Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.
Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas
2014-01-01
Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741
Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates
Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas
2014-01-01
Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741
Souza da Silva, C; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Stappers, L J N; van Hees, H M J; Gerrits, W J J; Kemp, B
2014-12-01
This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency
Marks, Kristin A; Marvyn, Phillip M; Henao, Juan J Aristizabal; Bradley, Ryan M; Stark, Ken D; Duncan, Robin E
2016-06-01
Data are presented on the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid from retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of female mice that were either given ad libitum access to food or fasted for 16 h overnight prior to sacrifice. Our data show that total adipose phospholipid concentrations were more than 2-fold higher in the fasted animals compared with the fed animals (33.48±7.40 versus 16.57±4.43 μg phospholipid fatty acids/100 mg tissue). Concentrations of several individual phospholipid fatty acyl species, including palmitic acid (16:0), vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as well as total phospholipid saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, were significantly higher in adipose tissue from the fasted animals compared with the fed animals. However, when the relative abundance of phospholipid fatty acyl species was analyzed, only 20:4n-6 was specifically enriched (by ~2.5-fold) in adipose phospholipid with fasting. PMID:27014729
Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Valor, Luis Miguel; Cubero, Inmaculada
2014-10-01
The orexin (OX) system has been implicated in food-reinforced behavior, food-seeking and food overconsumption. Recent evidence suggests that OX signaling might influence consumption of palatable foods with high reinforcing value depending upon the caloric status of the animal. The present study evaluates from a pharmacological and a molecular approach the contribution of OX to excessive binge-like consumption of highly preferred palatable substances (sucrose and saccharin) in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice. The main findings of this study are: (1) intraperitoneal (ip) injection of SB-334867 (10, 20 or 30mg/kg), a selective OXR1 antagonist, significantly decreased binge-like consumption of sucrose (10%, w/v) and saccharin (0.15%, w/v) during the test day in a Drinking in the Dark procedure in ad libitum-fed animals, without evidence of any significant alteration of locomotor activity. (2) Four repetitive, 2-h daily episodes of sucrose and saccharin (but not water) binge-like drinking significantly dampened OX mRNA expression in the LH. Present findings show for the first time a role for OXR1 signaling in binge-like consumption of palatable substances in animals under no caloric needs. Targeting OXR1 could represent a novel pharmacological approach to treat binge-eating episodes. PMID:24983661
Park, Min Hi; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Min Jo; Lee, Eun Kyeong; An, Hye Jin; Jeong, Ji Won; Kim, Hye Rim; Kim, Seong Jin; Yu, Byung Pal; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Chung, Hae Young
2016-03-01
Insulin resistance is common with aging and is associated with the inflammatory response in both humans and rodents. A number of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/γ dual agonists have been tested for their abilities to attenuate insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, there is no study on the effects of PPARα/γ dual agonists on inflammation and insulin resistance during aging. In the present study, we investigated the ability of 2-[4-(5-chlorobenzothiazothiazol-2-yl)phenoxy]-2-methyl-propionic acid (MHY908), a newly synthesized novel PPARα/γ dual agonist, to suppress the inflammatory response and attenuate insulin resistance in aged rats. Twenty-month-old rats were divided into four groups: ad libitum fed, ad libitum fed supplemented with MHY908 (1 mg and 3 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), and 40% calorie restricted. Six-month-old ad libitum fed rats were used as an age control. The aged rats supplemented with MHY908 showed reduced serum glucose, triglyceride, and insulin levels, as well as reduced liver triglyceride levels. MHY908 brought about a reduction in endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the livers of aged rats, which consequently improved insulin signaling. In the kidneys of aged rats, the efficacy of MHY908 as a potent anti-inflammatory agent was shown by its suppression of NF-κB activation through inhibition of the Akt/IκB kinase signaling pathway. Therefore, the major finding of this study is that MHY908 acts as a therapeutic agent against age-related inflammation associated with insulin resistance by activating PPARα and PPARγ, thus attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26219845
Zinc deficiency affects the composition of the rat adrenal gland
Rothman, R.J.; Leure-DuPree, A.E.; Fosmire, G.J.
1986-07-01
The response of the adrenal gland to zinc deficiency was examined in male weanling rats. In comparison with decapsulated adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, glands from zinc deficient rats had greater relative weight (mg/g body wt), DNA concentration, and total lipid and cholesterol concentrations as well as a smaller protein/DNA ratio. Several of these differences (protein/DNA and cholesterol concentration) could be attributed to the inanition accompanying zinc deficient values were similar to those of pair fed controls. Values for total DNA and protein concentration were similar for all groups. Electron micrographs of the zona fasciculata showed a small number of lipid droplets in the adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, an increase in lipid droplets from pair fed controls, and an even more striking increase in lipid droplets from the zinc deficient adrenals. The increased adrenal lipid composition in the zinc deficient group may be secondary to enhanced steroidogenesis or a zinc deficiency-induced defect of lipid metabolism.
The unresponsiveness of the immune system of the rat to hypergravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scibetta, S. M.; Caren, L. D.; Oyama, J.
1984-01-01
The immune response in rats exposed to simulated hypergravity (2.1 G and 3.1 G) by chronic centrifugation was assessed. Rats were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), either on the day of initial exposure to hypergravity (hyper-G), or after being centrifuged for 28 d and remaining on the centrifuge thereafter. Pair-fed and ad libitum fed noncentrifuged controls were used. Although there were some alterations in leukocyte counts, hyper-G did not systematically affect the primary or secondary anti-SRBC response, hematocrits, or the sizes of the liver, spleen, kidneys, thymus, or adrenal glands. The immune system is thus remarkably homeostatic under hypergravity conditions which do affect other physiologic parameters.
Role of orexin/hypocretin in conditioned sucrose-seeking in female rats
Cason, Angie M.; Aston-Jones, Gary
2014-01-01
The orexin/hypocretin system has recently been implicated in reward-seeking, especially for highly salient food and drug rewards. Given that eating disorders affect women more than men, we reasoned that the orexin system may be strongly engaged in female rats, and during periods of food restriction as we recently reported in male rats. Therefore, the present study examined the involvement of the orexin system in operant responding for sucrose, and in cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished sucrose-seeking, in ad libitum fed vs. food-restricted female subjects. Female Sprague Dawley rats were trained to self-administer sucrose pellets, and we determined the effects of pretreatment with the OxR1 receptor antagonist SB 334867 (SB; 10-30 mg/kg) on fixed ratio (FR) sucrose self-administration, and on cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished sucrose-seeking. SB decreased sucrose self-administration in food-restricted but not in ad libitum-fed females. SB did not alter active lever responding during cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking in either feeding group. These results confirm our previous results in male rats that signaling at the OxR1 receptor is involved in the sucrose reinforcement and self-administration in food-restricted subjects. However, the finding that SB is ineffective at attenuating cue-induced reinstatement in females, but was effective in food-restricted males, leads us to conclude that food seeking induced by conditioned stimuli engages the orexin system differentially in males and females. PMID:25036612
Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru
2015-06-01
Although prenatal undernutrition affects the development of metabolic, physiological, and reproductive functions, it remains unclear whether it also affects physiological responses to undernutrition in adulthood. Therefore, in this study we examined whether prenatal undernutrition alters the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis to fasting in adult male rats. The offspring of ad libitum fed dams (control) and ∼50% food-restricted (during the late gestational period) dams (IUGR) were sub-divided into ad libitum fed (fed) and 48 h food deprivation (FD) groups at 10 weeks of age. In each group, the serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and leptin and the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulatory factors were measured. The serum LH and testosterone levels of the IUGR-fed rats were significantly or tend to be higher than those of the control-fed rats, respectively. The serum LH levels of the IUGR-FD rats were lower than those of the IUGR-fed rats. Similarly, the serum testosterone levels of the IUGR-FD rats tended to be lower than those of the IUGR-fed rats. On the other hand, the serum LH and testosterone levels of the control-fed and control-FD rats did not differ. The serum leptin levels of the IUGR fed rats were higher than those of the control-fed rats. The serum leptin levels of the control-FD and IUGR-FD rats were lower than those of the control-fed and IUGR-fed rats, respectively. The hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels of the IUGR-FD rats were higher than those of the IUGR-fed rats. Similarly, hypothalamic NPY mRNA levels of control-FD rats were higher than those of the control-fed rats. The hypothalamic kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor, RFamide-related peptide, GPR147, and OBRb mRNA levels of control fed rats did not differ between control-fed and IUGR-fed rats. Their mRNA levels of the fed and FD rats did not differ in the control or IUGR groups. These results
Estrogen- and Satiety State-Dependent Metabolic Lateralization in the Hypothalamus of Female Rats.
Toth, Istvan; Kiss, David S; Jocsak, Gergely; Somogyi, Virag; Toronyi, Eva; Bartha, Tibor; Frenyo, Laszlo V; Horvath, Tamas L; Zsarnovszky, Attila
2015-01-01
Hypothalamus is the highest center and the main crossroad of numerous homeostatic regulatory pathways including reproduction and energy metabolism. Previous reports indicate that some of these functions may be driven by the synchronized but distinct functioning of the left and right hypothalamic sides. However, the nature of interplay between the hemispheres with regard to distinct hypothalamic functions is still unclear. Here we investigated the metabolic asymmetry between the left and right hypothalamic sides of ovariectomized female rats by measuring mitochondrial respiration rates, a parameter that reflects the intensity of cell and tissue metabolism. Ovariectomized (saline injected) and ovariectomized+estrogen injected animals were fed ad libitum or fasted to determine 1) the contribution of estrogen to metabolic asymmetry of hypothalamus; and 2) whether the hypothalamic asymmetry is modulated by the satiety state. Results show that estrogen-priming significantly increased both the proportion of animals with detected hypothalamic lateralization and the degree of metabolic difference between the hypothalamic sides causing a right-sided dominance during state 3 mitochondrial respiration (St3) in ad libitum fed animals. After 24 hours of fasting, lateralization in St3 values was clearly maintained; however, instead of the observed right-sided dominance that was detected in ad libitum fed animals here appeared in form of either right- or left-sidedness. In conclusion, our results revealed estrogen- and satiety state-dependent metabolic differences between the two hypothalamic hemispheres in female rats showing that the hypothalamic hemispheres drive the reproductive and satiety state related functions in an asymmetric manner. PMID:26339901
Moderate exercise training and chronic caloric restriction modulate redox status in rat hippocampus.
Santin, Katiane; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Cechetti, Fernanda; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Nardin, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Letícia; Leite, Marina Concli; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto
2011-11-01
Physical activity has been related to antioxidant adaptations, which is associated with health benefits, including those to the nervous system. Additionally, available data suggest exercise and a caloric restriction regimen may reduce both the incidence and severity of neurological disorders. Therefore, our aim was to compare hippocampal redox status and glial parameters among sedentary, trained, caloric-restricted sedentary and caloric-restricted trained rats. Forty male adult rats were divided into 4 groups: ad libitum-fed sedentary (AS), ad libitum-fed exercise training (AE), calorie-restricted sedentary (RS) and calorie-restricted exercise training (RE). The caloric restriction (decrease of 30% in food intake) and exercise training (moderate in a treadmill) were carried out for 3 months. Thereafter hippocampus was surgically removed, and then redox and glial parameters were assessed. Increases in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) were observed in AE, RS and RE. The nitrite/nitrate levels decreased only in RE. We found a decrease in carbonyl content in AE, RS and RE, while no modifications were detected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, S100B and glial fibrilary acid protein (GFAP) content did not change, but caloric restriction was able to increase glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in RS and glutamate uptake in RS and RE. Exercise training, caloric restriction and both combined can decrease oxidative damage in the hippocampus, possibly involving modulation of astroglial function, and could be used as a strategy for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21974860
Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat
Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.
1986-03-01
Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed.
In vitro demonstration of anti-lipogenic activity in serum from obese rats
Harris, R.B.S.; Martin, R.J.
1986-03-01
Studies with parabiosed rats provide evidence for a humoral factor, originating in obese animals, that specifically inhibits adipose lipogenesis. A bioassay was developed that allows serum from obese rats to be tested for this factor in vitro. Adipocytes are isolated from epididymal fat of 250g Sprague-Dawley rats. The cells are preincubated at 37/sup 0/C for 1 or 12 hrs, in TC199 media containing 1.1 mg/ml glucose, 0.1 M Hepes and 2% serum. Following preincubation, the cells are washed 3 times and resuspended in serum-free media. Aliquots of cells are tested for metabolic activity in a subsequent 2 hour radiolabelled incubation in serum-free media with the addition of 0.5 ..mu..Ci/ml U-/sup 14/C-glucose. Basal, insulin (100 ..mu..U/ml) and norepinephrine (0.1 ..mu..g/ml) stimulated rates of glucose oxidation and conversion to triglyceride fatty acids are measured. Using serum from ad libitum fed rats as control, preincubation with serum from obese rats (20 days at 2 x normal intake) depressed basal and insulin stimulated glucose oxidation, and basal fatty acid synthesis. Serum from obese parabiotic rats and parabiotic partners of obese rats depressed basal fatty acid synthesis. This assay allows us to test serum for anti-lipogenic activity and may be used to identify the factor responsible for this activity in obese animals.
Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors
Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.
1989-05-01
In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the (/sup 125/I)iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span.
Maniscalco, James W.; Zheng, Huiyuan; Gordon, Patrick J.
2015-01-01
Previous reports indicate that caloric restriction attenuates anxiety and other behavioral responses to acute stress, and blunts the ability of stress to increase anterior pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Since hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons and noradrenergic prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) neurons participate in behavioral and endocrine stress responses, and are sensitive to the metabolic state, we examined whether overnight food deprivation blunts stress-induced recruitment of these neurons and their downstream hypothalamic and limbic forebrain targets. A single overnight fast reduced anxiety-like behavior assessed in the elevated-plus maze and acoustic startle test, including marked attenuation of light-enhanced startle. Acute stress [i.e., 30 min restraint (RES) or 5 min elevated platform exposure] robustly activated c-Fos in GLP-1 and PrRP neurons in fed rats, but not in fasted rats. Fasting also significantly blunted the ability of acute stress to activate c-Fos expression within the anterior ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vlBST). Acute RES stress suppressed dark-onset food intake in rats that were fed ad libitum, whereas central infusion of a GLP-1 receptor antagonist blocked RES-induced hypophagia, and reduced the ability of RES to activate PrRP and anterior vlBST neurons in ad libitum-fed rats. Thus, an overnight fast “silences” GLP-1 and PrRP neurons, and reduces both anxiety-like and hypophagic responses to acute stress. The partial mimicking of these fasting-induced effects in ad libitum-fed rats after GLP-1 receptor antagonism suggests a potential mechanism by which short-term negative energy balance attenuates neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to acute stress. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The results from this study reveal a potential central mechanism for the “metabolic tuning” of stress responsiveness. A single overnight fast, which markedly reduces anxiety-like behavior in rats
Ménard, Caroline; Quirion, Rémi; Bouchard, Sylvain; Ferland, Guylaine; Gaudreau, Pierrette
2014-01-01
The LOU/C/Jall (LOU) rat strain is considered a model of healthy aging due to its increased longevity, maintenance of stable body weight (BW) throughout life and low incidence of age-related diseases. However, aging LOU rat cognitive and anxiety status has yet to be investigated. In the present study, male and female LOU rat cognitive performances (6-42 months) were assessed using novel object recognition and Morris Water Maze tasks. Recognition memory remained intact in all LOU rats up to 42 months of age. As for spatial memory, old LOU rat performed similarly as young animals for learning acquisition, reversal learning, and retention. While LOU rat BW remained stable despite aging, 20-month-old ad-libitum-fed (OAL) male Sprague Dawley rats become obese. We determined if long-term caloric restriction (LTCR) prevents age-related BW increase and cognitive deficits in this rat strain, as observed in the obesity-resistant LOU rats. Compared to young animals, recognition memory was impaired in OAL but intact in 20-month-old calorie-restricted (OCR) rats. Similarly, OAL spatial learning acquisition was impaired but LTCR prevented the deficits. Exacerbated stress responses may favor age-related cognitive decline. In the elevated plus maze and open field tasks, LOU and OCR rats exhibited high levels of exploratory activity whereas OAL rats displayed anxious behaviors. Expression of prodynorphin (Pdyn), an endogenous peptide involved in stress-related memory impairments, was increased in the hippocampus of OAL rats. Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and immediate early genes Homer 1a and Arc expression, both associated with successful cognitive aging, were unaltered in aging LOU rats but lower in OAL than OCR rats. Altogether, our results, supported by principal component analysis and correlation matrix, suggest that intact memory and low anxiety are associated with glutamatergic signaling and low Pdyn expression in the hippocampus of non-obese aging rats. PMID
Ménard, Caroline; Quirion, Rémi; Bouchard, Sylvain; Ferland, Guylaine; Gaudreau, Pierrette
2014-01-01
The LOU/C/Jall (LOU) rat strain is considered a model of healthy aging due to its increased longevity, maintenance of stable body weight (BW) throughout life and low incidence of age-related diseases. However, aging LOU rat cognitive and anxiety status has yet to be investigated. In the present study, male and female LOU rat cognitive performances (6–42 months) were assessed using novel object recognition and Morris Water Maze tasks. Recognition memory remained intact in all LOU rats up to 42 months of age. As for spatial memory, old LOU rat performed similarly as young animals for learning acquisition, reversal learning, and retention. While LOU rat BW remained stable despite aging, 20-month-old ad-libitum-fed (OAL) male Sprague Dawley rats become obese. We determined if long-term caloric restriction (LTCR) prevents age-related BW increase and cognitive deficits in this rat strain, as observed in the obesity-resistant LOU rats. Compared to young animals, recognition memory was impaired in OAL but intact in 20-month-old calorie-restricted (OCR) rats. Similarly, OAL spatial learning acquisition was impaired but LTCR prevented the deficits. Exacerbated stress responses may favor age-related cognitive decline. In the elevated plus maze and open field tasks, LOU and OCR rats exhibited high levels of exploratory activity whereas OAL rats displayed anxious behaviors. Expression of prodynorphin (Pdyn), an endogenous peptide involved in stress-related memory impairments, was increased in the hippocampus of OAL rats. Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and immediate early genes Homer 1a and Arc expression, both associated with successful cognitive aging, were unaltered in aging LOU rats but lower in OAL than OCR rats. Altogether, our results, supported by principal component analysis and correlation matrix, suggest that intact memory and low anxiety are associated with glutamatergic signaling and low Pdyn expression in the hippocampus of non-obese aging rats. PMID
Regional metabolic alterations in the hypothalamus of restricted rats
Beverly, J.L.; Martin, R.J.
1986-01-01
Alterations of intermediary and neurotransmitter metabolism in the hypothalamus of rats on restricted intakes have been documented. The rates of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) were measured in hypothalamic sites of restricted or ad libitum fed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230 g) receiving a semi-purified diet received either ad lib (AL), 3/7 of ad lib as a single meal at 1700 h (R), 3/7 of ad lib by intubation as three equally spaced meals (TF) or ad lib for 3 d followed by 4 d of starvation (S). Rats were sacrificed at 0800 h and the brains quickly removed. FAO: Two 1.0 mm slices were dissected from the hypothalamus and areas corresponding to the VMN, PVN, and DMN removed with a 20 gauge punch. An 18 gauge punch was used to remove MFB/LHA. Bilateral punches were incubated at 37 C for 2 h in Krebs-bicarb. media containing (1-/sup 14/C) palmitate (0.1 ..mu..Ci)/..mu..mole). GAD: The VMN and MFB-LHA were dissected as above. GAD activity was measured in homogenates using L-(/sup 14/C) glutamate (1 /sup +/Ci/..mu..mole) as described by Tappaz et al. (1976). Restriction significantly reduced FAO rates in the MFB/LHA. FAO rate in the VMN was not altered when restriction occurred as a single meal per day (R) but was reduced with restriction as three small meals per day (TF) or a 4 d starvation (S). No differences were noted in PVN or DMN FAO rates. GAD activity did not differ with restriction except in response to starvation in the VMN.
The effects of hypergravity on the rate of antibody formation in the rat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scibetta, S. M.; Caren, L. D.; Oyama, J.
1983-01-01
This experiment was designed to measure the immune response in acutely stressed and chronically centrifuged hyper-G-adapted male rats. Rats were exposed to 2.1 and 3.1 G. Acutely stressed animals were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) on the day of inital exposure to hyper-G, and were chronically centrifuged for 10 to 15 days after immunization. Hyper-G-adapted rats were chronically centrifuged for 28 days prior to antigen injection and for 21 days after injection. Booster injections were given and serum samples taken at intervals from 3 to 9 days after the initial and booster injections. Antigen dose, injected ip, ranged between 1.35 x 10 to the 6th and 1.38 x 10 to the 9th SRBC/100 g. body weight. Pair-fed and ad libitum fed noncentrifuged controls were used. No significant differences in anti-SRBC antibody titers were found between centrifuged and control animals, although there were some changes in WBC counts and a significant increase in adrenal-gland size in acutely stressed animals.
Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.
2015-01-01
Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021
Alcohol exposure in utero increases susceptibility to prostate tumorigenesis in rat offspring
Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Zhang, Changqing; Mojtahedzadeh, Sepideh; Sarkar, Dipak K.
2013-01-01
Background Prenatal alcohol exposure has been shown to increase offspring susceptibility to some chemical carcinogens. Whether prenatal exposure to alcohol makes the offspring more susceptible to the development of prostate cancer is not known. Therefore, we determined if any functional abnormalities and increased cancer susceptibility exist in the prostate of fetal alcohol exposed male rats during the adult period. Methods Pregnant rats were fed with a liquid diet containing alcohol (alcohol-fed), pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet (pair-fed), or ad libitum fed with rat chow (ad lib-fed). Male offspring of these rats were given N-Nitroso-N-methylurea and testosterone to induce prostate neoplasia or left untreated. Around 6 to 8 months of age, the prostate of these animals were processed for determination of biochemical changes and histopathologies. Results Prostates of non-carcinogen treated animals which were alcohol exposed during the prenatal period demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration and epithelial atypia and increased number of proliferative cells in the ventral lobe of this gland, but the prostate of control animal showed normal cytoarchitecture. In addition, prenatally alcohol-exposed rats showed decreased levels of cell-cell adhesion marker and increased estrogenic activity in the ventral prostate. Prenatally ethanol-exposed rats, when treated with carcinogen and testosterone, showed histological evidence for high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia primarily in the ventral prostate, whereas control animals showed only low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Prenatally ethanol-exposed rats treated with carcinogen and testosterone also showed increased number of proliferative cells and androgen receptor with concomitant decreased levels of tumor suppressor proteins in the ventral prostate. Conclusions These results suggest for the first time that prenatal ethanol exposures induces histophysiological changes in the prostate as well as
Grayson, Bernadette E; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E; Ressler, Ilana B; Woods, Stephen C; Herman, James P; Seeley, Randy J; Benoit, Stephen C; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M
2014-12-01
Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in five groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n = 7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n = 11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n = 11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n = 11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n = 12). Compared with Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentration and increased hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results indicate that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021
Nelson, L M; Russell, R I
1986-01-01
The effects of the elemental diets Vivonex (V) and Flexical (F) on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat has been investigated both with ad libitum feeding and when calorie intake was limited to that of control rats (C) fed a standard diet (Oxoid 41B). Ad libitum feeding of V and F for 9 weeks resulted in a weight gain in excess of that for the control diet. After 9 weeks of isocaloric feeding the V-fed rats were significantly lighter than those fed F and C. Fecal bile acid excretion (FBA) and the fractional turnover rates for cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC) were measured. The elemental diets significantly reduced FBA when fed both ad libitum and isocalorically compared with the control diet, the reduction with V being significantly greater than for F. In the isocaloric feeding study both elemental diets significantly increased the half life of CA and CDC. The increase for CA was significantly greater for V than F but for CDC the effect of the two diets was the same. Thus the percentage of CDC-derived 6 substituted bile acids was greater with V than F feeding. There was a strong negative correlation between bile acid half-life and fecal excretion of metabolites for the three dietary groups indicating that bile acid pool size was unchanged by the elemental diets. A gross increase in liver lipid both histologically and chemically was found for the ad libitum fed V rats with a marked but lesser increase for F.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3755773
Rossi, T M; Lee, P C; Young, C M; Lerner, A; Lebenthal, E
1986-08-01
The reversibility of the effects of postnatal malnutrition on the intestinal brush border enzymes and somatic and intestinal weights were examined using either ad libitum or restricted feedings. Malnutrition was induced in the immediate postnatal period by expanding newborn rat litters to 20 pups/dam. At 21 days of age, malnourished pups exhibited significantly decreased body and intestinal weights as compared to those from control litters. Malnourished pups also had significantly elevated lactase specific activities whereas sucrase and maltase activities were not affected in the proximal small intestine. With subsequent nutritional rehabilitation by an ad libitum (food available 24 h/day) or restricted feeding regimen (food available 2 h/day), body and intestinal weights remained significantly depressed by 56 days in malnourished as compared to control animals. Rats on 2-h feedings consumed approximately 35% of the food consumed by their ad libitum-fed counterparts. Comparison of the ratio of weight gained to the amount of food consumed did not demonstrate a greater food efficiency with any particular feeding pattern. With ad libitum or restricted feedings, lactase specific activity in the proximal segment attained control values by 14 days. Restricted feedings resulted in an apparent elevation of specific activity of sucrase and of maltase, when rats were sacrificed at one chosen time point. Multiple time studies in a 24-h cycle showed that maximal elevations in enzyme activities were associated with feeding time. There were no significant differences in mean specific daily enzyme activities between the two feeding regimens. Restricted feedings show no advantage in enzyme efficiency or in promoting the rate of recovery of the intestine after postnatal malnutrition. PMID:3090509
High trait impulsivity predicts food addiction-like behavior in the rat.
Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Ferragud, Antonio; Moore, Catherine F; Everitt, Barry J; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro
2014-09-01
Impulsivity is a behavioral trait frequently seen not only in drug-addicted individuals but also in individuals who pathologically overeat. However, whether impulsivity predates the development of uncontrollable feeding is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that a high impulsivity trait precedes and confers vulnerability for food addiction-like behavior. For this purpose, we trained ad libitum-fed male Wistar rats in a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task to select Low- and High-impulsive rats. Then, we allowed Low- and High-impulsive rats to self-administer a highly palatable diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow group) in 1-h daily sessions, under fixed ratio (FR) 1, FR3, FR5, and under a progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In addition, we tested the compulsiveness for food in Low- and High-impulsive rats by measuring the food eaten in the aversive, open compartment of a light/dark conflict test. Finally, we measured the expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the shell and the core of the nucleus accumbens, which is a marker for neuroadaptive changes following addictive drug exposure. The data we obtained demonstrate that impulsivity is a trait that predicts the development of food addiction-like behaviors, including: (i) excessive intake, (ii) heightened motivation for food, and (iii) compulsive-like eating, when rats are given access to highly palatable food. In addition, we show that the food addiction phenotype in high impulsive subjects is characterized by an increased expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens shell. These results reveal that impulsivity confers an increased propensity to develop uncontrollable overeating of palatable food. PMID:24776685
Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.
2010-10-27
Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.
Pourtau, Line; Leemburg, Susan; Roux, Pascale; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Costaglioli, Patricia; Garbay, Bertrand; Drutel, Guillaume; Konsman, Jan Pieter
2011-05-01
Lack of compensatory or even reduced food intake is frequently observed in weight-losing cancer patients and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Our previous work has shown increased transcription factor expression in the hypothalamus and ventral striatum of anorectic rats bearing small tumors. mRNA expression of molecules known to be involved in pathways regulating appetite in these structures was therefore assessed in this study. Given that pain, pro-inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormones can modify food intake, spinal cord cellular activation patterns and plasma concentrations of cytokines and hormones were also studied. Morris hepatoma 7777 cells injected subcutaneously in Buffalo rats provoked a 10% lower body weight and 15% reduction in food intake compared to free-feeding tumor-free animals 4 weeks later when the tumor represented 1-2% of body mass. No differences in spinal cord activation patterns or plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed between groups. However, the changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations found in food-restricted weight-matched rats in comparison to ad libitum-fed animals did not occur in anorectic tumor-bearing animals. Real-time PCR showed that tumor-bearing rats did not display the increase in hypothalamic agouti-related peptide mRNA observed in food-restricted weight-matched animals. In addition, microarray analysis and real-time PCR revealed increased ventral striatal prostaglandin D synthase expression in food-restricted animals compared to anorectic tumor-bearing rats. These findings indicate that blunted hypothalamic AgRP mRNA expression, probably as a consequence of relatively high leptin and low ghrelin concentrations, and reduced ventral striatal prostaglandin D synthesis play a role in maintaining cancer-associated anorexia. PMID:21334429
Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Skibicka, Karolina P.; Farkas, Imre; Molnár, Csilla S.; Egecioglu, Emil; Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt; Dickson, Suzanne L.
2012-01-01
Here, we sought to demonstrate that the orexigenic circulating hormone, ghrelin, is able to exert neurobiological effects (including those linked to feeding control) at the level of the amygdala, involving neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. We found that ghrelin receptors (GHS-R) are densely expressed in several subnuclei of the amygdala, notably in ventrolateral (LaVL) and ventromedial (LaVM) parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. Using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record from cells in the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, we found that ghrelin reduced the frequency of mEPSCs recorded from large pyramidal-like neurons, an effect that could be blocked by co-application of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. In ad libitum fed rats, intra-amygdala administration of ghrelin produced a large orexigenic response that lasted throughout the 4 hr of testing. Conversely, in hungry, fasted rats ghrelin receptor blockade in the amygdala significantly reduced food intake. Finally, we investigated a possible interaction between ghrelin's effects on feeding control and emotional reactivity exerted at the level of the amygdala. In rats allowed to feed during a 1-hour period between ghrelin injection and anxiety testing (elevated plus maze and open field), intra-amygdala ghrelin had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. By contrast, if the rats were not given access to food during this 1-hour period, a decrease in anxiety-like behavior was observed in both tests. Collectively, these data indicate that the amygdala is a valid target brain area for ghrelin where its neurobiological effects are important for food intake and for the suppression of emotional (anxiety-like) behaviors if food is not available. PMID:23071554
Brain areas involved in the acupuncture treatment of AD model rats: a PET study
2014-01-01
Background Acupuncture may effectively treat certain symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although several studies have used functional brain imaging to investigate the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment on AD, these mechanisms are still poorly understood. We therefore further explored the mechanism by which needling at ST36 may have a therapeutic effect in a rat AD model. Methods A total of 80 healthy Wistar rats were divided into healthy control (n = 15) and pre-model (n = 65) groups. After inducing AD-like disease, a total of 45 AD model rats were randomly divided into three groups: the model group (n = 15), the sham-point group (n = 15), and the ST36 group (n = 15). The above three groups underwent PET scanning. PET images were processed with SPM2. Results The brain areas that were activated in the sham-point group relative to the model group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system, the right frontal lobe, and the striatum, whereas the activated areas in the ST36 group were primarily centred on the bilateral limbic system (pyriform cortex), the bilateral temporal lobe (olfactory cortex), the right amygdala and the right hippocampus. Compared with the sham-point group, the ST36 group showed greater activation in the bilateral amygdalae and the left temporal lobe. Conclusion We concluded that needling at a sham point or ST36 can increase blood perfusion and glycol metabolism in certain brain areas, and thus may have a positive influence on the cognition of AD patients. PMID:24886495
Meal-contingent intestinal lymph sampling from awake, unrestrained rats.
Arnold, Myrtha; Dai, Yunting; Tso, Patrick; Langhans, Wolfgang
2012-06-15
Standard procedures for intestinal lymph collection involve continuous, quantitative drainage of the lymph fluid in anesthetized or restrained animals that are often euthanized within 48 h. We here describe a novel technique for the nonocclusive cannulation of the major intestinal lymph duct in rats that allows for repetitive in vivo sampling of intestinal lymph from unrestrained, awake, and ad libitum-fed animals. The distinctive feature of this novel technique is that a 5- to 7-mm long piece of Vialon tubing (OD/ID: 0.8/0.7 mm) with a small hole in its wall is first implanted into the major intestinal lymph duct for stabilization. The tapered tip (OD: ≈0.1 mm) of the catheter is then inserted into the hole of the tubing and fixed in place with a polyamid suture and a drop of tissue glue. In our hands, catheters implanted this way remain patent for up to 6 wk after surgery. In an initial experiment we collected lymph from six adult rats before (0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, and 180 min (120 μl, each) after the onset of isocaloric (12.5 kcal) low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) test meals and measured active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Intestinal lymphatic GLP-1 concentration increased (P < 0.05) from ≈4 pmol/l (0 min) to a peak of 33 ± 6 (means ± SE) or 22 ± 4 pmol/l at 15 (HF) or 30 min (LF) after meal onset and gradually returned to baseline levels by 180 min. With this new technique fewer animals are required to generate physiologically relevant data for various aspects of gastrointestinal physiology that involve the lymphatic system. Furthermore, the advantage of this system is that the animal can act as its own control when the effect of different experimental protocols is tested. PMID:22513747
Effects of ethanol and malnutrition on rat neuromotor development.
Ribeiro-da-Silva, N F; Menezes, A C; Malheiros, L R; da-Silva, V A
1994-06-01
The objective of the present study was to determine whether there is a synergistic effect of malnutrition and ethanol exposure on neuromotor development. Ethanol (E) (6 g/kg) or sucrose (S) (isocaloric to ethanol) was administered by gavage to ad libitum-fed (A) and malnourished (M) pregnant rats on days 18, 19 and 20 of pregnancy. Malnutrition was produced by food restriction to 50% of control intake. At birth, the offspring were weighed and transferred to surrogate mothers. Performance in the rim-escape test and on the rotating rod were evaluated on days 19 and 28 of life, respectively. Development of the adult swimming pattern was also studied. The results indicated that: 1) malnutrition alone decreased birth weight (g) significantly (AE, 5.56 +/- 0.36; AS, 6.31 +/- 1.05; ME, 4.81 +/- 0.73; MS, 5.23 +/- 0.57); 2) a synergistic interaction between alcohol exposure and malnutrition was observed only in the rim escape test (percent of falling rats: AE, 9; AS, 5; ME, 24; MS, 5); 3) only malnutrition retarded development of swimming; 4) malnourished dams gained more weight (g) than controls during treatment with ethanol (AE, 2.6 +/- 8.4, N = 6; AS, 3.1 +/- 8.4, N = 4; ME, 23.0 +/- 6.3, N = 7; MS, 29.0 +/- 9.0, N = 8). These results indicate a possible synergistic action between malnutrition and ethanol on neuromotor development and point to the importance of ethanol as a calorie source for malnourished animals. PMID:7894351
Hosea, Heather J; Rector, Edward S; Taylor, Carla G
2004-05-01
The objective of the present study was to investigate the time course for recovery of lymphoid tissue and T cell subset numbers when Zn-deficient (ZD) or energy-restricted (ER) rats were repleted with control diet; in a second experiment, the link between the stress axis and lymphoid organs was explored. During the deficiency phase, rats were fed a ZD (<1 mg Zn/kg) or control diet (30 mg Zn/kg, nutritionally complete) either as pair-fed controls (ER) or ad libitum-fed controls (CTL) for 3 weeks. During the repletion phase, all rats were fed control diet ad libitum for 3, 7 or 23 d. After the deficiency phase, ZD and ER had lower T cell subset numbers in the thymus compared with CTL, and ZD had reduced T cell subset numbers in the spleen compared with both ER and CTL. T cell subset numbers and lymphoid organ weights recovered from dietary Zn deficiency and energy restriction by 7 d of repletion (except 23 d for thymus weight in ZD), while body weight required more than 23 d for recovery. At the end of the deficiency phase, ZD and ER had higher circulating corticosterone concentrations compared with CTL; plasma TNFalpha was not detectable and there were no differences in plasma haptoglobin, an acute-phase protein. In conclusion, Zn deficiency and energy restriction elevated circulating corticosterone and reduced T cell subset numbers in the thymus and spleen of growing rats. Repletion with a nutritionally complete diet allowed recovery of T cell subset numbers and lymphoid organ weight. PMID:15137926
Linden, Melissa A; Fletcher, Justin A; Meers, Grace M; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott
2016-09-01
Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats develop obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but lifestyle modifications, such as caloric restriction (CR), can prevent these conditions. We sought to determine if prior CR had protective effects on metabolic health and NAFLD development following a 4-wk return to ad libitum (AL) feeding. Four-week-old male OLETF rats (n = 8-10/group) were fed AL for 16 wk (O-AL), CR for 16 wk (O-CR; ∼70% kcal of O-AL), or CR for 12 wk followed by 4 wk of AL feeding (O-AL4wk). CR-induced benefit in prevention of NAFLD, including reduced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and markers of Kupffer cell activation/number, was largely lost in AL4wk rats. These findings occurred in conjunction with a partial loss of CR-induced beneficial effects on obesity and serum triglycerides in O-AL4wk rats, but in the absence of changes in serum glucose or insulin. CR-induced increases in hepatic mitochondrial respiration remained significantly elevated (P < 0.01) in O-AL4wk compared with O-AL rats, while mitochondrial [1-(14)C]palmitate oxidation, citrate synthase activity, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity did not differ among OLETF groups. NAFLD development in O-AL4wk rats was accompanied by increases in the protein content of the de novo lipogenesis markers fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and decreases in phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC)/ACC compared with O-CR rats (P < 0.05 for each). The beneficial effects of chronic CR on NAFLD development were largely lost with 4 wk of AL feeding in the hyperphagic OLETF rat, highlighting the importance of maintaining energy balance in the prevention of NAFLD. PMID:27445343
Comeau, Wendy L; Winstanley, Catharine A; Weinberg, Joanne
2014-01-01
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can produce a myriad of deficits. Unfortunately, affected individuals may also be exposed to the stress of an adverse home environment, contributing to deficits of attentional processes that are the hallmark of optimal executive function. Male offspring of ad libitum-fed Control (Con), Pairfed (PF), and PAE dams were randomly assigned to either a five day period of variable chronic mild stress (CMS) or no CMS (Non CMS) in adolescence. In adulthood, rats were trained in a non-match to sample task (T-maze), followed by extensive assessment in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Once rats acquired the 5-CSRTT (stable accuracy), rats were tested in three challenge conditions, 1) increased sustained attention, 2) selective attention and, 3) varying doses of d- amphetamine, an indirect dopamine and norepinephrine agonist. At birth and throughout the study, PAE offspring showed reduced body weight. Moreover, although PAE were comparable to Con animals in task acquisition, they were progressively less proficient with transitions to shorter stimulus durations (decreased accuracy and increased omissions). Five days of adolescent CMS increased basal corticosterone levels in adolescence and disrupted cognitive performance in adulthood. Further, CMS augmented PAE-related disturbances in acquisition and, to a lesser extent, disrupted attentional processes in Con and PF animals as well. Following task acquisition, challenges unmasked persistent attentional difficulties resulting from both PAE and adolescent CMS. In conclusion, PAE, adolescent CMS, and their interaction produced unique behavioural profiles that suggest vulnerability in select neurobiological processes at different stages of development. PMID:25059261
Giannakopoulos, G; Galanopoulou, P; Daifotis, Z; Couvaris, C
1998-07-01
1. The effects of mesulergine, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonist with dopamine (DA) agonistic properties, on rats diet selection over a seven day period and on 5-HT and DA turnover was studied. 2. Three groups of male Wistar rats were individually caged and ad libitum fed with a standard (SD) and 50% sweet carbohydrate enriched diet (CED). Food intake was measured daily 4 hrs and 24 hrs after i.p. injections of mesulergine (1 and 3 mg/kg) or vehicle. 5-HT and 5-HIAA in hypothalamus (Hy), Striatum (St) and hippocampus (Hi) as well as DA and DOPAC in (Hy) and (St) were assayed at the 8th day of the experiment. 3. There was a dose dependent increase of SD consumption 4 hrs after mesulergine treatment while the CED remained unchanged with total food intake dose dependently increased as a consequence. At 24 hrs measurements SD consumption was increased only for the dose of 1 mg/kg of mesulergine, while a dose dependent decrease of CED intake was observed. Total food intake was unchanged for the dose of 1 mg/kg and decreased with the dose of 3 mg/kg consequently. A dose dependent decrease of rats body weight was observed too. 4. A significant increase of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in (Hy) and (St) for the dose of 1 mg/kg and in (Hi) for the dose of 3 mg/kg with no changes of DA turnover were found. 5. The above data suggest a dual mode of action of mesulergine presented as a short term hyperphagia due to simultaneous antiserotonergic and dopaminergic activity and long-term hypophagia due to long-term agonistic effects of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:9723121
Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy L.; Bodnar, Tamara; Yu, Wayne K.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.
2014-01-01
Rationale Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). In typically developing individuals, susceptibility to SUD is associated with alterations in dopamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems, and their interactions. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters dopamine and HPA systems, yet effects of PAE on dopamine-HPA interactions are unknown. Amphetamine-stress cross-sensitization paradigms were utilized to investigate sensitivity of dopamine and stress (HPA) systems, and their interactions following PAE. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control groups were assigned to amphetamine-(1–2mg/kg) or saline-treated conditions, with injections every other day for 15 days. 14 days later, all animals received an amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) and 5 days later, hormones were measured under basal or acute stress conditions. Amphetamine sensitization (augmented locomotion, days 1–29) and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress (increased stress hormones, day 34) were assessed. Results PAE rats exhibited a lower threshold for amphetamine sensitization compared to controls, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic systems to stimulant-induced changes. Cross-sensitization between amphetamine (dopamine) and stress (HPA hormone) systems was evident in PAE, but not in control rats. PAE males exhibited increased dopamine receptor expression (mPFC) compared to controls. Conclusions PAE alters induction and expression of sensitization/cross-sensitization, as reflected in locomotor, neural, and endocrine changes, in a manner consistent with increased sensitivity of dopamine and stress systems. These results provide insight into possible mechanisms that could underlie increased prevalence of SUD, as well as the impact of widely prescribed stimulant medications among adolescents with FASD. PMID:25420606
Portella, André Krumel; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo
2015-01-01
We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called “Similarities in the Inequalities”, in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the “similarities in the inequalities” phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib), receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR), receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam’s habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF), receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels), abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The “similarities in the inequalities” effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth) and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females). Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters), probably through different biological mechanisms. PMID:25738800
Gautam, Tripti; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tarantini, Stefano; Banki, Eszter; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Koller, Akos; Reglodi, Dora; Giles, Cory B.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Sonntag, William E.; Ungvari, Zoltan
2014-01-01
In rodents, moderate caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition exerts significant cerebrovascular protective effects, improving cortical microvascular density and endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. To elucidate the persisting effects of CR on cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs), primary CMVECs were isolated from young (3 mo old) and aged (24 mo old) ad libitum-fed and aged CR F344xBN rats. We found an age-related increase in cellular and mitochondrial oxidative stress, which is prevented by CR. Expression and transcriptional activity of Nrf2 are both significantly reduced in aged CMVECs, whereas CR prevents age-related Nrf2 dysfunction. Expression of miR-144 was upregulated in aged CMVECs, and overexpression of miR-144 significantly decreased expression of Nrf2 in cells derived from both young animals and aged CR rats. Overexpression of a miR-144 antagomir in aged CMVECs significantly decreases expression of miR-144 and upregulates Nrf2. We found that CR prevents age-related impairment of angiogenic processes, including cell proliferation, adhesion to collagen, and formation of capillary-like structures and inhibits apoptosis in CMVECs. CR also exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects, preventing age-related increases in the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and age-associated pro-inflammatory shift in the endothelial secretome. Characterization of CR-induced changes in miRNA expression suggests that they likely affect several critical functions in endothelial cell homeostasis. The predicted regulatory effects of CR-related differentially expressed miRNAs in aged CMVECs are consistent with the anti-aging endothelial effects of CR observed in vivo. Collectively, we find that CR confers persisting anti-oxidative, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory cellular effects, preserving a youthful phenotype in rat cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells, suggesting that through these effects CR may
Lipopolysaccharide increases gastric and circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 concentrations in rats
Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Jawien, Janusz; Kobelt, Peter; Taché, Yvette; Lambrecht, Nils W.G.
2014-01-01
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an established animal model to study the innate immune response to Gram-negative bacteria mimicking symptoms of infection including reduction of food intake. LPS decreases acyl ghrelin associated with decreased concentrations of circulating ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) likely contributing to the anorexigenic effect. We also recently described the prominent expression of the novel anorexigenic hormone, nucleobindin2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1 in gastric X/A-like cells co-localized with ghrelin in different pools of vesicles. To investigate whether LPS would affect gastric and circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 concentration, ad libitum fed rats were equipped with an intravenous (iv) catheter. LPS was injected intraperitoneally (ip, 100 μg/kg) and blood was withdrawn before and at 2, 5, 7 and 24 h post injection and processed for NUCB2/nesfatin-1 radioimmunoassay. Gastric corpus was collected to measure NUCB2 mRNA expression by RT-qPCR and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 protein concentration by Western blot. Injection of LPS increased plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 concentrations by 43%, 78% and 62% compared to vehicle at 2 h, 5 h and 7 h post injection respectively (p < 0.05) and returned to baseline at 24 h. The plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 increase at 2 h was associated with increased corpus NUCB2 mRNA expression (p < 0.01), whereas NUCB2 mRNA was not detectable in white blood cells. Likewise, gastric NUCB2 protein concentration was increased by 62% after LPS compared to vehicle (p < 0.01). These data show that gastric NUCB2 production and release are increased in response to LPS. These changes are opposite to those of ghrelin in response to LPS supporting a differential gastric regulation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and ghrelin expression derived from the same cell by immune challenge. PMID:21782869
de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Kannan, Pavitra; Pan, Yan; Jiang, Nancy; Sun, Yanjie; Carr, Kenneth D.
2007-01-01
Adenosine A2A receptors are preferentially expressed in rat striatum, where they are concentrated in dendritic spines of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons and exist in a heteromeric complex with D2 dopamine (DA) receptors. Behavioral and biochemical studies indicate an antagonistic relationship between A2A and D2 receptors. Previous studies have demonstrated that food-restricted (FR) rats display behavioral and striatal cellular hypersensitivity to D1 and D2 DA receptor stimulation. These alterations may underlie adaptive, as well as maladaptive, behaviors characteristic of the FR rat. The present study examined whether FR rats are hypersensitive to the A2A receptor agonist, CGS-21680. In Experiment 1, spontaneous horizontal motor activity did not differ between FR and ad libitum fed (AL) rats, while vertical activity was greater in the former. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CGS-21680 (0.25 and 1.0 nmol) decreased both types of motor activity in FR rats, and returned vertical activity levels to those observed in AL rats. In Experiment 2, FR rats given access to a running wheel for a brief period outside of the home cage rapidly acquired wheel running while AL rats did not. Pretreatment with CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) blocked the acquisition of wheel running. When administered to FR subjects that had previously acquired wheel running, CGS-21680 suppressed the behavior. In Experiment 3, CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) activated both ERK 1/2 and CREB in caudate-putamen with no difference between feeding groups. However, in nucleus accumbens (NAc), CGS-21680 failed to activate ERK 1/2 and selectively activated CREB in FR rats. These results indicate that FR subjects are hypersensitive to several effects of an adenosine A2A agonist, and suggest the involvement of an upregulated A2A receptor-linked signaling pathway in NAc. Medications targeting the A2A receptor may have utility in the treatment of maladaptive behaviors associated with FR, including substance abuse
Mortazavi, Sima; Gonzalez, Ronald; Ceddia, Rolando; Unniappan, Suraj
2015-01-01
Nesfatin-1, the N-terminal fragment of nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), is an 82 amino-acid peptide that inhibits food intake and exerts weight-reducing effects. Nesfatin-1 has been proposed as a potential anti-obesity peptide. However, studies to date have mainly focused on the acute satiety effects of centrally administered nesfatin-1. The main objective of our studies was to characterize the long-term/chronic effects of peripheral administration of nesfatin-1 on whole-body energy balance and metabolic partitioning in male Fischer 344 rats. Short-term (1 day) subcutaneous infusion of nesfatin-1 (50 μg/kg body weight/day) using osmotic mini-pumps increased spontaneous physical activity and whole-body fat oxidation during the dark phase. This was accompanied by decreased food intake and basal metabolic rate compared to saline infused controls. On the seventh day of nesfatin-1 infusion, cumulative food intake, and total spontaneous physical activity during the dark phase were significantly reduced and elevated, respectively. Meanwhile, intraperitoneal injection of nesfatin-1 only caused a dark phase specific reduction in food intake and an increase in physical activity. NUCB2 mRNA expression in the brain and stomach, as well as serum NUCB2 concentrations were significantly reduced after 24 h fasting, while a post-prandial increase in serum NUCB2 was found in ad libitum fed rats. Collectively, our results indicate that chronic peripheral administration of nesfatin-1 at the dose tested, results in a sustained reduction in food intake and modulation of whole body energy homeostasis. PMID:25905102
Mohr, Margaret A; Garcia, Francisca L; DonCarlos, Lydia L; Sisk, Cheryl L
2016-06-01
The anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) orchestrates the neuroendocrine-positive feedback response that triggers ovulation in female rodents. The AVPV is larger and more cell-dense in females than in males, and during puberty, only females develop the capacity to show a positive feedback response. We previously reported a potential new mechanism to explain this female-specific gain of function during puberty, namely a female-biased sex difference in the pubertal addition of new cells to the rat AVPV. Here we first asked whether this sex difference is due to greater cell proliferation and/or survival in females. Female and male rats received the cell birthdate marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 200 mg/kg, ip) on postnatal day (P) 30; brains were collected at short and long intervals after BrdU administration to assess cell proliferation and survival, respectively. Overall, females had more BrdU-immunoreactive cells in the AVPV than did males, with no sex differences in the rate of cell attrition over time. Thus, the sex difference in pubertal addition of AVPV cells appears to be due to greater cell proliferation in females. Next, to determine the phenotype of pubertally born AVPV cells, daily BrdU injections were given to female rats on P28-56, and tissue was collected on P77 to assess colocalization of BrdU and markers for mature neurons or glia. Of the pubertally born AVPV cells, approximately 15% differentiated into neurons, approximately 19% into astrocytes, and approximately 23% into microglia. Thus, both neuro- and gliogenesis occur in the pubertal female rat AVPV and potentially contribute to maturation of female reproductive function. PMID:27145006
Valenti, D; Barile, M; Quagliariello, E; Passarella, S
1999-02-12
The effect of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase of isolated rat liver mitochondria has been studied. This is done by monitoring the increase in the rate of oxygen uptake by nucleoside diphosphate (TDP, UDP, CDP or GDP) addition to mitochondria in state 4. It is shown that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibits the mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of about 10 microM as measured for each tested nucleoside diphosphate. It is also shown that high concentrations of GDP prevent 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine inhibition of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase. PMID:10050777
Multi-Shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) at 7 Tesla in TgF344-AD Transgenic Alzheimer Rats.
Daianu, Madelaine; Jacobs, Russell E; Weitz, Tara M; Town, Terrence C; Thompson, Paul M
2015-01-01
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI) are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI), composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD) that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric "shells" when computing three distinct anisotropy maps-fractional anisotropy (FA), generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA). We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI). We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals. PMID:26683657
Multi-Shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) at 7 Tesla in TgF344-AD Transgenic Alzheimer Rats
Daianu, Madelaine; Jacobs, Russell E.; Weitz, Tara M.; Town, Terrence C.; Thompson, Paul M.
2015-01-01
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI) are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI), composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD) that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric “shells” when computing three distinct anisotropy maps–fractional anisotropy (FA), generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA). We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI). We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals. PMID:26683657
Pan, Yan; Berman, Yemiliya; Haberny, Sandra; Meller, Emanuel; Carr, Kenneth D.
2006-01-01
Chronic food restriction (FR) enhances the rewarding and motor-activating effects of abused drugs, and is accompanied by changes in dopamine (DA) dynamics and increased D-1 DA receptor-mediated cell signaling and transcriptional responses in nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, little is known about effects of FR on DA synthetic activity in the mesoaccumbens and nigrostriatal pathways. In Experiment 1 of the present study, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression was measured in ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, using real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization; no differences were observed between FR and ad libitum fed (AL) rats. In Experiment 2, TH protein levels, determined by Western blot, were found to be elevated in NAc and caudate-putamen (CPu) of FR relative to AL rats. In the absence of increased transcription, this may reflect a slowing of TH degradation. In Experiments 3 and 4, DA synthetic activity was assessed by Western blot measurement of TH phosphorylation at Ser-40, and HPLC measurement of in vivo tyrosine hydroxylation rate, as reflected by DOPA accumulation following administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor (NSD-1015; 100 mg/kg, i.p.). Basal phospho-Ser(40)-TH levels did not differ between groups but DOPA accumulation was decreased by FR. Decreased DOPA synthesis, despite increased levels of TH protein, may reflect the inhibitory effect of increased DA binding to TH protein or decreased concentrations of cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. Finally, in response to d-amphetamine (0.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), phospho-Ser(40)-TH was selectively decreased in NAc of FR rats. This suggests increased feedback inhibition of DA synthesis - a possible consequence of postsynaptic receptor hypersensitivity, or increased extracellular DA concentration. These results indicate that FR increases TH protein levels, but may decrease the capacity for DA synthesis by decreasing TH activity. According to this scheme, the previously observed upregulation of striatal
Lan, Ni; Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Ellis, Linda; Viau, Victor; Weinberg, Joanne
2009-01-01
Summary Prenatal ethanol (E) exposure programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and -gonadal (HPG) axes such that E rats show HPA hyperresponsiveness to stressors and altered HPG and reproductive function in adulthood. Importantly, prenatal ethanol may differentially alter stress responsiveness in adult male and female offspring compared to their control counterparts. To test the hypothesis that alterations in HPA activity in E males are mediated, at least in part, by ethanol-induced changes in the capacity of testosterone to regulate HPA activity, we explored dose-related effects of testosterone on HPA and HPG function in adult male offspring from prenatal E, pair-fed (PF) and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. Our data suggest that E males show changes in both HPA and HPG regulation, as well as altered sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of testosterone. While gonadectomy (GDX) reduced weight gain in all animals, low testosterone replacement restored body weights in PF and C but not E males. Further, sensitivity of the thymus and adrenal to circulating testosterone was reduced in E rats. In addition, stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) levels were increased in PF and C but not E males following GDX, and while low dose testosterone replacement restored CORT levels for PF and C, high testosterone levels were needed to normalize CORT levels for E males. A negative correlation between pre-stress testosterone and post-stress CORT levels in C but not in E and PF males further supports the finding of reduced sensitivity to testosterone. Importantly, testosterone appeared to have reduced effects on central corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) pathways in E, but greater effects on central arginine vasopressin (AVP) pathways in E and/or PF compared to C males. Testosterone also had less of an inhibitory effect on stress-induced luteinizing hormone increases in E than in PF and C males following GDX. In addition, androgen receptor mRNA levels in the medial
Salih, M A; Herbert, D C; Kalu, D N
1993-08-01
Male F344 rats fed ad libitum or maintained on 60% of the ad libitum food intake were sacrificed at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The thyroids were removed for the analysis of the C-cell hormones, calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and somatostatin. In the animals fed ad libitum, the peptide content of all three hormones and their mRNA pools increased significantly with age. The increases were markedly suppressed by food restriction. Similarly, the rate of mRNA synthesis of the hormones increased with age and was attenuated by food restriction. Calcitonin and CGRP containing cells increased in number with age in the ad libitum fed animals. In the food restricted animals the numbers of calcitonin positive cells were consistently but not significantly lower than those of ad libitum fed animals at similar ages. In the case of CGRP containing cells, their numbers were significantly lower in the food restricted than in the ad libitum fed animals from 18 months of age. Our findings indicate that aging and food restriction modulate the levels of the thyroidal C-cell hormones at the levels of cell proliferation and possibly gene transcription. PMID:7901459
Stofkova, Andrea; Krskova, Katarina; Vaculin, Simon; Jurcovicova, Jana
2016-06-01
Cachectic rheumatoid arthritis, the less frequent form of the disease, is associated with loss of fat mass and often more severe course of the disease. Its experimental model represents rat adjuvant arthritis (AA) characterized by edema, lack of appetite, sharp body weight and fat loss. As individual fat depots display functional differences, here we studied lipolytic activity and sensitivity to lipolytic stimuli of nodeless epididymal fat (eWAT) and perinodal mesenteric fat (mWAT) depots at the peak of AA. We also examined changes in catecholamine and cytokine levels involved in lipolysis in plasma and/or isolated adipocytes from both WATs to identify the contribution of local, adipocyte-based processes and/or systemic events to adiposity loss in cachectic rheumatoid arthritis. AA was induced to male Lewis rats by complete Freund's adjuvant. Groups of ad libitum-fed and pair-fed controls were used to distinguish the effects of food restriction from inflammation-induced cachexia. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and its phosphorylated form (pHSL) were analyzed by western blot. CRP and catecholamine levels in plasma or adipocyte lysates were determined using ELISA kits. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1/CXCL1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and leptin in adipocyte lysate were analyzed by quantitative protein microarray. Plasma glycerol and FFA were measured spectrophotometrically. AA rats developed severe cachexia, with lower adiposity in mWAT compared to normal and pair-fed controls, whereas in eWAT the adiposity was similarly reduced in AA and pair-fed groups. ATGL levels in both WATs were not affected by AA or pair feeding. AA upregulated levels of HSL, pHSL and pHSL/HSL ratio in mWAT, whereas none of these parameters has changed in eWAT of AA rats or in either WATs of pair-fed rats. In AA rats plasma glycerol was elevated, whereas FFA concentration was reduced. Plasma
Alterations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) during cold acclimation.
Irwin, N; Francis, J M E; Flatt, P R
2011-02-25
Cold acclimation is initially associated with shivering thermogenesis in skeletal muscle followed by adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis, particularly in brown adipose tissue (BAT). In response, hyperphagia occurs to meet increased metabolic demand and thermoregulation. The present study investigates the effects of cold (4 ± 1 °C) acclimation and hyperphagia on circulating and intestinal levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in rats. Pair fed animals were used as additional controls in some experiments. Cold acclimation for 42 days significantly (p<0.01) increased daily food intake. There was no corresponding change in body weight. However, body weights of pair fed cold exposed rats were significantly (p<0.01) reduced compared to controls and ad libitum fed cold exposed rats. By day 42, non-fasting plasma glucose was increased (p<0.05) by chronic cold exposure regardless of food intake. Corresponding plasma insulin concentrations were significantly (p<0.01) lower in pair fed cold exposed rats. Circulating GIP levels were elevated (p<0.05) in ad libitum fed cold acclimated rats on days 18 and 24, but returned to normal levels by the end of the study. The glycaemic response to oral glucose was improved (p<0.01) in all cold exposed rats, with significantly (p<0.05) elevated GIP responses in ad libitum fed rats and significantly (p<0.05) reduced insulin responses in pair fed rats. In keeping with this, insulin sensitivity was enhanced (p<0.05) in cold exposed rats compared to controls. By the end of the study, cold acclimated rats had significantly (p<0.01) increased BAT mass and intestinal concentrations of GIP and GLP-1 compared to controls, independent of food intake. These data indicate that changes in the secretion and actions of GIP may be involved in the metabolic adaptations to cold acclimation in rats. PMID:21146561
He, Guochun; Aoyama, Yoritaka
2003-03-01
This study investigates whether some dietary fibers can the toxicity due to cystine added to the diet. Wistar rats were investigated for the effects of adding pectin, sugar beet fiber or konjac mannan to a cystine diet on the growth rate and on the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes and serum enzymes. The addition of pectin, sugar beet fiber or konjac mannan to the cystine diet resulted in a significant increase in both the food intake and body weight gain. Feeding the cystine diet caused lower activities of total and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and of catalase in the liver. The addition of pectin to the cystine diet counteracted the activities of the total and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and of catalase in liver. Of the dietary fibers tested, konjac mannan prevented the elevation of the two enzyme activities in the serum induced by feeding the cystine diet, indicating that this fiber might have the ability to alleviate hepatic damage due to dietary cystine. PMID:12723612
Chen, X G; Lv, Q X; Zhou, X Q
2016-01-01
Phospholipase Cg2 (PLCg2) induces apoptosis of immune and tumor cells; however, it remains unclear whether PLCg2 promotes hepatocyte apoptosis during liver regeneration (LR). Therefore, to establish a framework for further exploring the function of PLCg2, we generated recombinant adenoviruses carrying a template encoding short hairpin (sh)-RNA targeting PLCg2 (Ad-PLCg2-shRNA), which were used to silence the expression of PLCg2 in BRL-3A cells. First, three pairs of PLCg2-shRNAs were designed, synthesized, and cloned into a shuttle vector, pHBAd-U6-GFP, after annealing. The recombinant shuttle plasmids were co-transfected with the backbone vector pHBAd-BHG into HK293 cells to package the recombinant Ad-PLCg2-shRNAs used to infect BRL-3A cells. Infection efficiency was monitored by observing the number of GFP-positive cells under a fluorescent microscope. To determine the recombinant adenoviruses with the highest silencing efficiency, levels of PLCg2 mRNA were evaluated by qRT-PCR. DNA sequencing confirmed that the correct shRNA coding sequences were inserted into the shuttle vectors and adenoviral plasmids. The titers of three recombinant adenoviruses were at least 1 x 10(10) PFU/mL. The most effective adenoviral construct, with interference efficiency of 77%, was determined by qRT-PCR. These results show that a recombinant adenovirus, Ad-PLCg2-shRNA, was developed and was effective at silencing the rat PLCg2 gene. This construct may contribute to the study of PLCg2 in hepatocyte apoptosis during LR. PMID:27323081
Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas
2015-01-01
The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686
Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas
2015-01-01
The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
UCLA IDEA, 2012
2012-01-01
Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…
Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.
2011-01-01
For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.
1999-01-01
The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios
2009-03-01
We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS5 shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Qs is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Qs˜A1/3. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of αP = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of αP = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be αP = 1.5.
Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios
2009-03-23
We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose F.
2005-02-01
In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS3 × S3, the pp-wave and the multi-center string. ``Bubbling'', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...
Klein, Jonathon D.; Sherrill, Jeremy B.; Morello, Gabriella M.; San Miguel, Phillip J.; Ding, Zhenming; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Liang, Tiebing; Muir, William M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Lossie, Amy C.
2014-01-01
Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d) is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P) rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼7.43 g ethanol/kg/day) in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a) rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake. PMID:25542004
Brummett, Chad M.; Hong, Elizabeth K.; Janda, Allison M.; Amodeo, Francesco S.; Lydic, Ralph
2011-01-01
Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the increased duration of analgesia caused by adding dexmedetomidine to local anesthetic results from blockade of the hyperpolarization-activated cation (Ih)current. Methods In this randomized, blinded, controlled study, the analgesic effects of peripheral nerve blocks using 0.5% ropivacaine alone or 0.5% ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine (34 μM or 6 μg/kg) were assessed with or without the pretreatment of α1- and α2-adrenoceptor antagonists (prazosin and idazoxan, respectively) and antagonists and agonists of the Ih current (ZD 7288 and forskolin, respectively). Sciatic nerve blocks were performed, and analgesia was measured by paw withdrawal latency to a thermal stimulus every 30 min for 300 min post-block. Results The analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine was not reversed by either prazosin or idazoxan. There were no additive or attenuated effects from the pretreatment with ZD 7288 (Ih current) when compared with dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine. When forskolin was administered as a pretreatment to ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine, there were statistically significant reductions in duration of analgesia at time points 90–180 min (p < 0.0001 for each individual comparison). The duration of blockade for the forskolin (768 μM) followed by ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine group mirrored the pattern of the ropivacaine alone group, thereby implying a reversal effect. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine caused approximately a 175% increase in the duration of analgesia, which was reversed by pretreatment with an Ih current enhancer. The analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine was not reversed by an ∝2-adrenoceptor antagonist. PMID:21666435
Gray, Leon Earl; Barlow, Norman J.; Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Ostby, Joseph S.; Furr, Johnathan R.; Gray, Clark L.
2009-01-01
In the rat, some phthalates alter sexual differentiation at relatively low dosage levels by altering fetal Leydig cell development and hormone synthesis, thereby inducing abnormalities of the testis, gubernacular ligaments, epididymis, and other androgen-dependent tissues. In order to define the dose-response relationship between di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and the Phthalate Syndrome of reproductive alterations in F1 male rats, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat dams were dosed by gavage from gestational day 8 to day 17 of lactation with 0, 11, 33, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day DEHP (71–93 males per dose from 12 to 14 litters per dose). Some of the male offspring continued to be exposed to DEHP via gavage from 18 days of age to necropsy at 63–65 days of age (PUB cohort; 16–20/dose). Remaining males were not exposed after postnatal day 17 (in utero-lactational [IUL] cohort) and were necropsied after reaching full maturity. Anogenital distance, sperm counts and reproductive organ weights were reduced in F1 males in the 300 mg/kg/day group and they displayed retained nipples. In the IUL cohort, seminal vesicle weight also was reduced at 100 mg/kg/day. In contrast, serum testosterone and estradiol levels were unaffected in either the PUB or IUL cohorts at necropsy. A significant percentage of F1 males displayed one or more Phthalate Syndrome lesions at 11 mg/kg/day DEHP and above. We were able to detect effects in the lower dose groups only because we examined all the males in each litter rather than only one male per litter. Power calculations demonstrate how using multiple males versus one male/litter enhances the detection of the effects of DEHP. The results at 11 mg/kg/day confirm those reported from a National Toxicology Program multigenerational study which reported no observed adverse effect levels-lowest observed adverse effect levels of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day DEHP, respectively, via the diet. PMID:19482887
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-06-01
We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ma, Y. F.; Lin, B. Y.; Jee, W. S.; Lin, C. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Ke, H. Z.; Li, X. J.
1997-01-01
The objects of this study were (1) to determine the effects of risedronate (Ris) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) alone and in combination, on tibial diaphyses of older intact female rats; and (2) to observe the fate of any extra bone if formed after withdrawal of the treatment. Nine-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 6 mg of PGE2/kg/day, 1 or 5 micrograms of Ris/kg twice a week, or 6 mg of PGE2/kg/day plus 1 or 5 micrograms of Ris/kg twice a week for the first 60 days and followed by vehicle injections for another 60 days. Cross-sections of double fluorescent labeled, undecalcified tibial diaphyses proximal to the tibiofibular junction were processed for histomorphometry. We found that: (1) neither the 1 microgram nor the 5 micrograms of Ris treatment in the 60-day on/60-day off group showed any histomorphometric differences from age-related controls; (2) while the 60 days of PGE2 treatment added extra cortical bone (6%) on the tibial shaft (due to stimulation of periosteal, endocortical, and marrow trabecular bone formation), the new endocortical and most of the new marrow trabecular bone were lost when treatment was withdrawn; however, the new periosteal bone remained; (3) PGE2 with Ris added the same amount of new bone to tibial diaphysis as did PGE2 alone and upon withdrawal, new marrow trabecular bone was lost but new periosteal and endocortical bones were preserved in PGE2 + 1 microgram of Ris on/off group. In contrast, all the new bone was maintained in the PGE2 + 5 micrograms of Ris on/off group; (4) PGE2 + Ris cotreatment failed to block the increase in cortical bone porosity induced by PGE2; and (5) in the PGE2 alone and PGE2 + 1 microgram of Ris on/off groups bone turnover was higher than that in the PGE2 + 5 micrograms of Ris on/off group. These results indicate that on/off treatment with PGE2 and Ris is superior to PGE2 alone in that it forms the same amount of new bone during treatment, but preserves more cortical bone during
The effect of cold stress on lymphocyte proliferation in fetal ethanol-exposed rats.
Giberson, P K; Kim, C K; Hutchison, S; Yu, W; Junker, A; Weinberg, J
1997-11-01
Prenatal ethanol exposure and stress have each been shown to have significant effects on the immune system. This study examined the possible interactive effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and exposure to stress later in life on the immune system. Differential vulnerability to these challenges in female and male offspring was assessed. At 5 to 6 months of age, female and male offspring from prenatal ethanol-exposed (E), pair-red (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) conditions were exposed to 0, 1 or 3 days of cold (4 degrees C). At the end of the cold period, the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes to the mitogens concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) was assessed. The data demonstrate a significant interactive effect between prenatal ethanol exposure and cold stress in female offspring. After 1 day of cold stress, E females had significantly increased PWM-induced lymphocyte proliferation compared with PF and C females, and significantly increased Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation compared with PF females. There were no differences in PWM or Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation among E, PF, and C females after 0 or 3 days of cold stress, nor among E, PF, and C males on any test day. Regardless of prenatal treatment, females exposed to 1 or 3 days of cold had significantly greater basal plasma corticosterone levels than females not exposed to cold. In contrast, only E males exposed to 1 or 3 days of cold had significantly increased basal plasma corticosterone levels, compared with E males not exposed to cold; PF and C males showed no significant change in basal corticosterone after cold stress. These data demonstrate that, in response to the challenge of cold stress, changes in lymphocyte proliferation to PWM and Con A may occur selectively in E females. Moreover, the interactive effects of prenatal ethanol and cold stress may result in enhanced rather than suppressed immune responsiveness. PMID:9394116
Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas
2015-07-01
In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.
AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits
Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu
2002-12-09
In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.
Dietary Protein to Carbohydrate Ratio and Caloric Restriction: Comparing Metabolic Outcomes in Mice.
Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Mitchell, Sarah J; Coogan, Sean C P; Cogger, Victoria C; Gokarn, Rahul; McMahon, Aisling C; Raubenheimer, David; de Cabo, Rafael; Simpson, Stephen J; Le Couteur, David G
2015-06-16
Both caloric restriction (CR) and low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) ad-libitum-fed diets increase lifespan and improve metabolic parameters such as insulin, glucose, and blood lipids. Severe CR, however, is unsustainable for most people; therefore, it is important to determine whether manipulating macronutrient ratios in ad-libitum-fed conditions can generate similar health outcomes. We present the results of a short-term (8 week) dietary manipulation on metabolic outcomes in mice. We compared three diets varying in protein to carbohydrate ratio under both CR and ad libitum conditions. Ad libitum LPHC diets delivered similar benefits to CR in terms of levels of insulin, glucose, lipids, and HOMA, despite increased energy intake. CR on LPHC diets did not provide additional benefits relative to ad libitum LPHC. We show that LPHC diets under ad-libitum-fed conditions generate the metabolic benefits of CR without a 40% reduction in total caloric intake. PMID:26027933
The AdS particle [rapid communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Subir
2005-09-01
In this Letter we have considered a relativistic Nambu-Goto model for a particle in AdS metric. With appropriate gauge choice to fix the reparameterization invariance, we recover the previously discussed [S. Ghosh, P. Pal, Phys. Lett. B 618 (2005) 243, arxiv:hep-th/0502192] "exotic oscillator". The Snyder algebra and subsequently the κ-Minkowski spacetime are also derived. Lastly we comment on the impossibility of constructing a non-commutative spacetime in the context of open string where only a curved target space is introduced.
Probing crunching AdS cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav
2016-02-01
Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea
2016-05-01
It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.
Shadows, currents, and AdS fields
Metsaev, R. R.
2008-11-15
Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.
Central oxytocin receptor stimulation attenuates the orexigenic effects of butorphanol tartrate.
Olszewski, Pawel K; Klockars, Oscar A; Klockars, Anica; Levine, Allen S
2016-09-28
Butorphanol tartrate (BT), a mixed µ/κ/δ opioid receptor agonist, is one of the most potent orexigens known to date. The central mechanisms through which BT causes hyperphagia are largely unknown. Interestingly, BT suppresses meal-end activation of neurons synthesizing anorexigenic neuropeptide, oxytocin (OT), which suggests that BT promotes hyperphagia by silencing OT-derived satiety signaling. As OT terminates consumption by acting by distinct hindbrain and forebrain circuits, we investigated whether stimulation of the OT receptor in the forebrain or the hindbrain [through lateral ventricular (LV) and fourth ventricular (4V) OT injections] leads to termination of food intake induced by BT. We established effective doses of BT on chow intake in ad-libitum-fed and overnight-deprived rats as well as effective doses of LV and 4V OT in deprived animals. Then, we determined doses of LV and 4V OT that reduce hyperphagia produced by BT in sated and deprived rats. Finally, we assessed whether OT's effects on BT-induced feeding can be suppressed by an OT receptor antagonist. 4 mg/kg BT increased intake in ad-libitum-fed and overnight-deprived rats, whereas LV and 4V OT at 1 μg caused a decrease in deprived rats. BT-induced chow intake in hungry and sated animals was suppressed by a very low, 0.1 μg dose of 4V OT, whereas 1 μg OT was effective LV. The effect of OT was attenuated by OT receptor antagonist, L-368 899. Reduced activity of the OT circuit, especially its hindbrain component, is a critical factor in shaping the magnitude of consumption in response to BT treatment. PMID:27471903
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.
1981-01-01
The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.
Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J
2015-01-01
Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p < 0.05) but did not modify insulinemia with respect to C diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p < 0.05) than C ones suggesting increased insulin availability. Plasma leptin and adiponectin decreased in G and GS vs. C group (p < 0.05). Adipose adiponectin increased significantly in G and GS vs. C rats (16-20 times, p < 0.01). Leptin in adipose tissue was higher in GS vs. G group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both glucomannan-diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies. PMID:26667726
Innovations Without Added Costs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cereghino, Edward
1974-01-01
There is no question that we are in a tight money market, and schools are among the first institutions to feel the squeeze. Therefore, when a plan is offered that provides for innovations without added costs, its something worth noting. (Editor)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richards, Andrew
2015-01-01
Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.
2011-05-01
ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org
PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ALTERS STEADY-STATE AND ACTIVATED GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ADULT RAT BRAIN
Stepien, Katarzyna A.; Lussier, Alexandre A.; Neumann, Sarah M.; Pavlidis, Paul; Kobor, Michael S.; Weinberg, Joanne
2016-01-01
Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with alterations in numerous physiological systems, including the stress and immune systems . We have previously shown that PAE increases the course and severity of arthritis in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. While the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully known, changes in neural gene expression are emerging as important factors in the etiology of PAE effects. As the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) play key roles in neuroimmune function, PAE-induced alterations to their transcriptome may underlie abnormal steady-state functions and responses to immune challenge. The current study examined brains from adult PAE and control females from our recent AA study to determine whether PAE causes long-term alterations in gene expression and whether these mediate the altered severity and course of arthritis in PAE females Methods Adult females from PAE, pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed control [C]) groups were injected with either saline or complete Freund’s adjuvant. Animals were terminated at the peak of inflammation or during resolution (days 16 and 39 post-injection, respectively); cohorts of saline-injected PAE, PF and C females were terminated in parallel. Gene expression was analyzed in the PFC and HPC using whole genome mRNA expression microarrays. Results Significant changes in gene expression in both the PFC and HPC were found in PAE compared to controls in response to ethanol exposure alone (saline-injected females), including genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, and energy metabolism. Moreover, in response to inflammation (adjuvant-injected females), PAE animals showed unique expression patterns, while failing to exhibit the activation of genes and regulators involved in the immune response observed in control and pair-fed animals. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that PAE affects neuroimmune function at the level of gene expression
Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.
2014-12-01
We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.
Evans, Nick
2016-09-12
Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali
2003-03-01
In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sierra, Germán
2013-12-01
In this paper we formulate the xp model on the AdS2 spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS2. We extend this result to generic xp models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the xp Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS2 spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.
González-Torres, Laura; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Olivero-David, Raúl; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González, Rafaela Raposo; González-Muñoz, Ma José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J
2015-12-01
Zucker fa/fa rats easily develop dyslipidemia and obesity. Restructured pork (RP) is a suitable matrix for including functional ingredients. The effects of glucomannan- RP or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched RP on plasma lipid/lipoprotein levels, cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) expression, and arylesterase activity in growing fa/fa rats fed high-energy, high-fat cholesterol-enriched diets were tested. Groups of six rats each received diet containing 15% control-RP (C), 15% glucomannan-RP diet (G), 15% glucomannan + spirulina-RP diet (GS), and same diets enriched with 2.4% cholesterol and 0.49% cholic acid (cholesterol-enriched control (HC), cholesterol-enriched glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-enriched glucomannan + spirulina (HGS) diets) over a 7-week period. C diet induced obesity, severe hyperglycemia, moderate hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Those facts were not significantly modified by G or GS diets. G diet increased CYP7A1 expression but decreased the total cholesterol/high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.05) vs. C diet. GS vs. G diet increased (p < 0.05) CYP7A1 expression. HC vs. C diet reduced food intake, body weight gain, and plasma glucose (p < 0.01) but increased cholesterolemia (p < 0.01), lipidemia (plasma cholesterol plus triglycerides) (p < 0.001), cholesterol/triglyceride ratio in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL (p < 0.05), cholesterol transported by VLDL and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) + low density lipoproteins (LDL), total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and CYP7A1 expression (at least p < 0.05). HG and HGS diets vs. HC noticeably reduced lipidemia (p < 0.001), normalized VLDL and IDL + LDL lipid composition, and increased CYP7A1 expression (p < 0.01) but did not modify the cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. HGS vs. HG decreased triglyceridemia, the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and increased arylesterase/HDL-cholesterol activity (p < 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, Kenji
2010-06-01
Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.
Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deger, N. S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.
2014-07-01
We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS3. This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz-Chern-Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves.
Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F
2005-01-01
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus. PMID:15664731
Neural and hormonal control of food hoarding
Keen-Rhinehart, E.; Dailey, M. J.; Teubner, B. J.
2011-01-01
Many animals hoard food, including humans, but despite its pervasiveness, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying this appetitive behavior. We summarize studies of food hoarding in humans and rodents with an emphasis on mechanistic laboratory studies of species where this behavior importantly impacts their energy balance (hamsters), but include laboratory rat studies although their wild counterparts do not hoard food. The photoperiod and cold can affect food hoarding, but food availability is the most significant environmental factor affecting food hoarding. Food-deprived/restricted hamsters and humans exhibit large increases in food hoarding compared with their fed counterparts, both doing so without overeating. Some of the peripheral and central peptides involved in food intake also affect food hoarding, although many have not been tested. Ad libitum-fed hamsters given systemic injections of ghrelin, the peripheral orexigenic hormone that increases with fasting, mimics food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding. Neuropeptide Y or agouti-related protein, brain peptides stimulated by ghrelin, given centrally to ad libitum-fed hamsters, duplicates the early and prolonged postfood deprivation increases in food hoarding, whereas central melanocortin receptor agonism tends to inhibit food deprivation and ghrelin stimulation of hoarding. Central or peripheral leptin injection or peripheral cholecystokinin-33, known satiety peptides, inhibit food hoarding. Food hoarding markedly increases with pregnancy and lactation. Because fasted and/or obese humans hoard more food in general, and more high-density/high-fat foods specifically, than nonfasted and/or nonobese humans, understanding the mechanisms underlying food hoarding could provide another target for behavioral/pharmacological approaches to curb obesity. PMID:21653877
Kliewer, Kara L.; Ke, Jia-Yu; Stout, Michael B.; Cole, Rachel; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Belury, Martha A.
2015-01-01
Rodents are commonly used in food restriction-refeeding studies to investigate weight regain. Mice that are rationed food every 24 hours may consume all allocated food in a short time (gorge) and therefore undergo a brief well-fed period followed by an extended fasted period until the next day’s food allotment. These exaggerated metabolic states are not typical in ad-libitum fed (nibbling) mice. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the intraday and cumulative metabolic consequences of gorging (induced by food restriction) in mice during controlled refeeding. Accordingly, following a temporary food restriction, mice were fed rations similar to intakes of ad-libitum fed controls. Temporary food restriction initiated gorging behavior that persisted during refeeding; consequently, metabolism-related measurements were obtained in the gorging mice during their daily fed and fasted metabolic states. Robust differences in adipose tissue lipogenic and inflammatory gene expression were found in the gorging mice by metabolic state (fed versus fasted). Additionally, despite a reduced cumulative food intake compared to ad-libitum fed mice, restriction-induced gorging mice had increased intra-abdominal fat accumulation, diminished hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and a gene expression profile favoring lipid deposition. Our findings highlight the intraday differences in gene expression in gorging mice before and after feeding that confound comparisons with ad-libitum fed, or nibbling, mice. The present study also provides evidence that weight regain following food restriction is associated with cumulative metabolic and behavioral abnormalities in mice. PMID:25913018
Value Added in English Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen
2009-01-01
Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…
Hartung, Thomas
2009-12-01
Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology - it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global "Human Toxicology Programme". PMID:20105011
Chronic ethanol feeding inhibits plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1
Sonntag, W.E.; Boyd, R.L.
1988-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the generalized catabolic effects of chronic ethanol may be associated with a decline in plasma of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol or pair-fed a diet made isocaloric with maltose-dextrin. Animals were maintained on this diet for either 12 days or 4.5 months. Another groups of animals were fed control diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. After 12 days of feeding, plasma concentrations of IGF-1 in ad libitum fed rats were 771 +/- 41 ng/ml which was greater than concentrations in either pair-fed or ethanol-fed rats. After 4.5 months of feeding, plasma levels of IGF-1 in ad libitum and pair-fed rats were similar to the 12 day study. However, a significant decrease in plasma levels of IGF-1 was observed in ethanol-fed animals over the 4.5 month period. Results of a similar study in rats fed a high-fat diet for 4.5 months were similar to those found with the low-fat diet.
Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity.
Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B; Huffman, Derek M; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W; Barzilai, Nir
2008-06-01
Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal affects longevity. We prospectively studied lifespan in three groups of rats: ad libitum-fed (AL-fed), CR (Fed 60% of AL) and a group of AL-fed rats with selective removal of VF at 5 months of age (VF-removed rats). We demonstrate that compared to AL-fed rats, VF-removed rats had a significant increase in mean (p < 0.001) and maximum lifespan (p < 0.04) and significant reduction in the incidence of severe renal disease (p < 0.01). CR rats demonstrated the greatest mean and maximum lifespan (p < 0.001) and the lowest rate of death as compared to AL-fed rats (0.13). Taken together, these observations provide the most direct evidence to date that a reduction in fat mass, specifically VF, may be one of the possible underlying mechanisms of the anti-aging effect of CR. PMID:18363902
Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amsel, Aaron J.; Compère, Geoffrey
2009-04-01
We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS4. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdSd are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0≤|m|<1/2lAdS. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is “renormalized” accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/lAdS to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS4 supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.
Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jie
2016-07-01
Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.
All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2014-04-01
In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ≅ S 3.
Worldsheet scattering in AdS3/CFT2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundin, Per; Wulff, Linus
2013-07-01
We confront the recently proposed exact S-matrices for AdS 3/ CFT 2 with direct worldsheet calculations. Utilizing the BMN and Near Flat Space (NFS) expansions for strings on AdS 3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 and AdS 3 × S 3 × T 4 we compute both tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes. Up to some minor issues we find nice agreement in the tree-level sector. At the one-loop level however we find that certain non-zero tree-level processes, which are not visible in the exact solution, contribute, via the optical theorem, and give an apparent mismatch for certain amplitudes. Furthermore we find that a proposed one-loop modification of the dressing phase correctly reproduces the worldsheet calculation while the standard Hernandez-Lopez phase does not. We also compute several massless to massless processes.
Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak
2016-04-01
We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.
New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.
Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda
2011-04-29
We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026
Body mass affects seasonal variation in sickness intensity in a seasonally breeding rodent
Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E.
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT Species that display seasonal variation in sickness intensity show the most intense response in the season during which they have the highest body mass, suggesting that sickness intensity may be limited by an animal's energy stores. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) display lower body masses and less intense sickness when housed in short, winter-like days as opposed to long, summer-like days. To determine whether reduced sickness intensity displayed by short-day hamsters is a product of seasonal changes in body mass, we food restricted long-day hamsters so that they exhibited body mass loss that mimicked the natural photoperiod-induced loss of body mass in short-day hamsters. We then experimentally induced sickness with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and compared sickness responses among long-day food-restricted and long- and short-day ad libitum fed groups, predicting that long-day food-restricted hamsters would show sickness responses comparable to those of short-day ad libitum fed hamsters and attenuated in comparison to long-day ad libitum fed hamsters. We found that long-day food-restricted hamsters showed attenuated LPS-induced anorexia, loss of body mass and hypothermia compared with long-day ad libitum fed animals; however, anorexia remained elevated in long-day food-restricted animals compared with short-day ad libitum fed animals. Additionally, LPS-induced anhedonia and decreases in nest building were not influenced by body mass. Results of hormone assays suggest that cortisol levels could play a role in the attenuation of sickness in long-day food-restricted hamsters, indicating that future research should target the roles of glucocorticoids and natural variation in energy stores in seasonal sickness variation. PMID:25852068
Phases of global AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala
2016-06-01
We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turco, M.; Milelli, M.
2009-09-01
skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stothers, R. B.
1984-01-01
The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.
AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries
Ivanov, E.A.
2005-10-01
It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.
AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.
2016-06-01
We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.
Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.
2016-06-01
Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .
Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography
Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo
2011-03-15
We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.
Self-dual warped AdS3 black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Ning, Bo
2010-12-01
We study a new class of solutions of three-dimensional topological massive gravity. These solutions can be taken as nonextremal black holes, with their extremal counterparts being discrete quotients of spacelike warped AdS3 along the U(1)L isometry. We study the thermodynamics of these black holes and show that the first law is satisfied. We also show that for consistent boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetry generators form only one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge cL=(4νℓ)/(G(ν2+3)), with which the Cardy formula reproduces the black hole entropy. We compute the real-time correlators of scalar perturbations and find a perfect match with the dual conformal field theory (CFT) predictions. Our study provides a novel example of warped AdS/CFT correspondence: the self-dual warped AdS3 black hole is dual to a CFT with nonvanishing left central charge. Moreover, our investigation suggests that the quantum topological massive gravity asymptotic to the same spacelike warped AdS3 in different consistent ways may be dual to different two-dimensional CFTs.
Warped AdS3/dipole-CFT duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2012-05-01
String theory contains solutions with {{SL}}( {{2},{R}} ){{R}} × {{U}}{( {1} )_L} -invariant warped AdS3 (WAdS3) factors arising as continuous deformations of ordinary AdS3 factors. We propose that some of these are holographically dual to the IR limits of nonlocal dipole-deformed 2D D-brane gauge theories, referred to as "dipole CFTs". Neither the bulk nor boundary theories are currently well-understood, and consequences of the proposed duality for both sides is investigated. The bulk entropy-area law suggests that dipole CFTs have (at large N) a high-energy density of states which does not depend on the deformation parameter. Putting the boundary theory on a spatial circle leads to closed timelike curves in the bulk, suggesting a relation of the latter to dipole-type nonlocality.
New boundary conditions for AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compère, Geoffrey; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2013-05-01
New chiral boundary conditions are found for quantum gravity with matter on AdS3. The associated asymptotic symmetry group is generated by a single right-moving U(1) Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra with {c_R}={3ℓ}/2G . The Kac-Moody zero mode generates global left-moving translations and equals, for a BTZ black hole, the sum of the total mass and spin. The level is positive about the global vacuum and negative in the black hole sector, corresponding to ergosphere formation. Realizations arising in Chern-Simons gravity and string theory are analyzed. The new boundary conditions are shown to naturally arise for warped AdS3 in the limit that the warp parameter is taken to zero.
Observing quantum gravity in asymptotically AdS space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emelyanov, Slava
2015-12-01
The question is studied of whether an observer can discover quantum gravity in the semiclassical regime. It is shown that it is indeed possible to probe a certain quantum gravity effect by employing an appropriately designed detector. The effect is related to the possibility of having topologically inequivalent geometries in the path-integral approach at the same time. A conformal field theory (CFT) state which is expected to describe the eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole in the large-N limit is discussed. It is argued under certain assumptions that the black hole boundary should be merely a patch of the entire AdS boundary. This leads then to a conclusion that that CFT state is the ordinary CFT vacuum restricted to that patch. If existent, the bulk CFT operators can behave as the ordinary semiclassical quantum field theory in the large-N limit in the weak sense.
Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River
2015-12-01
We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.
Alday-Maldacena Duality and AdS Plateau Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, A.
A short summary of approximate approach to the study of minimal surfaces in AdS, based on solving Nambu-Goto equations iteratively. Today, after partial denunciation of the BDS conjecture, this looks like the only constructive approach to understanding the ways of its possible modification and thus to saving the Alday-Maldacena duality. Numerous open technical problems are explicitly formulated throughout the text.
On information loss in AdS3/CFT2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu
2016-05-01
We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: `forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior of correlators at times t ˜ S BH , the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1 /c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify `information-restoring' effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.
Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Gautam; Raju, Suvrat; Smedbäck, Mikael
2008-02-01
We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS3×S3×T4/K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane world volume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5-brane world volume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. In global AdS and the corresponding Lunin-Mathur solution, the solutions we describe are “bound” to the center of AdS for generic parameters and cannot escape to infinity. We show that these probes only exist on the submanifold of moduli space where the background BNS field and theta angle vanish. We quantize these probes in the near-horizon region of the extremal D1-D5 geometry and obtain the theory of long strings discussed by Seiberg and Witten.
Alterations in hypothalamic gene expression following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
Barkholt, Pernille; Pedersen, Philip J.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Jelsing, Jacob; Hansen, Henrik H.; Vrang, Niels
2016-01-01
Objective The role of the central nervous system in mediating metabolic effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is poorly understood. Using a rat model of RYGB, we aimed to identify changes in gene expression of key hypothalamic neuropeptides known to be involved in the regulation of energy balance. Methods Lean male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either RYGB or sham surgery. Body weight and food intake were monitored bi-weekly for 60 days post-surgery. In situ hybridization mRNA analysis of hypothalamic AgRP, NPY, CART, POMC and MCH was applied to RYGB and sham animals and compared with ad libitum fed and food-restricted rats. Furthermore, in situ hybridization mRNA analysis of dopaminergic transmission markers (TH and DAT) was applied in the midbrain. Results RYGB surgery significantly reduced body weight and intake of a highly palatable diet but increased chow consumption compared with sham operated controls. In the arcuate nucleus, RYGB surgery increased mRNA levels of orexigenic AgRP and NPY, whereas no change was observed in anorexigenic CART and POMC mRNA levels. A similar pattern was seen in food-restricted versus ad libitum fed rats. In contrast to a significant increase of orexigenic MCH mRNA levels in food-restricted animals, RYGB did not change MCH expression in the lateral hypothalamus. In the VTA, RYGB surgery induced a reduction in mRNA levels of TH and DAT, whereas no changes were observed in the substantia nigra relative to sham surgery. Conclusion RYGB surgery increases the mRNA levels of hunger-associated signaling markers in the rat arcuate nucleus without concomitantly increasing downstream MCH expression in the lateral hypothalamus, suggesting that RYGB surgery puts a brake on orexigenic hypothalamic output signals. In addition, down-regulation of midbrain TH and DAT expression suggests that altered dopaminergic activity also contributes to the reduced intake of palatable food in RYGB rats. PMID:27069869
Effect of pure zinc deficiency on glucose tolerance and insulin and glucagon levels
Park, J.H.Y.; Grandjean, C.J.; Hart, M.H.; Erdman, S.H.; Pour, P.; Vanderhoof, J.A.
1986-03-05
The effect of zinc deficiency on glucose tolerance was investigated using intragastric force-feeding to obviate decreased food intake and altered eating patterns. Three groups of weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified powdered zinc-deficient diet: zinc-deficient ad libitum fed animals (ZDA); zinc-replete gavage force-fed controls (ZRF) fed the zinc-deficient diet in water with zinc (25 ppm); zinc-deficient gavage force-fed animals (ZDF) fed the zinc-deficient diet in distilled water. A fourth group of zinc-supplemented rats fed the diet ad libitum was included to determine caloric intake for ZDF and ZRF gavage fed groups. After 8 days of feeding, the zinc concentration in the serum and pancreas were lower in both zinc-deficient groups, but the difference was much greater in the ZDF rats than in the ZDA. The ZDF group had impaired glucose tolerance curves, yet blood insulin and glucagon levels were normal. The ZDA group had normal glucose tolerance with low insulin levels compared to the ZRF group. The islet cell morphology among the three dietary groups were similar. These results suggest that the glucose intolerance observed in ZDF rats is not due to altered blood insulin and glucagon levels but rather to peripheral resistance to insulin action.
Bending AdS waves with new massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Giribet, Gaston; Hassaïne, Mokhtar
2009-05-01
We study AdS-waves in the three-dimensional new theory of massive gravity recently proposed by Bergshoeff, Hohm, and Townsend. The general configuration of this type is derived and shown to exhibit different branches, with different asymptotic behaviors. In particular, for the special fine tuning m2 = ±1/(2l2), solutions with logarithmic fall-off arise, while in the range m2 > -1/(2l2), spacetimes with Schrödinger isometry group are admitted as solutions. Spacetimes that are asymptotically AdS3, both for the Brown-Henneaux and for the weakened boundary conditions, are also identified. The metric function that characterizes the profile of the AdS-wave behaves as a massive excitation on the spacetime, with an effective mass given by meff2 = m2-1/(2l2). For the critical value m2 = -1/(2l2), the value of the effective mass precisely saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the AdS3 space where the wave is propagating on. The analogies with the AdS-wave solutions of topologically massive gravity are also discussed. Besides, we consider the coupling of both massive deformations to Einstein gravity and find the exact configurations for the complete theory, discussing all the different branches exhaustively. One of the effects of introducing the Chern-Simons gravitational term is that of breaking the degeneracy in the effective mass of the generic modes of pure New Massive Gravity, producing a fine structure due to parity violation. Another effect is that the zoo of exact logarithmic specimens becomes considerably enlarged.
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC
2007-02-21
The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.
Breen, M.; Weinsxein, H.G.
1986-03-05
Pregnant female rats were divided into five groups and fed as follows: - Ad libitum (AD), 20% of calories as ethanol (ED20), pair fed to ED20 (CD20), 36% of calories as ethanol (ED36), pair to ED36( CD36). New-born rats were obtained from these groups and labelled:- AN, EN20, CN20, EN36, CN36. The brains were removed and a synaptic membrane enriched fraction isolated which was analyzed for protein, sialic acid and the marker enzymes:- acetylcholinesterase (AC) and Na/K ATPase. Caloric intake was reduced by ethanol to 85% (ED20) and 68% (ED36) of the ad libitum fed (AD). Brain wt. of the neonate was reduced by the lower caloric intake of the dam but ethanol ingestion reduced the brain weight of the neonate even more significantly, CN36 vs. ED36 (p<0.05). The amount of synaptic membranes (syn.mem), in the brain was 5 to 7 times greater in the dam than their corresponding neonates, but there was no significant difference in the sialic acid (SA) content of the syn. mem. of dams and their corresponding neonates; however, the levels of both enzyme markers were negligible in the neonate. The reduced caloric and/or ethanol ingestion by the dam increased the levels of SA in the syn. mem. of both dam and neonate, and the marker enzymes in the dam.
Ultraviolet asymptotics and singular dynamics of AdS perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris
2015-10-01
Important insights into the dynamics of spherically symmetric AdS-scalar field perturbations can be obtained by considering a simplified time-averaged theory accurately describing perturbations of amplitude ɛ on time-scales of order 1/ ɛ 2. The coefficients of the time-averaged equations are complicated expressions in terms of the AdS scalar field mode functions, which are in turn related to the Jacobi polynomials. We analyze the behavior of these coefficients for high frequency modes. The resulting asymptotics can be useful for understanding the properties of the finite-time singularity in solutions of the time-averaged theory recently reported in the literature. We highlight, in particular, the gauge dependence of this asymptotics, with respect to the two most commonly used gauges. The harsher growth of the coefficients at large frequencies in higher-dimensional AdS suggests strengthening of turbulent instabilities in higher dimensions. In the course of our derivations, we arrive at recursive relations for the coefficients of the time-averaged theory that are likely to be useful for evaluating them more efficiently in numerical simulations.
Voluntary access to a warm plate reduces hyperactivity in activity-based anorexia.
Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; de Rijke, Corine E; Brakkee, Jan H; Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H
2005-06-01
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of anorexia nervosa. In ABA, scheduled feeding in combination with voluntary wheel running leads to hyperactivity, reduced food intake, severe body weight loss and hypothermia. In this study it was investigated whether hyperactivity in ABA could be reduced by introducing a warm plate (which was voluntary accessible and did not influence ambient temperature) into a part of the cage. In ad libitum fed rats, the presence of the warm plate did not influence body temperature, running wheel activity (RWA), body weight or food intake. During ABA, however, rats preferred the warm plate and hypothermia was prevented, while hyperactivity and body weight loss were significantly reduced when compared to ABA rats without a plate. Correlation analysis revealed a significant association between basal body temperature and RWA during the light phase in ABA rats. However, there was no evidence that initiation of light phase RWA was a result of hypothermia. These data suggest that ABA rats prefer to prevent hypothermia passively by choosing a warm plate rather than actively regulating body temperature by hyperactivity. PMID:15924912
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.
2013-01-01
The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org
The AdS central charge in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troost, Jan
2011-11-01
We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.
Small black holes in global AdS spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2016-04-01
We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.
Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios
2015-07-01
Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS = δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric-magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy-momentum/Cotton tensor duality.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belin, Alexandre; Castro, Alejandra; Hung, Ling-Yan
2015-11-01
We discuss properties of interpolating geometries in three dimensional gravity in the presence of a chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which introduces an unbalance between left and right central charges, is protected under RG flows. For this simple reason it is impossible to gap a system with such an anomaly. Our goal is to discuss how holography captures this basic and robust feature. We demonstrate the absence of a mass gap by analysing the linearized spectrum and holographic entanglement entropy of these backgrounds in the context of AdS3/CFT2.
Pure Spinors in AdS and Lie Algebra Cohomology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, Andrei
2014-10-01
We show that the BRST cohomology of the massless sector of the Type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S 5 can be described as the relative cohomology of an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. We explain how the vertex operators of ghost number 1, which correspond to conserved currents, are described in this language. We also give some algebraic description of the ghost number 2 vertices, which appears to be new. We use this algebraic description to clarify the structure of the zero mode sector of the ghost number two states in flat space, and initiate the study of the vertices of the higher ghost number.
Internal structure of charged AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh
2016-06-01
When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.
2014-01-01
In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.
Critical gravity on AdS2 spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai
2011-09-01
We study the critical gravity in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS2) spacetimes, which was obtained from the cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMGΛ) in three dimensions by using the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. We perform the perturbation analysis around AdS2, which may correspond to the near-horizon geometry of the extremal Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole obtained from the TMGΛ with identification upon uplifting three dimensions. A massive propagating scalar mode δF satisfies the second-order differential equation away from the critical point of K=l, whose solution is given by the Bessel functions. On the other hand, δF satisfies the fourth-order equation at the critical point. We exactly solve the fourth-order equation, and compare it with the log gravity in two dimensions. Consequently, the critical gravity in two dimensions could not be described by a massless scalar δFml and its logarithmic partner δFlog4th.
Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.
2015-06-01
We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.
Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertog, Thomas; van der Woerd, Ellen
2016-02-01
One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.
Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H
2009-10-01
The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5. PMID:19603000
Chambers, D W
1998-01-01
Dentists and many staff enjoy characteristics of work associated with high levels of satisfaction and performance. Although value can be added to oral health care professionals' jobs through enlargement, enrichment, rotations, and autonomous work groups, there are limits to these techniques. Controlling work performance by means of rewards is risky. Probably the most effective means of adding value to jobs is through the Quality of Work Life approach, concentrating on job design and placement to make work meaningful and autonomous and to provide feedback. PMID:9697373
Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
Gorski, J.R.
1988-01-01
Toxic responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were characterized in male Sprague-Dawley rats in order to elucidate the mechanism of acute toxicity of this potent halogenated hydrocarbon. Studies in TCDD-treated, pair-fed control and ad libitum-fed control rates, as well as in thyroidectomized, adrenalectomized and hypophysectomized, revealed differential hormonal, toxicologic and histophathologic responses suggesting that these manifestations of TCDD exposure are the results of an insult to intermediary metabolism. Tissue specific alterations in de novo fatty acid synthesis were directly related to differential changes observed in thyroid hormone homeostasis. The increased hepatic de novo fatty acid synthesis provided a likely mechanism for the documented fact that TCDD-treated rats lose more body weight than corresponding pair-fed controls because de novo fatty acid synthesis represents an energy inefficient metabolic process. Experiments in adrenalectomized and hypophysectomized rats led to the hypothesis that severe hypoglycemia due to inhibition of gluconeogenesis is the cause of TCDD-induced death. A subsequent characterization of gluconeogenesis in TCDD-treated rats confirmed this hypothesis.
Central resistance to the inhibitory effects of leptin on stimulated insulin secretion with aging.
Muzumdar, Radhika H; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiaoman; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir
2006-09-01
Aging is associated with resistance to the effects of leptin on food intake and energy homeostasis. We examined if old rats were resistant to the effects of leptin on glucose stimulated insulin secretion. When leptin was infused intravenously (0.5 microg/kg/min) under hyperglycemic clamp conditions (11 mM) in young (n=5) and old rats (n=10, 5 ad libitum fed and five with surgical removal of visceral fat), glucose stimulated insulin secretion was significantly decreased by 44% in the young rats, but not in old rats (31.8+/-2.8 to 17.9+/-1.0 versus 33.7+/-1.4 versus 31.0+/-1.7 and 24.7+/-1.6 versus 21.0+/-2.8 in young versus old versus old VF- respectively, p<0.01). To identify if the resistance to leptin is secondary to impaired transport across the blood brain barrier (BBB), we infused leptin into the third ventricle (intra-cerebro ventricular, ICV). ICV infusion of leptin elicited a partial effect on glucose stimulated insulin secretion in the old (25.7+/-2.5 to 15.4+/-2.4 versus 24.4+/-2.4 to 19.0+/-2.0 in young versus old, respectively) suggesting that part of the leptin resistance was beyond the BBB. Resistance to the effects of leptin on insulin secretion in aging may protect against the onset of diabetes in old subjects. PMID:16122839
Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf
2016-03-01
Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.
Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang
2013-04-01
In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.
Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.
2016-04-01
We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.
Vortex hair on AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, Ruth; Gustainis, Peter C.; Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Wills, Danielle
2014-11-01
We analyse vortex hair for charged rotating asymptotically AdS black holes in the abelian Higgs model. We give analytical and numerical arguments to show how the vortex interacts with the horizon of the black hole, and how the solution extends to the boundary. The solution is very close to the corresponding asymptotically flat vortex, once one transforms to a frame that is non-rotating at the boundary. We show that there is a Meissner effect for extremal black holes, with the vortex flux being expelled from sufficiently small black holes. The phase transition is shown to be first order in the presence of rotation, but second order without rotation. We comment on applications to holography.
An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman
2016-07-01
We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.
Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds
Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.
2003-03-18
We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge
Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?
Barvinsky, A. O.
2015-03-15
We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.
Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barvinsky, A. O.
2015-03-01
We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O( N 0) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large- N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.
Islands of stability and recurrence times in AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen R.; Maillard, Antoine; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.
2015-10-01
We study the stability of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime to spherically symmetric perturbations of a real scalar field in general relativity. Further, we work within the context of the "two time framework" (TTF) approximation, which describes the leading nonlinear effects for small amplitude perturbations, and is therefore suitable for studying the weakly turbulent instability of AdS—including both collapsing and noncollapsing solutions. We have previously identified a class of quasiperiodic (QP) solutions to the TTF equations, and in this paper we analyze their stability. We show that there exist several families of QP solutions that are stable to linear order, and we argue that these solutions represent islands of stability in TTF. We extract the eigenmodes of small oscillations about QP solutions, and we use them to predict approximate recurrence times for generic noncollapsing initial data in the full (non-TTF) system. Alternatively, when sufficient energy is driven to high-frequency modes, as occurs for initial data far from a QP solution, the TTF description breaks down as an approximation to the full system. Depending on the higher order dynamics of the full system, this often signals an imminent collapse to a black hole.
Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC
2012-02-14
We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.
ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.
The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.
Khalid, Muhammad; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Qadir, Muhammad Imran
2014-07-01
The optimum conditions to label ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) compound with (90)y as a potential candidate for bone metastases therapy were investigated. Yttrium-90 is a pure β-emitter and can be obtained by (89)y (n,γ) (90)y nuclear reaction in a reactor or from an in-house generator system ((90)sr(90)y). The preparation of (90)Y-EDTMPis described using (90)y, which was obtained from neutron irradiation of y2o3 as well as from a laboratory scale organic resin-based (90)sr--(90)y generator. Because of the radiolabeling yield of 90Y-EDTMP on ligand/metal molar ratio, incubation time and ph was evaluated. Under optimum parameters, the radiolabeling yields of (90)Y-EDTMP were <95% for no-carrier-added as well as carrier-added (90)y. The biodistribution of no-carrier-added and carrier-added (90)Y-EDTMP complexes in rats was identical. The results indicate that (90)y (carrier-added)-edtmp is also an effective bone pain palliation agent because of its rapid blood clearance, greater uptake in bones and little absorption in soft tissues. PMID:25015445
Realizing "value-added" metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff
2007-03-01
The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD
Missing top of the AdS resonance structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, I.-Sheng
2015-03-01
We study a massless scalar field in AdSd +1 with a nonlinear coupling ϕN and not limited to spherical symmetry. The free-field-eigenstate spectrum is strongly resonant, and it is commonly believed that the nonlinear coupling leads to energy transfer between eigenstates. We prove that when N d is even, the most efficient resonant channels to transfer energy are always absent. In particular, for N =3 this means no energy transfer at all. For N =4 , this effectively kills half of the channels, leading to the same set of extra conservation laws recently derived for gravitational interactions within spherical symmetry.
Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2016-04-01
We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.
Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon
2016-08-01
We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, Alyssa
We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where
The inside outs of AdS3/CFT2: exact AdS wormholes with entangled CFT duals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Gautam; Sinha, Ritam; Sorokhaibam, Nilakash
2015-01-01
We present the complete family of solutions of 3D gravity (Λ < 0) with two asymptotically AdS exterior regions. The solutions are constructed from data at the two boundaries, which correspond to two independent and arbitrary stress tensors T R , , and T L , . The two exteriors are smoothly joined on to an interior region through a regular horizon. We find CFT duals of these geometries which are entangled states of two CFT's. We compute correlators between general operators at the two boundaries and find perfect agreement between CFT and bulk calculations. We calculate and match the CFT entanglement entropy (EE) with the holographic EE which involves geodesics passing through the wormhole. We also compute a holographic, non-equilibrium entropy for the CFT using properties of the regular horizon. The construction of the bulk solutions here uses an exact version of Brown-Henneaux type diffeomorphisms which are asymptotically nontrivial and transform the CFT states by two independent unitary operators on the two sides. Our solutions provide an infinite family of explicit examples of the ER=EPR relation of Maldacena and Susskind [1].
Wang, Hongjie; Ducournau, Corinne; Saydaminova, Kamola; Richter, Maximilian; Yumul, Roma; Ho, Martin; Carter, Darrick; Zubieta, Chloé
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT We recently discovered that desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is a receptor for human adenovirus species B serotypes Ad3, Ad7, Ad11, and Ad14. Ad3 is considered to be a widely distributed human pathogen. Ad3 binding to DSG2 triggers the transient opening of epithelial junctions. Here, we further delineate the mechanism that leads to DSG2-mediated epithelial junction opening in cells exposed to Ad3 and recombinant Ad3 fiber proteins. We identified an Ad3 fiber knob-dependent pathway that involves the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases triggering the activation of the matrix-metalloproteinase ADAM17. ADAM17, in turn, cleaves the extracellular domain of DSG2 that links epithelial cells together. The shed DSG2 domain can be detected in cell culture supernatant and also in serum of mice with established human xenograft tumors. We then extended our studies to Ad14 and Ad14P1. Ad14 is an important research and clinical object because of the recent appearance of a new, more pathogenic strain (Ad14P1). In a human epithelial cancer xenograft model, Ad14P1 showed more efficient viral spread and oncolysis than Ad14. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a mutation in the Ad14P1 fiber knob could account for the differences between the two strains. While our X-ray crystallography studies suggested an altered three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Ad14P1 fiber knob in the F-G loop region, this did not significantly change the fiber knob affinity to DSG2 or the intracellular signaling and DSG2 shedding in epithelial cancer cells. IMPORTANCE A number of widely distributed adenoviruses use the epithelial junction protein DSG2 as a receptor for infection and lateral spread. Interaction with DSG2 allows the virus not only to enter cells but also to open epithelial junctions which form a physical barrier to virus spread. Our study elucidates the mechanism beyond virus-triggered junction opening with a focus on adenovirus serotype 3. Ad3 binds to DSG2 with its fiber
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...
16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18... INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness,...
Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
TNTP, 2011
2011-01-01
This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…
What's the Value in Value-Added?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffrin, Elizabeth
2011-01-01
A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…
Value Added and Other Related Matters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitla, Dean K.
The term "value added" refers to the assessment of the amount of learning that takes place during the college years. Two experiments, Value Added I and Value Added II, attempted to measure college students' attainment of eight liberal education objectives: (1) writing ability; (2) analytical ability; (3) sensitivity to ethics, morals, and values;…
New Features in the ADS Abstract Service
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.
2005-01-01
The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.
27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lovecky, Deirdre V.
This brief paper on gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) focuses on the special educational needs of this population. Emphasis is on four major conclusions: (1) gifted children with AD/HD differ from average children with AD/HD in cognitive, social, and emotional variables (e.g., the gifted child is likely to show…
Condom ads promote illicit sex.
Kippley, J F
1994-01-01
Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946
Historical Literature in the ADS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.
1997-12-01
The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.
Qu, Mei-Hua; Yang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Han, Hailin; Wang, Jia; Wang, Guo-Du; Xue, Changhu; Gao, Zhiqin
2016-01-01
Both Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) have been shown to halt the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia. This study aimed to investigate the role of DHA-containing PC (DHA-PC) in the improvement of Aβ25-35-induced cognitive deficits in rats. Aβ25-35-induced AD rats were treated for 30 days with DHA-PC, which was extracted from Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis spawns. Cognitive improvement of the AD rats was detected using the Morris water maze (MWM). The results demonstrated that DHA-PC could improve the learning and memory abilities of AD rats in a dose-dependent pattern. Further analyses showed that expression of phosphorylated tau decreased, and the neuronal morphology recovered in brains of DHA-PC-treated AD rats, as compared with mock-treated AD rats. In addition, DHAPC treatment increased the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in the cortex and hippocampus of AD rats. Taken together, these data suggest that DHA-PC is able to improve the cognitive deficits in AD rats, probably through decreasing the phosphorylation of tau in the cortex and hippocampus CA1 area, and increasing the GSH-Px and SOD activities in the brain of AD rats. PMID:26268328
Different phases of hairy black holes in AdS5 space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giribet, Gaston; Goya, Andrés; Oliva, Julio
2015-02-01
We investigate the thermodynamics of hairy black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, including backreaction. Resorting to the Euclidean path integral approach, we show that matter conformally coupled to Einstein gravity in five dimensions may exhibit a phase transition whose endpoint turns out to be a hairy black hole in AdS5 space. The scalar field configuration happens to be regular everywhere outside and on the horizon and behaves asymptotically in such a way that respects the AdS boundary conditions that are relevant for AdS/CFT. The theory presents other peculiar features in the ultraviolet, like the existence of black holes with arbitrarily low temperature in AdS5 . This provides a simple setup in which the fully backreacting problem of a hair forming in AdS at a certain critical temperature can be solved analytically.
Beitler, M.K.; Mahler, P.A.; Yamanaka, W.K.; Guy, D.G.; Hutchinson, M.L.
1987-03-01
Diets containing hydrolyzed casein have been observed to enhance post-irradiation intestinal mucosal recovery. The intake and the composition of such diets were not carefully controlled. This study attempted to do so. Male specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive either an enzymatically hydrolyzed casein semi-purified diet (EHC), a whole casein semi-purified diet (WC), or powdered lab chow (C). All diets were isonitrogenous, and the WC and C rats were pair-fed to the ad libitum fed EHC rats. Seven days after initiation of feeding, the rats were abdominally irradiated with a single 9.0 Gy dose of 137Cs gamma rays. The rats were continued on the diets for another 5 days. Intestinal mucosa from transverse segments at the duodenum, jejunum, proximal ileum, and distal ileum were measured for incorporation of (/sup 3/H methyl) thymidine 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection. Incorporation reached a maximum by day 4 post-irradiation regardless of diet or segment. Incorporation in the duodenum was enhanced by the EHC diet compared to the C diet, while the incorporation in the jejunum was initially suppressed by the EHC diet compared to the WC diet. In the jejunum, the number of mitoses per crypt of 25 anti-mesenteric crypts post-irradiation was increased by the EHC diet. Prior to irradiation, all groups gained similar amounts of weight. After irradiation, the C rats lost weight, while the EHC and WC rats remained the same or gained weight. Guaiac tests for occult blood were negative prior to irradiation, but positive for all rats on days 1-5 postirradiation. When calorie and protein intakes were controlled, different areas of the small intestine responded differently to EHC.
Warfarin-induced artery calcification is accelerated by growth and vitamin D.
Price, P A; Faus, S A; Williamson, M K
2000-02-01
The present studies demonstrate that growth and vitamin D treatment enhance the extent of artery calcification in rats given sufficient doses of Warfarin to inhibit gamma-carboxylation of matrix Gla protein, a calcification inhibitor known to be expressed by smooth muscle cells and macrophages in the artery wall. The first series of experiments examined the influence of age and growth status on artery calcification in Warfarin-treated rats. Treatment for 2 weeks with Warfarin caused massive focal calcification of the artery media in 20-day-old rats and less extensive focal calcification in 42-day-old rats. In contrast, no artery calcification could be detected in 10-month-old adult rats even after 4 weeks of Warfarin treatment. To directly examine the importance of growth to Warfarin-induced artery calcification in animals of the same age, 20-day-old rats were fed for 2 weeks either an ad libitum diet or a 6-g/d restricted diet that maintains weight but prevents growth. Concurrent treatment of both dietary groups with Warfarin produced massive focal calcification of the artery media in the ad libitum-fed rats but no detectable artery calcification in the restricted-diet, growth-inhibited group. Although the explanation for the association between artery calcification and growth status cannot be determined from the present study, there was a relationship between higher serum phosphate and susceptibility to artery calcification, with 30% higher levels of serum phosphate in young, ad libitum-fed rats compared with either of the groups that was resistant to Warfarin-induced artery calcification, ie, the 10-month-old rats and the restricted-diet, growth-inhibited young rats. This observation suggests that increased susceptibility to Warfarin-induced artery calcification could be related to higher serum phosphate levels. The second set of experiments examined the possible synergy between vitamin D and Warfarin in artery calcification. High doses of vitamin D are known to
Scaling symmetry and scalar hairy rotating AdS3 black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Byoungjoon; Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon
2016-01-01
By using the scaling symmetry in the reduced action formalism, we derive the novel Smarr relation which holds even for the hairy rotating AdS3 black holes. Then, by using the Smarr relation we argue that the hairy rotating AdS3 black holes are stable thermodynamically, compared to the nonhairy ones.
Effects of ad placement and type on consumer responses to podcast ads.
Ritter, Eric A; Cho, Chang-Hoan
2009-10-01
The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of podcast ad placement and podcast ad type on consumers' perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, attitude toward the ad, and ad avoidance. Our 2 x 2 (traditional ad vs. sponsorship by beginning vs. middle) experimental study found that sponsorships generated better consumer responses than did traditional ads and that podcast ads placed at the beginning of audio podcasts yielded better consumer responses than those placed in the middle. Implications for marketers and advertisers are discussed. PMID:19817565
LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems
Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan; Tawian Power Co., Taipei; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan )
1989-01-01
Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
AdS perturbations, isometries, selection rules and the Higgs oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evnin, Oleg; Nivesvivat, Rongvoram
2016-01-01
Dynamics of small-amplitude perturbations in the global anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is restricted by selection rules that forbid effective energy transfer between certain sets of normal modes. The selection rules arise algebraically because some integrals of products of AdS mode functions vanish. Here, we reveal the relation of these selection rules to AdS isometries. The formulation we discover through this systematic approach is both simpler and stronger than what has been reported previously. In addition to the selection rule considerations, we develop a number of useful representations for the global AdS mode functions, with connections to algebraic structures of the Higgs oscillator, a superintegrable system describing a particle on a sphere in an inverse cosine-squared potential, where the AdS isometries play the role of a spectrum-generating algebra.
Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states
Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao
2007-06-15
The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.
Toxicological evaluation of potassium sorbate added to cigarette tobacco.
Gaworski, C L; Lemus-Olalde, R; Carmines, E L
2008-01-01
Potassium sorbate (PS) may be incorporated in blended cigarette tobacco either as a mold growth inhibitor in processed tobacco sheet material, or as a preservative in flavor systems or paper adhesives. To evaluate the effect of PS addition, neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and 90-day nose-only rat inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various measured levels of PS (0%, 0.15%, 1.6%, and 3.7%) were performed. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 1000 degrees C, neat PS completely pyrolyzed to form aromatic ring materials including benzene, toluene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene, and substituted naphthalenes. Under machine smoking conditions (FTC/ISO), high levels of PS may alter the burning characteristics of the cigarette leading to decreased puff count, total particulate matter, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, 2-nitropropane, and tobacco specific nitrosamines yields in the smoke, while increasing the yield of nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and some PAHs. Biological studies indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke from cigarettes with or without added PS. Rats exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke developed respiratory tract changes consistent with those seen in previous smoke inhalation studies, with no relevant histopathological differences between the control and the PS test cigarette groups. These studies demonstrated that high levels of PS could alter the burning rate of the tobacco leading to alteration in the smoke chemistry profile. Yet, based on the panel of biological endpoints monitored here, it appeared that added PS produced little relevant change in the overall toxicity profile of smoke. PMID:17905505
On deformations of AdS n × S n supercosets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.
2014-06-01
We study the deformed AdS 5 × S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter κ and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, κ → ∞, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 × S 5, i.e. dS 5 × H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, κ → i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 × S 3 and AdS 2 × S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 × S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 × S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The κ = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n × S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 × S 3 with more than one parameter.
Geometric finiteness, holography and quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Kumar S.; Harikumar, E.; Sen, Siddhartha; Sivakumar, M.
2010-08-01
We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped AdS3 black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped AdS3 black hole.
Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro
2010-01-01
A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, John; Johnson, Miriam
1974-01-01
The Olympus Research Corporation (ORC) made an in-depth study of want ads. It was found the ads did not offer adequate, accurate, or easily obtained information that would make it possible for job seekers to decide whether they are suited to a job, or want it. (Author/BP)
Schvellinger, Martin
2008-07-28
We briefly review one of the current applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence known as AdS/QCD and discuss about the calculation of four-point quark-flavour current correlation functions and their applications to the calculation of observables related to neutral kaon decays and neutral kaon mixing processes.
The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.
1992-01-01
This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.
Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2005-10-07
We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.
Novelle, Marta G; Davis, Ashley; Price, Nathan L; Ali, Ahmed; Fürer-Galvan, Stefanie; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael
2015-04-01
Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition is one of the most consistent strategies for increasing mean and maximal lifespan and delaying the onset of age-associated diseases. Stress resistance is a common trait of many long-lived mutants and life-extending interventions, including CR. Indeed, better protection against heat shock and other genotoxic insults have helped explain the pro-survival properties of CR. In this study, both in vitro and in vivo responses to heat shock were investigated using two different models of CR. Murine B16F10 melanoma cells treated with serum from CR-fed rats showed lower proliferation, increased tolerance to heat shock and enhanced HSP-70 expression, compared to serum from ad libitum-fed animals. Similar effects were observed in B16F10 cells implanted subcutaneously in male C57BL/6 mice subjected to CR. Microarray analysis identified a number of genes and pathways whose expression profile were similar in both models. These results suggest that the use of an in vitro model could be a good alternative to study the mechanisms by which CR exerts its anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:25948793
Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg
2016-09-01
We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.
Mapping AdS to dS spaces and back
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Dato, Adriana; Fröb, Markus B.
2015-03-01
We derive a map between Einstein spaces of positive and negative curvature, including scalar matter. Starting from a space of positive curvature with some dimensions compactified on a sphere and analytically continuing the number of compact dimensions, we obtain a space of negative curvature with a compact hyperbolic subspace, and vice versa. Prime examples of such spaces are de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, as well as black hole spacetimes with (A)dS asymptotics and perturbed versions thereof, which play an important role in holography. This map extends work done by Caldarelli et al., who map asymptotically AdS spaces to Ricci-flat ones. A remarkable result is that the boundary of asymptotically AdS spaces is mapped to a brane in the bulk of de Sitter, and perturbations near the AdS boundary are sourced by a stress tensor confined to this brane. We also calculate the Brown-York stress tensor for the perturbed AdS metric, which turns out to be the negative of the stress tensor on the de Sitter brane. The map can also be used as a solution generator, and we obtain a Kerr/AdS solution with hyperbolic horizon from a known Kerr/dS one.
Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day
... html Middle Schoolers Exposed to Alcohol Ads Every Day: Study Researchers say billboards, signs and TV ads ... kids typically saw two to four ads a day. Hispanic and black kids saw more ads, an ...
Classical worldsheets for string scattering on flat and AdS spacetime
Sommerfield, Charles M.; Thorn, Charles B.
2008-08-15
We present a study of the worldsheets that describe the classical limit of various string scattering processes. Our main focus is on string scattering in AdS spacetime because of its relation via the AdS/CFT (anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory) correspondence to gluon scattering in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. But we also consider analogous processes in flat Minkowski spacetime which we compare to the AdS case. In addition to scattering of string by string we also find and study worldsheets describing the scattering of a string by external sources.
Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence
Klebanov, Igor R.
2008-07-28
This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.
Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.
2016-04-01
We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.
Research of Ad Hoc Networks Access Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Ma
With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. When the ad hoc network is the access network of the internet, the gateway discovery protocol is very important to choose the most appropriate gateway to guarantee the connectivity between ad hoc network and IP based fixed networks. The paper proposes a QoS gateway discovery protocol which uses the time delay and stable route to the gateway selection conditions. And according to the gateway discovery protocol, it also proposes a fast handover scheme which can decrease the handover time and improve the handover efficiency.
Microbial production of value-added nutraceuticals.
Wang, Jian; Guleria, Sanjay; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Yan, Yajun
2016-02-01
Nutraceuticals are important natural bioactive compounds that confer health-promoting and medical benefits to humans. Globally growing demands for value-added nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of human diseases have rendered nutraceuticals a multi-billion dollar market. However, supply limitations and extraction difficulties from natural sources such as plants, animals or fungi, restrict the large-scale use of nutraceuticals. Metabolic engineering via microbial production platforms has been advanced as an eco-friendly alternative approach for production of value-added nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. Microbial platforms like the most widely used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered as versatile cell factories for production of diverse and complex value-added chemicals such as phytochemicals, prebiotics, polysaccaharides and poly amino acids. This review highlights the recent progresses in biological production of value-added nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering approaches. PMID:26716360
Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity
... University of California, Los Angeles. For example, the biological clock measured Hispanic women's "genetic" age as 2. ... and how long they live," he added. The biological clock used in the new study evaluates the ...
FDA Launches Ad Campaign Against Chewing Tobacco
... 158385.html FDA Launches Ad Campaign Against Chewing Tobacco Health officials targeting rural teens with messages about health risks of smokeless tobacco products To use the sharing features on this ...
Junk Food Ads Sway Kids' Preferences
... Kids' Preferences Children under 8 most vulnerable to marketing's effects, study says To use the sharing features ... studies. The researchers found that ads and other marketing for products high in sugar or salt have ...
A guide to gauging ad effectiveness.
Cashill, J
1987-09-01
Techniques that have proven successful in private industry can help hospital executives increase their accountability for advertising expenditures. Among these techniques are: The random telephone survey, which can be used to measure whether the hospital's awareness level among the public has increased as the result of a particular ad; The focus group, which assists the hospital in evaluating how it is perceived in relation to other hospitals in its market; The pretest, to determine which ads to eliminate from a campaign and which ones to refine; Educational seminars and direct-response ads; Reliable baseline data on patients and services for use in comparing figures before and after an ad has been used. Above all, careful planning is required to enable the marketing staff to determine what it wishes to accomplish through advertising and to set measurable goals that reflect its expectations for each component of a campaign. PMID:10283482
Yuzu extract prevents cognitive decline and impaired glucose homeostasis in β-amyloid-infused rats.
Yang, Hye Jeong; Hwang, Jin Taek; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Park, Sunmin
2013-07-01
Our preliminary study revealed that dementia induced by β-amyloid accumulation impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis (unpublished). We therefore evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) extract improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in β-amyloid-induced rats. Male rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of β-amyloid (25-35) [plaque forming β-amyloid; Alzheimer disease (AD)] or β-amyloid (35-25) [non-plaque forming β-amyloid; C (non-Alzheimer disease control)] at a rate of 3.6 nmol/d for 14 d. AD rats were divided into 2 dietary groups that received either 3% lyophilized 70% ethanol extracts of yuzu (AD-Y) or 3% dextrin (AD-C) in high-fat diets (43% energy as fat). The AD-C group exhibited greater hippocampal β-amyloid deposition, which was not detected in the C group, and attenuated hippocampal insulin signaling. Yuzu treatment prevented β-amyloid accumulation, increased tau phosphorylation, and attenuated hippocampal insulin signaling observed in AD-C rats. Consistent with β-amyloid accumulation, the AD-C rats experienced cognitive dysfunction, which was prevented by yuzu. AD-C rats gained less weight than did C rats due to decreased feed consumption, and yuzu treatment prevented the decrease in feed consumption. Serum glucose concentrations were higher in AD-C than in C rats at 40-120 min after glucose loading during an oral-glucose-tolerance test, but not at 0-40 min. Serum insulin concentrations were highly elevated in AD-C rats but not enough to lower serum glucose to normal concentrations, indicating that rats in the AD-C group had insulin resistance and a borderline diabetic state. Although AD-C rats were profoundly insulin resistant, AD-Y rats exhibited normal first and second phases of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and secretion. In conclusion, yuzu treatment prevented the cognitive dysfunction and impaired energy and glucose homeostasis induced by β-amyloid infusion. PMID:23719224
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, Anne; Kaid, Lynda Lee
2002-01-01
Explores the differences in techniques, strategies, narratives, and symbols used in 1,213 television issue ads and image ads from 13 U.S. presidential campaigns. Concludes that although the majority of both types of ads were positive, negative appeals dominated a higher percentage of issue ads as compared with image ads. (SG)
Gao, Dan-Dan; Fu, Jia; Qin, Bo; Huang, Wen-Xiang; Yang, Chun; Jia, Bei
2016-01-01
AIM: To investigate the protective efficacy of recombinant adenovirus containing hyper-interleukin-6 (Hyper-IL-6, HIL-6) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (Ad-HGF-HIL-6) compared to that of recombinant adenovirus containing either HIL-6 or HGF (Ad-HIL-6 or Ad-HGF) in rats with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODS: The recombinant adenoviruses containing HIL-6 and/or HGF were constructed. We established an ACLF model, and rats were randomly assigned to control, model, Ad-GFP, Ad-HIL-6, Ad-HGF or Ad-HGF-HIL-6 group. We collected serum and liver tissue samples to test pathological changes, biochemical indexes and molecular biological indexes. RESULTS: Attenuated alanine aminotransferase, prothrombin time, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), endotoxin, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ were observed in the Ad-HGF-, Ad-HIL-6- and Ad-HGF-HIL-6-treated rats with ACLF. Likewise, reduced hepatic damage and apoptotic activity, as well as reduced HMGB1 and Bax proteins, but raised expression of Ki67 and Bcl-2 proteins and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were also observed in the Ad-HGF-, Ad-HIL-6- and Ad-HGF-HIL-6-treated rats with ACLF. More significant changes were observed in the Ad-HGF-HIL-6 treatment group without obvious side effects. Furthermore, caspase-3 at the protein level decreased in the Ad-HIL-6 and Ad-HGF-HIL-6 treatment groups, more predominantly in the latter group. CONCLUSION: This study identifies that the protective efficacy of Ad-HGF-HIL-6 is more potent than that of Ad-HGF or Ad-HIL-6 in ACLF rats, with no significant side effects. PMID:27122664
Ma, Qiu-Lan; Teter, Bruce; Ubeda, Oliver J; Morihara, Takashi; Dhoot, Dilsher; Nyby, Michael D; Tuck, Michael L; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M
2007-12-26
Environmental and genetic factors, notably ApoE4, contribute to the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Reduced mRNA and protein for an apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor family member, SorLA (LR11) has been found in LOAD but not early-onset AD, suggesting that LR11 loss is not secondary to pathology. LR11 is a neuronal sorting protein that reduces amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking to secretases that generate beta-amyloid (Abeta). Genetic polymorphisms that reduce LR11 expression are associated with increased AD risk. However these polymorphisms account for only a fraction of cases with LR11 deficits, suggesting involvement of environmental factors. Because lipoprotein receptors are typically lipid-regulated, we postulated that LR11 is regulated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 fatty acid related to reduced AD risk and reduced Abeta accumulation. In this study, we report that DHA significantly increases LR11 in multiple systems, including primary rat neurons, aged non-Tg mice and an aged DHA-depleted APPsw AD mouse model. DHA also increased LR11 in a human neuronal line. In vivo elevation of LR11 was also observed with dietary fish oil in young rats with insulin resistance, a model for type II diabetes, another AD risk factor. These data argue that DHA induction of LR11 does not require DHA-depleting diets and is not age dependent. Because reduced LR11 is known to increase Abeta production and may be a significant genetic cause of LOAD, our results indicate that DHA increases in SorLA/LR11 levels may play an important role in preventing LOAD. PMID:18160637
Hadrons in AdS/QCD correspondence
Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan
2009-03-01
We present a holographical soft wall model that is able to reproduce not only Regge spectra for hadrons with arbitrary integer spin, but also with spin 1/2 and 3/2, and with an arbitrary number of constituents. The model includes the anomalous dimension of operators that create hadrons, together with a dilaton, whose form is suggested by Einstein equations and the AdS metric used.
Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katoh, S.
1978-01-01
Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.
CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation of massive arbitrary spin fields in AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metsaev, R. R.
2010-01-01
Using Poincaré parametrization of AdS space, we study massive totally symmetric arbitrary spin fields in AdS space of dimension greater than or equal to four. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation for such fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by using Stueckelberg formulation of massive fields. We demonstrate that the mass parameter, curvature and radial coordinate contributions to the gauge transformation and Lagrangian of the AdS massive fields can be expressed in terms of ladder operators. Three representations for the Lagrangian are discussed. Realization of the global AdS symmetries in the conformal algebra basis is obtained. Modified de Donder gauge leading to simple gauge fixed Lagrangian is found. The modified de Donder gauge leads to decoupled equations of motion which can easily be solved in terms of the Bessel function. New simple representation for gauge invariant Lagrangian of massive (A)dS field in arbitrary coordinates is obtained. Light-cone gauge Lagrangian of massive AdS field is also presented.
AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.
Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J
2014-12-31
Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally. PMID:25615306
Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.
Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David
2016-03-01
Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. PMID:26631601
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kay, Bernard S.; Ortíz, L.
2014-05-01
We discuss the relationship between the bulk-boundary correspondence in Rehren's algebraic holography (and in other `fixed-background', QFT-based, approaches to holography) and in mainstream string-theoretic `Maldacena AdS/CFT'. Especially, we contrast the understanding of black-hole entropy from the point of view of QFT in curved spacetime—in the framework of 't Hooft's `brick wall' model—with the understanding based on Maldacena AdS/CFT. We show that the brick-wall modification of a Klein-Gordon field in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel state on dimensional Schwarzschild AdS has a well-defined boundary limit with the same temperature and entropy as the brick-wall-modified bulk theory. One of our main purposes is to point out a close connection, for general AdS/CFT situations, between the puzzle raised by Arnsdorf and Smolin regarding the relationship between Rehren's algebraic holography and mainstream AdS/CFT and the puzzle embodied in the `complementarity principle' proposed by Mukohyama and Israel in their work on the brick-wall approach to black hole entropy. Working on the assumption that similar results will hold for bulk QFT other than the Klein-Gordon field and for Schwarzschild AdS in other dimensions, and recalling the first author's proposed resolution to the Mukohyama-Israel puzzle based on his `matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis', we argue that, in Maldacena AdS/CFT, the algebra of the boundary CFT is isomorphic only to a proper subalgebra of the bulk algebra, albeit (at non-zero temperature) the (GNS) Hilbert spaces of bulk and boundary theories are still the `same'—the total bulk state being pure, while the boundary state is mixed (thermal). We also argue from the finiteness of its boundary (and hence, on our assumptions, also bulk) entropy at finite temperature, that the Rehren dual of the Maldacena boundary CFT cannot itself be a QFT and must, instead, presumably be something like a string theory.
Ad Hoc Access Gateway Selection Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jie, Liu
With the continuous development of mobile communication technology, Ad Hoc access network has become a hot research, Ad Hoc access network nodes can be used to expand capacity of multi-hop communication range of mobile communication system, even business adjacent to the community, improve edge data rates. For mobile nodes in Ad Hoc network to internet, internet communications in the peer nodes must be achieved through the gateway. Therefore, the key Ad Hoc Access Networks will focus on the discovery gateway, as well as gateway selection in the case of multi-gateway and handover problems between different gateways. This paper considers the mobile node and the gateway, based on the average number of hops from an average access time and the stability of routes, improved gateway selection algorithm were proposed. An improved gateway selection algorithm, which mainly considers the algorithm can improve the access time of Ad Hoc nodes and the continuity of communication between the gateways, were proposed. This can improve the quality of communication across the network.
Black hole microstates in AdS4 from supersymmetric localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benini, Francesco; Hristov, Kiril; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2016-05-01
This paper addresses a long standing problem, the counting of the microstates of supersymmetric asymptotically AdS black holes in terms of a holographically dual field theory. We focus on a class of asymptotically AdS4 static black holes preserving two real supercharges which are dual to a topologically twisted deformation of the ABJM theory. We evaluate in the large N limit the topologically twisted index of the ABJM theory and we show that it correctly reproduces the entropy of the AdS4 black holes. An extremization of the index with respect to a set of chemical potentials is required. We interpret it as the selection of the exact R-symmetry of the superconformal quantum mechanics describing the horizon of the black hole.
QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces
Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.
2014-02-01
The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.
Solutions in bosonic string field theory and higher spin algebras in AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polyakov, Dimitri
2015-11-01
We find a class of analytic solutions in open bosonic string field theory, parametrized by the chiral copy of higher spin algebra in AdS3. The solutions are expressed in terms of the generating function for the products of Bell polynomials in derivatives of bosonic space-time coordinates Xm(z ) of the open string, the form of which is determined in this work. The products of these polynomials form a natural operator algebra realizations of w∞ (area-preserving diffeomorphisms), enveloping algebra of SU(2) and higher spin algebra in AdS3. The class of string field theory solutions found can, in turn, be interpreted as the "enveloping of enveloping," or the enveloping of AdS3 higher spin algebra. We also discuss the extensions of this class of solutions to superstring theory and their relations to higher spin algebras in higher space-time dimensions.
Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.
Analytical study on holographic superfluid in AdS soliton background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chuyu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang; Wang, Yongjiu
2016-06-01
We analytically study the holographic superfluid phase transition in the AdS soliton background by using the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. By investigating the holographic s-wave and p-wave superfluid models in the probe limit, we observe that the spatial component of the gauge field will hinder the phase transition. Moreover, we note that, different from the AdS black hole spacetime, in the AdS soliton background the holographic superfluid phase transition always belongs to the second order and the critical exponent of the system takes the mean-field value in both s-wave and p-wave models. Our analytical results are found to be in good agreement with the numerical findings.
Short-term memory binding is impaired in AD but not in non-AD dementias.
Della Sala, Sergio; Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Abrahams, Sharon
2012-04-01
Binding is a cognitive function responsible for integrating features within complex stimuli (e.g., shape-colour conjunctions) or events within complex memories (e.g., face-name associations). This function operates both in short-term memory (STM) and in long-term memory (LTM) and is severely affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, forming conjunctions in STM is the only binding function which is not affected by healthy ageing or chronic depression. Whether this specificity holds true across other non-AD dementias is as yet unknown. The present study investigated STM conjunctive binding in a sample of AD patients and patients with other non-AD dementias using a task which has proved sensitive to the effects of AD. The STM task assesses the free recall of objects, colours, and the bindings of objects and colours. Patients with AD, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, lewy body dementia and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease showed memory, visuo-spatial, executive and attentional deficits on standard neuropsychological assessment. However, only AD patients showed STM binding deficits. This deficit was observed even when memory for single features was at a similar level across patient groups. Regression and discriminant analyses confirmed that the STM binding task accounted for the largest proportion of variance between AD and non-AD groups and held the greatest classification power to identify patients with AD. STM conjunctive binding places little demands on executive functions and appears to be subserved by components of the memory network which are targeted by AD, but not by non-AD dementias. PMID:22289292
Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Murray, S. S.
2015-04-01
Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments, or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. There are more papers written than ever on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service that provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this paper we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser-known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.
Warped AdS3 , dS3 , and flows from N =(0 ,2 ) SCFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Colgáin, Eoin
2015-05-01
We present the general form of all timelike supersymmetric solutions to three-dimensional U (1 )3 gauged supergravity, a known consistent truncation of string theory. We uncover a rich vacuum structure, including an infinite class of new timelike-warped AdS3 (Gödel) and timelike-warped dS3 critical points. We outline the construction of supersymmetric flows, driven by irrelevant scalar operators in the SCFT, which interpolate between critical points. For flows from AdS3 to Gödel, the natural candidate for the central charge decreases along the flow. Flows to timelike-warped dS3 exhibit topology change.
Value-Added Chemicals from Animal Manure
Chen, Shulin; Liao, Wei; Liu, Chuanbin; Wen, Zhiyou; Kincaid, R L.; Harrison, J H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Brown, Michael D.; Solana, Amy E.; Stevens, Don J.
2003-12-19
The objective of the project proposed by Washington State University (WSU) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to develop technology for the utilization of animal manures as feedstocks to produce value-added products. These included medium-volume commodity chemicals such as glycols or diols and protein-based products such as chemicals or feed supplements. The research focused on two aspects of this approach including the analysis and treatment of the feedstock to produce intermediate chemical precursors and the aqueous phase conversion of these intermediates to chemicals and other value-added products.
Issue ads and the health reform debate.
Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve
2012-06-01
The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness. PMID:22323237
Can overeating induce conditioned taste avoidance in previously food restricted rats?
Hertel, Amanda; Eikelboom, Roelof
2010-03-30
While feeding is rewarding, the feeling of satiation has been theorized to have a mixed affect. Using a food restriction model of overeating we examined whether bingeing was capable of supporting conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on either an ad lib (n=8) or restricted (50% of regular consumption; n=24) food access for 20 days. On Days 9, 14, and 19 all rats were given access to a novel saccharin solution in place of water, and two groups of food restricted rats were given access to either 100% of regular food consumption or ad lib food. Ad lib access in the restricted rats induced significant overeating on all three exposures. After all rats were returned to ad lib feeding, a 24h two-bottle saccharin/water choice test displayed significantly reduced saccharin consumption in the overeating rats, compared to those in the other 3 groups. To determine whether this avoidance was due to a learned association, a second experiment used a latent inhibition paradigm, familiarizing half the rats with the saccharin for 8 days prior to pairing it with overeating. Using the design of Experiment 1, with only the continuously ad lib and the restricted to ad lib feeding groups, it was found that the overeating-induced saccharin avoidance was attenuated by the pre-exposure. These results suggest that self-induced overeating is capable of supporting a learned avoidance of a novel solution suggestive of a conditioned satiety or taste avoidance. PMID:20035776
The effect of adrenomedullin on rats exposed to lead.
Dogru, Mehmet Ilker; Dogru, Arzu Kocagun; Gul, Mehmet; Esrefoglu, Mukaddes; Yurekli, Muhittin; Erdogan, Selim; Ates, Burhan
2008-03-01
Adrenomedullin (AdM) was originally discovered as a vasorelaxant peptide. The antioxidative properties of AdM have been reported recently. Through its antioxidative effect, adrenomedullin can protect organs from damage induced by stressors. Lead, commonly detected in air, soil, water and food, is a major source of oxidative stress. The effect of AdM in the liver of rats exposed to lead was investigated. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group (C), adrenomedullin group (AdM), lead (Pb) group and lead + adrenomedullin (Pb + AdM) group. In the Pb-treated groups, the animals were exposed to lead in drinking water containing 250 ppm PbCl2 for 4 weeks. In the AdM-treated group, the animals received an i.p. injection of AdM (3000 ng kg(-1) body weight) in the third week of lead treatment for 1 week. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in the liver of rats. Histological changes in the liver were examined by light and electron microscopy as well. The MDA levels were increased significantly in the Pb-treated groups, but in the Pb + AdM group the MDA levels were decreased significantly when compared with the Pb group. AdM reduced hepatic damage in the Pb + AdM group, but the difference in the total histopathological scores between the Pb and Pb + AdM groups was not significant. When the results are taken together, it can be concluded that AdM may have protective or compensating effects in lead toxicity. PMID:17503410
Mena, Jesus D.; Sadeghian, Ken; Baldo, Brian A.
2011-01-01
Frontal cortical regions are activated by food-associated stimuli, and this activation appears to be dysregulated in individuals with eating disorders. Nevertheless, frontal control of basic unconditioned feeding responses remains poorly understood. Here we show that hyperphagia can be driven by μ-opioid receptor stimulation in restricted regions of ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex. In both ad libitum-fed and food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats, bilateral infusions of the μ-opioid agonist, DAMGO, markedly increased intake of standard rat chow. When given a choice between palatable fat- versus carbohydrate enriched test diets, intra-vmPFC DAMGO infusions selectively increased carbohydrate intake, even in rats with a baseline fat preference. Rats also exhibited motor hyperactivity characterized by rapid switching between brief bouts of investigatory and ingestive behaviors. Intra-vmPFC DAMGO affected neither water intake nor non-specific oral behavior. Similar DAMGO infusions into neighboring areas of lateral orbital or anterior motor cortex had minimal effects on feeding. Neither stimulation of vmPFC-localized delta-opioid, kappa-opioid, dopaminergic, serotonergic, or noradrenergic receptors, nor antagonism of D1, 5HT1A, or alpha- or beta-adrenoceptors, reproduced the profile of DAMGO effects. Muscimol-mediated inactivation of the vmPFC, and intra-vmPFC stimulation of κ-opioid receptors or blockade of 5HT2A receptors, suppressed motor activity and increased feeding bout duration-a profile opposite to that seen with DAMGO. Hence, μ-opioid-induced hyperphagia and carbohydrate intake can be elicited with remarkable pharmacological and behavioral specificity from discrete subterritories of the frontal cortex. These findings may have implications for understanding affect-driven feeding and loss of restraint in eating disorders. PMID:21368037
Gubser, Steven S.
2006-12-15
The AdS/CFT correspondence and a classical test string approximation are used to calculate the drag force on an external quark moving in a thermal plasma of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This computation is motivated by the phenomenon of jet-quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions.
The AD Nurse: Prepared to be Prepared
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beverly, Lynne; Junker, Mary H.
1977-01-01
It is not enough for the new associate degree (AD) nursing graduate to know the theory and be willing to learn. She must also have some skill in providing basic nursing care. Examples of applicants, both ADNs and BSNs, are described to illustrate the nursing talent necessary to practice sensitively and effectively. (Editor/TA)
Value Added School Review Field Guide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alberta Education, 2009
2009-01-01
The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes described in Alberta…
"Value Added" Proves Beneficial to Teacher Prep
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sawchuk, Stephen
2012-01-01
The use of "value added" information appears poised to expand into the nation's teacher colleges, with more than a dozen states planning to use the technique to analyze how graduates of training programs fare in classrooms. Supporters say the data could help determine which teacher education pathways produce teachers who are at least as…
Gubser, Steven S.
2001-04-15
The radiation-dominated k=0 FRW cosmology emerges as the induced metric on a codimension one hypersurface of constant extrinsic curvature in the five-dimensional AdS-Schwarzschild solution. That we should get FRW cosmology in this way is an expected result from AdS/CFT in light of recent comments regarding the coupling of gravity to ''boundary'' conformal field theories. I remark on how this calculation bears on the understanding of the Randall-Sundrum ''alternative to compactification.'' A generalization of the AdS/CFT prescription for computing Green's functions is suggested, and it is shown how gravity emerges from it with a strength G{sub 4}=2G{sub 5}/L. Some upper bounds are set on the radius of curvature L of AdS{sub 5}. One of them comes from estimating the rate of leakage of visible sector energy into the CFT. That rate is connected via a unitarity relation to deviations from Newton's force law at short distances. The best bound on L obtained in this paper comes from a match to the parameters of string theory. It is L{approx}<1nm if the string scale is 1GeV. Higher string scales imply a tighter bound on L.
Fitting Value-Added Models in R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doran, Harold C.; Lockwood, J. R.
2006-01-01
Value-added models of student achievement have received widespread attention in light of the current test-based accountability movement. These models use longitudinal growth modeling techniques to identify effective schools or teachers based upon the results of changes in student achievement test scores. Given their increasing popularity, this…
Imago Mundi, Imago AD, Imago ADNI
2014-01-01
Since the launch in 2003 of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) in the USA, ever growing, similarly oriented consortia have been organized and assembled around the world. The various accomplishments of ADNI have contributed substantially to a better understanding of the underlying physiopathology of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These accomplishments are basically predicated in the trinity of multimodality, standardization and sharing. This multimodality approach can now better identify those subjects with AD-specific traits that are more likely to present cognitive decline in the near future and that might represent the best candidates for smaller but more efficient therapeutic trials – trials that, through gained and shared knowledge, can be more focused on a specific target or a specific stage of the disease process. In summary, data generated from ADNI have helped elucidate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning aging and AD pathology, while contributing to the international effort in setting the groundwork for biomarker discovery and establishing standards for early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25478022
Adding calcium improves lithium ferrite core
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lessoff, H.
1969-01-01
Adding calcium increases uniformity of grain growth over a wide range of sintering temperatures and reduces porosity within the grain. Ferrite cores containing calcium have square hysteresis loops and high curie temperatures, making them useful in coincident current memories of digital electronic computers.
Agency Presidents Rank Ad Courses, Job Opportunities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marquez, F. T.
1980-01-01
Relates results of a survey of 118 advertising agency presidents: most think college training is useful in an ad agency, job opportunities in advertising are good, internship programs would be helpful to students, and courses in advertising principles and management are especially helpful. (TJ)
Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi
2009-01-01
We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…
Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Chaoli
2009-01-01
Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…
Y-system for form factors at strong coupling in AdS5 and with multi-operator insertions in AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhiquan; Yang, Gang
2013-06-01
We study form factors in {N}=4 SYM at strong coupling in general kinematics and with multi-operator insertions by using gauge/string duality and integrability techniques. This generalizes the AdS3 results of Maldacena and Zhiboedov in two non-trivial aspects. The first generalization to AdS5 space was motivated by its potential connection to strong coupling Higgs-to-three-gluons amplitudes in QCD which was observed recently at weak coupling. The second generalization to multi-operator insertions was motivated as a step towards applying on-shell techniques to compute correlation functions at strong coupling. In this picture, each operator is associated to a monodromy condition on the cusp solutions. We construct Y-systems for both cases. The Y -functions are related to the spacetime (cross) ratios. Their WKB approximations based on a rational function P ( z) are also studied. We focus on the short operators, while the prescription is hopefully also applicable for more general operators.
What's the Value in Value-Added?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffrin, Elizabeth
2011-01-01
As the profession of teaching continues to get more attention given recent events, a growing number of school districts from New York to California are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. The Teacher Incentive Fund has awarded 95 grants since…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amiri-Sharifi, S.; Ali-Akbari, M.; Kishani-Farahani, A.; Shafie, N.
2016-08-01
We exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate thermalization in an N = 2 strongly coupled gauge theory including massless fundamental matter (quark). More precisely, we consider the response of a zero temperature state of the gauge theory under influence of an external electric field which leads to a time-dependent current. The holographic dual of the above set-up is given by introducing a time-dependent electric field on the probe D7-brane embedded in an AdS5 ×S5 background. In the dual gravity theory an apparent horizon forms on the brane which, according to AdS/CFT dictionary, is the counterpart of the thermalization process in the gauge theory side. We classify different functions for time-dependent electric field and study their effect on the apparent horizon formation. In the case of pulse functions, where the electric field varies from zero to zero, apart from non-equilibrium phase, we observe the formation of two separate apparent horizons on the brane. This means that the state of the gauge theory experiences two different temperature regimes during its time evolution.
Cutting Budget Corners While Adding Value.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veile, Craig N.; Carpenter, Mark J.
2000-01-01
Discusses how one school district saved money while adding long- term value to its capital improvement project. Planning issues involving square footage requirements, quality of material to be used, and heating and cooling system selection are discussed as are concepts to increase student learning capacity for the same construction dollars. (GR)
Adding Users to the Website Design Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tomeo, Megan L.
2012-01-01
Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…
"Value Added" Proves Beneficial to Teacher Prep
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sawchuk, Stephen
2012-01-01
The use of "value added" information appears poised to expand into the nation's teacher colleges, with more than a dozen states planning to use the technique to analyze how graduates of training programs fare in classrooms. Supporters say the data could help determine which teacher education pathways produce teachers who are at least as good…
"Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Viadero, Debra
2009-01-01
A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the publishing pipeline…
Value Added to What? How a Ceiling in the Testing Instrument Influences Value-Added Estimation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koedel, Cory; Betts, Julian
2010-01-01
Value-added measures of teacher quality may be sensitive to the quantitative properties of the student tests upon which they are based. This article focuses on the sensitivity of value added to test score ceiling effects. Test score ceilings are increasingly common in testing instruments across the country as education policy continues to…
String in AdS black hole: A thermo field dynamic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dáfni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz
2012-10-01
Based on Maldacena’s description of an eternal anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole, we reassess the thermo field dynamics (TFD) formalism in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The model studied here involves the maximally extended AdS-Schwarschild solution and two (noninteracting) copies of the conformal field theory (CFT) associated to the global AdS spacetime, along with an extension of the string by imposing natural gluing conditions in the horizon. We show that the gluing conditions in the horizon define a string boundary state which is identified with the TFD thermal vacuum, globally defined in the Kruskal extension of the AdS black hole. We emphasize the connection of this picture with unitary SU(1,1) TFD formulation, and we show that information about the bulk and the conformal boundary is present in the SU(1,1) parameters. Using the unitary SU(1,1) TFD formulation, a canonical prescription for calculating the world sheet real time thermal Green’s function is made, and the entropy associated with the entanglement of the two CFT’s is calculated.
Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Portnoy, Felix
2012-01-01
This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…
Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, En-Hua
In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile
Hairy black holes in AdS5 × S 5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markeviciute, Julija; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-06-01
We use numerical methods to exhaustively study a novel family of hairy black hole solutions in AdS5. These solutions can be uplifted to solutions of type IIB supergravity with AdS5 × S 5 asymptotics and are thus expected to play an important role in our understanding of AdS/CFT. We find an intricate phase diagram, with the aforementioned family of hairy black hole solutions branching from the Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of the superradiance instability. We analyse black holes with spherical and planar horizon topology and explain how they connect in the phase diagram. Finally, we detail their global and local thermodynamic stability across several ensembles.
Effect of phosphatidylserine on memory in patients and rats with Alzheimer's disease.
Zhang, Y Y; Yang, L Q; Guo, L M
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phosphatidylserine (PS) on memory of patients and rats with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In total, 57 AD patients were recruited from our hospital, and were divided into two groups: 25 in the control group and 32 in the observation group. Next, 300 mg/d of PS was given to the rats in the observation group for 12 continuous weeks based on the control group. AD rats were divided into three groups: control group, PS 30 mg/kg group, and PS 15 mg/kg group. Learning memory ability and free radical levels in the brain were detected after treatment. In AD patients, vocabulary and picture matching scores in the two treatment groups increased after treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, the scores in the treated group were significantly greater than the control group (P < 0.05). In AD rats, PS treatment reduced the escape latent period of AD rats, increased SOD and OH(-), and decreased acetylcholinesterase levels (P < 0.05). Compared with PS 15 mg/kg, PS 30 mg/kg group was significantly more efficacious (P < 0.05). Compared with the AD model group, hippocampal cells showed normal arrangement, karyopyknosis decreased, and the pathological changes in the two PS groups were considerable. In conclusion, PS decreased cholinesterase, improved memory, and improved hippocampal inflammation injury in AD brains by increasing SOD and OH(-) levels. PMID:26345866
Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan
2010-04-15
The AdS/CFT correspondence defines a sector with universal strongly coupled dynamics in the field theory as the dual of pure gravity in AdS described by Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant. We explain here, from the field-theoretic viewpoint how the dynamics in this sector gets determined by the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We first show that the Boltzmann equation has very special solutions which could be functionally completely determined in terms of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We call these solutions conservative solutions. We indicate why conservative solutions should also exist when we refine this kinetic description to go closer to the exact microscopic theory or even move away from the regime of weak coupling so that no kinetic description could be employed. We argue that these conservative solutions form the universal sector dual to pure gravity at strong coupling and large N. Based on this observation, we propose a regularity condition on the energy-momentum tensor so that the dual solution in pure gravity has a smooth future horizon. We also study if irreversibility emerges only at long time scales of observation, unlike the case of the Boltzmann equation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strong, Gary E.
1987-01-01
Examples of problems encountered in a new library building--including rats and humidity--and a description of the library's collections provide a framework for this presentation of the California State Library's emergency management planning. Current preservation efforts are documented and the library's disaster and security plans are described.…
Holographic Rényi entropy in AdS3/LCFT2 correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Song, Feng-yan; Zhang, Jia-ju
2014-03-01
The recent study in AdS3/CFT2 correspondence shows that the tree level contribution and 1-loop correction of holographic Rényi entanglement entropy (HRE) exactly match the direct CFT computation in the large central charge limit. This allows the Rényi entanglement entropy to be a new window to study the AdS/CFT correspondence. In this paper we generalize the study of Rényi entanglement entropy in pure AdS3 gravity to the massive gravity theories at the critical points. For the cosmological topological massive gravity (CTMG), the dual conformal field theory (CFT) could be a chiral conformal field theory or a logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT), depending on the asymptotic boundary conditions imposed. In both cases, by studying the short interval expansion of the Rényi entanglement entropy of two disjoint intervals with small cross ratio x, we find that the classical and 1-loop HRE are in exact match with the CFT results, up to order x 6. To this order, the difference between the massless graviton and logarithmic mode can be seen clearly. Moreover, for the cosmological new massive gravity (CNMG) at critical point, which could be dual to a logarithmic CFT as well, we find the similar agreement in the CNMG/LCFT correspondence. Furthermore we read the 2-loop correction of graviton and logarithmic mode to HRE from CFT computation. It has distinct feature from the one in pure AdS3 gravity.
Euclidean Wilson loops and minimal area surfaces in lorentzian AdS 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irrgang, Andrew; Kruczenski, Martin
2015-12-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence relates Wilson loops in N=4 SYM theory to minimal area surfaces in AdS 5 × S 5 space. If the Wilson loop is Euclidean and confined to a plane ( t, x) then the dual surface is Euclidean and lives in Lorentzian AdS 3 ⊂ AdS 5. In this paper we study such minimal area surfaces generalizing previous results obtained in the Euclidean case. Since the surfaces we consider have the topology of a disk, the holonomy of the flat current vanishes which is equivalent to the condition that a certain boundary Schrödinger equation has all its solutions anti-periodic. If the potential for that Schrödinger equation is found then reconstructing the surface and finding the area become simpler. In particular we write a formula for the Area in terms of the Schwarzian derivative of the contour. Finally an infinite parameter family of analytical solutions using Riemann Theta functions is described. In this case, both the area and the shape of the surface are given analytically and used to check the previous results.
Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities
Agarwal, Deborah A.; Berket, Karlo
2003-07-14
Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.
AdOpt@TNG control system software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruffolo, Andrea; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo
1998-09-01
AdOptTNG is the Adaptive Optics Module for the Galileo National telescope (TNG). At first light this module will feature tip-tilt correction capabilities and a speckle interferometry facility. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the AdOptTNG Control System Software. The system is composed by a real-time part and a graphical user interface. The real-time software computes the required corrections, drives the tip-tilt mirror and function. The user interface has been written in IDL, using the IDL Widget set, taking advantage of its powerful data manipulation and analysis capabilities for data presentation and diagnostics. The integration of all these components into the TNG Control System Software, in order to allow for remote control and data archiving, is also briefly described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fini, Luca; Puglisi, Alfio; Riccardi, Armando
2004-09-01
The LBT-AdOpt subsystem is a complex machine which includes several software controlled parts. It is essentially divided into two parts: a real-time loop which implements the actual adaptive optics control loop, from the wavefront sensor to the deformable secondary mirror, and a supervisor which performs a number of coordination and diagnostics tasks. The coordination and diagnostics task are essential for the proper operation of the system both as an aid for the preparation of observations and because only a continuous monitoring of dynamic system parameters can guarantee optimal performances and system safety during the operation. In the paper we describe the overall software architecture of the LBT-AdOpt supervisor and we discuss the functionalities required for a proper operation.
Sil, Susmita; Ghosh, Arijit; Ghosh, Tusharkanti
2016-09-01
The neurodegeneration in AD patients may be associated with changes of peripheral immune responses. Some peripheral immune responses are altered due to neuroinflammation in colchicine induced AD (cAD) rats. The leaky blood brain barrier (BBB) in cAD-rats may be involved in inducing peripheral inflammation, though there is no report in this regard. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of BBB in cADrats by altering the BBB in a time dependent manner with injection (i.v.) of mannitol (BBB opener). The inflammatory markers in the brain and serum along with the peripheral immune responses were measured after 30 and 60min of mannitol injection in cAD rats. The results showed higher inflammatory markers in the hippocampus and serum along with alterations in peripheral immune parameters in cAD rats. Although the hippocampal inflammatory markers did not further change after mannitol injection in cAD rats, the serum inflammatory markers and peripheral immune responses were altered and these changes were greater after 60min than that of 30min of mannitol injection. The present study shows that the peripheral immune responses in cAD rats after 30 and 60min of mannitol injection are related to magnitude of impairment of BBB in these conditions. It can be concluded from this study that impairment of BBB in cAD rats is related to the changes of peripheral immune responses observed in that condition. PMID:27288705
Adding coal dust to coal batch
V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin
2009-05-15
The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.
Hydrogen added after-burner system
Kanada, Youji; Hayasi, Masaharu; Akaki, Motonobu; Tsuchikawa, Shunzou; Isomura, Akihito
1996-09-01
The authors developed a hydrogen-added afterburner system for a new catalyst heating system, which realized large reduction of emissions during start-up at low temperatures when hydrocarbon (HC) emission was rather high. Key development items of this system are a water electrolysis type small size on-board hydrogen supply unit and an engine matching technique for the verification of emission reduction effects.
ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product
Jensen, Michael
2012-09-28
The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.
Merged Sounding Value-Added Product
Troyan, D
2010-03-03
The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.
Routing Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pervaiz, Mohammad O.; Cardei, Mihaela; Wu, Jie
Wireless networks provide rapid, untethered access to information and computing, eliminating the barriers of distance, time, and location for many applications ranging from collaborative, distributed mobile computing to disaster recovery (such as fire, flood, earthquake), law enforcement (crowd control, search, and rescue), and military communications (command, control, surveillance, and reconnaissance). An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration [11
Drag cancellation by added-mass pumping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giorgio-Serchi, F.; Weymouth, G. D.
2016-07-01
A submerged body subject to a sudden shape-change experiences large forces due to the variation of added-mass energy. While this phenomenon has been studied for single actuation events, application to sustained propulsion requires studying \\textit{periodic} shape-change. We do so in this work by investigating a spring-mass oscillator submerged in quiescent fluid subject to periodic changes in its volume. We develop an analytical model to investigate the relationship between added-mass variation and viscous damping and demonstrate its range of application with fully coupled fluid-solid Navier-Stokes simulations at large Stokes number. Our results demonstrate that the recovery of added-mass kinetic energy can be used to completely cancel the viscous damping of the fluid, driving the onset of sustained oscillations with amplitudes as large as four times the average body radius $r_0$. A quasi-linear relationship is found to link the terminal amplitude of the oscillations $X$, to the extent of size change $a$, with $X/a$ peaking at values from 4 to 4.75 depending on the details of the shape-change kinematics. In addition, it is found that pumping in the frequency range of $1-\\frac{a}{2r_0}<\\omega^2/\\omega_n^2<1+\\frac{a}{2r_0}$ is required for sustained oscillations. The results of this analysis shed light on the role of added-mass recovery in the context of shape-changing bodies and biologically-inspired underwater vehicles.
LINAC for ADS application - accelerator technologies
Garnett, Robert W; Sheffreld, Richard L
2009-01-01
Sifnificant high-current, high-intensity accelerator research and development have been done in the recent past in the US, centered primarily at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These efforts have included designs for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, and Accelerator Driven Systems, as well as many others. This past work and some specific design principles that were developed to optimie linac designs for ADS and other high-intensity applications will be discussed briefly.
Effect of 5-lipoxygenase on the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats.
Jones, John E; Walker, Jennifer L; Song, Yanli; Weiss, Norbert; Cardoso, Wellington V; Tuder, Rubin M; Loscalzo, Joseph; Zhang, Ying-Yi
2004-05-01
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) and its downstream leukotriene products have been implicated in the development of pulmonary hypertension. In this study, we examined the effects of 5-LO overexpression in rat lungs on pulmonary hypertension using a recombinant adenovirus expressing 5-LO (Ad5-LO). Transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization data showed that 5-LO overexpression in the lung did not cause pulmonary hypertension in normal rats; however, it markedly accelerated the progression of pulmonary hypertension in rats treated with monocrotaline (MCT). An increase in pulmonary artery pressure occurred earlier in the rats treated with MCT + Ad5-LO (7-10 days) compared with those treated with control vector, MCT + adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (AdGFP), or MCT alone (15-18 days). The weight ratio of the right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum was higher in the MCT + Ad5-LO group than that of the MCT + AdGFP or MCT group (0.45 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.35 +/- 0.03 or 0.33 +/- 0.06). Lung tissue histological sections from MCT + Ad5-LO rats exhibited more severe inflammatory cell infiltration and pulmonary vascular muscularization than those from MCT + AdGFP- or MCT-treated rats. Administration of 5-LO inhibitors, zileuton or MK-886, to either MCT- or MCT + Ad5-LO-treated rats prevented the development of pulmonary hypertension. These data suggest that 5-LO plays a critical role in the progression of pulmonary hypertension in rats and that the detrimental effect of 5-LO is manifest only in the setting of pulmonary vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. PMID:14726295
Entangled photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando
2016-08-01
We study the degree of entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of m, n photon-added coherent states (PACS) {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ u {|{{α },m}rangle }{|{{β },n }rangle }+ v {|{{β },n}rangle }{|{{α },m}rangle } using the concurrence and obtain the general conditions for maximal entanglement. We show that photon addition process can be identified as an entanglement enhancer operation for superpositions of coherent states (SCS). Specifically for the known bipartite positive SCS: {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ {|{α }rangle }_a{|{-α }rangle }_b + {|{-α }rangle }_a{|{α }rangle }_b whose entanglement tends to zero for α → 0, can be maximal if al least one photon is added in a subsystem. A full family of maximally entangled PACS is also presented. We also analyzed the decoherence effects in the entangled PACS induced by a simple depolarizing channel . We find that robustness against depolarization is increased by adding photons to the coherent states of the superposition. We obtain the dependence of the critical depolarization p_{ {crit}} for null entanglement as a function of m,n, α and β.
ADS: The Next Generation Search Platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Chyla, R.; Luker, J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Holachek, A.; Dave, R.; Murray, S. S.
2015-04-01
Four years after the last LISA meeting, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) finds itself in the middle of major changes to the infrastructure and contents of its database. In this paper we highlight a number of features of great importance to librarians and discuss the additional functionality that we are currently developing. Our citation coverage has doubled since 2010 and now consists of over 10 million citations. We are normalizing the affiliation information in our records and we have started collecting and linking funding sources with papers in our system. At the same time, we are undergoing major technology changes in the ADS platform. We have rolled out and are now enhancing a new high-performance search engine capable of performing full-text as well as metadata searches using an intuitive query language. We are currently able to index acknowledgments, affiliations, citations, and funding sources. While this effort is still ongoing, some of its benefits are already available through the ADS Labs user interface and API at http://adslabs.org/adsabs/.
Entangled photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando
2016-05-01
We study the degree of entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of m, n photon-added coherent states (PACS) {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ u {|{{α },m}rangle }{|{{β },n }rangle }+ v {|{{β },n}rangle }{|{{α },m}rangle } using the concurrence and obtain the general conditions for maximal entanglement. We show that photon addition process can be identified as an entanglement enhancer operation for superpositions of coherent states (SCS). Specifically for the known bipartite positive SCS: {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ {|{α }rangle }_a{|{-α }rangle }_b + {|{-α }rangle }_a{|{α }rangle }_b whose entanglement tends to zero for α → 0 , can be maximal if al least one photon is added in a subsystem. A full family of maximally entangled PACS is also presented. We also analyzed the decoherence effects in the entangled PACS induced by a simple depolarizing channel . We find that robustness against depolarization is increased by adding photons to the coherent states of the superposition. We obtain the dependence of the critical depolarization p_{crit} for null entanglement as a function of m,n, α and β.
Conformal mass in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jatkar, Dileep P.; Kofinas, Georgios; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2015-05-01
In this paper, we show that the physical information given by conserved charges for asymptotically AdS spacetimes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity is encoded in the electric part of the Weyl tensor. This result generalizes the conformal mass definition by Ashtekar-Magnon-Das (AMD) to a gravity theory with a Gauss-Bonnet term. This proof makes use of the Noether charges obtained from an action renormalized by the addition of counterterms which depend on the extrinsic curvature (Kounterterms). If the asymptotic fall-off behavior of the Weyl tensor is same as the one considered in the AMD method, then the Kounterterm charges and the AMD charges agree in any dimension.
The spectrum of strings on warped AdS3 × S3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Hofman, Diego M.; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2013-04-01
String theory on NS-NS AdS3 × S3 admits an exactly marginal deformation which breaks the {{overline{{SL( {2,{R}} )}}}_R} × SL(2, {R} ) L isometry of AdS3 down to {{overline{{SL( {2,{R}} )}}}_R} × U(1) L . The holographic dual is an exotic and only partially understood type of two-dimensional CFT with a reduced unbroken global conformal symmetry group. In this paper we study the deformed theory on the string worldsheet. It is found to be related by a spectral flow which is nonlocal in spacetime to the undeformed worldsheet theory. An exact formula for the spectrum of massive strings is presented.
Stability of warped AdS3 black holes in topologically massive gravity under scalar perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Hugo R. C.
2013-06-01
We demonstrate that the warped AdS3 black hole solutions of topologically massive gravity are classically stable against massive scalar field perturbations by analyzing the quasinormal and bound state modes of the scalar field. In particular, it is found that although classical superradiance is present it does not give rise to superradiant instabilities. The stability is shown to persist even when the black hole is enclosed by a stationary mirror with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This is a surprising result in view of the similarity between the causal structure of the warped AdS3 black hole and the Kerr spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. This work provides the foundations for the study of quantum field theory in this spacetime.
Stability and thermodynamics of AdS black holes with scalar hair
Hertog, Thomas; Maeda, Kengo
2005-01-15
Recently a class of static spherical black hole solutions with scalar hair was found in four and five dimensional gauged supergravity with modified, but anti-de Sitter (AdS) invariant boundary conditions. These black holes are fully specified by a single conserved charge, namely, their mass, which acquires a contribution from the scalar field. Here we report on a more detailed study of some of the properties of these solutions. A thermodynamic analysis shows that in the canonical ensemble the standard Schwarzschild-AdS black hole is stable against decay into a hairy black hole. We also study the stability of the hairy black holes and find there always exists an unstable radial fluctuation, in both four and five dimensions. We argue, however, that Schwarzschild-AdS is probably not the end state of evolution under this instability.
Witten diagrams revisited: the AdS geometry of conformal blocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River
2016-01-01
We develop a new method for decomposing Witten diagrams into conformal blocks. The steps involved are elementary, requiring no explicit integration, and operate directly in position space. Central to this construction is an appealingly simple answer to the question: what object in AdS computes a conformal block? The answer is a "geodesic Witten diagram", which is essentially an ordinary exchange Witten diagram, except that the cubic vertices are not integrated over all of AdS, but only over bulk geodesics connecting the boundary operators. In particular, we consider the case of four-point functions of scalar operators, and show how to easily reproduce existing results for the relevant conformal blocks in arbitrary dimension.
Localization in supergravity and quantum AdS 4 /CFT3 holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabholkar, Atish; Drukker, Nadav; Gomes, João
2014-10-01
We compute the quantum gravity partition function of M-theory on AdS 4 × X 7 by using localization techniques in four-dimensional gauged supergravity obtained by a consistent truncation on the Sasaki-Einstein manifold X 7. The supergravity path integral reduces to a finite dimensional integral over two collective coordinates that parametrize the localizing instanton solutions. The renormalized action of the off-shell instanton solutions depends linearly and holomorphically on the "square root" prepotential evaluated at the center of AdS 4. The partition function resembles the Laplace transform of the wave function of a topological string and with an assumption about the measure for the localization integral yields an Airy function in precise agreement with the computation from the boundary ABJM theory on a 3-sphere. Our bulk quantum gravity computation is nonperturbatively exact in four-dimensional Planck length but ignores corrections due to brane-instantons.
Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Vanhoof, Joris
2015-01-01
We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.
On holomorphic factorization in asymptotically AdS 3D gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnov, Kirill
2003-09-01
This paper studies aspects of 'holography' for Euclidean signature pure gravity on asymptotically AdS 3-manifolds. This theory can be described as SL(2, Bbb C) CS theory. However, not all configurations of CS theory correspond to asymptotically AdS 3-manifolds. We show that configurations that do have the metric interpretation are parametrized by the so-called projective structures on the boundary. The corresponding asymptotic phase space is shown to be the cotangent bundle over the Schottky space of the boundary. This singles out a 'gravitational' sector of the SL(2, Bbb C) CS theory. It is over this sector that the path integral has to be taken to obtain the gravity partition function. We sketch an argument for holomorphic factorization of this partition function.
Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asplund, Curtis T.; Denef, Frederik; Dzienkowski, Eric
2016-01-01
We present a new class of N=4 supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can be obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.
Symmetry operators of Killing spinors and superalgebras in AdS5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ertem, Ümit
2016-04-01
We construct the first-order symmetry operators of Killing spinor equation in terms of odd Killing-Yano forms. By modifying the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of Killing-Yano forms, we show that the symmetry operators of Killing spinors close into an algebra in AdS5 spacetime. Since the symmetry operator algebra of Killing spinors corresponds to a Jacobi identity in extended Killing superalgebras, we investigate the possible extensions of Killing superalgebras to include higher-degree Killing-Yano forms. We found that there is a superalgebra extension but no Lie superalgebra extension of the Killing superalgebra constructed out of Killing spinors and odd Killing-Yano forms in AdS5 background.
Static strings in global AdS space and quark-antiquark potential
Bayona, C. A. Ballon; Ferreira, Cristine N.
2008-07-15
We investigate the finite temperature quark antiquark problem in a compact space S{sup n-1}xS{sup 1} by considering static strings in global AdS{sub n+1} space with n{>=}3. For high temperatures we work in the black hole metric where two possible solutions show up : the big black hole and the small black hole. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we calculate the quark antiquark potential (free energy) as a function of the distance. We show that this potential can be intrepeted as confining for the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and deconfining for the big black hole. We find for the small black hole a confining limit for the potential but this solution is instable following the Hawking-Page criteria. Our results for the free energy reinforce the Witten interpretation of the confinement/deconfinement transition as the dual of the well-known Hawking-Page transition.
A Jordanian deformation of AdS space in type IIB supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawaguchi, Io; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2014-06-01
We consider a Jordanian deformation of the AdS5×S5 superstring action by taking a simple R-operator which satisfies the classical Yang-Baxter equation. The metric and NS-NS two-form are explicitly derived with a coordinate system. Only the AdS part is deformed and the resulting geometry contains the 3D Schrödinger spacetime as a subspace. Then we present the full solution in type IIB supergravity by determining the other field components. In particular, the dilaton is constant and a R-R three-form field strength is turned on. The symmetry of the solution is [SL(2 , ) × U(1)2] × [SU(3) × U(1)] and contains an anisotropic scale symmetry.
Beneficial effects of melatonin in a rat model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.
Rudnitskaya, Ekaterina A; Maksimova, Kseniya Yi; Muraleva, Natalia A; Logvinov, Sergey V; Yanshole, Lyudmila V; Kolosova, Nataliya G; Stefanova, Natalia A
2015-06-01
Melatonin synthesis is disordered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To determine the role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of AD, suitable animal models are needed. The OXYS rats are an experimental model of accelerated senescence that has also been proposed as a spontaneous rat model of AD-like pathology. In the present study, we demonstrate that disturbances in melatonin secretion occur in OXYS rats at 4 months of age. These disturbances occur simultaneously with manifestation of behavioral abnormalities against the background of neurodegeneration and alterations in hormonal status but before the signs of amyloid-β accumulation. We examined whether oral administration of melatonin could normalize the melatonin secretion and have beneficial effects on OXYS rats before progression to AD-like pathology. The results showed that melatonin treatment restored melatonin secretion in the pineal gland of OXYS rats as well as the serum levels of growth hormone and IGF-1, the level of BDNF in the hippocampus and the healthy state of hippocampal neurons. Additionally, melatonin treatment of OXYS rats prevented an increase in anxiety and the decline of locomotor activity, of exploratory activity, and of reference memory. Thus, melatonin may be involved in AD progression, whereas oral administration of melatonin could be a prophylactic strategy to prevent or slow down the progression of some features of AD pathology. PMID:25515660
Charged and rotating AdS black holes and their CFT duals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.
2000-01-01
Black hole solutions that are asymptotic to AdS5×S5 or AdS4×S7 can rotate in two different ways. If the internal sphere rotates, then one can obtain a Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole. If the asymptotically AdS space rotates, then one can obtain a Kerr-AdS hole. One might expect superradiant scattering to be possible in either of these cases. Superradiant modes reflected off the potential barrier outside the hole would be reamplified at the horizon, and a classical instability would result. We point out that the existence of a Killing vector field timelike everywhere outside the horizon prevents this from occurring for black holes with negative action. Such black holes are also thermodynamically stable in the grand canonical ensemble. The CFT duals of these black holes correspond to a theory in an Einstein universe with a chemical potential and a theory in a rotating Einstein universe. We study these CFTs in the zero coupling limit. In the first case, Bose-Einstein condensation occurs on the boundary at a critical value of the chemical potential. However, the supergravity calculation demonstrates that this is not to be expected at strong coupling. In the second case, we investigate the limit in which the angular velocity of the Einstein universe approaches the speed of light at finite temperature. This is a new limit in which to compare the CFT at strong and weak coupling. We find that the free CFT partition function and supergravity action have the same type of divergence but the usual factor of 4/3 is modified at finite temperature.
Supergravity background of λ-deformed model for AdS2 × S2 supercoset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borsato, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.; Wulff, L.
2016-04-01
Starting with the F ˆ / G supercoset model corresponding to the AdSn ×Sn superstring one can define the λ-model of arxiv:arXiv:1409.1538 either as a deformation of the F ˆ / F ˆ gauged WZW model or as an integrable one-parameter generalisation of the non-abelian T-dual of the AdSn ×Sn superstring sigma model with respect to the whole supergroup F ˆ . Here we consider the case of n = 2 and find the explicit form of the 4d target space background for the λ-model for the PSU (1 , 1 | 2) / SO (1 , 1) × SO (2) supercoset. We show that this background represents a solution of type IIB 10d supergravity compactified on a 6-torus with only metric, dilaton Φ and the RR 5-form (represented by a 2-form F in 4d) being non-trivial. This implies that the λ-model is Weyl invariant at the quantum level and thus defines a consistent superstring sigma model. The supergravity solution we find is different from the one in arXiv:1410.1886 which should correspond to a version of the λ-model where only the bosonic subgroup of F ˆ is gauged. Still, the two solutions have equivalent scaling limit of arxiv:arXiv:1504.07213 leading to the isometric background for the metric and eΦ F which is related to the η-deformed AdS2 ×S2 sigma model of arXiv:1309.5850. Similar results are expected in the AdS3 ×S3 and AdS5 ×S5 cases.
Two Visual-Spectroscopic Binary Orbits - ADS7780 and ADS11060
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heintz, W. D.
1982-08-01
The combination of micrometer and radial-velocity observations is applied to two orbits of high eccentricities and inclinations. All results on the G1 V triple star ADS 11060 (including the subsystem studied by Batten et al.) show good consistency and precision. Substantial uncertainty remains in the component masses of ADS 7780 = β LMi (G9 III) which could be also a triple star.
Yangian of AdS3 / CFT2 and its deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regelskis, Vidas
2016-08-01
We construct highest-weight modules and a Yangian extension of the centrally extended sl(1 | 1) 2 superalgebra, that is a symmetry of the worldsheet scattering associated with the AdS3 / CFT2 duality. We demonstrate that the R-matrix intertwining atypical modules has an elegant trigonometric parametrization. We also consider a quantum deformation of this superalgebra, its modules, and obtain a quantum affine extension of the Drinfeld-Jimbo type that describes a deformed worldsheet scattering.
D-brane on deformed AdS 3 × S 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khouchen, Malak; Klusoň, Josef
2015-08-01
We study D1-brane in AdS 3 × S 3 κ-deformed background with non-trivial dilaton and Ramond-Ramond fields. We consider purely time-dependent and spatially-dependent ansatz where we study the solutions of the equations of motion for D1-brane in given background. We find that the behavior of these solutions crucially depends on the value of the parameter a that was introduced in [7].
Gaugings of four-dimensional N =3 supergravity and AdS4/CFT3 holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karndumri, Parinya; Upathambhakul, Khem
2016-06-01
We study matter-coupled N =3 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with various semisimple gauge groups. When coupled to n vector multiplets, the gauged supergravity contains 3 +n vector fields and 3 n complex scalars parametrized by S U (3 ,n )/S U (3 )×S U (n )×U (1 ) coset manifold. Semisimple gauge groups take the form of G0×H ⊂S O (3 ,n )⊂S U (3 ,n ) with H being a compact subgroup of S O (n +3 -dim (G0)). The G0 groups considered in this paper are of the form S O (3 ), S O (3 ,1 ), S O (2 ,2 ), S L (3 ,R ) and S O (2 ,1 )×S O (2 ,2 ). We find that S O (3 )×S O (3 ), S O (3 ,1 ) and S L (3 ,R ) gauge groups admit a maximally supersymmetric AdS4 critical point. The S O (2 ,1 )×S O (2 ,2 ) gauge group admits a supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum while the remaining gauge groups admit both half-supersymmetric domain wall vacua and AdS4 vacua with completely broken supersymmetry. For the S O (3 )×S O (3 ) gauge group, there exists another supersymmetric N =3 AdS4 critical point with S O (3 )diag symmetry. We explicitly give a detailed study of various holographic RG flows between AdS4 critical points, flows to nonconformal theories, and supersymmetric domain walls in each gauge group. The results provide gravity duals of N =3 Chern-Simons-matter theories in three dimensions.
Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5
Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan
2007-07-24
We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.
Superradiance and instability of small rotating charged AdS black holes in all dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliev, Alikram N.
2016-02-01
Rotating small AdS black holes exhibit the superradiant instability to low-frequency scalar perturbations, which is amenable to a complete analytic description in four dimensions. In this paper, we extend this description to all higher dimensions, focusing on slowly rotating charged AdS black holes with a single angular momentum. We divide the spacetime of these black holes into the near-horizon and far regions and find solutions to the scalar wave equation in each of these regions. Next, we perform the matching of these solutions in the overlap between the regions, by employing the idea that the orbital quantum number ℓ can be thought of as an approximate integer. Thus, we obtain the complete low-frequency solution that allows us to calculate the complex frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, whose imaginary part is determined by a small damping parameter. Finally, we find a remarkably instructive expression for the damping parameter, which appears to be a complex quantity in general. We show that the real part of the damping parameter can be used to give a universal analytic description of the superradiant instability for slowly rotating charged AdS black holes in all spacetime dimensions.
First order semiclassical thermal string in the AdS spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belich, Humberto; da Graça, Edison Luiz; dos Santos, Marco Antonio; Vasile Vancea, Ion
2007-02-01
We formulate the finite temperature theory for the free thermal excitations of the bosonic string in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime in the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) approach. The spacetime metric is treated exactly while the string and the thermal reservoir are semiclassically quantized at the first order perturbation theory with respect to the dimensionless parameter epsilon = α'H-2. In the conformal D = 2+1 black-hole AdS background the quantization is exact. The method can be extended to the arbitrary AdS spacetime only in the first order perturbation. This approximation is taken in the center of mass reference frame and it is justified by the fact that at the first order the string dynamics is determined only by the interaction between the free string oscillation modes and the exact background. The first order thermal string is obtained by thermalization of the T = 0 system carried on by the TFD Bogoliubov operator. We determine the free thermal string states and compute the local entropy and free energy in the center of mass reference frame.
On elliptic string solutions in AdS3 and dS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakas, Ioannis; Pastras, Georgios
2016-07-01
Classical string actions in AdS3 and dS3 can be connected to the sinh-Gordon and cosh-Gordon equations through Pohlmeyer reduction. We show that the problem of constructing a classical string solution with a given static or translationally invariant Pohlmeyer counterpart is equivalent to solving four pairs of effective Schrödinger problems. Each pair consists of a flat potential and an n = 1 Lamé potential whose eigenvalues are connected, and, additionally, the four solutions satisfy a set of constraints. An approach for solving this system is developed by employing an interesting connection between the specific class of classical string solutions and the band structure of the Lamé potential. This method is used for the construction of several families of classical string solutions, one of which turns out to be the spiky strings in AdS3. New solutions include circular rotating strings in AdS3 with singular time evolution of their radius and angular velocity as well as classical string solutions in dS3.
Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the rat endometrium.
Martinez, Marcelo; Milton, Flora A; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Almeida-Francia, Camila C D; Cagnon-Quitete, Valeria H A; Tirapelli, Luiz F; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo
2016-05-01
We described the effects of low- and high-dose ethanol intake on the structure and apoptosis signaling of the uterine endometrium of UChA and UChB rats (animals with voluntary ethanol consumption). Thirty adult female rats, 90 days old, were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): UChA rats fed with 10% (v/v) ethanol ad libitum (free choice for water or ethanol) drinking < 1.9 g/kg/day; UChB rats fed with 10% (v/v) ethanol ad libitum (free choice for water or ethanol) drinking from 2 to 5 g/kg/day; control rats without ethanol (only water). After 120 days of treatment, rats displaying estrus were euthanized. Uterine epithelial cells of the UCh rats showed dilated cisterns of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, presence of lipid droplets, altered nuclear chromatin, and disrupted mitochondria. The UCh rats exhibited intense atrophied epithelial cells with smaller areas and perimeters of cytoplasm and nuclei. The endometrium of UChA rats showed higher levels of caspase-3 while Xiap and Bcl2 varied from moderate to weak. Both UChA and UChB rats exhibited a stronger immunoreaction to Ki-67 and IGFR-1 on epithelial and stromal cells. Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the uterine endometrium of UCh rats, regardless of low- or high-dose consumption, promoting reproductive disorders. PMID:27139238
Cognitive Impact of Banner Ad Characteristics: An Experimental Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Hairong; Bukovac, Janice L.
1999-01-01
Finds that (1) animated banner ads (display advertisements hyperlinked to an advertiser's Web site) result in quicker response and better recall (from college students) than non-animated banner ads; (2) larger banner ads lead to better comprehension and more clicks than small banner ads; and (3) user mode (information seeking or Web surfing) did…
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...
21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...
21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
7 CFR 58.727 - Adding optional ingredients.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adding optional ingredients. 58.727 Section 58.727... Procedures § 58.727 Adding optional ingredients. As each batch is added to the cooker, the predetermined amounts of salt, emulsifiers, color, or other allowable optional ingredients shall be added. However,...
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
37 CFR 2.98 - Adding party to interference.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adding party to interference....98 Adding party to interference. A party may be added to an interference only upon petition to the... interference is not added, the examiner may suspend action on the application pending termination of...
21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...
Functional MRI and neural responses in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease
Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Herman, Peter; Behar, Kevin L.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Rothman, Douglas L.; Hyder, Fahmeed
2013-01-01
Based on the hypothesis that brain plaques and tangles can affect cortical functions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thus modify functional activity, we investigated functional responses in an AD rat model (called the Samaritan Alzheimer’s rat achieved by ventricular infusion of amyloid peptide) and age-matched healthy control. High-field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and extracellular neural activity measurements were applied to characterize sensory-evoked responses. Electrical stimulation of the forepaw led to BOLD and neural responses in the contralateral somatosensory cortex and thalamus. In AD brain we noted much smaller BOLD activation patterns in the somatosensory cortex (i.e., about 50% less activated voxels compared to normal brain). While magnitudes of BOLD and neural responses in the cerebral cortex were markedly attenuated in AD rats compared to normal rats (by about 50%), the dynamic coupling between the BOLD and neural responses in the cerebral cortex, as assessed by transfer function analysis, remained unaltered between the groups. However thalamic BOLD and neural responses were unaltered in AD brain compared to controls. Thus cortical responses in the AD model were indeed diminished compared to controls, but the thalamic responses in the AD and control rats were quite similar. Therefore these results suggest that Alzheimer’s disease may affect cortical function more than subcortical function, which may have implications for interpreting altered human brain functional responses in fMRI studies of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23648961
Vacuum currents in braneworlds on AdS bulk with compact dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellucci, S.; Saharian, A. A.; Vardanyan, V.
2015-11-01
The two-point function and the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the current density are investigated for a massive charged scalar field with arbitrary curvature coupling in the geometry of a brane on the background of AdS spacetime with partial toroidal compactification. The presence of a gauge field flux, enclosed by compact dimensions, is assumed. On the brane the field obeys Robin boundary condition and along compact dimensions periodicity conditions with general phases are imposed. There is a range in the space of the values for the coefficient in the boundary condition where the Poincaré vacuum is unstable. This range depends on the location of the brane and is different for the regions between the brane and AdS boundary and between the brane and the horizon. In models with compact dimensions the stability condition is less restrictive than that for the AdS bulk with trivial topology. The vacuum charge density and the components of the current along non-compact dimensions vanish. The VEV of the current density along compact dimensions is a periodic function of the gauge field flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. It is decomposed into the boundary-free and brane-induced contributions. The asymptotic behavior of the latter is investigated near the brane, near the AdS boundary and near the horizon. It is shown that, in contrast to the VEVs of the field squared an denergy-momentum tensor, the current density is finite on the brane and vanishes for the special case of Dirichlet boundary condition. Both the boundary-free and brane-induced contributions vanish on the AdS boundary. The brane-induced contribution vanishes on the horizon and for points near the horizon the current is dominated by the boundary-free part. In the near-horizon limit, the latter is connected to the corresponding quantity for a massless field in the Minkowski bulk by a simple conformal relation. Depending on the value of the Robin coefficient, the presence of the brane can either
Planar AdS black holes in Lovelock gravity with a nonminimal scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaete, Moisés Bravo; Hassaïne, Mokhtar
2013-11-01
In arbitrary dimension D, we consider a self-interacting scalar field nonminimally coupled with a gravity theory given by a particular Lovelock action indexed by an integer k. To be more precise, the coefficients appearing in the Lovelock expansion are fixed by requiring the theory to have a unique AdS vacuum with a fixed value of the cosmological constant. This yields to k = 1, 2,⋯, inequivalent possible gravity theories; here the case k = 1 corresponds to the standard Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian. For each par ( D, k), we derive two classes of AdS black hole solutions with planar event horizon topology for particular values of the nonminimal coupling parameter. The first family of solutions depends on a unique constant and is valid only for k ≥ 2. In fact, its GR counterpart k = 1 reduces to the pure AdS metric with a vanishing scalar field. The second family of solutions involves two independent constants and corresponds to a stealth black hole configuration; that is a nontrivial scalar field together with a black hole metric such that both side of the Einstein equations (gravity and matter parts) vanishes identically. In this case, the standard GR case k = 1 reduces to the Schwarzschild-AdS-Tangherlini black hole metric with a trivial scalar field. We show that the two-parametric stealth solution defined in D dimension can be promoted to the uniparametric black hole solution in ( D + 1) dimension by fixing one of the two constants in term of the other and by adding a transversal coordinate. In both cases, the existence of these solutions is strongly inherent of the presence of the higher order curvature terms k ≥ 2 of the Lovelock gravity. We also establish that these solutions emerge from a stealth configuration defined on the pure AdS metric through a Kerr-Schild transformation. Finally, in the last part, we include multiple exact ( D - 1) - forms homogenously distributed and coupled to the scalar field. For a specific coupling, we obtain black hole
Meal-feeding rodents and toxicology research.
Carey, Gale B; Merrill, Lisa C
2012-08-20
Most laboratory rodents used for toxicology studies are fed ad libitum, with unlimited access to food. As a result, ad libitum-fed rodents tend to overeat. Research demonstrates that ad libitum-fed rodents are physiologically and metabolically different from rodents fed controlled amounts of food at scheduled times (meal-fed). Ad libitum-fed rodents can develop hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, diet-induced obesity, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and pituitary, pancreatic, adrenal, and thyroid tumors, conditions likely to affect the results of toxicology research studies. In contrast, meal-feeding synchronizes biological rhythms and leads to a longer life span, lower body weight, lower body temperature, hypertrophy of the small intestine, and synchronization of hepatic and digestive enzymes. The circadian rhythms present in nearly all living organisms are entrained by light intensity and food intake, and peripheral clocks in all organs of the body, especially the GI tract and liver, are particularly sensitive to food intake. Feeding schedule has been demonstrated to alter the toxicity and metabolism of drugs including sodium valproate, chloral hydrate, acetaminophen, gentamicin, and methotrexate. Feeding schedule alters the expression of genes that code for Phase I, II, and III proteins, thereby altering the rate and amplitude of drug disposition. Rhythms of plasma insulin and glucagon that fluctuate with food ingestion are also altered by feeding schedule; ad libitum feeding promotes hyperinsulinemia which is a precursor for developing diabetes. The emerging field of chronopharmacology, the interaction of biological rhythms and drugs, will lead to optimizing the design and delivery of drugs in a manner that matches biological rhythms, but it is wise for toxicology researchers to consider feeding schedule when designing these experiments. It has been 10 years since the Society for Toxicologic Pathology voiced its position that feeding schedule is an
Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product
Troyan, D
2013-04-01
The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.
Noncommutative q -photon-added coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Sanjib; Hussin, Véronique
2016-05-01
We construct the photon-added coherent states of a noncommutative harmonic oscillator associated to a q -deformed oscillator algebra. Various nonclassical properties of the corresponding system are explored, first, by studying two different types of higher-order quadrature squeezing, namely, the Hillery type and the Hong-Mandel type, and second, by testing the sub-Poissonian nature of photon statistics in higher order with the help of the correlation function and the Mandel parameter. Also, we compare the behavior of different types of quadrature and photon number squeezing of our system with those of the ordinary harmonic oscillator by considering the same set of parameters.
Adding control to arbitrary unknown quantum operations
Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Ralph, Timothy C.; Kalasuwan, Pruet; Zhang, Mian; Peruzzo, Alberto; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2011-01-01
Although quantum computers promise significant advantages, the complexity of quantum algorithms remains a major technological obstacle. We have developed and demonstrated an architecture-independent technique that simplifies adding control qubits to arbitrary quantum operations—a requirement in many quantum algorithms, simulations and metrology. The technique, which is independent of how the operation is done, does not require knowledge of what the operation is, and largely separates the problems of how to implement a quantum operation in the laboratory and how to add a control. Here, we demonstrate an entanglement-based version in a photonic system, realizing a range of different two-qubit gates with high fidelity. PMID:21811242
Ad Hoc Networks: Headline 2000 Communications Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, W. D.; Reynolds, A. B.
2002-06-01
This report examines unit location data and terrain from Headline 2000 to investigate communications networks within the maneuver units. Within the Enhanced Combat Force timeframe, such units would be supported by a Tactical Data Distribution Sub-system (TDDS). This is envisaged as an ad hoc network changing its topology as units maneuver across the battlespace. The report describes approaches that can be applied to Headline 2000 and other data to characterize the nature of the network topology, both statically and as it changes over time, in order to explore the impact on the TDDS network capacity and hence to hence to assist in elucidating consequent requirements of a candidate TDDS.
Animal Model of Posterior Cingulate Cortex Hypometabolism Implicated in Amnestic MCI and AD
Riha, P. D.; Rojas, J. C.; Colorado, R.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.
2008-01-01
The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is the brain region displaying the earliest sign of energy hypometabolism in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In particular, the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase (C.O.) is selectively inhibited within the PCC in AD. The present study is the first experimental analysis designed to model in animals the localized cortical C.O. inhibition found as the earliest metabolic sign of early-stage AD in human neuroimaging studies. Rats were used to model local inhibition of C.O. by direct injection of the C.O. inhibitor sodium azide into the PCC. Learning and memory were examined in a spatial holeboard task and brains were analyzed using quantitative histochemical, morphological and biochemical techniques. Behavioral results showed that sodium azide-treated rats were impaired in their memory of the baited pattern in probe trials as compared to their training scores before treatment, without non-specific behavioral differences. Brain analyses showed that C.O. inhibition was specific to the PCC, and sodium azide increased lipid peroxidation, gliosis and neuron loss, and lead to a network functional disconnection between the PCC and interconnected hippocampal regions. It was concluded that impaired memory by local C.O. inhibition in the PCC may serve to model in animals a metabolic lesion similar to that found in patients with amnestic MCI and early-stage AD. This model may be useful as an in vivo testing platform to investigate neuroprotective strategies to prevent or reduce the amnestic effects produced by posterior cingulate energy hypometabolism. PMID:18316212
POSSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN AD LEO
Buccino, Andrea P.; Petrucci, Romina; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Jofré, Emiliano
2014-01-20
AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star that has been extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully convective boundary, studying its long-term chromospheric activity in detail could be an appreciable contribution to dynamo theory. Here, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we analyze the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both of these totally independent time series, we obtain a possible activity cycle with a period of approximately seven years and a less significant shorter cycle of approximately two years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe different spectral features simultaneously, we also analyze the relation between simultaneous measurements of the Na I index (R{sub D}{sup ′}), Hα, and Ca II K fluxes at different activity levels of AD Leo, including flares.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischetti, Sebastian; Marolf, Donald; Santos, Jorge
2013-04-01
We construct stationary non-equilibrium black funnels locally asymptotic to global AdS4 in vacuum Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant. These are non-compactly-generated black holes in which a single connected bulk horizon extends to meet the conformal boundary. Thus the induced (conformal) boundary metric has smooth horizons as well. In our examples, the boundary spacetime contains a pair of black holes connected through the bulk by a tubular bulk horizon. Taking one boundary black hole to be hotter than the other (δT !=0) prohibits equilibrium. The result is a so-called flowing funnel, a stationary bulk black hole with a non-Killing horizon that may be said to transport heat toward the cooler boundary black hole. While most of our results are numerical, a semi-analytic fluid/gravity description can be obtained by passing to a one-parameter generalization of the above boundary conditions. In the fluid regime, we find excellent agreement with our numerical solutions. In terms of a dual CFT, our solutions describe heat transport via a large N version of Hawking radiation through a deconfined plasma that couples efficiently to both boundary black holes.
Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.
2015-12-01
The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.
AdVEGF-All6A+ Preconditioning of Murine Ischemic Skin Flaps Is Comparable to Surgical Delay
Gersch, Robert P.; Fourman, Mitchell S.; Phillips, Brett T.; Nasser, Ahmed; McClain, Steve A.; Khan, Sami U.; Dagum, Alexander B.
2015-01-01
Background: Surgical flap delay is commonly used in preconditioning reconstructive flaps to prevent necrosis. However, staged procedures are not ideal. Pharmacologic up-regulation of angiogenic and arteriogenic factors before flap elevation poses a nonsurgical approach to improve flap survival. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control (n = 16), surgical delay (Delay), AdNull, AdEgr-1, and AdVEGF (n ≥ 9/group) groups. Delay rats had a 9 cm × 3 cm cranial based pedicle skin flap incised 10 days prior to elevation. Adenoviral groups received 28 intradermal injections (109 pu/animal total) throughout the distal two thirds of the flap 1 week prior to elevation. At postoperative day (POD) 0 flaps were elevated and silicone sheeting was placed between flap and wound bed. Perfusion analysis in arbitrary perfusion units of the ischemic middle third of the flap using laser Doppler imaging was conducted preoperatively and on POD 0, 3, and 7. Clinical and histopathologic assessments of the skin flaps were performed on POD 7. Results: AdVEGF (50.8 ± 10.9 APU) and AdEgr-1 (39.3 ± 10.6 APU) perfusion levels were significantly higher than controls (16.5 ± 4.2 APU) on POD 7. Delay models were equivalent to controls (25.9 ± 6.8 APU). AdVEGF and Delay animals showed significantly more viable surface area on POD 7 (14.4 ± 1.3 cm2, P < 0.01 and 12.4 ± 1.2 cm2, P < 0.05, respectively) compared with Controls (8.7 ± 0.7 cm2). Conclusions: AdVEGF preconditioning resulted in flap survival comparable to surgical delay. Adenoviral preconditioning maintained perfusion levels postoperatively while surgical delay did not. PMID:26495207
From the generalized uncertainty relations on fuzzy AdS 2 to the Poincaré geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fakhri, H.; Hashemi, A.; Lotfizadeh, M.
2012-03-01
The positive and discrete unitary irreps of SU(1,1) are used to construct fuzzy (Euclidean) AdS 2. Two different types of uncertainty relation involving the Weyl-Heisenberg and a weaker type are studied. It is shown that there are no generalized coherent states which simultaneously minimize the Weyl-Heisenberg uncertainty relations among three non-commuting embedding coordinates of the fuzzy AdS 2. However, generalized squeezed states that simultaneously satisfy the three weaker uncertainty relations do exist, and reproduce some properties of the classical AdS 2. Up to a common scaling factor in terms of the irrep label, the expectation values of the non-commuting coordinates over such states are described in the same manner as the classical AdS 2, in terms of the Poincaré coordinates. The expectation values on the fuzzy AdS 2 tend to their corresponding values in the commutative limit.
CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation of arbitrary spin fields in AdS and modified de Donder gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metsaev, R. R.
2009-01-01
Using Poincaré parametrization of AdS space, we study totally symmetric arbitrary spin massless fields in AdS space of dimension greater than or equal to four. CFT adapted gauge invariant formulation for such fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized similarly to the ones of Stueckelberg formulation of massive fields. We demonstrate that the curvature and radial coordinate contributions to the gauge transformation and Lagrangian of the AdS fields can be expressed in terms of ladder operators. Realization of the global AdS symmetries in the conformal algebra basis is obtained. Modified de Donder gauge leading to simple gauge fixed Lagrangian is found. The modified de Donder gauge leads to decoupled equations of motion which can easily be solved in terms of the Bessel function. Interrelations between our approach to the massless AdS fields and the Stueckelberg approach to massive fields in flat space are discussed.
Gravitational wave solutions in string and M-theory AdS backgrounds
Kumar, Alok; Kunduri, Hari K.
2004-11-15
In this paper, we present several gravitational wave solutions in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} string backgrounds, as well as in AdS{sub 7}xS{sup 4} and AdS{sub 4}xS{sup 7} backgrounds in M theory, generalizing the results of Phys. Lett. B 594, 368 (2004).. In each case, we present the general form of such solutions and give explicit examples, preserving certain amount of supersymmetry, by taking limits on known Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield D3 and M2, M5-brane solutions in pp-wave backgrounds. A key feature of our examples is the possibility of a wider variety of wave profiles, than in pure gravity and string/M-theory examples known earlier, coming from the presence of various p-form field strengths appearing in the gravitational wave structure.
3D τ RR -minimization in AdS4 gauged supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amariti, Antonio; Gnecchi, Alessandra
2016-07-01
In this paper we propose the identification in AdS4 N = 2 gauged supergravity of the coefficient τRR of 3D N = 2 SCFTs. We constrain the structure of this function in supergravity by combining the results from unitarity, holography and localization. We show that our conjectured function is minimized by the exact R-charge, corresponding to a gravitational attractor for the scalars of special geometry. We identify this mechanism with the supergravity dual of τ RR -minimization. We check this proposal in ABJM model, comparing with expectations from localization and AdS/CFT duality. We comment also on possible relations with black hole microstates counting, recently obtained from application of localization techniques.
Therapeutic Effects of TianDiJingWan on the Aβ25–35-Induced Alzheimer's Disease Model Rats
Li, Zhijie; Tong, Qing; Xu, Huifang; Hu, Li; Zhao, Rong; Zhou, Fang; Pan, Wei; Zhou, Li
2015-01-01
The main purpose of this study was to demonstrate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of TDJW, a modern Chinese medicine prescription developed based on the basic traditional Chinese medicine theory of “tonifying the kidney essence,” on the Aβ25–35-induced AD rats. The AD model was established by the intracerebroventricular administrations of Aβ25–35 into the hippocampus CA1 tissue of SD male rats. 72 rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham operation, AD model, donepezil, high TDJW group, medium TDJW group, and low TDJW group. After oral administration of TDJW, the results of Morris water maze and step-down test showed that the learning and memory abilities of AD rats were significantly improved. And biochemical measurement demonstrated that Ach and Glu in hippocampus tissues of AD rats were increased as well. Moreover, the Aβ deposits and p-Tau aggregations in hippocampus CA1 tissues of AD rats were attenuated as observed in the micrographs of immunohistochemistry study, and the results of ELISA indicated that the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in hippocampus tissues were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that TDJW could be used as a promising therapeutic agent for the clinical applications of AD treatment in patients. PMID:25815030
Non-minimally coupled pseudoscalars in AdS4 for instantons in CFT3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naghdi, M.
2016-06-01
For the 11-dimensional supergravity over {{{AdS}}}4× {{{S}}}7/{Z}k, beginning with a general four-form ansatz and the main geometry unchanged, we get a tower of massive and tachyonic pseudoscalars. Indeed, the resultant equations can be assigned to the so-called {φ }4 actions of the non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor theories with a cosmological constant. We focus on a well-known tachyonic and a new massive bulk mode, which are singlet under the internal group and break all supersymmetries, associated with skew-whiffing and Wick-rotating of the background four-form flux, respectively. The first one is the conformally coupled {m}2=-2 pseudoscalar in the bulk of Euclidean AdS4, where an exact instanton solution is found and a marginally triple-trace deformation with a proper dimension-1 operator produces an agreeing boundary solution with finite action. From the action evaluated on the solution, we estimate the decay rate of the vacuum tunneling mediated by the instanton. Another massive {m}2=+4 mode, with the so-called non-minimal coupling parameter ξ =-1/3, also breaks the conformal invariance and so there is no exact solution. Then, based on the AdS4/CFT3 correspondence rules, we propose the dimension-4 ({{{Δ }}}+=+4) boundary operator in the skew-whiffed (anti-M2-branes) theory with which to deform the boundary action—consisting of a singlet fermion, an original scalar and U(1) gauges fields—and find some solutions to be matched with the bulk solutions.
Ehrenfest's scheme and thermodynamic geometry in Born-Infeld AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lala, Arindam; Roychowdhury, Dibakar
2012-10-01
In this paper, we analyze the phase transition phenomena in Born-Infeld anti-de Sitter (BI AdS) black holes using Ehrenfest’s scheme of standard thermodynamics. The critical points are marked by the divergences in the heat capacity. In order to investigate the nature of the phase transition, we analytically check both Ehrenfest equations near the critical points. Our analysis reveals that this is indeed a second order phase transition. Finally, we analyze the nature of the phase transition using the state space geometry approach. This is found to be compatible with Ehrenfest’s scheme.
Warped AdS3 black holes in higher derivative gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Detournay, Stéphane; Douxchamps, Laure-Anne; Ng, Gim Seng; Zwikel, Céline
2016-06-01
We consider warped AdS3 black holes in generic higher derivatives gravity theories in 2+1 dimensions. The asymptotic symmetry group of the phase space containing these black holes is the semi-direct product of a centrally extended Virasoro algebra and an affine u(1) Kac-Moody algebra. Previous works have shown that in some specific theories, the entropy of these black holes agrees with a Cardy-like entropy formula derived for warped conformal field theories. In this paper, we show that this entropy matching continues to hold for the most general higher derivative theories of gravity. We also discuss the existence of phase transitions.
Small black holes in AdS5 × S5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchel, Alex; Lehner, Luis
2015-07-01
We consider small black holes in {{AdS}}5× {S}5, smeared on S5. We compute the spectrum of {\\ell } \\in [1, 10] S5-quasinormal modes corresponding to fluctuations leading to localization of these black holes on S5. We recover the zero mode found by Hubeny and Rangamani previously (Hubeny and Rangamani 2002 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP05(2002)027), and explicitly demonstrate that a Gregory-Laflamme type instability is at play in this system. The instability is associated with the expectation value of a dimension-5 operator.
Giant magnon on deformed AdS3×S3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khouchen, Malak; KlusoÅ, Josef
2014-09-01
We study giant magnon solutions for strings moving on a deformed AdS3×S3 background. We impose a conformal gauge on the Polyakov action and proceed with solving the Virasoro constraints. The expressions of the conserved charge J and the energy of a single magnon excitation are then computed. Then we determine the dispersion relation of a giant magnon in the infinite J limit configuration and we find that for κ =0 it reduces to the celebrated Hofman-Maldacena dispersion relation.
- criticality of AdS black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Xu, Wei; Yue, Rui-Hong
2015-02-01
We study the - critical behaivor of N-dimensional AdS black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity. Our results show the existence of the Van der Waals like small-large black hole phase transitions when taking some special values of charges of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills fields. Further to calculate the critical exponents of the black holes at the critical point, we find that they are the same as those in the Van der Waals liquid-gas system.
Emergent AdS3 in the zero entropy extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Noriaki; Terashima, Seiji
2011-03-01
We investigate the zero entropy limit of the near horizon geometries of D = 4 and D = 5 general extremal black holes with {text{SL}}left( {2,mathbb{R}} right) × {text{U}}{(1)^{D - 3}} symmetry. We derive some conditions on the geometries from expectation of regularity. We then show that an AdS3 structure emerges in a certain scaling limit, though the periodicity shrinks to zero. We present some examples to see the above concretely. We also comment on some implications to the Kerr/CFT correspondence.
Integrable λ-deformations: squashing coset CFTs and AdS5 × S 5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demulder, Saskia; Sfetsos, Konstantinos; Thompson, Daniel C.
2015-07-01
We examine integrable λ-deformations of SO( n + 1) /SO( n) coset CFTs and their analytic continuations. We provide an interpretation of the deformation as a squashing of the corresponding coset σ-model's target space. We realise the λ-deformation for n = 5 case as a solution to supergravity supported by non-vanishing five-form and dilaton. This interpolates between the coset CFT SO(4 , 2) /SO(4 , 1) × SO(6) /SO(5) constructed as a gauged WZW model and the non-Abelian T-dual of the AdS5 × S 5 spacetime.
Art as an Evolutionary Adaptation: Inspiration from the Visible Supernovae of AD 1054 and AD 3054
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corbally, C. J.; Rappaport, M. B.
2016-01-01
The authors, an astronomer/priest and an anthropologist/biologist, describe their use of the dramatic arts at the INSAP VIII meeting in their performance of two short skits on the sighting of a supernova in AD 1054 (creating the beautiful Crab Nebula) and a future “Rho Cas” stellar explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia, in AD 3054. They speculate on the emergence of science, religion, and art as bona fide adaptations, responding to natural selection, which served early hominins well in their struggle for existence. They draw parallels to the continued functions of science, religion, and art in modern society.
Spin Filtering Studies at COSY and AD
Nass, Alexander
2009-08-04
The high physics potential of experiments with stored high-energy polarized antiprotons led to the proposal of PAX (Polarized Antiproton eXperiment) for the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the FAIR at GSI (Darmstadt/Germany). It is proposed to polarize a stored antiproton beam by means of spin filtering with a polarized H (D) gas target. The feasibility of spin filtering has been demonstrated in the FILTEX experiment. The current interpretation foresees a self-cancellation of the electron contribution to the filtering process and only the hadronic contribution is effective. Several experimental studies with protons (at COSY/Juelich) as well as antiprotons (at AD/CERN) will be carried out to test the principle and measure p-barp-vector and p-bard-vector cross sections. A polarized internal gas target (PIT) with surrounding Silicon detectors immersed into a low-beta section has to be set up.
Scientific Publishing: Adding Value, Delivering Impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayes, Beth
2015-08-01
Publishers are developing new services and applying new technologies to improve publication and reading experiences for the scholarly community. This needs to be implemented with care to avoid adding technology-driven complexity. Our publishing processes need to be widely accessible to both authors and readers and to maintain the scientific record. Beth Mayes will outline new developments at IOP Publishing delivering (1) improvements to the presentation of articles and their commitment to formats that go beyond the PDF, improving the understanding of research. (2) How IOP Publishing is responding to the growing calls for metadata and linking that involve being central to the shared information ecosystem for astronomy. (3) After publication, discuss how publishers invest in metrics and new initiatives for discovery that improve the impact of published research.
Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nekovee, Maziar
2007-06-01
A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.
[Did Henrik Wergeland have AD/HD?].
Aanonsen, Nils Olav
2008-12-18
Henrik Wergeland (1808 - 45) is one of Norwegian cultural history's most notable figures. He is honoured as a national symbol during this year's 200-year jubilee for his birth. Biographies and numerous academic publications have been written about him for more than 100 years. His life was short and diverse; on one hand he continuously worked to give people general education, he was an author and a poet and on the other hand he was always in a dispute with someone and involved in endless court cases and scandals. After his death it was said that Wergeland was one who
Adding fuel to the fire: immunogenic intensification.
O'Sullivan Coyne, Geraldine; Gulley, James L
2014-01-01
The durable long term clinical benefits seen for certain patients treated with immunotherapy agents has suggested there is significant therapeutic potential to be derived from these agents, as shown by the increasing prominence of this treatment strategy in upcoming clinical trials. There has been a renewed interest and focus on the drivers of tumoral antigen recognition, and the pathways by which various cells of the immune system can stimulate, propagate and execute an effective anti-tumor response. Various challenges lie ahead in the further development of these treatments, including induction of an endogenous anti-tumor response, tumor microenvironment modulation, and T-cell response amplification. Novel treatment combinations may prove of significant added benefit by immunogenic intensification. PMID:25483630
Aerosol Best Estimate Value-Added Product
Flynn, C; Turner, D; Koontz, A; Chand, D; Sivaraman, C
2012-07-19
The objective of the Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) value-added product (VAP) is to provide vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, single scatter albedo, asymmetry parameter, and Angstroem exponents for the atmospheric column above the Central Facility at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. We expect that AEROSOLBE will provide nearly continuous estimates of aerosol optical properties under a range of conditions (clear, broken clouds, overcast clouds, etc.). The primary requirement of this VAP was to provide an aerosol data set as continuous as possible in both time and height for the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP in order to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Even though BBHRP has been completed, AEROSOLBE results are very valuable for environmental, atmospheric, and climate research.
Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product
Riihimaki, L.; McFarlane, S.; Sivaraman, C.
2014-06-01
The ndrop_mfrsr value-added product (VAP) provides an estimate of the cloud droplet number concentration of overcast water clouds retrieved from cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) instrument and liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the microwave radiometer (MWR). When cloud layer information is available from vertically pointing lidar and radars in the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product, the VAP also provides estimates of the adiabatic LWP and an adiabatic parameter (beta) that indicates how divergent the LWP is from the adiabatic case. quality control (QC) flags (qc_drop_number_conc), an uncertainty estimate (drop_number_conc_toterr), and a cloud layer type flag (cloud_base_type) are useful indicators of the quality and accuracy of any given value of the retrieval. Examples of these major input and output variables are given in sample plots in section 6.0.
MR enterography: how to deliver added value.
Dillman, Jonathan R; Trout, Andrew T; Smith, Ethan A
2016-05-01
MR enterography (MRE) is increasingly vital to the diagnosis and follow-up of children with Crohn disease. This diagnostic test, which can provide valuable information regarding the presence of intestinal inflammation, intestinal and intra-abdominal complications, and extra-intestinal disease-related manifestations, has the potential to directly impact both medical and surgical decision-making. Consequently, it is imperative that the interpretation and reporting of these examinations provide as much clinical information as possible. This article reviews specific ways radiologists can provide added value when interpreting MRE examinations in the setting of pediatric Crohn disease by (1) establishing the true extent of disease involvement, (2) subjectively and objectively assessing response to medical treatment and (3) accurately characterizing disease-related complications. PMID:26939974
Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Reinhart, W.D.; Grady, D.E.
1997-10-01
Gas guns and velocity interferometric techniques have been used to determine the loading behavior of an AD995 alumina rod 19 mm in diameter by 75 mm and 150 mm long, respectively. Graded-density materials were used to impact both bare and sleeved alumina rods while the velocity interferometer was used to monitor the axial-velocity of the free end of the rods. Results of these experiments demonstrate that (1) a time-dependent stress pulse generated during impact allows an efficient transition from the initial uniaxial strain loading to a uniaxial stress state as the stress pulse propagates through the rod, and (2) the intermediate loading rates obtained in this configuration lie between split Hopkinson bar and shock-loading techniques.
Declarative ad-hoc sensor networking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coffin, Daniel A.; Van Hook, Daniel J.; McGarry, Stephen M.; Kolek, Stephen R.
2000-11-01
Networking protocols for distributed collaborative ad-hoc wireless sensing are constrained by requirements such as energy efficiency, scalability, and support for greater variations in topology than traditional fully wired or last- hop wireless (remote to base station) networks. In such a highly constrained and dynamic environment, conventional networking approaches are generally not adequate. A declarative approach to network configuration and organization appears to offer significant benefits. Declarative networking exploits application-supplied data descriptions to control network routing and resource allocation in such a way as to enhance energy efficiency and scalability. An implementation of this approach, called the Declarative Routing Protocol (DRP) has been developed as part of DARPA's Sensor Information Technology program. This paper introduces the concept of declarative networking and what distinguishes it from more conventional networking approaches, describes the Declarative Routing Protocol, and presents performance results from initial experiments.
Frozen yogurt with added inulin and isomalt.
Isik, U; Boyacioglu, D; Capanoglu, E; Erdil, D Nilufer
2011-04-01
The objective of this study was to produce a frozen yogurt containing low fat and no added sugar. Samples containing 5% polydextrose, 0.065% aspartame and acesulfame-K mixture, and different levels of inulin and isomalt (5.0, 6.5, and 8.0%) were produced at pilot scale and analyzed for their physical and chemical properties including proximate composition, viscosity, acidity, overrun, melting rate, heat shock stability, as well as sensory characteristics, and viability of lactic acid bacteria. With the addition of inulin and isomalt, viscosity increased by 19 to 52% compared with that of sample B (reduced-fat control). The average calorie values of samples substituted with sweeteners were about 43% lower than that of original sample. Low-calorie frozen yogurt samples melted about 33 to 48% slower than the reduced-fat control sample at 45 min. Based on quantitative descriptive profile test results, statistically significant differences among products were observed for hardness, iciness, foamy melting, whey separation, and sweetness characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed that the sensory properties of the sample containing 6.5% inulin and 6.5% isomalt were similar to those of control. Lactic acid bacteria counts of frozen yogurt were found to be between 8.12 and 8.49 log values, 3 mo after the production. The overall results showed that it is possible to produce an attractive frozen yogurt product with the incorporation of inulin and isomalt with no added sugar and reduced fat. PMID:21426952
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischetti, Sebastian; Marolf, Donald; Santos, Jorge E.
2013-04-01
We construct stationary non-equilibrium black funnels locally asymptotic to global AdS4 in vacuum Einstein-Hilbert gravity with a negative cosmological constant. These are non-compactly-generated black holes in which a single connected bulk horizon extends to meet the conformal boundary. Thus the induced (conformal) boundary metric has smooth horizons as well. In our examples, the boundary spacetime contains a pair of black holes connected through the bulk by a tubular bulk horizon. Taking one boundary black hole to be hotter than the other (ΔT ≠ 0) prohibits equilibrium. The result is a so-called flowing funnel, a stationary bulk black hole with a non-Killing horizon that may be said to transport heat toward the cooler boundary black hole. While generators of the bulk future horizon evolve toward zero expansion in the far future, they begin at finite affine parameter with infinite expansion on a singular past horizon characterized by power-law divergences with universal exponents. We explore both the horizon generators and the boundary stress tensor in detail. While most of our results are numerical, a semi-analytic fluid/gravity description can be obtained by passing to a one-parameter generalization of the above boundary conditions. The new parameter detunes the temperatures Tbulk BH and Tbndy BH of the bulk and boundary black holes, and we may then take α = {T_{bndy \\ BH}/{T_{bulk \\ BH}} and ΔT small to control the accuracy of the fluid-gravity approximation. In the small α, ΔT regime, we find excellent agreement with our numerical solutions. For our cases the agreement also remains quite good even for α ˜ 0.8. In terms of a dual CFT, our α = 1 solutions describe heat transport via a large N version of Hawking radiation through a deconfined plasma that couples efficiently to both boundary black holes.
Samala, Sujatha; Veeresham, Ciddi
2016-03-01
The effect of boswellic acids (BA) and andrographolide (AD) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glyburide in normal as well as in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was studied. In normal and diabetic rats, the combination of glyburide with BA or AD increased significantly (p < 0.01) all the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as Cmax, AUC0-n, AUCtotal, t1/2, and mean residence time, and decreased the clearance, Vd, markedly as compared with the control group. In rat liver, microsomes BA and AD have shown CYP3A4 inhibitory activity significantly (p < 0.01), compared with the vehicle group. The increase in hypoglycemic action by concomitant administration of glyburide with BA or AD was more in diabetic rats than when the drugs were used singly and with the control group, which suggests the enhancement of glucose reduction capacity of glyburide in diabetic rats along with BA or AD. In PK/PD modeling of BA and AD with glyburide, the predicted PK and PD parameters are in line with the observed PK and PD parameters. The results revealed that BA and AD led to the PK/PD changes because of glyburide-increased bioavailability and because of the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzyme. In conclusion, add-on preparations containing BA or AD may increase the bioavailability of glyburide, and hence the dose should be monitored. PMID:26762235
Secret symmetries of type IIB superstring theory on Ad{{S}_{3}} × {{S}^{3}} × {{M}^{4}}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro; Wolf, Martin
2014-11-01
We establish features of so-called Yangian secret symmetries for AdS3 type IIB superstring backgrounds, thus verifying the persistence of such symmetries to this new instance of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically, we find two a priori different classes of secret symmetry generators. One class of generators, anticipated from the previous literature, is more naturally embedded in the algebra governing the integrable scattering problem. The other class of generators is more elusive and somewhat closer in its form to its higher-dimensional AdS5 counterpart. All of these symmetries respect left-right crossing. In addition, by considering the interplay between left and right representations, we gain a new perspective on the AdS5 case. We also study the RTT-realisation of the Yangian in AdS3 backgrounds, thus establishing a new incarnation of the Beisert-de Leeuw construction.
CFT dual of charged AdS black hole in the large dimension limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Er-Dong; Li, Miao; Sun, Jia-Rui
2016-05-01
We study the dual CFT description of the d + 1-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-Anti de Sitter (RN-AdSd+1) black hole in the large dimension (large d) limit, both for the extremal and nonextremal cases. The central charge of the dual CFT2 (or chiral CFT1) is calculated for the near-horizon near extremal geometry which possesses an AdS2 structure. Besides, the Q-picture hidden conformal symmetry in the nonextremal background can be naturally obtained by a probe charged scalar field in the large d limit, without the need to input the usual limits to probe the hidden conformal symmetry. Furthermore, a new dual CFT description of the nonextremal RN-AdSd+1 black hole is found in the large d limit and the duality is analyzed by comparing the entropies, the absorption cross-sections and the retarded Green’s functions obtained both from the gravity and the dual CFT sides.
Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar
2014-01-14
Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.
Quartic AdS interactions in higher-spin gravity from Conformal Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekaert, X.; Erdmenger, J.; Ponomarev, D.; Sleight, C.
2015-11-01
Clarifying the locality properties of higher-spin gravity is a pressing task, but notoriously difficult due to the absence of a weakly-coupled flat regime. The simplest non-trivial case where this question can be addressed is the quartic self-interaction of the AdS scalar field present in the higher-spin multiplet. We investigate this issue in the context of the holographic duality between the minimal bosonic higher-spin theory on AdS4 and the free O( N) vector model in three dimensions. In particular, we determine the exact explicit form of the derivative expansion of the bulk scalar quartic vertex. The quartic vertex is obtained from the field theory four-point function of the operator dual to the bulk scalar, by making use of our previous results for the Witten diagrams of higher-spin exchanges. This is facilitated by establishing the conformal block expansions of both the boundary four-point function and the dual bulk Witten diagram amplitudes. We show that the vertex we find satisfies a generalised notion of locality.
Exact results for the low energy AdS 4 × 3 string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Alessandro; Fioravanti, Davide; Piscaglia, Simone; Tateo, Roberto
2013-11-01
We derive the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations for the relativistic sigma model describing the AdS 4 × 3 string II A theory at strong coupling (i.e. in the Alday-Maldacena decoupling limit). The corresponding Y -system involves an infinite number of Y functions and is of a new type, although it shares a peculiar feature with the Y -system for AdS 4 × 3. A truncation of the equations at level p and a further generalisation to generic rank N allow us an alternative description of the theory as the N =4, p = ∞ representative in an infinite family of models corresponding to the conformal cosets ( N -1) p × U(1), perturbed by a relevant composite field ϕ ( N,p) = ϕ[( N -1) p ] × ϕ [U(1)] that couples the two independent conformal field theories. The calculation of the ultraviolet central charge confirms the conjecture by Basso and Rej and the conformal dimension of the perturbing operator, at every N and p, is obtained using the Y-system periodicity. The conformal dimension of ϕ[( N -1) p ] matches that of the field identified by Fendley while discussing integrability issues for the purely bosonic N -1 sigma model.
Quasinormal modes and holographic correlators in a crunching AdS geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav
2016-02-01
We calculate frequency space holographic correlators in an asymptotically AdS crunching background, dual to a relevant deformation of the M2-brane CFT placed in de Sitter spacetime. For massless bulk scalars, exploiting the connection to a solvable supersymmetric quantum mechanical problem, we obtain the exact frequency space correlator for the dual operator in the deformed CFT. Controlling the shape of the crunching surface in the Penrose diagram by smoothly dialling the deformation from zero to infinity, we observe that in the large deformation limit the Penrose diagram becomes a `square', and the exact holographic correlators display striking similarities to their counterparts in the BTZ black hole and its higher dimensional generalisations. We numerically determine quasinormal poles for relevant and irrelevant operators, and find an intricate pattern of these in the complex frequency plane. In the case of relevant operators, the deformation parameter has an infinite sequence of critical values, each one characterised by a pair of poles colliding and moving away from the imaginary frequency axis with increasing deformation. In the limit of infinite deformation all scalar operators have identical quasinormal spectra. We compare and contrast our strongly coupled de Sitter QFT results with strongly coupled thermal correlators from AdS black holes.
Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es
2014-01-01
Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.
Baldcypress tree ring elemental concentrations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee from AD 1795 to AD 1820
Van Arsdale, R.; Hall, G.
1995-11-01
Many two hundred year old baldcypress trees in Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, lived through the great New Madrid earthquakes of 1811--1812. This study was undertaken to determine if the elemental composition of baldcypress tree rings showed any systematic variation through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820. Multiple cores were collected from two Reelfoot Lake baldcypress trees and analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Individual yearly rings and five-year ring segments were analyzed to determine their elemental compositions. The cores were analyzed for Li through U but only Ba, Ce, Cs, Cu, I, La, Mg, Mn, Nd, Rb, Sm, Sr, and Zn were found to be in appropriate concentrations for this study. Of these elements only Ce, I, La, Nd, Rb, and Sm showed any systematic changes within individual cores. Comparison of three cores taken from one tree reveal that tree-ring elemental concentrations and changes in tree-ring elemental concentration through time are very different among the cores. When comparing the elemental concentrations of tree rings for the same years in the two different trees neither elemental concentrations nor changes in elemental concentration through time were similar. We conclude that the elemental concentrations in the tree rings of the two baldcypress trees analyzed in this study show no systematic change through the earthquake period of AD 1795 through AD 1820.
Interpolating solution from AdS5 to hyperscaling violating Lifshitz spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Parijat; Roy, Shibaji
2015-01-01
We construct two interpolating solutions in type II string theory which interpolate between AdS5 in the UV and a hyperscaling-violating three (spatial)-dimensional Lifshitz spacetime in the IR. The first solution is nonsupersymmetric and is obtained from a known intersecting nonsupersymmetric D3-brane with a chargeless D0-brane solution of type IIB string theory, by restricting some parameters characterizing the solution and going to a new coordinate. In the IR the dilaton is nonconstant in general and the metric is three (spatial)-dimensional hyperscaling-violating Lifshitz spacetime with dynamical critical exponent z =(3 +3 γ )/(3 -γ ) and hyperscaling-violation exponent θ =12 /(3 -γ ), where γ is a real parameter and can take continuous values from -1 to +1 . At the two extreme values, i.e., for γ =±1 , the dilaton is constant. On physical grounds it is found that γ must be restricted to lie in the range -1 ≤γ ≤0 . The second solution is supersymmetric and is obtained from the known F-D2 bound-state solution of type IIA string theory by zooming into a particular region of space. In the UV, the proper description is given in a T -dual frame which is AdS5, whereas in the IR, it gives a three-dimensional hyperscaling-violating Lifshitz spacetime with z =3 and θ =2 =d -1 .
Modeling Alzheimer's disease with non-transgenic rat models
2013-01-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD), for which there is no cure, is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Despite tremendous efforts by the scientific community, the AD drug development pipeline remains extremely limited. Animal models of disease are a cornerstone of any drug development program and should be as relevant as possible to the disease, recapitulating the disease phenotype with high fidelity, to meaningfully contribute to the development of a successful therapeutic agent. Over the past two decades, transgenic models of AD based on the known genetic origins of familial AD have significantly contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of the disease. These models were extensively used in AD drug development. The numerous reported failures of new treatments for AD in clinical trials indicate that the use of genetic models of AD may not represent the complete picture of AD in humans and that other types of animal models relevant to the sporadic form of the disease, which represents 95% of AD cases, should be developed. In this review, we will discuss the evolution of non-transgenic rat models of AD and how these models may open new avenues for drug development. PMID:23634826
Teubner, Brett J. W.
2013-01-01
Circulating concentrations of the stomach-derived “hunger-peptide” ghrelin increase in direct proportion to the time since the last meal. Exogenous ghrelin also increases food intake in rodents and humans, suggesting ghrelin may increase post-fast ingestive behaviors. Food intake after food deprivation is increased by laboratory rats and mice, but not by humans (despite dogma to the contrary) or by Siberian hamsters; instead, humans and Siberian hamsters increase food hoarding, suggesting the latter as a model of fasting-induced changes in human ingestive behavior. Exogenous ghrelin markedly increases food hoarding by ad libitum-fed Siberian hamsters similarly to that after food deprivation, indicating sufficiency. Here, we tested the necessity of ghrelin to increase food foraging, food hoarding, and food intake, and neural activation [c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir)] using anti-ghrelin Spiegelmer NOX-B11–2 (SPM), an l-oligonucleotide that specifically binds active ghrelin, inhibiting peptide-receptor interaction. SPM blocked exogenous ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding the first 2 days after injection, and foraging and food intake at 1–2 h and 2–4 h, respectively, and inhibited hypothalamic c-Fos-ir. SPM given every 24 h across 48-h food deprivation inconsistently inhibited food hoarding after refeeding and c-Fos-ir, similarly to inabilities to do so in laboratory rats and mice. These results suggest that ghrelin may not be necessary for food deprivation-induced foraging and hoarding and neural activation. A possible compensatory response, however, may underlie these findings because SPM treatment led to marked increases in circulating ghrelin concentrations. Collectively, these results show that SPM can block exogenous ghrelin-induced ingestive behaviors, but the necessity of ghrelin for food deprivation-induced ingestive behaviors remains unclear. PMID:23804279
RG flow and thermodynamics of causal horizons in higher-derivative AdS gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Shamik; Bhattacharyya, Arpan
2016-05-01
In
Huisman, Sander A; Bijman-Lagcher, Wendy; IJzermans, Jan NM; Smits, Ron; de Bruin, Ron WF
2015-01-01
Irinotecan is a widely used topoisomerase-I-inhibitor with a very narrow therapeutic window because of its severe toxicity. In the current study we have examined the effects of fasting prior to irinotecan treatment on toxicity and anti-tumor activity. FabplCre;Apc15lox/+ mice, which spontaneously develop intestinal tumors, of 27 weeks of age were randomized into 3-day fasted and ad libitum fed groups, followed by treatment with a flat-fixed high dose of irinotecan or vehicle. Side-effects were recorded until 11 days after the start of the experiment. Tumor size, and markers for cell-cycle activity, proliferation, angiogenesis, and senescence were measured. Fasted mice were protected against the side-effects of irinotecan treatment. Ad libitum fed mice developed visible signs of discomfort including weight loss, lower activity, ruffled coat, hunched-back posture, diarrhea, and leukopenia. Irinotecan reduced tumor size in fasted and ad libitum fed groups similarly compared to untreated controls (2.4 ± 0.67 mm and 2.4 ± 0.82 mm versus 3.0 ± 1.05 mm and 2.8 ± 1.08 mm respectively, P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced proliferation, a reduced number of vascular endothelial cells, and increased levels of senescence in tumors of both irinotecan treated groups. In conclusion, 3 days of fasting protects against the toxic side-effects of irinotecan in a clinically relevant mouse model of spontaneously developing colorectal cancer without affecting its anti-tumor activity. These results support fasting as a powerful way to improve treatment of colorectal carcinoma patients. PMID:25955194
Saeed, O; Yaghmaie, F; Garan, S A; Gouw, A M; Voelker, M A; Sternberg, H; Timiras, P S
2007-02-01
The mammalian lifespan is dramatically extended by both caloric restriction (CR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) suppression. Both interventions involve neuroendocrine alterations directed by the hypothalamus. Yet, it remains unclear whether CR exerts its affects by altering central IGF-1 sensitivity. With this question in mind, we investigated the influence of CR and normal aging on hypothalamic IGF-1 sensitivity, by measuring the changes in IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) populations. Taking IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to IGF-1, we counted IGF-1R immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of Young-ad libitum fed (Young-Al, 6 weeks old), Old-ad libitum fed (Old-Al, 22 months old), and old calorically restricted (Old-CR, 22 months old) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each cross-section of PVN hypothalamus. Ad libitum fed mice show a 37% reduction in IGF-1R immunoreactive cells and a 12% reduction in the total cell population of the PVN with aging. In comparison, caloric-restricted mice show a 33% reduction in IGF-1R immunoreactive cells and a notable 24% decrease in the total cell population with aging. This selective maintenance of IGF-1R expressing cells coupled with the simultaneous loss of non-immunoreactive cells, results in a higher percentage of IGF-1R immunoreactive cells in the PVNs of CR mice. Thus, the decline in the percentage of IGF-1 sensitive cells in the PVN with age is attenuated by CR. PMID:17194562
76 FR 71430 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-11-17
... Federal Aviation Administration Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) AGENCY: Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability--Recommendations from the ADS-B... the ADS-B In Aviation Rulemaking Committee, Recommendations to Define a Strategy for Incorporating...
Determining Positions and Desired Applicant Characteristics in Sports Job Ads
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atali, Levent
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study is to determine the diversity of positions occurring in sports job ads and reveal the characteristics requested from applicants for each position. This study examined 103 sports-related job ads obtained from four human resources websites. Using content analysis, job ads were examined in terms of job titles, and the…
Leica ADS40 Sensor for Coastal Multispectral Imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craig, John C.
2007-01-01
The Leica ADS40 Sensor as it is used for coastal multispectral imaging is presented. The contents include: 1) Project Area Overview; 2) Leica ADS40 Sensor; 3) Focal Plate Arrangements; 4) Trichroid Filter; 5) Gradient Correction; 6) Image Acquisition; 7) Remote Sensing and ADS40; 8) Band comparisons of Satellite and Airborne Sensors; 9) Impervious Surface Extraction; and 10) Impervious Surface Details.
2 CFR 200.470 - Taxes (including Value Added Tax).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... Federal government for the taxes, interest, and penalties. (c) Value Added Tax (VAT) Foreign taxes charged... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxes (including Value Added Tax). 200.470... Cost § 200.470 Taxes (including Value Added Tax). (a) For states, local governments and Indian...
14 CFR 1203.903 - Ad hoc committees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ad hoc committees. 1203.903 Section 1203... NASA Information Security Program Committee § 1203.903 Ad hoc committees. The Chairperson is authorized to establish such ad hoc panels or subcommittees as may be necessary in the conduct of the...
14 CFR 1203.903 - Ad hoc committees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Ad hoc committees. 1203.903 Section 1203.903... Information Security Program Committee § 1203.903 Ad hoc committees. The Chairperson is authorized to establish such ad hoc panels or subcommittees as may be necessary in the conduct of the Committee's work....
21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90 Section... PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner may use...
21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90 Section... PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner may use...
21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90 Section... PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner may use...
14 CFR § 1203.803 - Ad hoc committees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ad hoc committees. Â§ 1203.803 Section Â... PROGRAM Delegation of Authority To Make Determinations in Original Classification Matters § 1203.803 Ad hoc committees. The Chairperson is authorized to establish such ad hoc panels or subcommittees as...
14 CFR 1203.903 - Ad hoc committees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ad hoc committees. 1203.903 Section 1203... NASA Information Security Program Committee § 1203.903 Ad hoc committees. The Chairperson is authorized to establish such ad hoc panels or subcommittees as may be necessary in the conduct of the...
21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90 Section... PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner may use...
14 CFR 1203.903 - Ad hoc committees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ad hoc committees. 1203.903 Section 1203... NASA Information Security Program Committee § 1203.903 Ad hoc committees. The Chairperson is authorized to establish such ad hoc panels or subcommittees as may be necessary in the conduct of the...
14 CFR § 1203.903 - Ad hoc committees.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ad hoc committees. Â§ 1203.903 Section Â... PROGRAM NASA Information Security Program Committee § 1203.903 Ad hoc committees. The Chairperson is authorized to establish such ad hoc panels or subcommittees as may be necessary in the conduct of...
21 CFR 14.90 - Ad hoc advisory committee members.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ad hoc advisory committee members. 14.90 Section... PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Members of Advisory Committees § 14.90 Ad hoc advisory committee members. In selecting members of an ad hoc advisory committee, the Commissioner may use...
Evaluating Teachers: The Important Role of Value-Added
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glazerman, Steven; Loeb, Susanna; Goldhaber, Dan; Staiger, Douglas; Raudenbush, Stephen; Whitehurst, Grover
2010-01-01
The evaluation of teachers based on the contribution they make to the learning of their students, "value-added", is an increasingly popular but controversial education reform policy. In this report, the authors highlight and try to clarify four areas of confusion about value-added. The first is between value-added information and the uses to which…
Spontaneous Ad Hoc Mobile Cloud Computing Network
Lacuesta, Raquel; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes
2014-01-01
Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes. PMID:25202715
Adding crumb rubber into exterior wall materials.
Zhu, Han; Thong-On, Norasit; Zhang, Xiong
2002-10-01
In Arizona US, most houses are built with walls covered by stuccos/coatings/mortars. This paper presents an explorative investigation of adding crumb rubber into stuccos/coatings/mortars. A series of experiments are conducted to examine the thermal and mechanical performance of the crumb rubber mixes. The results show that, the mixes with crumb rubber do exhibit more desirable performances like being high in crack-resistance and thermal insulation, and low in thermal expansion/contraction. The drawback for the crumb rubber mixes is the reduction in compressive strength, but which can be compensated by other means. As a site experiment, an area of 100 square-feet of crumb rubber coatings for two mix designs is sprayed on a tire-adobe wall. After being sprayed more than 14 months, the coatings apparently are in good condition. Significance of this study is that this practice, if accepted, will yield improved products that consume large quantities of crumb rubber. PMID:12498477
Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.
2015-03-01
Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. PMID:25713277
Droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product
2015-08-06
Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration (Nd) will increase and droplet size will decrease, for a given liquid water path. This will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation; however, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain.McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based onBoers andmore » Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions. In order to provide data sets for studying aerosol-cloud interactions, the McComiskey et al. (2009) method was implemented as the Droplet Number Concentration (NDROP) value-added product (VAP).« less
Ishii, Yukihito; Motohashi, Yu; Muramatsu, Makoto; Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Sasase, Tomohiko; Yamada, Takahisa; Matsui, Tohru; Kume, Shinichi; Ohta, Takeshi
2015-01-01
AIM: To investigate the histological features of the liver in spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats compared with age-matched Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: Female SDT Leprfa (SDT fatty) rats and age-matched SD rats were fed ad libitum. Body weight and biochemical parameters, such as serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels as well as fatty acid and TG accumulation in the liver were evaluated at 8 wk of age in the non-fasting state and at 8-wk intervals from 8 to 40 wk of age. Histopathological examinations of the liver were performed using hematoxylin and eosin and Sirius Red staining as well as double staining for ED-1 and toluidine blue. The expression of genes involved in TG synthesis, inflammation, and fibrosis was examined in the liver. RESULTS: SDT fatty rats showed significantly increased body weight compared with SD rats. Serum glucose, TG, and TC levels were significantly higher in SDT fatty rats compared with SD rats. The serum AST and ALT levels in SDT fatty rats were significantly elevated at 8 wk of age compared with the levels in SD rats. Hepatic TG content was marked in SDT fatty rats from 8 to 32 wk of age. Histopathologically, severe hepatosteatosis accompanied by inflammation was observed at 8 wk of age, and fibrosis started to occur at 32 wk of age. Furthermore, Sirius Red and ED-1 staining were increased in the liver at 32 wk of age. Hepatic gene expression related to TG synthesis, inflammation and fibrosis tended to increase in SDT fatty rats compared with SD rats, and the gene expression related to TG secretion was decreased in SDT fatty rats compared with SD rats. CONCLUSION: Female SDT fatty rats have the potential to become an important animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:26290633
Minimal surfaces in q-deformed AdS5xS5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kameyama, Takashi
2016-01-01
We study minimal surfaces in q-deformed AdS5×S5. For this purpose, it is convenient to introduce a coordinate system which describes the spacetime only inside the singularity surface and treat the singularity surface as the holographic screen. In particular, we consider minimal surfaces whose boundary shapes are 1) a straight line and 2) a circle. In the q → 1 limit, the solutions correspond to a 1/2 BPS straight line Wilson loop and a 1/2 BPS circular one, respectively. A remarkable point is that the classical Euclidean actions have no linear divergence unlike the original ones. This finiteness indicates that the q-deformation may be regarded as a UV regularization.
Holographic cusped Wilson loops in q-deformed AdS5 × S5 spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Nan; Chen, Hui-Huang; Wu, Jun-Bao
2015-10-01
In this paper, a minimal surface in q-deformed AdS5×S5 with a cusp boundary is studied in detail. This minimal surface is dual to a cusped Wilson loop in dual field theory. We find that the area of the minimal surface has both logarithmic squared divergence and logarithmic divergence. The logarithmic squared divergence cannot be removed by either Legendre transformation or the usual geometric subtraction. We further make an analytic continuation to the Minkowski signature, taking the limit such that the two edges of the cusp become light-like, and extract the anomalous dimension from the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence. This anomalous dimension goes back smoothly to the results in the undeformed case when we take the limit that the deformation parameter goes to zero. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105154, 11222549, 11275207), K. C. Wong Education Foundation and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS
Masses of higher spin fields on AdS4 and conformal perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hikida, Yasuaki
2016-07-01
We study the breaking of gauge symmetry for higher spin theory on AdS4 dual to the 3d critical O (N ) vector model. It was argued that the breaking is due to the change of boundary condition for a scalar field through a loop effect and the Goldstone modes are bound states of a scalar field and higher spin field. The masses of higher spin fields were obtained from the anomalous dimensions of dual currents at the leading order in 1 /N , and we reproduce them from the O (N ) vector model in the conformal perturbation theory. The anomalous dimensions can be computed from the bulk theory using Witten diagrams, and we show that the bulk computation reduces to the boundary one in the conformal perturbation theory. With this fact our computation provides an additional support for the bulk interpretation.
Wake potential in a strong coupling plasma from the AdS /CFT correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lian; Liu, Hui
2016-04-01
With the dielectric function computed from the AdS /CFT correspondence, we studied the wake potential induced by a fast moving charge in a strong-coupling plasma and compared it with the weak-coupling wake potential for different particle velocities as v =0.55 c and v =0.99 c . The most prominent difference between strong and weak wake potential is that, when v =0.99 c , the remarkable oscillation due to Cerenkov-like radiation and the Mach cone in weak coupling disappears in strong coupling, which implies that the plasmon mode with phase velocity lower than the speed of light dose not exist in the strong-coupling plasma.
Holographic fermionic spectrum from Born-Infeld AdS black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jian-Pin
2016-07-01
In this letter, we systematically explore the holographic (non-)relativistic fermionic spectrum without/with dipole coupling dual to Born-Infeld anti-de Sitter (BI-AdS) black hole. For the relativistic fermionic fixed point, this holographic fermionic system exhibits non-Fermi liquid behavior. Also, with the increase of BI parameter γ, the non-Fermi liquid becomes even "more non-Fermi". When the dipole coupling term is included, we find that the BI term makes it a lot tougher to form the gap. While for the non-relativistic fermionic system with large dipole coupling in BI-AdS background, with the increase of BI parameter, the gap comes into being again.
Multi-spike strings in AdS3 with mixed three-form fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Aritra; Sadhukhan, Abhishake
2016-05-01
The string sigma model in AdS3 × S 3 supported by mixed three-form fluxes has recently been proved to be integrable which led to a plethora of work in this background including proposals for S matrix and study of semiclassical string profiles. Motivated by this, in this paper, we present a study of `spiky' strings in this background. We analyze the string profiles in detail and also find the dispersion relation between the charges in the `long' string limit after solving the equations of motion perturbatively upto the leading order in the Neveu-Schwarz flux b. We find that the dispersion for 2 spikes gets corrected by the term -b^2/2 log S. We also discuss the fate of the solution in the limit of pure NS-NS flux.
Boundary conditions and partition functions in higher spin AdS3/CFT2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Boer, Jan; Jottar, Juan I.
2016-04-01
We discuss alternative definitions of the semiclassical partition function in two-dimensional CFTs with higher spin symmetry, in the presence of sources for the higher spin currents. Theories of this type can often be described via Hamiltonian reduction of current algebras, and a holographic description in terms of three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory with generalized AdS boundary conditions becomes available. By studying the CFT Ward identities in the presence of sources, we determine the appropriate choice of boundary terms and boundary conditions in Chern-Simons theory for the various types of partition functions considered. In particular, we compare the Chern-Simons description of deformations of the field theory Hamiltonian versus those encoding deformations of the CFT action. Our analysis clarifies various issues and confusions that have permeated the literature on this subject.
Contractions of AdS brane algebra and superGalileon Lagrangians
Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Onda, Seiji
2013-06-15
We examine AdS Galileon Lagrangians using the method of nonlinear realization. By contractions (1) flat curvature limit, (2) non-relativistic brane algebra limit, and (3) (1) + (2) limits we obtain DBI, Newton-Hoock, and Galilean Galileons, respectively. We make clear how these Lagrangians appear as invariant 4-forms and/or pseudo-invariant Wess-Zumino (WZ) terms using Maurer-Cartan (MC) equations on the coset G/SO(3, 1). We show the equations of motion are written in terms of the MC forms only and explain why the inverse Higgs condition is obtained as the equation of motion for all cases. The supersymmetric extension is also examined using a supercoset SU(2, 2 Double-Vertical-Line 1)/(SO(3, 1) Multiplication-Sign U(1)) and five WZ forms are constructed. They are reduced to the corresponding five Galileon WZ forms in the bosonic limit and are candidates for supersymmetric Galileon action.
AdS4 solutions of massive IIA from dyonic ISO(7) supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varela, Oscar
2016-03-01
Explicit formulae are given for the consistent truncation of massive type IIA supergravity on the six-sphere to the SU(3)-invariant sector of D = 4 {N}=8 supergravity with dyonic ISO(7) gauging. These formulae are then used to construct AdS4 solutions of massive type IIA via uplift on S 6 of the critical points of the D = 4 supergravity with at least SU(3) symmetry. We find a new {N}=1 solution with SU(3) symmetry, a new non-supersymmetric solution with SO(6) symmetry, and recover previously known solutions. We quantise the fluxes, calculate the gravitational free energies of the solutions and discuss the stability of the non-supersymmetric ones. Among these, a (previously known) G2-invariant solution is found to be stable.
Boundary conditions for General Relativity on AdS3 and the KdV hierarchy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo
2016-06-01
It is shown that General Relativity with negative cosmological constant in three spacetime dimensions admits a new family of boundary conditions being labeled by a nonnegative integer k. Gravitational excitations are then described by "boundary gravitons" that fulfill the equations of the k-th element of the KdV hierarchy. In particular, k = 0 corresponds to the Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions so that excitations are described by chiral movers. In the case of k = 1, the boundary gravitons fulfill the KdV equation and the asymptotic symmetry algebra turns out to be infinite-dimensional, abelian and devoid of central extensions. The latter feature also holds for the remaining cases that describe the hierarchy ( k > 1). Our boundary conditions then provide a gravitational dual of two noninteracting left and right KdV movers, and hence, boundary gravitons possess anisotropic Lifshitz scaling with dynamical exponent z = 2 k + 1. Remarkably, despite spacetimes solving the field equations are locally AdS, they possess anisotropic scaling being induced by the choice of boundary conditions. As an application, the entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole is precisely recovered from a suitable generalization of the Cardy formula that is compatible with the anisotropic scaling of the chiral KdV movers at the boundary, in which the energy of AdS spacetime with our boundary conditions depends on z and plays the role of the central charge. The extension of our boundary conditions to the case of higher spin gravity and its link with different classes of integrable systems is also briefly addressed.
Kraft, Tamar T; Huang, Donald; Lolier, Melanie; Warshaw, Deena; LaMagna, Sam; Natanova, Elona; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J
2016-01-01
Recent studies indicate that C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB inbred mouse strains differ in post-oral fructose conditioning. This was demonstrated by their differential flavor conditioning response to intragastric fructose and their preference for fructose versus a non-nutritive sweetener. The present study extended this analysis to SWR and BALB/c inbred strains which are of interest because they both show robust flavor conditioning responses to fructose. In the first experiment, ad-libitum fed mice were given a series of 2-day, two-bottle preference tests between 8% fructose and a more preferred, but non-nutritive 0.1% sucralose +0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution (tests 1 & 4), and fructose or S+S versus water (tests 2 and 3). In test 1, SWR mice preferred S+S to fructose, and in tests 2 and 3, they preferred both sweeteners to water. In test 4, SWR mice switched their preference and consumed more fructose than S+S. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice strongly preferred S+S to fructose in both tests 1 and 4, although they preferred both sweeteners to water in tests 2 and 3. Food-restricted BALB/c mice also preferred the non-nutritive S+S to fructose in tests 1 and 4. The experience-induced fructose preference reversal observed in SWR, but not BALB/c mice indicates that fructose has a post-oral reinforcing effect in SWR mice as in FVB mice. Because B6 and FVB mice prefer glucose to fructose based on the post-oral actions of the two sugars, the second experiment compared the preferences of SWR and BALB/c mice for 8% glucose and fructose solutions. Ad-libitum fed and food-restricted SWR mice strongly preferred glucose to fructose. In contrast, ad-libitum fed BALB/c mice were indifferent to the sugars, perhaps because of their overall low intakes. Food-restricted BALB/c mice, however, strongly preferred glucose. These findings indicate that SWR and BALB/c mice differ in their preference response to the post-oral actions of fructose. PMID:26485292
Effect of growth compensation on subsequent physical fitness in green swordtails Xiphophorus helleri
Royle, Nick J; Lindström, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B
2005-01-01
Early environmental conditions have been suggested to influence subsequent locomotor performance in a range of species, but most measurements have been of initial (baseline) performance. By manipulating early growth trajectories in green swordtail fish, we show that males that underwent compensatory growth as juveniles had a similar baseline swimming endurance when mature adults to ad libitum fed controls. However, they had a reduced capacity to increase endurance with training, which is more likely to relate to Darwinian fitness. Compensatory growth may thus result in important locomotor costs later in life. PMID:17148321
Holographic superconductors in the AdS black hole with a magnetic charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.; Raza, Muhammad
2012-10-01
In this work, we study the analytical properties of a 2 + 1-dimensional magnetically charged holographic superconductor in AdS4. We obtain the critical chemical potential μc analytically, using the Sturm-Liouville variational approach. Further, by applying the perturbation scheme, we obtain the electrical conductivity of the model. We observe that the real part of the σ increases and the imaginary part of the conductivity decreases monotonously versus the frequency ω. Each module of σ has a minimum value, which is similar to the case of the uncharged Schwarachild-AdS background. Further, we also conclude that the value of \\frac {\\omega _g}{T_{ {c}}} increases. For the condensate operator {O}_2 we find that, as the frequency ω increases for fixed H, the real part has a common behavior. However, the imaginary part possesses a minimum value in this case and the location of this minimum value changes along right when H increases. We find that at ω = 0, the real part of conductivity behaves as a delta function and the imaginary part exists as a pole in the background. This pole may be related to the existence of a magnetic monopole. Also, the obtained analytic result can be used to back up numerical computations in the holographic superconductor in the probe limit.
Three dimensional nonlinear magnetic AdS solutions through topological defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Momennia, M.; Panahiyan, S.
2015-09-01
Inspired by large applications of topological defects in describing different phenomena in physics, and considering the importance of three dimensional solutions in AdS/CFT correspondence, in this paper we obtain magnetic anti-de Sitter solutions of nonlinear electromagnetic fields. We take into account three classes of nonlinear electrodynamic models; first two classes are the well-known Born-Infeld like models including logarithmic and exponential forms and third class is known as the power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics. We investigate the effects of these nonlinear sources on three dimensional magnetic solutions. We show that these asymptotical AdS solutions do not have any curvature singularity and horizon. We also generalize the static metric to the case of rotating solutions and find that the value of the electric charge depends on the rotation parameter. Finally, we consider the quadratic Maxwell invariant as a correction of Maxwell theory and we investigate the effects of nonlinearity as a correction. We study the behavior of the deficit angle in presence of these theories of nonlinearity and compare them with each other. We also show that some cases with negative deficit angle exists which are representing objects with different geometrical structure. We also show that in case of the static only magnetic field exists whereas by boosting the metric to rotating one, electric field appears too.
Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha
2016-01-01
Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013
Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.
Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha
2016-01-01
Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013
Combinatorial gene therapy renders increased survival in cirrhotic rats
2010-01-01
Background Liver fibrosis ranks as the second cause of death in México's productive-age population. This pathology is characterized by acummulation of fibrillar proteins in hepatic parenchyma causing synthetic and metabolic disfunction. Remotion of excessive fibrous proteins might result in benefit for subjects increasing survival index. The goal of this work was to find whether the already known therapeutical effect of human urokinase Plasminogen Activator and human Matrix Metalloprotease 8 extends survival index in cirrhotic animals. Methods Wistar rats (80 g) underwent chronic intoxication with CCl4: mineral oil for 8 weeks. Cirrhotic animals were injected with a combined dose of Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP8 (3 × 1011 and 1.5 × 1011 vp/Kg, respectively) or with Ad-beta-Gal (4.5 × 1011) and were killed after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. Then, liver and serum were collected. An additional set of cirrhotic animals injected with combined gene therapy was also monitored for their probability of survival. Results Only the cirrhotic animals treated with therapeutical genes (Ad-delta-huPA+Ad-MMP-8) showed improvement in liver fibrosis. These results correlated with hydroxyproline determinations. A significant decrement in alpha-SMA and TGF-beta1 gene expression was also observed. Cirrhotic rats treated with Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP8 had a higher probability of survival at 60 days with respect to Ad-beta-Gal-injected animals. Conclusion A single administration of Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP-8 is efficient to induce fibrosis regression and increase survival in experimental liver fibrosis. PMID:20509929
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Shibaji
2015-10-01
It is known from the work in [1] of Lu et al. that the non-supersymmetric charged D3-brane (with anisotropies in time as well as one of the spatial directions of D3-brane) of type IIB string theory is characterized by five independent parameters. By fixing one of the parameters and zooming into a particular region of space-time we construct a four parameter family of solution in AdS5, which interpolates between AdS5 black hole and AdS5 soliton (when one of the spatial directions in the Poincare coordinates is compact) by continuously changing the parameters (there is no need to take a double Wick rotation as is usual to go from one solution to the other) from one set of values to another. We consider two cases. In the first case the dilaton is constant for this transition and there are only three independent parameters, whereas in the second case the dilaton varies and there are four independent parameters. In the latter case, the solution interpolates between AdS5 black hole, AdS5 soliton as well as the so-called `soft-wall' gravity solution of AdS/QCD model. We also compare our solution to the previously obtained Constable-Myers solution which is helpful in generalizing the solution for other D p (for p ≠ 3) branes.
Nearly Conformal QCD and AdS/CFT
de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC
2005-08-08
The AdS/CFT correspondence is a powerful tool to study the properties of conformal QCD at strong coupling in terms of a higher dimensional dual gravity theory. The power-law falloff of scattering amplitudes in the non-perturbative regime and calculable hadron spectra follow from holographic models dual to QCD with conformal behavior at short distances and confinement at large distances. String modes and fluctuations about the AdS background are identified with QCD degrees of freedom and orbital excitations at the AdS boundary limit. A description of form factors in space and time-like regions and the behavior of light-front wave functions can also be understood in terms of a dual gravity description in the interior of AdS.
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who have been bitten by an infected rat or, in some cases, squirrels, mice, cats, and ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Littig, K. S.; And Others
This guide is for use in the classroom and field training of inspection and operational personnel who serve in planned community rodent-control programs. The urban rat survey may be used as the primary means of obtaining information on rat infestations and the conditions favoring rat populations in urban communities. It provides the data necessary…
Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on amiodarone-induced pneumotoxicity in rats
Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Stavreva, Galya; Dancheva, Violeta; Terziev, Ljudmil; Atanasova, Milena; Stoyanova, Angelina; Dimitrova, Anelia; Shopova, Veneta
2014-01-01
Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot is extremely rich in biologically active polyphenols. Objective: We studied the protective effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) in a model of amiodarone (AD)-induced pneumotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: AD was instilled intratracheally on days 0 and 2 (6.25 mg/kg). AMFJ (5 mL/kg and 10 mL/kg) was given orally from day 1 to days 2, 4, 9, and 10 to rats, which were sacrificed respectively on days 3, 5, 10, and 28 when biochemical, cytological, and immunological assays were performed. Results: AMFJ antagonized AD-induced increase of the lung weight coefficient. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, AD increased significantly the protein content, total cell count, polymorphonuclear cells, lymphocytes and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase on days 3 and 5. In AMFJ-treated rats these indices of direct toxic damage did not differ significantly from the control values. In lung tissue, AD induced oxidative stress measured by malondialdehyde content and fibrosis assessed by the hydroxyproline level. AMFJ prevented these effects of AD. In rat serum, AD caused a significant elevation of interleukin IL-6 on days 3 and 5, and a decrease of IL-10 on day 3. In AMFJ-treated rats, these indices of inflammation had values that did not differ significantly from the control ones. Conclusion: AMFJ could have a protective effect against AD-induced pulmonary toxicity as evidenced by the reduced signs of AD-induced direct toxic damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. PMID:24914278
Du Shisuo; Qiang Ming; Zeng Zhaochong; Zhou Jian; Tan Yunshan; Zhang Zhengyu; Zeng Haiying; Liu Zhongshan
2010-12-01
Purpose: We determined whether anti-transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) intervention could halt the progression of established radiation-induced liver fibrosis (RILF). Methods and Materials: A replication-defective adenoviral vector expressing the extracellular portion of human T{beta}RII and the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G fusion protein (AdT{beta}RIIFc) was produced. The entire rat liver was exposed to 30 Gy irradiation to generate a RILF model (RILFM). Then, RILFM animals were treated with AdT{beta}RIIFc (1 x 10{sup 11} plaque-forming units [PFU] of T{beta}RII), control virus (1 x 10{sup 11} PFU of AdGFP), or saline. Delayed radiation liver injury was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Chronic oxidative stress damage, hepatic stellate cell activation, and hepatocyte regeneration were also analyzed. Results: In rats infected with AdT{beta}RIIFc, fibrosis was significantly improved compared with rats treated with AdGFP or saline, as assessed by histology, hydroxyproline content, and serum level of hyaluronic acid. Compared with AdGFP rats, AdT{beta}RIIFc-treated rats exhibited decreased oxidative stress damage and hepatic stellate cell activation and preserved liver function. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in the progression of liver fibrosis and suggest that anti-TGF-{beta} intervention is feasible and ameliorates established liver fibrosis. In addition, chronic oxidative stress may be involved in the progression of RILF.
Lai, Xinsheng; Ren, Jie; Lu, Yangjia; Cui, Shaoyang; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chunzhi; Shan, Baoci; Nie, Bingbing
2016-01-01
Objective To explore the effects of acupuncture at HT7 on different cerebral regions in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with the application of 18F-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Methods Sixty Wistar rats were included after undergoing a Y-maze electric sensitivity test. Ten rats were used as a healthy control group. The remaining 50 rats were injected stereotaxically with ibotenic acid into the right nucleus basalis magnocellularis and injected intraperitoneally with D-galactose. AD was successfully modelled in 36 rats, which were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 each): the AD group, which remained untreated; the AD+HT7 group, which received 20 sessions of acupuncture at HT7 over 1 month; and the AD+Sham group, which received acupuncture at a distant non-acupuncture point. Total reaction time (TRT) was measured by Y-maze and 18F-FDG-PET scans were conducted on day 1 and 30. PET images were processed with Statistical Parametric Mapping 8.0. Results Pre-treatment, TRT was greater in all AD groups versus controls (mean±SD 24.10±2.48 vs 41.34±5.00 s). Post-treatment, TRT was shortened in AD+HT7 versus AD+Sham and AD groups (p<0.0001, two-way analysis of variance). Glucose metabolic activity in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe was decreased in AD rats compared with healthy controls and relatively elevated after HT7 acupuncture. Compared with sham acupuncture, HT7 needling had a greater positive influence on brain glucose metabolism. Conclusions Needling at HT7 can improve memory ability and cerebral glucose metabolic activity of the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and frontal/temporal lobes in an AD rat model. PMID:26654890
Quasinormal modes of self-dual warped AdS3 black hole in topological massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ran; Ren, Ji-Rong
2011-03-01
We consider the scalar, vector and spinor field perturbations in the background of self-dual warped AdS3 black hole of topological massive gravity. The corresponding exact expressions for quasinormal modes are obtained by analytically solving the perturbation equations and imposing the vanishing Dirichlet boundary condition at asymptotic infinity. It is expected that the quasinormal modes agree with the poles of retarded Green’s functions of the CFT dual to self-dual warped AdS3 black hole. Our results provide a quantitative test of the warped AdS/CFT correspondence.
Efficacy of adding folic acid to foods.
Fajardo, Violeta; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio
2012-06-01
In the past, food fortification along with nutritional education and the decrease in food costs relative to income have proven successful in eliminating common nutritional deficiencies. These deficiencies such as goiter, rickets, beriberi, and pellagra have been replaced with an entirely new set of "emergent deficiencies" that were not previously considered a problem [e.g., folate and neural tube defects (NTDs)]. In addition, the different nutrition surveys in so-called affluent countries have identified "shortfalls" of nutrients specific to various age groups and/or physiological status. Complex, multiple-etiology diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and obesity have emerged. Food fortification has proven an effective tool for tackling nutritional deficiencies in populations; but today a more reasonable approach is to use food fortification as a means to support but not replace dietary improvement strategies (i. e. nutritional education campaigns). Folic acid (FA) is a potential relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies. The evidence linking FA to NTD prevention led to the introduction of public health strategies to increase folate intakes: pharmacological supplementation, mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with FA, and the advice to increase the intake of folate-rich foods. It is quite contradictory to observe that, regardless of these findings, there is only limited information on food folate and FA content. Data in Food Composition Tables and Databases are scarce or incomplete. Fortification of staple foods with FA has added difficulty to this task. Globally, the decision to fortify products is left up to individual food manufacturers. Voluntary fortification is a common practice in many countries. Therefore, the "worldwide map of vitamin fortification" may be analyzed. It is important to examine if fortification today really answers to vitamin requirements at different ages and/or physiological states. The
What makes an ad a cigarette ad? Commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual press
Smith, E.; Offen, N.; Malone, R.
2005-01-01
Objectives: To determine the extent of commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) press. Methods: Content analysis of all advertising containing tobacco related text or imagery in 20 LGB community periodicals, published between January 1990 and December 2000. Results: 3428 ads were found: 689 tobacco product ads, 1607 ads for cessation products or services, 99 ads with a political message about tobacco, and 1033 non-tobacco ads that showed tobacco (NAST). Although cessation ads were numerically dominant, tobacco product ads and NAST occupied more space and were more likely to use images. NAST almost never had an anti-tobacco message. Formal sponsorship between tobacco and other companies was very rare. Lesbian periodicals had proportionally more NAST and fewer cessation ads. Conclusions: Cigarette ads were outnumbered by NAST. Although these ads do not usually show brands, and are unlikely to be the result of formal sponsorship agreements, they may be "selling" smoking. Tobacco control advocates should persuade editors to refuse tobacco product ads and those with gratuitous tobacco imagery. PMID:16286500
Changes of cortical epileptic afterdischarges after status epilepticus in immature rats.
Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubová, Hana; Mares, Pavel
2008-02-01
Status epilepticus (SE) in developing rats leads to neuronal degeneration in many brain structures including neocortex but the functional consequences of cortical damage were studied only exceptionally. Lithium-pilocarpine SE was elicited in 12- (P12) and 25-day-old (P25) rats, convulsions were interrupted after 2h by paraldehyde. Cortical electrodes were implanted 3, 6, 9, 13 and/or 26 days after SE. Low-frequency stimulation of sensorimotor cortex was repeated with at least 10-min intervals with a stepwise increasing intensity (0.2-14 mA). Thresholds for movements elicited by stimulation, spike-and-wave afterdischarges (ADs), clonic seizures, mixed ADs (transition into a limbic type of ADs) and recurrent ADs as well as duration of ADs were evaluated. The first three phenomena were not influenced by SE with the exception of lower thresholds for movements during stimulation. Transition into limbic seizures and recurrent seizures were delayed in both age groups and threshold intensities for limbic ADs were at some intervals higher in SE than in control animals. Duration of ADs was changed only at short intervals after SE; it was shortened at 3 and 6 days in P25 and 3 days in P12 rats, respectively. P12 group then exhibited a transient increase in duration of ADs 6 days after SE. Our results did not prove a higher cortical excitability after SE in either age group. On the contrary, there were some signs of a decreased excitability. PMID:18178384
Fouad, Hanan; Sabry, Dina; Elsetohy, Khaled; Fathy, Naglaa
2016-03-01
The present study was conducted to compare between the therapeutic efficacies of human amniotic membrane-derived stem cells (hAM-MSCs) vs. adipose tissue derived stem cells (AD-MSCs) in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced ovarian failure in rats. Forty-eight adult female rats were included in the study; 10 rats were used as control group. Thirty-eight rats were injected with CTX to induce ovarian failure and divided into four groups: ovarian failure (IOF) (IOF group), IOF + phosphate buffer saline (PBS group), IOF + hAM-MSCs group and IOF + AD-MSCs group. Serum levels of FSH and estradiol (E2) were assessed. Histopathological examination of the ovarian tissues was performed and quantitative gene expressions of Oct-4, Stra8 and integrin beta-1 genes were conducted by quantitative real time PCR. Results showed that IOF and IOF + PBS rat groups exhibited decreased ovarian follicles, increased interstitial fibrosis with significant decrease of serum E2, significant increase serum FSH level and significant down-regulation of Stra8 and integrin beta-1. In hAM-MSCs and AD-MSCs rat groups, there were increased follicles and corpora with evident the presence of oocytes, significant increase in serum E2, significant decrease in serum FSH levels (in hAM-MSCs treated group only) and significant up-regulation of the three studied genes with higher levels in hAM-MSCs treated rats group when compared to AD-MSCs treated rats group. In Conclusion, administration of either hAM-derived MSCs or AD-MSCs exerts a significant therapeutic efficacy in chemotherapy induced ovarian insult in rats. hAM-MSCs exert higher therapeutic efficacy as compared to AD-MSCs. PMID:26966564
Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.
2011-01-01
A persistent negative energy balance results in bone loss. It is not clear whether the bone loss associated with chronic negative energy balance can be prevented. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of intermittent low dose parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment in maintaining normal bone formation during severe energy restriction. Six-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were divided into 4 treatment groups: (1) baseline, (2) ad libitum (ad lib)-fed control, (3) energy-restricted (to consume 40% ad lib caloric intake), or (4) energy-restricted + low dose (1 μg/kg/d) PTH. Severe energy restriction for 14 days decreased body weight and serum leptin levels. Compared to ad lib-fed controls, energy-restricted rats had lower cancellous bone formation, higher osteoclast perimeter/bone perimeter and higher bone marrow adiposity in the proximal tibial metaphysis. Also, the energy-restricted rats had a lower periosteal bone formation rate at the tibia-fibula synostosis. Administration of PTH to energy-restricted rats had no effect on weight loss or osteoclast perimeter/bone perimeter. In contrast, energy-restricted rats treated with PTH had higher rates of cancellous and cortical bone formation compared to energy-restricted rats, and did not differ from the ad lib-fed control animals. Furthermore, PTH treatment maintained normal bone marrow adiposity. In conclusion, rapid weight loss in adult male rats was accompanied by decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity and these changes were prevented by low dose PTH treatment. Taken together, the results suggest that the energy cost of bone formation in adult rats is low and PTH therapy is effective in preventing the reduced bone formation associated with rapid weight loss. PMID:21215827
Introduction to the AdS/CFT Correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nąstase, Horaǧiu
2015-09-01
Preface; Introduction; Part I. Background: 1. Elements of quantum field theory and gauge theory; 2. Basics of general relativity. Anti-de Sitter space; 3. Basics of supersymmetry; 4. Basics of supergravity; 5. Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction; 6. Black holes and p-branes; 7. String theory actions and spectra; 8. Elements of conformal field theory; 9. D-branes; Part II. Basics of AdS/CFT for N = 4 SYM vs AdS5 × S5: 10. The AdS/CFT correspondence: motivation, definition and spectra; 11. Witten prescription and 3-point correlator calculations; 12. Holography in Lorentzian signature: Poincaré and global; 13. Solitonic objects in AdS/CFT; 14. Quarks and the Wilson loop; 15. Finite temperature and N = 4 SYM plasmas; 16. Scattering processes and gravitational shockwave limit; 17. The pp-wave correspondence; 18. Spin chains; Part III. AdS/CFT Developments and Gauge-Gravity Dualities: 19. Other conformal cases; 20. The 3 dimensional ABJM model vs. AdS4 × CP3; 21. Gravity duals; 22. Holographic renormalization; 23. RG flow between fixed points; 24. Phenomenological gauge-gravity duality I: AdS/QCD; 25. Phenomenological gauge-gravity duality II: AdS/CMT; 26. Gluon scattering: the Alday-Maldacena prescription; 27. Holographic entanglement entropy: the Ryu-Takayanagi prescription.
Super-Galilean conformal algebra in AdS/CFT
Sakaguchi, Makoto
2010-04-15
Galilean conformal algebra (GCA) is an Inoenue-Wigner (IW) contraction of a conformal algebra, while Newton-Hooke string algebra is an IW contraction of an Anti-de Sitter (AdS) algebra, which is the isometry of an AdS space. It is shown that the GCA is a boundary realization of the Newton-Hooke string algebra in the bulk AdS. The string lies along the direction transverse to the boundary, and the worldsheet is AdS{sub 2}. The one-dimensional conformal symmetry so(2,1) and rotational symmetry so(d) contained in the GCA are realized as the symmetry on the AdS{sub 2} string worldsheet and rotational symmetry in the space transverse to the AdS{sub 2} in AdS{sub d+2}, respectively. It follows from this correspondence that 32 supersymmetric GCAs can be derived as IW contractions of superconformal algebras, psu(2,2|4), osp(8|4), and osp(8*|4). We also derive less supersymmetric GCAs from su(2,2|2), osp(4|4), osp(2|4), and osp(8*|2)
Chowdhury, Parimal; Soulsby, Michael
2002-01-01
This study tested whether or not simulated weightlessness by tail-suspension increases the levels of lipid peroxidation products in rat brain. The brain tissues of rats on a soybean diet were also assayed for lipid peroxidation products to evaluate the possible role of soy-protein as a dietary anti-oxidant. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group 1 rats were fed standard Purina rat chow ad libidum and served as controls. Group 2 rats were fed a soybean diet containing 37% soy-protein and were not tail-suspended. Group 3 rats were fed standard Purina rat chow ad libidum and were tail-suspended to induce simulated weightlessness. After 2 wk, all of the rats were killed. Each whole brain was segmented into frontal cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem. After a specific weight of each segment was excised, the residual tissues were combined and used as a whole brain sample. The samples were analyzed for lipid peroxidation products by a chromogenic assay that reacts with malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HNE). The mean concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (MDA plus 4-HNE) in whole brain, frontal cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem of the control rats ranged from 16 to 18 micromol/g; the corresponding means ranged from 10 to 13 micromol/g in rats fed the soybean diet, and from 22 to 26 micromol/g in the tail-suspended rats. Thus, the mean levels of lipid peroxidation products in brain tissues were decreased in the rats fed the soy diet and were increased in the rats that were tail-suspended to simulate weightlessness, when compared to those of rats fed a regular diet. PMID:12017202
Matrix model maps and reconstruction of AdS supergravity interactions
Cremonini, Sera; Mello Koch, Robert de; Jevicki, Antal
2008-05-15
We consider the question of reconstructing (cubic) SUGRA interactions in AdS/CFT. The method we introduce is based on the matrix model maps (MMP) which were previously successfully employed at the linearized level. The strategy is to start with the map for 1/2 BPS configurations, which is exactly known (to all orders) in the Hamiltonian framework. We then use the extension of the matrix model map with the corresponding Ward identities to completely specify the interaction. A central point in this construction is the nonvanishing of off-shell interactions (even for highest-weight states)
The forecaster's added value in QPF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turco, M.; Milelli, M.
2010-03-01
: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use: the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance for the period +24 h/+48 h (i.e. the warning period in the Piemonte system); - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterization and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.
The forecaster's added value in QPF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turco, M.; Milelli, M.
2009-04-01
skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: · despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use: the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; · in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; · the QPFs verification is one of the most important activities of a Centro Funzionale because it allows a better understanding of the model behaviour in the different meteorological configurations, highlights the systematic characteristics, and helps in evaluating the reliability, in average or extreme values, over long term or in current situations; · eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical tecniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.
Explanations of AD in ethnic minority participants undergoing cognitive screening.
Tappen, Ruth M; Gibson, Sandra E; Williams, Christine L
2011-06-01
The purpose of this study was to describe and compare explanations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) of African American, Afro-Caribbean, and European American older adults undergoing cognitive screening. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions regarding what they knew about AD and if they were experiencing memory problems. Responses were coded and quantized for analysis. Forty percent reported experiencing memory problems. Afro-Caribbeans made significantly more incorrect statements about AD and were less likely to identify memory loss as a symptom. Half the participants said they would seek their physician's advice if the screening was positive; none mentioned a memory disorder center. Misconceptions about AD included the effect of aluminum, brain collapse, relaxed brain, shaking, tremors, and physical illness. More Afro-Caribbeans, all of whom were first generation, had misconceptions about AD. Campaigns to educate the public about AD need to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate information to ethnic minority populations. PMID:21697141
Stefanova, Natalia A.; Muraleva, Natalia A.; Korbolina, Elena E.; Kiseleva, Elena; Maksimova, Kseniya Yi.; Kolosova, Nataliya G.
2015-01-01
The amyloid cascade hypothesis posits that deposition of the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is a key event in the initiation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nonetheless, it now seems increasingly unlikely that amyloid toxicity is the cause of sporadic AD, which leads to cognitive decline. Here, using accelerated-senescence nontransgenic OXYS rats, we confirmed that aggregation of Aβ is a later event in AD-like pathology. We showed that an age-dependent increase in the levels of Aβ1–42 and extracellular Aβ deposits in the brain of OXYS rats occur later than do synaptic losses, neuronal cell death, mitochondrial structural abnormalities, and hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein. We identified the variants of the genes that are strongly associated with the risk of either late-onset or early-onset AD, including App, Apoe4, Bace1, Psen1, Psen2, and Picalm. We found that in OXYS rats nonsynonymous SNPs were located only in the genes Casp3 and Sorl1. Thus, we present proof that OXYS rats may be a model of sporadic AD. It is possible that multiple age-associated pathological processes may precede the toxic amyloid accumulation, which in turn triggers the final stage of the sporadic form of AD and becomes a hallmark event of the disease. PMID:25595891
On the absorption of alendronate in rats.
Lin, J H; Chen, I W; deLuna, F A
1994-12-01
Alendronate is an antiosteolytic agent under investigation for the treatment of a number of bone disorders. Since the compound is a zwitterion with five pKa values and is completely ionized in the intestine at the physiological pH, absorption is poor; less than 1% of an oral dose is available systemically in rats. In the present studies, absorption was found to be predominantly in the upper part of the small intestine. Administration of buffered solutions of alendronate (pH 2-11) did not improve absorption. Whereas food markedly impaired the absorption of alendronate, EDTA enhanced absorption in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of rats with ulcerogenic agents, mepirizole, acetylsalicylic acid, or indomethacin, resulted in a 3-7-fold increase in the oral absorption of alendronate. The absorption of phenol red, added as an indicator of intestinal tissue damage, was also increased in rats with experimental peptic ulcers. The enhanced absorption of alendronate observed in rats with experimental peptic ulcers was attributed to the alteration of the integrity of the intestinal membrane. PMID:7891304
Gribov ambiguity in asymptotically AdS three-dimensional gravity
Anabalon, Andres; Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio
2011-03-15
In this paper the zero modes of the de Donder gauge Faddeev-Popov operator for three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant are analyzed. It is found that the AdS{sub 3} vacuum produces (infinitely many) normalizable smooth zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator. On the other hand, it is found that the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole (including the zero mass black hole) does not generate zero modes. This differs from the usual Gribov problem in QCD where, close to the maximally symmetric vacuum, the Faddeev-Popov determinant is positive definite while 'far enough' from the vacuum it can vanish. This suggests that the zero mass Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole could be a suitable ground state of three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Because of the kinematic origin of this result, it also applies for other covariant gravity theories in three dimensions with AdS{sub 3} as maximally symmetric solution, such as new massive gravity and topologically massive gravity. The relevance of these results for supersymmetry breaking is pointed out.
Area spectrum of extremal black holes with warped AdS near-horizon geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wen-Yu
2014-06-01
In this paper, we provide an alternative method to study the area spectrum of certain classes of extremal black holes which have near-horizon geometry as warped AdS. We argue that previous methods which are based on the existence of quasinormal modes may not be applicable in the extremal limit. The topology difference of the near-horizon geometry between non-extremal and extremal black holes implies a separate treatment is needed to study the area discreteness in the extremal limit. To be specific, we will study area spectrum of supersymmetric BMPV black holes/black rings and Reissner-Nordström (RN) black holes at the extremal limit. Inspired by the recently established Kerr/CFT and RN/CFT correspondence, we propose a new way to quantize the area regardless of the (non-)existence of quasinormal modes or zero Hawking temperature. At last, we propose a dilute gas model and harmonic oscillator model which have same degrees of freedom as the dual CFT.
Warped AdS 6 × S 2 in Type IIB supergravity I: local solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas; Uhlemann, Christoph F.
2016-08-01
We investigate the existence of solutions with 16 residual supersymmetries to Type IIB supergravity on a space-time of the formc AdS 6× S 2 warped over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ. The SO(2 , 5) × SO(3) isometry extends to invariance under the exceptional Lie superalgebra F (4). In the present paper, we construct the general Ansatz compatible with these symmetries, derive the corresponding reduced BPS equations, and obtain their complete local solution in terms of two locally holomorphic functions {A}_{± } on Σ, subject to certain positivity and regularity conditions. Globally, ( {A}+ , {A}- ) are allowed to be multiple-valued on Σ and be holomorphic sections of a holomorphic bundle over Σ with structure group contained in SU(1,1)× C . Globally regular solutions are expected to provide the near-horizon geometry of ( p, q) 5-brane and 7-brane webs which are holographic duals to five-dimensional conformal field theories. A preliminary analysis of the positivity and regularity conditions will be presented here, leaving the construction of globally regular solutions to a subsequent paper.
Static black holes with axial symmetry in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kichakova, Olga; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen; Shnir, Yasha
2016-02-01
The known static electrovacuum black holes in a globally AdS4 background have an event horizon which is geometrically a round sphere. In this work we argue that the situation is different in models with matter fields possessing an explicit dependence on the azimuthal angle φ , which, however, does not manifest at the level of the energy-momentum tensor. As a result, the full solutions are axially symmetric only, possessing a single (timelike) Killing vector field. Explicit examples of such static black holes are constructed in Einstein-(complex) scalar field and Einstein-Yang-Mills theories. The basic properties of these solutions are discussed, looking for generic features. For example, we notice that the horizon has an oblate spheroidal shape for solutions with a scalar field and a prolate one for black holes with Yang-Mills fields. The deviation from sphericity of the horizon geometry manifests itself in the holographic stress tensor. Finally, based on the results obtained in the probe limit, we conjecture the existence in Einstein-Maxwell theory of static black holes with axial symmetry only.
S -matrix algebra of the AdS2×S2 superstring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoare, Ben; Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro
2016-03-01
In this paper, we find the Yangian algebra responsible for the integrability of the AdS2×S2×T6 superstring in the planar limit. We demonstrate the symmetry of the corresponding exact S matrix in the massive sector, including the presence of the secret symmetry. We give two alternative presentations of the Hopf algebra. The first takes the usual canonical form, which, as the relevant representations are long, leads to a Yangian representation that is not of evaluation type. After investigating the relationship between cocommutativity, evaluation representations and the shortening condition, we find an alternative realization of the Yangian whose representation is of the evaluation type. Finally, we explore two limits of the S matrix. The first is the classical r matrix, where we rediscover the need for a secret symmetry also in this context. The second is the simplifying zero-coupling limit. In this limit, taking the S matrix as a generating R matrix for the algebraic Bethe ansatz, we obtain an effective model of free fermions on a periodic spin-chain. This limit should provide hints to the one-loop anomalous dimension of the mysterious superconformal quantum mechanics dual to the superstring theory in this geometry.
Asymptotic structure of the Einstein-Maxwell theory on AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez, Alfredo; Riquelme, Miguel; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo
2016-02-01
The asymptotic structure of AdS spacetimes in the context of General Relativity coupled to the Maxwell field in three spacetime dimensions is analyzed. Although the fall-off of the fields is relaxed with respect to that of Brown and Henneaux, the variation of the canonical generators associated to the asymptotic Killing vectors can be shown to be finite once required to span the Lie derivative of the fields. The corresponding surface integrals then acquire explicit contributions from the electromagnetic field, and become well-defined provided they fulfill suitable integrability conditions, implying that the leading terms of the asymptotic form of the electromagnetic field are functionally related. Consequently, for a generic choice of boundary conditions, the asymptotic symmetries are broken down to {R}⊗ U(1)⊗ U(1) . Nonetheless, requiring compatibility of the boundary conditions with one of the asymptotic Virasoro symmetries, singles out the set to be characterized by an arbitrary function of a single variable, whose precise form depends on the choice of the chiral copy. Remarkably, requiring the asymptotic symmetries to contain the full conformal group selects a very special set of boundary conditions that is labeled by a unique constant parameter, so that the algebra of the canonical generators is given by the direct sum of two copies of the Virasoro algebra with the standard central extension and U (1). This special set of boundary conditions makes the energy spectrum of electrically charged rotating black holes to be well-behaved.
Puzzles of η-deformed AdS5 × S5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arutyunov, Gleb; Borsato, Riccardo; Frolov, Sergey
2015-12-01
We derive the part of the Lagrangian for the sigma model on the η-deformed AdS5 × S5 space which is quadratic in fermions and has the full dependence on bosons. We then show that there exists a field redefinition which brings the corresponding La-grangian to the standard form of type IIB Green-Schwarz superstring. Reading off the corresponding RR couplings, we observe that they fail to satisfy the supergravity equations of motion, despite the presence of κ-symmetry. However, in a special scaling limit our solution reproduces the supergravity background found by Maldacena and Russo. Further, using the fermionic Lagrangian, we compute a number of new matrix elements of the tree level world-sheet scattering matrix. We then show that after a unitary transformation on the basis of two-particle states which is not one-particle factorisable, the corresponding T-matrix factorises into two equivalent parts. Each part satisfies the classical Yang-Baxter equation and coincides with the large tension limit of the q-deformed S-matrix.
Coherent cascade conjecture for collapsing solutions in global AdS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I.-Sheng
2016-05-01
We analyze the gravitational dynamics of a classical scalar field coupled to gravity in asymptotically AdS spacetime, which leads to black hole formation on the shortest nonlinear time scale for some initial conditions. We show that the observed collapse cannot be described by the well-known process of a random-phase cascade in the theory of weak turbulence. This implies that the dynamics on this time scale is highly sensitive to the phases of modes. We explore the alternative possibility of a coherent phase cascade and analytically find stationary solutions with completely coherent phases and power-law energy spectra. We show that these power-law spectra lead to diverging geometric backreaction, which is the likely precursor to black hole formation. In 4 +1 dimensions, our stationary solution has the same power-law energy spectrum as the final state right before collapse observed in numerical simulations. We conjecture that our stationary solutions describe the system shortly before collapse in other dimensions, and predict the energy spectrum.
1-loop partition function in AdS 3/ CFT 2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Wu, Jie-qiang
2015-12-01
The 1-loop partition function of the handlebody solutions in the AdS3 gravity have been derived some years ago using the heat kernel techniques and the method of images. In the semiclassical limit, such partition function should correspond to the order O( c 0) part in the partition function of dual conformal field theory(CFT) on the boundary Riemann surface. The higher genus partition function could be computed by the multi-point functions in the Riemann sphere via sewing prescription. In the large central charge limit, the CFT is effectively free in the sense that to the leading order of c the multi-point function is further simplified to be a summation over the products of two-point functions of single-particle states. Correspondingly in the bulk, the graviton is freely propagating without interaction. Furthermore the product of the two-point functions may define the links, each of which is in one-to-one correspondence with the conjugacy class of the Schottky group of the Riemann surface. Moreover, the value of a link is determined by the multiplier of the element in the conjugacy class. This allows us to reproduce exactly the gravitational 1-loop partition function. The proof can be generalized to the higher spin gravity and its dual CFT.
Progress report for the ASCI AD resistance weld process modeling project AD2003-15.
Brown, Arthur A.; Winters, William S.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Ortega, Arthur R.; Foulk, James W., III
2005-05-01
This report documents activities related to the ASCI AD Resistance Weld Process Modeling Project AD2003-15. Activities up to and including FY2004 are discussed. This was the third year for this multi year project, the objective of which is to position the SIERRA computational tools for the solution of resistance welding problems. The process of interest is a three-way coupled problem involving current flow, temperature buildup and large plastic deformation. The DSW application is the reclamation stem weld used in the manufacture of high pressure gas bottles. This is the first year the CALAGIO suite of codes (eCALORE, CALORE, and ADAGIO) was used to successfully solve a three-way coupled problem in SIERRA. This report discusses the application of CALAGIO to the tapered bar acceptance problem and a similar but independent tapered bar simulation of a companion C6 experiment. New additions to the EMMI constitutive model and issues related to CALAGIO performance are also discussed.
Bosonic excitations of the AdS 4 Reissner-Nordstrom black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davison, Richard A.; Kaplis, Nikolaos K.
2011-12-01
We study the long-lived modes of the charge density and energy density correla- tors in the strongly-coupled, finite density field theory dual to the AdS 4 Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. For small momenta q ≪ μ , these correlators contain a pole due to sound propagation, as well as a pole due to a long-lived, purely imaginary mode analogous to the μ = 0 hydrodynamic charge diffusion mode. As the temperature is raised in the range T{\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstylethicksim}{ < }}μ , the sound attenuation shows no significant temperature dependence. When T{\\underset{raise0.3emsmashriptscriptstylethicksim}{ > }}μ , it quickly approaches the μ = 0 hydrodynamic result where it decreases like 1/ T. It does not share any of the temperature-dependent properties of the `zero sound' of Landau Fermi liquids observed in the strongly-coupled D3/D7 field theory. For such small momenta, the energy density spectral function is dominated by the sound mode at all temperatures, whereas the charge density spectral function undergoes a crossover from being dominated by the sound mode at low temperatures to being dominated by the diffusion mode when T ˜ {μ^2}/q . This crossover occurs due to the changing residue at each pole. We also compute the momentum dependence of these spectral functions and their corresponding long-lived poles at fixed, low temperatures T ≪ μ.
Conditionally extended validity of perturbation theory: Persistence of AdS stability islands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Yang, I.-Sheng
2015-10-01
Approximating nonlinear dynamics with a truncated perturbative expansion may be accurate for a while, but it, in general, breaks down at a long time scale that is one over the small expansion parameter. There are interesting cases in which such breakdown does not happen. We provide a mathematically general and precise definition of those cases, in which we prove that the validity of truncated theory trivially extends to the long time scale. This enables us to utilize numerical results, which are only obtainable within finite times, to legitimately predict the dynamics when the expansion parameter goes to zero, and thus the long time scale goes to infinity. In particular, this shows that existing noncollapsing solutions in the AdS (in)stability problem persist to the zero-amplitude limit, opposing the conjecture by Dias, Horowitz, Marolf, and Santos that predicts a shrinkage to measure zero [O. J. Dias et al., Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 235019 (2012)]. We also point out why the persistence of collapsing solutions is harder to prove, and how the recent interesting progress by Bizon, Maliborski, and Rostoworowski has not yet proven this [P. Bizon, M. Maliborski, and A. Rostworowski, arXiv:1506.03519].
Analytic self-gravitating Skyrmions, cosmological bounces and AdS wormholes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Canfora, Fabrizio; Zanelli, Jorge
2016-01-01
We present a self-gravitating, analytic and globally regular Skyrmion solution of the Einstein-Skyrme system with winding number w = ± 1, in presence of a cosmological constant. The static spacetime metric is the direct product R ×S3 and the Skyrmion is the self-gravitating generalization of the static hedgehog solution of Manton and Ruback with unit topological charge. This solution can be promoted to a dynamical one in which the spacetime is a cosmology of the Bianchi type-IX with time-dependent scale and squashing coefficients. Remarkably, the Skyrme equations are still identically satisfied for all values of these parameters. Thus, the complete set of field equations for the Einstein-Skyrme-Λ system in the topological sector reduces to a pair of coupled, autonomous, nonlinear differential equations for the scale factor and a squashing coefficient. These equations admit analytic bouncing cosmological solutions in which the universe contracts to a minimum non-vanishing size, and then expands. A non-trivial byproduct of this solution is that a minor modification of the construction gives rise to a family of stationary, regular configurations in General Relativity with negative cosmological constant supported by an SU (2) nonlinear sigma model. These solutions represent traversable AdS wormholes with NUT parameter in which the only "exotic matter" required for their construction is a negative cosmological constant.
Light-Front Holography and AdS/QCD Correspondence
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.
2008-04-23
Light-Front Holography is a remarkable consequence of the correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical-space time. It allows string modes {Phi}(z) in the AdS fifth dimension to be precisely mapped to the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in terms of a specific light-front impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron. This mapping was originally obtained by matching the exact expression for electromagnetic current matrix elements in AdS space with the corresponding exact expression for the current matrix element using light-front theory in physical space-time. More recently we have shown that one obtains the identical holographic mapping using matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor, thus providing an important consistency test and verification of holographic mapping from AdS to physical observables defined on the light-front. The resulting light-front Schrodinger equations predicted from AdS/QCD give a good representation of the observed meson and baryon spectra and give excellent phenomenological predictions for amplitudes such as electromagnetic form factors and decay constants.
Search for SmAd-SmAdscript transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Lei; Garland, C. W.; Shashidhar, R.
1993-03-01
High-resolution heat capacity measurements have been made on two mixtures of 4-nonyloxybenzoyloxy-4'-cyanoazobenzene (9OBCAB) and 4-nitrophenyl-4'-(4`-n-hexyloxybenzoyloxybenzoate) (6ONPBB). The goal of this work was to establish the thermal behavior near a proposed SmAd-SmAd' transition between two different partial bilayer smectic-A phases. Although nematic-smectic-A transitions with small Cp peaks were observed, there was no calorimetric evidence of smectic-smectic transitions. Any SmAd-SmAd' transition must be first order due to symmetry, and it seems doubtful that true thermodynamic transitions of this type exist.
Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?
Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne
2015-01-01
Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns. PMID:26652250
Functional communication with AD patients: a caregiver training program.
Ripich, D N
1994-01-01
The loss of functional communication in Alzheimer disease (AD) results from the disproportionate breakdowns in the pragmatic and semantic areas of language in these patients. Communication breakdown is regularly listed among the top four stressors in measures of stress and burden of AD caregivers. A caregiver training program designed around seven specific communication strategies can be used to alter communication interactions. As a pilot program, the acronym FOCUSED organized the seven strategies for easy recall (Face-to-face, Orientation, Continuity, Unsticking, Structure, Exchanges, and Direct). Significant differences in both attitude toward AD patients, knowledge of AD, and knowledge of communication strategies were shown in comparisons of pre- and posttraining assessments. PMID:7999352
Necessary conditions for an AdS-type instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menon, Dhanya S.; Suneeta, Vardarajan
2016-01-01
In this work, we analyze the necessary conditions for a nonlinear anti-de Sitter (AdS)-type instability in the gravity-scalar field system. In particular, we discuss the necessary conditions for a cascade of energy to higher modes by applying results in Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theory. Our analytical framework explains numerical observations of instability of spacetimes even when the spectrum is only asymptotically resonant, and the fact that a minimum field amplitude is needed to trigger it. Our framework can be applied for similar stability analyses of fields in (locally) asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We illustrate this with the example of the AdS soliton. Further, we conjecture on the possible reasons for quasiperiodic behavior observed in perturbations of AdS spacetime. Certain properties of the eigenfunctions of the linear system dictate whether there will be localization in space leading to black hole formation. These properties are examined using the asymptotics of Jacobi polynomials. Finally we discuss recent results on the AdS instability in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in light of our work.
Thirst and sodium appetite in rats with experimental nephrotic syndrome.
Xu, Jie; Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L
2015-10-01
Nephrotic syndrome is a renal disease accompanied by abnormal body fluid balance. The present experiments investigated the role of behavioral mechanisms in contributing to disordered fluid homeostasis in rats with experimentally-induced nephrotic syndrome. The studies examined water and sodium ingestion under ad libitum conditions and in response to dehydration-related challenges in rats made nephrotic by treatment with the antibiotic, adriamycin. Rats with nephrotic syndrome had greater ad libitum water intakes beginning 3 weeks after treatment, but daily sodium (0.3M NaCl) intakes were not affected. Nephrotic rats showed attenuated water and sodium intakes after combined treatment with furosemide (10mg/kg) and captopril (2mg/kg), reduced water intakes after 20h of water deprivation, and diminished water intakes, plasma renin activity and aldosterone secretion after subcutaneous isoproterenol (30 μg/kg). However, the adriamycin-treated animals had normal water intakes in response to subcutaneous hypertonic saline (4% at 0.75 ml/100g) and central injections of angiotensin II (10, 20, and 50 ng). The results suggest that water and sodium ingestion in response to hypovolemic/hypotensive stimuli are disturbed in nephrotic rats, and provide evidence that the disordered behaviors reflect disturbances of the peripheral renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. PMID:26120029
Kanoski, Scott E; Alhadeff, Amber L; Fortin, Samantha M; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Grill, Harvey J
2014-01-01
The adipose-derived hormone leptin signals in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) to suppress food intake, in part, by amplifying within-meal gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals. Here we show that mNTS leptin receptor (LepRb) signaling also reduces appetitive and motivational aspects of feeding, and that these effects can depend on energy status. Using the lowest dose that significantly suppressed 3-h cumulative food intake, unilateral leptin (0.3 μg) administration to the mNTS (3 h before testing) reduced operant lever pressing for sucrose under increasing work demands (progressive ratio reinforcement schedule) regardless of whether animals were energy deplete (food restricted) or replete (ad libitum fed). However, in a separate test of food-motivated responding in which there was no opportunity to consume food (conditioned place preference (CPP) for an environment previously associated with a palatable food reward), mNTS leptin administration suppressed food-seeking behavior only in chronically food-restricted rats. On the other hand, mNTS LepRb signaling did not reduce CPP expression for morphine reinforcement regardless of energy status, suggesting that mNTS leptin signaling differentially influences motivated responding for food vs opioid reward. Overall results show that mNTS LepRb signaling reduces food intake and appetitive food-motivated responding independent of energy status in situations involving orosensory and postingestive contact with food, whereas food-seeking behavior independent of food consumption is only reduced by mNTS LepRb activation in a state of energy deficit. These findings reveal a novel appetitive role for LepRb signaling in the mNTS, a brain region traditionally linked with processing of meal-related GI satiation signals. PMID:24002186
Massless Lüscher terms and the limitations of the AdS3 asymptotic Bethe ansatz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês
2016-05-01
In AdS5/CFT4 integrability the Bethe ansatz gives the spectrum of long strings, accurate up to exponentially small corrections. This is no longer true in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS3 ) space, as we demonstrate here by studying Lüscher F-terms with a massless particle running in the loop. We apply this to the classic test of Hernández and López, in which the s u (2 ) sector Bethe equations (including the one-loop dressing phase) should match the semiclassical string theory result for a circular spinning string. These calculations do not agree in AdS3×S3×T4 , and we show that the sum of all massless Lüscher F-terms can reproduce the difference.
Fermions Tunnelling from Black String and Kerr AdS Black Hole with Consideration of Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhong-hua; Zhang, Li-mei
2016-01-01
In this paper, using the Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz, we discuss the tunnelling of fermions when effects of quantum gravity are taken into account. We investigate two cases, black string and Kerr AdS black hole. For black string, the uncharged and un-rotating case, we find that the correction of Hawking temperature is only affected by the mass of emitted fermions and the quantum gravitational corrections slow down the increases of the temperature, which naturally leads to remnants left in the evaporation. For another case, the Kerr AdS black hole, we find that the quantum gravitational corrections are not only determined by the mass of the emitted fermions but also affected by the rotating properties of the AdS black hole. So with consideration of the quantum gravity corrections, an offset around the standard temperature always exists.
Universal slow fall-off to the unique AdS infinity in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
Maeda, Hideki
2008-08-15
In this paper, the following two propositions are proven under the dominant energy condition for the matter field in the higher-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in the presence of a cosmological constant {lambda}. First, for {lambda}{<=}0 and {alpha}{>=}0 without a fine-tuning to give a unique anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum, where {alpha} is the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant, vanishing generalized Misner-Sharp mass is equivalent to the maximally symmetric spacetime. Under the fine-tuning, it is equivalent to the vacuum class I spacetime. Second, under the fine-tuning with {alpha}>0, the asymptotically AdS spacetime in the higher-dimensional Henneaux-Teitelboim sense is only a special class of the vacuum class I spacetime. This means the universal slow fall-off to the unique AdS infinity in the presence of physically reasonable matter.
Inegbenebor, U; Ebomoyi, M I; Onyia, K A; Amadi, K; Aigbiremolen, A E
2009-12-01
Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta) is a spice that is widely used in many cultures for entertainment, religious rites, food flavor and as a part of many traditional doctors medications. Pregnant women are among those who ingest Alligator pepper in these activities. This experiment was carried out to determine the health risk or benefit of Alligator pepper to pregnant women if any. Fifteen male rats and fifteen female rats of proven fertility from a pilot study were randomly paired in fifteen cages in a well ventilated room. After three days of mating, the males were withdrawn from the females, which were allowed to stay in their separate maternity cages for 18-25 days. The females in the control group were fed with normal rat chow and clean drinking water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Each of the rats in the experimental group was served 20 g of rat chow mixed with 50mg of Alligator pepper for one day only and thereafter fed with normal rat chow and clean drinking water ad libitum for 18-25 days. The rats in the control group had a mean of 7 litters each, while the rats in the experimental group did not litter at all. It was concluded that ingestion of large quantities of Alligator pepper poses a health risk to women in their first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:20234758
Bohr, Iwo
2004-09-30
There is accumulating data suggesting a neuroprotective activity of cholesterol, especially in stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, a protective activity of this lipid in simulated neonatal anoxia was investigated. Rats were subjected to high cholesterol by feeding their dams with a diet enriched with cholesterol. Half of these rats were subjected to anoxia. One and a half months later, the rats were tested for their ability to acquire a spatial memory, one group on the linear maze and the other on the Morris water maze. After these assessments, the level of total plasma cholesterol was measured. Rats from dams subjected to neonatal anoxia on standard diet performed worse than control rats in both types of behavioral experiments, whereas anoxic rats from dams were housed on hypercholesterolemic diet performed as control animals. It suggests that dietetic cholesterol applied by their dams protected rats against cognitive deficits elicited by neonatal anoxia. Furthermore, offspring of anoxic rats housed on standard diet had elevated levels of blood cholesterol in relation to control animals. Generally, anoxia affected the concentration of this lipid much stronger than hypercholesterolemic diet of their dams. It might mean that the anoxia-related rise of cholesterol could be involved in physiological phenomenon being an adaptive response to neurotoxic processes. This concept is discussed in relation to pathological mechanisms in AD. PMID:15327920
Supersymmetric partition functions in the AdS/CFT conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raju, Suvrat
We study supersymmetric partition functions in several versions of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We present an Index for superconformal field theories in d = 3, 4, 5, 6. This captures all information about the spectrum that is protected, under continuous deformations of the theory, purely by group theory. We compute our Index in N = 4 SYM at weak coupling using gauge theory and at strong coupling using supergravity and find perfect agreement at large N. We also compute this Index for supergravity on AdS4 x S7 and AdS7 x S4 and for the recently constructed Chern Simons matter theories. We count 1/16 BPS states in the free gauge theory and find qualitative agreement with the entropy of big black holes in AdS5. We note that the near horizon geometry of some small supersymmetric black holes is an extremal BTZ black holes fibered on a compact base and propose a possible explanation for this, based on giant gravitons. We also find the partition function of the chiral ring of the N = 4 SYM theory at finite coupling and finite N. Turning to AdS3, we study the low energy 1/4 and 1/2 BPS partition functions by finding all classical supersymmetric probe brane solutions of string theory on this background. If the background BNS field and theta angle vanish, AdS3 x S 3 x T4/K3 supports supersymmetric probes: D1 branes, D5 branes and bound states of D5 and D1 branes. In global AdS, upon quantization, these solutions give rise to states in discrete representations of the SL(2,R) WZW model on AdS 3. We conclude that (a) the 1/4 BPS partition function jumps if we turn on a theta angle or NS-NS field (b) generic 1/2 BPS states are protected. We successfully compare our 1/2 BPS partition function with that of the symmetric product. We also discuss puzzles, and their possible resolutions, in reproducing the elliptic genus of the symmetric product. Finally, we comment on the spectrum of particles in the theory of gravity dual to non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on S3 x time.
Kinetic impairment of nitrogen and muscle glutamine metabolisms in old glucocorticoid-treated rats.
Minet-Quinard, R; Moinard, C; Villie, F; Walrand, S; Vasson, M P; Chopineau, J; Cynober, L
1999-03-01
Aged rats are more sensitive to injury, possibly through an impairment of nitrogen and glutamine (Gln) metabolisms mediated by glucocorticoids. We studied the metabolic kinetic response of adult and old rats during glucocorticoid treatment. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 or 3 mo old. Both adult and old rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups labeled G3, G5, and G7 received, by intraperitoneal injection, 1.50 mg/kg of dexamethasone (Dex) for 3, 5, and 7 days, respectively. Groups labeled G3PF, G5PF, and G7PF were pair fed to the G3, G5, or G7 groups and were injected with an isovolumic solution of NaCl. One control group comprised healthy rats fed ad libitum. The response to aggression induced specifically by Dex (i.e., allowing for variations in pair-fed controls) appeared later in the aged rats (decrease in nitrogen balance from day 1 in adults but only from day 4 in old rats). The adult rats rapidly adapted to Dex treatment, whereas the catabolic state worsened until the end of treatment in the old rats. Gln homeostasis was not maintained in the aged rats; despite an early increase in muscular Gln synthetase activity, the Gln pool was depleted. These results suggest a kinetic impairment of both nitrogen and muscle Gln metabolisms in response to Dex with aging. PMID:10070024
Finan, A.; Cleary, M.P.
1986-03-05
DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either (1-/sup 14/C) glucose or (6-/sup 14/C) glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO/sub 2/ production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats.
Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats
Moore, R.J.; Klevay, L.M. )
1989-02-09
Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 {mu}g Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of {sup 67}Cu (3.3 {mu}Ci as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t{sub {1/2}} (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats.
Want Ads, Job Skills, and Curriculum: A Survey of 1998 Chemistry Help-Wanted Ads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Headrick, Kurt L.
2001-09-01
Employer surveys are useful checks on how well we are preparing students for the working world. Employer surveys are also useful because they put curriculum deficiencies into terms that are readily understood; they can thus be a catalyst for curriculum reform. This study classified 2035 chemistry jobs advertized in newspapers across the USA in the fall of 1998 according to job type, employment sector, industry, type of chemistry principally involved, and academic background and experience desired. Job ads were also searched for keywords denoting a broad range of instrumentation and techniques, personality traits, and general work skills and experience. The total of 7872 keywords, an average of 3.9 per job, indicates that employers are looking for more than just a B.S. in chemistry.
On conserved charges and thermodynamics of the AdS4 dyonic black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cárdenas, Marcela; Fuentealba, Oscar; Matulich, Javier
2016-05-01
We consider four-dimensional gravity in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field and an Abelian gauge field. This theory corresponds to the bosonic sector of a Kaluza-Klein reduction of eleven-dimensional supergravity which induces a specific self-interacting potential for the scalar field. We compute the conserved charges and carry out the thermodynamics of an anti-de Sitter (AdS) dyonic black hole solution that was proposed recently. The charges coming from symmetries of the action are computed using the Regge-Teitelboim Hamiltonian approach. They correspond to the mass, which acquires contributions from the scalar field, and the electric charge. We introduce integrability conditions because the scalar field leads to non-integrable terms in the variation of the mass. These conditions are generically solved by introducing boundary conditions that relate the leading and subleading terms of the scalar field fall-off. The Hamiltonian Euclidean action, computed in the grand canonical ensemble, is obtained by demanding the action to have an extremum. Its value is given by a radial boundary term plus an additional polar angle boundary term due to the presence of a magnetic monopole. Remarkably, the magnetic charge can be identified from the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term, confirming that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is a consequence of having a well-defined and finite Hamiltonian action principle, even if the charge does not come from a symmetry of the action. The temperature and electrostatic potential are determined by demanding regularity of the black hole solution, whereas the value of the magnetic potential is determined by the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term. Consequently, the first law of black hole thermodynamics is identically satisfied by construction.
Stable p-branes in Chern-Simons AdS supergravities
Edelstein, Jose D.; Garbarz, Alan; Miskovic, Olivera; Zanelli, Jorge
2010-08-15
We construct static codimension-two branes in any odd dimension D, with a negative cosmological constant, and show that they are exact solutions of Chern-Simons (super)gravity theory for (super)AdS{sub D} coupled to external sources. The stability of these solutions is analyzed by counting the number of preserved supersymmetries. It is shown that static massive (D-3)-branes are unstable unless some suitable gauge fields are added and the brane is extremal. In particular, in three dimensions, a 0-brane is recognized as the negative mass counterpart of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. For these 0-branes, we write explicitly magnetically charged Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield states with various numbers of preserved supersymmetries within the OSp(p|2)xOSp(q|2) supergroups. In five dimensions, we prove that stable 2-branes with magnetic charge always exist for the generic supergroup SU(2,4|N), where N{ne}4. For the special case N=4, in which Chern-Simons supergravity requires the addition of a nontrivial gauge field configuration in order to preserve the maximal number of degrees of freedom, we show for two different static 2-branes that they are Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield states (one of which is the ground state), and from the corresponding algebra of charges we show that the energy is bounded from below. In higher dimensions, our results admit a straightforward generalization, although there are presumably more solutions corresponding to different intersections of the elementary objects.
Stellar survivor from explosion in 1572 AD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2004-10-01
burned-out 'white dwarf' star. The normal star spills material onto the dwarf, eventually triggering an explosion. The results of this research, led by Pilar Ruiz-Lapuente of the University of Barcelona, Spain, are published in the 28 October issue of the British science journal Nature. "There was no previous evidence pointing to any specific kind of companion star out of the many that had been proposed. Here we have identified a clear path: the feeding star is similar to our sun, but slightly older," said Ruiz-Lapuente. "The high speed of the star called our attention to it," she added. Type Ia supernovae are used to measure the history of the expansion rate of the Universe and so are fundamental in helping astronomers understand the behaviour of 'dark energy', an unknown force that is accelerating the expansion of the Universe. Finding evidence to confirm the theory as to how Type Ia supernovae explode is critical to assuring astronomers that the objects can be better understood as reliable calibrators of the expansion of space. Although today's astronomers are looking at this event 432 years too late, they were still able to see a star rushing away from the location of the explosion (which is now enveloped in a vast bubble of hot gas called 'Tycho's Supernova Remnant'). The runaway star and its surroundings have been studied with a variety of telescopes for the past seven years. The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope played a key role in the process by measuring the star's motion against the sky background precisely. The star is breaking the speed limit for that particular region of the Milky Way Galaxy by moving three times faster than the surrounding stars. When the system was disrupted by the white dwarf's explosion, the companion star went hurtling off into space, like a stone thrown by a sling, retaining the velocity of its orbital motion. However there are alternative explanations for this motion. It could be falling into the region from the galactic halo that
17 CFR 240.17Ad-7 - Record retention.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record retention. 240.17Ad-7 Section 240.17Ad-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised...
Beyond the Job Ad: Employers and Library Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Russell A.
2013-01-01
Many content analyses of job ads have revealed the skills and experience needed in academic library jobs and show that library instruction is an important job duty. This study moves beyond the content of the job ads and surveys the employers themselves (in the person of the supervisor). The survey revealed that supervisors highly value library…
Secure ADS-B authentication system and method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viggiano, Marc J (Inventor); Valovage, Edward M (Inventor); Samuelson, Kenneth B (Inventor); Hall, Dana L (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A secure system for authenticating the identity of ADS-B systems, including: an authenticator, including a unique id generator and a transmitter transmitting the unique id to one or more ADS-B transmitters; one or more ADS-B transmitters, including a receiver receiving the unique id, one or more secure processing stages merging the unique id with the ADS-B transmitter's identification, data and secret key and generating a secure code identification and a transmitter transmitting a response containing the secure code and ADSB transmitter's data to the authenticator; the authenticator including means for independently determining each ADS-B transmitter's secret key, a receiver receiving each ADS-B transmitter's response, one or more secure processing stages merging the unique id, ADS-B transmitter's identification and data and generating a secure code, and comparison processing comparing the authenticator-generated secure code and the ADS-B transmitter-generated secure code and providing an authentication signal based on the comparison result.
Value-Added Models for the Pittsburgh Public Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Matthew; Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Bruch, Julie
2012-01-01
At the request of Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS) and the Pittsburgh Federation of Teachers (PFT), Mathematica has developed value-added models (VAMs) that aim to estimate the contributions of individual teachers, teams of teachers, and schools to the achievement growth of their students. The authors' work in estimating value-added in Pittsburgh…
Healthy Skepticism's new AdWatch: understanding drug promotion.
Mansfield, Peter R
The AdWatch section of the Healthy Skepticism website (http://www.healthyskepticism.org/adwatch.asp) aims to improve medical decision-making by illuminating the techniques used in drug advertising. AdWatch draws on 20 years of dialogue about drug promotion plus ideas from many disciplines, especially logic, psychology and marketing. PMID:14636142
Assured Information Sharing for Ad-Hoc Collaboration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jin, Jing
2009-01-01
Collaborative information sharing tends to be highly dynamic and often ad hoc among organizations. The dynamic natures and sharing patterns in ad-hoc collaboration impose a need for a comprehensive and flexible approach to reflecting and coping with the unique access control requirements associated with the environment. This dissertation…
The Validity of Value-Added Models: An Allegory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martineau, Joseph A.
2010-01-01
Value-added models have become popular fixes for various accountability schemes aimed at measuring teacher effectiveness. Value-added models may resolve some of the issues in accountability models, but they bring their own set of challenges to the table. Unfortunately, political and emotional considerations sometimes keep one from examining…
Methodological Concerns about the Education Value-Added Assessment System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey
2008-01-01
Value-added models help to evaluate the knowledge that school districts, schools, and teachers add to student learning as students progress through school. In this article, the well-known Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS) is examined. The author presents a practical investigation of the methodological issues associated with the…
Exogenous Variables and Value-Added Assessments: A Fatal Flaw
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berliner, David C.
2014-01-01
Background: There has been rapid growth in value-added assessment of teachers to meet the widely supported policy goal of identifying the most effective and the most ineffective teachers in a school system. The former group is to be rewarded while the latter group is to be helped or fired for their poor performance. But, value-added approaches to…
48 CFR 453.303-838 - Purchase Order (AD-838).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase Order (AD-838). 453.303-838 Section 453.303-838 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 453.303-838 Purchase Order (AD-838)....
48 CFR 453.303-700 - Procurement Request (AD-700).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procurement Request (AD-700). 453.303-700 Section 453.303-700 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 453.303-700 Procurement Request (AD-700)....
Analysis of Added Value of Subscores with Respect to Classification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinharay, Sandip
2014-01-01
Brennan noted that users of test scores often want (indeed, demand) that subscores be reported, along with total test scores, for diagnostic purposes. Haberman suggested a method based on classical test theory (CTT) to determine if subscores have added value over the total score. One way to interpret the method is that a subscore has added value…
Alcohol as Good Food: Adolescents' Responses to Liqueur Ads.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Pearlman, Reid A.
Examining responses to print alcohol advertisements, a study questioned whether alcohol advertisers distinguish between "hard" and "soft" liquors (e.g. wine coolers and liqueurs). Subjects, 102 junior and senior high school students in a major metropolitan area, were asked to examine one set of three ads--either hard liquor ads or soft liquor ads…
21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide chemical, that is also a food additive will be... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious substance... added poisonous or deleterious substance that is also a pesticide chemical will ordinarily be...
Hadronic spectra in AdS/QCD correspondence
Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan
2010-08-04
We present an holographical soft wall model which is able to reproduce Regge spectra for hadrons with an arbitrary number of constituents. The model includes the anomalous dimension of operators that create hadrons, together with a dilaton, whose form is suggested by Einstein's equations and the AdS metric.
Value-Added Results for Public Virtual Schools in California
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ford, Richard; Rice, Kerry
2015-01-01
The objective of this paper is to present value-added calculation methods that were applied to determine whether online schools performed at the same or different levels relative to standardized testing. This study includes information on how we approached our value added model development and the results for 32 online public high schools in…
Is School Value Added Indicative of Principal Quality?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiang, Hanley; Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian
2016-01-01
States across the country are developing systems for evaluating school principals on the basis of student achievement growth. A common approach is to hold principals accountable for the value added of their schools--that is, schools' contributions to student achievement growth. In theory, school value added can reflect not only principals'…
How Does Value-Added Data Affect Teachers?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jennings, Jennifer L.; Pallas, Aaron M.
2016-01-01
Teacher evaluation systems can have high stakes for individual teachers, and it's important to ask how new evaluation models--including value-added measures--serve teachers as they strive to improve their practice. The authors interviewed teachers at a high-performing New York City school about their reactions to their value-added scores and…
Value Added Methods: Moving from Univariate to Multivariate Criteria
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newman, David; Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn; Morales, Jennifer
2014-01-01
The authors describe five value-added methods (VAM) used in school assessment as the backdrop to their main thesis. Then they review the assumptions underlying measurement and evaluation, the foundation of all assessment systems, including value-added. They discuss the traditional criterion variable used in VAM: a standardized test score. Next,…
27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...
27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...
37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...
37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...
37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...
33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...
37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...
37 CFR 2.35 - Adding, deleting, or substituting bases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adding, deleting, or... OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.35 Adding... add, substitute or delete a basis, unless the applicant meets the requirements for...
27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...
27 CFR 19.384 - Adding denaturants to spirits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adding denaturants to spirits. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Rules for Denaturing Spirits and Testing Denaturants § 19.384 Adding denaturants...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-14 - Tender agents.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tender agents. 240.17Ad-14... Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-14 Tender agents. (a... the time a tender or exchange offer is commenced, no registered transfer agent shall act on behalf...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-3 - Limitations on expansion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limitations on expansion. 240.17Ad-3 Section 240.17Ad-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... expansion. (a) Any registered transfer agent which is required to file any notice pursuant to §...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-3 - Limitations on expansion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on expansion. 240.17Ad-3 Section 240.17Ad-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... expansion. (a) Any registered transfer agent which is required to file any notice pursuant to §...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-3 - Limitations on expansion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitations on expansion. 240.17Ad-3 Section 240.17Ad-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... expansion. (a) Any registered transfer agent which is required to file any notice pursuant to §...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-3 - Limitations on expansion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limitations on expansion. 240.17Ad-3 Section 240.17Ad-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Limitations on expansion. (a) Any registered transfer agent which is required to file any notice pursuant...
17 CFR 240.17Ad-3 - Limitations on expansion.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations on expansion. 240.17Ad-3 Section 240.17Ad-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... expansion. (a) Any registered transfer agent which is required to file any notice pursuant to §...
Improved Functionality and Curation Support in the ADS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna; Chyla, Roman; Holachek, Alexandra; Sudilovsky, Vladimir; Murray, Stephen S.
2015-01-01
In this poster we describe the developments of the new ADS platform over the past year, focusing on the functionality which improves its discovery and curation capabilities.The ADS Application Programming Interface (API) is being updated to support authenticated access to the entire suite of ADS services, in addition to the search functionality itself. This allows programmatic access to resources which are specific to a user or class of users.A new interface, built directly on top of the API, now provides a more intuitive search experience and takes into account the best practices in web usability and responsive design. The interface now incorporates in-line views of graphics from the AAS Astroexplorer and the ADS All-Sky Survey image collections.The ADS Private Libraries, first introduced over 10 years ago, are now being enhanced to allow the bookmarking, tagging and annotation of records of interest. In addition, libraries can be shared with one or more ADS users, providing an easy way to collaborate in the curation of lists of papers. A library can also be explicitly made public and shared at large via the publishing of its URL.In collaboration with the AAS, the ADS plans to support the adoption of ORCID identifiers by implementing a plugin which will simplify the import of papers in ORCID via a query to the ADS API. Deeper integration between the two systems will depend on available resources and feedback from the community.
Value Added Based on Educational Positions in Dutch Secondary Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timmermans, Anneke C.; Bosker, Roel J.; de Wolf, Inge F.; Doolaard, Simone; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.
2014-01-01
Estimating added value as an indicator of school effectiveness in the context of educational accountability often occurs using test or examination scores of students. This study investigates the possibilities for using scores of educational positions as an alternative indicator. A number of advantages of a value added indicator based on…
Using School Lotteries to Evaluate the Value-Added Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deutsch, Jonah
2013-01-01
There has been an active debate in the literature over the validity of value-added models. In this study, the author tests the central assumption of value-added models that school assignment is random relative to expected test scores conditional on prior test scores, demographic variables, and other controls. He uses a Chicago charter school's…
Cohen, Robert M.; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Weitz, Tara M.; Rentsendorj, Altan; Gate, David; Spivak, Inna; Bholat, Yasmin; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Glabe, Charles G.; Breunig, Joshua J.; Rakic, Pasko; Davtyan, Hayk; Agadjanyan, Michael G.; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge; Bannykh, Serguei; Szekely, Christine A.; Pechnick, Robert N.; Town, Terrence
2013-01-01
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is hallmarked by amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and widespread cortical neuronal loss (Selkoe, 2001). The ‘amyloid cascade hypothesis’ posits that cerebral amyloid sets neurotoxic events into motion that precipitate Alzheimer dementia (Hardy and Allsop, 1991). Yet, faithful recapitulation of all AD features in widely used transgenic (Tg) mice engineered to overproduce Aβ peptides has been elusive. We have developed a Tg rat model (line TgF344-AD) expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APPsw) and presenilin 1 (PS1ΔE9) genes, each independent causes of early-onset familial AD. TgF344-AD rats manifest age-dependent cerebral amyloidosis that precedes tauopathy, gliosis, apoptotic loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and cognitive disturbance. These results demonstrate progressive neurodegeneration of the Alzheimer type in these animals. The TgF344-AD rat fills a critical need for a next-generation animal model to enable basic and translational AD research. PMID:23575824