birdsfoot trefoil baleage harvested the previous summer at 0700 h (BBAM) and at 1800 h (BBPM), and third-cut alfalfa baleage harvested the previous summer and used as control (CON). Single forages were offered ad libitum in 30-min tests to 14 dairy cows to determine intake in a 7 × 7 Latin square (experiment 1). Every possible pair of forages (21 pairs) was then presented for a 30-min test to 8 different dairy cows, and feed intake was measured (experiment 2). Finally, time spent grazing on chicory and birdsfoot trefoil was measured on 12 dairy cows (experiment 3). The tests consisted of 2 d of restriction on 1 of the 2 fields for 1h, and 2 d of free-choice sessions (1h) between the 2 fields adjacent to each other. Grazing time and location of the animals on the field was assessed through 2-min scan sampling. In experiment 1, the highest voluntary intakes were for CON, BBPM, and BBAM. In experiment 2, BBPM was preferentially consumed over all other forages followed by CON and BBAM. Multidimensional scaling showed that preference for BBPM, CON, and BBAM in dimension 1 was positively associated with dry matter and nitrogen content, and negatively associated with hemicellulose and

  12. Feeding preferences and voluntary feed intake of dairy cows: Effect of conservation and harvest time of birdsfoot trefoil and chicory.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, D; Vasseur, E; Berthiaume, R; DeVries, T J; Bergeron, R

    2015-10-01

    Bioactive forages contain compounds, such as tannins, that are active against pathogens. They have been successfully used in ruminants to control parasite infections. Because cattle may find bioactive forages unpalatable, it is of interest to know if an afternoon harvest time, which has been shown to increase the percentage of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), hence palatability, may mitigate this. The objectives of this study were to quantify voluntary intake and preference of dairy cows for 2 bioactive forages, harvested in the morning and evening, in addition to determining their time spent grazing on each forage species. The forage species evaluated were fresh chicory harvested at 0700 h (FCAM) and 1800 h (FCPM), fresh birdsfoot trefoil harvested at 0700 h (FBAM) and 1800 h (FBPM), birdsfoot trefoil baleage harvested the previous summer at 0700 h (BBAM) and at 1800 h (BBPM), and third-cut alfalfa baleage harvested the previous summer and used as control (CON). Single forages were offered ad libitum in 30-min tests to 14 dairy cows to determine intake in a 7 × 7 Latin square (experiment 1). Every possible pair of forages (21 pairs) was then presented for a 30-min test to 8 different dairy cows, and feed intake was measured (experiment 2). Finally, time spent grazing on chicory and birdsfoot trefoil was measured on 12 dairy cows (experiment 3). The tests consisted of 2 d of restriction on 1 of the 2 fields for 1h, and 2 d of free-choice sessions (1h) between the 2 fields adjacent to each other. Grazing time and location of the animals on the field was assessed through 2-min scan sampling. In experiment 1, the highest voluntary intakes were for CON, BBPM, and BBAM. In experiment 2, BBPM was preferentially consumed over all other forages followed by CON and BBAM. Multidimensional scaling showed that preference for BBPM, CON, and BBAM in dimension 1 was positively associated with dry matter and nitrogen content, and negatively associated with hemicellulose and

  13. Intake, digestibility, and nitrogen retention by sheep supplemented with warm-season legume haylages or soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Foster, J L; Adesogan, A T; Carter, J N; Blount, A R; Myer, R O; Phatak, S C

    2009-09-01

    The high cost of commercial supplements necessitates evaluation of alternatives for ruminant livestock fed poor quality warm-season grasses. This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass haylage (Paspalum notatum Flügge cv. Tifton 9) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal or warm-season legume haylages affected the performance of lambs. Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin lambs (27.5 +/- 5 kg) were fed for ad libitum intake of bahiagrass haylage (67.8% NDF, 9.6% CP) alone (control) or supplemented with soybean meal (18.8% NDF, 51.4% CP) or haylages of annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) cv. Florida MDR98; 39.6% NDF, 18.7% CP], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Iron clay; 44.1% NDF, 16.0% CP], perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. cv. Florigraze; 40.0% NDF, 15.8% CP), or pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. GA-2; 65.0% NDF, 13.7% CP]. Haylages were harvested at the optimal maturity for maximizing yield and nutritive value, wilted to 45% DM, baled, wrapped in polyethylene plastic, and ensiled for 180 d. Legumes were fed at 50% of the dietary DM, and soybean meal was fed at 8% of the dietary DM to match the average CP concentration (12.8%) of legume haylage-supplemented diets. Lambs were fed each diet for a 14-d adaptation period and a 7-d data collection period. Each diet was fed to 7 lambs in period 1 and 4 lambs in period 2. Pigeonpea haylage supplementation decreased (P < 0.01) DM and OM intake and digestibility vs. controls. Other legume haylages increased (P < 0.05) DM and OM intake vs. controls; however, only soybean meal supplementation increased (P = 0.01) DM digestibility. All supplements decreased (P = 0.05) NDF digestibility. Except for pigeonpea haylage, all supplements increased (P < 0.01) N intake, digestibility, and retention, and the responses were greatest (P = 0.04) with soybean meal supplementation. Microbial N synthesis was reduced (P = 0.02) by pigeonpea haylage supplementation, but unaffected (P = 0.05) by other supplements

  14. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p < 0.05) plasma level of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3) and lower concentration of thyroxin hormone were detected. No significant differences in levels of insulin, hydroxyproline, plasma and urine creatinine, total protein and albumin between high and low RFI groups were found. Blood metabolites showed significant (p < 0.05) differences at initial and final stages of study in both groups. At final stage of study, RFI showed negative correlations with growth hormone, IGF-1, T3, urine creatinine and albumin. Low RFI buffalo calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism. PMID:27666680

  15. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p <0.05), no significant differences were detected for appetite sensations or plasma glucose between treatments (p > 0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance

  16. Fat Emulsion Intragastric Stability and Droplet Size Modulate Gastrointestinal Responses and Subsequent Food Intake in Young Adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Mahamoud O; Hoad, Caroline L; Wright, Jeff; Singh, Gulzar; Stephenson, Mary C; Cox, Eleanor F; Placidi, Elisa; Pritchard, Susan E; Costigan, Carolyn; Ribeiro, Henelyta; Ciampi, Elisabetta; Nandi, Asish; Hedges, Nick; Sanderson, Paul; Peters, Harry PF; Rayment, Pip; Spiller, Robin C; Gowland, Penny A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intragastric creaming and droplet size of fat emulsions may affect intragastric behavior and gastrointestinal and satiety responses. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that gastrointestinal physiologic responses and satiety will be increased by an increase in intragastric stability and by a decrease in fat droplet size of a fat emulsion. Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized crossover study in 11 healthy persons [8 men and 3 women, aged 24 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 24.4 ± 0.9] who consumed meals containing 300-g 20% oil and water emulsion (2220 kJ) with 1) larger, 6-μm mean droplet size (Coarse treatment) expected to cream in the stomach; 2) larger, 6-μm mean droplet size with 0.5% locust bean gum (LBG; Coarse+LBG treatment) to prevent creaming; or 3) smaller, 0.4-μm mean droplet size with LBG (Fine+LBG treatment). The participants were imaged hourly by using MRI and food intake was assessed by using a meal that participants consumed ad libitum. Results: The Coarse+LBG treatment (preventing creaming in the stomach) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 12% higher gastric volume over time (P < 0.001), increased small bowel water content (SBWC) by 11% (P < 0.01), slowed appearance of the 13C label in the breath by 17% (P < 0.01), and reduced food intake by 9% (P < 0.05) compared with the Coarse treatment. The Fine+LBG treatment (smaller droplet size) slowed gastric emptying, resulting in 18% higher gastric volume (P < 0.001), increased SBWC content by 15% (P < 0.01), and significantly reduced food intake by 11% (P < 0.05, equivalent to an average of 411 kJ less energy consumed) compared with the Coarse+LBG treatment. These high-fat meals stimulated substantial increases in SBWC, which increased to a peak at 4 h at 568 mL (range: 150–854 mL; P < 0.01) for the Fine+LBG treatment. Conclusion: Manipulating intragastric stability and fat emulsion droplet size can influence human gastrointestinal physiology and food intake. PMID

  17. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  18. Effect of maturity at harvest for whole-crop barley and oat on dry matter intake, sorting, and digestibility when fed to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Rosser, C L; Beattie, A D; Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Lardner, H A; Górka, P; Penner, G B

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of harvest maturity of whole-crop oat (Study 1) and whole-crop barley (Study 2) on forage intake and sorting, ruminal fermentation, ruminal digestibility, and total tract digestibility when fed to beef heifers. In Study 1, 3 ruminally cannulated heifers (417 ± 5 kg) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 24-d periods. Whole-crop oat forage harvested at the late milk (LMILK), hard dough (HD), or ripe (RP) stages was fed for ad libitum intake and heifers were supplemented (1% of BW) with alfalfa pellets, barley grain, canola meal, and a mineral and vitamin pellet. Maturity at harvest for whole-crop oat did not affect ( ≥ 0.058) forage intake, DE intake, amount of forage refused, ruminal short-chain fatty acid concentration, or digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF. Ruminal starch digestibility decreased ( < 0.001) from 92.6% at the LMILK stage to 90.0% at the RP stage, with total tract starch digestibility decreasing ( = 0.043) from 95.8% at the LMILK stage to 94.8% at the RP stage. Ruminal CP digestibility was reduced at the HD stage compared with the LMILK and RP stages ( < 0.001). Mean ruminal pH was greatest for the LMILK stage (6.36; = 0.003) compared with the HD and RP stages (6.30 and 6.28, respectively). In Study 2, 6 ruminally cannulated heifers (273 ± 16 kg) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 24-d periods. Dietary treatments included ad libitum access to whole-crop barley harvested at the LMILK, HD, or RP stage and a constant rate (0.8% BW) of supplement containing alfalfa pellets, barley grain, canola meal, and a mineral and vitamin pellet. Dry matter intake, ruminal content mass, and feeding behavior were not affected by harvest maturity ( ≥ 0.16). There was a decrease in total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and NDF observed at the HD stage compared with the LMILK and RP stages ( ≤ 0.004). Ruminal NDF digestibility decreased from 69.7% at the LMILK stage to 54.4% at the HD

  19. Sex Differences in Shotgun Proteome Analyses for Chronic Oral Intake of Cadmium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamanobe, Yoshiharu; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Ito, Takaaki; Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Chiba, Momoko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Takizawa, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Environmental diseases related to cadmium exposure primarily develop owing to industrial wastewater pollution and/or contaminated food. In regions with high cadmium exposure in Japan, cadmium accumulation occurs primarily in the kidneys of individuals who are exposed to the metal. In contrast, in the itai-itai disease outbreak that occurred in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama Prefecture in Japan, cadmium primarily accumulated in the liver. On the other hand, high concentration of cadmium caused renal tubular disorder and osteomalacia (multiple bone fracture), probably resulting from the renal tubular dysfunction and additional pathology. In this study, we aimed to establish a mouse model of chronic cadmium intake. We administered cadmium-containing drinking water (32 mg/l) to female and male mice ad libitum for 11 weeks. Metal analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed that cadmium accumulated in the kidneys (927 x 10 + 185 ng/g in females and 661 x 10 + 101 ng/g in males), liver (397 x 10 + 199 ng/g in females and 238 x 10 + 652 ng/g in males), and thyroid gland (293 + 93.7 ng/g in females and 129 + 72.7 ng/g in males) of mice. Female mice showed higher cadmium accumulation in the kidney, liver, and thyroid gland than males did (p = 0.00345, p = 0.00213, and p = 0.0331, respectively). Shotgun proteome analyses after chronic oral administration of cadmium revealed that protein levels of glutathione S-transferase Mu2, Mu4, and Mu7 decreased in the liver, and those of A1 and A2 decreased in the kidneys in both female and male mice. PMID:25793409

  20. Educational intervention on water intake improves hydration status and enhances exercise performance in athletic youth.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, S A; Arnaoutis, G; Makrillos, M; Garagouni, C; Nikolaou, E; Chira, O; Ellinikaki, E; Sidossis, L S

    2012-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether an intervention program emphasizing in increased fluid intake can improve exercise performance in children exercising in the heat. Ninety-two young athletes participated in the study (age: 13.8 ± 0.4 years, weight: 54.9 ± 1.5 kg). Thirty-one (boys: 13, girls: 18) children served as the control group (CON) and 61 (boys: 30, girls: 31) as the intervention (INT). Volunteers had free access to fluids. Hydration was assessed on the basis of first morning urine. A series of field tests were used to evaluate exercise performance. All tests occurred outdoors in the morning (mean ambient temperature=28°C). After baseline testing, INT attended a lecture on hydration, and urine color charts were mounted in all bathrooms. Additionally, water accessibility was facilitated in training, dining and resting areas. Hydration status was improved significantly in the INT [USG: pre=1.031 ± 0.09, post=1.023 ± 0.012, P<0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water): pre=941 ± 30, post=782 ± 34, P<0.05], while no statistically significant changes were found in the CON [USG: pre=1.033 ± 0.011, post=1.032 ± 0.013, P>0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water) 970 ± 38 vs 961 ± 38, P>0.05]. Performance in an endurance run was improved significantly only in INT (time for 600 m: pre=189 ± 5 s, post=167 ± 4 s, P<0.05). Improving hydration status by ad libitum consumption of water can enhance performance in young children exercising in the heat.

  1. Educational intervention on water intake improves hydration status and enhances exercise performance in athletic youth.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, S A; Arnaoutis, G; Makrillos, M; Garagouni, C; Nikolaou, E; Chira, O; Ellinikaki, E; Sidossis, L S

    2012-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether an intervention program emphasizing in increased fluid intake can improve exercise performance in children exercising in the heat. Ninety-two young athletes participated in the study (age: 13.8 ± 0.4 years, weight: 54.9 ± 1.5 kg). Thirty-one (boys: 13, girls: 18) children served as the control group (CON) and 61 (boys: 30, girls: 31) as the intervention (INT). Volunteers had free access to fluids. Hydration was assessed on the basis of first morning urine. A series of field tests were used to evaluate exercise performance. All tests occurred outdoors in the morning (mean ambient temperature=28°C). After baseline testing, INT attended a lecture on hydration, and urine color charts were mounted in all bathrooms. Additionally, water accessibility was facilitated in training, dining and resting areas. Hydration status was improved significantly in the INT [USG: pre=1.031 ± 0.09, post=1.023 ± 0.012, P<0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water): pre=941 ± 30, post=782 ± 34, P<0.05], while no statistically significant changes were found in the CON [USG: pre=1.033 ± 0.011, post=1.032 ± 0.013, P>0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water) 970 ± 38 vs 961 ± 38, P>0.05]. Performance in an endurance run was improved significantly only in INT (time for 600 m: pre=189 ± 5 s, post=167 ± 4 s, P<0.05). Improving hydration status by ad libitum consumption of water can enhance performance in young children exercising in the heat. PMID:21410548

  2. Analysis of energy density of food in relation to energy intake regulation in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2001-03-01

    The relationship between energy density (ED) of food and drink consumption ad libitum and energy intake (EI) was analysed. EI was taken as average daily EI over the long term, and as EI during a single meal. Moreover, the distribution of EI over three ED categories was analysed. Average daily EI was related to ED of the food and drinks when ED was strongly influenced by specific macronutrients. When ED was strongly influenced by the weight of water, it was not related to EI. During a meal subjects monitored mainly weight, and to a lesser extent, the energy content of the food ingested. Therefore, covertly manipulated ED of a meal affected EI directly. The impact of ED on EI was modulated by dietary behaviours such as restraint. Overt manipulation of ED for 6 months showed that EI was adjusted to a decreased but not to an increased ED in dietary-unrestrained subjects, and that EI was adjusted to an increased but not to a decreased ED in dietary-restrained subjects. Knowledge of ED was shown to lead to an inverse relationship between portion sizes and ED during a meal. Average daily EI consisted of a distribution of EI over the three different categories of ED, so that obese women ate more of foods with a high ED and less of foods with a low ED compared with normal weight women (and nutritional guidelines). In conclusion, ED affected daily EI by means of macronutrient specific effects. EI from a meal with an unknown ED can become inversely related to EI through learning or conditioning. Therefore, the effect of ED on EI during a single meal observation cannot be extrapolated directly to the 24 h effect on EI. With regard to the treatment of obesity, a conscious decreased consumption of foods high in ED and an increase in consumption of low-ED food is necessary to decrease and subsequently maintain body weight, particularly in subjects with a sedentary lifestyle. PMID:11299081

  3. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years) to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g) of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g), not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002), and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001). Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt. PMID:23342052

  4. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    PubMed

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years) to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g) of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g), not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002), and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001). Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  5. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  6. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  7. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P < 0.001; AA+ and AA-, respectively). At 35 kg of BW, AA intake restriction increased whole body lipid content (11.1 vs. 17.5% of empty BW; P < 0.05) and the whole body lipid to body protein ratio (0.65 vs. 1.20; P < 0.01) and reduced body protein content (17.1 vs. 14.6% of empty BW; P < 0.01) and body water content (68.2 vs. 63.9%; P < 0.05). The relationships between body protein vs. body water and body protein vs. body ash content were not altered by previous AA intake restriction or by feeding level during the re-alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows

  8. Effects of plane of nutrition on growth, feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kolachhapati, Mana R; Tiwari, Ishwor C P

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on dry matter intake (DMI), daily gain (DG), body size measurement, apparent digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance. To attain 250kg BW, the calves were allocated into three groups: H, L-H and L, receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190kg BW and 1.50% thereafter and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw (UTRS). The DMI of UTRS through the experiment was higher in L and L-H than H, showing 3.52, 2.90 and 2.62kg/day, respectively (P<0.01), but the total DMI did not differ among the treatment groups. The DG throughout the experiment was high in the order of H, L-H and L, showing 0.72, 0.57 and 0.45kg, respectively (P<0.01). The digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber and N retention were higher in H than in L (P<0.05). The findings of this study thus revealed the greater DG has an advantage of shortening the growing period around 3months, and consequently increasing benefit in fattening of buffalo calves in Nepal. PMID:22250739

  9. Effect of seasonal differences in dietary meat intake on changes in body mass and composition in wild and captive brown bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilderbrand, G.V.; Jenkins, S.G.; Schwartz, C.C.; Hanley, Thomas A.; Robbins, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of seasonal dietary meat intake on changes in body mass and composition in wild and captive brown bears (Ursus arctos) was investigated because the importance and availability of meat to brown bear populations is currently an important management consideration in several North American ecosystems. Adult female brown bears on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, utilized meat heavily in both spring and fall. Meat accounted for 76.2 ± 26.0% (mean ± 1 SD; primarily moose carrion and calves) of assimilated carbon and nitrogen in the spring and 80.4 ± 22.2% (primarily salmon) in the fall. Mass increases in the spring (71.8 ± 28.2%) were mostly lean body mass, but increases in the fall (81.0 ± 19.5%) were primarily fat. Daily intake by captive brown bears fed meat ad libitum during 12-day trials was positively related to body mass. Mass change was positively related to intake in both seasons, but the composition of the gain varied by season, with spring gains primarily lean body mass (64.2 ± 9.4%), while fall gains were 78.8 ± 19.6% lipid. Absolute rates of gain by wild bears occasionally equaled, but were usually much less than, those of captive bears. This was likely due to a combination of factors, which included the time required to locate and handle meat resources, the limited availability of or access to meat resources, and (or) the duration of meat resource availability. Estimated intake by bears not feeding selectively on high-energy components of moose and salmon were 8.5 ± 1.5 kg/day and 541 ± 156 kg/year and 10.8 ± 4.6 kg/day and 1003 ± 489 kg/year, respectively. Intake would drop by as much as 58% for bears feeding exclusively on salmon roe. Management strategies for areas with brown bears that consume significant amounts of meat should address the perpetuation and availability of these meat resources.

  10. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P < 0.05). The LD group consumed 1.3 kg/d (DM) more diet compared with HD group in the last 24 h before calving. The milk yield and the postpartum DMI were increased by the reduced energy density diet prepartum (P < 0.05). The changes in BCS and BW prepartum and postpartum were not affected by prepartum diets. HD group had higher milk fat content and lower lactose content compared with LD group during the first 3 wk of lactation (P < 0.05). The energy consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P < 0.05), and 72.7%, 73.1% and 75.2% during the first 4 wk postpartum, respectively. In conclusion, the low energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum. PMID:24976969

  11. Effect of Millettia ferruginea (Birbra) foliage supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass characterstics of Washera sheep fed natural pasture grass hay basal diet.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Berhanu; Animut, Getachew; Tolera, Adugna

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four yearling male local Washera lambs with an average initial body weight of 18.14 ± 1.07 kg were used to assess the nutritional value of Millettia ferruginea. Experimental animals were grouped into six blocks of four animals, and each animal was randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatment feeds. The treatments used were; Sole natural pasture grass hay (T1), and 150, 300, 450 g DM Millettia ferruginea leaf hay with ad libitum natural pasture grass hay assigned for (T2), (T3) and (T4), respectively. The feeding trial was carried out for 80 days followed by a 10 days of digestibility trial. Carcasses of each experimental animal were evaluated at the end of the digestibility experiment. Millettia ferruginea leaf hay had 224.6, 556.6, 360.7and 127.4 g/kg crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL), respectively. The average intakes of Millettia ferruginea leaf hay were 0, 133, 263 and 253 g/day for T1, T2, T3 and T4, in that order. The proportions of Millettia ferruginea leaf hay intake from the total dry matter (DM) were 0, 23.5, 44.1, and 43.3% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The total DM intake was not significant but showed a trend of T1 > T3 > T4 > T2. CP intake was higher for T3 and T4 with the least intake for T1. Final body weight measurement was higher for T3 and T1 but lower and negative for T2 and T4. Generally, body weight measurements were not consistent in the supplemented groups throughout the trial period. The weight of heart, spleen, and liver were higher for the supplemented groups compared to the sole grass hay. From the results of the current study, it can be concluded that, Millettia ferruginea had some limiting factors, which prevented the animal from efficiently utilize it. Therefore, this study revealed the indispensable role of animal feeding experiments with target animals to examine such impacts. PMID:24567874

  12. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Wang, Yajing; Simayi, Aminamu; Yasheng, Amingguli; Wu, Zhaohai; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P < 0.05). The LD group consumed 1.3 kg/d (DM) more diet compared with HD group in the last 24 h before calving. The milk yield and the postpartum DMI were increased by the reduced energy density diet prepartum (P < 0.05). The changes in BCS and BW prepartum and postpartum were not affected by prepartum diets. HD group had higher milk fat content and lower lactose content compared with LD group during the first 3 wk of lactation (P < 0.05). The energy consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P < 0.05), and 72.7%, 73.1% and 75.2% during the first 4 wk postpartum, respectively. In conclusion, the low energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum.

  13. Dietary intake in adolescents with asthma--potential for improvement.

    PubMed

    Bueso, Anne Kørner; Berntsen, Sveinung; Mowinckel, Petter; Andersen, Lene Frost; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2011-02-01

    Associations between an unhealthy diet and overweight and the presence of asthma are reported. The aims of this study were to assess whether the intake of nutrients and food items in adolescents with asthma differs from that of healthy adolescents, whether the intake was in accordance with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) or whether possible relationships were confounded by body composition. A four-day-validated 18-page pre-coded food diary was completed by 169 13- to 14-year-old adolescents, 93 with asthma and 76 healthy control subjects, in addition to clinical assessment, anthropometric measurements, lung function and skin prick tests. Neither intake of added sugar, snacks nor saturated fat was associated with asthma. All groups had an intake of saturated fat and added sugars exceeding the NNR, while the intake of fruits and vegetables, fibre and vitamin D was lower than recommended. The intake of folate, calcium, magnesium and iron was lower than recommended for girls with asthma and healthy girls. The intake of vitamin C was satisfactory for all groups. Body composition did not influence eating habits, and the prevalence of overweight was similar in the two groups. The dietary intake among Norwegian adolescents in general had a potential for improvement. As girls have a lower energy intake than boys, they have a larger demand of quality of the diet. Additional dietary research in adolescents with asthma is recommended.

  14. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (P<0.001) than LU steers. Thus, adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the level of dietary lipid through the use of cold-pressed RSC, did not adversely affect health or performance of finishing beef steers when used within the diets studied. PMID:26627142

  15. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). Following the pizza meal (155 min), yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in FI or appetite. This trial supports the use of pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  16. Effects of dietary phosphorus, soil ingestion and dietary intake level on performance, phosphorus utilization and serum and alimentary tract mineral concentrations in lambs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Bojalil, C M; Ammerman, C B; Henry, P R; Littell, R C; Blue, W G

    1988-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted with lambs fed concentrate-based diets to study the effects of dietary P and soil ingestion on performance, P utilization and mineral composition of serum and alimentary tract contents. In Exp. 1, 20 wether lambs were fed diets for 21 d in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with .2 or .3% total dietary P and O or 9% added Florida Ultisol (highly weathered soil with high P-fixation capacity) containing 4,600 and 6,400 mg/kg total Al and Fe, respectively. True P absorption increased (P less than .05) from 30 to 42% and from 37 to 54% when soil was added to the basal and high P diets, respectively. In Exp. 2, 24 wether lambs were assigned randomly to a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Lambs were fed during a 70-d period using diets described previously on either a restricted or an ad libitum basis. Soil increased Fe concentration in ruminal fluid (P less than .05) and ash percentage (P less than .001) in ruminal solids and feces. Aluminum concentration in ruminal solids and feces and Fe in ruminal solids were increased (P less than .001) by soil addition, whereas concentrations of Ca, Mg, P, Zn, Cu and Mn in ruminal solids and feces were decreased (P less than .01) by soil addition. There were time X P interactions on serum inorganic P (P less than .01) and Mg (P less than .05) concentrations. Although high in P-fixing capacity, soil fed to lambs in these experiments improved P utilization. Lambs appeared to be able to adapt to changes in intake of dietary minerals in soil, possibly through adaptation of ruminal microflora or a redistribution of body mineral pools.

  17. Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that the intake of added sugar increases the risk of chronic disease and should be targeted for reduction. It is unclear if all types of added sugar have equivalent effects on food intake. This prospective, blinded intervention study compared parallel groups consuming one of five t...

  18. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened bev...

  19. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. PMID

  20. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    PubMed Central

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L.; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (−5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (−5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (−0.08, P = 0.03 and −0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test me