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Sample records for ad modifies clinicopathological

  1. Searching for disease-modifying drugs in AD: can we combine neuropsychological tools with biological markers?

    PubMed

    Caraci, Filippo; Castellano, Sabrina; Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo; Bosco, Paolo; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2014-02-01

    Drug discovery efforts in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been directed in the last ten years to develop "disease-modifying drugs" able to exert neuroprotective effects in an early phase of AD pathogenesis. Unfortunately several candidate disease-modifying drugs have failed in Phase III clinical trials conducted in mild to moderate AD for different methodological difficulties, such as the time course of treatment in relation to development of disease as well as the appropriate use of validated biological and neuropsychological markers. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been considered a precursor of AD. Much effort is now directed to identify the most appropriate and sensitive markers which can predict the progression from MCI to AD, such as neuroimaging markers (e.g. hippocampal atrophy and amyloid positron emission tomography imaging), cerebrospinal fluid markers (i.e. association of elevated tau with low levels of amyloid β -peptide(1-42) and neuropsychological markers (i.e. episodic memory deficits and executive dysfunction). Recent studies demonstrate that the combination of these different biomarkers significantly increases the chance to predict the conversion into AD within 24 months. These biomarkers will be essential in the future to analyze clinical efficacy of disease-modifying drugs in MCI patients at high risk to develop AD. In the present review we analyze recent evidence on the combination of neuropsychological and biological markers in AD as a new tool to track disease progression in early AD as well as the response to disease-modifying drugs. PMID:24040795

  2. Hexon hypervariable region-modified adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors display reduced hepatotoxicity but induce T lymphocyte phenotypes similar to Ad5 vectors.

    PubMed

    Teigler, Jeffrey E; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Obeng, Rebecca; Provine, Nicholas M; Larocca, Rafael A; Borducchi, Erica N; Barouch, Dan H

    2014-08-01

    Hexon modification of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors with the hypervariable regions (HVRs) of Ad48 has been shown to allow Ad5HVR48 vectors to circumvent the majority of the preexisting Ad5-neutralizing antibodies. However, it remains unclear whether modifying hexon HVRs impacts innate or adaptive immune responses elicited by this vector. In this study, we investigated the influence of the HVR substitution of Ad5 on innate and adaptive immune responses following vaccination. Ad5HVR48 displayed an intermediate level of innate immune cytokines and chemokines relative to those of Ad5 and Ad48, consistent with its chimeric nature. Hepatotoxicity was observed after Ad5 immunization but not after Ad5HVR48 or Ad48 immunization. However, the CD8(+) T-cell responses elicited by Ad5HVR48 vectors displayed a partially exhausted phenotype, as evidenced by the sustained expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1), decreased effector-to-central memory conversion, and reduced memory recall responses, similar to those elicited by Ad5 vectors and in contrast to those induced by Ad48 vectors. Taken together, these results indicate that although Ad5HVR48 largely bypasses preexisting Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and shows reduced hepatotoxicity compared to that of Ad5, it induces adaptive immune phenotypes that are functionally exhausted similar to those elicited by Ad5.

  3. Oxidatively modified proteins in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment and animal models of AD: role of Abeta in pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rukhsana; Perluigi, Marzia

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The oxidative stress hypothesis of AD pathogenesis, in part, is based on β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Oxidative modification of the protein may induce structural changes in a protein that might lead to its functional impairment. A number of oxidatively modified brain proteins were identified using redox proteomics in AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Aβ models of AD, which support a role of Aβ in the alteration of a number of biochemical and cellular processes such as energy metabolism, protein degradation, synaptic function, neuritic growth, neurotransmission, cellular defense system, long term potentiation involved in formation of memory, etc. All the redox proteomics-identified brain proteins fit well with the appearance of the three histopathological hallmarks of AD, i.e., synapse loss, amyloid plaque formation and neurofibrillary tangle formation and suggest a direct or indirect association of the identified proteins with the pathological and/or biochemical alterations in AD. Further, Aβ models of AD strongly support the notion that oxidative stress induced by Aβ may be a driving force in AD pathogenesis. Studies conducted on arguably the earliest stage of AD, MCI, may elucidate the mechanism(s) leading to AD pathogenesis by identifying early markers of the disease, and to develop therapeutic strategies to slow or prevent the progression of AD. In this review, we summarized our findings of redox proteomics identified oxidatively modified proteins in AD, MCI and AD models. PMID:19288120

  4. A genetically modified protein-based hydrogel for 3D culture of AD293 cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao; Wang, Jingyu; Diao, Wentao; Wang, Ling; Long, Jiafu; Zhou, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels have strong application prospects for drug delivery, tissue engineering and cell therapy because of their excellent biocompatibility and abundant availability as scaffolds for drugs and cells. In this study, we created hybrid hydrogels based on a genetically modified tax interactive protein-1 (TIP1) by introducing two or four cysteine residues in the primary structure of TIP1. The introduced cysteine residues were crosslinked with a four-armed poly (ethylene glycol) having their arm ends capped with maleimide residues (4-armed-PEG-Mal) to form hydrogels. In one form of the genetically modification, we incorporated a peptide sequence 'GRGDSP' to introduce bioactivity to the protein, and the resultant hydrogel could provide an excellent environment for a three dimensional cell culture of AD293 cells. The AD293 cells continued to divide and displayed a polyhedron or spindle-shape during the 3-day culture period. Besides, AD293 cells could be easily separated from the cell-gel constructs for future large-scale culture after being cultured for 3 days and treating hydrogel with trypsinase. This work significantly expands the toolbox of recombinant proteins for hydrogel formation, and we believe that our hydrogel will be of considerable interest to those working in cell therapy and controlled drug delivery. PMID:25233088

  5. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches.

    PubMed

    Prestes, R C; Silva, L B; Torri, A M P; Kubota, E H; Rosa, C S; Roman, S S; Kempka, A P; Demiate, I M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded as MOD2 (2.5 % of Thermtex) were studied. The following tests were performed: physicochemical characterization (moisture, ash, protein, starch and lipid contents, and water activity); cooling, freezing and reheating losses; texture (texture profile test); color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C and h); microbiological evaluation; sensory evaluation (multiple comparison and preference test); and histological evaluation (light microscopy). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) for ash, protein, cooling loss, cohesiveness or in the preference test for the tested samples. The other evaluated parameters showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Histological study allowed for a qualitative evaluation between the physical properties of the food and its microscopic structure. The best results were obtained for formulation MOD2 (2.5 % Thermtex). The addition of modified starch resulted in a better performance than the native starch in relation to the evaluated technological parameters, mainly in relation to reheating losses, which demonstrated the good interaction between the modified starch in the structure of the product and the possibility of the application of this type of starch in other types of functional meat products.

  6. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity. PMID:26647154

  7. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  8. Effects of adding silica particles on certain properties of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement

    PubMed Central

    Felemban, Nayef H.; Ebrahim, Mohamed I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of incorporation of silica particles with different concentrations on some properties of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC): Microleakage, compressive strength, tensile strength, water sorption, and solubility. Materials and Methods: Silica particle was incorporated into RMGIC powder to study its effects, one type of RMGIC (Type II visible light-cured) and three concentrations of silica particles (0.06, 0.08, and 0.1% weight) were used. One hundred and twenty specimens were fabricated for measuring microleakage, compressive strength, tensile strength, water sorption, and solubility. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests were used for measuring significance between means where P ≤ 0.05. Results: RMGIC specimens without any additives showed significantly highest microleakage and lowest compressive and tensile strengths. Conclusion: Silica particles added to RMGIC have the potential as a reliable restorative material with increased compressive strength, tensile strength, and water sorption but decreased microleakage and water solubility. PMID:27095901

  9. Textural and sensory properties of low fat pork sausages with added hydrated oatmeal and tofu as texture-modifying agents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Sung-Gil; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Park, Gu-Boo; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2007-02-01

    Low fat sausages were prepared with added hydrated oatmeal or tofu as texture-modifying agents at levels of 10%, 15%, and 25% (w/w), respectively. The effects of the type and level of texture-modifying agents on the physical and sensory properties of low fat sausages were investigated. The water-holding capacity in sausage products increased by increasing the hydrated oatmeal level, but no significant differences was observed by the addition of tofu. The higher level of the agents produced a sausage product with less cooking loss and with a softer texture. The moisture absorption measurements suggest that the decrease in hardness of oatmeal-added sausage products may be due to the higher water-retention properties of oatmeal in response to heat treatment, while that of tofu-added sausage products may be associated with a weaker internal structure of tofu than the pork loin. The sensory evaluations indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in a low fat sausage was attained when the hydrated oatmeal or tofu were at their 15% addition level, respectively.

  10. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  11. Determination of added sulfites in dried garlic with a modified version of the optimized Monier-Williams method.

    PubMed

    Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefevre, Stephane; Achouri, Djamila

    2007-01-01

    The optimized Monier-Williams method is slightly modified so that it could be applied for determining sulfite content in dried garlic. Dried garlic sample is directly acidified in a reactor at a pH below 3. At this pH level, the alliinase enzyme activity is irreversibly blocked, and the sulfur-containing amino acids such as alliin (the most abundant) present in dried garlic cannot be transformed into corresponding thiosulfinates such as allicin, which is absent in dried garlic. This prevents allicin from reacting with added sulfites and being probably converted to S-allyl thiosulfate, which is not volatile and has no taste. It is found that at a pH below 2.4 and at boiling water temperature, allicin produces sulfur dioxide in adequate quantity to explain the false-positive results when utilizing the optimized Monier-Williams method with allicin suppression for unsulfited dried garlic samples. Finally, when garlic samples are stabilized in a phosphoric acid buffer at a final pH around 2.4, no sulfite is produced during the Monier-Williams distillation, which is further proof there are no naturally occurring sulfites in unsulfited dried garlic under these mild conditions.

  12. Effects of added surfactant on swelling and molecular transport in drug-loaded tablets based on hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Knöös, Patrik; Wahlgren, Marie; Topgaard, Daniel; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Piculell, Lennart

    2014-08-14

    A combination of NMR chemical shift imaging and self-diffusion experiments is shown to give a detailed molecular picture of the events that occur when tablets of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) loaded with a drug (griseofulvin) swell in water in the presence or absence of surfactant (sodium octylbenzenesulfonate). The hydrophobic substituents on the polymer bind and trap the surfactant molecules in mixed micelles, leading to a slow effective surfactant transport that occurs via a small fraction of individually dissolved surfactant molecules in the water domain. Because of the efficient binding of surfactant, the penetrating water is found to diffuse past the penetrating surfactant into the polymer matrix, pushing the surfactant front outward as the matrix swells. The added surfactant has little effect on the transport of drug because both undissolved solid drug and surfactant-solubilized drug function as reservoirs that essentially follow the polymer as it swells. However, the added surfactant nevertheless has a strong indirect effect on the release of griseofulvin, through the effect of the surfactant on the solubility and erosion of the polymer matrix. The surfactant effectively solubilizes the hydrophobically modified polymer, making it fully miscible with water, leading to a more pronounced swelling and a slower erosion of the polymer matrix.

  13. The electrooxidation mechanism of formic acid on platinum and on lead ad-atoms modified platinum studied with the kinetic isotope effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełtowska-Brzezinska, M.; Łuczak, T.; Stelmach, J.; Holze, R.

    2014-04-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of formic acid (FA) oxidation on platinum and upd-lead ad-atoms modified platinum electrodes have been studied using unlabelled and deuterated compounds. Poisoning of the electrode surface by CO-like species was prevented by suppression of dissociative chemisorption of FA due to a fast competitive underpotential deposition of lead ad-atoms on the Pt surface from an acidic solution containing Pb2+ cations. Modification of the Pt electrode with upd lead induced a catalytic effect in the direct electrooxidation of physisorbed FA to CO2. With increasing degree of H/D substitution, the rate of this reaction decreased in the order: HCOOH > DCOOH ≥ HCOOD > DCOOD. HCOOH was oxidized 8.5-times faster on a Pt/Pb electrode than DCOOD. This primary kinetic isotope effect proves that the C-H- and O-H-bonds are simultaneously cleaved in the rate determining step. A secondary kinetic isotope effect was found in the dissociative chemisorption of FA in the hydrogen adsorption-desorption range on a bare Pt electrode after H/D exchange in the C-H bond, wherein the influence of deuterium substitution in the O-H group was negligibly small. Thus the C-H bond cleavage is accompanied by the C-OH and not the O-H bond split in the FA decomposition, producing CO-like species on the Pt surface sites.

  14. Examination of the clinicopathologic continuum of Alzheimer disease in the autopsy cohort of the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Qian, Jing; Monsell, Sarah E; Frosch, Matthew P; Betensky, Rebecca A; Hyman, Bradley T

    2013-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that Alzheimer disease (AD) is a clinical and pathologic continuum between normal aging and end-stage dementia, we selected a convenience sample of subjects from the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center 2005 to 2012 autopsy cohort (n = 2,083) with the last clinical evaluation within 2 years before autopsy and no other primary neuropathologic diagnosis. Demographic and neuropathologic characteristics were correlated with the Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes in the 835 subjects meeting these criteria. Both neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles independently predicted Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes. Severe small-vessel disease, severe amyloid angiopathy, and hippocampal sclerosis were also independently associated with the degree of cognitive impairment. By contrast, education was a strong independent protective factor against cognitive deficits. The cause of mild to moderate dementia remained uncertain in 14% of the patients. Inverse probability weighting suggests the generalizability of these results to nonautopsied cohorts. These data indicate that plaques and tangles independently contribute to cognitive impairment, that concurrent vascular disease strongly correlates with cognitive dysfunction even in a sample selected to represent the AD pathologic continuum, and that education further modifies clinical expression. Thus, multiple concomitant etiologies of brain damage and premorbid characteristics contribute to the uncertainty of AD clinicopathologic correlations based only on tangles and plaques.

  15. Implant Composed of Demineralized Bone and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Genetically Modified with AdBMP2/AdBMP7 for the Regeneration of Bone Fractures in Ovis aries

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Hurtado, Adelina A.; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Romero-Diaz, Viktor J.; Abrego-Guerra, Adalberto; Vilchez-Cavazos, Jose F.; Elizondo-Riojas, Guillermo; Martinez-Rodriguez, Herminia G.; Espinoza-Juarez, Marcela A.; Mendoza Lemus, Oscar F.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are inducible to an osteogenic phenotype by the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). This facilitates the generation of implants for bone tissue regeneration. This study evaluated the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of ADMSCs transduced individually and in combination with adenoviral vectors expressing BMP2 and BMP7. Moreover, the effectiveness of the implant containing ADMSCs transduced with the adenoviral vectors AdBMP2/AdBMP7 and embedded in demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was tested in a model of tibial fracture in sheep. This graft was compared to ewes implanted with untransduced ADMSCs embedded in the same matrix and with injured but untreated animals. In vivo results showed accelerated osteogenesis in the group treated with the AdBMP2/AdBMP7 transduced ADMSC graft, which also showed improved restoration of the normal bone morphology.

  16. A prospective clinicopathologic study of dose-modified CODOX-M/IVAC in patients with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma defined using cytogenetic and immunophenotypic criteria (MRC/NCRI LY10 trial).

    PubMed

    Mead, Graham M; Barrans, Sharon L; Qian, Wendi; Walewski, Jan; Radford, John A; Wolf, Max; Clawson, Simon M; Stenning, Sally P; Yule, Claire L; Jack, Andrew S

    2008-09-15

    This prospective study aimed to develop reproducible diagnostic criteria for sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL), applicable to routine practice, and to evaluate the efficacy of dose-modified (dm) CODOX-M/IVAC in patients diagnosed using these criteria. The study was open to patients with an aggressive B-cell lymphoma with an MKI67 fraction approaching 100%. Immunophenotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to separate BL from other aggressive B-cell lymphomas. BL was characterized by the presence of a cMYC rearrangement as a sole cytogenetic abnormality occurring in patients with a germinal center phenotype with absence of BCL-2 expression and abnormal TP53 expression. A total of 128 patients were eligible for the study, of whom 58 were considered to have BL and 70 to have diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). There were 110 clinically fit patients who received dmCODOX-M (methotrexate, dose 3 g/m(2)) with or without IVAC according to risk group. The 2-year progression-free survival was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51%-77%) for BL, 55% (95% CI 42%-66%) for DLBCL, 85% (95% CI 73%-97%) for low risk, and 49% (95% CI 38%-60%) for high-risk patients. The observed differences in outcome and other clinical features validate the proposed diagnostic criteria. Compared with the previous trial LY06 with full-dose methotrexate (6.7 g/m(2)), there was a reduction in toxicity with comparable outcomes. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00040690.

  17. Clinicopathological Outcomes of Prospectively Followed Normal Elderly Brain Bank Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dugger, Brittany N.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Adler, Charles H.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Shill, Holly A.; Jacobson, Sandra; Caviness, John N.; Belden, Christine; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Davis, Kathryn J.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Existing reports on the frequencies of neurodegenerative diseases are typically based on clinical diagnoses. We sought to determine these frequencies in a prospectively-assessed, community-based autopsy series. Included subjects had normal cognitive and movement disorder assessments at study entry. Of the 119 cases meeting these criteria, 52% were female, median age of study entry was 83.5 years (range 67 to 99), and median duration from first visit until death was 4.3 years (range 0-10). At autopsy a clinico-neuropathological diagnosis was made in 30 cases (25%). Clinicopathological diagnoses included 20 (17%) with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 7 (6%) with vascular dementia, 4 (3%) with progressive supranuclear palsy, (1; 0.8%) with dementia with Lewy bodies, (1; 0.8%) with corticobasal degeneration and (1; 0.8%) with multiple system atrophy. Of those 87 subjects (73%) still clinically normal at death, 33 (38%) had extensive AD pathology (pre-clinical AD), 17 (20%) had incidental Lewy bodies and 4 (5%) had incidental pathology consistent with progressive supranuclear palsy. Diagnoses are not mutually exclusive. Although limited by a relatively small sample size, the neuropathological outcome of these initially normal elderly subjects represents a rough estimate of the incidence of these neurodegenerative conditions over a defined time period. PMID:24487796

  18. Clinicopathological outcomes of prospectively followed normal elderly brain bank volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dugger, Brittany N; Hentz, Joseph G; Adler, Charles H; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Shill, Holly A; Jacobson, Sandra; Caviness, John N; Belden, Christine; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Davis, Kathryn J; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G

    2014-03-01

    Existing reports on the frequencies of neurodegenerative diseases are typically based on clinical diagnoses. We sought to determine these frequencies in a prospectively assessed, community-based autopsy series. Included subjects had normal cognitive and movement disorder assessments at study entry. Of the 119 cases meeting these criteria, 52% were women; the median age of study entry was 83.5 years (range, 67-99 years), and the median duration from the first visit until death was 4.3 years (range, 0-10 years). At autopsy, clinicopathological diagnoses were made in 30 cases (25%). These diagnoses included 20 with Alzheimer disease (AD) (17%), 7 with vascular dementia (6%), 4 with progressive supranuclear palsy (3%), 3 with Parkinson disease and 1 each with dementia with Lewy bodies, corticobasal degeneration, or multiple system atrophy (0.8% each). Of the 87 subjects still clinically normal at death (73%), 33 had extensive AD pathology (preclinical AD) (38%), 17 had incidental Lewy bodies (20%), and 4 had incidental pathology consistent with progressive supranuclear palsy (5%). The diagnoses were not mutually exclusive. Although limited by a relatively small sample size, the neuropathological outcome of these initially normal elderly subjects represents a rough estimate of the incidence of these neurodegenerative conditions over a defined time period. PMID:24487796

  19. Colorectal Cancer and Basement Membranes: Clinicopathological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Mylonas, Charalampos C.; Lazaris, Andreas C.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females. In 2008, an estimated 1.2 million people were diagnosed with and 608,700 people died of CRC. Besides diagnosis and treatment, prognosis is an important matter for cancer patients. Today, clinicopathological correlations have many applications in cancer prognostication. Examples include the prediction of the medium patient survival and the screening for patients suitable for specific therapeutic approaches. Apart from traditional prognostic factors, such as tumor stage and grade, new markers may be useful in clinical practice. Possible markers may result from the study of basement membranes (BMs). BM seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, so BM alterations may have prognostic significance as well. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe BMs and their relationship with CRC, in the aspect of clinicopathological correlations. PMID:25614736

  20. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  1. Clinicopathological features of gallbladder papillary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xueshuai; Zhang, Haohai; Chen, Cuimin; Yang, Xiaobo; Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Yang, Huayu; Zhao, Haitao; Sang, Xinting

    2014-12-01

    Although patients with gallbladder papillary adenocarcinoma (GBPA) appear to have better prognoses than patients with other pathological subtypes of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), the clinicopathological features and outcomes of GBPA have not been fully explored. This study therefore analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of GBPA.This study included 16 patients with GBPA and 101 with gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBA) not otherwise specified (NOS), all diagnosed pathologically after surgical resection. Clinicopathological and survival data were retrospectively collected and compared. Fever was significantly more common in GBPA (7/16 vs 10/101; P = 0.000). Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level was increased in 1 of 9 patients with GBPA and 39 of 76 with GBA (P = 0.022). More patients with GBPA underwent curative resection (15/16 vs 54/101; P = 0.009). Pathologically, patients with GBPA were at much earlier tumor (T) (4 in situ, 8 T1; P = 0.000) and Tumor, Node, Metastases (TNM) stages (P = 0.000). The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were significantly higher in patients with GBPA (100%, 76.9%, and 76.9%, respectively), than in patients with GBA (72.2%, 38.8%, and 31.0%, respectively; P = 0.001). Preoperative jaundice (odds ratio 7.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-38.76; P = 0.013) was a significant prognostic factor in patients with GBA, but was no longer significant when the patients with GBA and GBPA were pooled together. The clinicopathological features of patients with GBPA differed from those in patients with GBA (not otherwise specified). Pooling of patients may mask prognostic factors in each group.

  2. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  3. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  4. Efficacy of a Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine using ChAd63 and modified vaccinia Ankara expressing thrombospondin-related anonymous protein as assessed with transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites.

    PubMed

    Bauza, Karolis; Malinauskas, Tomas; Pfander, Claudia; Anar, Burcu; Jones, E Yvonne; Billker, Oliver; Hill, Adrian V S; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo

    2014-03-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the world's most widely distributed malaria parasite and a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for approximately 2.85 billion people living mainly in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Despite this dramatic burden, very few vaccines have been assessed in humans. The clinically relevant vectors modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 are promising delivery systems for malaria vaccines due to their safety profiles and proven ability to induce protective immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) in clinical trials. Here, we describe the development of new recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors expressing P. vivax TRAP (PvTRAP) and show their ability to induce high antibody titers and T cell responses in mice. In addition, we report a novel way of assessing the efficacy of new candidate vaccines against P. vivax using a fully infectious transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite expressing P. vivax TRAP to allow studies of vaccine efficacy and protective mechanisms in rodents. Using this model, we found that both CD8+ T cells and antibodies mediated protection against malaria using virus-vectored vaccines. Our data indicate that ChAd63 and MVA expressing PvTRAP are good preerythrocytic-stage vaccine candidates with potential for future clinical application.

  5. Clinicopathological assessment of the nephron number

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Nobuo; Kanzaki, Go; Koike, Kentaro; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Ogura, Makoto; Yokoo, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated much larger variability in the total number of nephrons in normal populations than previously suspected. In addition, it has been suggested that individuals with a low nephron number may have an increased lifetime risk of hypertension or renal insufficiency, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the nephron number in each individual. In view of the fact that all previous reports of the nephron number were based on analyses of autopsy kidneys, the identification of surrogate markers detectable in living subjects is needed in order to enhance understanding of the clinical significance of this parameter. In this review, we summarize the clinicopathological factors and findings indicating a reduction in the nephron number, focusing particularly on those found at the time of a preserved renal function. PMID:25852857

  6. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  7. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai; Hernandez, Karen Gomez; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-06-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease. PMID:26045561

  8. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai; Gomez Hernandez, Karen; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease. PMID:25425660

  9. Clinicopathologic Features of Advanced Squamous NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Socinski, Mark A; Obasaju, Coleman; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R; Bonomi, Philip; Bunn, Paul; Kim, Edward S; Langer, Corey J; Natale, Ronald B; Novello, Silvia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pérol, Maurice; Reck, Martin; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Reynolds, Craig H; Spigel, David R; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Wakelee, Heather; Mayo, Carlos; Thatcher, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. NSCLC accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers, and the prognosis for advanced-stage disease is typically poor. In recent years, the importance of histologic subtypes of NSCLC has been recognized, and the distinction between squamous and other NSCLC histologic subtypes is now critical to patient management. Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) represents approximately 25% to 30% of NSCLC. The prognosis for patients with advanced NSCLC is poorer for those with sqCLC than for those with adenocarcinoma. This is partly due to a number of clinical characteristics that distinguish sqCLC from other NSCLC histologic subtypes, such as smoking history, comorbid diseases, age, and molecular profile. Together, these factors make sqCLC an especially challenging disease to manage. Herein, we review some of the key clinicopathologic features of sqCLC. Understanding these features to optimally address many of the unique therapeutic challenges of this disease is likely to be central to ultimately improving outcomes for patients with squamous NSCLC.

  10. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai; Gomez Hernandez, Karen; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease.

  11. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai; Hernandez, Karen Gomez; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-06-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease.

  12. Clinicopathological analysis of primary epithelial appendiceal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sachin; Parsa, Venkata; Adsay, Volkan; Heilbrun, Lance K; Smith, Daryn; Shields, Anthony F; Weaver, Donald; Philip, Philip A; El-Rayes, Bassel F

    2010-12-01

    Appendiceal carcinomas are classified into three distinct histopathological disease entities: disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM), peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA), or peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis with intermediate or discorant features (PMCA I/D). The treatment of appendiceal tumors should be based on accurate histopathological classification, per previously reported case series. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic presentation and outcome of patients with appendiceal tumors treated at our institution over a 15-year period. We identified patients with appendiceal tumors diagnosed or treated at our institution from January 1989 through May 2004. Chart review for age, gender, signs and symptoms at diagnosis, and treatment was performed. Review of the pathologic specimens was performed and tumors were classified as DPAM, PMCA I/D, or PMCA. Forty patients were identified (median age 52.5 years; males 38%). The number of patients with DPAM, PMCA I/D, and PMCA was 15 (38%), 6 (15%), and 18 (46%), respectively. Peritoneal involvement was seen in 11 (73%) of patients with DPAM, 5 (83%) of PMCA I/D, and 11 (61%) of PMCA. The median survival for patients with DPAM, PMCA I/D, and PMCA was 7.7 years (90% CI: 2.9--upper limit not estimable), 1.2 years (90% CI: 0.9-1.6), and 0.7 years (90% CI: 0.4-1.5), respectively. The difference in survival across the three groups was statistically significant. Three distinct histopathological disease entities exist in appendiceal tumors. The prognosis and management of these tumors should be based on the extent of disease and pathologic diagnosis.

  13. The spectrum of type III lissencephaly: a clinicopathological update.

    PubMed

    Allias, Fabienne; Buenerd, Annie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Attia-Sobol, Jocelyne; Dijoud, Frédérique; Clémenson, Alixe; Encha-Razavi, Férechté

    2004-01-01

    A third type of lissencephaly that does not fufil diagnostic criteria of type I ("classical") and type II ("cobblestone") lissencephaly was described by our group as a new entity identified as OMIM 601160. This lethal familial syndrome comprises micrencephaly/lissencephaly and a spectrum of abnormalities lined to a severe fetal akinesia deformation sequence. Neuropathological findings suggest severe neurodegeneration leading to a marked neuronal dropout of the entire central nervous system and atrophy. Similar neuropathological findings have been described in the Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS), an apparently different lethal malformation syndrome. Neuropathological similarities between OMIM 601160 and NLS raise the question of clinicopathological variability and genetic heterogeneity of type III lissencephaly. To answer this question, we compared our clinicopathological findings in a series of fetuses with OMIM 601160 to pathological data reported in NLS. In the study, 5 unrelated families with 7 affected fetuses were included. Interestingly, we found striking clinicopathological similarities between OMIM 601160 and NLS, which may represent a variability of a single neurodegenerative disease with early prenatal onset. Molecular studies in multiplex families defined through detailed clinicopathological screening are needed to clarify the distinction, if any, between these two entities. PMID:16137167

  14. One-loop diagrams in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Hung Lingyan; Shang Yanwen

    2011-01-15

    We study the complex scalar loop corrections to the boundary-boundary gauge two-point function in pure AdS space in Poincare coordinates, in the presence of boundary quadratic perturbations to the scalar. These perturbations correspond to double-trace perturbations in the dual CFT and modify the boundary conditions of the bulk scalars in AdS. We find that, in addition to the usual UV divergences, the one-loop calculation suffers from a divergence originating in the limit as the loop vertices approach the AdS horizon. We show that this type of divergence is independent of the boundary coupling; making use of this we extract the finite relative variation of the imaginary part of the loop via Cutkosky rules as the boundary perturbation varies. Applying our methods to compute the effects of a time-dependent impurity to the conductivities using the replica trick in AdS/CFT, we find that generally an IR-relevant disorder reduces the conductivity and that in the extreme low frequency limit the correction due to the impurities overwhelms the planar CFT result even though it is supposedly 1/N{sup 2} suppressed. We also comment on the more physical scenario of a time-independent impurity.

  15. Most general AdS3 boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Riegler, Max

    2016-10-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl{(2)}_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k = ℓ/(4 G N ), where ℓ is the AdS radius and G N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  16. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  17. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  18. Alzheimer's disease and the frontotemporal dementias: contributions to clinico-pathological studies, diagnosis, and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hodges, John R

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on six key papers published in the mid 2000 s based on work conducted in Cambridge. The first two relate to clinico-pathological studies which established that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a relatively common cause of focal cortical syndromes, notably progressive aphasia (largely nonfluent), progressive apraxia, and posterior cortical atrophy with complex visual symptoms. Building on these findings, criteria for the progressive aphasias have been developed which define the variant associated with AD (progressive logopenic aphasia). Memory in the dementias has been a major area of interest and one paper discussed here explored the neural basis for episodic and semantic memory failure in AD and semantic dementia. Despite very different memory profiles, the two disorders both cause severe hippocampal hypometabolism and atrophy but differ in the degree of involvement of other memory related structures. This work drew attention to the role of pathology in non-hippocampal structures early in AD. The next two articles deal with the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) which we have shown is associated with breakdown in theory of mind, social reasoning, empathy, and emotion processing and contributed towork on the neural basis of social cognition. We also identified a subgroup of bvFTD who fail to progress over many years, termed phenocopy cases, who are differentiated by their lack of atrophy on MRI. The final paper described the application of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised, which has proven a useful brief assessment tool for the early detection of a range of neurodegenerative disorders including AD and FTD. It also appears to be helpful in predicting those with mild cognitive impairment who will progress to frank dementia. PMID:22766737

  19. Clinicopathological Study of Non-Infectious Erythaematous Papulosquamous Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Muktha; Philipose, Thoppil Reba; Nayarmoole, Umaru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Papulosquamous diseases are characterized by scaly papules and plaques with similar clinical picture which amounts to confusion and hence, a definitive histopathological diagnosis goes a long way in treatment of such diseases. Aim The aim of the study was to study the histomorphology of non-infectious, erythaematous, papulosquamous lesions of skin with clinicopathological correlation. Materials and Methods Skin biopsies from 150 clinically diagnosed/suspected non-infectious erythaematous, papulosquamous skin diseases were received in the Department of Pathology. The specimens obtained were subjected to formalin fixation and paraffin embedding, stained with haematoxylin and eosin and studied. The lesions were classified as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen nitidus, lichen striatus, pityriasis rosea and pityriasis rubra pilaris and clinicopathological correlation was done. Results Papulosquamous lesions were common in the elderly. Males were commonly affected except in pityriasis rosea. Among the 150 cases studied, 72 cases (48%) were histopathologically confirmed to be papulosquamous lesions. Psoriasis was the most common lesion. Conclusion Key histopathological features and clinicopathological correlation gives a conclusive diagnosis. The importance of specific histomorphological diagnosis lies in distinguishing these lesions as the treatment and prognosis varies widely. PMID:27504295

  20. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  1. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  2. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  3. Primary female breast sarcoma: clinicopathological features, treatment and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ming; Mackley, Heath B.; Drabick, Joseph J.; Harvey, Harold A.

    2016-01-01

    Primary breast sarcoma (PBS) is a rare and heterogeneous group of malignancies with limited publications. We obtained data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program and performed analysis to determine clinicopathological characteristics of PBS and estimate their associations with overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Median age of PBS was 55–59 years and median OS was 108 months. Age, overlap or entire breast involvement, tumor histology, and tumor spread were associated with poor survival outcomes. In the multivariable analysis, tumor size, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histologic grade were correlated with survival outcomes (P < 0.001). In M0 patients, mastectomy was associated with worse survival outcomes compared with breast conservative surgery (BCS) (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.31–2.47), regardless of tumor size, tumor grade, tumor histology or radiation history. Adjuvant radiation improved survival outcomes in patients with tumor size >5 cm (adjHR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43–0.91), but not in patients with tumor size ≤ 5 cm. Our study demonstrated clinicopathological characteristics of PBS in the US population and supports performing BCS if R0 resection can be achieved, with radiation if tumor size is over 5 cm. PMID:27510467

  4. Clinicopathological significance of gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hideaki; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Morohashi, Satoko; Haga, Toshihiro; Wu, Yunyan; Ota, Rie; Takatsuna, Masafumi; Akasaka, Harue; Hakamada, Kenichi; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type is known to show a clinicopathological diversity, but its morphological characteristics have rarely been investigated. In this study, we defined poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma indicating the following three characteristics: (i) more than 90% of the entire tumor were composed of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in a medullary growth, (ii) the tumor exhibited an expansive growth at the tumor margin, and (iii) special types such as an α-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and carcinoma with lymphoid stroma were excluded. Based on the definition, we subclassified the poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type into the two groups: medullary carcinoma and non-medullary carcinoma, and clinicopathologically analyzed 23 cases of medullary carcinomas and 38 cases of non-medullary carcinomas. The medullary carcinomas less frequently displayed lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and lymph node metastasis, compared with the non-medullary carcinoma (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P < 0.001, respectively). The patients with medullary carcinomas significantly showed better disease-free survival (P = 0.017). This is the first study to demonstrate that poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of solid type can be subclassified into tumors with low and high malignant potentials. Gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma is considered to be a novel histological type predicting good patients' prognosis. PMID:27108877

  5. Clinicopathologic Features and Results of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Jianping; Chen Wei; Li Jiaping; Zhuang Wenquan; Huang Yonghui; Huang Zhaomin; Yang Jianyong

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for osteosarcoma and to describe the clinicopathologic features produced by TACE as well as the effect of different embolic materials. Methods. From January 1998 to December 2003, preoperative TACE was carried out in 32 patients. The preoperative and postoperative clinical response, levels of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), leukocyte count, and clinicopathologic features were recorded. We also compared the effect of different embolic materials: adriblastine gelatin microspheres, anhydrous alcohol, common bletilla tuber, and gelatin sponge particles. Results. The levels of AKP were significantly decreased after treatment (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the leukocyte count. Large areas of necrosis were found histologically within 85.5% tumors after TACE. Embolic agents such as adriblastine microspheres, anhydrous alcohol, and common bletilla tuber have better clinical effects than gelatin sponge particles, but there was no significant difference among the first three embolic materials. After treatment, no serious complications were noted. During successful follow-up for 86 months, the survival rate after TACE at 1, 2, and 5 years was 95.5%, 72%, and 42% respectively. Conclusion. TACE accelerated tumor necrosis and shrank the tumor volume, thus making adequate tumor resection possible. The optimal time to operate is 10-14 days after TACE. TACE in combination with limb salvage surgery and postoperative periodical chemotherapy may be beneficial for increasing local control rates.

  6. A 40-year Retrospective Clinicopathological Study of Ameloblastoma in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Ghazi, Narges; Shirdel, Mohammad; Razi, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. It may show locally invasive behavior resulting in recurrence and malignancy. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis of this tumor is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics of ameloblastomas in an Iranian population. We present a 40-year retrospective study of patients diagnosed from 1971 to 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran. Information gathered from patient records included age, gender, tumor location and histologic type. The frequency of odontogenic tumors among all lesions was 2.08% and ameloblastoma with 88 samples demonstrated the greatest prevalence (41.5%). Regarding gender, 60% of samples occurred in males. The mean age of studied patients was 33.02± 15.74 years with a peak of occurrence in the third decade of life. The most frequent location of tumor was the mandibles (93.2%). Eighty five (96.6%) tumors were recorded as benign and 3 (3.4%) as malignant. Of benign tumors, 62 (72.9%), 20 (23.5%) and 3 (3.6%) cases were of conventional, unicyctic and peripheral types, respectively. In contrast to most previous studies, the most common histologic subtype in the present study was plexiform. Knowledge of the incidence of ameloblastoma and its clinicopathologic features including most common location, gender and age distribution in different ethnogeographic backgrounds is necessary for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. PMID:26925653

  7. Clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with snake envenomation in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Amelia; Schoeman, Johan P; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Nagel, Salome S; Aroch, Itamar

    2011-09-01

    Envenomation of domestic animals by snakes occurs frequently in certain geographic areas. However, reports describing clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, therapeutic approaches, and outcomes are sparse. This review summarizes various snake families, venom types associated with harmful snakes, and the significant hematologic, hemostatic, and biochemical abnormalities associated with envenomation. Hematologic abnormalities include RBC membrane abnormalities, hemolysis, hemoconcentration, leukogram changes, and platelet abnormalities, specifically thrombocytopenia. Coagulopathies associated with snake envenomation are well described in human medicine, and many studies have demonstrated properties of venoms that lead to both procoagulation and anticoagulation. As expected, similar abnormalities have been described in domestic animals. Biochemical abnormalities are associated with the effects of venom on tissues such as liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle, vascular endothelium, and kidney as well as effects on protein components and cholesterol. This comprehensive review of clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with envenomation and their relationships to characterized venom constituents should be useful both in the diagnosis and management of envenomation and should serve as a foundation for future research in this field.

  8. Interstitial Fluid Pressure Correlates Clinicopathological Factors of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Takamasa; Shibata, Hidekatsu; Ikeda, Koei; Shiraishi, Kenji; Suzuki, Makoto; Iyama, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Solid tumors show increased interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), which correlates to a number of pathophysiological features of tumors. There have been no reports on the usefulness of measuring IFP in lung cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between IFP and the clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer. Methods: IFP was measured prospectively in 215 patients with 219 lesions showing solid or part-solid appearance. Four patients with double lung cancer were excluded from the analysis, resulting in 211 patients with lung cancer being analyzed for the correlation between IFP and computed tomography (CT) appearance, size, Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), histological type, tumor grade, pleural and vessel invasion, Ki-67 index, and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: The mean IFP was 8.5 mmHg; IFP was significantly correlated with the tumor size, SUVmax, TNM, vessel and pleural invasion, and Ki-67 index. Low IFP was associated with a better RFS compared to high IFP. Multivariate analysis did not select IFP as independent prognostic factor. In subgroup analysis of patients with adenocarcinoma, IFP was selected as independent one. Conclusions: IFP correlates clinicopathological factors of lung cancer. IFP might be used as a prognostic factor for lung cancer. PMID:25641031

  9. Primary female breast sarcoma: clinicopathological features, treatment and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Mackley, Heath B; Drabick, Joseph J; Harvey, Harold A

    2016-01-01

    Primary breast sarcoma (PBS) is a rare and heterogeneous group of malignancies with limited publications. We obtained data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program and performed analysis to determine clinicopathological characteristics of PBS and estimate their associations with overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Median age of PBS was 55-59 years and median OS was 108 months. Age, overlap or entire breast involvement, tumor histology, and tumor spread were associated with poor survival outcomes. In the multivariable analysis, tumor size, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histologic grade were correlated with survival outcomes (P < 0.001). In M0 patients, mastectomy was associated with worse survival outcomes compared with breast conservative surgery (BCS) (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.31-2.47), regardless of tumor size, tumor grade, tumor histology or radiation history. Adjuvant radiation improved survival outcomes in patients with tumor size >5 cm (adjHR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43-0.91), but not in patients with tumor size ≤ 5 cm. Our study demonstrated clinicopathological characteristics of PBS in the US population and supports performing BCS if R0 resection can be achieved, with radiation if tumor size is over 5 cm. PMID:27510467

  10. Adding flavor to AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, René; O'Bannon, Andy; Wrase, Timm

    2009-11-01

    Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena have proposed that the low-energy description of multiple M2-branes at a Bbb C4/Bbb Zk singularity is a (2+1)-dimensional Script N = 6 supersymmetric U(Nc) × U(Nc) Chern-Simons matter theory, the ABJM theory. In the large-Nc limit, its holographic dual is supergravity in AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk. We study various ways to add fields that transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge groups, i.e. flavor fields, to the ABJM theory. We work in a probe limit and perform analyses in both the supergravity and field theory descriptions. In the supergravity description we find a large class of supersymmetric embeddings of probe flavor branes. In the field theory description, we present a general method to determine the couplings of the flavor fields to the fields of the ABJM theory. We then study four examples in detail: codimension-zero Script N = 3 supersymmetric flavor, described in supergravity by Kaluza-Klein monopoles or D6-branes; codimension-one Script N = (0,6) supersymmetric chiral flavor, described by D8-branes; codimension-one Script N = (3,3) supersymmetric non-chiral flavor, described by M5/D4-branes; codimension-two Script N = 4 supersymmetric flavor, described by M2/D2-branes. Finally we discuss special physical equivalences between brane embeddings in M-theory, and their interpretation in the field theory description.

  11. Twistor methods for AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, Tim; Skinner, David; Williams, Jack

    2016-08-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS5 is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  12. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  13. Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical examination.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kei; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Ohbuchi, Toshiro; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to study clinical and biological characteristics of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura. We reviewed the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of 12 patients who underwent surgical resection for SFT. Ten cases were histologically defined as benign; two were found to be malignant. CD34 negativity and strong expression of p53 could be observed in a patient with fatal outcome. Ki-67 expression was increased in malignant cases, as compared with benign. We also found that Bcl-2 expression inversely correlated with a tumor diameter. As the development of malignant SFT might be associated with these molecular statuses, immunohistochemical staining should be performed in all cases to identify the biological characteristics of the tumor.

  14. Primary autoimmune myelofibrosis: definition of a distinct clinicopathologic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pullarkat, Vinod; Bass, Randall D; Gong, Jerald Z; Feinstein, Donald I; Brynes, Russell K

    2003-01-01

    Myelofibrosis is characterized by reticulin fibrosis of the bone marrow with resulting features of myelophthisis. Besides hematopoietic malignancies and other neoplasms involving the bone marrow, myelofibrosis has been described in association with autoimmune disorders, especially systemic lupus erythematosus. We describe the clinicopathologic features of a primary form of autoimmune myelofibrosis (AIMF) in patients who do not have systemic lupus erythematosus or another well-defined autoimmune syndrome. Absence of marked splenomegaly, peripheral blood cytopenias with mild teardrop poikilocytosis and leukoerythroblastosis, bone marrow lymphoid aggregates, and presence of autoantibodies are some of the salient features of primary AIMF. AIMF should especially be differentiated from chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, a neoplastic myeloproliferative disease. Primary AIMF appears to have an excellent prognosis, with all patients reported in this series responding to a short course of corticosteroid therapy. PMID:12508261

  15. Progressive macular hypomelanosis among Egyptian patients: a clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Mohamed Khaled; Ahmed, El-Shahat Farag; Abdelgawad, Mamdouh Morsy; El-Kamel, Mohammed Fawzy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a disease of unclear etiology. Propionbacterium acnes (P. acnes) was claimed to be an etiological factor. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to document the clinicopathological features of PMH in Egyptian patients and to evaluate the therapeutic outcome. Methods: Patients with clinical features of PMH were recruited. Wood’s lamp examination, skin scrapings for fungi, and skin biopsy specimens were obtained. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, PAS, Fontana-Masson, and S100 protein. Patients received either narrow-band UVB (nbUVB) or nbUVB plus daily topical clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide gel 5% (bcUVB). The period of active treatment was 14 weeks followed by a follow-up period of 24 weeks. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included. Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsy specimens showed no significant differences between lesional and normal skin. Fontana-Masson stained sections showed overall reduction of melanin granules in the basal layer of lesional skin only and S100 staining did not detect significant differences in the number of melanocytes in lesional and normal skin. Nearly complete repigmentation was reported in 10 patients treated with bcUVB compared to 9 patients treated with nbUVb with no significant differences between both groups after 14 weeks. Only 2 patients in each group retained the pigmentation and the remaining patients returned to the baseline color before treatment. Conclusions: This study documented the clinicopathological features of PMH among Egyptians. No permanently effective treatment is available. Further studies are needed to prove or disprove the pathogenic role of P. acnes in PMH. PMID:24396712

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and its clinicopathological correlation with modified Anneroth's histological grading system

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Kajal V; Chalishazar, Monali; Dave, Vishal R; Panja, Pritam; Singh, Manisha; Modi, Tapan G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an epithelial neoplasm generally beginning as focal overgrowth of altered stem cells near the basement membrane, moving upward and laterally, replacing the normal epithelium. Histopathological grading has been used for many decades in an attempt to predict the clinical behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, Forty biopsies were studied for histological grading and p53 expression. The p53 expression was studied in relation to clinical parameters such as age, sex of patient and site of tumors. Relation between histological grade of malignancy and p53 protein expression was analysed. All cases were classified according to Anneroth's histological malignancy grading system (1987). Materials and Methods: 40 cases of OSCC were assessed for clinical parameters, Anneroth's histological grading and immunohistochemically stained with p53 protien. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were analyzed using Spearman's Co-relation. Observations and Results: The positive expression of p53 was found in 62% of carcinomas studied. Positivity of p53 showed correlation with histological grade of malignancy and with individual parameters like degree of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, number of mitoses and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration while showed a negative correlation with pattern of invasion. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant correlation between parameters of tumor cell population, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and p53 expression. A significant association between high grade of malignancy and p53 overexpression and insignificant correlation of p53 with age, sex of the patient and site of the tumor was found. PMID:27194859

  17. Nomogram Incorporating CD44v6 and Clinicopathological Factors to Predict Lymph Node Metastasis for Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Bang Wool; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Boram; Jo, Min Jung; Choi, Seung Ho; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo; Kook, Myeong-Cherl

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment strategy for early gastric cancer depends on the probability of lymph node metastasis. The aim of this study is to develop a nomogram predicting lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer using clinicopathological factors and biomarkers. Methods A literature review was performed to identify biomarkers related to lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Seven markers were selected and immunohistochemistry was performed in 336 early gastric cancer tissues. Based on the multivariable analysis, a prediction model including clinicopatholgical factors and biomarkers was developed, and benefit of adding biomarkers was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating curve and net reclassification improvement. Functional study in gastric cancer cell line was performed to evaluate mechanism of biomarker. Results Of the seven biomarkers studied, α1 catenin and CD44v6 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. A conventional prediction model, including tumor size, histological type, lymphatic blood vessel invasion, and depth of invasion, was developed. Then, a new prediction model including both clinicopathological factors and CD44v6 was developed. Net reclassification improvement analysis revealed a significant improvement of predictive performance by the addition of CD44v6, and a similar result was shown in the internal validation using bootstrapping. Prediction nomograms were then constructed based on these models. In the functional study, CD44v6 was revealed to affect cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Conclusions Overexpression of CD44v6 was a significant predictor of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. The prediction nomograms incorporating CD44v6 can be useful to determine treatment plans in patients with early gastric cancer. PMID:27482895

  18. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  19. Clinicopathological significance of SOX4 expression in primary gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim SOX4, as a member of the SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) transcription factor family, has been demonstrated to be involved in tumorigenesis of many human malignancies; however, its role in primary gallbladder carcinoma (PGC) is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX4 expression in PGC and its prognostic significance. Methods From 1997 to 2006, 136 patients underwent resection for PGC. The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Immunostainings for SOX4 were performed on these archival tissues. The correlation of SOX4 expression with clinicopathological features including survival was analyzed. Results SOX4 was expressed in 75.0% (102/136) of PGC but not in the normal epithelium of the gallbladder. In addition, the over-expression of SOX4 was significantly associated with low histologic grade (P = 0.02), low pathologic T stage (P = 0.02), and early clinical stage (P = 0.03). The levels of SOX4 immunostainings in PGC tissues with positive nodal metastasis were also significantly lower than those without (P = 0.01). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier curves showed that SOX4 over-expression was significantly related to better overall (P = 0.008) and disease-free survival (P = 0.01). Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed that SOX4 expression was an independent risk factor for both overall (P = 0.03, hazard ratio, 3.682) and disease-free survival (P = 0.04, hazard ratio, 2.215). Conclusion Our data indicate for the first time that the over-expression of SOX4 in PGC was significantly correlated with favorable clinicopathologic features and was an independent prognostic factor for better overall and disease-free survival in patients. Therefore, SOX4 might be an auxiliary parameter for predicting malignant behavior for PGC. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1534825818694957. PMID:22510499

  20. Male breast cancer: a clinicopathological study of an Egyptian population (Alexandria experience)

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the clinicopathological features and treatment results of male breast cancer presented to our tertiary referral center. Material and methods Between January 1998 and December 2005, a total of 39 men with breast cancer treated at Alexandria Main University Hospital and their medical records were reviewed. Results The median age of patients was 59 years. Only 3 (7.7%) patients had positive family history. All patients presented by breast swellings that were associated with axillary mass in about one third of them. Around 80% had hormone receptor positive (estrogen and/or progesterone receptors). Two third of patients had advanced T-stage (T3 and T4). Left sided breast cancer occurred in 51.3%. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common type of histology encountered and grade 2 was the predominant grade of tumor. Modified radical mastectomy was the most common (87.2%) type of surgery done followed by chemotherapy for 32 patients and loco-regional radiotherapy for 20 patients. Tamoxifen was administered in 31 patients. Distant relapse occurred in 7 patients (17.9%) and local recurrence occurred in 2 patients (5.1%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 82% and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 84%. Only negative axillary lymph node and positive hormone receptor status were significantly associated with favorable DFS and OS. T-stage, grade of tumor and type of chemotherapy given had no statistically significant impact on either DFS or OS. Conclusions Male breast cancer is still under-investigated and further researches are warranted. PMID:27688732

  1. Male breast cancer: a clinicopathological study of an Egyptian population (Alexandria experience)

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the clinicopathological features and treatment results of male breast cancer presented to our tertiary referral center. Material and methods Between January 1998 and December 2005, a total of 39 men with breast cancer treated at Alexandria Main University Hospital and their medical records were reviewed. Results The median age of patients was 59 years. Only 3 (7.7%) patients had positive family history. All patients presented by breast swellings that were associated with axillary mass in about one third of them. Around 80% had hormone receptor positive (estrogen and/or progesterone receptors). Two third of patients had advanced T-stage (T3 and T4). Left sided breast cancer occurred in 51.3%. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common type of histology encountered and grade 2 was the predominant grade of tumor. Modified radical mastectomy was the most common (87.2%) type of surgery done followed by chemotherapy for 32 patients and loco-regional radiotherapy for 20 patients. Tamoxifen was administered in 31 patients. Distant relapse occurred in 7 patients (17.9%) and local recurrence occurred in 2 patients (5.1%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 82% and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 84%. Only negative axillary lymph node and positive hormone receptor status were significantly associated with favorable DFS and OS. T-stage, grade of tumor and type of chemotherapy given had no statistically significant impact on either DFS or OS. Conclusions Male breast cancer is still under-investigated and further researches are warranted.

  2. [Prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of giant cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Villaseñor, E G; Linares-González, L M; Delgado-Cedillo, E A; González-Guzmán, R; Rico-Martínez, G

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of giant cell tumors reported in the literature is very variable. Considering that our population has its own features, which distinguish it from the Anglo-Saxon and Asian populations, we think that both the frequency and the clinical characteristics of giant cell tumors in our population are different. The major aim of this paper was to determine the frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of giant cell tumors of the bone. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of the cases diagnosed at our service as giant cell tumors of the bone from January to December 2013. The electronic clinical records, radiologic records and histologic slides from each case were reviewed. Giant cell tumors represented 17% of total bone tumors and 28% of benign tumors. Patients included 13 females and 18 males. The most frequent locations of giant cell tumors were: the proximal tibia, 9 cases (29%), and the distal femur, 6 cases (19%). Forty-five percent of giant cell tumors were associated with aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) (14 cases) and one case (3%) was malignant. The frequency of giant cell tumors in this case series was intermediate, that is, higher than the one reported in Anglo-Saxon countries (usually low), but without reaching the frequency rates reported in Asian countries (high).

  3. Rhabdoid papillary meningioma: a clinicopathologic case series study.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Ting; Ho, Jih-Tsun; Lin, Yu-Jun; Lin, Jui-Wei

    2011-12-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) grade III meningiomas are subclassified on the basis of their architectural pattern into papillary and rhabdoid subtypes. Some meningiomas even combine papillary architecture with rhabdoid cytology. Additionally, they always show malignant histological features, follow an aggressive clinical course and tend to spread through the CSF after frequent local recurrence. We render the first series of rhabdoid papillary meningioma with review of the literature to further elucidate its biological behavior. From six patients (three male, three female), nine specimens of rhabdoid papillary meningioma were obtained between 1994 and 2010. Correlations of histologic parameters, immunohistochemical study, and clinical features were assessed. The mean age of patients was 44.7 years at their first operation. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 63.2 months. Five patients experienced tumor recurrence, and one of them died from the disease after diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination. The mean time to first recurrence was 28 months. Only one patient was free of tumoral recurrence after an 8-year follow-up. Immunohistochemically, all tumors were positive for vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen. MIB-1 labeling indices were higher following tumor recurrence. The present study expands the clinicopathologic horizon of rhabdoid papillary meningioma and suggests that it will behave aggressively based on its histology and concomitant features of atypia or malignancy or high MIB-1 labeling indices. Close follow-up and aggressive treatments of these tumors are warranted.

  4. Clinicopathological features and proliferation markers in tongue squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gueiros, L A; Coletta, R D; Kowalski, L P; Lopes, M A

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical expression of proliferation markers in oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC). Sixty-three patients without previous treatment or distant metastases were selected. Clinical information was retrieved from medical charts, histopathological analysis was performed and expression of proliferation markers (Ki-67, Mcm-2 and geminin) was evaluated. Most patients were men (81%) (male:female ratio 4.25:1). The age range was 31-92 years (mean 57.6 ± 11.81 years). A high Anneroth score was associated with tumour size (p=0.05), tumoural embolization of the blood vessels (p=0.003), nodal metastasis (p=0.05), nodal capsule rupture (p=0.016) and distant metastasis (p=0.002). Elevated Bryne scores were significantly associated with nodal capsule rupture (p=0.02), distant metastasis (p=0.002), shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.03) and disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.05) compared with patients with lower score. Elevated Ki-67+ cells (p=0.05) and Mcm-2+ cells (p=0.008) were associated with nodal metastasis and tumours with a high geminin score demonstrated a significant tendency for neural invasion (p=0.05). Anneroth and Bryne score in association with biomarkers of proliferation can be useful for evaluating the biological behaviour of OTSCC. PMID:21277167

  5. [Prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of giant cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Villaseñor, E G; Linares-González, L M; Delgado-Cedillo, E A; González-Guzmán, R; Rico-Martínez, G

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of giant cell tumors reported in the literature is very variable. Considering that our population has its own features, which distinguish it from the Anglo-Saxon and Asian populations, we think that both the frequency and the clinical characteristics of giant cell tumors in our population are different. The major aim of this paper was to determine the frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of giant cell tumors of the bone. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of the cases diagnosed at our service as giant cell tumors of the bone from January to December 2013. The electronic clinical records, radiologic records and histologic slides from each case were reviewed. Giant cell tumors represented 17% of total bone tumors and 28% of benign tumors. Patients included 13 females and 18 males. The most frequent locations of giant cell tumors were: the proximal tibia, 9 cases (29%), and the distal femur, 6 cases (19%). Forty-five percent of giant cell tumors were associated with aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) (14 cases) and one case (3%) was malignant. The frequency of giant cell tumors in this case series was intermediate, that is, higher than the one reported in Anglo-Saxon countries (usually low), but without reaching the frequency rates reported in Asian countries (high). PMID:27403516

  6. A Clinicopathological Profile of Prostate Cancer in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Sukhraj, Rajendra; Goetz, Lester

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To conduct a clinicopathological review of all prostate biopsies performed in a tertiary referral centre in Trinidad and Tobago over a period of 30 months. Methods. The records of all patients who had prostate biopsies from January 2012 to July 2014 were reviewed. Clinical and pathologic data were compiled and subsequently analysed using SPSS version 20. Results. From January 2012 to July 2014, 617 transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies were performed. Pathological data were found for 546 patients of whom 283 (51.8%) were confirmed carcinoma of the prostate. Moderately differentiated tumors (Gleason 7) were the most common group. Using the D'Amico risk classification, most cases were found to be high risk (63.1%). Afro-Trinidadians comprised 72.1% of the patients with prostate cancer. Afro-Trinidadians were also more likely to have high risk and high grade disease as well as high PSA values. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that over half of our biopsies are eventually positive for cancer and most cases were high risk. Afro-Trinidadians comprised a disproportionate number of those diagnosed with prostate cancer and had a greater risk of high risk disease. PMID:27493662

  7. Ulcerative Granular Cell Tumor: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Khalawany, Mohamed; Mosbeh, Al-Sadat; Abd-Al Salam, Fatma; Abou-Bakr, Amany

    2011-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is uncommonly presented with cutaneous ulcer. We examined the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of this ulcerative form in fourteen cases that may raise the awareness of this variant. The study included 11 males and 3 females with a mean age 31.5 ± 7.42 years. All cases were presented with large solitary ulcer with indurated base, elevated border, skin colored margin, and necrotic floor. Twelve lesions were located on the extremities and two lesions on the genital region. Histologically, the lesions showed dermal infiltrate composed of large polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm and characteristic infiltration of the dermal muscles in all cases. Immunostaining showed positive reaction for S100 (14/14), NSE (14/14), CD68 (5/14), and Vimentin (7/14) while HMB45, CK, EMA, and Desmin were negative. We hope that this paper increases the awareness of ulcerative GCT and consider it in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions. PMID:22132340

  8. Dupuytren type fibromatoses. A clinicopathologic study of 62 cases.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, M; Tsuneyoshi, M; Enjoji, M

    1984-09-01

    This clinicopathologic study concerns 62 patients with one of the Dupuytren type fibromatoses. Of the 62 patients, 42 had the lesion in the palm (palmar fibromatosis), 12 in the sole (plantar fibromatosis), 2 in the penis (penile fibromatosis), and 6 in the ectopic locations, the dorsal aspect of the hand in 3 patients, the dorsum of the fingers in 2, and the forearm in 1. The clinically palpable nodules were histologically classified into those of the following three phases, according to LUCK'S classification: proliferative phase (27), involutional phase (23), and residual phase (12). In addition to fibroblastic proliferation, the lesion of the proliferative phase exhibited vascular features consisting of one or more layers of cells with oval nuclei around the vessels within the nodule. In the lesions of the late proliferative and involutional phase, the intracytoplasmic fine filaments were visible in cells compatible with myofibroblasts by Masson's trichrome stain. The nuclei of the elemental fibroblasts in the same phases were often crossed transversely by one or more fine basophilic lines.

  9. Clinicopathological and genetic study of early-onset demyelinating neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Parman, Yesim; Battaloglu, Esra; Baris, Ibrahim; Bilir, Birdal; Poyraz, Mürüvvet; Bissar-Tadmouri, Nisrine; Williams, Anna; Ammar, Nadia; Nelis, Eva; Timmerman, Vincent; De Jonghe, Peter; Najafov, Ayaz; Necefov, Ayaz; Deymeer, Feza; Serdaroglu, Piraye; Brophy, Peter J; Said, G

    2004-11-01

    Autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4), Dejerine-Sottas disease and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy are variants of hereditary demyelinating neuropathy of infancy, a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. To explore the spectrum of early-onset demyelinating neuropathies further, we studied the clinicopathological and genetic aspects of 20 patients born to unaffected parents. In 19 families out of 20, consanguinity between the parents or presence of an affected sib suggested autosomal recessive transmission. Screening of various genes known to be involved in CMT4 revealed six mutations of which five are novel. Four of these novel mutations occurred in the homozygous state and include: one in GDAP1, one in MTMR2, one in PRX and one in KIAA1985. One patient was heterozygous for a novel MTMR2 mutation and still another was homozygous for the founder mutation, R148X, in NDRG1. All patients tested negative for mutations in EGR2. Histopathological examination of nerve biopsy specimens showed a severe, chronic demyelinating neuropathy, with onion bulb formation, extensive demyelination of isolated fibres and axon loss. We did not discern a specific pattern of histopathology that could be correlated to mutations in a particular gene. PMID:15469949

  10. Review of tumoral calcinosis: A rare clinico-pathological entity

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Ibrahim; Sakr, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) has long been a controversial clinico-pathological entity. Its pathogenesis and genetic background have been gradually unravelled since its first description in 1943. According to the presence or absence of an underlying calcifying disease process, TC has been divided into primary and secondary varieties. Two subtypes of the primary variety exist; a hyper-phosphatemic type with familial basis represented by mutations in GalNAc transferase 3 gene (GALNT3), KLOTHO or Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) genes, and a normo-phosphatemic type with growing evidence of underlying familial base represented by mutation in SAMD9 gene. The secondary variety is mainly associated with chronic renal failure and the resulting secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Diagnosis of TC relies on typical radiographic features (on plain radiographs and computed tomography) and the biochemical profile. Magnetic resonance imaging can be done in difficult cases, and scintigraphy reflects the disease activity. Treatment is mainly surgical for the primary variety; however, a stage-oriented conservative approach using phosphate binders, phosphate restricted diets and acetazolamide should be considered before the surgical approach is pursued due to the high rate of recurrences and complications after surgical intervention. Medical treatment is the mainstay for treatment of the secondary variety, with failure warranting subtotal or total parathyroidectomy. Surgical intervention in these patients should be kept as a last resort. PMID:25232542

  11. Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides: A Clinicopathologic Study of 21 Patients.

    PubMed

    Reggiani, Camilla; Massone, Cesare; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cota, Carlo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    Interstitial mycosis fungoides (IMF) is a rare histopathologic variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) that may mimic other inflammatory dermatoses, mainly interstitial granuloma annulare, inflammatory morphea, and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Only small series and sporadic case reports of IMF have been described in the literature. We reviewed 27 specimens from 21 patients with IMF (M:F=11:10, median age 60) to better characterize clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features of this disease. Most patients presented clinically with patches and/or plaques. Conventional MF was documented before, concomitant with, or after IMF in 12 patients, whereas only in 2 patients different biopsies showed exclusive features of IMF over a period of 4 and 191 months, respectively. Histology revealed in all cases variably long, linear aggregates of dermal lymphocytes splaying the collagen fibers, involving predominantly the superficial and mid-dermis (6 cases) or the entire dermis (21 cases). Immunohistochemical stainings revealed a cytotoxic phenotype in 9/18 tested cases. Variable amounts of histiocytes/macrophages were found interstitially in all tested biopsies but never represented a population larger than that of T lymphocytes. Our study shows that IMF is a peculiar variant of MF with frequent cytotoxic phenotype. This histopathologic variant in most cases represents a transient pattern in otherwise conventional MF. Accurate clinicopathologic correlation and phenotypic studies of atypical dermal interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates allow to make a correct diagnosis.

  12. Male breast carcinoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ruoji; Yu, Lin; Zhou, Shuling; Bi, Rui; Shui, Ruohong; Yu, Baohua; Lu, Hongfen; Cai, Xu; Yang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is a relatively rare disease. This study retrospectively investigated the clinicopathological features of 73 cases of male breast carcinoma in Chinese population, and classified the molecular subtype based on surrogate immunohistochemical definitions. The expression of GCDFP15, MGB, AR and FOXP1 were evaluated. Invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in the study group (71.2%, 52/73). The luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma (60.9%, 34.8% respectively). AR and FOXP1 are expressed in 84.2% (48/57) and 71.9% (41/57) of the studied cases. Carcinoma of the luminal A subtype expressed GCDFP15 (73.5%, 25/34) and MGB (58.8%, 20/34) more frequently than cases of the luminal B subtypes (34.8%, 8/23 and 43.5%, 10/23, respectively; P = 0.004, P = 0.255, respectively). In conclusion, invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most common histological type in male breast carcinoma among Chinese population. Our study revealed that the luminal A and B subtypes were the major types of male breast carcinoma. AR and FOXP1 are highly expressed in male breast cancer. The luminal A subtype tends to express GCDFP15 and MGB more frequently than the luminal B subtype.

  13. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: histogenesis, biology and clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Seipel, Amanda H; Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Egevad, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (DAC) is recognised as a subtype of prostatic adenocarcinoma, but its diagnostic criteria and biology remain controversial. DAC was first thought to stem from Müllerian duct remnants, but further studies suggest a prostatic origin. DAC is composed of tall, columnar, pseudostratified epithelium with a papillary, cribriform, glandular or solid architecture. The diagnosis is based on morphology alone with papillary architecture being the most helpful diagnostic feature. The tumour is rare in a pure form and most cases are combined with acinar adenocarcinoma. The most common differential diagnoses of DAC are intraductal carcinoma of the prostate and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Patients often present at an advanced clinicopathological stage. High rates of extra-prostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, local and regional metastases, and positive surgical margins are seen after radical prostatectomy. DAC metastasises to sites that are less commonly seen for prostate cancer such as lung, brain, testis and penis. The morphology and the unusual metastatic locations make the accurate diagnosis of metastases challenging, but a positive immunostain for prostate specific markers may be helpful. The correct identification of DAC has implications for treatment as well as outcome. PMID:27321992

  14. Associations Between Elastography Findings and Clinicopathological Factors in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Sueta, Aiko; Tomiguchi, Mai; Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Kawasoe, Teru; Hamada, Akinobu; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to explore the clinical significance of breast tumor tissue stiffness based on ultrasound elastographic evaluation in clinical breast cancer. Tumor tissue stiffness is mainly regulated by interactions among tumor cells, stromal cells, and extracellular matrix and was recently regarded as a representative feature of tumor microenvironment. Basic research has already revealed that the tumor stiffness can lead to tumor progression; however, little is known about its clinical significance because thus far, no useful modality is available in the clinical setting. We investigated the tumor stiffness by strain elastography in 503 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer. Correlations between stiffness and clinicopathological factors, including tumor size, lymph node involvement, tumor subtypes, and stromal-related genes’ expressions in primary breast tumor, were statistically examined. We identified that clinical tumor stiffness significantly correlated with lymph node involvement and invasive tumor size but not with hormonal receptor expressions, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 status, and ki67 labeling index by analyses of both categorical and continuous variables of stiffness. On multivariate analyses, axillary lymph node metastasis was an independent factor that influenced the stiffness of primary breast tumor. In the gene expression analyses, relatively hard tumors had a significantly high gene expression of lysyl oxidase compared with soft tumors. Our study showed a close relationship between primary tumor stiffness by elastographic evaluation and lymph node involvement in clinical breast cancer. Further investigations on tumor-related tissue stiffness are required. PMID:26683963

  15. PINCH Expression and Its Clinicopathological Significance in Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen-Long; Yan, Bao-Yong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Min; Zhang, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Xiang-Hong; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein (PINCH) is an important component of the local adhesion complexes and upregulated in several types of malignancies, and involved in the incidence and development of tumours. PINCH expression is also independently correlated with poorer survival in patients with colorectal cancer. However, there is no study of PINCH in gastric cancer, therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate PINCH expression and its clinicopathological significance in gastric adenocarcinoma. Patients and methods: PINCH expression was immunohistochemically examined in normal gastric mucous (n = 30) and gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 73), from gastric cancer patients. Results: PINCH expression in the associated-stroma of gastric cancers was heterogeneous, and its positive rate (75%) was higher than that of normal gastric mucosa (43%, X2 = 9.711, p = 0.002). The stronger staining was observed at the invasive edge of tumour when compared to the inner area of tumour. The rate of positive PINCH (88%) in the cases with lymph node metastasis was higher than that (52%) in the cases without metastasis (X2 = 11.151, p = 0.001). PINCH expression was not correlated with patients’ gender, age, tumour size, differentiation and invasion depth (p > 0.05). Comclusion: PINCH protein might play an important role in the tumourigenesis and metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:22976000

  16. Epithelial tumors of the lacrimal glands: a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Paulino, A F; Huvos, A G

    1999-08-01

    We report the clinicopathologic features of epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland apparatus, which are rare and therefore represent a major challenge for diagnosis and treatment. Histologic material from 22 lesions was studied by light microscopy, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. A comparison with major and minor salivary gland tumors was performed to analyze the relative distribution of these tumors and to establish whether salivary glands and lacrimal gland tumors are similar or different in their pathologic appearance and clinical behavior. There were three benign pleomorphic adenomas and 19 malignant tumors. The gender distribution was equal. The ages of the patients ranged from 10 to 73 years (mean age, 46 years). Among the malignant tumors, adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common (nine cases), followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma (three cases). There were two cases each of malignant mixed tumor and adenocarcinoma. All mucoepidermoid carcinomas and the adenocarcinomas were histologically high grade. There also was one case each of salivary duct carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and oncocytic adenocarcinoma. Of 14 patients in whom clinical follow-up was available, seven had distant metastases and four died of their disease. The only case occurring in a child was an adenoid cystic carcinoma that recurred locally after 14 years. The clinical and pathologic features of lacrimal gland tumors resemble those lesions that arise in the intraoral minor salivary glands. The greater relative proportion of malignant cases in this series probably reflects a selection bias.

  17. Chronic macrocheilia: a clinico-pathological study of 28 patients.

    PubMed

    Handa, S; Saraswat, A; Radotra, B D; Kumar, B

    2003-05-01

    Chronic macrocheilia has a multifactorial aetiology and is often a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Epidemiological information on this condition is scarce, most of the data reported relating only to granulomatous cheilitis. We have performed a detailed clinico-pathological analysis of all patients with chronic macrocheilia presenting to us during the last 6.5 years. Of the 28 patients identified, 13 (46.4%) had granulomatous cheilitis (GC), six (21.4%) had tuberculosis of the lip, three (10.7%) had leprous macrocheilia, two (7.1%) had multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb, and one each had Ascher's syndrome and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Two patients were diagnosed as 'nonspecific cheilitis'. Histopathological differentiation between tuberculosis and GC was often not possible; but PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was positive in all patients with tuberculosis and negative in four patients with GC in whom M. tuberculosis was sought. In spite of detailed clinical examination and investigations, a therapeutic trial was required to confirm the diagnosis in five (17.9%) patients. We have reviewed the available literature on this subject, and to our knowledge this study is the first of its kind. More such studies from other centres will help physicians to make an accurate aetiological diagnosis and treat this uncommon but disfiguring condition with confidence.

  18. Modified cyanobacteria

    DOEpatents

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  19. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  20. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  1. Modifying Repetitive Verbalizations of Community-Dwelling Patients with AD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Michelle S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports on behavior management training given to seven caregivers of a home-dwelling spouse with Alzheimer's disease. Results reveal that trained caregivers were successful at decreasing patient repetitions using written cues. Patients of control subjects showed no systematic changes in behavioral disturbances. Intervention effects lasted for 16…

  2. Gliomatosis peritonei: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li; Zhang, Yifen; Malpica, Anais; Ramalingam, Preetha; Euscher, Elizabeth D.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Liu, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Gliomatosis peritonei, a rare condition often associated with immature ovarian teratoma, is characterized by the presence of mature glial tissue in the peritoneum. We retrospectively evaluated 21 patients with gliomatosis peritonei and studied their clinicopathologic features and immunophenotype. The patients’ ages ranged from 5 to 42 years (median, 19 years). Their primary ovarian tumors consisted of immature teratoma (n = 14), mixed germ cell tumors (n = 6), and mature teratoma with a carcinoid tumor (n = 1). Gliomatosis peritonei was diagnosed at the same time as primary ovarian neoplasm in 16 patients and secondary surgery in 5 patients. Also, 11 of 21 patients had metastatic immature teratoma (n = 4), metastatic mature teratoma (n = 2), or both (n = 5). One patient developed glioma arising from gliomatosis peritonei. Seventeen patients had follow-up information and were alive with no evidence of disease (n = 13), alive with disease (n = 3), or alive with an unknown disease status (n = 1). The follow-up durations ranged from 1 to 229 months (mean, 49 months; median, 23 months). Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that SOX2 was expressed in all cases of gliomatosis peritonei and glioma with tissue available (9 of 9 cases), whereas OCT4 and NANOG were negative in all cases with available tissue (8 of 8 cases). In conclusion, both gliomatosis peritonei and glioma arising from it show a SOX2+/OCT4−/NANOG− immunophenotype. These findings demonstrated that gliomatosis peritonei is associated with favorable prognosis, although it is important to rule out potentially associated immature teratoma and maligant transformation. SOX2 may play an important role in the development of gliomatosis peritonei. PMID:26564007

  3. Clinicopathological prognostic factors for upper tract urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Timev, Alexander; Dimitrov, Plamen; Vasilev, Vasil; Krastanov, Alexander; Georgiev, Marincho; Yanev, Krasimir; Simeonov, Peter; Panchev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of clinicopathological factors including age, gender, tumor grade, tumor stage, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), tumor necrosis and previous history of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer on outcomes of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Material and methods A total of 60 patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma at our institute between 2005 to 2012 were included in our study. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log rank statistics, the chi-square test and Cox regression models. Results The mean length of follow-up time was 33.3 months. There were 27 (45%) patients alive with the disease, whereas 33 (55%) were dead. In 19 cases (31.7%) the tumor grade was low, while in 41 cases (68.3%) it was high. Lymphovascular invasion was observed in 28 (46.7%) cases. Tumor necrosis was registered in 14 patients (23.3%). From the patients with LVI, 3 (9.6%) were alive, whereas from the patients negative for LVI, 75% were alive. Significant relationship was found between gender and grading and between positive LVI and low grading. Conclusions Day case Variables such as gender, grading, tumor stage, LVI and tumor necrosis were all demonstrated to be significant independent prognostic factors for the overall survival. On the multivariate analysis only LVI remained statistically significant, which may explain the different clinical course in patients and could be considered as a part of pathological reporting and treatment planning for the future. PMID:27123328

  4. Acute Atherosis of the Uterine Spiral Arteries: Clinicopathologic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2015-01-01

    Acute atherosis is unique vascular changes of the placenta associated with poor placentation. It is characterized by subendothelial lipid-filled foam cells, fibrinoid necrosis of the arterial wall, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, and it is histologically similar to early-stage atherosclerosis. Acute atherosis is rare in normal pregnancies, but is frequently observed in non- transformed spiral arteries in abnormal pregnancies, such as preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal death, spontaneous preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes. In preeclampsia, spiral arteries fail to develop physiologic transformation and retain thick walls and a narrow lumen. Failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries is believed to be the main cause of uteroplacental ischemia, which can lead to the production of anti-angiogenic factors and induce endothelial dysfunction and eventually predispose the pregnancy to preeclampsia. Acute atherosis is more frequently observed in the spiral arteries of the decidua of the placenta (parietalis or basalis) than in the decidual or myometrial segments of the placental bed. The presence and deeper location of acute atherosis is associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes, more severe disease, earlier onset of preeclampsia, and a greater frequency of SGA neonates in patients with preeclampsia. Moreover, the idea that the presence of acute atherosis in the placenta may increase the risk of future cardiovascular disease in women with a history of preeclampsia is of growing concern. Therefore, placental examination is crucial for retrospective investigation of pregnancy complications and outcomes, and accurate placental pathology based on universal diagnostic criteria in patients with abnormal pregnancies is essential for clinicopathologic correlation. PMID:26530045

  5. Clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome of urinary bladder neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Hooda, M N; Siddique, F H; Nabi, S; Islam, M W; Ara, K; Bhuiyan, Z I

    2014-04-01

    More than ninety percent of bladder neoplasm is Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC). About 85% of patients present with symptom of painless haematuria. However haematuria is quite often intermittent so that a negative result has little meaning in ruling out the presence of bladder cancer. The present study was conducted to observe the natural history of different clinicopathologic stages of bladder cancer after transurethral resection bladder tumor (TURBT), either intravescical chemotherapy (IVC) or immunotherapy with BCG and of other forms of therapy like radio-chemotherapy (RCT) and radical surgery in few cases. A consecutive series of 52 cases with different grades and stages of bladder cancer patients were studied. Those who were noncompliant with surgery were sent for RCT. The age range of the patients was 34 to 75 with mean 53 year. Macroscopic haematuria, flank pain, microscopic haematuria, bladder irritability was found in 43(82.7%), 06(11.5%), 03(5.8%), 32(61.5%) cases respectively and coincidental ureteral TCC with hydronephrosis was found in 04(7.7%) cases for whom radical nephreureterectomy and cystectomy with ileal conduit was done. Amongst the other muscle invasive tumor only three cases were compliant to do radical surgery; rest were advised to consult with oncologist for possible RCT. Superficial bladder cancer was 19(36.5%) and invasive bladder cancer was 33(63.5%). TURBT and IVT were offered for all superficial bladder tumors. Of them 06(31.5%) patients showed recurrence during the study period. More recurrences occur in IVC group (35.7%) than immunotherapy with BCG group (20%) Re-TURBT and stage wise treatment was offered to them. All recurrent cases were G-3 tumor and were multifocal. Recurrence rate is about 30%. Screening program and structured referral system should be developed to have early diagnosis for prompt treatment and best prognosis.

  6. Clinicopathologic Features of Colorectal Carcinoma in HIV-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Carlie; Cavalcanti, Marcela S.; Daniel, Tanisha; Vakiani, Efsevia; Shia, Jinru; Sigel, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests differences in colo-rectal cancer in HIV-infected patients (HIV+) compared with HIV− patients. Microsatellite instability (MSI), occurring in a subset of colorectal cancer, is present at a higher rate in certain cancers in HIV+ patients. Colorectal cancer with MSI share some characteristics with those reported for HIV+ colorectal cancer. On this premise, we studied clinical and pathologic features of HIV+ colorectal cancer and evaluated for MSI using matched HIV− colorectal cancer controls. Methods Two nested, matched cohorts were identified from a hospital-based cohort of colorectal cancer patients. HIV+ colo-rectal cancers were identified and random control patients were matched for selected characteristics. Mismatch repair protein (MMR) IHC was performed as the detection method for MSI. Variables were compared between cases and controls using fixed-effects logit modeling to account for matching. Results We included 184 colorectal cancer samples (38 HIV+, 146 HIV− control). Median patient age at colorectal cancer onset was 55. When compared with HIV− colorectal cancer, HIV+patients were more likely to have smoked (P = 0.001), have right-sided colorectal cancer (37% vs. 14%; P = 0.003), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) above 50/10 high-power fields (21% vs. 7%). There was no difference in MMR protein expression (P = 0.6). HIV+ colorectal cancer patients had reduced overall survival (P = 0.02) but no difference in progression-free survival. Conclusions HIV+ patients developed colorectal cancer at a lower median age than population estimates, had a higher frequency of right-sided disease, and increased TILs, suggesting potential biologic differences compared with uninfected patients. Impact Clinicopathologic differences in colorectal cancer of HIV+ persons may have implications for tumor pathogenesis. PMID:27197294

  7. Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer misdiagnosed by fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hideki; Kutomi, Goro; Satomi, Fukino; Shima, Hiroaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Hirata, Koichi; Takemasa, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is commonly used as a preoperative assessment to diagnose thyroid cancer. However, misdiagnosis of malignancy by FNA is not rare, even if image examination suggests the possibility of thyroid cancer. In the present study, the clinicopathological factors of patients whose preoperative FNA examination had not led to a diagnosis of thyroid cancer were examined. In total, 125 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent FNA and surgery (total thyroidectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy or hemithyroidectomy) at the Department of Surgery, Surgical Oncology and Science of the Sapporo Medical University Hospital between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A, malignancy determined by FNA, and group B, no malignancy. The groups were then compared by gender, age, tumor size, stage, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, histology, surgical procedure methods, presence or absence of calcification and thyroglobulin levels. The mean age of the patients in group A (5 males and 59 females) was 53.0 years. The mean age in group B (11 males and 49 females) was 54.2 years. The mean tumor size in both groups was 1.6 cm. The mean thyroglobulin levels were 82.7 ng/ml in Group A and 525.5 ng/ml in group B. There were also significant differences between the groups for tumor stage (P=0.046), histological type (P=0.024) and thyroglobulin levels (P=0.035). The results of the present study suggested that it may be difficult to diagnose thyroid cancer by FNA in cases with non-papillary carcinoma and higher thyroglobulin levels.

  8. Clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer misdiagnosed by fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hideki; Kutomi, Goro; Satomi, Fukino; Shima, Hiroaki; Mori, Mitsuru; Hirata, Koichi; Takemasa, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is commonly used as a preoperative assessment to diagnose thyroid cancer. However, misdiagnosis of malignancy by FNA is not rare, even if image examination suggests the possibility of thyroid cancer. In the present study, the clinicopathological factors of patients whose preoperative FNA examination had not led to a diagnosis of thyroid cancer were examined. In total, 125 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent FNA and surgery (total thyroidectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy or hemithyroidectomy) at the Department of Surgery, Surgical Oncology and Science of the Sapporo Medical University Hospital between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A, malignancy determined by FNA, and group B, no malignancy. The groups were then compared by gender, age, tumor size, stage, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, histology, surgical procedure methods, presence or absence of calcification and thyroglobulin levels. The mean age of the patients in group A (5 males and 59 females) was 53.0 years. The mean age in group B (11 males and 49 females) was 54.2 years. The mean tumor size in both groups was 1.6 cm. The mean thyroglobulin levels were 82.7 ng/ml in Group A and 525.5 ng/ml in group B. There were also significant differences between the groups for tumor stage (P=0.046), histological type (P=0.024) and thyroglobulin levels (P=0.035). The results of the present study suggested that it may be difficult to diagnose thyroid cancer by FNA in cases with non-papillary carcinoma and higher thyroglobulin levels. PMID:27698782

  9. Imaging and Clinicopathologic Features of Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Winant, Abbey J.; Gollub, Marc J.; Shia, Jinru; Antonescu, Christina; Bains, Manjit S.; Levine, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to describe the imaging and clinicopathologic characteristics of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and to emphasize the features that differentiate esophageal GISTs from esophageal leiomyomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS A pathology database search identified all surgically resected or biopsied esophageal GISTs, esophageal leiomyomas, and esophageal leiomyosarcomas from 1994 to 2012. Esophageal GISTs were included only if imaging studies (including CT, fluoroscopic, or 18F-FDG PET/CT scans) and clinical data were available. RESULTS Nineteen esophageal mesenchymal tumors were identified, including eight esophageal GISTs (42%), 10 esophageal leiomyomas (53%), and one esophageal leiomyosarcoma (5%). Four patients (50%) with esophageal GIST had symptoms, including dysphagia in three (38%), cough in one (13%), and chest pain in one (13%). One esophageal GIST appeared on barium study as a smooth submucosal mass. All esophageal GISTs appeared on CT as well-marginated predominantly distal lesions, isoattenuating to muscle, that moderately enhanced after IV contrast agent administration. Compared with esophageal leiomyomas, esophageal GISTs tended to be more distal, larger, and more heterogeneous and showed greater IV enhancement on CT. All esophageal GISTs showed marked avidity (mean maximum standardized uptake value, 16) on PET scans. All esophageal GISTs were positive for c-KIT (a cell-surface transmembrane tyrosine kinase also known as CD117) and CD34. On histopathology, six esophageal GISTs (75%) were of the spindle pattern and two (25%) were of a mixed spindle and epithelioid pattern. Five esophageal GISTs had exon 11 mutations (with imatinib sensitivity). Clinical outcome correlated with treatment strategy (resection plus adjuvant therapy or resection alone) rather than risk stratification. CONCLUSION Esophageal GISTs are unusual but clinically important mesenchymal neoplasms. Although esophageal GISTs and

  10. Brain vascular lesions: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural approach.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Marisol Galván; Hernández, Alma Dalia; Collado-Ortiz, Miguel Angel; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia

    2014-08-01

    Brain vascular malformations are relatively common lesions that cause serious neurologic disability or death in a significant proportion of individuals bearing them. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemistry these lesions, looking for common antibodies expressed such as CD31, CD34, CD15, factor VIII, nestin, vimentin, vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial grow factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), glial fibrillar acidic protien (GFAP), and fibroblastic grow factor β (β-FGF) and ultrastructure in endothelial cells as well as in vessel walls. Fifty cases of vascular lesions were included in this study: 29 (58%) of them were arteriovenous malformations and 21 (52%) were brain cavernomas. Twenty-six (52%) patients were women and 24 (48%) men. The age range was from 13 to 68 years (mean age, 35.86 ± 15.19 years). The size of the lesions ranged between 1 and 8 cm (3 ± 1.65 cm), and parieto-occipital lesions had a bigger size. Evolution time varied from 1 month to 1 year (mean, 7.5 months). There was a significant statistical correlation between age and sex (P = -035), rupture of lesion (P = .015), brain hemorrhage (P = .033), necrosis (P = .011), hemosiderin deposit (P = .042), VEGF (P = .015), and VEGFR (P = .037), as well as localization of rupture (P = .017), loss of consciousness (P = .000), visual deficit (P = .026), hyaline vessels (P = .000), and CD31 (.009). Interactions between endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells) in blood vessel walls have recently come into focus as central processes in the regulation of vascular formation, stabilization, remodeling, and function in brain vascular lesions. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation and growth of brain arteriovenous malformations are still poorly understood.

  11. MYC Deregulation in Gastric Cancer and Its Clinicopathological Implications

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Carolina Rosal Teixeira; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Costa Sozinho, Eliana Kelly; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; dos Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos Ribeiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; Ribeiro, Helem Ferreira; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigated the relationship between MYC alterations and clinicopathological features in gastric cancers. We evaluated the effect of MYC mRNA expression and its protein immunoreactivity, as well as copy number variation, promoter DNA methylation, and point mutations, in 125 gastric adenocarcinoma and 67 paried non-neoplastic tissues. We observed that 77% of the tumors presented MYC immunoreactivity which was significantly associated with increased mRNA expression (p<0.05). These observations were associated with deeper tumor extension and the presence of metastasis (p<0.05). MYC protein expression was also more frequently observed in intestinal-type than in diffuse-type tumors (p<0.001). Additionally, MYC mRNA and protein expression were significantly associated with its copy number (p<0.05). The gain of MYC copies was associated with late-onset, intestinal-type, advanced tumor stage, and the presence of distant metastasis (p<0.05). A hypomethylated MYC promoter was detected in 86.4% of tumor samples. MYC hypomethylation was associated with diffuse-type, advanced tumor stage, deeper tumor extension, and the presence of lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). Moreover, eighteen tumor samples presented at least one known mutation. The presence of MYC mutations was associated with diffuse-type tumor (p<0.001). Our results showed that MYC deregulation was mainly associated with poor prognostic features and also reinforced the presence of different pathways involved in intestinal-type and diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, our findings suggest that MYC may be a useful marker for clinical stratification and prognosis. PMID:23717612

  12. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (<10 eosinophils/high-power field [HPF], 11/25 cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs.

  13. Oncocytoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan-Xiang; Gao, Yan

    2009-12-01

    We present a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 Chinese patients with oncocytoma of salivary gland origin, a rare benign tumour composed exclusively of large epithelial cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm (oncocytes). The median age was 60.1 years with a male predominance (67%). All the tumours occurred in the parotid except one in the palate. A painless mass was the most common feature, although intermittent pain was complained of in four cases. All the patients were treated by superficial parotidectomy, with no recurrence or metastasis. Histologically, most tumours displayed an encapsulated nodular growth pattern, but one case presented with an aggressive growing tendency. Typical oncocytes were observed in all cases, with one clear cell variant found. The oncocytes were arranged in solid sheets, trabecular or duct-like structures. Rarely, small foci of hemorrhage or lymphoid stroma were observed, but germinal centres were always absent. Phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin staining illustrated dark-blue cytoplasmic granules, demonstrated as mitochondria by electron microscopy. All the tumours showed immunoreactivity for CK5/6, CK8/18, CK10/13, CK19 and EMA, but were negative for SMA or S-100. MIB-1 antibody, used to identify the dividing cells by staining of the nucleus, was found to stain the cytoplasm of the oncocytes. In summary, clinical diagnosis for an oncocytoma is challenging for its similar features to other benign tumours. Histopathological diagnosis is reliable with histochemical and electron microscopic conformation of the oncocytes, but differential diagnosis is still challenging. MIB-1 immunostaining might be considered as a diagnostic aid.

  14. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  15. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  16. Unicystic ameloblastoma: a clinicopathologic study of 33 Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Li, T J; Wu, Y T; Yu, S F; Yu, G Y

    2000-10-01

    The term unicystic ameloblastoma refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic, or gross features of a jaw cyst, but on histologic examination show a typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. To ascertain the clinicomorphologic spectrum and biologic behavior of this tumor group, the clinicopathologic features of 33 unicystic ameloblastomas from Chinese patients were studied. This series represents approximately 19% of all cases of ameloblastoma accessioned in the authors' hospital during a 15-year period. Twenty-one patients were male and 12 were female, for a total of 33 patients. The age at diagnosis ranged from 8 to 60 years (mean, 25.3 yrs) and peaked at the second and third decades (70%), Thirty tumors (91%) occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla. Of the 29 patients with a radiographic record, an expansive unilocular radiolucency was seen in 22 cases, and was multilocular in seven cases. Microscopically, all tumors demonstrated a generally monocystic growth pattern. Eight tumors were simple cystic, 10 comprised intraluminal tumor nodules, and the remaining 15 had a conspicuous component of infiltrative tumor islands in the cyst capsule. The cystic tumor linings invariably showed, at least in part, a typical ameloblastomatous pattern that was often accompanied by epithelial areas of various histologic appearance. Follow up of 29 patients revealed no recurrence in less than 4 years of follow up, but did reveal a 35% recurrence rate at more than 4 years of follow up. The average interval to recurrence was approximately 7 years. Recurrence also appeared to relate to histologic subtypes of unicystic ameloblastoma, with those invading the fibrous wall having a rate of 35.7%, but other types having a rate of 6.7%. Despite the fact that unicystic ameloblastoma may, in general, compare favorably with its solid or multicystic counterpart in terms of clinical

  17. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres Anibal; Malpica, Anais

    2009-04-01

    Primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumors (PRMTs) are uncommon neoplasms occurring almost exclusively in women. PRMTs are divided into mucinous cystadenoma (MC), mucinous borderline tumors or tumors of low malignant potential (MLMP), and mucinous carcinomas (MCas). In this retrospective study, we present the clinicopathologic features of 18 such cases, the largest series to date. All patients were women, ranging in age from 20 to 63 years (mean 38.6 y). All except 2 patients presented with an enlarged mass during a routine examination or by self-palpation. All tumors were located exclusively in the retroperitoneum, with histologic or clinical confirmation of the lack of ovarian involvement. The tumors ranged from 7 to 26 cm (mean 13.2 cm). The gross appearance was variable: unilocular cyst with a thin wall (4 cases), predominantly cystic with papillary areas or nodule(s) (8 cases), multiloculated cyst with or without nodules (1 case each), and predominantly solid with cystic areas (4 cases). Histologically, there were 2 cases of MC, 7 of MLMP (7 cases; 3 of them with intraepithelial carcinoma and 1 with microinvasion), and 9 of MCas (9 cases, 5 of them associated with MLMP and 1 associated with MC). Three of the MCas had areas of anaplastic or sarcomatoid carcinoma whereas 1 had an associated sarcoma. Immunohistochemical studies were performed in 6 cases. Cytokeratin 7 was diffusely positive in all cases studied, whereas cytokeratin 20 and cytokeratin 17 were focally positive in 4 and 2 cases, respectively. All patients underwent surgical resection of the entire tumor. Two patients with MCa and sarcoma or sarcomatoid carcinoma received chemotherapy. Follow-up was available in 16 cases, ranging from 1 to 148 months (mean 40 mo, median 22 mo). Two patients died of disease at 5 and 9 months; both had MCa with anaplastic carcinoma or sarcoma. Three patients with MCa were alive with disease at 14, 26, and 58 months. The remaining patients were alive with no evidence of

  18. Nonlinear realization of local symmetries of AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2005-10-15

    Coset methods are used to construct the action describing the dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of the local symmetries of AdS{sub d+1} space due to the embedding of an AdS{sub d} brane. The resulting action is an SO(2,d) invariant AdS form of the Einstein-Hilbert action, which in addition to the AdS{sub d} gravitational vielbein, also includes a massive vector field localized on the brane. Its long wavelength dynamics is the same as a massive Abelian vector field coupled to gravity in AdS{sub d} space.

  19. Clinicopathologic characteristics of EGFR, KRAS, and ALK alterations in 6,595 lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boram; Lee, Taebum; Lee, Se-Hoon; Choi, Yoon-La; Han, Joungho

    2016-01-01

    Background EGFR, KRAS, and ALK alterations are major genetic changes found in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Testing advanced lung adenocarcinoma tumors for these three genes is now standard care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic expression pattern of these three genes in East Asian NSCLC patients. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective study of all patients tested for mutations of these three genes at a single institute in Korea between 2006 and 2014. Study data were extracted from electronic medical records. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to measure associations between clinicopathologic features and alterations of EGFR, KRAS, and ALK. Results We detected 12 EGFR-mutated tumors with additional mutations in KRAS (N=6, 0.1%) or ALK (N=6, 0.1%). General clinicopathologic characteristics of tumors with EGFR, KRAS, or ALK mutations were similar to previous reports. Patients having EGFR L858R point mutations were older than patients having EGFR exon 19 deletions. EGFR G719X point mutations were more common in men and smokers than exon 19 deletions or L858R point mutations. Tumors having KRAS G12C mutations were less often of mucinous type than those with G12D or G12V, mutations. Conclusions This is the largest three gene molecular epidemiology study in East Asian NSCLC patients. Each genetic alteration was associated with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics. Furthermore, different age and sex are associated with different subtypes of EGFR and KRAS mutations. PMID:26992209

  20. Fibromatoses and related tumors of the hand in children. A clinicopathologic review.

    PubMed

    Chinyama, C N; Roblin, P; Watson, S J; Evans, D M

    2000-11-01

    Benign and malignant tumors of the hand are rare in children. This article reviews some of the common tumors that affect the hand in children, with an emphasis on clinico-pathologic correlations. Illustrated case histories on some rare tumors are also included.

  1. Clinicopathologic correlation: palatal mass interfering with seating of a maxillary denture.

    PubMed

    Farrkh, Amana; Closmann, James J; Parashar, Pallavi; Borris, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a clinicopathologic correlation regarding a 61-year-old patient with an ill-fitting maxillary denture. Examination revealed a firm, nontender palatal mass. Descriptions of the clinical findings, work-up, differential diagnosis, histological observations, and diagnosis of the lesion are presented. PMID:26147173

  2. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Patients with Gastric Cancer according to the Expression of LIN28A

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Hyuk; Lee, Jung Hwa; Lee, Na Keum; Lee, Yong Chan; Lee, Sang Kil

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Although LIN28A is known to potentially play a role in the oncogenesis of various cancers, whether LIN28A expression is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer has not been fully explored. We sought to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics according to the expression of LIN28A in numerous gastric cancer tissue samples. Methods LIN28A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of a tissue microarray comprising 288 gastric cancer tissues and 288 adjacent normal tissues. Clinicopathological characteristics, including overall survival, were compared according to LIN28A expression. Results The IHC staining score was lower for the cancer tissues than the normal tissues (p<0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in the clinicopathological characteristics between the low and high LIN28A expression groups. In addition, the 5-year overall survival rate did not differ between the two groups: 75.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69.3% to 81.7%) versus 71.6% (95% CI, 63.3% to 80.9%) for low versus high expression, respectively. Conclusions The expression of LIN28A did not appear to play a distinct role in predicting the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with gastric cancer. In addition, LIN28A expression was not an independently associated factor for overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26893371

  3. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  4. Bubbling geometries for AdS2× S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, Oleg

    2015-10-01

    We construct BPS geometries describing normalizable excitations of AdS2×S2. All regular horizon-free solutions are parameterized by two harmonic functions in R 3 with sources along closed curves. This local structure is reminiscent of the "bubbling solutions" for the other AdS p ×S q cases, however, due to peculiar asymptotic properties of AdS2, one copy of R 3 does not cover the entire space, and we discuss the procedure for analytic continuation, which leads to a nontrivial topological structure of the new geometries. We also study supersymmetric brane probes on the new geometries, which represent the AdS2×S2 counterparts of the giant gravitons.

  5. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

  6. Modifiers of the ash properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Vaclav; Najser, Jan; Pilat, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this article is to perform an experimental verification of the impact of added substances to limit or prevent sintering of solid fuel ash, which is formed during the thermochemical conversion of fuels. As a modifiers of ash sintering and melting temperature were used halloysite (aluminosilicate) and limestone, which has similar mechanism of action. Both of them act on the principle of a strong chemical adsorption of potassium ions, which largely cause a reduction of ash fusibility. Influence of the modifiers was observed after tests provided at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. Modifiers were dosed in amounts of 2, 5 and 10 wt.%.

  7. Clinicopathological Findings of Suicide in the Elderly: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peisah, Carmelle; Snowdon, John; Kril, Jillian; Rodriguez, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The neuropathological correlates of suicide in older persons have received little research attention. Our recent study of elderly suicide victims from an Australian forensic medicine department (n = 143), unlike a previous case-control study, did not find an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older persons who committed suicide…

  8. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  9. Superstring theory in AdS(3) and plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, John Sang Won

    This thesis is devoted to the study of string theory in AdS 3 and its applications to recent developments in string theory. The difficulties associated with formulating a consistent string theory in AdS3 and its underlying SL(2, R) WZW model are explained. We describe how these difficulties can be overcome by assuming that the SL(2, R) WZW model contains spectral flow symmetry. The existence of spectral flow symmetry in the fully quantum treatment is proved by a calculation of the one-loop string partition function. We consider Euclidean AdS 3 with the time direction periodically identified, and compute the torus partition function in this background. The string spectrum can be reproduced by viewing the one-loop calculation as the free energy of a gas of strings, thus providing a rigorous proof of the results based on spectral flow arguments. Next, we turn to spacetimes that are quotients of AdS 3, which include the BTZ black hole and conical spaces. Strings propagating in the conical space are described by taking an orbifold of strings in AdS3. We show that the twisted states of these orbifolds can be obtained by fractional spectral flow. We show that the shift in the ground state energy usually associated with orbifold twists is absent in this case, and offer a unified framework in which to view spectral flow. Lastly, we consider the RNS superstrings in AdS 3 x S3 x M , where M may be K3 or T 4, based on supersymmetric extensions of SL(2, R) and SU(2) WZW models. We construct the physical states and calculate the spectrum. A subsector of this theory describes strings propagating in the six dimensional plane wave obtained by the Penrose limit of AdS3 x S3 x M . We reproduce the plane wave spectrum by taking J and the radius to infinity. We show that the plane wave spectrum actually coincides with the large J spectrum at fixed radius, i.e. in AdS3 x S3. Relation to some recent topics of interest such as the Frolov-Tseytlin string and strings with critical tension

  10. Clinicopathological significance of the CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcript in mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Takahisa; Miyabe, Satoru; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Sakuma, Hidenori; Ijichi, Kei; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Shimozato, Kazuo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2009-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the salivary gland. We and others showed that CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion was associated with favorable clinicopathological tumor features. Recently, a novel gene fusion, CRTC3-MAML2, was reported as a rare gene alteration in a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. However, its frequency and clinicopathological significance remains unclear. In all, 101 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma and 89 cases of non-mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland were analyzed, and RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. In the CRTC family, there have been three genes, CRTC1, CRTC2, and CRTC3. We developed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for CRTC1-MAML2, CRTC2-MAML2, and CRTC3-MAML2 fusions. Clinicopathological data of the patients were obtained from their clinical records. Of 101 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 34 (34%) and 6 (6%) were positive for CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcripts. However, in the 89 cases of non-mucoepidermoid carcinoma, neither transcript was noted. In the former cases, CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusions were mutually exclusive. The other fusion, CRTC2-MAML2, was not detected. We confirmed that the clinicopathological features of CRTC1-MAML2-positive mucoepidermoid carcinomas indicated an indolent course. CRTC3-MAML2-positive mucoepidermoid carcinomas also had clinicopathologically favorable features; all cases showed a less advanced clinical stage, negative nodal metastasis, no high-grade tumor histology, and no recurrence or tumor-related death after surgical resection of the tumor. It is interesting to note that patients with CRTC3-MAML2-positive tumors (mean 36 years of age) were significantly younger that those with the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion (55 years) and those with fusion-negative tumors (58 years). In conclusion, CRTC3-MAML2 fusion, which is mutually exclusive with CRTC1-MAML2 fusion and specific to mucoepidermoid

  11. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  12. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  13. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  14. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  15. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Oct-4 expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuang-Jiang; Huang, Jian; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Wen-Biao; Lai, Yu-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Background Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) has been identified to participate in the tumorigenicity and malignancy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its definite prognostic roles in NSCLC still remain a debate. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic value of Oct-4 expression in NSCLC and its relationship to some major clinicopathological characteristics. Methods A comprehensive literature retrieval was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and the Web of Science to identify the full-text articles that met our eligibility criteria. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) severed as the summarized statistics for clinicopathological assessments, and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI served as the summarized statistics for prognostic assessments. Q-test and I2-statistic were used to evaluate the level of heterogeneity. Potential publication bias was detected by both Begg’s test and Egger’s test. Results There were 16 retried articles with 1,363 NSCLC cases included into this meta-analysis. Oct-4 expression was found to be significantly associated with the unfavorable outcomes for differentiation degree (OR: 3.065; 95% CI: 1.568–5.957; P=0.001), TNM stage (OR: 3.695; 95% CI: 2.252–6.063; P<0.001) and lymphatic metastasis (OR: 2.372; 95% CI: 1.504–3.742; P<0.001), but not associated with the histological subtypes, gender, age and smoking status. Oct-4 expression was also significantly associated with the poor prognosis of NSCLC (HR: 3.030; 95% CI: 2.283–4.021; P<0.001). The prognostic roles of Oct-4 expression in NSCLC still remained statistically reliable in the subgroups stratified by statistical analysis, patients’ origins, positively-stained sites and histological subtypes. Conclusions Our meta-analysis indicates that Oct-4 can serve as a strong biomarker predicting the poor clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of NSCLC. More high-quality studies based on a large sample size will be

  16. Holography and AdS4 self-gravitating dyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. R.; Moreno, E. F.; Schaposnik, F. A.

    2010-11-01

    We present a self-gravitating dyon solution of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations of motion in asymptotically AdS space. The back reaction of gauge and Higgs fields on the space-time geometry leads to the metric of an asymptotically AdS black hole. Using the gauge/gravity correspondence we analyze relevant properties of the finite temperature quantum field theory defined on the boundary. In particular we identify an order operator, characterize a phase transition of the dual theory on the border and also compute the expectation value of the finite temperature Wilson loop.

  17. AdS box graphs, unitarity and operator product expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Mesref, L.; Rühl, W.

    2000-11-01

    We develop a method of singularity analysis for conformal graphs which, in particular, is applicable to the holographic image of AdS supergravity theory. It can be used to determine the critical exponents for any such graph in a given channel. These exponents determine the towers of conformal blocks that are exchanged in this channel. We analyze the scalar AdS box graph and show that it has the same critical exponents as the corresponding CFT box graph. Thus pairs of external fields couple to the same exchanged conformal blocks in both theories. This is looked upon as a general structural argument supporting the Maldacena hypothesis.

  18. Phases of global AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  19. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  20. Survivin Overexpression Is Associated with Aggressive Clinicopathological Features in Cervical Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke-yan; Wang, Zhi-lian; Gu, Qian-yun; Hao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective Overexpression of survivin has been reported in many human tumors. However, the clinicopathological features associated with survivin overexpression in cervical carcinoma remain controversial. Thus, the current meta-analysis was performed to assess the clinicopathological significance of survivin in cervical carcinoma. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant studies published through November 1, 2015. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between survivin expression and clinicopathological outcome in cervical carcinoma. Results Eleven eligible studies with a total of 865 patients were included. Survivin overexpression was closely related to lymph node metastasis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.679, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.509–0.905, P = 0.008) but was not significantly associated with tumor FIGO stage (I+II vs. III+IV) (OR = 0.843, 95% CI: 0.626–1.137, P = 0.264), tumor grade (G1+G2 vs. G3) (OR = 0.913, 95% CI: 0.689–1.210, P = 0.527), tumor size (>4 vs. ≤4 cm) (OR = 0.825, 95% CI: 0.434–1.570, P = 0.559), or stromal involvement (OR = 0.820, 95% CI: 0.545–1.233, P = 0.340). The correlation between survivin expression and overall survival was evaluated among a total of 238 patients from three eligible studies. The pooled HR was 1.129 (95% CI: 0.597–1.661; P = 0.000), indicating that survivin expression was significantly associated with poor survival in cervical carcinoma. Conclusions Based on the current meta-analysis, survivin is strongly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Additionally, survivin is a novel clinicopathological marker of cervical carcinoma and thus may be a therapeutic target for cervical carcinoma. PMID:27764228

  1. Clinical and clinico-pathological effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin in mature cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Griel, L C; Zarkower, A; Eberhart, R J

    1975-01-01

    The effects of intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin were studied in eight mature lactating cows. Three cows were studied following intrammary infection with E. coli. Significant clinical findings are presented. Significant clinico-pathological findings include leukopenia, decreased blood serum calcium concentrations and increased levels of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and serum ornithine-carbamyl transferase. Significant elevations of plasma corticosteroids were also noted. PMID:1089461

  2. Dysrhythmias and sudden death in acromegalic heart disease. A clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Rossi, L; Thiene, G; Caragaro, L; Giordano, R; Lauro, S

    1977-10-01

    A clinicopathologic investigation was carried out in a patient with acromegaly from acidophylic adenoma of the hypophysis. Pronounced cardiomegaly and disturbances in impulse formation and conduction led to sudden death. The problem of acromegalic cardiomyopathy has been reviewed. Particular attention has been focused on the histopathologic findings in the working and specific myocardium, and in the intrinsic nervous supply to the sinoatrial node, which were correlated with the electrocardiographic features of atrioventricular conduction delay and sick sinus syndrome.

  3. Breast sarcomas and malignant phyllodes tumours: comparison of clinicopathological features, treatment strategies, prognostic factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sue Zann; Selvarajan, Sathiyamoorthy; Thike, Aye Aye; Nasir, Nur Diyana Binte Md; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to compare the clinicopathological features, treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of breast sarcomas (BS) and malignant phyllodes tumours (MPT), and determine their prognostic factors. Cases of BS and MPT diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital from January 1991 to December 2014 were derived from department files. Clinicopathological features, treatment strategies and survivals of patients with BS and MPT were compared. Prognostic indicators for BS and MPT were identified. BS and MPT were comparable in all except one of their clinicopathological features. A significantly higher proportion of BS patients had a history of previous breast carcinoma and thus radiation to the chest as compared to the MPT group (17.6 vs 0 %, P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in survival outcomes between BS and MPT. The 5-year disease-free survivals (DFS) for BS and MPT were 59.1 and 57.4 % respectively (P = 0.816), while the 5-year overall survivals (OS) for BS and MPT were 86.5 and 78.5 % respectively (P = 0.792). Combining both groups of tumours, univariate analysis showed that DFS was significantly affected by multifocality (P = 0.019), histological subtype (P = 0.014), presence of malignant heterologous elements (P < 0.001) and margin status (P = 0.023). Margin status was the only parameter which had a significant impact on OS (P = 0.040). Multivariate analysis confirmed the above findings. BS and MPT are rare entities with remarkable heterogeneity. They share similar clinicopathological features and outcomes, provoking thoughts on their biological relationship and clinical significance of pathologic distinction. PMID:27541020

  4. D-branes on AdS flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerber, Paul; Martucci, Luca

    2008-01-01

    We study D-branes in Script N = 1 flux compactifications to AdS4. We derive their supersymmetry conditions and express them in terms of background generalized calibrations. Basically because AdS has a boundary, the analysis of stability is more subtle and qualitatively different from the usual case of Minkowski compactifications. For instance, stable D-branes filling AdS4 may wrap trivial internal cycles. Our analysis gives a geometric realization of the four-dimensional field theory approach of Freedman and collaborators. Furthermore, the one-to-one correspondence between the supersymmetry conditions of the background and the existence of generalized calibrations for D-branes is clarified and extended to any supersymmetric flux background that admits a time-like Killing vector and for which all fields are time-independent with respect to the associated time. As explicit examples, we discuss supersymmetric D-branes on IIA nearly Kähler AdS4 flux compactifications.

  5. Dyonic AdS black holes from magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Dias, Óscar J. C.; Klemm, Dietmar

    2009-03-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large dyonic black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime are dual to stationary solutions of the equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics on the conformal boundary of AdS. The dyonic Kerr-Newman-AdS4 solution corresponds to a charged diamagnetic fluid not subject to any net Lorentz force, due to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields compensating each other. The conserved charges, stress tensor and R-current of the fluid are shown to be in exact agreement with the corresponding quantities of the black hole. Furthermore, we obtain stationary solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in four dimensions, which yield predictions for (yet to be constructed) charged rotating black strings in AdS5 carrying nonvanishing momentum along the string. Finally, we consider Scherk-Schwarz reduced AdS gravity on a circle. In this theory, large black holes and black strings are dual to lumps of deconfined plasma of the associated CFT. We analyze the effects that a magnetic field introduces in the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of a plasma tube, which is holographically dual to the Gregory-Laflamme instability of a magnetically charged black string.

  6. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-10-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.

  7. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Israel; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini

    2016-05-01

    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS 5 × S 5 superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  8. Bladder Neck Urothelial Carcinoma: A Urinary Bladder Subsite Carcinoma With Distinct Clinicopathology.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Rashid, Hani

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the clinicopathology of carcinomas originating in the urinary bladder neck, 316 cystectomies for urinary bladder carcinoma performed between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2013, were analyzed. Clinicopathological parameters were compared between bladder neck carcinomas (BNCs) and non-BNCs. Among the 316 cystectomies were 19 BNCs and 297 non-BNCs. BNCs accounted for 19/316 (6%) of all the cases, with a male-to-female ratio 18:1. Bladder neck location was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage. Ninety percent and 58% BNCs presented at stage ≥T2 and ≥T3, respectively, versus 62% and 38% non-BNCs at ≥T2 and ≥T3, respectively. Significantly higher percentage of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis were also seen in BNCs (68% and 47%, respectively) than in non-BNCs (29% and 17%, respectively). In conclusion, BNCs present with a significantly higher frequency of muscle invasion and advanced tumor stage, lymphovascular invasion, as well as local and distant metastasis at diagnosis compared with the non-BNCs group. Recognition of these unique clinicopathologic features with early detection and possibly more aggressive management of BNC can potentially have a significant impact on the patient's outcome.

  9. Solitary fibrous tumor of the oral soft tissues: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Alawi, F; Stratton, D; Freedman, P D

    2001-07-01

    We describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 16 solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) originating within the oral soft tissues. There were 10 women and six men with a mean age at diagnosis of 56 years. In all cases the tumors were slow-growing, asymptomatic, submucosal growths of variable size and duration. The buccal mucosa was involved in 12 cases, and the tongue and lower lip were affected in two cases, respectively. Thirteen tumors developed on the left side of the mouth. Follow-up information was available in 10 cases and averaged 44.7 months, with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. All 16 tumors were well circumscribed and demonstrated histologic features that were invariably benign. In all cases they were composed of an admixture of alternating hypercellular and hypocellular, collagenous zones; haphazardly arranged, cytologically bland spindle and ovoid cells that in areas were intimately intermixed with collagen; a prominent vasculature; and perivascular hyalinization. Immunohistochemically, the tumors were consistently positive for CD34, bcl-2, factor XIIIa, and vimentin, whereas 75% of the tumors were reactive for CD99. To further define the clinicopathologic profile of intraoral SFT, we include a review of the previously reported cases. We also include a comparison and brief review of the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of other spindle cell tumors of the oral cavity, from which SFTs must be differentiated.

  10. Clinicopathological analysis of CD44 and CD24 expression in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Hye; Kang, Hyun Jong; Jang, Ki Seok; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Wan Seop

    2016-01-01

    A subpopulation of breast cancer cells with cluster of differentiation (CD)44-positive and CD24-negative expression has been reported to have stem cell properties and to have a higher tumorigenic capacity than other cells. However, the clinicopathological characteristics of this subpopulation are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to identify the correlations between the expression of CD44 and CD24 and clinicopathological parameters and overall survival. We studied specimens from 262 patients with invasive breast cancer. Immunohistochemical staining for CD44 and CD24 was performed using tissue microarrays. The clinicopathological factors were evaluated from the patients' medical records. In correlation analysis, CD44 expression was significantly associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative status (P<0.001). Conversely, CD24 expression was significantly associated with HER2-positive status (P<0.001). CD44 and CD24 expression did not demonstrate any correlation with the age, tumor size, axillary lymph node metastasis status, tumor stage, histological grade, estrogen receptor status and progesterone receptor status of patients. Upon survival analysis, there was no statistical difference in overall survival according to the expression of CD44 and CD24. The results from this study suggest that CD44 and CD24 are clinically significant markers associated with breast tumorigenesis, but not sufficient factors in determining the prognosis of invasive breast cancer.

  11. An unmatched case controlled study of clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with Bartonella infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Pultorak, Elizabeth L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2013-09-01

    We compared clinicopathologic findings in dogs with Bartonella infection to Bartonella spp. negative dogs suspected of a vector-borne disease. Cases (n=47) and controls (n=93) were selected on the basis of positive or negative enrichment culture PCR results, respectively. Signalment, clinicopathologic findings and treatments were extracted from medical records. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella henselae (n=28, 59.6%), Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (n=20, 42.6%), Bartonella koehlerae (n=3, 6.4%), Bartonella volans-like (n=3, 6.4%) and Bartonella bovis (n=1, 2.1%). There were no significant differences in age, breed, size, sex or neuter status between cases and controls. Dogs infected with Bartonella sp. often had a history of weight loss [OR=2.82; 95% CI: 1.08-7.56] and were hypoglobulinemic [OR=4.26; 95% CI: 1.31-14.41]. With the exception of weight loss and hypoglobulinemia, clinicopathologic abnormalities in Bartonella-infected dogs in this study were similar to dogs suspected of other vector-borne infections.

  12. Comparison of clinicopathological characteristics of lymph node positive and lymph node negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Naila Irum; Jamal, Qamar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To record various clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer (BC) in our population and to find an association between these characteristics and axillary nodal metastasis. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 150 BC patients from two tertiary care centers in Karachi from 15th February, 2013 to 31st March, 2015. Frequencies, percentages, and odds ratio were estimated to find out an association between various clinicopathological characteristics and lymph node status using SPSS version 20. Results: Approximately 75.4% patients had axillary lymph node metastasis (‘1-3’ LN = 34.4% and ‘>3’ LN = 44%). Menopausal status (p <0.013), tumor grades (‘II’ p <0.03; ‘III’ p <0.01), and stages (‘III’ p <0.002; ‘IV’ p <0.0001), tumor sizes (‘T2’ p <0.014; ‘T3’ p <0.002), perineural invasion (PNI) (p <0.007), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (p <0.0001), and skin and nipple invasion (p <0.024) were significant predictors for ‘>3’ LN metastasis. Association of these variables with ‘1-3’ LN involvement was insignificant. Conclusion: Clinical spectrum of BC remains unchanged in 2016 with most of the patients presenting with high-grade, late-stage advanced disease. Moreover, clinicopathological variables, especially primary tumor size, tumor stage and lymphovascular invasion were significant predictors of >3 lymph node metastasis with high accuracy. PMID:27648029

  13. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of omental gastrointestinal stromal tumor: evaluation of a pooled case series

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Fan; Tian, Yangzi; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Xu, Guanghui; Guo, Man; Lian, Xiao; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Clinicopathological features and prognosis of omental GISTs are limited due to the extremely rare incidence. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathological features and prognosis of omental GISTs. Omental GISTs cases were obtained from our center and from case reports and clinical studies extracted from MEDLINE. Clinicopathological features and survivals were analyzed. A total of 99 cases of omental GISTs were enrolled in the present study. Omental GISTs occurred predominantly in greater omentum (78/99, 78.8%). The majority of tumors exceeded 10 cm in diameter (67/98, 68.3%) and were high risk (88/96, 91.7%). Histological type was correlated with tumor location and mutational status. The five year DFS and DSS was 86.3% and 80.6%, respectively. Mitotic index was risk factor for prognosis of omental GISTs. Prognosis of omental GISTs was worse than that of gastric GISTs by Kaplan-Meier analysis. However, multivariate analysis showed that the prognosis was comparable between the two groups. The majority of omental GISTs were large and high risk. Mitotic index was risk factor for prognosis of omental GISTs. The prognosis was comparable between omental and gastric GISTs. PMID:27471066

  14. Are PIK3CA Mutation and Amplification Associated with Clinicopathological Characteristics of Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunsu; Hwang, Il-Seon; Choi, In-Jang; Kang, Yu-Na; Park, Keon-Uk; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been studied in various cancers. However, the clinical value of mtDNA copy number (mtCN) alterations in gastric cancer (GC) is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether alterations in mtCNs might be associated with clinicopathological parameters in GC cases. mtCN was measured in 109 patients with GC by real-time PCR. Then, correlations with clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. mtCN was elevated in 64.2% of GC tissues compared with paired, adjacent, non- cancerous tissue. However, the observed alterations in mtCN were not associated with any clinicopathological characteristics, including age, gender, TN stage, Lauren classification, lymph node metastasis, and depth of invasion. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that mtCN was not significantly associated with the survival of GC patients. In this study, we demonstrated that mtCN was not a significant marker for predicting clinical characteristics or prognosis in GC. PMID:26107192

  15. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  16. Effective Ad-Hoc Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David G.

    1983-01-01

    Ad-hoc committees may be symbolic, informational, or action committees. A literature survey indicates such committees' structural components include a suprasystem and three subsystems involving linkages, production, and implementation. Other variables include size, personal factors, and timing. All the factors carry implications about ad-hoc…

  17. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  18. Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

    2013-08-01

    We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.

  19. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of 80 patients with special reference to histological grading.

    PubMed

    Brandwein, M S; Ivanov, K; Wallace, D I; Hille, J J; Wang, B; Fahmy, A; Bodian, C; Urken, M L; Gnepp, D R; Huvos, A; Lumerman, H; Mills, S E

    2001-07-01

    .38-0.77). This greater agreement was also reflected in the Friedman test (statistical testing of intraobserver equality), which indicated significant differences in using one's own grading systems (p = 0.0001) but not in applying the AFIP "standardized" grading (p = 0.33). When one's own grading was compared with the AFIP grading, there were 100 pairs of grading "events," with 46 disagreements/100 pairs. For 98% of disagreements, the AFIP grading "downgraded" tumors. This led us to reanalyze a subset of 31 patients for DFS versus grade, for our grading schema compared with the AFIP grading. Although statistical significance was not achieved for this subset, the log rank value revealed a trend for our grading (p = 0.0993) compared with the Goode schema (p = 0.2493). This clinicopathologic analysis confirms the predictive value of tumor staging and three-tiered histologic grading. Our grading exercise confirms that there is significant grading disparity for MEC, even among experienced ENT/oral pathologists. The improved reproducibility obtained when the weighted AFIP criteria were used speaks to the need for an accepted and easily reproducible system. However, these proposed criteria have a tendency to downgrade MEC. Therefore, the addition of other criteria (such as vascular invasion, pattern of tumor infiltration [i.e., small islands and individual cells vs cohesive islands]) is necessary. We propose a modified grading schema, which enhances predictability and provides much needed reproducibility. PMID:11420454

  20. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  1. AdS6 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Passias, Achilleas; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Very few AdS6 × M 4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space Σ. M 4 is then a fibration of S 2 over Σ; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of ( p, q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT5's. We also show that there are no AdS6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  2. Conserved higher-spin charges in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfond, O. A.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Gauge invariant conserved conformal currents built from massless fields of all spins in 4d Minkowski space-time and AdS4 are described in the unfolded dynamics approach. The current cohomology associated with non-zero conserved charges is found. The resulting list of charges is shown to match the space of parameters of the conformal higher-spin symmetry algebra in four dimensions.

  3. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  4. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  5. Axiomatic Conformal Theory in Dimensions >2 and AdS/CT Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Albert

    2016-09-01

    We formulate axioms of conformal theory (CT) in dimensions >2 modifying Segal's axioms for two-dimensional CFT. (In the definition of higher-dimensional CFT, one includes also a condition of existence of energy-momentum tensor.) We use these axioms to derive the AdS/CT correspondence for local theories on AdS. We introduce a notion of weakly local quantum field theory and construct a bijective correspondence between conformal theories on the sphere S d and weakly local quantum field theories on {H^{d+1}} that are invariant with respect to isometries. (Here {H^{d+1}} denotes hyperbolic space = Euclidean AdS space.) We give an expression of AdS correlation functions in terms of CT correlation functions. The conformal theory has conserved energy-momentum tensor iff the AdS theory has graviton in its spectrum.

  6. Detection of differentially expressed genes and association with clinicopathological features in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rong Sheng; Shen, Xiaohui; Qian, Xiaoyun; Yu, Chenjie; Wu, Haiyan; Gao, Xia

    2012-12-01

    Head and neck cancer is a significant health problem worldwide. Early detection and prediction of prognosis will improve patient survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed between laryngeal cancer and the corresponding normal tissues as potential biomarkers. A total of 36 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were recruited. Four of these cases were randomly selected for cDNA microarray analysis of the entire genome. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis, the differential expression of genes and their protein products, respectively, between laryngeal cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues was verified in the remaining 32 cases. The expression levels of these genes and proteins were investigated for associations with clinicopathological parameters taken from patient data. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 349 differentially expressed genes between tumor and normal tissues, 112 of which were upregulated and 237 were downregulated in tumors. Seven genes and their protein products were then selected for validation using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The data demonstrated that the expression of SENP1, CD109, CKS2, LAMA3, ITGAV and ITGB8 was increased, while LAMA2 was downregulated in laryngeal cancer compared with the corresponding normal tissues. Associations between the expression of these genes and clinicopathological data from the patients were also established, including age, tumor classification, stage, differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Our current study provides the first evidence that these seven genes may be differentially expressed in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with clinicopathological data. Future study is required to further confirm whether detection of their expression can be used as biomarkers for prediction of patient survival or potential treatment targets. PMID:23226807

  7. Clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides in patients exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Soo; Jang, Jun Gyu; Han, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Suh, Kee Suck

    2013-08-01

    There are no reports on the clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides (MF) among veterans exposed to Agent Orange, one of the herbicides used during the Vietnam War. To evaluate the clinical, histopathological and genotypic findings of Vietnam War veterans with MF and a positive history of exposure to Agent Orange, we performed a comparative clinicopathological study between MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure and those without a history of Agent Orange exposure. Twelve Vietnam War veterans with MF were identified. The mean interval from Agent Orange exposure to diagnosis was 24.5 years (range, 9-35). Skin lesions were significantly present on exposed and unexposed areas. Most patients (75%) experienced pruritus (mean visual analog scale score of 6.7). MF was manifested by plaques in 10 patients and by lichenification in five. Histopathological features of most cases were consistent with MF. Biopsy specimens also demonstrated irregular acanthosis (66.7%). In the comparative study, MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure differed significantly from those without exposure to Agent Orange in demographic and clinical characteristics. In addition, patients with exposure had an increased tendency for lesions in the exposed area. Notably, our patients showed a higher frequency (33.3%) of mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris than in previous studies. Histologically, irregular acanthosis was more frequently observed than ordinary MF. Our results indicate that dermatologists should pay close attention to these clinicopathological differences. Careful assessment of history of exposure to defoliants is warranted in some cases suspicious for MF.

  8. Clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides in patients exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Soo; Jang, Jun Gyu; Han, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Suh, Kee Suck

    2013-08-01

    There are no reports on the clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides (MF) among veterans exposed to Agent Orange, one of the herbicides used during the Vietnam War. To evaluate the clinical, histopathological and genotypic findings of Vietnam War veterans with MF and a positive history of exposure to Agent Orange, we performed a comparative clinicopathological study between MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure and those without a history of Agent Orange exposure. Twelve Vietnam War veterans with MF were identified. The mean interval from Agent Orange exposure to diagnosis was 24.5 years (range, 9-35). Skin lesions were significantly present on exposed and unexposed areas. Most patients (75%) experienced pruritus (mean visual analog scale score of 6.7). MF was manifested by plaques in 10 patients and by lichenification in five. Histopathological features of most cases were consistent with MF. Biopsy specimens also demonstrated irregular acanthosis (66.7%). In the comparative study, MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure differed significantly from those without exposure to Agent Orange in demographic and clinical characteristics. In addition, patients with exposure had an increased tendency for lesions in the exposed area. Notably, our patients showed a higher frequency (33.3%) of mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris than in previous studies. Histologically, irregular acanthosis was more frequently observed than ordinary MF. Our results indicate that dermatologists should pay close attention to these clinicopathological differences. Careful assessment of history of exposure to defoliants is warranted in some cases suspicious for MF. PMID:23724870

  9. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  10. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  11. Gastric Carcinomas in Young (Younger than 40 Years) Chinese Patients: Clinicopathology, Family History, and Postresection Survival.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fan; Shi, Jiong; Fang, Cheng; Zou, Xiaoping; Huang, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about clinicopathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma (GC) in young (≤40 years) Chinese patients. We aimed in this study to analyze those features along with family history and prognostic factors after resection. We retrospectively reviewed all 4671 GC resections (surgical and endoscopic) performed at our center from 2004 to 2014 and identified 152 (3.2%) consecutive young patients. Patient demographics, clinical results, family history, and endoscopic-pathological findings were analyzed along with the older (>41 years) GC controls recruited in the same study period. Clinicopathological factors related to postresection outcomes were assessed statistically. The trend of GC resections in young patients was not changed over the study period. Compared to old GCs, the young GC cohort was predominant in women, positive family history, middle gastric location, the diffuse histology type, shorter duration of symptoms, and advanced stage (pIII+pIV, 53.3%). Radical resection was carried out in 90.1% (n = 137) with a better 5-year survival rate (70.3%) than palliative surgery (0%, n = 15). There was no significant difference in clinicopathological characteristics between familial GC (FGC, n = 38) and sporadic GC (SGC, n = 114) groups. Very young patients (≤ 30 years, n = 38) showed lower Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and significantly higher perineural invasion rates, compared to older (31-40 years) patients. Hp infection was more commonly seen in the Lauren's intestinal type and early pT stages (T1+T2). Independent prognostic factors for worse outcomes included higher serum CA 72-4, CA 125 levels, positive resection margin, and stage pIII-pIV tumors. The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in patients with radical resection than those without. GCs in young Chinese patients were prevalent in women with advanced stages but showed no significant differences in clinicopathology between FGC and SGC groups. High serum

  12. Endoscopic and clinicopathologic characteristics of early gastric cancer with high microsatellite instability

    PubMed Central

    Jahng, Jaehoon; Youn, Young Hoon; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yu, Junghwan; Lee, Yong Chan; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Hogeun; Park, Hyojin; Lee, Sang In

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate endoscopic and clinicopathologic characteristics of early gastric cancer (EGC) according to microsatellite instability phenotype. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from a single tertiary referral center. Of 981 EGC patients surgically treated between December 2003 and October 2007, 73 consecutive EGC patients with two or more microsatellite instability (MSI) mutation [high MSI (MSI-H)] and 146 consecutive EGC patients with one or no MSI mutation (non-MSI-H) were selected. The endoscopic and clinicopathologic features were compared between the MSI-H and non-MSI-H EGC groups. RESULTS: In terms of endoscopic characteristics, MSI-H EGCs more frequently presented with elevated pattern (OR 4.38, 95% CI: 2.40-8.01, P < 0.001), moderate-to-severe atrophy in the surrounding mucosa (OR 1.91, 95% CI: 1.05-3.47, P = 0.033), antral location (OR 3.99, 95% CI: 2.12-7.52, P < 0.001) and synchronous lesions, compared to non-MSI-H EGCs (OR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.16-6.07, P = 0.021). Other significant clinicopathologic characteristics of MSI-H EGC included predominance of female sex (OR 2.77, 95% CI: 1.53-4.99, P < 0.001), older age (> 70 years) (OR 3.30, 95% CI: 1.57-6.92, P = 0.002), better histologic differentiation (OR 2.35, 95% CI: 1.27-4.34, P = 0.007), intestinal type by Lauren classification (OR 2.34, 95% CI: 1.15-4.76, P = 0.019), absence of a signet ring cell component (OR 2.44, 95% CI: 1.02-5.86, P = 0.046), presence of mucinous component (OR 5.06, 95% CI: 1.27-20.17, P = 0.022), moderate-to-severe lymphoid stromal reaction (OR 3.95, 95% CI: 1.59-9.80, P = 0.003), and co-existing underlying adenoma (OR 2.66, 95% CI: 1.43-4.95, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: MSI-H EGC is associated with unique endoscopic and clinicopathologic characteristics including frequent presentation in protruded type, co-existing underlying adenoma, and synchronous lesions. PMID:22826622

  13. Comparative analysis of the clinicopathological features in cutaneous leishmaniasis and lupus vulgaris in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Paksoy, N; Hekim, E

    1993-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (LC) and lupus vulgaris (LV) are commonly encountered in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Differential diagnosis is rather difficult and unreliable purely on clinical grounds; thus histopathological examination is required. Microscopical findings of both lesions may also present some similarities. 12 LC and 16 LV cases were analysed comparatively regarding the clinicopathological features. In the early stage of LC, macrophage granulomas containing numerous leishmania parasites was the key microscopic finding. In the late stage of LC, granulomas consisted of epithelioid histiocytes with scanty organisms were present. LV biopsies showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells in all cases, and acid fast bacilli were detected only in two cases.

  14. Tumours of the minor salivary glands. A clinicopathologic study of 243 cases.

    PubMed

    Ma, D Q; Yu, G Y

    1987-01-01

    243 patients with tumours of the minor salivary glands were analysed clinicopathologically. The palate was the most common location for the lesions. Mixed tumours (pleomorphic adenomas) were the most common benign tumour type. Muco-epidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the dominant types of malignant tumours. For malignant tumours, the overall 3-year survival rate was 84.0%, 5-year 80.2%, 10-year 66.7% and 15-year 53.6%. The overall recurrency rate was 38.9%. The rate of cervical lymph node metastases and distant metastases rate were both 9.2%.

  15. Necrotizing sialometaplasia. A clinicopathologic study of sixty-nine cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brannon, R B; Fowler, C B; Hartman, K S

    1991-09-01

    The clinicopathologic findings in 69 cases of necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) were analyzed and compared with 115 reported cases of NS in the English-language literature. Data comparing age, sex, race, location, clinical presentation, and possible predisposing factors are summarized. Analysis of the data indicates that NS can occur in a variety of clinical settings and may exhibit a spectrum of histologic features. Recognition of NS, regardless of its clinical or microscopic presentation, is essential to avoid inappropriate or unnecessary treatment for this benign reactive process.

  16. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  17. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  18. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5.

  19. Interaction between TNFR1 and TNFR2 dominates the clinicopathologic features of human hypopharyneal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiuru; Li, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiuying; Jia, Lifeng; Li, Hui; Song, Qi

    2015-12-01

    Although the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) has been associated with clinicopathologic features of some other cancers, their roles in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) have not been documented. Forty-five HPSCC specimens were analyzed for the expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 and its relationship with clinicopathologic factors. Interaction between the two receptors and its effects on TNF-α was investigated by neutralizing TNFR1 and upregulation of TNFR2. The results indicated that, in HPSCC specimens, the expression of TNFR1 but not TNFR2 is associated with clinical staging, T stage, cervical lymph node metastasis, and histologic grade in HPSCC. In Fadu cells, when conjugating with its receptors, TNF-α mediates proliferation effects, and neutralizing TNFR1 and/or upregulating TNFR2 evokes proliferation-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects and potentiates cisplatin (DDP)-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. In conclusion, interaction of TNFR1 with TNFR2 determines the biological characters of HPSCC, and TNFR1 may dominate this process. Moreover, interaction between the two receptors plays important roles in determining the fates of HPSCC cells and thus may serve as a therapeutic target for developing new therapeutic strategies for HPSCC.

  20. Kidney Expression of Toll Like Receptors in Lupus Nephritis: Quantification and Clinicopathological Correlations.

    PubMed

    Conti, Fabrizio; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Truglia, Simona; Miranda, Francesca; Alessandri, Cristiano; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Bombardieri, Michele; Giannakakis, Konstantinos; Valesini, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The study aimed at locating and quantifying Toll Like Receptor (TLR) 3, 7, 8, and 9 expression in kidney of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and correlating them with clinicopathological features. Methods. Kidney sections from 26 LN patients and 4 controls were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-human TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 polyclonal antibodies; the number of TLR-positive nuclei/mm(2) was evaluated on digitalized images. Results. Compared to controls, LN showed a significantly higher amount of glomerular and tubulointerstitial TLR9 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007), whole and tubulointerstitial TLR3 (p = 0.026 and p = 0.031), and a higher tubulointerstitial TLR7 (p = 0.022). TLR9 positively correlated with activity index (p = 0.0063) and tubular TLR7 with chronicity index (p = 0.026). TLR9 positively correlated with Renal-SLEDAI (p = 0.01). Conclusions. This is the first study quantifying kidney expressions of TLRs in LN patients; the results show an overexpression of TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and demonstrate a correlation with clinicopathological indices supporting a role of these mediators in the pathogenesis of LN. PMID:27635115

  1. Expression and Clinicopathological Significance of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Asha; Gupta, Vishal; Singh, Prem K.; Pantola, Chayanika; Amit, Sonal

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical significance of sex hormone receptors in gallbladder cancer is not yet established. This study was performed to assess the expression pattern of estrogen and progesterone receptors in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions, and to assess their clinicopathological significance. METHODS: Tissue samples from resected gallbladder for cholelithiasis (n = 20) and carcinoma gallbladder (n = 25) were evaluated for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR) expression by automated immunohistochemistry. Their expression was correlated with different clinicopathological parameters. RESULTS: ER expression was significantly high (28%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 14–47) in gallbladder cancer than in chronic cholecystitis (0%; P = .012). PR expression did not differ in two groups (benign 40%, 95% CI, 21.8–61.4; malignant 52%, 95% CI, 33.5–69.9). Metaplastic benign lesions had near significant higher expression of PR (71.4%) than nonmetaplastic lesion (15.9%; P = .062). Their expression did not correlate with gender, age, menopausal status, presence of gallstones, tumor differentiation, and tumor stage. CONCLUSION: Female sex hormones play an important role in the gallbladder carcinogenesis. ER and PR may not have prognostic value. Presence of ER in ∼1/3 and PR in 1/2 of patients with carcinoma gallbladder suggests the potential role of antihormonal therapy. PMID:22690257

  2. A retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics of large cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, RUI; CHEN, TIAN-XING; WANG, ZHI-QIANG; JIN, KE-WEI; ZHANG, LIAN-YU; YAN, QING-NA; ZHANG, HUI-HUA; WANG, WAN-PU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze and summarize the clinicopathological characteristics of large-cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) of the lung, in order to improve the definite diagnosis rate of LCLC. Clinicopathological data of 174 patients with LCLC, confirmed pathologically, were retrospectively reviewed. The 174 cases of LCLC accounted for 5.7% of the total lung cancer cases during the corresponding time period at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University (Tianjin, China), among which there were 131 males and 43 females with an average age of 61.4 years. The postoperative pathological diagnosis of the 174 cases showed 80 cases of classic LCLC, 64 cases of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), six cases of combined LCNEC, 19 cases of basaloid carcinoma, three cases of clear cell carcinoma and two cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma. Of the total 174 LCLC cases, 96 patients exhibited lymph node metastasis. LCLC is a highly aggressive malignancy with a high tendency of invasion and metastasis, although the incidence rate is low. A definite diagnosis of LCLC primarily relies on the pathological diagnosis. Each subtype of LCLC has its own pathomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. PMID:25452802

  3. SMAD7 loci contribute to risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and clinicopathologic development among Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chenying; Song, Jingjing; Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Minjiang; Fan, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Xingyao; Lan, Xilin; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified three loci at 18q21 (rs4939827, rs7240004, and rs7229639), which maps to SMAD7 loci, were associated with risk of diseases of the digestive system. However, their associations with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk remain unknown. A case-control study was conducted to assess genetic associations with HCC risk and clinicopathologic development among Chinese Han population. Three SNPs were genotyped among 1,000 HCC cases and 1,000 controls using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. We observed statistically significant associations for the three SMAD7 loci and HCC risk. Each copy of minor allele was associated with a 1.24–1.36 fold increased risk of HCC. We also found that significant differences were observed between rs4939827 and clinical TNM stage and vascular invasion, as well as rs7240004 and vascular invasion. We also established a genetic risk score (GRS) by summing the risk alleles. The GRS was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC and vascular invasion. Our data revealed the SMAD7 loci is associated with HCC susceptibility and its clinicopathologic development. PMID:26989026

  4. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen-Yang; Wang, Rui; Pan, Xu-Feng; Shen, Yu-Zhou; Chen, Tian-Xiang; Yang, Yun-Hai; Shao, Jin-Cheng; Zhu, Lei; Han, Bao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare form of non-small cell lung carcinoma. The current study focused on its clinicopathological features and potential factors influencing the prognosis. Methods The statistical analysis was based on the clinicopathological records and the prognosis of 43 LELC patients, analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method, Log-rank test, and COX regression analysis. Results The patients’ average age was 57.35±9.22 years, 86.05% of them were non-smokers and 53.49% were women. The average tumor diameter was 3.24±1.57 cm. The 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of LELC patients were 90% and 74%, respectively; the disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 87% and 47%, respectively. The patients with large tumor, accompanied with lymph nodes metastasis or at the advanced stage had the worst OS, and the patients with lymph nodes metastasis or at the advanced stage had the worst DFS. Univariate analysis indicated that T and N grading and TNM stage influenced the OS, and N grading and TNM stage influenced the DFS; the independent factors affecting OS or DFS were not identified by multivariate analysis. Conclusions LELC commonly occurred in senior non-smoking women. In summary, the prognosis of LELC was satisfactory. PMID:27747015

  5. Parathyroid Lipoadenoma: a Clinicopathological Diagnosis and Possible Trap for the Unaware Pathologist.

    PubMed

    Hyrcza, Martin D; Sargın, Pınar; Mete, Ozgur

    2016-03-01

    The authors present clinicopathological features of parathyroid lipoadenoma in a 48-year-old woman who presented with symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism manifesting with pathological fractures and osteoporosis. Preoperative sestamibi scan failed to localize the source of her disease. Exploratory surgery identified an enlarged parathyroid gland with abundant fat tissue. The significant drop of intraoperative serum parathyroid hormone after the removal of this gland and postoperative biochemical cure justified the presence of a single gland disease presenting as parathyroid lipoadenoma. From an educational perspective, the presented case emphasizes why the historical approach to parathyroid proliferations by assessing alone the ratio of parenchymal cells to adipocytes is not a reliable method in the diagnostic evaluation of parathyroid disease. While the accurate size and weight of a parathyroid gland are defining parameters of an abnormal gland, intraoperative and postoperative biochemical workup distinguishes uniglandular disease (adenoma) from multiglandular disease (hyperplasia). The authors also provide a brief review of the previously published cases of parathyroid lipoadenomas to highlight their clinicopathological characteristics of relevance to surgical pathologists. PMID:26585863

  6. Kidney Expression of Toll Like Receptors in Lupus Nephritis: Quantification and Clinicopathological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Francesca; Bombardieri, Michele; Valesini, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The study aimed at locating and quantifying Toll Like Receptor (TLR) 3, 7, 8, and 9 expression in kidney of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and correlating them with clinicopathological features. Methods. Kidney sections from 26 LN patients and 4 controls were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-human TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 polyclonal antibodies; the number of TLR-positive nuclei/mm2 was evaluated on digitalized images. Results. Compared to controls, LN showed a significantly higher amount of glomerular and tubulointerstitial TLR9 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007), whole and tubulointerstitial TLR3 (p = 0.026 and p = 0.031), and a higher tubulointerstitial TLR7 (p = 0.022). TLR9 positively correlated with activity index (p = 0.0063) and tubular TLR7 with chronicity index (p = 0.026). TLR9 positively correlated with Renal-SLEDAI (p = 0.01). Conclusions. This is the first study quantifying kidney expressions of TLRs in LN patients; the results show an overexpression of TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and demonstrate a correlation with clinicopathological indices supporting a role of these mediators in the pathogenesis of LN. PMID:27635115

  7. Clinicopathologic characteristics and management of minute esophageal lesions diagnosed by narrow-band imaging endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Takashi; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Yasui, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy enables the diagnosis of minute esophageal neoplasia. We aimed to evaluate clinicopathological diagnosis of minute esophageal neoplasia by using magnifying NBI endoscopy and biopsy. Patients and methods: In total, 309 patients (127 men and 182 women) with minute esophageal lesions of intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) type IV were enrolled. Of these patients, 249 underwent biopsy for histologic diagnosis and also for treatment. Of the 249 patients, 123 underwent follow-up with endoscopy. We analyzed the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of these lesions after biopsy. Results: Of the 249 biopsied lesions, we histologically diagnosed 11 as high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), 41 as low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), and 197 as non-neoplasia (Non-N) including inflammation. Six of the 11 HGINs and 11 of the 41 LGINs showed slight elevation. Background coloration was observed in 9 of 11 HGINs, 34 of 41 LGINs, and 33 of 197 Non-Ns. Of the 249 biopsied lesions, 147 were microscopically measurable. The average diameter was 1.4 mm for HGINs and 0.8 mm for LGINs. Of the 123 patients who underwent post-biopsy follow-up, 93 (76 %) showed no lesions at the biopsied sites during the NBI examinations and were suspected to have undergone complete resection by biopsy. Conclusions: Biopsy was useful for diagnosis and treatment of minute esophageal lesions, diagnosed as IPCL type IV by magnifying NBI endoscopy. PMID:27652295

  8. Analysis of mutational and clinicopathologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Shen, Xuxia; Shi, Jianxin; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component is extremely rare and the cases reported in literature remain scarce. The biological behaviors, clinicopathologic characteristics, mutational status and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component are still uncertain. Methods Thirty-eight lung adenocarcinomas with clear cell component and 1659 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the study. All the corresponding clinicopathologic data, the distributions of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), and the status of gene mutations were investigated. Results Of 1697 adenocarcinomas, 38 (2.2%) had clear cell component. Fifty percent of adenocarcinomas with clear cell component (11/22) harbored EGFR mutation, 41 percent (9/22) harbored KRAS mutation and 5 percent (1/22) harbored AKT1 mutation. Univariable analysis revealed that sex, age, tumor stage, tumor size, nodal stage and pathology were all significant predictors of RFS and OS while the tumor size and nodal stage were still significant predictors in multivariable analysis. There were significantly differences in RFS and OS for lung adenocarcinomas with clear cell component compared with those lung adenocarcinomas. Conclusions Lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component is a rare, malignant tumor with poor prognosis and displays more frequent EGFR and KRAS mutations. PMID:27013585

  9. Correlation of PDK1 expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junrong; Liu, Fenqin; Ao, Peiran; Li, Xianneng; Zheng, Haixiao; Wu, Di; Zhang, Nina; She, Junping; Yuan, Junhui; Wu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with clinicopathologic features and prognosis in HCC patients. Materials and methods A total of 128 HCC patients who received radical resection were enrolled from Wenling Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital between May 2005 and December 2008, and tumor and adjacent tissue samples were collected. Expression of PDK1 was detected by immunohistochemistry method. Correlation of PDK1 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis was determined by Spearman’s correlation analysis. Impact of expression of PDK1 on overall survival and recurrence was determined by Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Immunohistochemistry results showed that PDK1 expression in HCC tissues was significantly higher than that in the corresponding adjacent cancer tissues. Univariate analysis showed that PDK1 messenger RNA expression can predict time to recurrence with diagnostic significance (P=0.001). Univariate analysis showed that alpha-fetoprotein level, tumor number, tumor encapsulation, microvascular invasion, and tumor–node–metastasis stage were also unfavorable prognostic variables for recurrence (P<0.05). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that overexpression of PDK1 correlates with significantly shorter postoperative overall survival and higher recurrence rates (hazard ratio =2.68; 95% confidence interval: 2.46–4.42, P=0.001) in HCC patients after curative resection. Conclusion Our study indicated that PDK1 may serve as a candidate pro-oncogene and a potential prognostic biomarker for HCC.

  10. Hereditary breast/ovarian cancer: clinicopathological characteristics and survival of BRCA2 positive and negative cases.

    PubMed

    Syamala, Vani; Syamala, Volga S; Sreeja, Leelakumari; Raveendran, Praveenkumar B; Vijayalekshmi, R V; Sheeja, V R; Santhi, S; Kuttan, Ratheesan; Abraham, Elizabeth K; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2008-01-01

    The clinical and pathological characteristics and prognostic outcome of patients with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer and BRCA2 mutations are poorly known. Hence, the present study aimed to correlate the BRCA2 mutation status with clinical characteristics and overall survival of 102 breast/ovarian cancer patients in Kerala, South India. All the coding regions of BRCA2 genes were PCR amplified and analyzed for mutations employing Conformation Sensitive Gel Electrophoresis and characterized by sequencing. The ORs with 95% Cls was computed to assess the association between BRCA2 gene mutation status and clinicopathologic characteristics of breast cancer patients. Survival curves were generated according to Kaplan-Meier method using Log Rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression method. Out of the 102 breast/ovarian cancer patients with known BRCA2 status, 19 were BRCA2 mutation positive. In survival analysis, BRCA2 gene mutation status (P = 0.02) and clinicopathologic parameters such as tumour size (p = 0.01), metastasis (P = 0.01), disease stage (P = 0.03) and laterality (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Patients with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer resulting from a BRCA2 mutation have been conclusively shown to have a worse survival prognosis compared to the non mutated group of patients. PMID:19066131

  11. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) Expression in Ovarian Carcinomas and Its Clinicopathological Associations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruixia; Ma, Yuanyuan; Holm, Ruth; Trope, Claes G.; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2013-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is known as a carrier protein. It is classically thought to be mainly synthesized in the liver and then secreted into the circulating system, where it binds to sex steroids with a high affinity and modulates the bio-availability of the hormones. Other organs known to produce SHBG include brain, uterus, testis, prostate, breast and ovary, and the local expressed SHBG may play an important role in tumor development. However, SHBG expression status and its clinicopathological significance in ovarian cancer cells are not reported yet. In our present study, we examined and found the variable SHBG expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines (OV-90, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. We then extended our study to 248 ovarian carcinoma samples, which were collected at The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital with complete clinical information, and discovered that SHBG was variably expressed in these ovarian carcinomas. Higher level of SHBG expression was significantly associated with more aggressive histological subtype (p = 0.022), higher FIGO stage (p = 0.018) and higher histological grade (grade of differentiation, p = 0.020), although association between SHBG expression and OS/PFS was not observed. Our results demonstrate that ovarian cancer cells produce SHBG and higher SHBG expression in ovarian carcinoma is associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features. PMID:24386165

  12. Evaluation of Clinicopathological and Risk Factors for Nonmalignant H. Pylori Associated Gastroduodenal Disorders in Iraqi Patients

    PubMed Central

    AL-Ezzy, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the risk factors associated with H. pylori infection and possible correlation with clinicopathological parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gastroduodenal biopsies were examined by rapid urease test and Gram staining. Cag A cytotoxin was detected by in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Risk of H. pylori acquisition reported as following: Males have 1.38 fold, rural residents have 0.63 fold, Nonsmokers have 0.39 fold, mild smokers have 18 fold, and moderate smokers have 1.4 fold while heavy smokers have 1 fold. A person who’s in contact with animals has 1.52 fold risks. Illiterates and patients with primary education have 5.36 & 3 fold risk respectively. Patients under proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy have 1.02 fold. Patients under NSAID therapy have 3.48 fold while nonalcoholic Patients have 0.75 fold. Patients using tap water have 0.45 fold risk. H. pylori infection positively correlated with age, weight loss, and heartburn. H. pylori inversely correlated with endoscopic diagnosis, Cag A positivity, and education level. Cag A positivity correlated with animal contact and NSAID usage. CONCLUSIONS: Several life style factors, education, animal contact, using of PPI, and NSAIDs increase the risk of H. pylori infection. Weight loss and heartburn cardinal signs for H. pylori infection. Endoscopic diagnosis and clinicopathological parameters not strictly associated with Cag A positivity. PMID:27275302

  13. Kidney Expression of Toll Like Receptors in Lupus Nephritis: Quantification and Clinicopathological Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Francesca; Bombardieri, Michele; Valesini, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The study aimed at locating and quantifying Toll Like Receptor (TLR) 3, 7, 8, and 9 expression in kidney of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and correlating them with clinicopathological features. Methods. Kidney sections from 26 LN patients and 4 controls were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-human TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 polyclonal antibodies; the number of TLR-positive nuclei/mm2 was evaluated on digitalized images. Results. Compared to controls, LN showed a significantly higher amount of glomerular and tubulointerstitial TLR9 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007), whole and tubulointerstitial TLR3 (p = 0.026 and p = 0.031), and a higher tubulointerstitial TLR7 (p = 0.022). TLR9 positively correlated with activity index (p = 0.0063) and tubular TLR7 with chronicity index (p = 0.026). TLR9 positively correlated with Renal-SLEDAI (p = 0.01). Conclusions. This is the first study quantifying kidney expressions of TLRs in LN patients; the results show an overexpression of TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and demonstrate a correlation with clinicopathological indices supporting a role of these mediators in the pathogenesis of LN.

  14. Clinicopathologic analysis of isolated hematuria in child/adolescent and adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, GuangLei; Zhu, Jun; Song, MingHui; Ma, Lu; Pan, Tao; Yang, Qi; Zhang, WenSheng

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, no in-depth clinicopathologic study of isolated hematuria (IH) is currently available. To address this gap, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features of IH as it manifests in child/adolescent and adult patients. The clinical data and pathological types of 543 IH patients who underwent renal pathological examinations from January 2005 to June 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical manifestations differed among the age groups: children/adolescents exhibited the highest percentage of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (41.78%), whereas adults showed the highest percentage of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) (52.39%). In addition, the percentage of IH patients who were classified according to clinical pathology differed from that of patients who were classified according to renal pathological type. Patients with IgAN who were found to have minimal proteinuria had more severe IH. For IH patients, especially those with a small amount of proteinuria, renal biopsy should be performed as early as possible in order to develop a long-term treatment plan and prognosis evaluation. PMID:27003766

  15. Pulmonary chondroma: A clinicopathological study of 29 cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dong; Wen, Hongying; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Maoyong

    2016-01-01

    The present retrospective study was designed to review the clinicopathological features and outcome of surgical treatment of pulmonary chondroma, and to accumulate data for the clinical diagnosis and therapy. The clinicopathological data from 29 patients, aged between 38- and 78-years-old, with pulmonary chondroma who underwent surgical operation between July 2003 and June 2015 were reviewed. Of these patients, 18 exhibited no clinical symptoms, 7 were characterized by coughing, hemoptysis, shortness of breath and other symptoms and only 3 patients exhibited chest pain as the predominant symptom. The average size of the neoplasms was 3.6 cm. All patients were pathologically diagnosed. Operative time was 126±22 min, the mean intraoperative blood loss was 82±23 ml and the drainage duration was 3.1±1.8 days. A total of 6 postoperative complications were noted. The patients were followed-up for 2–135 months. A total of 23 patients were alive without recurrence, 4 patients succumbed to mortality, 2 patients were lost at follow-up. Pulmonary chondroma is a rare benign tumor of the lung. The clinical symptoms were concealed and often misdiagnosed as a tuberculosis tumor, hamartoma, peripheral lung cancer or a single metastatic tumor. Complete resection was the best treatment providing patients with a good prognosis. After definite diagnosis, it is necessary to exclude Carney's triad. PMID:27602219

  16. Clinicopathological pattern of pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese autopsy patients: comparison with Caucasian series.

    PubMed

    Chau, K Y; Yuen, S T; Wong, M P

    1997-08-01

    The clinicopathological data of adult Chinese patients identified to have 'significant pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE)' at autopsy in Queen Mary Hospital (QMH) Hong Kong, from 1990 to 1994 inclusive, were analysed retrospectively. The prevalence of PTE was documented and data were compared with published series of Caucasian patients. The parameters studied included sex-age distribution, associated diseases, symptomatology, site of venous thrombosis, duration of admission and intervals between surgery and death. The rate of PTE was 4.7% (4.5% in males and 5.2% in females). The mean age of PTE patients was significantly higher than that of non-PTE patients (p < 0.001). Two clinicopathological features worthy of note are: (1) as in Caucasian patients, most Chinese patients with 'significant PTE' do not present with leg symptoms although many of them are found to have deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at postmortem; and (2) DVT in these patients is found in the calf veins rather than in the more proximal deep veins. The recently identified racial differences in hemostasis that may contribute to the differences between Chinese and Caucasian people are discussed.

  17. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression in Colorectal Cancer and Its Relationship with Clinicopathological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Torabizadeh, Zhila; Nosrati, Anahita; Tahvildari, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Some recent studies reported human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2/neu) as a marker that can be used in immunological studies of colorectal carcinoma for predicting the prognosis and the treatment. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the frequency of HER-2 expression in patients with colorectal cancer, and explore the relationship between clinicopathological prognostic factors and its expression based on immunohistochemical analysis. METHODS This study included 50 patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma who received surgery at Imam Khomeini Hospital affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. First, HER-2/neu protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry and then the data extracted from recorded files. RESULTS The median age of the patients was 60.2±13.9 years (range: 25-93 years). There was no significant relationship between size of tumor, age, sex, lymph node metastases, distant metastasis, differentiation, and stage of the disease with positive expression of HER-2 in this study. CONCLUSION No significant relationship between expression of HER-2 and clinicopathological prognostic factors was found in our study. Further comprehensive and prospective trial with standard method to evaluate the role of HER-2 expression among patients with colorectal cancer is needed. PMID:26933478

  18. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression in Colorectal Cancer and Its Relationship with Clinicopathological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Torabizadeh, Zhila; Nosrati, Anahita; Tahvildari, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Some recent studies reported human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2/neu) as a marker that can be used in immunological studies of colorectal carcinoma for predicting the prognosis and the treatment. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the frequency of HER-2 expression in patients with colorectal cancer, and explore the relationship between clinicopathological prognostic factors and its expression based on immunohistochemical analysis. METHODS This study included 50 patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma who received surgery at Imam Khomeini Hospital affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. First, HER-2/neu protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry and then the data extracted from recorded files. RESULTS The median age of the patients was 60.2±13.9 years (range: 25-93 years). There was no significant relationship between size of tumor, age, sex, lymph node metastases, distant metastasis, differentiation, and stage of the disease with positive expression of HER-2 in this study. CONCLUSION No significant relationship between expression of HER-2 and clinicopathological prognostic factors was found in our study. Further comprehensive and prospective trial with standard method to evaluate the role of HER-2 expression among patients with colorectal cancer is needed. PMID:26933478

  19. Cytokeratin expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 687 cases.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common clinically significant mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. The expression of the intermediate filament cytokeratin in gastrointestinal stromal tumor is not frequently reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of several types of cytokeratin in a large number of cases (n=687), including a pan-cytokeratin marker (AE1/AE3 cocktail antibodies), high-molecular weight cytokeratins (34ßE12 antibody), and individual cytokeratins 8 (35ßH11 and CAM5.2 antibodies), 7, 14, and 20. Ki-67 antigen was used for the determination of cell proliferation index, and the correlation between Ki-67 and cytokeratin expression was evaluated. Cytokeratin expression was also correlated with several clinicopathologic parameters. The expression of pan-cytokeratin was observed in 24 (3.5%) cases, with variable intensity. Only 1 of 687 (0.1%) cases showed cytokeratin 14 expression. All 687 cases revealed no expression of high-molecular weight cytokeratins, cytokeratins 7, 8, and 20. No significant statistical association was found between AE1/AE3 immunoreactivity and several clinicopathologic parameters, including sex, tumor location and size, cell morphology, mitotic count, risk of aggressive behavior, and Ki-67 antigen cell proliferation index. However, statistical correlation between AE1/AE3 immunoreactivity and a higher age at diagnosis was detected. These results show that cytokeratin expression is not frequent in gastrointestinal stromal tumor, but caution is necessary to avoid erroneous diagnoses.

  20. Clinicopathologic characteristics and management of minute esophageal lesions diagnosed by narrow-band imaging endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Takashi; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Yasui, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy enables the diagnosis of minute esophageal neoplasia. We aimed to evaluate clinicopathological diagnosis of minute esophageal neoplasia by using magnifying NBI endoscopy and biopsy. Patients and methods: In total, 309 patients (127 men and 182 women) with minute esophageal lesions of intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) type IV were enrolled. Of these patients, 249 underwent biopsy for histologic diagnosis and also for treatment. Of the 249 patients, 123 underwent follow-up with endoscopy. We analyzed the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of these lesions after biopsy. Results: Of the 249 biopsied lesions, we histologically diagnosed 11 as high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN), 41 as low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), and 197 as non-neoplasia (Non-N) including inflammation. Six of the 11 HGINs and 11 of the 41 LGINs showed slight elevation. Background coloration was observed in 9 of 11 HGINs, 34 of 41 LGINs, and 33 of 197 Non-Ns. Of the 249 biopsied lesions, 147 were microscopically measurable. The average diameter was 1.4 mm for HGINs and 0.8 mm for LGINs. Of the 123 patients who underwent post-biopsy follow-up, 93 (76 %) showed no lesions at the biopsied sites during the NBI examinations and were suspected to have undergone complete resection by biopsy. Conclusions: Biopsy was useful for diagnosis and treatment of minute esophageal lesions, diagnosed as IPCL type IV by magnifying NBI endoscopy.

  1. Added Value in Electronic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Theo J. D.

    Electronic publications are flooding the market. Some of these publications are created specifically for the electronic environment, but many are conversions of existing material to electronic format. It is not worth the time and effort merely to publish existing material in electronic format if no value is added in the conversion process. The…

  2. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  3. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  4. Superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen

    1999-07-01

    Motivated by recent progress on the correspondence between string theory on nti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, we provide an explicit construction of an infinite dimensional class of superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3. These space-time algebras are N extended superconformal algebras of the kind obtainable by hamiltonian reduction of affine SL(2|N/2) current superalgebras for N even, and are induced by the same current superalgebras residing on the world sheet. Thus, such an extended superconformal algebra is generated by N supercurrents and an SL(N/2) current algebra in addition to a U(1) current algebra. The results are obtained within the framework of free field realizations.

  5. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  6. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  7. ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

  8. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  9. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Large Intestine: Clinicopathological Features and Predictive Factors of Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Motohiro; Ikeda, Koji; Saito, Norio; Sakuyama, Naoki; Koushi, Kenichi; Kawano, Shingo; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi; Ito, Masaaki; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    A new histological classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) was established in WHO 2010. ENET and NCCN proposed treatment algorithms for colorectal NET. Retrospective study of NET of the large intestine (colorectal and appendiceal NET) was performed among institutions allied with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, and 760 neuroendocrine tumors from 2001 to 2011 were re-assessed using WHO 2010 criteria to elucidate the clinicopathological features of NET in the large intestine. Next, the clinicopathological relationship with lymph node metastasis was analyzed to predict lymph node metastasis in locally resected rectal NET. The primary site was rectum in 718/760 cases (94.5%), colon in 30/760 cases (3.9%), and appendix in 12/760 cases (1.6%). Patients were predominantly men (61.6%) with a mean age of 58.7 years. Tumor size was <10 mm in 65.4% of cases. Proportions of NET G1, G2, G3, and mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) were 88.4, 6.3, 3.9, and 1.3%, respectively. Of the 760 tumors, 468 were locally resected, and 292 were surgically resected with lymph node dissection. Rectal NET showed a higher proportion of NET G1, and colonic and appendiceal NET was more commonly G3 and MANEC. Of the 292 surgically resected cases, 233 NET G1 and G2 located in the rectum were used for the prediction of lymph node metastasis. Lymphatic and blood vessel invasion were independent predictive factors of lymph node metastasis. NET G2 cases showed more frequent lymph node metastasis than that seen in NET G1 cases, but this was not an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis. Of the 98 surgically resected cases <10 mm in size, we found 9 cases with lymph node metastasis (9.2%). All cases were NET G1, and eight of the nine cases were positive either for lymphatic invasion or blood vessel invasion. Using the WHO classification, we found NET in the large intestine showed a tumor-site-dependent variety of histological and clinicopathological

  10. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Large Intestine: Clinicopathological Features and Predictive Factors of Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Motohiro; Ikeda, Koji; Saito, Norio; Sakuyama, Naoki; Koushi, Kenichi; Kawano, Shingo; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi; Ito, Masaaki; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    A new histological classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) was established in WHO 2010. ENET and NCCN proposed treatment algorithms for colorectal NET. Retrospective study of NET of the large intestine (colorectal and appendiceal NET) was performed among institutions allied with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, and 760 neuroendocrine tumors from 2001 to 2011 were re-assessed using WHO 2010 criteria to elucidate the clinicopathological features of NET in the large intestine. Next, the clinicopathological relationship with lymph node metastasis was analyzed to predict lymph node metastasis in locally resected rectal NET. The primary site was rectum in 718/760 cases (94.5%), colon in 30/760 cases (3.9%), and appendix in 12/760 cases (1.6%). Patients were predominantly men (61.6%) with a mean age of 58.7 years. Tumor size was <10 mm in 65.4% of cases. Proportions of NET G1, G2, G3, and mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) were 88.4, 6.3, 3.9, and 1.3%, respectively. Of the 760 tumors, 468 were locally resected, and 292 were surgically resected with lymph node dissection. Rectal NET showed a higher proportion of NET G1, and colonic and appendiceal NET was more commonly G3 and MANEC. Of the 292 surgically resected cases, 233 NET G1 and G2 located in the rectum were used for the prediction of lymph node metastasis. Lymphatic and blood vessel invasion were independent predictive factors of lymph node metastasis. NET G2 cases showed more frequent lymph node metastasis than that seen in NET G1 cases, but this was not an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis. Of the 98 surgically resected cases <10 mm in size, we found 9 cases with lymph node metastasis (9.2%). All cases were NET G1, and eight of the nine cases were positive either for lymphatic invasion or blood vessel invasion. Using the WHO classification, we found NET in the large intestine showed a tumor-site-dependent variety of histological and clinicopathological

  11. The Clinicopathologic Features and Treatment of 607 Hindgut Neuroendocrine Tumor (NET) Patients at a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Tae; Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Jeeyun; Hong, Sung No; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Yoon Ah; Huh, Jung Wook; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Park, Young Suk

    2016-05-01

    The clinicopathologic features of hindgut neuroendocrine tumor (NET) as well as the treatment outcomes are not well known. There are currently no published data on treatment outcomes for patients with metastatic hindgut NET. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of clinicopathologic features, treatments and survival in hindgut NET patients. Among patients who were pathologically diagnosed with hindgut NET at Samsung Medical Center between March 2001 and February 2015, 607 were analyzed in this study. Hindgut NETs were defined as NETs that originated from the transverse and distal colon, rectum, and anus. Primary sites included 81 colon (13.3%) and 526 rectum (86.7%). According to the WHO classification, 578 patients (95.2%) had grade 1 NETs, 17 (2.8%) grade 2 NETs, and 12 (2.0%) had neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Forty-two patients (6.9%) had extensive disease, while the majority (93.1%, 565 patients) only exhibited localized disease. The 5- and 10-year survival rates of 565 localized NET patients were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The median OS in 42 patients with extensive disease was 24.8 months (95% CI, 10.7-38.8). Among 565 patients with localized disease, the majority (484 patients, 85.7%) were treated with endoscopic procedure by gastroenterologists. For 42 patients with extensive disease, 17 patients were managed by supportive care, 3 by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), and 22 by systemic therapy. Among these 22 patients, 12 patients received only first-line therapy, 8 had second-line, and only 2 patients had third-line therapy. As first-line chemotherapy, the most commonly used regimens were etoposide plus cisplatin (N = 7) and long acting octreotide (N = 7). During treatment courses, the most commonly used regimen was long-acting octreotide. The median OS in 22 metastatic NET patients receiving systemic therapy was 19.3 months (95% CI, 3.2-35.3). Multivariate analysis in all 607 hindgut NETs patients suggested that

  12. The Clinicopathologic Features and Treatment of 607 Hindgut Neuroendocrine Tumor (NET) Patients at a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Tae; Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Jeeyun; Hong, Sung No; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Yoon Ah; Huh, Jung Wook; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Park, Young Suk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The clinicopathologic features of hindgut neuroendocrine tumor (NET) as well as the treatment outcomes are not well known. There are currently no published data on treatment outcomes for patients with metastatic hindgut NET. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of clinicopathologic features, treatments and survival in hindgut NET patients. Among patients who were pathologically diagnosed with hindgut NET at Samsung Medical Center between March 2001 and February 2015, 607 were analyzed in this study. Hindgut NETs were defined as NETs that originated from the transverse and distal colon, rectum, and anus. Primary sites included 81 colon (13.3%) and 526 rectum (86.7%). According to the WHO classification, 578 patients (95.2%) had grade 1 NETs, 17 (2.8%) grade 2 NETs, and 12 (2.0%) had neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Forty-two patients (6.9%) had extensive disease, while the majority (93.1%, 565 patients) only exhibited localized disease. The 5- and 10-year survival rates of 565 localized NET patients were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The median OS in 42 patients with extensive disease was 24.8 months (95% CI, 10.7–38.8). Among 565 patients with localized disease, the majority (484 patients, 85.7%) were treated with endoscopic procedure by gastroenterologists. For 42 patients with extensive disease, 17 patients were managed by supportive care, 3 by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), and 22 by systemic therapy. Among these 22 patients, 12 patients received only first-line therapy, 8 had second-line, and only 2 patients had third-line therapy. As first-line chemotherapy, the most commonly used regimens were etoposide plus cisplatin (N = 7) and long acting octreotide (N = 7). During treatment courses, the most commonly used regimen was long-acting octreotide. The median OS in 22 metastatic NET patients receiving systemic therapy was 19.3 months (95% CI, 3.2–35.3). Multivariate analysis in all 607 hindgut NETs patients

  13. The Clinicopathologic Features and Treatment of 607 Hindgut Neuroendocrine Tumor (NET) Patients at a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Tae; Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Jeeyun; Hong, Sung No; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Yoon Ah; Huh, Jung Wook; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Park, Young Suk

    2016-05-01

    The clinicopathologic features of hindgut neuroendocrine tumor (NET) as well as the treatment outcomes are not well known. There are currently no published data on treatment outcomes for patients with metastatic hindgut NET. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of clinicopathologic features, treatments and survival in hindgut NET patients. Among patients who were pathologically diagnosed with hindgut NET at Samsung Medical Center between March 2001 and February 2015, 607 were analyzed in this study. Hindgut NETs were defined as NETs that originated from the transverse and distal colon, rectum, and anus. Primary sites included 81 colon (13.3%) and 526 rectum (86.7%). According to the WHO classification, 578 patients (95.2%) had grade 1 NETs, 17 (2.8%) grade 2 NETs, and 12 (2.0%) had neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Forty-two patients (6.9%) had extensive disease, while the majority (93.1%, 565 patients) only exhibited localized disease. The 5- and 10-year survival rates of 565 localized NET patients were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The median OS in 42 patients with extensive disease was 24.8 months (95% CI, 10.7-38.8). Among 565 patients with localized disease, the majority (484 patients, 85.7%) were treated with endoscopic procedure by gastroenterologists. For 42 patients with extensive disease, 17 patients were managed by supportive care, 3 by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), and 22 by systemic therapy. Among these 22 patients, 12 patients received only first-line therapy, 8 had second-line, and only 2 patients had third-line therapy. As first-line chemotherapy, the most commonly used regimens were etoposide plus cisplatin (N = 7) and long acting octreotide (N = 7). During treatment courses, the most commonly used regimen was long-acting octreotide. The median OS in 22 metastatic NET patients receiving systemic therapy was 19.3 months (95% CI, 3.2-35.3). Multivariate analysis in all 607 hindgut NETs patients suggested that

  14. TFE3-Fusion Variant Analysis Defines Specific Clinicopathologic Associations Among Xp11 Translocation Cancers.

    PubMed

    Argani, Pedram; Zhong, Minghao; Reuter, Victor E; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-06-01

    Xp11 translocation cancers include Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer. In Xp11 translocation cancers, oncogenic activation of TFE3 is driven by the fusion of TFE3 with a number of different gene partners; however, the impact of individual fusion variant on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyze 60 Xp11 translocation cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes to establish their TFE3 fusion gene partner. In 5 cases RNA sequencing was also used to further characterize the fusion transcripts. The 60 Xp11 translocation cancers included 47 Xp11 translocation RCC, 8 Xp11 translocation PEComas, and 5 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers. A fusion partner was identified in 53/60 (88%) cases, including 18 SFPQ (PSF), 16 PRCC, 12 ASPSCR1 (ASPL), 6 NONO, and 1 DVL2. We provide the first morphologic description of the NONO-TFE3 RCC, which frequently demonstrates subnuclear vacuoles leading to distinctive suprabasal nuclear palisading. Similar subnuclear vacuolization was also characteristic of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, creating overlapping features with clear cell papillary RCC. We also describe the first RCC with a DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion, in addition to an extrarenal pigmented PEComa with a NONO-TFE3 gene fusion. Furthermore, among neoplasms with the SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, DVL2-TFE3, and ASPL-TFE3 gene fusions, the RCCs are almost always PAX8 positive, cathepsin K negative by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mesenchymal counterparts (Xp11 translocation PEComas, melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and alveolar soft part sarcoma) are PAX8 negative, cathepsin K positive. These findings support the concept that despite an identical gene fusion, the RCCs are distinct from the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, perhaps due to

  15. Clinicopathological Differences and Prognostic Value of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2α Expression for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fangchao; Du, Feng; Zhao, Jiuda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Published literatures have reported the relationship between hypoxic-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) expression and clinicopathological features in gastric cancer (GC), but the evaluated conclusions remain controversial. A meta-analysis was carried to examine the clinicopathological features and prognostic values of HIF-2α in patients with GC. Systematic detailed searches were performed to Pub Med, Cochrane Library, and EBSCO until to August 2015. Six studies (508 specimens) were included in this meta-analysis. HIF-2α-positive expression indicates an unfavorable prognosis value and advanced clinicopathological differences for the available patient dates with GC. Further multivariate meta-analysis revealed that HIF-2α-positive expression in gastric cancer associated with deeper tumor infiltration (OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 1.18–8.04), higher rates of lymphatic metastasis (OR = 3.26; 95%CI: 1.10–9.63), higher TNM stage (III+IV) (OR = 2.61; 95%CI: 1.40–4.84), and much lower 5-year overall survival (OR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.21–3.58). Nevertheless, there is no association between HIF-2α-positive expression and worse tumor differentiation (OR = 2.03; 95%CI: 0.73–5.64). In addition, by this subgroup analysis, HIF-2α-positive expression associated with deeper tumor infiltration (OR = 3.81; 95%CI: 1.03–14.08), higher lymphatic metastasis (OR = 4.71; 95%CI: 1.08–20.50), higher TNM stage (OR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.57–6.57), worse tumor differentiation (OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 1.51–6.31), and lower 5-year overall survival (OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.15–4.79). Our results indicate that HIF-2α overexpression can potently predict the poor prognosis and may be a potential therapeutic target for gastric carcinoma, according to the limited evidence. Meanwhile, further studies are needed to elucidate the accuracy of these results. PMID:26886654

  16. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  17. Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, K.

    2011-10-15

    Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

  18. AdS black holes from duality in gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmagyi, Nick; Vanel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    We study and utilize duality transformations in a particular STU-model of four dimensional gauged supergravity. This model is a truncation of the de Wit-Nicolai =8 theory and as such has a lift to eleven-dimensional supergravity on the seven-sphere. Our duality group is U(1)3 and while it can be applied to any solution of this theory, we consider known asymptotically AdS4, supersymmetric black holes and focus on duality transformations which preserve supersymmetry. For static black holes we generalize the supersymmetric solutions of Cacciatori and Klemm from three magnetic charges to include two additional electric charges and argue that this is co-dimension one in the full space of supersymmetric static black holes in the STU-model. These new static black holes have nontrivial profiles for axions. For rotating black holes, we generalize the known two-parameter supersymmetric solution to include an additional parameter. When lifted to M-theory, these black holes correspond to the near horizon geometry of a stack of BPS rotating M2-branes, spinning on an S 7 which is fibered non-trivially over a Riemann surface.

  19. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  20. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  1. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: correlations between prognosis, age, and clinicopathological and histomorphological findings.

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A; Sørensen, M W; Jørgensen, K

    1994-06-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic difference between patients below and above 60 years of age, several clinicopathological and histomorphological features were analyzed. Tumors from patients older than 60 years of age showed significantly more mitotic activity and nuclear polymorphism, fewer psammoma bodies, and more frequent extrathyroidal invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:8196451

  2. Diseases and histological normality of the renal glomerulus: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, W; Tarpey, P; Williams, G; Acheson, E J; Mallick, N P

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-seven percutaneous renal biopsies showing no significant abnormalities on light microscopy were studied electron optically and by immunofluorescence when available. Assessment of the pathological material was followed by analysis of the patients' clinical notes, and a clinicopathological correlation was carried out. Twenty-three patients fulfilled the clinical criteria of minimal change disease; 10 did not behave clinically as minimal change and showed immune complex deposition; two had benign recurrent haematuria; and two had myelomatosis. Our study shows that if diagnosis is based solely on the light microscope appearances of renal biopsy, diseases other than minimal change are likely to be overlooked. Accuracy of diagnosis in structural terms requires additional immunofluorescence and electron microscopic study; final clinical diagnosis also requires careful follow-up, and repeat biopsy may be necessary. Images PMID:132460

  3. [Clinicopathological study on 100 Japanese patients with peritoneal mesothelioma in Japan].

    PubMed

    Naka, H; Naka, A

    1984-01-01

    We report a clinicopathological study on 100 japanese patients with peritoneal mesothelioma encountered between 1911 and 1982. Fifty-six were males and 44 were females, they ranged in age from 10 months to 83 years. As the inducement materials, asbestos was reported in 5 and thorium in 2 patients. Clinical symptoms were abdominal distension in 56 and abdominal pain in 50 patients. Thrombocytosis and hypoglycemia were observed in 7 and 3 patients, respectively. Macroscopically, the peritoneal mesothelioma was localized in 7, diffuse in 86 and not described in 7 patients. The pathological classification was benign in 5 and malignant in 77 cases. According to Stout's classification, the peritoneal mesothelioma was tubular in 43 mixed in 25 and fibrous type in 11 cases. Based on our findings we suggest that peritoneal mesotheliomas are on the increase in Japan.

  4. A clinicopathological study of ocular involvement in primary hyperoxaluria type I.

    PubMed Central

    Small, K W; Scheinman, J; Klintworth, G K

    1992-01-01

    We performed a clinicopathological study on the eyes of a 3-year-old girl with primary hyperoxaluria type I. An examination one year before death disclosed a slightly diminished visual acuity in both eyes with black, geographic central macular, subretinal patches. Calcium oxalate was deposited predominantly in the retinal pigment epithelium of the posterior pole, where these cells were markedly hyperplastic and hypertrophied round foci of oxalate crystals. Oxalate crystals were exceedingly sparse in other ocular structures and when present were not associated with an apparent tissue reaction in these other locations. A collagenous layer was evident between parts of the retinal pigment epithelium and the neurosensory retina, which contained occasional perivascular clumps of melanin laden cells. The predominant deposition of oxalate in the retinal pigment epithelium, with the exuberant response of these cells around the crystals, gives a clue to the pathogenic mechanisms of primary hyperoxaluria. Images PMID:1739695

  5. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors related to Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Khaliq, Mohammed Israr Ul; Shah, Ajaz A.; Ahmad, Irshad; Hasan, Shahid; Jangam, Sagar S.; Farah; Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Background Assess clinicopathological features of patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) associated with Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in our institution from 2004 to 2015. Method After histopathological analyses of KCOT related to Gorlin–Goltz syndrome, 7 patients were assessed. These patients presented a total of 15 primary and 2 recurrent KCOT. Results All patients presented a multiple KCOT, and 13 lesions were located in mandible (77%) and 4 (23%) in maxilla. Most of the tumors presented a unilocular pattern (71%) and had tooth association (88%). Four patients (57%) were in the age group of 10–19 years and three patients (43%) were in the age group of 20–29 years. There were four male and three female patients. Conclusion KCOT is a frequent manifestation of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome and can be its first sign, mainly in young patients. The four patients presented with two lesions (57%) and three lesions in three patients (43%). PMID:27195205

  6. Simulators of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: Diagnostic Challenges on Small Biopsies and Clinicopathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kong-Bing; Tan, Sze-Hwa; Aw, Derrick Chen-Wee; Jaffar, Huma; Lim, Thiam-Chye; Lee, Shu-Jin; Lee, Yoke-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common and important primary cutaneous malignancy. On skin biopsies, SCC is characterized by significant squamous cell atypia, abnormal keratinization, and invasive features. Diagnostic challenges may occasionally arise, especially in the setting of small punch biopsies or superficial shave biopsies, where only part of the lesion may be assessable by the pathologist. Benign mimics of SCC include pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, eccrine squamous syringometaplasia, inverted follicular keratosis, and keratoacanthoma, while malignant mimics of SCC include basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and metastatic carcinoma. The careful application of time-honored diagnostic criteria, close clinicopathological correlation and a selective request for a further, deeper, or wider biopsy remain the most useful strategies to clinch the correct diagnosis. This review aims to present the key differential diagnoses of SCC, to discuss common diagnostic pitfalls, and to recommend ways to deal with diagnostically challenging cases. PMID:23878739

  7. About Clinicopathological Conference and Its' Practice in the School of Medical Sciences, USM.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Shahid

    2006-07-01

    The clinicopathological conference, popularly known as CPC primarily relies on case method of teaching medicine. It is a teaching tool that illustrates the logical, measured consideration of a differential diagnosis used to evaluate patients. The process involves case presentation, diagnostic data, discussion of differential diagnosis, logically narrowing the list to few selected probable diagnoses and eventually reaching a final diagnosis and its brief discussion. The idea was first practiced in Boston, back in 1900 by a Harvard internist, Dr. Richard C. Cabot who practiced this as an informal discussion session in his private office. Dr. Cabot incepted this from a resident, who in turn had received the idea from a roommate, primarily a law student.

  8. Unsuspected invasive neonatal gastrointestinal mucormycosis: A clinicopathological study of six cases from a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Sushma; Vij, Mukul; Chirla, Dinesh K.; Kumar, Narendar; Samal, Subash C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the clinicopathological features of neonatal mucormycosis Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of cases of neonatal gastrointestinal mucormycosis. Results: There were six neonates with male: female ratio of 1:1. Except one all were preterm babies. The clinical presentation was abdominal distension in the majority. All were clinically diagnosed as either NEC or toxic megacolon with perforation. Neonatal gastrointestinal mucormycosis was not suspected clinically in any. All the children were explored immediately. Biopsy revealed transmural hemorrhagic necrosis/infarction of the intestinal wall with fungal hyphae. Conclusions: The physicians should have a high index of suspicion for gastrointestinal tract mucormycosis in neonates with metabolic disturbances who present with abdominal distension and pneumoperitoneum. Early diagnosis and aggressive medical and surgical treatment may improve the outcome of neonates with this potentially lethal invasive disease. PMID:23243366

  9. Seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement by prostate cancer: putative mechanism and clinicopathological significance.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Kosuke; Kristiansen, Anna; Egevad, Lars; Pina-Oviedo, Sergio; Divatia, Mukul K; Shen, Steven S; Miles, Brian J; Ayala, Alberto G; Park, Yong Wook; Ro, Jae Y

    2014-09-01

    We have recently shown seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement of prostate cancer in cases with seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b). Based on the manner of seminal vesicle invasion, there could be 2 possible mechanisms of seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement: direct intraepithelial invasion from prostate carcinoma in the muscular wall of seminal vesicles or intraepithelial involvement of cancer from the invaginated extraprostatic space (IES)/ejaculatory duct system to extraprostatic seminal vesicle. We aimed to clarify the manner and clinicopathological significance of seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement. Of 1629 consecutive radical prostatectomies, 109 cases (6.7%) showed seminal vesicle invasion in whole-mounted radical prostatectomy specimens. In these pT3b cases, 18 (17%) showed seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement by prostate cancer. Stromal invasion of the IES/ejaculatory duct system and ejaculatory duct intraepithelial invasion by prostate cancer were identified in 62 and 5 of 109 pT3b cases, respectively. However, the presence/absence of IES/ejaculatory duct system involvement by prostate cancer does not predict seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement. No statistically significant correlation was observed between all pathologic parameters/biochemical recurrence and the presence/absence of seminal vesicle intra-epithelial involvement in the pT3b cases. These findings suggest that seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement is more likely due to direct invasion of carcinoma from the muscular wall of seminal vesicles rather than intraepithelial extension from the ejaculatory duct system in the IES. Further studies with a substantially greater case number are needed to clarify the clinicopathological significance of seminal vesicle intraepithelial involvement in a better manner.

  10. Frequency and clinicopathological correlations of histopathological variants of pediatric idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, S.; Mubarak, M.; Kazi, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    There is no information on the frequency and clinicopathological correlations of the histopathological variants of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in children presenting with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in Pakistan. All consecutive children (≤17 years) who presented with INS, and in whom the histological diagnosis of FSGS was made on renal biopsies, were included in this prospective study. Their clinical, laboratory, and histopathological features at the time of presentation were noted from the case files and the biopsy reports for analysis and clinicopathological correlations. Out of 138 children, 93 (67.4%) were males and 45 (32.6%) were females. The mean age was 8.95 ± 4.14 (range: 1.5-17) years. All had NS, with steroid dependant NS (SDNS) in 45 (32.6%) and steroid resistant NS (SRNS) in 93 (67.4%) cases. Renal dysfunction at the time of presentation was found in six (4.3%) children. Global glomerulosclerosis was found in 68 (49.3%) cases. The mean number of glomeruli involved by segmental scarring was 2.98 ± 2.44. FSGS, not otherwise specified (NOS) was the most prevalent variant, comprising 89.1% of all cases. Collapsing variant comprised 8%, tip variant 1.4%, perihilar 0.7%, and cellular 0.7%. Hyaline arteriolosclerosis was found in 13 (9.4%) cases. Mild interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy was found in 95 (68.6%) cases, moderate in 18 (13%), and severe in two (1.4%) cases. In conclusion, FSGS, NOS variant was the highly prevalent variant, while collapsing type was also found in small but significant number of cases. Remaining three variants were distinctly rare in our children. PMID:25120291

  11. Clinicopathologic features of incident and subsequent tumors in patients with multiple primary cutaneous melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Rajmohan; Goumas, Chris; Kricker, Anne; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus J.; Begg, Colin B.; Dwyer, Terence; Gruber, Stephen B.; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Orlow, Irene; Rosso, Stefano; Thomas, Nancy E.; Berwick, Marianne; Scolyer, Richard A.; Armstrong, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    Background 0.6–12.7% of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma will develop additional melanomas. Pathologic features of tumors in patients with multiple primary cutaneous melanomas have not been well described. In this large international multi-center case-control study, we compared the clinicopathologic features of a subsequent melanoma with the preceding (usually the first) melanoma in patients with multiple primary cutaneous melanomas, and with those of melanomas in patients with single primary cutaneous melanomas. Methods Multiple primary melanoma (cases) and single primary invasive melanoma (controls) patients from the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study were included if their tumors were available for pathologic review and confirmed as melanoma. Clinicopathologic characteristics of invasive subsequent and first melanomas in cases and invasive single melanomas in controls were compared. Results 473 pairs comprising a subsequent and a first melanoma and 1989 single melanomas were reviewed. Forward stepwise regression modeling in 395 pairs with complete data showed that, compared to first melanomas, subsequent melanomas were: more commonly contiguous with a dysplastic nevus; more prevalent on the head/neck and legs than other sites; and thinner. Compared with single primary melanomas, subsequent melanomas were also more likely to be: associated with a contiguous dysplastic nevus; more prevalent on the head/neck and legs; and thinner. The same differences were observed when subsequent melanomas were compared with single melanomas. First melanomas were more likely than single melanomas to have associated solar elastosis and no observed mitoses. Conclusions Thinner subsequent than first melanomas suggest earlier diagnosis, perhaps due to closer clinical scrutiny. The association of subsequent melanomas with dysplastic nevi is consistent with the latter being risk factors or risk markers for melanoma. PMID:21913010

  12. Lung Adenocarcinoma with EGFR Amplification has Distinct Clinicopathologic and Molecular Features in Never-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sholl, Lynette M.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Iafrate, A. John; Holmes-Tisch, Alison J.; Chou, Yi-Ping; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Goan, Yih-Gang; Su, Li; Benedittini, Elisa; Yu, Jian; Loda, Massimo; Jänne, Pasi A.; Christiani, David C.; Chirieac, Lucian R.

    2009-01-01

    In a subset of lung adenocarcinomas the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated by kinase domain mutations and/or gene amplification, but the interaction between the two types of abnormalities is complex and unclear. We selected to study 99 consecutive never-smoking women of East Asian origin with lung adenocarcinomas that were characterized by histologic subtype. We analyzed EGFR mutations by PCR-capillary sequencing, EGFR copy number abnormalities by fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR, and EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry with both specific antibodies against exon 19 deletion-mutated EGFR and total EGFR. We compared molecular and clinicopathologic features with disease-free survival. Lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR amplification had significantly more EGFR exon 19 deletion mutations than adenocarcinomas with disomy, low and high polysomy (100% v 54%, P=0.009). EGFR amplification occurred invariably on the mutated and not the wildtype allele (median mutated:wildtype ratios 14.0 v .33, P=0.003), was associated with solid histology (P=0.008), and advanced clinical stage (P=0.009). EGFR amplification was focally distributed in lung cancer specimens, mostly in regions with solid histology. Patients with EGFR amplification had a significantly worse outcome in univariate analysis (median disease-free survival 16 v 31 months, P=0.01) and when adjusted for stage (P=0.027). Lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR amplification have a unique association with exon 19 deletion mutations and demonstrate distinct clinicopathologic features associated with a significantly worsened prognosis. In these cases, EGFR amplification is heterogeneously distributed, mostly in areas with a solid histology. PMID:19826035

  13. Clinicopathologic characteristics of five autopsied cases of dura mater-associated Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mimuro, Maya; Yoshida, Mari; Hashizume, Yoshio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Sobue, Gen

    2008-02-01

    We present five cases of dura mater-associated Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (dura-CJD) that were analyzed clinicopathologically and review previous reports. The average age at dura mater transplantation was 54.4 +/- 7.3 years, and the average age at CJD onset was 66.0 +/- 8.2 years, with an average latency period of 11.6 +/- 1.1 years. The average age at death was 67.6 +/- 8.7 years, with an average CJD disease duration of 16.8 +/- 10.4 months. Symptoms of CJD onset in four patients who received dura mater transplantation below the cerebellar tent reflected cerebellar or brainstem dysfunction, whereas symptoms of one patient who received transplantation above the cerebellar tent reflected cerebral cortical involvement. All patients showed rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, and both periodic sharp-wave complexes on electroencephalogram and myoclonus were observed in the early disease stage. Neuropathologic evaluation showed one case of subacute spongiform encephalopathy and four cases of panencephalopathic-type CJD. Widespread cerebral neocortical, subcortical gray matter and cerebellar cortical involvement were observed to varying degrees, and severity tended to be associated with CJD disease duration. There were no instances of kuru plaques or florid plaques. Prion protein (PrP) immunostaining showed widespread synaptic-type PrP deposition. No differences between our dura-CJD cases and typical cases of sporadic CJD were found with respect to clinicopathologic findings, except history of dura mater transplantation. Although a specific association between the dura mater graft site and neuropathologic observations was not evaluated in the present study, the initial symptoms appear to be closely related to the graft site, indicating a direct transmission of CJD from the graft site to the adjacent brain. PMID:18181835

  14. Clinicopathological features of Riedel's thyroiditis associated with IgG4-related disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ken; Inaba, Hidefumi; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Nishi, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshida, Akira; Imai, Ryoukichi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic fibrosing disorder characterized by a hard, infiltrative lesion in the thyroid gland, which is often associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is typified by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, resulting in tissue fibrosis and organ dysfunction. In order to evaluate the clinicopathological features of RT and its relationship with IgG4-RD, we performed a Japanese literature search using the keywords "Riedel" and "Riedel's thyroiditis." We used the electronic databases Medline and Igaku Chuo Zasshi, the latter of which is the largest medical literature database in Japan. The diagnosis of RT was based on the presence of a fibroinflammatory process with extension into surrounding tissues. Only 10 patients in Japan fulfilled RT diagnostic criteria during the 25-year period between 1988 and 2012. Two patients with confirmed IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical findings demonstrated 43 and 13 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field, respectively, and the IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cell ratios of 20% and less than 5%. Of the 10 patients with RT, two received glucocorticoids, one of whom experienced marked shrinkage of the thyroid lesion. One patient had extra-thyroid involvement in the form of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Although the clinicopathological features of RT suggest that IgG4-RD may be the underlying condition in some cases, further investigation is needed to clarify the etiology of RT in relation to IgG4-RD. PMID:26052139

  15. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Molecular Analyses of Multifocal Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Matthaei, Hanno; Norris, Alexis L.; Tsiatis, Athanasios C.; Olino, Kelly; Hong, Seung-Mo; dal Molin, Marco; Goggins, Michael G.; Canto, Marcia; Horton, Karen M.; Jackson, Keith D.; Capelli, Paola; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Bortesi, Laura; Furukawa, Toru; Egawa, Shinichi; Ishida, Masaharu; Ottomo, Shigeru; Unno, Michiaki; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Edil, Barish H.; Cameron, John L.; Eshleman, James R.; Schulick, Richard D.; Maitra, Anirban; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the clinicopathologic features and clonal relationship of multifocal intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. Background Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are increasingly diagnosed cystic precursor lesions of pancreatic cancer. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms can be multifocal and a potential cause of recurrence after partial pancreatectomy. Methods Thirty four patients with histologically documented multifocal IPMNs were collected and their clinicopathologic features catalogued. In addition, thirty multifocal IPMNs arising in 13 patients from 3 hospitals were subjected to laser microdissection followed by KRAS pyrosequencing and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis on chromosomes 6q and 17p. Finally, we sought to assess the clonal relationships among multifocal IPMNs. Results We identified 34 patients with histologically documented multifocal IPMNs. Synchronous IPMNs were present in 29 patients (85%), whereas 5 (15%) developed clinically significant metachronous IPMNs. Six patients (18%) had a history of familial pancreatic cancer. A majority of multifocal IPMNs (86% synchronous, 100% metachronous) were composed of branch duct lesions, and typically demonstrated a gastric-foveolar subtype epithelium with low or intermediate grades of dysplasia. Three synchronous IPMNs (10%) had an associated invasive cancer. Molecular analysis of multiple IPMNs from 13 patients demonstrated nonoverlapping KRAS gene mutations in 8 patients (62%) and discordant LOH profiles in 7 patients (54%); independent genetic alterations were established in 9 of the 13 patients (69%). Conclusions The majority of multifocal IPMNs arise independently and exhibit a gastric-foveolar subtype, with low to intermediate dysplasia. These findings underscore the importance of life-long follow-up after resection for an IPMN. PMID:22167000

  16. Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 39 Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan-Xiang; Chen, Xin-Ming; Li, Tie-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare neoplasm arising intraosseously in the jaws. To clarify the clinicopathologic profile and pathogenesis of central MEC, clinicopathologic findings and follow-up data of 39 cases were collected and analyzed. There were 16 male and 23 female patients (median age, 43 y). Sixteen cases affected the maxilla, and 23 occurred in the mandible. Radiographically, most cases (32 of 39) showed a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency with bone destruction, and 7 were found with scattered calcification. The margins of the lesions were ill defined or diffused in 14 cases and relatively well defined in 25 cases. Most cases (26 of 39) were classified as low-grade MECs, whereas 13 were moderate-to-high grade. Follow-up data were available for 35 patients with a median period of 36 months. All cases were found to be primary; local recurrence occurred in 8 cases, most (75.0%) of which were low-grade tumors. Four cases showed regional lymph node metastasis, and 1 developed distant metastasis. Of 11 cases with a clinical history of the jaw cyst, 8 initially showed a typical odontogenic cyst with local MEC-like proliferation. In summary, the most likely pathogenesis of central MEC is neoplastic transformation of the epithelial lining of an odontogenic cyst, diagnosis of which should be based on clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings. The immunohistochemical profile of keratins is helpful in differential diagnosis. Radical surgery is the treatment of choice, whereas the role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy is still controversial, and careful long-term follow-up is necessary.

  17. Mycosis fungoides with large cell transformation: clinicopathological features and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Pulitzer, Melissa; Myskowski, Patricia L.; Horwitz, Steven M.; Querfeld, Christiane; Connolly, Brian; Li, Janet; Murali, Rajmohan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Large cell transformation of mycosis fungoides (MF-LCT) occurs in 20–50% of advanced MF, and is generally associated with poor prognosis, although some patients have indolent disease. We sought to identify clinicopathological prognostic factors in a large number of patients with MF-LCT. We identified patients with MF-LCT treated between 1991 and 2012 at a referral centre for cutaneous lymphoma. Clinical and pathological records, and histopathological slides were reviewed. Associations of clinicopathological variables with disease-specific survival were analysed. In 51 patients with MF-LCT, factors significantly associated with shorter survival were: age >60 years (25 versus 61 months, p = 0.01), stage III/IV (25 versus 44 months, p = 0.049), high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; 24 versus 53 months, p = 0.007), absent papillary dermal involvement (8 versus 30 months, p = 0.008); follicular mucin at transformation (24 versus 42 months, p = 0.007); and the absence of fibrosis at transformation (21 versus 42 months, p = 0.03). Patients presenting with transformation at diagnosis had better survival than those who started with a small cell phenotype (p = 0.02). Age >60 years was independently associated with poorer survival (HR 5.61, 95%CI 1.17–26.8, p = 0.03), and the presence of fibrosis at transformation was independently associated with improved survival (HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.09–0.97, p = 0.045). In patients with MF-LCT, clinical features (age, stage, serum LDH) are important in assessing prognosis. Additional clinical and pathological features identified in this study may also assist in prognostic stratification. Studies of larger cohorts should be performed to validate the prognostic significance of these features. PMID:25393251

  18. Correlation between body mass index and clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zeming; Maimaiti, Yusufu; Yu, Pan; Xiong, Yiquan; Zeng, Wen; Li, Xiaoyu; Song, Haiping; Lu, Chong; Xin, Yue; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Ming, Jie; Liu, Chunping; Shi, Wei; Shi, Lan; Li, Xueqin; Nie, Xiu; Huang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and the clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: A total of 810 consecutive patients with PTC (501 patients with PTMC) who underwent total thyroidectomy in 2009-2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Results: Increased BMI was strongly associated with i) extrathyroidal invasion (P < 0.001) and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.005) in patients with PTMC (n = 501), and ii) extrathyroidal invasion (P = 0.001), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.001), and multifocality (P = 0.002) in patients with PTC (n = 810). As compared with normal-weight patients with PTMC, obese patients with PTMC had greater risks of extrathyroidal invasion (OR = 5.214, P = 0.0270), and overweight patients with PTMC had greater risks of extrathyroidal invasion (OR = 2.165, P = 0.0013) and advanced TNM stage (OR = 2.019, P = 0.0137). As compared with normal-weight patients with PTC, obese patients with PTC had greater risks of extrathyroidal invasion (OR = 3.101, P = 0.0172), and overweight patients with PTC had greater risks of extrathyroidal invasion (OR = 1.486, P = 0.0279), advanced TNM stage (OR = 1.650, P = 0.0347), and multifocality (OR = 1.651, P = 0.0054). Conclusions: Increased BMI might elevate the risks of aggressive clinicopathological features, such as extrathyroidal invasion and advanced TNM stage. Obesity control may play an important role in preventing the development of aggressive PTMCs and all PTCs. PMID:26629173

  19. [A clinicopathological study of primary liver cancer associated with alcoholic liver injury].

    PubMed

    Kohgo, Y; Ohhira, M; Ono, M

    1996-04-01

    We described a clinicopathological study of primary hepatoma associated with alcoholic liver diseases without viral liver diseases. In 150 patients with primary hepatoma, 6 patients (4%) have hepatoma associated with pure alcoholic liver disease, although 143 hepatoma were associated with chronic viral liver diseases and one was with primary biliary cirrhosis. All patients were male. The diagnosis of hepatoma was obtained at the age of 54 to 67 years old, and the duration of ethanol intake was 33 to 40 years. Three cases had a history of temperance. As an underlying liver disease, liver fibrosis was found in 3 cases and liver cirrhosis was in 3 cases. Chronic infections of hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. Autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis were neglected by serum autoantibody. Hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease were also excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed histologically in all the cases. Serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II were positive in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. In cases with small hepatoma, the tumor was resected surgically in two cases and percutaneous ethanol injection against hepatoma was performed in one case. In these cases with small hepatoma, the patients were alive without tumor recurrence during observation period. In advanced hepatoma, transcatheter arterial infusion of anticancer agent was performed in two cases and no therapy was performed due to poor general condition in one case. One case was alive with recurrent hepatoma for 27 months, during which a therapy was repeated five times. Other 2 cases were died. The clinicopathological features of hepatoma associated with alcoholic liver disease were essentially same as those associated with chronic viral infection, although the incidence of hepatoma in alcoholic liver disease was lower than in viral liver disease. The mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in alcoholic liver disease was unclear and, therefore

  20. Mechanistic effects of IVIg in neuroinflammatory diseases: conclusions based on clinicopathologic correlations.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2014-07-01

    The mechanisms of action of IVIg on immunoregulatory and neuroinflammatory network have been predominantly based on in vitro experiments and animal studies, rather than direct effects on human tissues. Based on clinicopathologic correlations and tissues obtained before and after IVIg therapy, the better documented and clinically-relevant in-vivo actions of IVIg include effects on: a) Antibodies. An extracted antigen-specific anti-immunoglobulin (idiotypic) fraction appears partially responsible for its effect in myasthenia gravis and GBS; b) Complement. Sera from Dermatomyositis (DM) patients responding to IVIg, inhibit complement consumption and intercept MAC formation leading to disappearance of MAC deposits in the repeated muscle biopsies and normalization of muscle tissue; c) Genes. In repeated muscle biopsies from DM patients who improved after IVIg, but not from Inclusion-Body-Myositis (IBM) who did not improve, there is a 2-fold alteration of 2206 tissue genes associated with inflammation, fibrosis, tissue remodeling and regeneration; and d) degenerative-proinflammatory molecules and β-amyloid, implicated in neurodegenerative CNS diseases and IBM. In repeated muscle biopsies of IBM patients who did not respond to IVIg, the mRNA or protein expression for chemokines, IFN-γ, TGF-ß, IL-10, Ubiquitin and aB-crystallin is reduced, but not for the key molecules ICOS, ICOSL, IL-6, IL1-β, perforin, APP, nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine, in spite of good IVIg penetration in muscles. Collectively, the selective effectiveness of IVIg in human diseases seems to correlate in vivo with inhibition of causative inflammatory mediators. Study of accessible tissues before and after therapy and clinicopathologic correlations, may help explain the differential effect of IVIg in autoimmune or neuroinflammatory diseases.

  1. Distinct Clinicopathologic and Genetic Features of 2 Histologic Subtypes of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akimasa; Misumi, Kento; Shibahara, Junji; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have identified 2 clinically significant morphologic subtypes of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on the basis of anatomic location and/or histologic appearances. Recognizing that these classification schemes are not always applicable practically, this study aimed to establish a novel classification system based on mucin productivity and immunophenotype and to determine the rationale of this classification by examining the clinicopathologic and genetic characteristics of the 2 subtypes defined by this method. We retrospectively investigated 102 consecutive ICC cases and classified them on the basis of mucin productivity and immunophenotype (S100P, N-cadherin, and NCAM). We found that 42 and 56 cases were classified as type 1 and type 2 ICCs, respectively, and only 4 cases were of indeterminate type. Type 1 ICC, generally characterized by mucin production and diffuse immunoreactivity to S100P, arose less frequently in chronic liver diseases and showed higher levels of serum CEA and CA 19-9 than did type 2 ICC, which generally showed little mucin production and exhibited immunoreactivity to N-cadherin and/or NCAM. Type 1 ICC was characterized by several pathologic features, including higher frequencies of perineural invasion and lymph node metastasis. Although the log-rank test demonstrated that type 1 ICC had significantly worse survival, the multivariate Cox regression analysis showed no prognostic significance of this histologic subtype. Genetic analyses revealed that KRAS mutation was significantly more frequent in type 1 ICC, whereas IDH mutation and FGFR2 translocation were restricted to type 2 ICC. In conclusion, the present classification of ICC based on mucin productivity and immunophenotype identified 2 subtypes with clinicopathologic significance.

  2. Correlation of PDK1 expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junrong; Liu, Fenqin; Ao, Peiran; Li, Xianneng; Zheng, Haixiao; Wu, Di; Zhang, Nina; She, Junping; Yuan, Junhui; Wu, Xiuying

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with clinicopathologic features and prognosis in HCC patients. Materials and methods A total of 128 HCC patients who received radical resection were enrolled from Wenling Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital between May 2005 and December 2008, and tumor and adjacent tissue samples were collected. Expression of PDK1 was detected by immunohistochemistry method. Correlation of PDK1 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis was determined by Spearman’s correlation analysis. Impact of expression of PDK1 on overall survival and recurrence was determined by Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Immunohistochemistry results showed that PDK1 expression in HCC tissues was significantly higher than that in the corresponding adjacent cancer tissues. Univariate analysis showed that PDK1 messenger RNA expression can predict time to recurrence with diagnostic significance (P=0.001). Univariate analysis showed that alpha-fetoprotein level, tumor number, tumor encapsulation, microvascular invasion, and tumor–node–metastasis stage were also unfavorable prognostic variables for recurrence (P<0.05). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that overexpression of PDK1 correlates with significantly shorter postoperative overall survival and higher recurrence rates (hazard ratio =2.68; 95% confidence interval: 2.46–4.42, P=0.001) in HCC patients after curative resection. Conclusion Our study indicated that PDK1 may serve as a candidate pro-oncogene and a potential prognostic biomarker for HCC. PMID:27672330

  3. Clinicopathological features of choledocholithiasis patients with high aminotransferase levels without cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Cheal Wung; Jang, Sung Ill; Lim, Beom Jin; Kim, Hee Wook; Kim, Jae Keun; Park, Jun Sung; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Se Joon; Lee, Dong Ki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Common bile duct (CBD) stones are generally associated with greater elevations of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels than aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. However, some patients with CBD stones show markedly increased aminotransferase levels, sometimes leading to the misdiagnosis of liver disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features of patients with CBD stones and high aminotransferase levels. This prospective cohort study included 882 patients diagnosed with CBD stones using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Among these patients, 38 (4.3%) exhibited aminotransferase levels above 400 IU/L without cholangitis (gallstone hepatitis [GSH] group), and 116 (13.2%) exhibited normal aminotransferase levels (control group). We compared groups in terms of clinical features, laboratory test results, radiologic images, and ERCP findings such as CBD diameter, CBD stone diameter and number, and periampullary diverticulum. Liver biopsy was performed for patients in the GSH group. GSH patients were younger and more likely to have gallbladder stones than control patients, implying a higher incidence of gallbladder stone migration. Also, GSH patients experienced more severe, short-lasting abdominal pain. ERCP showed narrower CBDs in GSH patients than in control patients. Histological analysis of liver tissue from GSH patients showed no abnormalities except for mild inflammation. Compared with control patients, GSH patients were younger and showed more severe, short-lasting abdominal pain, which could be due to a sudden increase of CBD pressure resulting from the migration of gallstones through narrower CBDs. These clinical features could be helpful not only for the differential diagnosis of liver disease but also for investigating the underlying mechanisms of liver damage in obstructive jaundice. Moreover, we propose a new definition of

  4. Clinicopathological significance of claudin 4 expression in gastric carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowan; Zhao, Junhua; Li, Ailin; Gao, Peng; Sun, Jingxu; Song, Yongxi; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Ping; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic significance of claudin 4 (CLDN4) in patients with gastric cancer (GC) is controversial. This meta-analysis aims to assess the correlation between CLDN4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics and assess the prognostic significance of CLDN4 in GC. Methods We searched the PubMed and Embase databases. We performed the meta-analysis with odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio (HR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) as effect values. Results Fourteen studies containing 2,106 patients with GC were analyzed. The overall analysis showed that CLDN4 expression was associated with increasing pT category, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis in patients with GC (pT3–T4 vs pT1–T2: OR =1.56, 95% CI =1.13–2.16; P<0.01; large tumor size vs small tumor size: OR =1.64, 95% CI =1.15–2.34; P<0.01; positive lymph node metastasis vs negative lymph node metastasis: OR =1.49, 95% CI =1.12–1.97; P<0.01). CLDN4 expression was associated with histological differentiation (differentiated type vs undifferentiated type: OR =2.90, 95% CI =1.32–6.37; P=0.01; Lauren intestinal type vs diffuse type: OR =3.51, 95% CI =1.48–8.28; P<0.01). CLDN4 expression was also strongly associated with sex and age. This meta-analysis found no significant association between CLDN4 expression and prognosis for overall survival in patients with GC (HR =0.74, 95% CI =0.43–1.27; P=0.28). Conclusion Present study indicates that aberrant CLDN4 expression plays an important role in the clinicopathological characteristics of GC. PMID:27313466

  5. Clinicopathological features of alpha-fetoprotein producing early gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Ueyama, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Akazawa, Yoichi; Komori, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tsutomu; Murakami, Takashi; Asaoka, Daisuke; Hojo, Mariko; Tomita, Natsumi; Nagahara, Akihito; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate clinicopathological features of early stage gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation (GCED). METHODS We retrospectively investigated data on 6 cases of early stage GCED and 186 cases of early stage conventional gastric cancer (CGC: well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma) who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection from September 2011 to February 2015 in our hospital. GCED was defined as a tumor having a primitive intestine-like structure composed of cuboidal or columnar cells with clear cytoplasm and immunohistochemical positivity for either alpha-fetoprotein, Glypican 3 or SALL4. The following were compared between GCED and CGC: age, gender, location and size of tumor, macroscopic type, ulceration, depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, positive horizontal and vertical margin, curative resection rate. RESULTS Six cases (5 males, 1 female; mean age 75.7 years; 6 lesions) of early gastric cancer with a GCED component and 186 cases (139 males, 47 females; mean age 72.7 years; 209 lesions) of early stage CGC were investigated. Mean tumor diameters were similar but rates of submucosal invasion, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and non-curative resection were higher in GCED than CGC (66.6% vs 11.4%, 33.3% vs 2.3%, 66.6% vs 0.4%, 83.3% vs 11% respectively, P < 0.01). Deep submucosal invasion was not revealed endoscopically or by preoperative biopsy. Histologically, in GCED the superficial mucosal layer was covered with a CGC component. The GCED component tended to exist in the deeper part of the mucosa to the submucosa by lymphatic and/or venous invasion, without severe stromal reaction. In addition, Glypican 3 was the most sensitive marker for GCED (positivity, 83.3%), immunohistochemically. CONCLUSION Even in the early stage GCED has high malignant potential, and preoperative diagnosis is considered difficult. Endoscopists and pathologists should know the clinicopathological

  6. Clinicopathological features of alpha-fetoprotein producing early gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Ueyama, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Akazawa, Yoichi; Komori, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tsutomu; Murakami, Takashi; Asaoka, Daisuke; Hojo, Mariko; Tomita, Natsumi; Nagahara, Akihito; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate clinicopathological features of early stage gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation (GCED). METHODS We retrospectively investigated data on 6 cases of early stage GCED and 186 cases of early stage conventional gastric cancer (CGC: well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma) who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection from September 2011 to February 2015 in our hospital. GCED was defined as a tumor having a primitive intestine-like structure composed of cuboidal or columnar cells with clear cytoplasm and immunohistochemical positivity for either alpha-fetoprotein, Glypican 3 or SALL4. The following were compared between GCED and CGC: age, gender, location and size of tumor, macroscopic type, ulceration, depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, positive horizontal and vertical margin, curative resection rate. RESULTS Six cases (5 males, 1 female; mean age 75.7 years; 6 lesions) of early gastric cancer with a GCED component and 186 cases (139 males, 47 females; mean age 72.7 years; 209 lesions) of early stage CGC were investigated. Mean tumor diameters were similar but rates of submucosal invasion, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and non-curative resection were higher in GCED than CGC (66.6% vs 11.4%, 33.3% vs 2.3%, 66.6% vs 0.4%, 83.3% vs 11% respectively, P < 0.01). Deep submucosal invasion was not revealed endoscopically or by preoperative biopsy. Histologically, in GCED the superficial mucosal layer was covered with a CGC component. The GCED component tended to exist in the deeper part of the mucosa to the submucosa by lymphatic and/or venous invasion, without severe stromal reaction. In addition, Glypican 3 was the most sensitive marker for GCED (positivity, 83.3%), immunohistochemically. CONCLUSION Even in the early stage GCED has high malignant potential, and preoperative diagnosis is considered difficult. Endoscopists and pathologists should know the clinicopathological

  7. GLUEBALLS AND ADS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    JOHN TERNING

    2002-01-01

    I review the calculation of the glueball spectrum in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (in 3 and 4 dimensions) using the conjectured duality between supergravity and large N gauge theories. The glueball masses are obtained by solving the supergravity wave equations in a black hole geometry. The masses obtained this way are in unexpectedly good agreement with the available lattice data, and are much better than strong-coupling expansion results. I also show how to use a modified version of the duality to calculate the glueball mass spectrum with some of the Kaluza-Klein states of the supergravity theory decoupled from the spectrum.

  8. Condom ads slated for TV.

    PubMed

    1987-02-20

    3 CBS-owned television stations and NBC's New York television station announced yesterday that they would begin accepting condom advertising. In addition, the ABC network announced it will begin running a 30-second public service message with Dr. C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, saying that condoms are the best protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. CBS said it will allow the 4 television stations and 18 radio stations it owns to accept condom advertising based on the attitudes of the local viewing or listening community. WCBS-TV in New York, WCAU-TV in Philadelphia and KCBS-TV in Los Angeles said they would accept such ads. CBS also owns a television station in Chicago. WCAU will air condom ads after 11 p.m. only, beginning probably next week, said Paul Webb, a station spokesman. "We recognize the legitimate sensitivities of some members of the community in regard to this issue," said Steve Cohen, the WCAU general manager. "However, it is the judgment of this station that the importance of providing information about the AIDS epidemic and means of prevention is an overriding consideration." NBC's New York television station, WNBC, announced that it will accept condom advertising and public service announcements. PMID:12269166

  9. Reactive Polyphenols: Adding a Function to DOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, B. A.; Lajtha, K.; Frentress, J.; Crow, S. E.

    2006-12-01

    Both the quantity and the quality of DOM changes dramatically as it moves in solution from plant detritus through the terrestrial landscape to rivers. In very N-limited ecosystems, ecosystem theory would suggest that DON would be efficiently retained, and yet DON export can be substantial and may comprise over 90 percent of total N export in many highly limited upland forested ecosystems. We are exploring the hypothesis that DOM contains reactive polyphenols that can bind significant amounts of otherwise highly labile proteinaceous matter and thus play a large role both in N export and the chemistry of DOM delivered to rivers. While polyphenols have been measured across a wide range of aqueous environments, results are usually limited to an estimate of total phenolics, commonly using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. We modified this general assay by adding a step where protein-complexing polyphenols are removed from a subsample by shaking with an insoluble protein. Measuring DOM polyphenols with and without the protein-binding step gives estimates of total phenolics and non-protein reactive phenolics. Protein-binding polyphenols are then calculated by difference. Preliminary measurements with soil lysimeter solutions, soil extracts and stream water collected from watersheds in western Oregon show that over 75 percent of the total polyphenols can bind to protein. Determining the protein-binding function of DOM under different climates, soil and vegetation can provide useful insight into the role of DOM into the N cycle and terrestrial-aquatic linkages.

  10. The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Deur, Alexandre; /Jefferson Lab

    2010-08-25

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS}(q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub ga} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable {zeta}, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for hard exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  11. The ADS/QCD correspondence and exclusive processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Brodsky, Guy F. De Teramond, Alexandre Deur

    2011-05-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model, modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and meson and baryon Regge spectra of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling alpha^AdS/s (Q) and its Beta-function which agrees with the effective coupling alphag1 extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable zeta, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wave functions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply-virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples, we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  12. Fiber-modified adenoviruses for targeted gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongju; Curiel, David T

    2008-01-01

    Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been widely explored as a gene delivery vector. To achieve highly efficient and specific gene delivery, it is often necessary to re-direct Ad5 tropism. Because the capsid protein fiber plays an essential role in directing Ad5 infection, our laboratory attempted to re-target Ad5 through fiber modification. We have developed two strategies in this regard. One is a bi-specific adaptor protein strategy, in which the adaptor protein is designed to bind both the Ad5 fiber and an alternative cell-surface receptor. Another is genetic modification, in which alternative targeting motifs are genetically incorporated into the fiber knob domain so that the Ad5 vectors can infect cells through the alternative receptors. In this chapter, we will focus on the genetic fiber modification strategy and provide a detailed protocol for generation of fiber-modified Ad5 vectors. A series of techniques/procedures used in our laboratory will be described, which include the generation of fiber-modified Ad5 genome by homologous recombination in a bacterial system, rescuing the modified Ad5 viruses, virus amplification and purification, and virus titration.

  13. Clinicopathological Analysis and Multipronged Quantitative Proteomics Reveal Oxidative Stress and Cytoskeletal Proteins as Possible Markers for Severe Vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sandipan; Patel, Sandip K.; Venkatesh, Apoorva; Bhave, Amruta; Kumar, Vipin; Singh, Vaidhvi; Chatterjee, Gangadhar; Shah, Veenita G.; Sharma, Sarthak; Renu, Durairaj; Nafis, Naziya; Gandhe, Prajakta; Gogtay, Nithya; Thatte, Urmila; Sehgal, Kunal; Verma, Sumit; Karak, Avik; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Talukdar, Arunansu; Kochar, Sanjay K.; S. B, Vijeth; Kochar, Dhanpat K.; Rojh, Dharmendra; Varma, Santosh G.; Gandhi, Mayuri N.; Srikanth, Rapole; Patankar, Swati; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    In Plasmodium vivax malaria, mechanisms that trigger transition from uncomplicated to fatal severe infections are obscure. In this multi-disciplinary study we have performed a comprehensive analysis of clinicopathological parameters and serum proteome profiles of vivax malaria patients with different severity levels of infection to investigate pathogenesis of severe malaria and identify surrogate markers of severity. Clinicopathological analysis and proteomics profiling has provided evidences for the modulation of diverse physiological pathways including oxidative stress, cytoskeletal regulation, lipid metabolism and complement cascades in severe malaria. Strikingly, unlike severe falciparum malaria the blood coagulation cascade was not found to be affected adversely in acute P. vivax infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive proteomics study, which identified some possible cues for severe P. vivax infection. Our results suggest that Superoxide dismutase, Vitronectin, Titin, Apolipoprotein E, Serum amyloid A, and Haptoglobin are potential predictive markers for malaria severity. PMID:27090372

  14. Clinicopathological Analysis and Multipronged Quantitative Proteomics Reveal Oxidative Stress and Cytoskeletal Proteins as Possible Markers for Severe Vivax Malaria.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sandipan; Patel, Sandip K; Venkatesh, Apoorva; Bhave, Amruta; Kumar, Vipin; Singh, Vaidhvi; Chatterjee, Gangadhar; Shah, Veenita G; Sharma, Sarthak; Renu, Durairaj; Nafis, Naziya; Gandhe, Prajakta; Gogtay, Nithya; Thatte, Urmila; Sehgal, Kunal; Verma, Sumit; Karak, Avik; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Talukdar, Arunansu; Kochar, Sanjay K; S B, Vijeth; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Rojh, Dharmendra; Varma, Santosh G; Gandhi, Mayuri N; Srikanth, Rapole; Patankar, Swati; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    In Plasmodium vivax malaria, mechanisms that trigger transition from uncomplicated to fatal severe infections are obscure. In this multi-disciplinary study we have performed a comprehensive analysis of clinicopathological parameters and serum proteome profiles of vivax malaria patients with different severity levels of infection to investigate pathogenesis of severe malaria and identify surrogate markers of severity. Clinicopathological analysis and proteomics profiling has provided evidences for the modulation of diverse physiological pathways including oxidative stress, cytoskeletal regulation, lipid metabolism and complement cascades in severe malaria. Strikingly, unlike severe falciparum malaria the blood coagulation cascade was not found to be affected adversely in acute P. vivax infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive proteomics study, which identified some possible cues for severe P. vivax infection. Our results suggest that Superoxide dismutase, Vitronectin, Titin, Apolipoprotein E, Serum amyloid A, and Haptoglobin are potential predictive markers for malaria severity. PMID:27090372

  15. SUMMARY OF 2009 RHEOLOGY MODIFIER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.

    2009-12-08

    testing each rheology modifier, hence based on the changes in rheology for a given rheology modifier, rheology modifiers were either dropped or added between simulants. Three rheology modifiers were used on all simulants. The results from this testing indicate that citric acid or polycarboxylate based rheology modifiers are the most effective in reducing the yield stress, by as much as 70% at the higher rheology modifier additions and were effective on most of the tested simulants. These rheology modifiers are organic, hence the can also be used as reductants in melter operations. The most effective non-organic rheology modifiers, sodium metasilicate reduced the yield stress by 10%. It is recommended that both citric acid and commercially available polycarboxylate rheology modifiers be further investigated. Different molecular weight polycarboxylates and different types of polycarboxylates used in other industries must be considered. These polycarboxylates are extensively utilized in the cement, ceramic, and water treatment processes, hence readily available. Future work on DWPF melter feeds involving rheology modifiers should include, assuming the present method of processing sludge through DPWF does not change, is: (1) Investigate the use of polycarboxylate in various processes and procure polycarboxylates for testing. Limit rheology modifier selection and future testing between four and eight different types. (2) Test rheology modifiers on at least two different chemical types or bounding DWPF SME product simulants. Test to include the impact of boiling and the effectiveness in reducing water content via rheology versus weight percent curves. (3) Based on selected modifiers, perform testing on actual radioactive melter feed based on results from simulant testing.

  16. Basal Cell Adenoma-Clinicopathological, Immunohistochemical Analysis and Surgical Considerations of a Rare Salivary Gland Tumor with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat Singh, AD; Majumdar, Swapan; Ghosh, Amal Kanti; Gandi, Lakshmi; Choudaha, Nidhi; Sharma, Ipsita; Pal, SP

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the salivary glands is a rare benign salivary gland tumour. Differentiation of BCA from varied entities involving maxillofacial area is mandatory. Aim: To analyze the clinicopathological, histopathologic features, immunohistochemcal analysis and surgical considerations of this rare entity. Materials and Methods: This study included 12 cases of BCA from archives of department reported over the period of 13 years. All the pertaining clinicopathologic features such as incidence, age, sex and site of lesions were assessed. Tissue sections were stained by using panel of immunohistochemical markers, i.e. Pan CK, CK 5/6 and S100, Calponin, p63, CD 117 and smooth muscle actin. Results: BCA was observed in 26-52 years age group (mean age, 38.75 years) with female propensity of 7:5 male to female ratio. It is seen more commonly in parotid gland, followed by upper lip, buccal mucosa and palate. Solid type is the most common histopathologic type followed by tubular, membranous and trabecular. Only one case of membranous type of BCA showed recurrence. Pan CK, CK 5/6 showed strong immunoreactivity, calponin showed moderate staining, p63 and Ki-67 mild staining, whereas CD 117 and SMA showed negative immunostaining. Conclusion: Vigilant comprehensive analysis of all the pertaining clinicopathologic and histopathologic features and immunohistochemical analysis are required for differentiating from other lesions with basaloid differentiation having varying prognosis. PMID:25838763

  17. The New York Times ad.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were

  18. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  19. Clinicopathological features and the value of differential Cytokeratin 7 and 20 expression in resolving diagnostic dilemmas of ovarian involvement by colorectal adenocarcinoma and vice-versa

    PubMed Central

    Rekhi, Bharat; George, Sophia; Madur, Bhulaxmi; Chinoy, RF; Dikshit, Rajesh; Maheshwari, Amita

    2008-01-01

    The distinction between metastasis from a colorectal adenocarcinoma into the ovary and an ovarian adenocarcinoma is vital, but challenging at times, due to overlapping morphological features. Similarly, a distinction between an ovarian metastasis into the colorectum and a colorectal adenocarcinoma, although rare; is important and can be daunting. We report an analysis of 20 cases of ovarian involvement by metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas and colorectal involvement by metastatic ovarian adenocarcinomas, including the value of differential expression of cytokeratins 7 & 20 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in these cases. Nine cases (45%) were identified as colorectal adenocarcinomas metastatic to the ovary. On biopsy, all these cases showed a 'garland-like' tumor necrosis, with desmoplasia and predominantly exhibited a tubuloalveolar pattern (67% cases). On IHC, all 8 of 9 such cases, where staining for cytokeratin 20 was performed, displayed strong positivity and 7 cases, where staining for carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) was performed, revealed positivity for this marker (100%). Other 11 cases (55%) were ovarian adenocarcinomas, metastatic to the colorectum. These showed metachronous presentations, with the ovarian tumor preceding the colorectal tumor deposits. Morphologically, psammomatous calcification was noted in 73% of these cases, whereas 'garland-like' necrosis was absent in all. The chief morphological subtype was serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma (55% cases). On IHC, CK7 and CA 125 were positive in all 6 of 11 such cases, whereas CK 20 was negative in all these cases. In cases of complex presentations like an ovarian involvement by a metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and vice-versa, certain clinicopathological features are useful. Differential expression of CK 7 and CK20 is vital in resolving these dilemmas. CK20 positivity and CK7 negativity is associated with a colorectal adenocarcinoma. Markers like CEA and CA-125 have an added value. PMID

  20. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  1. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  2. Clinicopathologic and prognostic associations of KRAS and BRAF mutations in small intestinal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sun-Young; Kim, Misung; Jin Gu, Mi; Kyung Bae, Young; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Sun Jung, Eun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jihun; Yu, Eunsil; Woon Eom, Dae; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2016-04-01

    Activating KRAS and/or BRAF mutations have been identified as predictors of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. But the status of KRAS and BRAF mutations and their clinicopathologic and prognostic significance has not been extensively evaluated in small intestinal adenocarcinomas. In this work, the KRAS and BRAF genes in 190 surgically resected small intestinal adenocarcinoma cases were sequenced and their association with various clinicopathologic variables, including survival of the patients, was analyzed. KRAS or BRAF mutations were observed in 63 (33%) cases. Sixty-one cases had KRAS mutations and 2 had BRAF mutations and the two types of mutation were mutually exclusive. The majority of KRAS mutations were G>A transition (43/61 cases, 71%) or p.G12D (31/61 cases, 51%). The patients with mutant KRAS tended to have higher pT classifications (P=0.034) and more frequent pancreatic invasion (P=0.020) than those with wild-type KRAS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that certain mutated KRAS subtypes (G>A transitions and G12D mutations) were significantly correlated with higher pT classification (P=0.015 and 0.004, respectively) than wild-type KRAS and other KRAS mutations. The patients with KRAS or BRAF mutation had a tendency to shorter overall survival than those with wild-type KRAS and BRAF (P=0.148), but subgroup analysis demonstrated the patients with KRAS mutations showed worse survival (median, 46.0 months; P=0.046) than those with wild-type KRAS (85.4 months) in lower pT classification (pT1-pT3) group. In summary, KRAS and, infrequently, BRAF mutations are observed in a subset of small intestinal adenocarcinomas, and are associated with higher pT classification and more frequent pancreatic invasion. KRAS mutation is a poor prognostic predictor in patients with lower pT classification tumors. Anti-EGFR targeted therapy could be applied to about two-thirds of small intestinal

  3. Cell-type specificity of β-actin expression and its clinicopathological correlation in gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shafqat A; Tyagi, Monica; Sharma, Ajit K; Barreto, Savio G; Sirohi, Bhawna; Ramadwar, Mukta; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate cell type specific distribution of β-actin expression in gastric adenocarcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: β-actin is a housekeeping gene, frequently used as loading control, but, differentially expresses in cancer. In gastric cancer, an overall increased expression of β-actin has been reported using tissue disruptive techniques. At present, no histological data is available to indicate its cell type-specific expression and distribution pattern. In the present study, we analyzed β-actin expression and distribution in paired normal and tumor tissue samples of gastric adenocarcinoma patients using immunohistochemistry (IHC), a tissue non-disruptive technique as well as tissue disruptive techniques like reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Correlation of β-actin level with clinicopathological parameters was done using univariate analysis. RESULTS: The results of this study showed significant overexpression, at both mRNA and protein level in tumor tissues as confirmed by RT-PCR (1.47 ± 0.13 vs 2.36 ± 0.16; P < 0.001) and western blotting (1.92 ± 0.26 vs 2.88 ± 0.32; P < 0.01). IHC revealed that β-actin expression is majorly distributed between epithelial and inflammatory cells of the tissues. Inflammatory cells showed a significantly higher expression compared to epithelial cells in normal (2.46 ± 0.13 vs 5.92 ± 0.23, P < 0.001), as well as, in tumor tissues (2.79 ± 0.24 vs 6.71 ± 0.14, P < 0.001). Further, comparison of immunostaining between normal and tumor tissues revealed that both epithelial and inflammatory cells overexpress β-actin in tumor tissues, however, significant difference was observed only in inflammatory cells (5.92 ± 0.23 vs 6.71 ± 0.14, P < 0.01). Moreover, combined expression in epithelial and inflammatory cells also showed significant increase (4.19 ± 0.15 vs 4.75 ± 0.14, P < 0.05) in tumor tissues. In addition, univariate

  4. Integrated Genomics Identifies Five Medulloblastoma Subtypes with Distinct Genetic Profiles, Pathway Signatures and Clinicopathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Kool, Marcel; Koster, Jan; Bunt, Jens; Hasselt, Nancy E.; Lakeman, Arjan; van Sluis, Peter; Troost, Dirk; Meeteren, Netteke Schouten-van; Caron, Huib N.; Cloos, Jacqueline; Mršić, Alan; Ylstra, Bauke; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Pietsch, Torsten; Ellison, David; Clifford, Steven C.; Versteeg, Rogier

    2008-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Despite recent improvements in cure rates, prediction of disease outcome remains a major challenge and survivors suffer from serious therapy-related side-effects. Recent data showed that patients with WNT-activated tumors have a favorable prognosis, suggesting that these patients could be treated less intensively, thereby reducing the side-effects. This illustrates the potential benefits of a robust classification of medulloblastoma patients and a detailed knowledge of associated biological mechanisms. Methods and Findings To get a better insight into the molecular biology of medulloblastoma we established mRNA expression profiles of 62 medulloblastomas and analyzed 52 of them also by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays. Five molecular subtypes were identified, characterized by WNT signaling (A; 9 cases), SHH signaling (B; 15 cases), expression of neuronal differentiation genes (C and D; 16 and 11 cases, respectively) or photoreceptor genes (D and E; both 11 cases). Mutations in β-catenin were identified in all 9 type A tumors, but not in any other tumor. PTCH1 mutations were exclusively identified in type B tumors. CGH analysis identified several fully or partly subtype-specific chromosomal aberrations. Monosomy of chromosome 6 occurred only in type A tumors, loss of 9q mostly occurred in type B tumors, whereas chromosome 17 aberrations, most common in medulloblastoma, were strongly associated with type C or D tumors. Loss of the inactivated X-chromosome was highly specific for female cases of type C, D and E tumors. Gene expression levels faithfully reflected the chromosomal copy number changes. Clinicopathological features significantly different between the 5 subtypes included metastatic disease and age at diagnosis and histology. Metastatic disease at diagnosis was significantly associated with subtypes C and D and most strongly with subtype E. Patients below 3 yrs of

  5. P62/Ubiquitin IHC Expression Correlated with Clinicopathologic Parameters and Outcome in Gastrointestinal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amr; Ayman, Alkhoder; Deniece, Johnson; Wang, Tengteng; Kovach, Charles; Siddiqui, Momin T.; Cohen, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    P62 and ubiquitin are small regulatory proteins demonstrated to have implications in the prognosis and survival of various malignancies including: hepatocellular, breast, ovarian, and some gastrointestinal carcinomas. Several trials studied the link of their activity to the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and showed that their autophagy modification has a critical stand point in tumorigenesis. These findings explain their vital role in controlling the process of cell death and survival. It has been shown recently that p62 and ubiquitin overexpression in different types of cancers, such as triple negative breast and ovarian cancers, have directly correlated with incidence of distant metastases. We aim to evaluate p62/ubiquitin expression in gastrointestinal carcinomas of gastric, colonic, and pancreatic origin, and correlate with annotated clinicopathologic data. In gastric carcinoma (61), positive p62 nuclear expression was noted in 57% and cytoplasmic in 61%, while positive ubiquitin was nuclear expressed in 68.8%, and cytoplasmic in 29.5%. In colon carcinoma (45), positive p62 nuclear expression was noted in 29% and cytoplasmic in 71%, while positive ubiquitin was nuclear in 58% and cytoplasmic in 44%. In pancreatic cancer (18), positive p62 nuclear expression was noted in 78% and cytoplasmic in 56%, while positive ubiquitin was nuclear in 83% and cytoplasmic in 72%. Normal gastric (6), colon (4), and pancreatic (4) tissues were negative for both P62 and ubiquitin (nuclear and cytoplasmic staining <20%). Ubiquitin high expression was associated with more lymph node metastases in colon (4.14 vs 1.70, P = 0.04), and pancreatic adenocarcinomas (3.07 vs 0.33, P = 0.03). Also, ubiquitin high expression was associated with worse pancreatic adenocarcinoma overall survival (1.37 vs 2.26 mos, P = 0.04). In addition, gastric cancer patients with high p62 expression tend to have more poorly differentiated grade when compared to those with low expression (21 vs 17

  6. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  7. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  8. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  9. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  10. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  11. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  12. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  13. Value Added and Other Related Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Dean K.

    The term "value added" refers to the assessment of the amount of learning that takes place during the college years. Two experiments, Value Added I and Value Added II, attempted to measure college students' attainment of eight liberal education objectives: (1) writing ability; (2) analytical ability; (3) sensitivity to ethics, morals, and values;…

  14. High energy QCD from Planckian scattering in AdS space and the Froissart bound

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyungsik; Nastase, Horatiu

    2005-11-15

    We reanalyze high-energy QCD scattering regimes from scattering in cutoff AdS space via gravity-gauge dualities (a la Polchinski-Strassler). We look at 't Hooft scattering, Regge behavior, and black hole creation in AdS space. Black hole creation in the gravity dual is analyzed via gravitational shockwave collisions. We prove the saturation of the QCD Froissart unitarity bound, corresponding to the creation of black holes of AdS size, as suggested by Giddings.

  15. Differences and Similarities in the Clinicopathological Features of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in China and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Ming; Tang, Laura; Qiao, Xin-Wei; Wolin, Edward; Nissen, Nicholas N.; Dhall, Deepti; Chen, Jie; Shen, Lin; Chi, Yihebali; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Ben, Qi-Wen; Lv, Bin; Zhou, Ya-Ru; Bai, Chun-Mei; Chen, Jie; Song, Yu-Li; Song, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chong-Mei; Yu, Run; Chen, Yuan-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The presentation, pathology, and prognosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) in Asian patients have not been studied in large cohorts. We hypothesized that the clinicopathological features of PNETs of Chinese patients might be different from those of US patients. The objectives of this study were to address whether PNETs in Chinese patients exhibit unique clinicopathological features and natural history, and can be graded and staged using the WHO/ENETS criteria. This is a retrospective review of medical records of patients with PNETs in multiple academic medical centers in China (7) and the United States (2). Tumor grading and staging were based on WHO/ENETS criteria. The clinicopathological features of PNETs of Chinese and US patients were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find associations between survival and patient demographics, tumor grade and stage, and other clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 977 (527 Chinese and 450 US) patients with PNETs were studied. In general, Chinese patients were younger than US patients (median age 46 vs 56 years). In Chinese patients, insulinomas were the most common (52.2%), followed by nonfunctional tumors (39.7%), whereas the order was reversed in US patients. Tumor grade distribution was similar in the 2 countries (G1: 57.5% vs 55.0%; G2: 38.5% vs 41.3%; and G3: 4.0% vs 3.7%). However, age, primary tumor size, primary tumor location, grade, and stage of subtypes of PNETs were significantly different between the 2 countries. The Chinese nonfunctional tumors were significantly larger than US ones (median size 4 vs 3 cm) and more frequently located in the head/neck region (54.9% vs 34.8%). The Chinese and US insulinomas were similar in size (median 1.5 cm) but the Chinese insulinomas relatively more frequently located in the head/neck region (48.3% vs 26.1%). Higher grade, advanced stage, metastasis, and larger primary tumor size were significantly associated with

  16. Synthesis of a Potent Vinblastine: Rationally Designed Added Benign Complexity.

    PubMed

    Allemann, Oliver; Brutsch, Manuela; Lukesh, John C; Brody, Daniel M; Boger, Dale L

    2016-07-13

    Many natural products, including vinblastine, have not been easily subjected to simplifications in their structures by synthetic means or modifications by late-stage semisynthetic derivatization in ways that enhance their biological potency. Herein, we detail a synthetic vinblastine that incorporates added benign complexity (ABC), which improves activity 10-fold, and is now accessible as a result of advances in the total synthesis of the natural product. The compound incorporates designed added molecular complexity but no new functional groups and maintains all existing structural and conformational features of the natural product. It constitutes a member of an analogue class presently inaccessible by semisynthetic derivatization of the natural product, by its late-stage functionalization, or by biosynthetic means. Rather, it was accessed by synthetic means, using an appropriately modified powerful penultimate single-step vindoline-catharanthine coupling strategy that proceeds with a higher diastereoselectivity than found for the natural product itself. PMID:27356080

  17. Routing in Ad Hoc Network Using Ant Colony Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanpara, Pimal; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    The ad hoc networks have dynamic topology and are infrastructure less. So it is required to implement a new network protocol for providing efficient end to end communication based on TCP/IP structure. There is a need to re-define or modify the functions of each layer of TCP/IP model to provide end to end communication between nodes. The mobility of the nodes and the limited resources are the main reason for this change. The main challenge in ad hoc networks is routing. Due to the mobility of the nodes in the ad hoc networks, routing becomes very difficult. Ant based algorithms are suitable for routing in ad hoc networks due to its dynamic nature and adaptive behavior. There are number of routing algorithms based on the concept of ant colony optimizations. It is quite difficult to determine the best ant based algorithm for routing as these algorithms perform differently under various circumstances such as the traffic distribution and network topology. In this paper, the overview of such routing algorithms is given.

  18. Coprecal: materials accounting in the modified process

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Shipley, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an advanced materials accounting system for a uranium-plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility based on the General Electric Coprecal process as modified by Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and DuPont Engineering. The modifications include adding small aliquot tanks to feed the process and reconfiguring the calciner filter systems. Diversion detection sensitivities for the modified Coprecal process are somewhat better than the original Coprecal design, but they are still significantly worse than a same-sized conversion facility based on the oxalate (III) precipitation process.

  19. A modified siphon sampler for shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    A modified siphon sampler (or 'single-stage sampler') was developed to sample shallow water at closely spaced vertical intervals. The modified design uses horizontal rather than vertical sample bottles. Previous siphon samplers are limited to water about 20 centimeters (cm) or more in depth; the modified design can sample water 10 cm deep. Several mounting options were used to deploy the modified siphon sampler in shallow bedrock streams of Middle Tennessee, while minimizing alteration of the stream bed. Sampling characteristics and limitations of the modified design are similar to those of the original design. Testing showed that the modified sampler collects unbiased samples of suspended silt and clay. Similarity of the intake to the original siphon sampler suggests that the modified sampler would probably take downward-biased samples of suspended sand. Like other siphon samplers, it does not sample isokinetically, and the efficiency of sand sampling can be expected to change with flow velocity. The sampler needs to be located in the main flow of the stream, and is subject to damage from rapid flow and floating debris. Water traps were added to the air vents to detect the flow of water through the sampler, which can cause a strong upward bias in sampled suspended-sediment concentration. Water did flow through the sampler, in some cases even when the top of the air vent remained above water. Air vents need to be extended well above maximum water level to prevent flow through the sampler.

  20. A review of oral biopsies in children and adolescents: A clinicopathological study of a case series

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Edivânia B.; Ramos-Perez, Flávia MM.; Rodrigues, Gabryelle LC.; Carvalho, Elaine JA.; Castro, Jurema FL

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features of oral lesions in children and adolescents diagnosed in an Oral Pathology Laboratory. Study design: Between 2000 and 2010, all oral lesions diagnosed in patients younger than 18 years old, from the Oral Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, were selected for the study. The clinical data were obtained from the patient charts filed in the Laboratory. All cases were microscopically reviewed and the diagnosis classified into 10 categories. Results: From the 2395 lesions, 315 (13.1%) occurred in this age group. The lesions were more common in the female gender (59%) during the second decade of life (69%). The inflammatory/reactive lesions were the most common (64.4%), followed by the epithelial and soft tissue neoplasms (8.6%). The mucocele (33.3%) was the most common lesion, with the lip mucosa representing the most affected site (48%). In 61.5% there was concordance between clinical hypothesis of diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis. Conclusions: Inflammatory/reactive lesions were the most common biopsied lesions and the lip the most frequent site. Similar studies are important, reinforced by the low correlation between clinical diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis. Key words:Adolescents, children, differential diagnosis, oral diseases, prevalence. PMID:24455070

  1. Clinicopathological risk factors for recurrence within one year after initial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michihiro; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Komeda, Koji; Asakuma, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiharu; Takeshita, Atsushi; Shibayama, Yuro; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko

    2011-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows a high rate of recurrence after hepatectomy; predictive factors for early recurrence would help determine optimal therapeutic and management strategies. Among 163 patients with HCC undergoing hepatectomy with curative intent, 46 patients developed recurrence within 1 year. Clinicopathological data were retrospectively analyzed to identify predictive parameters for early recurrence. Survival rates in cases of recurrence within 1 year were worse than those of no recurrence within 1 year or recurrence after 1 year. Protein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist II (PIVKA-II) greater than 150, positive fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein (L3-AFP), and deviancy from Milan criteria (MC) on preoperative imaging were associated with high risk of early recurrence and total number of these three risk factors predicted the survival. With multivariate analysis, (1) preoperatively, positive factors of two or more among three items of PIVKA-II, L3-AFP, and deviancy from MC; (2) and postoperatively, pathological cancer spread (microscopic vascular invasion and/or intrahepatic metastasis) both represented risks for early recurrence. A combination of three preoperative factors, PIVKA-II, L3-AFP, and MC status, in conjunction with the postoperative factor of cancer spread status represents a significant indicator for recurrence within 1 year. Improving the prognosis of patients with HCC would depend on how to adequately treat those at high risk of early recurrence.

  2. Clinicopathological features of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Kenjiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Onuma, Masaei; Usubuchi, Hajime; Imai, Yoshimichi; Takata, Iori; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mika; Sasahara, Yoji; Koyama, Shigeto; Kure, Shigeo; Katori, Yukio

    2016-08-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is an extremely rare, pigmented neoplastic entity of neural crest origin. Histological and immunohistochemical profiles indicate the presence of two components, small rounded neuroblast-like cellular areas and areas with large melanin-containing cells which consist of combination of neural, melanocytic, and epithelial cell types. Here we present two interesting cases of infants with MNTI which have different clinicopathological features. The first case is a 3-month-old female with rapidly growing MNTI involving the lacrimal sac and inferior wall of the orbital cavity, treated with total maxillectomy without orbital exenteration followed by chemotherapy. The second case is a 7-month-old male with slow-growing maxillary MNTI treated with complete surgical excision. In the female patient, histological findings revealed a predominance of neuroblast-like cellular areas and a high Ki67 index indicating rapid cellular proliferation. In the male patient however, large melanin-containing cells were dominant in this slow-growing tumor. These findings support the presence of two different types of MNTI, rapid-growing and slow-growing types, determined by the component of neuroblast-like cellular areas.

  3. Clinicopathologic Significance of Extranodal Tumor Extension in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma with Regional Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsung; Rehman, Abdul; Chung, Yumin; Yi, Kijong; Wi, Young Chan; Kim, Yeseul; Jang, Kiseok; Jang, Se Min; Paik, Seung Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study investigated the clinicopathologic significance of extranodal tumor extension in colorectal adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis. Method. Included were 419 patients who underwent curative resection for primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Results. Extranodal tumor extension was observed more frequently in tumors with ulceroinfiltrative gross type (p = 0.026), higher histologic grade (p = 0.012), high grade tumor budding (p = 0.003), vascular invasion (p < 0.001), perineural invasion (p = 0.015), tumor deposit (p < 0.001), high ratio of metastatic/total lymph nodes (p < 0.001), and high pN stage (p < 0.001). Overall survival was significantly different between an extranodal tumor extension (−) group and an extranodal tumor extension (+) group for both N1 (p = 0.022) and N2 homogeneous staging (p = 0.007). Both overall (p = 0.002) and disease-free survival (p = 0.001) were significantly different between the two groups in an N1a homogeneous group and overall survival was significantly different (p = 0.016) in an N2b homogeneous group. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that extranodal tumor extension was a useful prognostic factor for colorectal adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis, especially in homogeneous pN staging groups. PMID:27195006

  4. Pediatric Lichen Planopilaris: Clinicopathologic Study of Four New Cases and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kevin N; Lehman, Julia S; Tollefson, Megha M

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a rare form of cicatricial alopecia that has occasionally been reported in children. Because of the limited number of patients reported, little information is available about demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, or treatment options for these patients. A retrospective chart review of LPP cases in patients under 18 years of age from 1976 to 2013 was performed to further define clinicopathologic features of pediatric LPP. Four pediatric LPP patients ages 13 to 16 years were identified (three male, one female). One patient had scalp pruritus and one had other cutaneous findings of lichen planus (LP). Perifollicular scale and scarring were the most common physical examination findings, although changes mimicking those of alopecia areata were observed. Three patients were treated with topical or intralesional steroids. One patient was treated with minocycline. Histopathologic findings included perifollicular interface and perifollicular fibrosis in all cases. There was focal interfollicular interface in two cases and mild dermal mucin in one case. LPP is exceedingly rare in children. It may be misdiagnosed as alopecia areata in children because of the lack of symptoms and other features of LP. There should be a high index of suspicion for LPP in children with alopecia that is unresponsive to standard treatment or who have findings that are atypical for more common childhood alopecias. PMID:26058419

  5. Clinicopathologic, molecular, and prognostic implications of the loss of EPCAM expression in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Seok; Cho, Nam-Yun; Lee, Hye Seung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to comprehensively investigate the clinicopathologic and molecular implications of altered epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). EPCAM immunohistochemical expression, EPCAM 3′ end deletion, EPCAM promoter methylation, microsatellite instability (MSI), and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) were analyzed in large cohorts of human CRCs. Among 218 MSI-high CRCs, complete loss (CL) of EPCAM expression was observed in two cases, both of which displayed MSH2 deficiency and EPCAM 3′ deletion. Thirty-one of the 218 MSI-high CRCs demonstrated the partial loss (PL) of EPCAM expression without EPCAM deletion or methylation and were correlated with CIMP-high and poor disease-free survival. Histologically, foci exhibiting EPCAM loss in EPCAM-PL tumors were dominantly distributed in poorly differentiated tumor components and/or in the invasive tumor front. The implications of EPCAM-PL were further validated in a consecutive series of 726 CRCs. EPCAM-PL (n = 50; 6.9%) was also associated with CIMP-high and adverse pathologic factors and was confirmed to be an independent poor prognostic factor in CRC (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.39). EPCAM-CL can be used to screen for EPCAM deletion-induced Lynch syndrome-associated CRC, whereas EPCAM-PL can be used as an indicator of tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in CRC. PMID:26528695

  6. Demodex Folliculitis of the Scalp: Clinicopathological Study of an Uncommon Entity.

    PubMed

    Helou, Wissam; Avitan-Hersh, Emily; Bergman, Reuven

    2016-09-01

    Demodex is a saprophytic mite in humans commonly present in the pilosebaceous units, which has been implicated as a pathogen in several skin conditions. The clinical presentation and histopathology of Demodex folliculitis of the scalp have been described in only a few case reports. This study was performed to further elucidate the clinicopathological features of this entity. We have studied 333 consecutively submitted scalp biopsies performed for hair loss and alopecia. All specimens were completely step-sectioned. Biopsies with Demodex mites were further studied histopathologically, and the patients' clinical files were reviewed. There were 17 biopsies (5.1%) with Demodex in at least 1 pilosebaceous unit. Based on the clinical presentation, histopathology, and response to therapy, Demodex was considered to be nonpathogenic in 13 cases. The remaining 4 cases were characterized by hair loss, scalp erythema, scales, and pustules. There were 2 or more pilosebaceous units with Demodex along mononuclear and/or neutrophilic infiltrates around and in the involved follicles and occasionally granulomas. All 4 cases responded completely to metronidazole therapy. In conclusion, Demodex is infrequently found in scalp biopsies for hair loss and alopecia, and, in most cases, it does not seem to be pathogenic. Occasionally, however, it is associated with folliculitis characterized by hair loss, erythema, scales, and pustules clinically; neutrophilic and/or mononuclear-cell folliculitis with occasional granulomas histopathologically; and a prompt response to anti-Demodex therapy. PMID:26959693

  7. A Clinicopathological Study of Benign Phyllodes Tumour of Breast with Emphasis on Unusual Features

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Benign Phyllodes Tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that resemble fibroadenoma. But unlike fibroadenoma, benign PT can recur and both stromal & epithelial components can progress to malignancy. Contrary to earlier belief that benign PT is a stromal neoplasm and possibly arises from fibroadenoma, more recent molecular studies have suggested that both stroma and epithelium can become neoplastic. Sometimes, benign PT can occur synchronously with fibroadenoma. Here histomorphologic analysis of eleven cases of benign PT are presented including some unusual features. Materials and Methods Eleven cases of benign PT diagnosed between Dec 2014 and Jan 2016 in the Department of Pathology were studied. The demographic and clinicopathological features were analysed. Results The most common age group affected was 20-30 years (range: 13-45). Clinical features included pain, lump and bleeding from nipple. The tumour size varied from 2.5-18 cm in diameter. H&E stained sections showed secondary changes (haemorrhage, myxoid, change, cystic degeneration), epithelial hyperplasia (8), squamous & columnar metaplasia (1), benign tubular adenoma like areas (1), Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) (1), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) (1), Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) (1), histologic infarction (2), tumour necrosis (1) and synchronous fibroadenoma (1). Unusual histologic features included atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, IDC, synchronous fibroadenoma and tubular adenoma like areas arising within benign PT. Conclusion This study shows a spectrum of hyperplastic, metaplastic, dysplastic, benign, in-situ-malignancy and even invasive ductal malignancy occurring in benign PT. Therefore adequate and extensive sampling is recommended for accurate diagnosis. PMID:27630851

  8. Corticobasal degeneration with olivopontocerebellar atrophy and TDP-43 pathology: an unusual clinicopathologic variant of CBD

    PubMed Central

    Kouri, Naomi; Oshima, Kenichi; Takahashi, Makio; Murray, Melissa E.; Ahmed, Zeshan; Parisi, Joseph E.; Yen, Shu-Hui C.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    CBD is a disorder affecting cognition and movement due to a progressive neurodegeneration associated with distinctive neuropathologic features, including abnormal phosphorylated tau protein in neurons and glia in cortex, basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem, as well as ballooned neurons and astrocytic plaques. We identified three cases of CBD with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (CBD-OPCA) that did not have α-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Two patients had clinical features suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and the third case had cerebellar ataxia thought to be due to idiopathic OPCA. Neuropathologic features of CBD-OPCA are compared to typical CBD, as well as MSA and PSP. CBD-OPCA and MSA had marked neuronal loss in pontine nuclei, inferior olivary nucleus, and Purkinje cell layer. Neuronal loss and grumose degeneration in the cerebellar dentate nucleus was comparable in CBD-OPCA and PSP. Image analysis of tau pathology showed greater infratentorial tau burden, especially in pontine base, in CBD-OPCA compared with typical CBD. Additionally, CBD-OPCA had TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions and threads throughout the basal ganglia and in olivopontocerebellar system. CBD-OPCA met neuropathologic research diagnostic criteria for CBD and shared tau biochemical characteristics with typical CBD. These results suggest that CBD-OPCA is a distinct clinicopathologic variant of CBD with olivopontocerebellar TDP-43 pathology. PMID:23371366

  9. Clinicopathological Significance of Elevated PIK3CA Expression in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Si-Hyong; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Oh, Mee-Hye; Lee, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hyun Ju; Cho, Hyun Deuk; Han, Sun Wook; Son, Myoung Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose PIK3CA is often mutated in a variety of malignancies, including colon, gastric, ovary, breast, and brain tumors. We investigated PIK3CA expression in gastric cancer and explored the relationships between the PIK3CA expression level and clinicopathological features as well as survival of the patients. Materials and Methods We examined PIK3CA expression in a tissue microarray of 178 gastric adenocarcinomas by immunohisto-chemistry and reviewed patients' medical records. Results In our study, 112 of the 178 gastric cancer patients displayed positive PIK3CA expression. Overexpression of PIK3CA was correlated with low grade differentiation (P=0.001), frequent lymphatic invasion (P=0.032), and high T stage (P=0.040). Patients with positive PIK3CA staining were more likely to display worse overall survival rate than those with negative PIK3CA staining, as determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank test (P=0.047) and a univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model (hazard ratio=1.832, P=0.051). Conclusions Elevated PIK3CA expression was significantly correlated with tumor invasiveness, tumor phenotypes, and poor patient survival. PMID:27433393

  10. Relationship between PTEN and VEGF expression and clinicopathological characteristics in HCC.

    PubMed

    Mi, Denghai; Yi, Jilin; Liu, Enyu; Li, Xingrui

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the expressions and significance of the tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten protein (PTEN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to analyze the relationship between their expressions and the tumor's invasion and their peri-carcinomatous tissues, the correlation of their expressions with the tumor's clinicopathological characteristics and invasion potential were studied. Our study showed that the expression level of PTEN in HCC was remarkably lower than that in peri-carcinomatous liver tissues, while the expressions of both VEGF and MVD were higher than that in peri-carcinomatous liver tissues. Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of PTEN was negatively related to the progression of the pathological differentiation and invasion of tumor, whereas the expressions of VEGF and MVD were positively related. Moreover, there was a negative relationship between the expression of PTEN and the expressions of VEGF and MVD, and a positive one between VEGF and MVD. The expressions of PTEN and VEGF may reveal the degree of differentiation and the invasive potential of HCC tissues. The mechanism by which the lack of PTEN expression probably induces abnormal hyperexpression of VEGF may play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of HCC.

  11. Clinicopathological features of breast cancers predict the development of leptomeningeal metastases: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Le Rhun, Emilie; Taillibert, Sophie; Zairi, Fahed; Devos, Patrick; Pierret, Matthieu Faivre; Dubois, François; Assaker, Richard; Buisset, Etienne; Bonneterre, Jacques; Baranzelli, Marie Christine

    2011-11-01

    The incidence of leptomeningeal metastases (LM) in patients with breast cancer (BC) is increasing as a result of increased screening and improved patient survival. However, the median survival time after diagnosis of LM is between 5 weeks (without any treatment) and 5 months (for aggressively treated patients). In an attempt to identify clinicopathological risk factors for LM, we carried out a case-control study of 100 women with BC. Fifty patients with BC and LM were enrolled and an additional 50 patients with BC and no CNS metastases including leptomeningeal spread were selected as controls. Patients who had developed LM were selected between December 2006 and August 2008. The control group was matched for: age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and initiation of chemotherapy at BC diagnosis. The ILC type (P = 0.03), ER-negative (P = 0.01) and PR-negative status (P = 0.03), and initial M+ status at BC diagnosis (P = 0.008) tended to be more frequent in LM patients. These characteristics should lead to early appropriate assessments being performed in this targeted population when a neurological complaint appears, in order to detect LM as soon as possible.

  12. Trefoil factor 3 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer exerts a minor effect on clinicopathological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hoellen, Friederike; Kostara, Athina; Karn, Thomas; Holtrich, Uwe; El-Balat, Ahmed; Otto, Mike; Rody, Achim; Hanker, Lars C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of trefoil factor 3 (intestinal) (TFF3) has been analyzed in numerous cancers, such as breast and gastrointestinal cancer, and has been associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of TFF3 in ovarian cancers is not clear. Expression analysis of TFF3 in 91 ovarian cancer patients was performed by immunohistochemistry of primary paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The results were scored according to staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells resulting in an immune-reactive score (IRS) of 0–12. These results were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and survival. TFF3 expression in our patient cohort exhibited a tendency towards improved overall and progression-free survival (PFS). In TFF3-positive serous and high-grade serous ovarian cancers, the median PFS was 27.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 0–55.7] vs. 15.2 months in TFF3-negative tumors (95% CI: 13.8–16.6) (P=0.183). The median overall survival was 53.9 months in TFF3-positive tumors (95% CI: Non-applicable) vs. 44.4 months in TFF3-negative cases (95% CI: 30.5–58.3) (P=0.36). TFF3 negativity was significantly associated with higher tumor grade (P=0.05). Based on our results, further studies are required in order to elucidate whether survival and chemosensitivity are affected by TFF3 expression in ovarian cancer. PMID:27699037

  13. Clinicopathologic study on combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma: with emphasis on the intermediate cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho Sung; Bae, Jun Sang; Jang, Kyu Yun; Lee, Ju Hyung; Yu, Hee Chul; Jung, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Baik Hwan; Chung, Myoung Ja; Moon, Woo Sung

    2011-08-01

    Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (combined HCC-CC) is a rare subtype of primary liver cancer. We investigated the histopathologic features of transitional or intermediate areas in 21 combined HCC-CCs and immunophenotypes using different hepatic progenitor cell markers (CK7, CK19, c-kit, NCAM, and EpCAM). Major histologic findings of transitional or intermediate areas of 21 combined HCC-CCs included strands/trabeculae of small, uniform, oval-shaped cells with scant cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei embedded within an abundant stroma, small cells with an antler-like anastomosing pattern, and solid nests of intermediate hepatocyte-like cells surrounded by small cells in periphery, in order of frequency. The intermediate area of one tumor was composed predominantly of spindle cells arranged in short fascicles. Immunophenotype of tumor cells with intermediate morphology suggested a progenitor cell origin for this tumor. Clinical findings of combined HCC-CC showed a closer resemblance with those of HCC than those of CC. In univariate analysis, tumor size, TNM stage, and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels showed a significant association with poor patient survival. Serum alpha-fetoprotein level was an independent prognostic indicator in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, an awareness of the clinicopathologic features, specifically the various morphologic features of intermediate areas in this tumor, is essential for prevention of potential misdiagnosis as another tumor.

  14. Sarcina organisms in the gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Lam-Himlin, Dora; Tsiatis, Athanasios C; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Pai, Rish K; Brown, J Ahmad; Razavi, Mohammad; Lamps, Laura; Eshleman, James R; Bhagavan, Belur; Anders, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Sarcina organisms were first observed in and recorded from the stomach contents of a patient suffering from vomiting by John Goodsir in 1842. Since that time, their fine structure, phylogenetic classification, and biochemical characteristics have been described. Although numerous cases of fatal disease have been attributed to this organism in the veterinary literature, only a few human cases have been documented. As a result, whether this organism causes disease in humans has not been definitively established. We report the clinicopathologic findings in a series of 5 patients with Sarcina-like organisms identified in upper gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsies with molecular confirmation. Our findings have shown that the organism is most commonly found in patients with a history of gastric outlet obstruction or delayed gastric emptying. Although many of the patients do not demonstrate direct mucosal injury from the organism, the presence of a concurrent gastric ulcer puts the patient at increased risk for complications such as emphysematous gastritis or perforation. The finding of Sarcina organisms should prompt further investigation for functional causes of gastric outlet obstruction and delayed gastric emptying, such as occult malignancy. PMID:21997690

  15. Ectopic primary intrathyroidal thymoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-03-01

    Thymomas are rare tumors that occasionally arise from ectopic locations. Ectopic thymomas originating within the thyroid gland are an exceedingly uncommon clinical entity that has only been described sporadically. In this study, we present the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of 3 primary intrathyroidal thymomas. The patients were 2 women and 1 man between the ages of 43 and 53 years (average, 48 years). Clinically, the patients presented with neck pain or enlarged thyroid glands. Physical examination and thyroid ultrasound revealed the presence of nodular masses confined to the thyroid parenchyma. No concurrent mediastinal tumors were identified in any of the cases, and none of the patients had a history of thymoma. Fine needle aspirate performed in 1 case was interpreted as possibly Hashimoto thyroiditis. Surgical resection was performed in all cases. Grossly, the lesions were circumscribed masses measuring from 1 to 4 cm in size. Histologically, the lesions showed the classic biphasic cellular proliferation of thymomas characterized by varying proportions of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Two patients remain alive and well 1.5 to 2 years after their surgical resection, whereas the third patient was lost to follow-up. The cases herein presented highlight an unusual tumor entity that can be clinically confused for more common lesions affecting the thyroid gland. Awareness of this entity is important to avoid misdiagnosis and secure appropriate clinical management. PMID:26826412

  16. Clinicopathologic correlations of renal microthrombosis and inflammatory markers in proliferative lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Microthrombosis is often observed in lupus nephritis (LN) lesions, but its clinical significance is unknown. We evaluated the clinicopathologic correlations of renal microthrombosis and inflammatory markers in LN. Methods Kidney biopsies from 58 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) proliferative nephritis were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for intravascular platelet aggregates (CD61), macrophagic infiltration (CD68), and activated complement deposition (C4d). Clinical data at the time of kidney biopsy and follow-up were analyzed with regard to pathologic IHC data. Results Microthrombosis was present in 52% of the tissues. It was significantly more prevalent in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) (62% versus 42%). The presence of microthrombosis significantly correlated with higher macrophagic infiltration. Macrophagic infiltration but not microthrombosis was significantly correlated with C4d deposition. Only macrophagic infiltration showed a correlation with SLE and renal activity (proteinuria and active sediment), whereas neither the presence of CD61+ microthrombi nor the extent of C4d deposition correlated with LN severity or outcome. Conclusions Microthrombosis is associated with higher macrophagic infiltration in LN but does not seem to increase independently the severity of renal damage. Macrophagic infiltration was the best marker of SLE and renal activity in this LN series. PMID:22640796

  17. [Clinicopathological Features and Outcomes of Treatment for HER2 Positive Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Murakami, Hitoshi; Doi, Yuki; Kikuchi, Akitomo; Mori, Koichi; Harada, Shingo; Yabushita, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Takuo; Hasegawa, Seiji; Fukushima, Tadao; Ike, Hideyuki; Nakayama, Takashi; Rino, Yasushi; Imada, Toshio; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, trastuzumab was approved for treating human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive advanced gastric cancer (AGC) in Japan. Therefore, all patients with AGC should be evaluated for HER2 status. In this study, we analyzed the clinicopathological features and current status of treatment in HER2 positive gastric cancer. One hundred 6 gastric cancer patients were examined for HER2 expression in our hospital between March 2011 and August 2014. Sixteen patients (15.1%) were HER2 positive. There was no correlation between HER2 status and age, sex, and location of tumor; however, HER2 positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with intestinal type tumors and had a tendency towards being more frequent in patients with macroscopic types 0, 1 or 2. Trastuzumab was administered to 10 patients with HER2 positive AGC. The total number of doses of trastuzumab was 1 to 44 (median 7.5), and the therapeutic effect of trastuzumab combination chemotherapy was 1 patient with a complete response and 4 with a partial response. Adverse events due to trastuzumab were not observed. The incidence of HER2 over-expression was 15.1%, and trastuzumab combination chemotherapy was relatively safe and effective.

  18. The association of nephrotic syndrome and renal vein thrombosis: a clinicopathological analysis of eight pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Tinaztepe, K; Buyan, N; Tinaztepe, B; Akkök, N

    1989-01-01

    Cases with a pathological diagnosis of renal venous thrombosis (RVT) associated with nephrotic syndrome (NS) were studied retrospectively for clinicopathological evaluation. The material consisted of 21 RVT cases which were diagnosed in 2000 consecutive pediatric necropsies, with an overall incidence of about one percent. Eight of the 21 RVT cases were associated with nephrotic syndrome (34%), and this group formed 0.4 percent of the total necropsies in our pediatric center. The glomerulopathies of these nephrotic patients consisted of three cases of Finnish-type congenital NS (FCNS), three cases of renal amyloidosis secondary to familial Mediterranean fever, and two cases of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). The presence of sepsis associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation, and the morphological age of the thrombi suggested that the RVT was secondary to sepsis in the FCNS cases. In the MPGN and secondary renal amyloidosis cases, the long duration of both the nephrotic state and the administration of diuretics along with glucocorticoid treatment and also the newly formed thrombi without infarction are strong evidences, although not definite, that the RVT developed as a complication of the glomerulopathy. Even though there were no definite clinical criteria for the diagnosis of most of the RVT cases, we would like to emphasize the importance of flank pain, the rapid deterioration of renal functions in a stable nephrotic patient, as well as the hypercoagulable state in the consideration of the development of RVT which indicate the need for appropriate radiological studies for confirmation of this condition during life.

  19. Clinicopathological Features Associated With the Prognosis of Patients With Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Sung, Tae-Yon; Hong, Suck Joon; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee; Lee, Jae Lyun; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Won Gu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Identification of clinicopathological features and molecular prognostic markers is important for the treatment of ACC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and histopathological features of ACC for prognostic prediction. This retrospective cohort study included 86 patients pathologically confirmed with ACC in a single center. Ki-67 index was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded samples. The median age of the 86 (46 male and 40 female) patients with ACC was 49 years old (range 21–78), and the mean primary tumor size was 12.2 ± 5.2 cm. ACCs were incidentally found in 29 patients (34%). Three patients (3%) had bilateral ACC, and 59 patients (69%) had distant metastasis (37 synchronous and 22 metachronous). Twenty-four patients (28%) had symptoms from hormone excess or mass effects, and 25 patients (29%) had nonspecific symptoms. The 5-year survival rate for ACC was 28%. Sixty patients underwent surgical treatment, including 37 patients with an R0 resection. Tumor size, Ki-67 index, stage, and resection status were independently associated with overall survival by multivariate analysis. In patients with R0 resection, recurrence was significantly associated with larger tumor size and functional tumor. Tumor size, Ki-67 index, stage, and resection status are important prognostic indicators of survival in ACC patients. PMID:27227935

  20. Clinicopathological features of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Bumjin; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Kwon, Taekmin; Hong, Sungwoo; Song, Cheryn; Cho, Yong Mee; Hong, Bumsik; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by various translocations of the TFE3 transcription factor gene. These rare cancers occur predominantly in children and young adults. Here, we review the clinicopathological features of Xp11.2 translocation RCC. Materials and Methods We identified 21 patients with Xp11.2 translocation RCC. We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, and specific pathological features to assess definitive diagnosis, surgical and systemic treatments, and clinical outcomes. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 43.4±20.0 years (range, 8-80 years; 8 males and 13 females). Eleven patients were incidentally diagnosed, nine patients presented with local symptoms, and one patient presented with systemic symptoms. The mean tumor size was 6.2±3.8 cm (range, 1.9-14 cm). At the time of diagnosis, 11, 1, and 5 patients showed stage I, II, and III, respectively. Four patients showed distant metastasis. At analysis, 15 patients were disease-free after a median follow-up period of 30.0 months. Four patients received target therapy but not effectively. Conclusions Xp11 translocation RCC tends to develop in young patients with lymph node metastasis. Targeted therapy did not effectively treat our patients. Surgery is the only effective therapy for Xp11 translocation RCC, and further studies are needed to assess systemic therapy and long-term prognosis. PMID:25763125

  1. Retrospective analysis of clinicopathological features of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ugras, Nesrin; Yerci, Ömer; Coşkun, Sinem Kantarcıoğlu; Ocakoğlu, Gökhan; Sarkut, Pınar; Dündar, Halit Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare neoplasm that accounts for 2-3% of all primary pancreatic neoplasms. This study aimed to characterize clinicopathological features associated with SPNs and to retrospectively evaluate the relationship of these features with predictive parameters associated with aggressive behavior. We reviewed 16 cases of SPN of the pancreas that had been diagnosed between 2005 and 2014 at our pathology department. A total of 16 cases, 15 female and one male, were evaluated in this study. The patient age ranged from 13 years to 63 years with a median of 35.70 years. The mean tumor diameter ranged from 2 cm to 18 cm with a mean diameter of 5.90 cm. We identified a significant association between the presence of clear cells and perineural invasion (p=0.019), which was considered to be a predictive factor for aggressive behavior. Other features (i.e., localization, nuclear grooves, central hyalinization, myxoid stroma, eosinophilic bodies, foamy histiocyte aggregates, multinucleated cells, and calcification) were not significantly associated with predictive factors for aggressive behavior. One patient died as a result of a pancreatic fistula that developed as a postoperative complication. The remaining 15 patients are alive and have not demonstrated any signs of recurrence or metastasis. The current study suggested that the presence of clear cells might serve as a possible prognostic indicator of perineural invasion, which is a predictive parameter associated with aggressive behavior in SPN. PMID:27450024

  2. Osteosarcoma of the hands and feet: a distinct clinico-pathological subgroup.

    PubMed

    Anninga, Jakob K; Picci, Piero; Fiocco, Marta; Kroon, Herman M J A; Vanel, Daniel; Alberghini, Marco; Gelderblom, Hans; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcomas of hands or feet are rare, and seemingly these cases differ in presentation and behavior compared to those in usual locations. The clinico-pathological presentation of patients with osteosarcomas of the hand or foot was studied and compared with published cases. Forty osteosarcomas were identified among 4,221 cases, representing 0.95 % of all osteosarcomas. Thirty of these were well documented. Mean age at diagnosis was 43 years (hands) and 36 years (feet) and male-female ratio was 1.2:1 and 2.0:1, respectively. In the hand, 62 % of the osteosarcomas presented in the metacarpals and 23 % in the phalanges, and only two cases occurred in the carpal bones. Distribution in the foot was tarsal bones 56 %, metatarsal bones 33 %, and phalanges 11 %.Of the cases in the hand 54 % were of high grade and of those in the foot 71 %. Survival of osteosarcomas of the hand or foot was 81 %. Only patients with high-grade osteosarcoma died of the disease. Histological grade was the only significant variable related to survival. High-grade osteosarcoma of the hand or feet should be treated similar to those in conventional sites. Osteosarcomas of hands or feet are rare and in a relative high proportion are of low grade. Survival in high-grade cases is comparable to that in conventional sites.

  3. Experimentally induced Faciola hepatica infection in white-tailed deer. I. Clinicopathological and parasitological features.

    PubMed Central

    Presidente, P J; McCraw, B M; Lumsden, J H

    1975-01-01

    Six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and six sheep were inoculated with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Two animals of each species were given 100, 500 or 2500 metacercariae. Clinicopathological features of these infections were determined by analyses of blood samples collected each week from inoculated deer and sheep as well as from two noninoculated animals of each species. One animal in each inoculated group was killed and examined at six weeks postinoculation and the remainder at 15 weeks postinoculation. Compared with the values obtained from noninoculated controls, eosinophilia, hyperproteinemia and hyperglobulinemia occured in inoculated deer. There were no other significant changes in hematological values or in serum aspartate aminotransferase levels. Marked leukocytosis and eosinophilia, with hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels and mild macrocytic normochromic anemia characterized the infection in lambs. Although approximately 29% of the inoculum was recovered from the hepatic parenchyma of the sheep, F. hepatica was found in only one of six inoculated deer. A patent infection was established in this deer and constitutes the second report of mature F. hepatica in this host. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1125833

  4. Clinicopathological correlation and treatment response of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapriya, J.; Dineshkumar, T.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is approximately 10% in children <6 years, 20% in adolescents, and 20-25% in adults. A retrospective observational study was done to document clinicopathological correlation, treatment response, and risk factors in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of primary FSGS in adults and adolescents. A total of 170 patients were studied with a mean follow-up of 4.32 ± 1.2 years. FSGS not otherwise specified was the most common subtype (56%) followed by tip variant (24%). About 32% had complete remission (CR) at a mean time of 6.4 months, 23% had partial remission (PR) at a mean time of 5.7 months, and 45% had no response to steroids. Persistent nephrotic proteinuria at 3rd and 6th month and presence of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy >30% in renal biopsy are the independent predictors of poor response to treatment. Presence of anemia, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy of >30% in renal biopsy and the absence of remission after treatment were the independent predictors of CKD progression. Overall renal survival was 78% at 3 years and 54% at 5 years. Renal survival difference with or without nephrotic proteinuria at onset was 39% and 69% at 5 years. Renal survival was higher in patients with normal renal function (66%) compared with those who had renal failure (42%) at 5 years. Renal survival at 5 years for CR was 69%, PR was 49%, and no remission was 42%.

  5. Clinicopathological Spectrum Of Gall Bladder Cancer In Kashmir - An Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Makhdoomi, R; Bashir, N; Bhat, N; Bashir, S; Mustafa, F; Aiman, A; Charaki, A; Hussain, S; Shafi, S; Baht, S; Bashir, N; Zahir, Z; Shah, P

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy that usually presents at an advanced incurable stage. It is the fifth most common gastro-intestinal tumor and leads to approximately 2800 deaths in United States annually. This was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a 650-bed super speciality hospital in Kashmir valley. We reviewed the histopathological records of all the patients who were diagnosed as carcinoma gallbladder from Dec 2009-Dec 2013. Gross findings and histopathological findings were noted from the departmental archival material and clinical records of the patients including the clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations, pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative findings, were retrieved from the hospital records. We analyzed 57 cases of carcinoma gallbladder for their clinicopathological features It included 19 males and 37 females. In our study, adenocarcinomas accounted for 87.5% of total carcinomas. Incidentally, all but one patient where gall stones were found, adenocarcinomas were seen. We have 4 patients of squamous cell carcinoma. In our series we have a single case of small cell carcinoma which was positive for neuroendocrine markers. In our study, gall stones were seen only in 8 cases (14%) of the total cases. PMID:27050183

  6. Sarcina Organisms in the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Clinicopathologic and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Lam-Himlin, Dora; Tsiatis, Athanasios C.; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Pai, Rish K.; Brown, J. Ahmad; Razavi, Mohammad; Lamps, Laura; Eshleman, James R.; Bhagavan, Belur; Anders, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcina organisms were first observed and recorded in the stomach contents of a patient with vomiting by John Goodsir in 1842. Since that time, the fine structure, phylogenetic classification, and biochemical characteristics have been described. While numerous cases of fatal disease have been attributed to this organism in the veterinary literature, only a few human cases have been documented. As a result, whether this organism causes disease in humans has not been definitively established. We report the clinicopathologic findings in a series of 5 patients with Sarcina-like organisms identified in upper gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsies with molecular confirmation. Based on our findings, the organism is most commonly found in patients with a history of gastric outlet obstruction or delayed gastric emptying. While many of the patients do not demonstrate direct mucosal injury from the organism, the presence of a concurrent gastric ulcer puts the patient at increased risk for complications such as emphysematous gastritis or perforation. The finding of Sarcina organisms should prompt further investigation for functional causes of gastric outlet obstruction and delayed gastric emptying, such as occult malignancy. PMID:21997690

  7. Gastric B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a clinicopathological study in 56 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, J M; Montalban, C; Obeso, G; Piris, M A; Rivas, M C

    1992-01-01

    Clinico-pathological features of 56 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively. All cases were regraded according to a classification of Isaacson et al into high grade and low grade B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A third group of mixed grade was recognised in 11 patients with low grade who also had occasional areas of high grade. Low grade and mixed grade patients had a 100% actuarial survival at 156 months, which was significantly better (p < 0.01) than that of 52% for patients with high grade disease. Different treatment methods--surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination of both--did not significantly affect survival. Low grade tumours occurred mainly in men with a history of several years, and who presented with non-specific gastric symptoms without remarkable exploratory or laboratory findings: most patients were in stage IE-IIE and achieved remission and cure. High grade can have a shorter history, systemic symptoms, abnormal exploratory and laboratory findings, gastric tumour masses, stage IV disease, and a worse outcome. The only significant prognostic factors for survival were the type of lymphoma and stage IV disease. These findings support the Isaacson classification system which separates two extreme groups of gastric lymphomas with different morphology, behaviour, and outcome. The presence of limited areas of high grade in a specimen showing low grade does not change the outcome but suggests that primary gastric lymphoma forms a continuum between these extreme types. PMID:1446850

  8. Meta-analysis on clinicopathologic risk factors of leukoplakias undergoing malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, T V; Shilpashree, S

    2016-01-01

    Context: Leukoplakia is classified under the term potentially malignant disorder. This term does not suggest the clinician or the patient about the severity of the disease to undergo a malignant transformation. Thus, there arises a need to identify the risk factors associated with malignant transformation (MT) to predict it at the earliest. Aims: To generate evidence regarding the clinicopathologic factors affecting MT in oral leukoplakias. Materials and Methods: Meta-analysis was done by extracting data from all the previous studies published. Articles were searched in PubMed databases. Statistical Analysis: Mixed model by using the PROC MIXED (SAS 9.3) was performed to estimate the effect of different factors such as gender, type of habit (smoking tobacco, gutka, paan (with tobacco) and no habit association), clinical type and histopathology on MT. The lower specific mean for MT was also calculated with respect to the above-mentioned factors. Results: Speckled leukoplakias also known as erythroleukoplakia confirmed to be at the highest risk. Lateral border of the tongue followed by gingiva, buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, lesions involving tongue and floor of mouth showed increased risk. Smoking tobacco (cigarette and bidi) and idiopathic leukoplakia (without habit) carried almost equal risk. Gender had minimal influence on MT. Histopathologic correlation of grades showed an insignificant bearing on MT. Conclusion: The carcinogenic transformation of a preexisting lesion (leukoplakia) is multifactorial and patient specific. The protocol to delineate a high-risk lesion should include the clinical type and site. PMID:27721597

  9. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin’s tumor of the parotid gland: Clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunkai; Song, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhibo; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an extremely rare tumor, arises from the epithelial component of preexisting parotid Warthin tumors (WT). Among the 309 cases of surgically resected WTs in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Beijing Shijitan Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5 cases (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for MECs transformed from WTs. Clinicopathological characteristics of MECs was demonstrated in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare type of tumor. All the 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, presented painless masses in the parotid gland. MECs were located inside or at the edge of WTs, with an obvious transitional zone between WT and MEC. Basal cells of WTs and epidermoid cells of MECs were strongly positive for cytokeratin CK5/6, CK34βE12, and P63; whereas negative for CK7, CK20, and CEA. Mucous cells of MECs were positive for CK7, CEA, as well as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), whereas negative for CK5/6, CK34βE12, CK20, and P63. MECs patients were followed up for 25–69 months after surgery, presenting no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Collectively, MECs arising from WT is very rare. The pathological diagnosis was based on histological morphology, especially the transitional zone between WT and MEC. PMID:27417276

  10. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: an evaluation of its clinicopathological and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Luk, Peter P; Selinger, Christina I; Eviston, Timothy J; Lum, Trina; Yu, Bing; O'Toole, Sandra A; Clark, Jonathan R; Gupta, Ruta

    2015-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland malignancy. We evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and long-term clinical behaviour of MASCs. A total of 190 primary salivary gland malignancies at a single institution were reviewed along with relevant immunohistochemical and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) studies to identify MASCs. Nine MASCs were identified predominantly in the parotid with an equal incidence in men and women and mean age of 36 years. The tumour size ranged from 14 to 50 mm (mean 22 mm). MASCs were composed of monotonous cells with vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm and a small nucleus with a distinctive nucleolus. All cases showed immunoreactivity with S-100, MUC4, CK7 and mammoglobin, and lacked immunoreactivity with DOG1, p63, CK5/6 and calponin. ETV6 rearrangement was seen in all cases. No mutations were identified using the OncoCarta Panel v1.0 Kit. Follow up was available for 0.4 to 22 years (median 4 years). Intraparotid lymph node involvement and local recurrence were seen in one patient each. There were no distant metastases. MASCs have specific histopathological features and immunohistochemical profile that distinguish them from their mimics. FISH plays a confirmatory role. An indolent long-term clinical course was observed in this cohort despite involvement of intraparotid lymph node and microscopically involved/close margins. PMID:26517645

  11. Olfactory neuroblastoma: A clinicopathological experience of a rare entity from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, Saroona; Tariq, Muhammad Usman; Memon, Aisha; Fatima, Saira; Hasan, Sheema Habibul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To present the clinicopathological experience of Olfactory Neuroblastoma (ONB) with emphasis on histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done on 36 cases of ONB, selected by non-probability purposive sampling. Theses cases of ONB were retrieved and reviewed from surgical pathology database of Aga Khan University Hospital reported between January 1993 and March 2015. Results: Tumor size and age of presentation was wide in range without any distinct bimodal distribution. Nasal cavity was most common site along with involvement of paranasal sinuses. More than 50% cases had Kadish stage A. Microscopically, most cases were Grade-1 and majority showed partial or complete lobular architecture. Neurofibrillary matrix was observed in 2/3rd of cases. Among immunohistochemical markers, Neuron Specific Enolase was most frequently expressed. Unusual positive expression of Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and Cytokeratin CAM5.2 was also seen focally in few cases. Conclusion: The ONB has great variability of histological and clinical presentation, and immunohistochemical markers are useful to differentiate from more common small round blue cell tumours of nasal cavity. PMID:27375694

  12. Complete genome and clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate from South America.

    PubMed

    Diel, Diego G; Susta, Leonardo; Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Killian, Mary L; Brown, Corrie C; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2012-02-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, negatively affecting poultry production worldwide. The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. Although all NDV isolates characterized to date belong to a single serotype of APMV-1, significant genetic diversity has been described between different NDV isolates. Here we present the complete genome sequence and the clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate (NDV-Peru/08) obtained from poultry during an outbreak of ND in Peru in 2008. Phylogenetic reconstruction and analysis of the evolutionary distances between NDV-Peru/08 and other isolates representing established NDV genotypes revealed the existence of large genomic and amino differences that clearly distinguish this isolate from viruses of typical NDV genotypes. Although NDV-Peru/08 is a genetically distinct virus, pathogenesis studies conducted with chickens revealed that NDV-Peru/08 infection results in clinical signs characteristic of velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains. Additionally, vaccination studies have shown that an inactivated NDV-LaSota/46 vaccine conferred full protection from NDV-Peru/08-induced clinical disease and mortality. This represents the first complete characterization of a virulent NDV isolate from South America.

  13. Clinicopathological pattern of cranial unifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis: A study at medical college hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Salma; Nazir, Parvez; Bashir, Humaira; Reshi, Ruby; Sheikh, Sheema; Wani, Rohi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of bone refers to a generally benign form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis localized to the bone. Patients may present with a solitary lesion (monostotic) or multiple sites of involvement (polyostotic). Materials and Methods: This study was done to evaluate the clinicopathological pattern of 6 cases of EGs of the skull diagnosed at a tertiary care hospital. All patients of EG were included with the help of medical records over a 5-year period that is, November 2009 to November 2014. They all had been preoperatively evaluated by skull X-ray and computed tomography. To rule out a multifocal disease scintigraphy was performed in all cases preoperatively. Surgical excision was performed, and EG was diagnosed on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Results: There was a male predominance. Parietal bone was the most common affected bone. Total excision of the lesion was performed in all cases. No patient received postoperative radiotherapy. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 3 years. No tumor recurrence was noted. Conclusion: With an unknown etiology, nonspecific clinical and radiological findings with diagnosis possible only on histopathological examination, EG needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis as a skull mass, especially in children. PMID:26855527

  14. Relationship between the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Clinicopathologic Features in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Vazife Mostaan, Leila; Mohammadian Roshan, Nema; Khazaeni, Kamran; Parsazad, Shafagh; Gilan, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is one of the most important and common types of head and neck malignancy, with an estimated rate of 4% among all human malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the association between expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 and the clinicopathological features of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods: One hundred existing samples of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded specimens of OSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining for matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 antibodies. Samples were divided into four groups: negative, <10%, 10–50%, and >50%. Patient records were assessed for demographic characteristics such as age and gender, smoking and family history of OSCC as well as tumor features including location, differentiation, stage and lymph node involvement. Results: In this study, 58 patients (58%) were male and 42 (42%) female. The mean age of patients was 60.38±14.07 years. The average number of lymph nodes involved was 8.9±3.8. Tumoral grade, tumoral stage, lymphatic metastasis and history of smoking were significantly related to MMP2 and MMP9 expression. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that MMP2 and MMP9 expression are important in the development of OSCC. PMID:26082904

  15. Prognostic and Clinicopathological Significance of Transducer-Like Enhancer of Split 1 Expression in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Son, Myoung-Won; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Oh, Mee-Hye; Cho, Hyundeuk; Lee, Hyun Ju; Jang, Si-Hyong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Transducer-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) is a member of the Groucho/TLE family of transcriptional co-repressors that regulate the transcriptional activity of numerous genes. TLE1 is involved in the tumorigenesis of various tumors. We investigated the prognostic significance of TLE1 expression and its association with clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Materials and Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of six tissue microarrays was performed to examine TLE1 expression using 291 surgically resected GC specimens from the Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital between July 2006 and December 2009. Results In the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa, TLE1 expression was negative. In GC, 121 patients (41.6%) were positive for TLE1. The expression of TLE1 was significantly associated with male gender (P=0.021), less frequent lymphatic (P=0.017) or perineural invasion (P=0.029), intestinal type according to the Lauren classification (P=0.024), good histologic grade (P<0.001), early pathologic T-stage (P=0.012), and early American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (P=0.022). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the TLE1 expression was significantly associated with longer disease-free (P=0.022) and overall (P=0.001) survival rates. Conclusions We suggested that TLE1 expression is a good prognostic indicator in GCs. PMID:27104023

  16. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Serrated Polyposis Syndrome in Korea: Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Keun; Seo, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Hyun Ho; Kim, Sung Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Shin, Ok-Ran; Ahn, Chang Hyuck; Cho, Young-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a rare condition characterized by multiple serrated polyps throughout the colon and rectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of SPS in Koreans. Methods. This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed using information from the endoscopy, clinical records, and pathology database system of Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital. Consecutive patients satisfying the updated 2010 World Health Organization criteria for SPS between June 2011 and May 2014 were enrolled. Results. Of the 17,552 patients who underwent colonoscopies during the study period, 11 (0.06%) met the criteria for SPS. The mean age of these patients was 55.6 years. Ten patients (91%) were males. None had a family history of CRC or a first-degree relative with SPS. Seven patients (64%) had synchronous advanced adenoma. One patient had coexistence of SPS with CRC that was diagnosed at the initial colonoscopy. Five patients (45%) had more than 30 serrated polyps. One of the patients underwent surgery and 10 underwent endoscopic resection. Conclusion. The prevalence of SPS in this study cohort was comparable to that in Western populations. Considering the high risk of CRC, correct diagnosis and careful follow-up for SPS are necessary.

  17. Nodal Follicular Lymphomas: A Clinicopathological Study from a Tertiary Care Centre in South India.

    PubMed

    Supari, Divya; Ananthamurthy, Anuradha

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of nodal follicular lymphomas (FL) among various subtypes of non- Hodgkin lymphoma and to study their clinico-pathological features. Clinical details, histomorphology including grading & patterns and immunoprofile of 44 cases were studied. Majority of the cases were grade 1 (61 %) FL. BCL2 positivity was higher in low grade FLs (97 %). An associated diffuse large B cell lymphoma component was seen in 18 % and was present only in conjunction with grade 3 FL. Majority of our patients (76 %) had a high FLIPI score and belonged to the high risk group. Our study showed that the incidence of FLs is much lower in the Indian population (14.5 %) when compared to western studies and majority were of low grade. Although there was complete initial response to treatment, relapse was common and was much higher in low grade FLs with diffuse areas on histology, Ann Arbor stage III/IV and FLIPI scores of 3-5. PMID:27065580

  18. Clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment of marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma).

    PubMed

    Raderer, Markus; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Ferreri, Andrés J M

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) accounts for 7% to 8% of newly diagnosed lymphomas. Because of its association with infectious causes, such as Helicobacter pylori (HP) or Chlamydophila psittaci (CP), and autoimmune diseases, it has become the paradigm of an antigen-driven malignancy. MALT lymphoma usually displays an indolent course, and watch-and-wait strategies are justified initially in a certain percentage of patients. In patients with gastric MALT lymphoma or ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma, antibiotic therapy against HP or CP, respectively, is the first-line management of choice, resulting in lymphoma response rates from 75% to 80% after HP eradication and from 33% to 65% after antibiotic therapy for CP. In patients who have localized disease that is refractory to antibiotics, radiation is widely applied in various centers with excellent local control, whereas systemic therapies are increasingly being applied, at least in Europe, because of the potentially systemic nature of the disease. Therefore, the objective of this review is to briefly summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics of this distinct type of lymphoma along with current data on management strategies. PMID:26773441

  19. Follicular lymphoma in young adults: a clinicopathological and molecular study of 200 patients.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ivison X; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Wludarski, Sheila C L; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Follicular lymphoma is clinically heterogenous, and therefore necessitates the identification of prognostic markers to stratify risk groups and optimize clinical management. It is relatively rare in patients younger than 40 years, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and biological behavior in this age group are poorly understood. In the current study, samples from a cohort of 200 patients between 19 and 40 years were evaluated retrospectively with respect to clinical, histologic, and genetic features. These were then correlated with clinical outcome. The median age at presentation was 35 years with a slight female prepoderance (56%). Most of the cases are presented with nodal disease (90%). Concomitant follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were observed in 7 (4%) patients. Immunohistologic studies showed the expression of CD10 (91%), BCL6 (97%), BCL2 (95%), MUM1/IRF4 (12%), MDM2 (17%), and CD23 (25%). BCL2 rearrangement was present in 74%, and BCL6 in 20%. The estimated overall survival of patients was 13 years (mean). The presence of anemia, elevated lactose dehydrogenase, bone marrow involvement, and high-risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index correlated with adverse overall survival. Our findings revealed that follicular lymphoma in young adults demonstrate similarities with that of older adults, including the frequency of presentation at various anatomic sites, grade, and adverse prognostic factors.

  20. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor in Brazil: clinicopathology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular genetics of 513 cases.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lisandro Ferreira; Ojopi, Elida B; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Brazil and compare them with cases from other countries. Five hundred and thirteen cases were retrospectively analyzed. HE-stained sections and clinical information were reviewed and the immunohistochemical expression of CD117, CD34, smooth-muscle actin, S-100 protein, desmin, CD44v3 adhesion molecule, p53 protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 antigen was studied using tissue microarrays. Mutation analysis of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha genes was also performed. There was a slight female predominance (50.3%) and the median age at diagnosis was 59 years. The tumors were mainly located in the stomach (38.4%). Immunohistochemistry showed that CD117 was expressed in 95.7% of cases. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression was observed in 84.4% of tumors. p53 protein expression was found only in 2.6% of cases but all belonged to the high-risk group for aggressive behavior according to the National Institutes of Health consensus approach. No CD44v3 adhesion molecule expression was detected. KIT exon 11 mutations were the most frequent (62.2%). The present data confirm that gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Brazilian patients do not differ from tumors occurring in other countries.

  1. Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Verruciform Xanthoma of the Lower Gingiva: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masashi; Ohto, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Akio; Enomoto, Atsushi; Umemura, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is a rare benign lesion and mainly effects the oral mucosa. This slow-growing asymptomatic lesion typically develops along the gingival margin of the masticatory mucosa, followed by the hard palate, tongue, buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, alveolar mucosa, soft palate and junction between the hard and soft palate. Moreover, this lesion can also affect the skin and genital organs. Clinically, VX generally presents a sessile or pedunculated appearance, forming a papule or single plaque with verrucous or papillomatous mucosal growth. The colour (white, pink, grey, or yellow) depends on the thickness of the overlying epidermis. In fact, the clinical findings of VX are similar to those of verrucous carcinoma and other benign tumours, such as squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris and mucosal fibroma. For this reason, clinical and histopathological examinations are essential for accurate differential diagnosis. Histologically, VX is characterized by parakeratosis, rete ridges of uniform depth and the accumulation of foam cells, which are also called "xanthoma cells". Here, we describe the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings of a VX located on the lower gingiva of a 64-year-old male patient. PMID:27504422

  2. Trefoil factor 3 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer exerts a minor effect on clinicopathological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hoellen, Friederike; Kostara, Athina; Karn, Thomas; Holtrich, Uwe; El-Balat, Ahmed; Otto, Mike; Rody, Achim; Hanker, Lars C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of trefoil factor 3 (intestinal) (TFF3) has been analyzed in numerous cancers, such as breast and gastrointestinal cancer, and has been associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of TFF3 in ovarian cancers is not clear. Expression analysis of TFF3 in 91 ovarian cancer patients was performed by immunohistochemistry of primary paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The results were scored according to staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells resulting in an immune-reactive score (IRS) of 0–12. These results were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and survival. TFF3 expression in our patient cohort exhibited a tendency towards improved overall and progression-free survival (PFS). In TFF3-positive serous and high-grade serous ovarian cancers, the median PFS was 27.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 0–55.7] vs. 15.2 months in TFF3-negative tumors (95% CI: 13.8–16.6) (P=0.183). The median overall survival was 53.9 months in TFF3-positive tumors (95% CI: Non-applicable) vs. 44.4 months in TFF3-negative cases (95% CI: 30.5–58.3) (P=0.36). TFF3 negativity was significantly associated with higher tumor grade (P=0.05). Based on our results, further studies are required in order to elucidate whether survival and chemosensitivity are affected by TFF3 expression in ovarian cancer.

  3. Postirradiation Sarcoma: Clinicopathologic Features and Role of Chemotherapy in the Treatment Strategy

    PubMed Central

    des Guetz, Gaetan; Chapelier, Alain; Mosseri, Véronique; Dorval, Thierry; Asselain, Bernard; Pouillart, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. An analysis of the clinicopathologic features and treatment of patients was performed to guide evaluation and management of postirradiation sarcoma. Patients and Methods. Between 1994 and 2001, 25 patients with postirradiation sarcoma were treated in one center with different chemotherapy, mainly in neoadjuvant setting (19). Tumors for which these patients received radiotherapy initially were mainly breast carcinoma (for 15 patients). The postirradiation sarcomas were of different histopathologic forms, most frequently osteosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and angiosarcoma. Results. Of the 25 patients, 19 were initially treated with chemotherapy. Nine of 19 pretreated patients achieved clinical partial response (RP = 47%). Leiomyosarcomas were good responders (3/4) and undifferentiated sarcoma (3/5). Responders were more often treated with MAID (6/8). Eight of the 9 responders underwent surgery. Two patients achieved complete histological response. Seven of the 9 good responders are alive with a median follow up of 24 months. For all treated patients, median follow up 24 months (6–84 months), overall survival and disease free survival were, respectively, 17/25 (68%), and 14/25 (56%). Conclusion. From our data, postirradiation sarcoma should not be managed differently from primary sarcoma. Chemotherapy has to be included in the treatment plan of postirradiation sarcoma, in future studies. PMID:20011664

  4. Extragenital cystic lesions of peritoneum, mesentery and retroperitoneum of the female. Clinicopathological characteristics of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Kondi-Pafiti, A; Kairi-Vassilatoul, E; Spanidou-Carvouni, H; Kontogianni-Katsarou, K; Anastassopoulos, G; Papadias, K; Smyrniotis, V

    2005-01-01

    The clinicopathological characteristics are presented of 19 extragenital cystic lesions of female patients located at the retroperitoneum (9 cases), the mesentery (6 cases) and the peritoneum (4 cases). Median age was 42.3 years and the main symptom was abdominal pain. The cysts measured 4-27 cm in diameter and were classified as: epithelial (7/19), mesothelial (5/19), vascular (2/19), parasitic (1/19) and developmental in origin (4/19). Of the cases 18/19 were benign lesions and one case was a borderline mucinous cystic tumor. Immunohistochemistry by a streptavidin-biotin method was performed to investigate CEA transcripts (MoAb, Novosan), CA125 (MoAb, CIS Diagnostics), vimentin (MoAb Ve6, Novocastra), secretory component (a polyclonal antibody, DAKO), Factor VIII (MoAb, DAKO), CD34 (MoAb, Scytec), calretinin (a polyclonal antibody, Zymed, San Francisco, CA). Cytokeratins were of low and high molecular weight (Immunon, AE1-MoAb). The results are helpful in the correct classification of various tumors. The treatment of choice is complete surgical resection of the tumors.

  5. Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Verruciform Xanthoma of the Lower Gingiva: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ohto, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Akio; Enomoto, Atsushi; Umemura, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is a rare benign lesion and mainly effects the oral mucosa. This slow-growing asymptomatic lesion typically develops along the gingival margin of the masticatory mucosa, followed by the hard palate, tongue, buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, alveolar mucosa, soft palate and junction between the hard and soft palate. Moreover, this lesion can also affect the skin and genital organs. Clinically, VX generally presents a sessile or pedunculated appearance, forming a papule or single plaque with verrucous or papillomatous mucosal growth. The colour (white, pink, grey, or yellow) depends on the thickness of the overlying epidermis. In fact, the clinical findings of VX are similar to those of verrucous carcinoma and other benign tumours, such as squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris and mucosal fibroma. For this reason, clinical and histopathological examinations are essential for accurate differential diagnosis. Histologically, VX is characterized by parakeratosis, rete ridges of uniform depth and the accumulation of foam cells, which are also called “xanthoma cells”. Here, we describe the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings of a VX located on the lower gingiva of a 64-year-old male patient. PMID:27504422

  6. Acral Melanoma in Chinese: A Clinicopathological and Prognostic Study of 142 cases

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jiaojie; Dai, Bo; Kong, Yunyi; Shen, Xuxia; Kong, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    Acral melanoma (AM), as a peculiar subgroup of melanoma, is rare in Caucasians but has higher incidence in Asians. Large series of study on AM with clinicopathological features and prognostic factors is still limited, especially in Asian population. We retrospectively collected clinical, pathological and follow-up data of 142 AM cases. All patients were Chinese, with the age ranging from 24 to 87 years (mean 62.0; median 62.0). The Breslow thickness of primary lesions ranged from 0.6 to 16.3 mm (mean 4.9; median 3.7). 85.9% of the patients had acral lentiginous histologic subtype. Plantar was the most frequently involved site, followed by heels. Statistically, duration of the lesion before diagnosis (≤2.5 years), Breslow thickness >4.0 mm (T4), high mitotic index (>15 mm−2), presence of vascular invasion, regional lymph node metastasis at diagnosis and pathologic stage (II/III/IV) were found to be independent prognostic factors in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The prognosis of AM in Chinese is extremely poor. Our 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 53.3% and 27.4%, respectively. Therefore, AM in Asians represents a more biologically aggressive melanoma subtype and is thought to carry a worse prognosis when compared with other races or cutaneous melanomas in other anatomic sites. PMID:27545198

  7. A Clinicopathological Study of Benign Phyllodes Tumour of Breast with Emphasis on Unusual Features

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Benign Phyllodes Tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that resemble fibroadenoma. But unlike fibroadenoma, benign PT can recur and both stromal & epithelial components can progress to malignancy. Contrary to earlier belief that benign PT is a stromal neoplasm and possibly arises from fibroadenoma, more recent molecular studies have suggested that both stroma and epithelium can become neoplastic. Sometimes, benign PT can occur synchronously with fibroadenoma. Here histomorphologic analysis of eleven cases of benign PT are presented including some unusual features. Materials and Methods Eleven cases of benign PT diagnosed between Dec 2014 and Jan 2016 in the Department of Pathology were studied. The demographic and clinicopathological features were analysed. Results The most common age group affected was 20-30 years (range: 13-45). Clinical features included pain, lump and bleeding from nipple. The tumour size varied from 2.5-18 cm in diameter. H&E stained sections showed secondary changes (haemorrhage, myxoid, change, cystic degeneration), epithelial hyperplasia (8), squamous & columnar metaplasia (1), benign tubular adenoma like areas (1), Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) (1), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) (1), Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH) (1), histologic infarction (2), tumour necrosis (1) and synchronous fibroadenoma (1). Unusual histologic features included atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS, IDC, synchronous fibroadenoma and tubular adenoma like areas arising within benign PT. Conclusion This study shows a spectrum of hyperplastic, metaplastic, dysplastic, benign, in-situ-malignancy and even invasive ductal malignancy occurring in benign PT. Therefore adequate and extensive sampling is recommended for accurate diagnosis.

  8. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen-Xiu; Cao, Wen-Rong; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xue-Li; Yuan, Qian; Dang, Shou-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a newly described variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) which is composed mainly of cells with clear cytoplasm arranged in cystic and papillary patterns. We report the clinicopathologic features, prognosis and differential diagnosis of 6 Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinomas. The clinical information and follow-up data were analyzed. The patients were six males with median age of 52.5 years. Case 1 revealed dense calcification and ossification. Cases 2 and 3 contain a variably prominent smooth muscle stromal component. CA-IX, CK7, PAX-8 and VIM were positive in all cases. TFE3 and AMACR were not expressed in any tumor. CD10 was negative in 5 of 6 cases .The patients were followed for 13~55 months with no local tumor recurrences and tumor metastasis. The CCPRCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. These were low-grade and low-stage renal tumors. No lymph node or distant metastasis of the six tumors. PMID:26191150

  9. Clinicopathological Study of Patients With C9ORF72-Associated Frontotemporal Dementia Presenting With Delusions

    PubMed Central

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Naasan, Georges; Karydas, Anna M.; Coppola, Giovanni; Pribadi, Mochtar; Seeley, William W.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Miller, Bruce L.; Grinberg, Lea T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several clinical studies point to a high prevalence of psychotic symptoms in frontotemporal dementia associated with C9ORF72 mutations, but clinicopathological studies addressing the association between C9ORF72 mutations and delusions are lacking. Method Seventeen patients with pathologically proven frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) associated with C9ORF72 mutations were identified from Neurodegenerative Disease Brain Bank. Of the 17 cases with C9ORF72 mutation, 4 exhibited well-defined delusions. The clinical history, neurological examination, neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging analysis, and postmortem assessment of the patients with delusions were evaluated and compared with the other cases. Result The content of the delusions was mixed including persecution, infidelity, and grandiosity. All cases showed parkinsonism; voxel-based morphometry analysis showed greater precuneus atrophy in patients with delusions than those without delusions. All 4 had unclassifiable FTLD with TAR DNA-binding protein inclusions, with characteristics of both type A and type B. Three cases had additional τ pathology and another had α-synuclein pathology. Conclusion C9ORF72 carriers with well-defined delusions likely associated with additional pathologies and parietal atrophy in neuroimaging. Patients presenting with middle-aged onset of delusions should be screened for C9ORF72 mutations, especially if family history and parkinsonism are present. PMID:25342578

  10. Clinicopathological correlation of Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in oral precancer and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Vandana; Singh, Subash; Daniel, M. Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes such as Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 genes. It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of this oncoprotein can be detected by immunohistochemistry. Aims and objectives An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer. Materials and methods A selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination was correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein was performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin method. To visualize the reaction, 3,3-diaminobenzidine was used. Results Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66%, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00%), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33%), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33%)] oral cancer cases and 14 [87.50%, low expression 8 (50%), moderate expression 6 (37.50%)] precancer cases. Conclusion On the basis of the results of our study, we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. PMID:26937364

  11. Clinicopathological characteristics of tumours of the intraoral minor salivary glands in 170 Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Aline Corrêa; Santos Netto, Juliana de Noronha; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Santos, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu dos; Cabral, Márcia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    Tumours of the minor salivary glands are relatively uncommon, and publications from around the world normally include tumours of both the minor and major salivary glands, making it difficult to assess their prevalence and distribution. Our aim was to evaluate retrospectively the clinicopathological features of a series of tumours of the intraoral minor salivary glands from two universities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to compare the data with those from other epidemiological studies. A total of 170 such tumours were diagnosed from 1942 to 2012, and were selected from two university departments of oral pathology. Eighty-nine of the tumours were benign (52%). Pleomorphic adenoma (n=75) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=23) were the most common benign (44%) and malignant tumours (14%), respectively. There were 104 female patients (61%) and both benign and malignant tumours affected more women than men. Significantly more tumours were in the palate (n=95, 56%; p=0.001). We conclude that these tumours had features similar to those from other studies from North and Latin America, but differ from the results presented from Asia. Further studies should be designed to highlight possible geographical and population-specific characteristics of these tumours.

  12. Mesenchymal neoplasms of the major salivary glands: clinicopathological features of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Ja; Ro, Jae Y; Choi, Jene; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2008-07-01

    Non-lymphoid mesenchymal neoplasms of salivary gland origin are rare, accounting for 1.9-5% of major salivary gland tumors. We describe the clinico-pathologic features of 18 cases of mesenchymal neoplasms of the major salivary glands experienced at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from 1998 to 2004. Mesenchymal neoplasms accounted for 3.4% of the total of 524 major salivary gland tumors. The parotid gland was the preponderant site (15 cases). Thirteen tumors were benign, constituting 3.5% of the total of 371 benign neoplasms. Schwannomas were the most common benign tumors (six cases), followed by lipomas (three cases), plexiform neurofibroma, hemangioma, desmoid tumor, and solitary fibrous tumor (one each). The malignant tumors consisted of one dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, synovial sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma and desmoplastic small round cell tumor each. Immunohistochemical analysis for the expression of vimentin, actin, desmin, neuron-specific enolase, keratin, CD34, CD99 and bcl-2 contributed to the differential diagnoses. Genetic analysis for fusion transcripts was conclusive in the diagnosis of desmoplastic small round cell tumor, which is extremely rare at this location. Pre-operative imaging study and fine needle aspiration cytology had limitations in prediction of the mesenchymal nature of the tumors, due to either low index of suspicion, similarities to mixed tumors, or specimen inadequacy. Awareness of the development of various mesenchymal tumors in the major salivary glands could increase the accuracy of preoperative and postoperative diagnosis, and therapeutic efficacy.

  13. Intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors: a clinicopathological study of 546 cases.

    PubMed

    Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Pringle, Gordon A; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Chen, Sow-Yeh

    2007-05-01

    Salivary gland tumors are uncommon and most reported series include tumors affecting both major and minor glands. Very few series have focused solely on intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study is to report the clinicopathological data of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors in our oral biopsy files during the last 14 years. A total of 546 minor salivary gland tumors, including 305 benign (55.9%) and 241 malignant (44.1%) lesions, were reviewed. The two most common tumors were pleomorphic adenoma (181 cases, 33.2%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (125 cases, 22.9%), and the most commonly affected site was the palate (181 cases, 33.2%). The highest incidence was found in patients in the 5-7th decade of life, and females were more commonly affected than males in the vast majority of various histological types of tumors. Large series of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors help to understand their clinical and pathological aspects and consequently their proper management and prognosis.

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Diaz, N M; McDivitt, R W; Wick, M R

    1991-12-01

    Pleomorphic adenomas of the breast (PAB) are uncommon tumors. We studied the clinicopathologic features of 10 cases of PAB, seven of which were assessed immunohistochemically. Nine patients were women, with a median age at diagnosis of 65 years. Eight patients presented with a palpable mass; two had a nipple discharge. Nine of the tumors were periareolar. The latter epidemiologic findings, coupled with histologic observations, appeared to indicate a preferential origin for PAB within large intramammary ducts. These neoplasms histologically resemble their analogues in salivary glands. Moreover, a gradual histologic transition between different morphologic areas in PAB, especially between mesenchymal and epithelial regions, supported the contention that the neoplasm arises from a single cell type capable of divergent differentiation and thus should not be considered a "mixed" tumor. This contention was further substantiated by immunohistochemical findings, in which three intermediate filaments (cytokeratin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein) and muscle-specific actin were expressed conjointly in tumor cells with a variety of morphologic appearances. In addition, cells differentiating along mesenchymal lines by conventional microscopy were found to express epithelial membrane antigen or gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 in five cases. The benign nature of PAB was supported by a lack of metastases in this series during a median follow-up period of 4.9 years. However, one lesion recurred locally. Regarding therapy, we believe that PAB can be excised successfully with only a narrow circumferential margin of uninvolved breast.

  15. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Bae, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-04-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch.

  16. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan; Tawian Power Co., Taipei; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan )

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  18. Expression of tumoral FOXP3 in gastric adenocarcinoma is associated with favorable clinicopathological variables and related with Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jung-Ho; Won, Kyu Yeoun; Kim, Gou Young; Bae, Go Eun; Lim, Sung-Jig; Sung, Ji-Youn; Park, Yong-Koo; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Juhie

    2015-01-01

    FOXP3 is a transcription factor and well-known hallmark of immune suppressive T regulatory cells (Tregs). Recent studies indicate that, in addition to its association with Treg function in the immune system, FOXP3 plays an important role in tumor development. And important tumor suppressor relay between the FOXP3 and Hippo pathways was found in human cancer. Thus, we investigated tumoral FOXP3, infiltrated Tregs count, Lats2, and YAP expression in gastric adenocarcinoma, and the relationships between expression of these three proteins and p53, Ki67, and other clinicopathological variables. We used 118 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues via immunohistochemical analysis, using a tissue microarray, in relation to survival and other clinicopathological factors. We report the several novel observations about the relationship between tumoral FOXP3 and Hippo pathway components in gastric adenocarcinoma. Positive tumoral FOXP3 expression was significantly related with smaller tumor size, tubular tumor type, lower histological grade, lower T stage, lower recurrence rate, less lymphatic invasion, and less neural invasion. Furthermore, patients with positive tumoral FOXP3 experienced significantly better disease-free and overall survival compared to patients with negative tumoral FOXP3. These findings show that tumoral FOXP3 expression is associated with favorable clinicopathological variables in gastric adenocarcinoma. And we report the novel observation of a relationship between tumoral FOXP3 and Hippo pathway components in gastric adenocarcinoma. Tumoral FOXP3 expression, infiltrated Tregs count, and Lats2 expression were all positively correlated with YAP expression. These findings suggest that the Hippo pathway in gastric adenocarcinoma might be influenced by both tumoral FOXP3 and infiltrated Tregs. In conclusion, the loss of FOXP3 expression in cancer cells is thought to contribute to tumorigenesis and progression of gastric adenocarcinoma. The expression of FOXP3 in

  19. Comparative Analysis of Clinicopathologic Features of, Treatment in, and Survival of Americans with Lung or Bronchial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Du, Xianglin L.; Ren, Yinghong; Liu, Peijun; Li, Shuting; Yang, Jiao; Lv, Meng; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xin; Li, Enxiao; Yang, Jin; Yi, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic disparities in lung and bronchial cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have specifically assessed these differences in Asian subgroups. The primary objectives of the retrospective analysis described herein were to identify any significant differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and survival rate between Asian lung cancer patients and lung cancer patients in other broad ethnic groups in the United States and to determine the reasons for these differences among subgroups of Asian patients with lung or bronchial cancer. We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database to identify patients diagnosed with lung or bronchial cancer from 1990 to 2012. Differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and DSS rate in four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups were compared. The study population consisted of 849,088 patients, 5.2% of whom were of Asian descent. Female Asian patients had the lowest lung and bronchial cancer incidence rates, whereas male black patients had the highest rates. Asian patients had the best 5-year DSS rate. In our Asian subgroup analysis, Indian/Pakistani patients had the best 5-year DSS rate, whereas Hawaiian/Pacific Islander patients had the worst 5-year DSS rates. We found the differences in DSS rate among the four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups when we grouped patients by age and disease stage, as well. Asian patients had better DSS rates than those in the other three broad ethnic groups in almost every age and disease-stage group, especially in older patients and those with advanced-stage disease. In conclusion, we found that clinicopathologic features and treatment of lung and bronchial cancer differ by ethnicity in the United States, and the differences impact survival in each ethnic group. PMID:27244238

  20. HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary colorectal cancer correlates with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and an improved clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and good prognosis has previously been demonstrated in breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, the expression, clinicopathological correlates and prognostic value of HMGCR expression in colorectal cancer was examined. Findings Immunohistochemical expression of HMGCR was assessed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours from 557 incident cases of colorectal cancer in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Pearson’s Chi Square test was applied to explore the associations between HMGCR expression and clinicopathological factors and other investigative biomarkers. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the relationship between HMGCR expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) according to negative vs positive HMGCR expression. A total number of 535 (96.0%) tumours were suitable for analysis, of which 61 (11.4%) were HMGCR negative. Positive cytoplasmic HMGCR expression was associated with distant metastasis-free disease at diagnosis (p = 0.002), lack of vascular invasion (p = 0.043), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.033), expression of cyclin D1 (p = <0.001) and p21 (p = <0.001). Positive HMGCR expression was significantly associated with a prolonged CSS in unadjusted Cox regression analysis in the entire cohort (HR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.20-2.66) and in Stage III-IV disease (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.09-2.68), but not after adjustment for established clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions Findings from this prospective cohort study demonstrate that HMGCR is differentially expressed in colorectal cancer and that positive expression is associated with favourable tumour characteristics and a prolonged survival in unadjusted analysis. The utility of HMGCR as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant or adjuvant statin treatment in colorectal cancer merits further study. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http

  1. Correlation between Ultrasound Findings of Tumor Margin and Clinicopathological Findings in Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Sannomiya, Naoko; Hattori, Yuiko; Ueda, Naoyuki; Kamida, Akira; Koyanagi, Yuki; Nagira, Haruki; Ikunishi, Saeko; Shimabayashi, Kenta; Hashimoto, Yuki; Murata, Aya; Sato, Kengo; Hirooka, Yumi; Hosoya, Keiko; Ishiguro, Kiyosuke; Murata, Yoko; Hirooka, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast ultrasound findings regarding tumor margins are crucial in judging whether a tumor is malignant or benign. However, the relationships between the margins and clinicopathological characteristics remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma whose ultrasound images showed either well-defined and rough or indistinct margins. Methods Of all consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma at the Division of Breast and Endocrine Surgery of Tottori University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014, 122 patients whose ultrasound images showed either “well-defined and rough” or “indistinct” tumor margins were included in this study. Mammography and ultrasound images taken at the initial examination were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on ultrasound findings of the tumor margins: the “well-defined and rough group” and the “indistinct group.” The relationships among ultrasound findings, mammography findings and clinicopathological findings were investigated in the two groups. Results The well-defined and rough group was more likely to contain solid-tubular carcinoma, while the indistinct group was more likely to contain scirrhous carcinoma. The MIB-1 index was higher in the well-defined and rough group than in the indistinct group. Additionally, the proportion of patients with nuclear grade 3, estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative, and triple-negative breast cancer was greater in the well-defined and rough group than in the indistinct group. Conclusion Invasive ductal carcinomas with well-defined and rough margins on ultrasound were likely to be malignant and proliferative than those with indistinct margins. PMID:27493488

  2. Gall Bladder and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Lymphomas: Clinicopathological observations and biological implications

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Haresh; Climent, Fina; Colomo, Lluís; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts are exceedingly rare. We present the clinicopathological features of 19 cases from our files; 14 patients had primary lymphoma (13 involving gall bladder and one involving common hepatic duct), while five had systemic lymphoma on further work-up. Most patients presented with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. The most common primary lymphoma types were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL), B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). Two cases had features of lymphomatous polyposis, one a case of FL and the second a case of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with disease limited to the mantle zones, so-called in situ MCL. Other rare lymphoma subtypes not previously described in this site included the extracavitary variant of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Patients with DLBCL and EMZL were older (mean age 75.8 years) than those with other subtypes (mean age 47 years) and more likely to have gallstones (60% vs. 12.5%). A comprehensive literature review revealed 36 primary gall bladder and 16 primary extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas. When compared to primary gall bladder lymphomas, those involving the extrahepatic bile ducts present at a younger age (47 years vs. 63 years) usually with obstructive jaundice, and are less often associated with gallstones (17% vs. 50%) or regional lymph node involvement (6% vs. 31%). In conclusion, primary lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts show a broad spectrum of disease types, but in many respects mirror the spectrum of primary lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20679881

  3. PTK7 overexpression in colorectal tumors: Clinicopathological correlation and prognosis relevance

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiuyun; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Donghai; Guan, Xiaoya; Dong, Bin; Zhao, Min; Hao, Chunyi

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has one of the highest mortality rates in the worldwide and its incidence has been increasing in recent years. Protein tyrosine kinase-7 (PTK7) is an inactive member of receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK)-like molecules, which is involved in tumorigenesis of a variety of cancers. Our study aimed to investigate expression of PTK7 in colorectal tumors (including benign adenomas and malignant carcinomas), and its potential function in tumorigenesis and prognosis. A total of 209 CRC patients and 28 colonic adenoma patients were included in this study. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR were performed in 14 pairs of fresh frozen tissues to evaluate mRNA expression of PTK7. Expression of PTK7 protein in 209 CRC tissues with paired non-cancerous mucosa and 28 adenoma specimens were tested using immunohistochemistry. The expression difference and its correlation with clinicopathological features and overall survival were assessed by SPSS statistics (version 22). P<0.05 was considered significant. RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR showed a higher expression of PTK7 mRNA in CRC compared with non-tumorous mucosa (4.87±3.71 vs. 1.33±1.05; P<0.001). PTK7 expression was significantly higher in adenoma (75%) and CRC (68.3%) than in non-tumorous mucosa (P<0.001). PTK7 expression was correlated with tumor differentiation (P=0.027), lymph node metastasis (P=0.005), distant metastasis (P=0.001) and TNM stage (P=0.028) of CRC patients. Significant correlation between PTK7 overexpression and favorable overall survival of CRC patients was observed (P=0.005). Therefore, it may act as a candidate biomarker to predict the occurrence and prognosis of colorectal tumor. PMID:27499181

  4. Clinicopathologic Similarities of the Main and Minor Lesions of Synchronous Multiple Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC) is increasing due to improvements in diagnostic methods, but synchronous multiple EGC (SMEGC) remains a major problem. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of and the correlation between the main and minor lesions of SMEGC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with EGC between April 2008 and May 2013. The main lesion was defined as the one with the greatest invasion depth. If lesions had the same invasion depth, the tumor diameter was used to define the main lesion. Of 963 patients who had treatment for EGC, 37 patients with SMEGC were analyzed. The main and minor lesions showed a significant positive correlation of size (r = 0.533, P = 0.001). The main and minor lesions of SMEGC showed the same vertical and horizontal locations at 70.3% and 64.9%, respectively (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002). Macroscopic types were identical in 67.6% (P < 0.001), and 32.4% had identical macroscopic type and location. The main and minor lesions had identical characteristics of invasion depth, presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and differentiation in 78.4%, 83.8%, and 83.8%, respectively. Differentiation, LVI, and invasion depth (microscopic characteristics) were simultaneously the same in 62.2%. The location, macroscopic type, and 3 microscopic characteristics were matched in 27%. The main and minor lesions of SMEGC have similar clinicopathologic characteristics. Therefore, the possibility of SMEGC should not be neglected in cases of EGC, considering an understanding of the characteristics and association of lesions. PMID:27247495

  5. Clinicopathologic Similarities of the Main and Minor Lesions of Synchronous Multiple Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ho; Jeong, Seok Hoo; Yeo, Jina; Lee, Woon Kee; Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Chung, Jun-Won; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kwon, Kwang An; Park, Dong Kyun

    2016-06-01

    The detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC) is increasing due to improvements in diagnostic methods, but synchronous multiple EGC (SMEGC) remains a major problem. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of and the correlation between the main and minor lesions of SMEGC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with EGC between April 2008 and May 2013. The main lesion was defined as the one with the greatest invasion depth. If lesions had the same invasion depth, the tumor diameter was used to define the main lesion. Of 963 patients who had treatment for EGC, 37 patients with SMEGC were analyzed. The main and minor lesions showed a significant positive correlation of size (r = 0.533, P = 0.001). The main and minor lesions of SMEGC showed the same vertical and horizontal locations at 70.3% and 64.9%, respectively (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002). Macroscopic types were identical in 67.6% (P < 0.001), and 32.4% had identical macroscopic type and location. The main and minor lesions had identical characteristics of invasion depth, presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and differentiation in 78.4%, 83.8%, and 83.8%, respectively. Differentiation, LVI, and invasion depth (microscopic characteristics) were simultaneously the same in 62.2%. The location, macroscopic type, and 3 microscopic characteristics were matched in 27%. The main and minor lesions of SMEGC have similar clinicopathologic characteristics. Therefore, the possibility of SMEGC should not be neglected in cases of EGC, considering an understanding of the characteristics and association of lesions. PMID:27247495

  6. Malignant Glioma with Neuronal Marker Expression : A Clinicopathological Study of 18 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong Rye; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Nam, Do Hyun; Suh, Yeon-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Objective Malignant gliomas with neuronal marker expression (MGwNM) are rare and poorly characterized. Increasingly diverse types of MGwNM have been described and these reported cases underscore the dilemmas in the classification and diagnosis of those tumors. The aim of this study is to provide additional insights into MGwNM and present the clinicopathological features of 18 patients. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 18 patients diagnosed as MGwNM at our institute between January 2006 and December 2012. Macroscopic total resection was performed in 11 patients (61%). We evaluated the methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and expression of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH-1) in all cases, and deletions of 1p and 19q in available cases. Results The estimated median overall survival was 21.2 months. The median progression-free survival was 6.3 months. Six patients (33%) had MGMT methylation but IDH1 mutation was found in only one patient (6%). Gene analysis for 1p19q performed in nine patients revealed no deletion in six, 19q deletion only in two, and 1p deletion only in one. The extent of resection was significantly correlated with progression free survival on both univariate analysis and multivariate analysis (p=0.002 and p=0.013, respectively). Conclusion In this study, the overall survival of MGwNM was not superior to glioblastoma. The extent of resection has a significant prognostic impact on progression-free survival. Further studies of the prognostic factors related to chemo-radio therapy, similar to studies with glioblastoma, are mandatory to improve survival. PMID:26885285

  7. The Scottish perinatal neuropathology study: clinicopathological correlation in early neonatal deaths

    PubMed Central

    Becher, J; Bell, J; Keeling, J; McIntosh, N; Wyatt, B

    2004-01-01

    Background: A proportion of neonatal deaths from asphyxia have been shown to be associated with pre-existing brain injury. Objectives: (a) To compare the epidemiology of infants displaying signs of birth asphyxia with those not showing signs; (b) to examine the neuropathology and determine if possible the timing of brain insult comparing asphyxiated with non-asphyxiated infants; (c) to compare the clinical features of those born with birth asphyxia with and without pre-labour damage. Methods: Over a two year period, all 22 Scottish delivery units collected clinical details on early neonatal deaths. Requests for post mortem included separate requests for detailed neuropathological examination of the brain. Infants were classified into two groups: birth asphyxia and non-birth asphyxia. Clinicopathological correlation was used to attempt to define the time of brain insult. Results: Detailed clinical data were available on 137 of 174 early neonatal deaths that met the inclusion criteria. Seventy of 88 parents who had agreed to post mortem examination consented to a detailed examination of additional samples from the brain; in 53 of these cases the infant was born in an asphyxiated condition. All asphyxiated and encephalopathic infants, 38% of mature and 52% of preterm infants with features of birth asphyxia but without encephalopathy, and only one of 12 infants without any signs of birth asphyxia showed damage consistent with onset before the start of labour. Conclusions: In a large proportion of neonatal deaths, brain injury predates the onset of labour. This is more common in infants born in an asphyxiated condition. PMID:15321957

  8. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a 24-years experience.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all primary CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. β-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of primary CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs.

  9. A Study about the Cause and Clinicopathologic Findings of Injection-Induced Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young-Jun; Sim, Woo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Cases of dermatitis induced by the injection of certain drugs have been reported. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the cause and clinicopathologic findings of injection-induced dermatitis, and to reveal whether the reaction has any relation to the patient's age, injection site, drug concentration, and time interval from the injection to the occurrence of the skin lesion. Methods In this study, we enrolled 10 patients who developed erythematous skin lesions after the injection of causative drugs. The lesions were compared to each other according to the injection site, time interval from the injection to the occurrence of the skin lesion, and clinical characteristics. We performed intradermal and patch tests in each patient with different concentrations of causative drugs. Results The most common causative drugs were diclofenac and vitamin K1. The eczematous type was the most frequent clinical type. The intradermal test showed more positive results than the patch test. The patch tests with diclofenac (as is, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) and vitamin K1 (10%) were all negative in 10 patients. Furthermore, intradermal tests with diclofenac (as is) and vitamin K1 (0.1%, 1%, and 10%) were performed in 8 patients. Six patients had a positive reaction, consisting of erythema, induration, and vesiculation, after 1 and 2 days. Conclusion Our results showed that the most common causative agents were diclofenac and vitamin K1. Moreover, it seems that that intradermal test is more useful than the patch test in the diagnosis of injection-induced dermatitis. PMID:26719642

  10. Clinicopathological characteristics of urothelial bladder cancer in patients less than 40 years old.

    PubMed

    Compérat, Eva; Larré, Stéphane; Roupret, Morgan; Neuzillet, Yann; Pignot, Géraldine; Quintens, Hervé; Houéde, Nadine; Roy, Catherine; Durand, Xavier; Varinot, Justine; Vordos, Dimitri; Rouanne, Mathieu; Bakhri, Mohammed Adnan; Bertrand, Priscilla; Jeglinschi, Stephane Calin; Cussenot, Olivier; Soulié, Michel; Pfister, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is rare in young patients and as a result little information as to tumor type and clinical course are available. We present clinicopathological data of a large series of patients less than 40 years with bladder carcinoma. We included in this retrospective study covering the period from 1992 to 2013 patients less than 40 years with a first diagnosis of bladder cancer. Lesions were classified according to the WHO 2004 classification by uropathologists of ten centers. Stage, grade, multifocality, smoking habits, recurrence, and survival were studied. The cohort comprised of 152 patients, 113 males and 39 females with a mean age of 33.2 years. The large majority of the patients (142) was diagnosed with an urothelial carcinoma, the ten others with various histopathological diagnoses. In the age group less than 30 years old, 40.3 % of the cases concerned a papillary urothelial neoplasia of low malignant potential (PUNLMP). In the age group over 30 years, the proportion of PUNLMP decreased to 27.2 %. Only 5.6 % of the UBC was associated with carcinoma in situ. In 14.1 %, a high grade muscle invasive UC was found; 7.0 % had lymph node and 4.9 % distant metastasis at time of presentation. Four patients presented with a history of schistosomiasis; all had an infiltrating carcinoma. After initial resection, 36 patients relapsed, 17 % as PUNLMP, 53 % as pTa low grade, and 30 % as pTa-pT2 high grade UC. During follow-up, 6 % of the patients died. PUNLMP is the most frequent entity in this patient group. It is important that the PUNLMP entity is maintained in future classification systems.

  11. Mismatch repair genes expression defects & association with clinicopathological characteristics in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Masoud, Abdelhafid; Raihan, N.; Radzi, M.; Khamizar, W.; Kam, Lee Suk

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: DNA mismatch repair gene (MMR) abnormalities are seen in 95 per cent of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and 10-15 per cent of sporadic colorectal cancers. There are no data on MMR abnormalities in Malaysian colorectal cancer patients. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of abnormal MMR gene protein expression in colorectal carcinoma in Northern Peninsular Malaysia using immunohistochemistry. Methods: Clinicopathological information was obtained from 148 patients’ records who underwent bowel resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) at the three hospitals in Malaysia. Immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 proteins were performed on paraffin embedded tissue containing carcinoma. Results: A total of 148 subjects and 150 colorectal carcinomas of sporadic and hereditary types were assessed. Three patients had synchronous tumours. Twenty eight cancers (18.6%) from 26 subjects (17.6%) had absent immunohistochemical expression of any one of the MMR gene proteins. This comprised absent MLH1 only – 3 cancers, absent MSH2 only – 3, absent MSH6 only – 2, absent PMS2 only – 3, absent MLH1 and PMS2 – 14, absent MSH2 and MSH6 – 2 and absent MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2 – 1. There was significant association between abnormal MMR gene protein expression and proximal colon cancers, mucinous, signet ring and poorly differentiated morphology. Interpretation & conclusions: Cancers with abnormal MMR gene expression were associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) phenotype. About 15 per cent demonstrated absent MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 protein expression in isolation or in combination with other MMR genes, which often predicts a germline mutation, synonymous with a diagnosis of HNPCC. This appears to be high frequency compared to reported data. PMID:21911971

  12. Clinicopathologic Correlations of E-cadherin and Prrx-1 Expression Loss in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Kijong; Kim, Hyunsung; Chung, Yumin; Ahn, Hyein; Sim, Jongmin; Wi, Young Chan; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Song, Young-Soo; Paik, Seung Sam; Oh, Young-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Developing predictive markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is important, because many patients experience recurrence and metastasis. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process that plays an important role during embryogenesis and also during cancer metastasis. Paired-related homeobox protein 1 (Prrx-1) is an EMT inducer that has recently been introduced, and its prognostic significance in HCC is largely unknown. Methods Tissue microarray was constructed using surgically resected primary HCCs from 244 cases. Immunohistochemical staining of E-cadherin and Prrx-1 was performed. The correlation between E-cadherin loss and Prrx-1 expression, as well as other clinicopathologic factors, was evaluated. Results E-cadherin expression was decreased in 96 cases (39.4%). Loss of E-cadherin correlated with a higher recurrence rate (p < .001) but was not correlated with patient’s survival. Thirty-two cases (13.3%) showed at least focal nuclear Prrx-1 immunoreactivity while all non-neoplastic livers (n = 22) were negative. Prrx-1 expression was not associated with E-cadherin loss, survival or recurrence rates, pathologic factors, or the Ki-67 labeling index. Twenty tumors that were positive for E-cadherin and Prrx-1 had significantly higher nuclear grades than the rest of the cohort (p = .037). In Cox proportional hazard models, E-cadherin loss and large vessel invasion were independent prognostic factors for shorter disease-free survival. Cirrhosis and high Ki-67 index (> 40%) were independent prognostic factors for shorter overall survival. Conclusions Prrx-1 was expressed in small portions of HCCs but not in normal livers. Additional studies with a large number of Prrx-1-positive cases are required to confirm the results of this study. PMID:27580127

  13. Blisters and Loss of Epidermis in Patients With Lupus Erythematosus: A Clinicopathological Study of 22 Patients.

    PubMed

    Merklen-Djafri, Carine; Bessis, Didier; Frances, Camille; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Cordel, Nadège; Lipsker, Dan

    2015-11-01

    The nosology of bullous lesions or equivalents (vesicles, erosions, and crusts) in patients with lupus erythematosus (LE) is rarely addressed.The primary aim of this study was to draw up a precise phenotypic inventory of such skin lesions; the secondary objective was to assess a potential relationship between the different types of loss of epidermis and extracutaneous lupus manifestations.We conducted a retrospective multicenter study including 22 patients with definite LE and bullous lesions or equivalents. All biopsies were reviewed. Patients were recruited in the dermatology departments of 6 centers. Patients were included if they met the diagnosis of systemic LE according to American College of Rheumatology and/or Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria or diagnosis of cutaneous LE based on classic clinical criteria and/or histological ascertainment of LE. Patients were recruited through clinician's memory and photographic collections.Three clinico-pathological patterns could be individualized. First, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)-like, sheet-like, skin detachment; sun-exposure, mild mucosal involvement, and dermal mucin deposition allow differential diagnosis with classical Lyell syndrome. Second, vesiculo-bullae and/or crusting occurring on typical lesions of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus or chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Third, tense vesicles and/or blisters with an underlying neutrophilic dermatosis and a usual response to dapsone.A careful analysis of 22 LE patients with epidermal detachment reveals 2 main pathomechanisms: a classic LE interface dermatitis, which can be hyperacute and lead to TEN-like skin detachment; and a neutrophilic dermatosis, with tense vesicles and/or blisters, including classic bullous LE. PMID:26579826

  14. Clinicopathologic and DNA cytometric analysis of carcinoid tumors of the thymus.

    PubMed

    Goto, K; Kodama, T; Matsuno, Y; Yokose, T; Asamura, H; Kamiya, N; Shimosato, Y

    2001-10-01

    Twelve cases of carcinoid tumors of the thymus were reviewed in terms of clinicopathologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical features and DNA ploidy patterns. The collective consisted of nine male and three female patients, aged 34 to 74 years, of whom five (42%) had symptoms. Eleven patients underwent surgical resection, and one with systemic metastases was autopsied. In the 11 resected patients, tumors had invaded surrounding structures in four cases, and mediastinal lymph node metastases were detected in six. Recurrence occurred in two of the resected patients (18%), and the 5-year survival rate was 82%. Histologically, all tumors showed an organoid growth pattern with delicate fibrovascular stroma. In addition, three tumors had unusual morphologic features such as combined features of carcinoid tumor and thymoma and solid growth pattern with occasional large tumor cells. Mitotic counts ranged from 1 to 14 per 10 high-power fields with a mean count of 4.9. Central necrosis within solid nests was observed in nine tumors. Classification of this series using the WHO histologic classification system resulted in categorization of all 12 tumors as atypical carcinoids. All tumors were positive for Grimelius staining and for cytokeratin. Immunohistochemical staining documented the presence of moderately to strongly positive neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neural cell adhesion molecule. No correlation between proliferative activity based on the Ki67 labeling index and prognosis or lymph node metastasis was found. Concerning DNA ploidy patterns, only one tumor with multiple lymph node metastases was considered to be aneuploid. In conclusion, although all of our cases were histologically classified as atypical carcinoid tumors of the thymus, most were diploid, and the patients enjoyed a relatively good prognosis.

  15. Incidental Prostate Cancer at the Time of Cystectomy: The Incidence and Clinicopathological Features in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Jianjun; Yang, Hu; Xu, Fan; Xuan, Hanqing; Li, Dong; Huang, Yiran

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the incidence and the clinicopathological features of incidental prostate cancer detected in radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens in Chinese men and to estimate the oncological risk of prostate apex-sparing surgery for such patients. Methods The clinical data and pathological feature of 504 patients who underwent RCP for bladder cancer from January 1999 to March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Whole mount serial section of the RCP specimens were cut transversely at 3–4 mm intervals and examined in same pathological institution. Results Thirty-four out of 504 patients (6.8%) had incidental prostate cancer with a mean age of 70.3 years. 12 cases (35.2%) were diagnosed as significant disease. 4 cases were found to have apex involvement of adenocarcinoma of the prostate while in 5 cases the prostate stroma invasion by urothelial carcinoma were identified (one involved prostate apex). The mean follow-up time was 46.4±33.8 months. Biochemical recurrence occurred in 3 patients but no prostate cancer-related death during the follow-up. There was no statistical significance in cancer specific survival between the clinically significant and insignificant cancer group. Conclusions The prevalence of incidental prostate cancer in RCP specimens in Chinese patients was remarkably lower than in western people. Most of the incidental prostate cancer was clinically insignificant and patient's prognosis was mainly related to the bladder cancer. Sparing the prostate apex was potentially associated with a 1.0% risk of leaving significant cancer of the prostate or urothelial carcinoma. PMID:24722643

  16. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathological and whole-genome exon sequencing study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kunpeng; Ren, Yuan; Pang, Lijuan; Qi, Yan; Jia, Wei; Tao, Lin; Hu, Zhengyan; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Li; Yue, Haifeng; Han, Juan; Liang, Weihua; Hu, Jianming; Zou, Hong; Yuan, Xianglin; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) represents the second most common histological subtype of RCC, and comprises 2 subtypes. Prognosis for type 1 PRCC is relatively good, whereas type 2 PRCC is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinicopathological and mutations characteristics of PRCC. Hence, we reported on 13 cases of PRCC analyzed using whole-exome sequencing. Histologically, type 2 PRCC showed a higher nuclear grade and lymphovascular invasion rate versus type 1 PRCC (P < 0.05). Immunostaining revealed type 1 PRCC had higher CK7 and lower Top IIα expression rates (P < 0.05). Whole-exome sequencing data analysis revealed that the mutational statuses of 373 genes (287 missense, 69 silent, 6 nonsense, and 11 synonymous mutations) differed significantly between PRCC and normal renal tissues (P < 0.05). Functional enrichment analysis was used to classify the 287 missense-mutated genes into 11 biological process clusters (comprised of 61 biological processes) and 5 pathways, involved in cell adhesion, microtubule-based movement, the cell cycle, polysaccharide biosynthesis, muscle cell development and differentiation, cell death, and negative regulation. Associated pathways included the ATP-binding cassette transporter, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, lysosome, complement and coagulation cascades, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism pathways. The missense mutation status of 19 genes differed significantly between the groups (P < 0.05), and alterations in the EEF1D, RFNG, GPR142, and RAB37 genes were located in different chromosomal regions in type 1 and 2 PRCC. These mutations may contribute to future studies on pathogenic mechanisms and targeted therapy of PRCC. PMID:26339402

  17. Sporadic versus Radiation-Associated Angiosarcoma: A Comparative Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 48 Cases.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jennifer; Hiniker, Susan M; Lucas, David R; Griffith, Kent A; McHugh, Jonathan B; Meirovitz, Amichay; Thomas, Dafydd G; Chugh, Rashmi; Herman, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are aggressive tumors of vascular endothelial origin, occurring sporadically or in association with prior radiotherapy. We compared clinicopathologic and biologic features of sporadic angiosarcomas (SA) and radiation-associated angiosarcomas (RAA). Methods. From a University of Michigan institutional database, 37 SA and 11 RAA were identified. Tissue microarrays were stained for p53, Ki-67, and hTERT. DNA was evaluated for TP53 and ATM mutations. Results. Mean latency between radiotherapy and diagnosis of RAA was 11.9 years: 6.7 years for breast RAA versus 20.9 years for nonbreast RAA (P = 0.148). Survival after diagnosis did not significantly differ between SA and RAA (P = 0.590). Patients with nonbreast RAA had shorter overall survival than patients with breast RAA (P = 0.03). The majority of SA (86.5%) and RAA (77.8%) were classified as high-grade sarcomas (P = 0.609). RAA were more likely to have well-defined vasoformative areas (55.6% versus 27%, P = 0.127). Most breast SA were parenchymal in origin (80%), while most breast RAA were cutaneous in origin (80%). TMA analysis showed p53 overexpression in 25.7% of SA and 0% RAA, high Ki-67 in 35.3% of SA and 44.4% RAA, and hTERT expression in 100% of SA and RAA. TP53 mutations were detected in 13.5% of SA and 11.1% RAA. ATM mutations were not detected in either SA or RAA. Conclusions. SA and RAA are similar in histology, immunohistochemical markers, and DNA mutation profiles and share similar prognosis. Breast RAA have a shorter latency period compared to nonbreast RAA and a significantly longer survival. PMID:24082817

  18. Sporadic versus Radiation-Associated Angiosarcoma: A Comparative Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 48 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Lucas, David R.; Griffith, Kent A.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Meirovitz, Amichay; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Chugh, Rashmi; Herman, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosarcomas are aggressive tumors of vascular endothelial origin, occurring sporadically or in association with prior radiotherapy. We compared clinicopathologic and biologic features of sporadic angiosarcomas (SA) and radiation-associated angiosarcomas (RAA). Methods. From a University of Michigan institutional database, 37 SA and 11 RAA were identified. Tissue microarrays were stained for p53, Ki-67, and hTERT. DNA was evaluated for TP53 and ATM mutations. Results. Mean latency between radiotherapy and diagnosis of RAA was 11.9 years: 6.7 years for breast RAA versus 20.9 years for nonbreast RAA (P = 0.148). Survival after diagnosis did not significantly differ between SA and RAA (P = 0.590). Patients with nonbreast RAA had shorter overall survival than patients with breast RAA (P = 0.03). The majority of SA (86.5%) and RAA (77.8%) were classified as high-grade sarcomas (P = 0.609). RAA were more likely to have well-defined vasoformative areas (55.6% versus 27%, P = 0.127). Most breast SA were parenchymal in origin (80%), while most breast RAA were cutaneous in origin (80%). TMA analysis showed p53 overexpression in 25.7% of SA and 0% RAA, high Ki-67 in 35.3% of SA and 44.4% RAA, and hTERT expression in 100% of SA and RAA. TP53 mutations were detected in 13.5% of SA and 11.1% RAA. ATM mutations were not detected in either SA or RAA. Conclusions. SA and RAA are similar in histology, immunohistochemical markers, and DNA mutation profiles and share similar prognosis. Breast RAA have a shorter latency period compared to nonbreast RAA and a significantly longer survival. PMID:24082817

  19. HER2 amplification and clinicopathological characteristics in a large Asian cohort of rare mucinous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chay, Wen-Yee; Chew, Sung-Hock; Ong, Whee-Sze; Busmanis, Inny; Li, Xinyun; Thung, Sharyl; Ngo, Lynette; Lim, Sheow-Lei; Lim, Yong-Kuei; Chia, Yin-Nin; Koh, Elisa; Pang, Cindy; Soh, Lay-Tin; Wang, Jin; Ho, Tew-Hong; Tay, Sun-Kuie; Lim-Tan, Soo-Kim; Lim, Kiat-Hon; Chia, John Whay-Kuang; Goh, Liang-Kee

    2013-01-01

    Mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis in the advanced stages and responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy. We aim to elucidate the clinicopathological factors and incidence of HER2 expression of this cancer in a large Asian retrospective cohort from Singapore. Of a total of 133 cases, the median age at diagnosis was 48.3 years (range, 15.8-89.0 years), comparatively younger than western cohorts. Most were Chinese (71%), followed by Malays (16%), others (9.0%), and Indians (5%). 24% were noted to have a significant family history of malignancy of which breast and gastrointestinal cancers the most prominent. Majority of the patients (80%) had stage I disease at diagnosis. Information on HER2 status was available in 113 cases (85%). Of these, 31 cases (27.4%) were HER2+, higher than 18.8% reported in western population. HER2 positivity appeared to be lower among Chinese and higher among Malays patients (p = 0.052). With the current standard of care, there was no discernible impact of HER2 status on overall survival. (HR = 1.79; 95% CI, 0.66-4.85; p = 0.249). On the other hand, positive family history of cancer, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and ovarian surface involvements were significantly associated with inferior overall survival on univariate and continued to be statistically significant after adjustment for stage. While these clinical factors identify high risk patients, it is promising that the finding of a high incidence of HER2 in our Asian population may allow development of a HER2 targeted therapy to improve the management of mucinous ovarian cancers.

  20. Variants of the PPARD Gene and Their Clinicopathological Significance in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ticha, Ivana; Gnosa, Sebastian; Lindblom, Annika; Liu, Tao; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) is nuclear hormone receptor involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) differentiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and spectrum of variants in the PPARD gene in CRC, and their contribution to clinicopathological endpoints. Methods and Findings Direct sequencing of the PPARD gene was performed in 303 primary tumors, in blood samples from 50 patients with ≥3 affected first-degree relatives, 50 patients with 2 affected first-degree relatives, 50 sporadic patients, 360 healthy controls, and in 6 colon cancer cell lines. Mutation analysis revealed 22 different transversions, 7 of them were novel. Three of all variants were somatic (c.548A>G, p.Y183C, c.425-9C>T, and c.628-16G>A). Two missense mutations (p.Y183C and p.R258Q) were pathogenic using in silico predictive program. Five recurrent variants were detected in/adjacent to the exons 4 (c.1-87T>C, c.1-67G>A, c.130+3G>A, and c.1-101-8C>T) and exon 7 (c.489T>C). Variant c.489C/C detected in tumors was correlated to worse differentiation (P = 0.0397). Conclusions We found 7 novel variants among 22 inherited or acquired PPARD variants. Somatic and/or missense variants detected in CRC patients are rare but indicate the clinical importance of the PPARD gene. PMID:24391853

  1. Unique genetic alterations and clinicopathological features of hepatocellular adenoma in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ping; Zhao, Qian; Jin, Guang-Zhi; Qian, You-Wen; Gu, Yi-Jin; Dong, Hui; Lu, Xin-Yuan; Cong, Wen-Ming; Wu, Meng-Chao

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign hepatocyte-derived tumor commonly seen in reproductive-aged women with long-term use of oral contraceptives (OCs) in European and North American countries. Accordingly, HCA is currently classified into four molecular subtypes as adopted by the World Health Organization. The present study was firstly to characterize and determine the genetic alterations and clinicopathological features of the largest series of HCAs in China. We reviewed 189 patients with HCA who underwent hepatectomies at our liver center from January 1984 to January 2012, among which 36 HCAs were randomly selected for the sequencing of HNF1α, β-catenin and gp130 genes, and 60 HCAs were randomly selected for detecting microsatellite instability (MSI). Compared with Western studies, our data showed distinctive findings including male (69.8%) and overweight/obese (50.3%) predominance. Only 3.5% of female patients had a documented history of OCs use for 2-4 years. All 36 sequenced HCAs showed HNF1α mutations (72% missense, 28% synonymous), 2 hotspot polymorphisms of HNF1α (I27L: rs1169288 and S487N: rs2464196) were seen in 17 (47%) and 10 (27.8%) cases, respectively, and a novel single nucleotide polymorphism site (rs1169304) in intron 9 of HNF1α was detected in 32 (88%) cases, but no β-catenin or gp130 gene mutation was detected, and no nuclear β-catenin staining was detected by immunohistochemistry. The frequency of MSI was 75% for D12S1398 (HNF1α inactivated pathway) and 78.5% for D6S1064 (HIPPO signaling pathway) in 34 overweight/obese patients with HCA. Our results firstly indicate that patients with HCA in China frequently occur in male overweigh and obese adult population, lack an association with OCs use and exhibit unique genetic alterations. Taken together, these observations suggest that alternative pathogenetic pathways involve in HCA tumorigenesis in Chinese patients.

  2. The relationship between telomere length and clinicopathologic characteristics in colorectal cancers among Tunisian patients.

    PubMed

    Mzahma, Raja; Kharrat, Maher; Fetiriche, Fadhel; Bouasker; Ben Moussa, Mounir; Ben Safta, Zoubeir; Dziri, Chadli; Zaouche, AbdelJelil; Chaabouni-Bouhamed, Habiba

    2015-11-01

    Alterations in telomere dynamics have emerged as having a causative role in carcinogenesis. Both the telomere attrition contribute to tumor initiation via increasing chromosomal instability and that the telomere elongation induces cell immortalization and leads to tumor progression. The objectives of this study are to investigate the dynamics of telomere length in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the clinicopathological parameters implicated. We measured the relative telomere length (RTL) in cancerous tissues and in corresponding peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) using quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) from 94 patients with CRC. Telomere length correlated significantly in cancer tissues and corresponding PBL (r = 0.705). Overall, cancer tissue had shorter telomeres than PBL (p = 0.033). In both cancer tissue and PBL, the RTL was significantly correlated with age groups (p = 0.008 and p = 0.012, respectively). The RTL in cancer tissue was significantly longer in rectal tumors (p = 0.04) and in the late stage of tumors (p = 0.01). In PBL, the RTL was significantly correlated with the macroscopic aspect of tumors (p = 0.02). In addition, the telomere-length ratio of cancer to corresponding PBL increased significantly with late-stage groups. Shortening of the telomere was detected in 44.7%, elongation in 36.2%, and telomeres were unchanged in 19.1% of 94 tumors. Telomere shortening occurred more frequently in the early stage of tumors (p = 0.01). This study suggests that the telomere length in PBL is affected by the macroscopic aspect of tumors and that telomere length in cancer tissues is a marker for progression of CRC and depends on tumor-origin site.

  3. Ascending aortitis: a clinicopathological study of 21 cases in a series of 300 aortic repairs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lauren; Heath, Jonathon; Burke, Allen

    2014-06-01

    There are few single-institution clinicopathological series of aortitis. In this study, all ascending aneurysms were prospectively evaluated pathologically with ≥6 aortic sections over a 6-year period.Of 300 ascending aortic resections, there were 21 cases of aortitis (7%), in 11 women and 10 men (mean 67, range 41-88 years). There were 19 patients with aneurysms, and two patients with sclerosing periaortitis, clinically suspected to have intramural haematoma. Of the 19 patients with aneurysms (11 women), two had prior temporal arteritis, one ankylosing spondylitis, one IgA nephropathy, one undifferentiated autoimmune disease, one Lyme disease, and one fibromyalgia. In only two patients was aortitis suspected before surgery as the cause of aneurysm. Four patients developed distal aortic aneurysm requiring repeat surgery. Valve replacement or repair was necessary in nine patients, and two patients died after surgery. There were no significant differences between patients with and without autoimmune disease. The histological features were necrotising aortitis in 18 of 19 patients with aneurysmal aortitis, and there was one case of non-necrotising aortitis. One valve showed autoimmune valvulitis, congenitally bicuspid associated with ankylosing spondylitis. Necrotising aortitis was classified as acute (n = 5), healing (n = 9), and healed (n = 4). Acute necrotising aortitis was associated with need for valve replacement (p = 0.01) and younger age (p = 0.01). The healed phase had subtle histological features, sparse medial inflammation, marked medial attenuation, and chronic adventitial inflammation. Two patients with periaortitis demonstrated marked fibroinflammatory thickening of the adventitia with histological features typical of IgG4-related disease; neither had systemic symptoms. Ascending aortitis is histologically diverse, most frequently of the medial necrotising type, and is usually not suspected pre-operatively. Awareness of the

  4. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions.

  5. HER-2 incidence in gastric cancer, its association with prognosis and clinicopathological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Uprak, Tevfik Kıvılcım; Attaallah, Wafi; Çelikel, Çiğdem Ataizi; Ayrancı, Gülçiçek; Yeğen, Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2) overexpression has prognostic value in breast cancer. However, the significance of HER-2 positivity in gastric cancer is controversial. In this study, we investigated the frequency of overexpression of HER-2 and its relationship with clinicopathological findings and impact on survival in gastric cancer. Material and Methods: Gastric cancer patients, operated in Marmara University Faculty of Medicine, Pendik Training and Research Hospital, General Surgery Department, between January 2012–December 2013 were enrolled in this study. Medical records were retrospectively evaluated. Tissue samples were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) method, and were followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in those with positive results. HER-2 expression rates and its association with other histopathological features and survival have been analyzed. Results: 135 patients were enrolled in the study, with 88 (65%) male and 47 (35%) female patients. The median age was 61 (29–84) years. Only 11 patients (8%) were positive for HER-2. HER-2 positive patients were similar to negative patients in terms of age, gender, tumor size, tumor location, tumor T stage, lymph node metastasis, histological type, differentiation, lymphovascular invasion, perinodal, perineural invasion and stage. No significant difference was detected on 1 and 2-year overall and disease-free survival rates between receptor positive and negative groups. Conclusion: Consistent with the literature data, HER-2 positivity rate in this study was approximately 8%, but this positivity has not been found to be associated with either clinical and pathological parameters or overall and disease-free survival. PMID:26668528

  6. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Choi, Ho Soon; Yang, Sun Young; Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo; Paik, Seung Sam

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways.

  7. Association of Global DNA Hypomethylation with Clinicopathological Variables in Colonic Tumors of Iraqi Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban J.; Al-Wasiti, Estabraq A.; Azzal, Hayder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks sixth among the most common 10 cancers in Iraq. It is a foremost public health dilemma and there is improved interest in understanding the fundamental principles of its molecular biology. DNA methylation in cancer has become the issue of passionate investigation. As compared with normal cells, the malignant cells show major disruptions in their DNA methylation patterns. We aimed to assess the association of global DNA hypomethylation in colonic adenomas and carcinomas of Iraqi patients, measured by immunohistochemistry of 5-methylcytosin, with different clinicopathological variables. Patients and Methods: Thirty tissue paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenomas, 30 tissue paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, and 30 samples of apparently normal colonic tissue taken from autopsy cases as a control group were included in the present study. From each block, two sections of 5 μm thickness were taken, one section was stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for revision of histopathological diagnosis and one section was immunohistochemically stained for 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and digitally analyzed by AperioImageScope software. Results: The mean digital value of 5mC immunohistochemical expression was sequentially decreased during neoplastic progression from normal colonic tissue into adenoma and then to carcinoma. The mean digital value of 5mC expression was significantly lower in large size adenomas (≥1 cm), and those with severe dysplasia. Concerning carcinoma cases, 5mC expression was significantly lower in stage C2. Conclusions: The immunohistochemical evaluation of 5mC yields refined information on colorectal tumor biology in adenoma and carcinoma. Global DNA hypomethylation reflected by low immunohistochemical expression of 5-mC is associated with advanced colorectal adenomatous polyps suggesting that it is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis. Also this hypomethylation can

  8. Metastasizing mixed tumor of salivary glands. A clinicopathologic and flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wenig, B M; Hitchcock, C L; Ellis, G L; Gnepp, D R

    1992-09-01

    Among salivary gland neoplasms are a group of rare tumors that are histologically identical to benign mixed tumors that inexplicably metastasize; they have been called metastasizing mixed tumor (MZMT) of salivary glands. We report the clinicopathologic features and flow cytometric findings for 11 cases of MZMT. At the time of discovery of metastatic disease, the patients, six women and five men, ranged in age from 20 to 83 years. Primary sites of involvement included the parotid gland (eight cases), submandibular gland (two cases), and the nasal septum (one case). With one exception, all the patients had at least a single recurrences of their primary mixed tumor, but two or more recurrences were the norm before development of metastatic foci. The metastases were discovered from six to 52 years following the occurrence of the primary tumor. Metastatic deposits were identified in bone, lung, regional lymph nodes, skin, kidney, retroperitoneum, oral cavity, pharynx, calvarium, and central nervous system. The metastases either occurred simultaneously with an episode of recurrent mixed tumor (n = 5) or from 5 to 29 years after a recurrence (n = 6). The treatment of the primary, recurrent, and metastatic neoplasms was surgical excision. Follow-up, ranging from 8 months to 16 years following the diagnosis of MZMT, revealed seven patients to be alive without disease (64%) and two dead of causes unrelated to metastatic disease (18%). Two patients (18%) died as a direct result of metastatic tumor at 3 and 2 years after metastasis of their mixed tumors. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a diploid DNA cell population in the primary and/or metastatic tumors in nine cases. Aneuploid DNA cell content was identified in two of the cases. DNA ploidy levels and cell proliferation rates were compared with those of conventional benign mixed tumors and also with malignant mixed tumors. Retrospective analysis of histologic parameters (mitotic rate, cellular pleomorphism, infiltrative

  9. On shape dependence of holographic entanglement entropy in AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Piermarco; Seminara, Domenico; Tonni, Erik

    2015-12-01

    We study the finite term of the holographic entanglement entropy of finite domains with smooth shapes and for four dimensional gravitational backgrounds. Analytic expressions depending on the unit vectors normal to the minimal area surface are obtained for both stationary and time dependent spacetimes. The special cases of AdS4, asymptotically AdS4 black holes, domain wall geometries and Vaidya-AdS backgrounds have been analysed explicitly. When the bulk spacetime is AdS4, the finite term is the Willmore energy of the minimal area surface viewed as a submanifold of the three dimensional flat Euclidean space. For the static spacetimes, some numerical checks involving spatial regions delimited by ellipses and non convex domains have been performed. In the case of AdS4, the infinite wedge has been also considered, recovering the known analytic formula for the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence.

  10. Detection of serum p53 antibodies in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: correlation with clinicopathologic features and tumor markers.

    PubMed

    Shimada, H; Nakajima, K; Ochiai, T; Koide, Y; Okazumi, S I; Matsubara, H; Takeda, A; Miyazawa, Y; Arima, M; Isono, K

    1998-01-01

    The significance of serum p53-Abs in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was determined. Examination of clinicopathological features and assessment of tumor marker sensitivities of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and CYFRA21-1 were performed. Thirty-three (58%) of 57 patients were positive for serum p53-Abs, however, no relation with cancer progression existed. Fourteen of the 33 sero-positive patients revealed normal levels of all tumor markers tested. Thus, serum p53-Abs appears to be a useful marker for the detection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  12. Kaon Decays from AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Schvellinger, Martin

    2008-07-28

    We briefly review one of the current applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence known as AdS/QCD and discuss about the calculation of four-point quark-flavour current correlation functions and their applications to the calculation of observables related to neutral kaon decays and neutral kaon mixing processes.

  13. Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.

  14. An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês

    2015-04-01

    We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 ×S3 ×S3 ×S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q1Q2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q2Q3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.

  15. On circular strings in (AdS3 × S 3)ϰ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2016-09-01

    The so called one-parameter (often called ϰ) deformed AdS string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the (AdS3 × S 3) ϰ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the ϰ-deformed AdS3 and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.

  16. Population attributable fraction of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease: A systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Narjes; Seddigh, Leila; Rampisheh, Zahra; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. Methods: The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for these risk factors in Iran and the world. Results: Of 2651 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction after assessing relevancy and quality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of AD. Physical inactivity with 22.0% and smoking with 15.7% had the highest PAF for AD in Iran and the world, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that modifiable cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of AD. Moreover, about one-third of AD cases were attributed to five modifiable risk factors. PMID:27648178

  17. Population attributable fraction of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease: A systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Narjes; Seddigh, Leila; Rampisheh, Zahra; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. Methods: The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for these risk factors in Iran and the world. Results: Of 2651 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction after assessing relevancy and quality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of AD. Physical inactivity with 22.0% and smoking with 15.7% had the highest PAF for AD in Iran and the world, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that modifiable cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of AD. Moreover, about one-third of AD cases were attributed to five modifiable risk factors.

  18. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  19. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  20. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  1. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-30

    As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)'s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed - a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not

  2. Supergravity background of the λ-deformed AdS3 × S3 supercoset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonyi, Yuri; Lunin, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    We construct the solution of type IIB supergravity describing the integrable λ-deformation of the AdS3 ×S3 supercoset. While the geometry corresponding to the deformation of the bosonic coset has been found in the past, our background is more natural for studying superstrings, and several interesting features distinguish our solution from its bosonic counterpart. We also report progress towards constructing the λ-deformation of the AdS5 ×S5 supercoset.

  3. Comparison of the clinicopathological characteristics and the survival outcomes between the Siewert type II/III adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Han; Chen, Xin-Zu; Liu, Kai; Anil, Kumar; Yang, Kun; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes in Siewert type II and Siewert type III tumors. The clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes were analyzed in patients diagnosed with Siewert II/III tumors, who underwent transabdominal gastrectomy from Jan 2006 to Dec 2010. A total of 321 patients diagnosed with Siewert II/III tumors who underwent gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Siewert III tumors are larger and have a higher proportion of Borrmann 3-4 types than Siewert II tumors (p < 0.05). For Siewert II and the Siewert III tumors, the 3-year overall survival rate was 59.1 versus 57.1 %, respectively, and the median survival time was 46.0 (31.5-60.5) months versus 46.0 (31.3-60.7) months, respectively. Positive proximal resection margin, large tumor size, Borrmann 3-4 types, poor or undifferentiated degree and advanced T stages and N stages were found to be poor prognostic risk factors for the overall survival outcomes by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the differentiation degree (poor and undifferentiated) and advanced T and N stages were independent prognostic factors for poor overall survival. Siewert III tumors were larger and had a lower differentiation degree than Siewert II tumors, whereas there was no difference in the survival outcomes.

  4. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Survival Outcomes of Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma in the Stomach: Retrospective Analysis of Single Center Database

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowen; Cai, Hong; Sheng, Weiqi; Yu, Lin; Long, Ziwen; Shi, Yingqiang; Wang, Yanong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognosis of signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach (SRC). Methods A total of 1464 gastric cancer patients who underwent curative gastrectomy from 2000 to 2008 at a single center were evaluated. Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) was defined as the presence of at least 50% signet ring cells in the pathologic specimen. The clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of SRC were analyzed by comparing with non-signet ring cell carcinoma (NSRC). Results Of 1464 patients, 138 patients (9.4%) were classified as SRC. There were significant differences in gender, age, tumor location, TNM stage, p21 expression, and p53 expression between SRC and NSRC. The 5-year survival rates of SRC and NSRC were 36.2% and 49.5%, respectively. The prognosis of SRC was poorer than that of NSRC (P <0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that SRC histology was an independent factor for poor prognosis (P <0.001). Conclusion Patients with SRC tend to present with a more advanced stage and poorer prognosis than patients with other types of gastric carcinoma. PMID:26642199

  5. Clinico-pathological Analysis of the Lungs from Patients with Lung Transplantation in a Single Institute in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Young Tae; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the numbers of lung transplantation (LT) has been increased in Korea. However, post-LT outcome has not been successful in all patients, which may be partially affected by the primary lung disease. Therefore comprehensive understanding in original pathological diagnosis of patients with LT would be needed for achieving better clinical outcome. To address this issue, we performed clinico-pathological analysis of the explanted lungs from 29 patients who underwent LT over a 9-yr period in Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, 26 patients received single (1/26) or double (25/26) LT, while heart-lung transplantation was performed in 3 patients. The final clinico-pathological diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) (n = 6), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP)/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (n = 4), AIP/non-specific interstitial pneumonia with DAD (n = 1), collagen vascular disease-related interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD)/DAD (n = 3), CVD-ILD/UIP (n = 1), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 1), bronchiectasis (n = 4), pulmonary arterial hypertension (n = 2), tuberculosis (n = 1), bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) (n = 1), and lung cancer (n = 1). Moreover, 4 patients who had chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation due to hematologic malignancy showed unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia with extensive fibrosis in the lungs. Our study demonstrates that pathology of the explanted lungs from Korean patients with LT is different from that of other countries except for interstitial lung disease and bronchiectasis, which may be helpful for optimization of selecting LT candidates for Korean patients.

  6. Clinico-Pathological Study of Cutaneous Granulomatous Lesions- a 5 yr Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pal, Subrata; Biswas, Biplab Kr; Bose, Kingshuk; Pal, Saswati; Pathak, Swapan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Granulomatous dermatoses are common skin pathology, often need histopathological confirmation for diagnosis. Histologically six sub-types of granulomas found in granulomatous skin diseases- tuberculoid, sarcoidal, necrobiotic, suppurative, foreign body & histoid type. The aims of the present study were clinico-pathological evaluation of granulomatous skin lesions and their etiological classification based on histopathological examination. Methods: It was a five years (Jan 2009- Dec 2013) retrospective study involving all the skin biopsies. Detailed clinical and histopathological features were analyzed and granulomatous skin lesions were categorized according to type of granuloma & etiology. Special stains were used in few cases for diagnostic purpose. Results: Among 1280 skin biopsies, 186 cases (14.53%) were granulomatous skin lesions with a ratio 1:24. In histopathological sub-typing, tuberculoid granuloma was most common type (126 cases, 67.74%). Most common etiology of granuloma in the study was leprosy (107 cases, 57.52%). Other etiologies were cutaneous tuberculosis, foreign body granulomas, fungal lesions, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sarcoidosis and granuloma annulare. Conclusion: Histopathology is established as gold standard investigation for diagnosis, categorization and clinico-pathological correlation of granulomatous skin lesions. PMID:26870144

  7. Clinicopathological characterisation of small (2 cm or less) proximal and distal gastric carcinomas in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qin; Shi, Jiong; Sun, Qi; Gold, Jason S.; Chen, Jieyu; Wu, Hongyan; Yu, Huiping; Zhang, Yifen; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Yu, Chenggong; Manasco, Travis; Guan, Wenyan; Lauwers, Gregory Y.

    2015-01-01

    SummaryClinicopathological characteristics of small gastric carcinoma have not been well defined in Chinese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare small proximal (PGC, n = 111) with distal (DGC, n = 202) gastric carcinoma in 313 consecutive surgically resected small (≤2 cm) gastric carcinomas diagnosed with the WHO criteria. PGC patients were significantly older (average age 63 years versus 59 in DGCs) with a male/female ratio of 3:1. Most tumours were clustered along the lesser curvature (74% in PGCs and 65% in DGCs). Compared to DGCs, PGCs showed a protruded gross pattern significantly more frequently and were significantly better differentiated with a significantly wider histomorphological spectrum. Surprisingly, PGCs were composed of significantly fewer signet-ring cell carcinomas (1% versus 16% in DGCs) but were significantly more deeply invasive, compared to DGCs. Lymph node metastasis was detected in 23% overall, but was significantly less frequent in PGCs (16%) than in DGCs (26%) (p < 0.05). However, the difference in survival between the two groups was not statistically significant. Our results demonstrate that in Chinese patients, PGCs display distinct clinicopathological characteristics, compared to DGCs. PMID:26166663

  8. The Impact of Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 on Prognosis and Clinicopathology of Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiping; Wang, Xiaochen; Chen, Guodi; Dong, Caixia; Zhang, Depu

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) plays a crucial role in the progression of breast cancer (BC). The prognostic role of MMP-2 expression in BC patients has been widely reported, but the results were inconsistent. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to gain a better insight into the impact of MMP-2 expression on survival and clinicopathological features of BC patients. Methods Identical search strategies were used to search relevant literatures in electronic databases update to August 1, 2014. Individual hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled to evaluate the strength of the association between positive MMP-2 expression and survival results and clinicopathological features of BC patients. Begg’s tests, Egger’s tests and funnel plots were used to evaluate publication bias. Heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis were also assessed. All the work was completed using STATA. Results Pooled HRs and 95% CIs suggested that MMP-2 expression had an unfavorable impact on both OS (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.29–1.82) and DFS/RFS/DDFS (HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07–1.86) in BC patients. Furthermore, MMP-2 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (positive vs negative: OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.17–3.12). Conclusion In conclusion, positive MMP-2 expression might be a significant predictive factor for poor prognosis in patients with BC. PMID:25816052

  9. Reduction in Added Sugar Intake and Improvement in Insulin Secretion in Overweight Latina Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jaimie N.; Ventura, Emily E.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Watanabe, Richard M.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, no study has assessed the effects of modifying carbohydrate intake (specifically decreasing added sugar and increasing fiber) on insulin secretion, nor has any study used an overweight Latino adolescent population. The objective of this study was to examine whether changes in dietary intake, specifically reductions in added sugar and/or increases in fiber, following a 12-week, modified carbohydrate dietary intervention, were associated with changes in insulin secretion and other metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants were 16 overweight (≥85th percentile BMI) Latina adolescent females (12–17 years) who completed a 12-week modified carbohydrate intervention. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day diet records, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin dynamics by an extended 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and post-intervention. Results There was a trend for unadjusted change in reported added sugar intake (% of kcals) to be associated with change in insulin secretion, i.e. IAUC (r = 0.47; p = 0.075), and this relationship became significant after controlling for age, baseline insulin secretion, added sugar and adiposity, and change in adiposity (r = 0.85; p < 0.05). No other changes in dietary variables were related to changes in insulin secretion or other metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Participants with greater reductions in added sugar intake showed significantly greater improvements in insulin secretion following a modified carbohydrate nutrition intervention. These findings suggest that interventions focused on decreasing added sugar intake have the potential to reduce type 2 diabetes risk in overweight youth. PMID:18370826

  10. Studies on the ADS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muck, Wolfgang

    1999-11-01

    This thesis summarizes original research on the topic of the ``AdS/CFT correspondence.'' This correspondence, which was first conjectured by Maldacena [ Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 231 (1998)] and subsequently formulated by Gubser, Klebanov and Polyakov [Phys. Lett. B 428, 105 (1998) and by Witten [Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 253 (1998)], relates field theories on (d + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces and conformal field theories (CFTs) in d dimensions with each other. Its main prediction is that the correlation functions of certain quantum CFTs are determined by the dynamics of classical field theories on AdS spaces. Starting from a correspondence formula provided by the authors above, several CFT correlation functions are calculated and agreement with the forms dictated by conformal invariance is found. The necessary renormalization is carried out in the ``ɛ- prescription.'' Details of renormalization and the breaking of conformal symmetries in special cases are investigated by means of the example of the scalar field. The ``asymptotic prescription'' is used to prove a suggestion by Klebanov and Witten [hep- th/9905104] about the treatment of irregular boundary conditions valid to all orders of perturbation theory. The treatment of AdS gravity, which enables the calculation of correlation functions of CFT energy momentum tensors, is carried out in the time slicing formalism. The calculated two-point functions and Weyl anomalies agree with results known from pure CFT considerations. The Wess Zumino model on AdS4 is discussed as an example containing supersymmetry. It is shown that the model yields the correlation functions of conformal fields belonging to a d = 3, N = 1 superconformal multiplet.

  11. Multi-Shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) at 7 Tesla in TgF344-AD Transgenic Alzheimer Rats

    PubMed Central

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jacobs, Russell E.; Weitz, Tara M.; Town, Terrence C.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is widely used to study microstructural characteristics of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-angular resolution imaging (HARDI) are frequently used in radiology and neuroscience research but can be limited in describing the signal behavior in composite nerve fiber structures. Here, we developed and assessed the benefit of a comprehensive diffusion encoding scheme, known as hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI), composed of 300 DWI volumes acquired at 7-Tesla with diffusion weightings at b = 1000, 3000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 s/mm2 and applied it in transgenic Alzheimer rats (line TgF344-AD) that model the full clinico-pathological spectrum of the human disease. We studied and visualized the effects of the multiple concentric “shells” when computing three distinct anisotropy maps–fractional anisotropy (FA), generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and normalized quantitative anisotropy (NQA). We tested the added value of the multi-shell q-space sampling scheme, when reconstructing neural pathways using mathematical frameworks from DTI and q-ball imaging (QBI). We show a range of properties of HYDI, including lower apparent anisotropy when using high b-value shells in DTI-based reconstructions, and increases in apparent anisotropy in QBI-based reconstructions. Regardless of the reconstruction scheme, HYDI improves FA-, GFA- and NQA-aided tractography. HYDI may be valuable in human connectome projects and clinical research, as well as magnetic resonance research in experimental animals. PMID:26683657

  12. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Fanburg-Smith, J C; Hengge, M; Hengge, U R; Smith, J S; Miettinen, M

    1998-12-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a well-accepted clincopathologic entity among childhood renal neoplasms; similar tumors have been described in extrarenal locations. We present the clinicopathologic profile and the immunohistochemical features of a series of soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. Twenty-eight cases coded as extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (ERRT), RT, possible ERRT, and "large cell sarcoma" were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology soft tissue registry. The tumors were reclassified according to strict criteria by light microscopy, clinical information, immunohistochemistry, and, in some cases, electron microscopy. Soft tissue rhabdoid tumor (STRT) was defined as (1) a tumor composed of noncohesive single cells, clusters, or sheets of large tumor cells with abundant glassy eosinophilic cytoplasm, an eccentric vesicular nucleus, and an extremely large nucleolus; (2) positivity for vimentin and/or cytokeratin or other epithelial markers by immunostaining; and (3) exclusion of other tumor types with rhabdoid inclusions (melanoma, other sarcomas, carcinoma). Eighteen cases met our criteria for soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. The median patient age was 13 years (range, 6 months to 56 years). Ninety-four percent of STRT cases were positive for vimentin and 59% for pan-cytokeratin. Sixty-three percent and 60% were positive for CAM 5.2 and EMA, respectively. Seventy-nine percent stained for at least one epithelial marker; 76% stained for both vimentin and epithelial markers simultaneously. Forty-two percent stained for MSA, and 14% for CEA and SMA. CD99, synaptophysin, CD57 (Leu-7), NSE, and focal S100 protein were identified in 75%, 66%, 56%, 54%, and 31% of the STRT cases, respectively. All STRT cases examined were negative for HMB-45, chromogranin, BER-EP4, desmin, myoglobin, CD34, and GFAP. Follow-up examination in 61% of the STRT patients revealed that 64% of patients died of disease within a median follow-up interval of 19 months (range, 4 months to 5 years); 82% had

  13. Clinicopathological analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using perflubutane in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Akasu, Gen; Kawahara, Ryuichi; Yasumoto, Makiko; Sakai, Takenori; Goto, Yuichi; Sato, Toshihiro; Fukuyo, Kenjiro; Okuda, Koji; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The contrast harmonic imaging technique allows visualization of micro bubbles and has facilitated the detection of blood flow on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CE-US). In hypovascular tumors such as pancreatic cancer a hypoxic nutrition-deficient environment increases tumor malignancy. In this study, we investigated the relation between CE-US findings, intratumoral microvessel density (MVD), and pathological analysis in pancreatic cancer, and we also investigated the clinicopathological significance of CE-US.The subjects were 16 pancreatic cancer patients who underwent CE-US before surgery. A time-signal intensity curve (TIC) was prepared based on the region of interest (ROI) in the tumor on CE-US, and the signal intensity (SI) was defined as an increase from the value before contrast imaging to the maximum value. Regarding MVD, histological sections were stained with anti-CD34 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies, and double stained micro-blood vessels were counted. The correlation between SI and MVD was investigated. In addition, disease-free survival (DFS) was compared between the hypo (≤mean SI) and hyper (>mean SI) SI groups.SI in cancerous lesions was 54.6±42.9 dB (mean±SD), and MVD in cancerous lesions was 12.5±5.02 (mean±SD). A positive correlation was noted between the SI and MVD (r(2)=0.408, p=0.008). The median DFS were 212 and 606 days in the hypo and hyper SI groups, respectively, showing a significantly shorter DFS in the hypo SI group (P=0.003). No patient died of the primary disease during the follow-up period in the hyper SI group, and a maximum 47-month follow-up was possible. A positive correlation was noted between SI and MVD, indicating that MVD of pancreatic cancer could be evaluated using CE-US. We suggested that CE-US is a useful predictor of patient prognosis after pancreatic cancer surgery.

  14. Clinicopathologic and molecular features associated with patient age in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Jin, Eun Hyo; Jo, Hyun Jin; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Nayoung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    between younger and older patients based on both clinicopathologic and molecular features, but stage is the most important predictor of prognosis. PMID:26078567

  15. The molecular landscape of extraskeletal osteosarcoma: A clinicopathological and molecular biomarker study

    PubMed Central

    Jour, George; Wang, Lu; Middha, Sumit; Zehir, Ahmet; Chen, Wen; Sadowska, Justyna; Healey, John; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Choi, Lisa; Nafa, Khedoudja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOSA) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm representing <5% of osteosarcomas and <1% of all soft‐tissue sarcomas. Herein, we investigate the clinicopathological and molecular features of ESOSA and explore potential parameters that may affect outcome. Thirty‐two cases were retrieved and histomorphology was reviewed. Clinical history and follow‐up were obtained through electronic record review. DNA from formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded (FFPE) tissue was extracted and processed from 27 cases. Genome‐wide DNA copy number (CN) alterations and allelic imbalances were analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism array using Affymetrix OncoScan FFPE Assay. Massive high‐throughput deep parallel sequencing was performed using a customized panel targeting 410 cancer genes. Log rank, Fisher's exact test and Cox proportional hazards were used for statistical analysis. In this series of 32 patients (male n = 12, female n = 20), the average age was 66 years (19–93) and median follow up was 24 months (range 6–120 months). Frequent genomic alterations included CN losses in tumour suppressor genes including CDKN2A (70%), TP53 (56%) and RB1 (49%). Mutations affecting methylation/demethylation, chromatin remodeling and WNT/SHH pathways were identified in 40%, 27%, and 27%, respectively. PIK3CA and TERT promoter variant mutations were identified in 11% of the cases. Cases harbouring simultaneous TP53 and RB1 biallelic CN losses were associated with worse overall survival and local recurrence (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively). CDKN2A losses and positive margins were also associated with worse overall survival (p = 0.002; p = 0.03, respectively). Our findings suggest that age above 60, positive margin status, simultaneous biallelic TP53 and RB1 losses and CDKN2A loss are associated with a worse outcome in ESOSA. Comparison between conventional paediatric osteosarcoma and ESOSA shows that, while both share genetic

  16. NAB2-STAT6 fusion types account for clinicopathological variations in solitary fibrous tumors.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hui-Chun; Chuang, I-Chieh; Chen, Tse-Ching; Li, Chien-Feng; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Lin, Po-Chun; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Lan, Jui; Yu, Shih-Chen; Yen, Shao-Lun; Jung, Shih-Ming; Liao, Kuan-Cho; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Hsuan-Ying

    2015-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is characterized by the inv12(q13q13)-derived NAB2-STAT6 fusion, which exhibits variable breakpoints and drives STAT6 nuclear expression. The implications of NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants in pathological features and clinical behavior remain to be characterized in a large cohort of SFTs. We investigated the clinicopathological correlates of this genetic hallmark and analyzed STAT6 immunoexpression in 28 intrathoracic, 37 extrathoracic, and 23 meningeal SFTs. These 88 tumors were designated as histologically nonmalignant in 75 cases and malignant in 13, including 1 dedifferentiated SFT. Eighty cases had formalin-fixed and/or fresh samples to extract assessable RNAs for RT-PCR assay, which revealed NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants comprising 12 types of junction breakpoints in 73 fusion-positive cases, with 65 (89%) falling into 3 major types. The predominant NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 (n=33) showed constant breakpoints at the ends of involved exons, whereas the NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16 (n=16) and NAB2ex6-STAT6ex17 (n=16) might exhibit variable breakpoints and incorporate NAB2 or STAT6 intronic sequence. Including 73 fusion-positive and 7 CD34-negative SFTs, STAT6 distinctively labeled 87 (99%) SFTs in nuclei, exhibited diffuse reactivity in 73, but did not decorate 98 mimics tested. In seven fusion-negative cases, 6 were STAT6-positive, suggesting rare fusion variants not covered by RT-PCR assay. Regardless of histological subtypes, intrathoracic SFTs affected older patients (P=0.035) and tended to be larger in size (P=0.073). Compared with other variants, NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2/4 fusions were significantly predominant in the SFTs characterised by intrathoracic location (P<0.001), older age (P=0.005), decreased mitoses (P=0.0028), and multifocal or diffuse STAT6 staining (P=0.013), but not found to correlate with disease-free survival. Conclusively, STAT6 nuclear expression was distinctive in the vast majority of SFTs, including all fusion-positive tumors, and

  17. Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumors: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nagarjun; Colby, Thomas V; Falconieri, Giovanni; Cohen, Hector; Moran, Cesar A; Suster, Saul

    2013-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a ubiquitous neoplasm that arises most commonly from the pleura. SFT arising within lung parenchyma (intrapulmonary SFT) has been rarely reported and is therefore not well recognized. We present a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 24 cases of primary intrapulmonary SFT. Patients' ages ranged from 44 to 83 years (mean, 58 y). None of the patients had evidence or history of a similar tumor elsewhere. Tumor size ranged from 2.3 to 22 cm (mean, 8.5 cm). On the basis of the degree of cytologic atypia, cellularity, mitotic activity, and areas of necrosis, the lesions were divided into low-grade, intermediate-grade, and high-grade histology. Twenty-one tumors showed the conventional features of SFT of low-grade histology (<5 mitoses per 10 high-power fields), with alternating bands of rope-like collagen flanked by a bland-appearing spindle cell proliferation. Hemangiopericytic, angiofibromatous, and a neural-like plexiform growth pattern were also observed. Five of 21 cases showed an "adenofibromatous" appearance imparted by entrapped normal airspaces at the advancing edges of the lesion. One intermediate-grade tumor showed overall increased cellularity with plump, pleomorphic nuclei, 5 to 10 mitoses per 10 high-power fields, and focal areas of classic SFT. Two cases showed high-grade features at initial presentation, with areas resembling a pleomorphic high-grade sarcoma admixed with foci of conventional, low-grade SFT. Immunohistochemical staining analyses performed in 13 cases showed positivity of the tumor cells for CD34, bcl-2, and CD99 in the majority of cases tested. Clinical follow-up was available in 18 patients, with long-term follow-up (>5 y) in 6. Fourteen (14/18) patients were alive and well without evidence of disease 1 month to 14 years after initial diagnosis. Three patients died of their tumors after 4, 5, and 7 years; in 2 of them the initial tumor was of low-grade histology, but the recurrence

  18. Adenoid basal lesions of the uterine cervix: evolving terminology and clinicopathological concepts.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael J; Fadare, Oluwole

    2006-08-15

    The epithelial proliferations that are designated adenoid basal carcinoma (ABC) in the current classification from the World Health Organization represent <1% of all cervical malignancies. These lesions may be associated, and occasionally show morphologic transitions with, conventional cervical malignancies. The determination of the precise frequency with which these so-called ABCs show this association is hampered by the inherent selection bias in the reported cases. However, this frequency appears to be substantial (>15%). The biologic course of ABCs that are associated with separate malignancies is largely dependent on the clinicopathologic parameters of the associated malignancies. Morphologically pure lesions, in contrast, have largely been associated with favorable patient outcomes, as none of the 66 reported patients have experienced tumor recurrence, metastases or tumor-associated death, irrespective of the modality of treatment. Although the finding of genome integrated high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and p53 alterations in adenoid basal lesions (ABL) argue in support of their neoplastic nature, we identified no lines evidence that suggest an inherent malignancy for morphologically pure lesions. The finding of morphologic transitions between ABLs and conventional malignancies and shared HPV types in these areas, suggest that ABLs have some malignant potential. However, the precise magnitude of this potential is not readily quantifiable and should not dictate the management of morphologically pure lesions that are entirely evaluable. ABLs continue to occupy a unique position in human oncology in which the term carcinoma (without an in-situ suffix) is applied to a tumor that has not been shown to recur, metastasize or cause death. We concur with a previous proposal that the term ABC should be discarded and replaced with Adenoid Basal Epithelioma (ABE). In our opinion, there is insufficient evidence at present time to expose patients with

  19. Ovarian Hemangiomas Do Not Harbor EWSR1 Rearrangements: Clinicopathologic Characterization of 10 Cases.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, John Kenneth; Greipp, Patricia T; Keeney, Gary L; Soslow, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    Hemangiomas of the ovary are rare with a majority described as individual reports of unusual clinical presentations or morphologic findings. Both the expected and unexpected pathologic features of these tumors in the ovary are not well detailed. Therefore, we collected the largest series of ovarian hemangiomas to comprehensively define their clinicopathologic associations and examine the significance of hormone receptors in their pathogenesis. In addition, a novel EWSR1-NFATC1 fusion has recently been described in a case of hemangioma of bone. To our knowledge, EWSR1 rearrangement has not been evaluated in hemangiomas of other sites or in a case series. Accordingly, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization to investigate EWSR1 status in a majority of our cases. Clinical presentation was variable and dependent on tumor size. Patient age ranged 48 to 87 yr (median 63 yr). Tumors involved the right (n=6) and left (n=3) ovaries with laterality unknown in 1 case, and size ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 cm (median 1.0 cm). Three of 4 radiologic reports were either equivocal or could not exclude malignancy. Seven cases were of the cavernous type and 3 were mixed cavernous and capillary type. All lesions formed a single discrete, circumscribed mass that displaced the surrounding cortical stroma. The cavernous type showed dilated, thin-walled vessels and vascular thrombi, some of which were associated with dystrophic calcification. In addition to cavernous morphology, the mixed form exhibited features of capillary hemangioma such as lobulated growth of capillary-sized vascular spaces that lacked atypia or multilayering and were linked to a larger feeding vessel. Each tumor expressed CD31, CD34, FLI-1, ERG, but not D240. The hemangioma stromal cells, but not endothelium, expressed estrogen and progesterone receptors in every case. Stromal luteinization was seen in 2 cases. Follow-up ranged 1 to 139 mo and all patients were disease free. All cases were negative for EWSR1

  20. NAB2-STAT6 fusion types account for clinicopathological variations in solitary fibrous tumors.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hui-Chun; Chuang, I-Chieh; Chen, Tse-Ching; Li, Chien-Feng; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Lin, Po-Chun; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Lan, Jui; Yu, Shih-Chen; Yen, Shao-Lun; Jung, Shih-Ming; Liao, Kuan-Cho; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Hsuan-Ying

    2015-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is characterized by the inv12(q13q13)-derived NAB2-STAT6 fusion, which exhibits variable breakpoints and drives STAT6 nuclear expression. The implications of NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants in pathological features and clinical behavior remain to be characterized in a large cohort of SFTs. We investigated the clinicopathological correlates of this genetic hallmark and analyzed STAT6 immunoexpression in 28 intrathoracic, 37 extrathoracic, and 23 meningeal SFTs. These 88 tumors were designated as histologically nonmalignant in 75 cases and malignant in 13, including 1 dedifferentiated SFT. Eighty cases had formalin-fixed and/or fresh samples to extract assessable RNAs for RT-PCR assay, which revealed NAB2-STAT6 fusion variants comprising 12 types of junction breakpoints in 73 fusion-positive cases, with 65 (89%) falling into 3 major types. The predominant NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2 (n=33) showed constant breakpoints at the ends of involved exons, whereas the NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16 (n=16) and NAB2ex6-STAT6ex17 (n=16) might exhibit variable breakpoints and incorporate NAB2 or STAT6 intronic sequence. Including 73 fusion-positive and 7 CD34-negative SFTs, STAT6 distinctively labeled 87 (99%) SFTs in nuclei, exhibited diffuse reactivity in 73, but did not decorate 98 mimics tested. In seven fusion-negative cases, 6 were STAT6-positive, suggesting rare fusion variants not covered by RT-PCR assay. Regardless of histological subtypes, intrathoracic SFTs affected older patients (P=0.035) and tended to be larger in size (P=0.073). Compared with other variants, NAB2ex4-STAT6ex2/4 fusions were significantly predominant in the SFTs characterised by intrathoracic location (P<0.001), older age (P=0.005), decreased mitoses (P=0.0028), and multifocal or diffuse STAT6 staining (P=0.013), but not found to correlate with disease-free survival. Conclusively, STAT6 nuclear expression was distinctive in the vast majority of SFTs, including all fusion-positive tumors, and

  1. Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma in adults: a clinicopathological and comparative genomic hybridization study

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Hong; Kang, Xueling; Pang, Li-Juan; Hu, Wenhao; Zhao, Jin; Qi, Yan; Hu, Jianming; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Hongan; Liang, Weihua; Yuan, Xianglin; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    To study the clinicopathological and genomic characteristics of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11.2 RCC) in adults, we analyzed 9 Xp11.2 RCCs, confirmed by transcription factor E3 (TFE3) immunohistochemistry, in patients aged ≥20 years. TFE3 expression was also determined in 12 cases of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) served as a positive control. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to investigate genomic imbalances in all Xp11.2 RCC cases. Most of our Xp11.2 RCC patients (5/9) presented with TNM stages 3-4, and 6 patients died 10 months to 7 years after their operation. Histologically, Xp11.2 RCC was composed of a mixed papillary nested/alveolar growth pattern (8/9). Immunostaining showed that all Xp11.2 RCC and ASPS cases had strong TFE3 expression and high positive ratios for p53 and vimentin. However, there were significant differences in the expression of AMACR (p<0.001), AE1/AE3 (p=0.002), and CD10 (p=0.024) between the 2 diseases. CGH profiles showed chromosomal imbalances in all 9 Xp11.2 RCC cases; gains were observed in chromosomes Xp11 (6/9), 7q20-25, 12q25-31 (5/9), 7p16-24 (4/9), 8p12-13, 8q20-21, 16q20-22, 17q25-26, 20q22-23 (4/9), and losses occurred frequently on chromosomes 3p12-16, 9q31-32, 14q22-24 (4/9). Our Conclusions show Xp11.2 RCC that occur in adults may be aggressive cancers, the expressions of AMACR, CD10, AE1/AE3 are helpful in the differential diagnosis between Xp11.2 RCC and ASPS, and CGH assay is a useful complementary method for confirming the diagnosis of Xp11.2 RCC. PMID:24427344

  2. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Fanburg-Smith, J C; Hengge, M; Hengge, U R; Smith, J S; Miettinen, M

    1998-12-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a well-accepted clincopathologic entity among childhood renal neoplasms; similar tumors have been described in extrarenal locations. We present the clinicopathologic profile and the immunohistochemical features of a series of soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. Twenty-eight cases coded as extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (ERRT), RT, possible ERRT, and "large cell sarcoma" were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology soft tissue registry. The tumors were reclassified according to strict criteria by light microscopy, clinical information, immunohistochemistry, and, in some cases, electron microscopy. Soft tissue rhabdoid tumor (STRT) was defined as (1) a tumor composed of noncohesive single cells, clusters, or sheets of large tumor cells with abundant glassy eosinophilic cytoplasm, an eccentric vesicular nucleus, and an extremely large nucleolus; (2) positivity for vimentin and/or cytokeratin or other epithelial markers by immunostaining; and (3) exclusion of other tumor types with rhabdoid inclusions (melanoma, other sarcomas, carcinoma). Eighteen cases met our criteria for soft tissue rhabdoid tumors. The median patient age was 13 years (range, 6 months to 56 years). Ninety-four percent of STRT cases were positive for vimentin and 59% for pan-cytokeratin. Sixty-three percent and 60% were positive for CAM 5.2 and EMA, respectively. Seventy-nine percent stained for at least one epithelial marker; 76% stained for both vimentin and epithelial markers simultaneously. Forty-two percent stained for MSA, and 14% for CEA and SMA. CD99, synaptophysin, CD57 (Leu-7), NSE, and focal S100 protein were identified in 75%, 66%, 56%, 54%, and 31% of the STRT cases, respectively. All STRT cases examined were negative for HMB-45, chromogranin, BER-EP4, desmin, myoglobin, CD34, and GFAP. Follow-up examination in 61% of the STRT patients revealed that 64% of patients died of disease within a median follow-up interval of 19 months (range, 4 months to 5 years); 82% had

  3. The molecular landscape of extraskeletal osteosarcoma: A clinicopathological and molecular biomarker study.

    PubMed

    Jour, George; Wang, Lu; Middha, Sumit; Zehir, Ahmet; Chen, Wen; Sadowska, Justyna; Healey, John; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Choi, Lisa; Nafa, Khedoudja; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOSA) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm representing <5% of osteosarcomas and <1% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Herein, we investigate the clinicopathological and molecular features of ESOSA and explore potential parameters that may affect outcome. Thirty-two cases were retrieved and histomorphology was reviewed. Clinical history and follow-up were obtained through electronic record review. DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue was extracted and processed from 27 cases. Genome-wide DNA copy number (CN) alterations and allelic imbalances were analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism array using Affymetrix OncoScan FFPE Assay. Massive high-throughput deep parallel sequencing was performed using a customized panel targeting 410 cancer genes. Log rank, Fisher's exact test and Cox proportional hazards were used for statistical analysis. In this series of 32 patients (male n = 12, female n = 20), the average age was 66 years (19-93) and median follow up was 24 months (range 6-120 months). Frequent genomic alterations included CN losses in tumour suppressor genes including CDKN2A (70%), TP53 (56%) and RB1 (49%). Mutations affecting methylation/demethylation, chromatin remodeling and WNT/SHH pathways were identified in 40%, 27%, and 27%, respectively. PIK3CA and TERT promoter variant mutations were identified in 11% of the cases. Cases harbouring simultaneous TP53 and RB1 biallelic CN losses were associated with worse overall survival and local recurrence (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively). CDKN2A losses and positive margins were also associated with worse overall survival (p = 0.002; p = 0.03, respectively). Our findings suggest that age above 60, positive margin status, simultaneous biallelic TP53 and RB1 losses and CDKN2A loss are associated with a worse outcome in ESOSA. Comparison between conventional paediatric osteosarcoma and ESOSA shows that, while both share genetic similarities, there are

  4. Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma in adults: a clinicopathological and comparative genomic hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hong; Kang, Xueling; Pang, Li-Juan; Hu, Wenhao; Zhao, Jin; Qi, Yan; Hu, Jianming; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Hongan; Liang, Weihua; Yuan, Xianglin; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    To study the clinicopathological and genomic characteristics of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11.2 RCC) in adults, we analyzed 9 Xp11.2 RCCs, confirmed by transcription factor E3 (TFE3) immunohistochemistry, in patients aged ≥20 years. TFE3 expression was also determined in 12 cases of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) served as a positive control. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to investigate genomic imbalances in all Xp11.2 RCC cases. Most of our Xp11.2 RCC patients (5/9) presented with TNM stages 3-4, and 6 patients died 10 months to 7 years after their operation. Histologically, Xp11.2 RCC was composed of a mixed papillary nested/alveolar growth pattern (8/9). Immunostaining showed that all Xp11.2 RCC and ASPS cases had strong TFE3 expression and high positive ratios for p53 and vimentin. However, there were significant differences in the expression of AMACR (p<0.001), AE1/AE3 (p=0.002), and CD10 (p=0.024) between the 2 diseases. CGH profiles showed chromosomal imbalances in all 9 Xp11.2 RCC cases; gains were observed in chromosomes Xp11 (6/9), 7q20-25, 12q25-31 (5/9), 7p16-24 (4/9), 8p12-13, 8q20-21, 16q20-22, 17q25-26, 20q22-23 (4/9), and losses occurred frequently on chromosomes 3p12-16, 9q31-32, 14q22-24 (4/9). Our Conclusions show Xp11.2 RCC that occur in adults may be aggressive cancers, the expressions of AMACR, CD10, AE1/AE3 are helpful in the differential diagnosis between Xp11.2 RCC and ASPS, and CGH assay is a useful complementary method for confirming the diagnosis of Xp11.2 RCC. PMID:24427344

  5. Adult renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation: incidence and clinicopathologic features in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyu; Xi, Chenguang; Jin, Jie; Zhou, Liqun; Su, Jinwei; Liu, Libo; Liu, Yuli

    2015-04-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with rhabdoid differentiation is a recently described variant of RCC, which has seldom been reported in China. This form of differentiation has been generally associated with a poor prognosis and is often present in tumors with a poorly differentiated morphology. The development of a rhabdoid morphology appears to represent a common dedifferentiation pathway for renal parenchymal malignancies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and clinicopathologic features of RCC rhabdoid differentiation in Chinese adult patients and to further investigate its origin. We reviewed 723 cases of RCC obtained between January 2012 and March 2014 in Peking University First Hospital. From these cases, 10 (1.4%) were found to have areas of classic rhabdoid morphology. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin, cytokeratin (CK) (pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), CK20, CK5/6, CK7, and CK8/18), RCC, CD10, Pax-2, Pax-8, CD117, desmin, muscle-specific actin, CD68, p53, and Ki-67 was performed in each case using the labeled streptavidin-biotin method. Rhabdoid differentiation was identified in association with clear cell RCC, papillary RCC (II type), and sarcomatoid RCC. We compared the morphologic and immunohistochemical features between rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid components. In our cases, rhabdoid differentiation was characterized by the presence of cohesive large epithelioid cells with abundant pink cytoplasm and central eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions and 1 or more large, oval, eccentric, or irregular nuclei containing prominent nucleoli. Most of the rhabdoid areas showed a solid growth pattern. In our series, RCC with rhabdoid differentiation had an aggressive biological behavior, and rhabdoid components were most likely associated with high-grade tumors of advanced stage. In all cases, the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid tumoral areas without sarcomatoid differentiation exhibited the very similar immunophenotype as follows: vimentin (+/-), AE1/AE3 (+), CK8

  6. Lymphadenoma of the salivary gland: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 33 tumors.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R; Thompson, Lester D R; Gnepp, Douglas R; Barnes, E Leon; Skalova, Alena; Montone, Kathleen; Kane, Shubhada; Lewis, James S; Solomon, Lynn W; Simpson, Roderick H W; Khan, Ashraf; Prasad, Manju L

    2012-01-01

    Lymphadenomas (LADs) are rare salivary gland tumors. Their clinicopathologic characteristics and etiopathogenesis are poorly understood. We examined 33 LADs in 31 patients (17 women and 14 men) aged 11-79 years (median 65 years). There were 22 sebaceous LADs in 21 patients (9 women and 12 men) and 11 non-sebaceous LADs in 10 patients (8 women and 2 men). Two patients had synchronous double tumors. Twenty-six tumors (79%) arose in parotid, three in the neck, and two each in submandibular gland and oral cavity. Extraparotid tumors were seen in 2 of 21 (10%) patients with sebaceous and 4 of 10 (40%) patients with non-sebaceous LADs. Seven of twenty-three (30%) patients had immunosuppressive therapy for unrelated diseases. The tumors were well circumscribed, encapsulated (n=28, 84%) painless masses, varying in size from 0.6 to 6 cm (median 2.2). The cut surfaces were gray-tan to yellow, homogeneous and multicystic (n=24, 72%). The epithelial cells were basaloid, squamous and glandular, forming solid nests, cords, tubules, and cysts. Sebaceous differentiation was restricted to sebaceous lymphadenoma. The epithelial cells expressed basal cell markers (p63, 34BE12, and/or CK5/6, 18/18, 100%) and the luminal glandular cells expressed CK7 (12/12, 100%). Myoepithelial cells were absent (n=10/16, 63%) or focal. The lymphoid stroma was reactive, with germinal centers in 28 (84%). There was no evidence of HPV (0/11), EBV (0/7), and HHV-8 (0/8). Malignant transformation to sebaceous and basal cell adenocarcinoma was seen in one patient each. None of the 11 patients with follow-up (1-8 years) recurred. In summary, sebaceous and non-sebaceous LADs are benign, encapsulated, solid and cystic tumors affecting older adults. Non-sebaceous LADs affect women and extraparotid sites more frequently than sebaceous LADs. Altered immune status may have a role in their etiopathogenesis. Multiple synchronous tumors, origin in buccal mucosa, and malignant transformation may rarely occur.

  7. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study of 25 patients.

    PubMed

    Savera, A T; Sloman, A; Huvos, A G; Klimstra, D S

    2000-06-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas displaying exclusively myoepithelial differentiation (myoepithelial carcinoma) are considered rare. Their histopathologic features, immunohistochemical profile, and clinical behavior are not well characterized. The authors reviewed the clinicopathologic features of 25 salivary gland tumors fulfilling two fundamental histologic criteria: unequivocally malignant and exclusively myoepithelial. For most of these, the original diagnosis was malignant mixed tumor. Thirteen men and 12 women aged 24 to 77 years (mean age, 55 yrs) participated in the study, and most presented with a painless mass. The parotid gland was the most common site (n = 15). Tumors ranged from 2.1 to 5.5 cm, arising either in association with a benign mixed tumor (n = 15) or de novo (n = 10). Histologically, all the tumors displayed infiltrative growth and most had a characteristic multinodular architecture with a cellular periphery and central necrotic/myxoid zones. Epithelioid, hyaline, spindle, clear, or mixed cell types were noted with accompanying myxoid and/or hyalinized extracellular matrix. Ten tumors were high grade cytologically and 15 were low grade. The mitotic rate ranged from three to 51 mitoses per 10 high-power fields. Necrosis was present in 15 tumors and perineural and vascular invasion were identified in 11 and four neoplasms respectively. Immunoreactivities included CAM5.2 (89%), AE1:AE3 (100%), 34betaE12 (92%), cytokeratin 7 (21%), cytokeratin 14 (53%), vimentin (100%), S-100 protein (100%), smooth muscle actin (50%), calponin (75%), muscle-specific actin (31%), glial fibrillary acidic protein (31%), carcinoembryonic antigen (0%), and epithelial membrane antigen (21%). Ultrastructural examination of three tumors showed myoepithelial features. Ten patients developed recurrences, mostly multiple. Follow up of 17 patients showed that eight patients (47%) developed metastases (six high grade, two low grade) and five patients (29%) died of disease (four high

  8. Myofibromas and myofibromatosis of the oral region: A clinicopathologic analysis of 79 cases.

    PubMed

    Foss, R D; Ellis, G L

    2000-01-01

    The clinicopathologic features of 79 myofibromas or myofibromatoses of the oral and maxillofacial region were studied. The case studies were taken from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The tumors affected 44 males and 33 females (gender was unknown in 2 cases). The patients' ages at diagnosis ranged from birth to 84 years, with mean and median ages of 26.6 and 22 years, respectively. Four patients had infantile myofibromatosis; 2 had extraoral bone lesions and 2 had multiple subcutaneous tumors. In descending order, tumors involved the mandible, tongue, lips, cheek or buccal area, maxilla or palate, pterygomandibular raphae, floor of mouth, and submandibular gland. One third of the tumors affected the bones of the jaws; 12 were central and 15 were cortical or periosteal. All medullary tumors occurred in patients under age 18. On gross examination, the lesions were firm, homogeneous or whorled, white-grey fibrous masses that ranged in size from 0.5 to 5.0 cm. Microscopically, all tumors demonstrated a pattern of nodules or bundles of spindle cells separated by areas of greater cellularity and crescent-shaped vascular spaces. Distinct hemangiopericytoma-like areas were present in 22 cases. Despite apparent circumscription, the tumors commonly infiltrated and entrapped adjacent muscle, nerve, or salivary tissue. Immunohistochemically, 37 of 37 and 39 of 39 tumors stained positively for alpha-smooth muscle actin and muscle-specific actin, respectively, with the former eliciting a more intense reaction. Eight of 8 tumors were weakly positive for CD68, and one case stained focally with S-100 protein. No desmin staining was present in 36 tumors examined. Diagnostic interpretations by the pathologists seeking consultation were malignant or aggressive tumors in 31 cases and other benign conditions in 26. Nine were interpreted as myofibromatosis and 13 offered no interpretation. Thirty-two patients were alive and free of tumor an average of 42 months

  9. Clinicopathological concordance of dementia diagnoses by community versus tertiary care clinicians.

    PubMed

    Mok, W; Chow, T W; Zheng, L; Mack, W J; Miller, C

    2004-01-01

    Subjects enrolled in the Autopsy Program at the University of Southern California Alzheimer's Disease Research Center may receive clinical diagnoses from primary care providers in the community or from specialists in neurology. We reviewed the autopsy concordance rates for 463 subjects for diagnoses made by both groups of clinicians. Seventy-seven percent of the sample met neuropathological criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The overall diagnostic accuracy for this sample was 81 percent. Neurologists assessed 200 of the subjects (43 percent). The diagnostic accuracy for any clinical diagnosis among the non-neurologists was 84 percent, and 78 percent (p = 0.07) among neurologists. For AD, non-neurologists had a diagnostic concordance rate of 91 percent and neurologists 87 percent. Where neuropathological AD was missed, non-neurologists had failed to detect any cognitive impairment; neurologists had diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Erroneous clinical diagnoses of AD missed dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or AD concurrent with Parkinson's disease (PD). Our findings identify specific foci for improving clinical diagnosis of dementia among all physicians managing dementia. PMID:15214202

  10. Tailored donor-acceptor polymers with an A-D1-A-D2 structure: controlling intermolecular interactions to enable enhanced polymer photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tianshi; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Pisula, Wojciech; Baumgarten, Martin; Chen, Ming; Gao, Mei; Wilson, Gerry; Easton, Christopher D; Müllen, Klaus; Watkins, Scott E

    2014-04-23

    Extensive efforts have been made to develop novel conjugated polymers that give improved performance in organic photovoltaic devices. The use of polymers based on alternating electron-donating and electron-accepting units not only allows the frontier molecular orbitals to be tuned to maximize the open-circuit voltage of the devices but also controls the optical band gap to increase the number of photons absorbed and thus modifies the other critical device parameter-the short circuit current. In fact, varying the nonchromophoric components of a polymer is often secondary to the efforts to adjust the intermolecular aggregates and improve the charge-carrier mobility. Here, we introduce an approach to polymer synthesis that facilitates simultaneous control over both the structural and electronic properties of the polymers. Through the use of a tailored multicomponent acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) intermediate, polymers with the unique structure A-D1-A-D2 can be prepared. This approach enables variations in the donor fragment substituents such that control over both the polymer regiochemistry and solubility is possible. This control results in improved intermolecular π-stacking interactions and therefore enhanced charge-carrier mobility. Solar cells using the A-D1-A-D2 structural polymer show short-circuit current densities that are twice that of the simple, random analogue while still maintaining an identical open-circuit voltage. The key finding of this work is that polymers with an A-D1-A-D2 structure offer significant performance benefits over both regioregular and random A-D polymers. The chemical synthesis approach that enables the preparation of A-D1-A-D2 polymers therefore represents a promising new route to materials for high-efficiency organic photovoltaic devices.

  11. Genes Might Explain Hispanics' Added Longevity

    MedlinePlus

    ... University of California, Los Angeles. For example, the biological clock measured Hispanic women's "genetic" age as 2. ... and how long they live," he added. The biological clock used in the new study evaluates the ...

  12. Underweight Seniors May Have Added Alzheimer's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160278.html Underweight Seniors May Have Added Alzheimer's Risk Study links lower body weight to increased ... older adults' risk of the memory-robbing disorder Alzheimer's disease, new research suggests. The study included 280 ...

  13. Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.

  14. Junk Food Ads Sway Kids' Preferences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids' Preferences Children under 8 most vulnerable to marketing's effects, study says To use the sharing features ... studies. The researchers found that ads and other marketing for products high in sugar or salt have ...

  15. Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, Igor R.

    2008-07-28

    This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

  16. Trust Based Routing in Ad Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talati, Mikita V.; Valiveti, Sharada; Kotecha, K.

    Ad Hoc network often termed as an infrastructure-less, self- organized or spontaneous network.The execution and survival of an ad-hoc network is solely dependent upon the cooperative and trusting nature of its nodes. However, this naive dependency on intermediate nodes makes the ad-hoc network vulnerable to passive and active attacks by malicious nodes and cause inflict severe damage. A number of protocols have been developed to secure ad-hoc networks using cryptographic schemes, but all rely on the presence of trust authority. Due to mobility of nodes and limitation of resources in wireless network one interesting research area in MANET is routing. This paper offers various trust models and trust based routing protocols to improve the trustworthiness of the neighborhood.Thus it helps in selecting the most secure and trustworthy route from the available ones for the data transfer.

  17. Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katoh, S.

    1978-01-01

    Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.

  18. The Mutation SK(ad-3A) Cancels the Dominance of ad-3A+ over ad-3A in the Ascus of Neurospora

    PubMed Central

    Delange, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A newly induced mutant of Neurospora, when crossed with an ad-3A mutant, produces asci with four viable black and four inviable white ascospores. The survivors always contain the new mutant allele, never ad-3A. The new allele, which is called SK(ad-3A) (for spore killer of ad-3A), is located at or very near the ad-3A locus.—In crosses homozygous for ad-3A, each ascus contains only inviable white ascospores. This defect in ascospore maturation is complemented by the wild-type allele, ad-3A+ (crosses heterozygous for ad-3A and ad-3A+ produce mainly viable ascospores), but it is not complemented by the new SK(ad-3A) allele (all ad-3A ascospores from crosses heterozygous for SK(ad-3A) and ad-3A are white and inviable). In crosses homozygous for SK(ad-3A) or heterozygous for SK(ad-3A) and ad-3A+, each ascus contains only viable black ascospores. SK(ad-3A) does not require adenine for growth, and forced heterokaryons between SK(ad-3A) and ad-3A grow at wild-type rates and produce conidia of both genotypes with approximately equal frequency. Thus, the action of SK(ad-3A) is apparently restricted to ascospore formation. Possible mechanisms of the action of this new allele are discussed. PMID:6456169

  19. Image Ads and Issue Ads in U.S. Presidential Advertising: Using Videostyle To Explore Stylistic Differences in Televised Political Ads From 1952 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Anne; Kaid, Lynda Lee

    2002-01-01

    Explores the differences in techniques, strategies, narratives, and symbols used in 1,213 television issue ads and image ads from 13 U.S. presidential campaigns. Concludes that although the majority of both types of ads were positive, negative appeals dominated a higher percentage of issue ads as compared with image ads. (SG)

  20. Comment on the scaling function in AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Mikhaylov, Victor

    2009-04-01

    The folded spinning string in AdS3 gives us an important insight into AdS/CFT duality. Recently its one-loop energy was analyzed in the context of AdS4/CFT3 by McLoughlin and Roiban arXiv:0807.3965, by Alday, Arutyunov and Bykov arXiv:0807.4400 and by Krishnan arXiv:0807.4561. They computed the spectrum of the fluctuations around the classical solution. In this paper we reproduce their results using the algebraic curve technique and show that under some natural resummation of the fluctuation energies the one-loop energy agrees perfectly with the predictions of arXiv:0807.0777. This provides a further support of the all-loop Bethe equations and of the AdS4 × Bbb CBbb P3 algebraic curve developed in arXiv:0807.0437.

  1. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally. PMID:25615306

  2. Supersymmetric black holes in AdS4 from very special geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnecchi, Alessandra; Halmagyi, Nick

    2014-04-01

    Supersymmetric black holes in AdS spacetime are inherently interesting for the AdS/CFT correspondence. Within a four dimensional gauged supergravity theory coupled to vector multiplets, the only analytic solutions for regular, supersymmetric, static black holes in AdS4 are those in the STU-model due to Cacciatori and Klemm. We study a class of U (1)-gauged supergravity theories coupled to vector multiplets which have a cubic prepotential, the scalar manifold is then a very special Kähler manifold. When the resulting very special Kähler manifold is a homogeneous space, we find analytic solutions for static, supersymmetric AdS4 black holes with vanishing axions. The horizon geometries of our solutions are constant curvature Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus.

  3. AdS5×S(5) mirror model as a string sigma model.

    PubMed

    Arutyunov, Gleb; van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2014-12-31

    Doing a double Wick rotation in the world sheet theory of the light cone AdS5×S(5) superstring results in an inequivalent, so-called mirror theory that plays a central role in the field of integrability in the AdS-CFT correspondence. We show that this mirror theory can be interpreted as the light cone theory of a free string on a different background. This background is related to dS5×H(5) by a double T-duality, and has hidden supersymmetry. The geometry can also be extracted from an integrable deformation of the AdS5×S(5) sigma model, and we prove the observed mirror duality of these deformed models at the bosonic level as a byproduct. While we focus on AdS5×S(5), our results apply more generally.

  4. Modifying Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heifetz, Louis J.; Farber, Barry A.

    1976-01-01

    An introductory framework for analyzing and modifying classroom behavior...is followed by presentation of illustrative case materials, discussion of philosophical and ethical issues, analysis of pitfalls to be avoided, and consideration of limitations inherent in behavioral approaches. (Author)

  5. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  6. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  7. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of programmed cell death ligand1 (PD-L1) expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhen-Kui; Ye, Feng; Wu, Xuan; An, Han-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and one of its ligands, PD-L1, are key immune checkpoint proteins. Evidences showed PD-L1 is an emerging biomarker for immunotherapy by anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibody in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To investigate the association of PD-L1 protein expression with clinicopathological features and its impact on survival outcome, we conducted a meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases (up to July 10, 2014) was performed. Correlation between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS) was analyzed by synthesizing the qualified data. Publication biases were examined. Results A total of 1,550 NSCLC patients from 9 studies were included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) indicated high PD-L1 expression was associated with poor tumor differentiation [OR =0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.39-0.72, P<0.0001]. Whereas, none of other clinicopathological characteristics [gender, smoking status, histological type, invasive depth of tumor, status of lymph node metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage] were correlated with PD-L1 expression in current analysis. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for OS showed high expression of PD-L1 impaired the OS in NSCLC (HRpositive/negative =1.47, 95% CI: 1.19-1.83, P=0.0004). Conclusions Our meta-analysis indicated PD-L1 protein expression in NSCLC was not associated with common clinicopathological characteristics, except tumor differentiation. It was a poor prognostic biomarker for NSCLC. Further research should be performed to investigate the precise clinicopathological and prognostic significance of PD-L1 in NSCLC under uniform testing standard. PMID:25922726

  8. Higher spin contributions to holographic fluid dynamics in AdS5/CFT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjin; Polyakov, Dimitri

    2014-08-01

    We calculate the graviton's β function in the AdS string-theoretic sigma model, perturbed by vertex operators for Vasiliev's higher spin gauge fields in AdS5. The result is given by βmn=Rmn+4Tmn(g ,u) (with the AdS radius set to 1 and the graviton polarized along the AdS5 boundary), with the matter stress-energy tensor given by that of conformal holographic fluid in d =4, evaluated at the temperature given by T =1/π. The stress-energy tensor is given by Tmn=gmn+4umun+∑NTmn(N) where u is the vector excitation satisfying u2=-1 and N is the order of the gradient expansion in the dissipative part of the tensor. We calculate the contributions up to N =2. The higher spin excitations contribute to the β function, ensuring the overall Weyl covariance of the matter stress tensor. We conjecture that the structure of gradient expansion in d =4 conformal hydrodynamics at higher orders is controlled by the higher spin operator algebra in AdS5.

  9. AdS and Lifshitz scalar hairy black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Fan, Zhong-Ying; Zhu, Lu-Yao

    2016-09-01

    We consider Gauss-Bonnet (GB) gravity in general dimensions, which is nonminimally coupled to a scalar field. By choosing a scalar potential of the type V (ϕ )=2 Λ0+1/2 m2ϕ2+γ4ϕ4 , we first obtain large classes of scalar hairy black holes with spherical/hyperbolic/planar topologies that are asymptotic to locally anti- de Sitter (AdS) space-times. We derive the first law of black hole thermodynamics using Wald formalism. In particular, for one class of the solutions, the scalar hair forms a thermodynamic conjugate with the graviton and nontrivially contributes to the thermodynamical first law. We observe that except for one class of the planar black holes, all these solutions are constructed at the critical point of GB gravity where there exist unique AdS vacua. In fact, a Lifshitz vacuum is also allowed at the critical point. We then construct many new classes of neutral and charged Lifshitz black hole solutions for an either minimally or nonminimally coupled scalar and derive the thermodynamical first laws. We also obtain new classes of exact dynamical AdS and Lifshitz solutions which describe radiating white holes. The solutions eventually become AdS or Lifshitz vacua at late retarded times. However, for one class of the solutions, the final state is an AdS space-time with a globally naked singularity.

  10. Clinico-Pathological Association of Delineated miRNAs in Uveal Melanoma with Monosomy 3/Disomy 3 Chromosomal Aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Nalini; Kanwar, Jagat; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi; Khetan, Vikas; Crowley, Tamsyn M.; Raguraman, Rajeswari; Sugneswari, Ganesan; Rishi, Pukhraj; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To correlate the differentially expressed miRNAs with clinico-pathological features in uveal melanoma (UM) tumors harbouring chromosomal 3 aberrations among South Asian Indian cohort. Methods Based on chromosomal 3 aberration, UM (n = 86) were grouped into monosomy 3 (M3; n = 51) and disomy 3 (D3; n = 35) by chromogenic in-situ hybridisation (CISH). The clinico-pathological features were recorded. miRNA profiling was performed in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) UM samples (n = 6) using Agilent, Human miRNA microarray, 8x15KV3 arrays. The association between miRNAs and clinico-pathological features were studied using univariate and multivariate analysis. miRNA-gene targets were predicted using Target-scan and MiRanda database. Significantly dys-regulated miRNAs were validated in FFPE UM (n = 86) and mRNAs were validated in frozen UM (n = 10) by qRT-PCR. Metastasis free-survival and miRNA expressions were analysed by Kaplen-Meier analysis in UM tissues (n = 52). Results Unsupervised analysis revealed 585 differentially expressed miRNAs while supervised analysis demonstrated 82 miRNAs (FDR; Q = 0.0). Differential expression of 8 miRNAs: miR-214, miR-149*, miR-143, miR-146b, miR-199a, let7b, miR-1238 and miR-134 were studied. Gene target prediction revealed SMAD4, WISP1, HIPK1, HDAC8 and C-KIT as the post-transcriptional regulators of miR-146b, miR-199a, miR-1238 and miR-134. Five miRNAs (miR-214, miR146b, miR-143, miR-199a and miR-134) were found to be differentially expressed in M3/ D3 UM tumors. In UM patients with liver metastasis, miR-149* and miR-134 expressions were strongly correlated. Conclusion UM can be stratified using miRNAs from FFPE sections. miRNAs predicting liver metastasis and survival have been identified. Mechanistic linkage of de-regulated miRNA/mRNA expressions provide new insights on their role in UM progression and aggressiveness. PMID:26812476

  11. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Survival Outcomes of Invasive Cribriform Carcinoma of Breast: A SEER Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Yu; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Yi-Rong; Zuo, Wen-Jia; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Invasive cribriform carcinoma (ICC) is a rare histologic subtype of breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of ICC.Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 233,337 female patients diagnosed with ICC (n = 618) or infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) (n = 232,719). Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were utilized to calculate and compare disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). A 1:1 paired match was carried out on age, tumor stage, tumor grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Baseline characteristics and survival outcomes were also analyzed in ER-positive tumors. Subgroup analyses summarized the hazard ratio (HR) of IDC versus ICC using a forest plot.ICCs presented smaller size, lower grade, higher ER and PR positive rate, less nodal metastasis, and were less likely to be treated with mastectomy compared to IDCs. Five-year DSS rates were significantly better for patients with ICC than for patients with IDC (98.8% vs. 93%, P < 0.001). Five-year OS rates were 95.3% versus 90.1% (P < 0.001). After adjustment for common clinicopathological factors in the multivariate analysis, patients with ICC showed limited DSS advantage over the IDC group (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.38-1.51, P = 0.421). No significant difference in DSS nor OS was observed in matched groups between ICC and IDC. Analysis among ER-positive patients revealed similar prognostic factors as among all patients. Survival analysis in different tumor grade subgroups showed no significant difference between ICC and IDC.ICCs have unique clinicopathological characteristics, higher rates of breast-conserving surgery, and more favorable prognosis compared to the overall IDC population. Difference in tumor grade between the 2 groups may partially explain the different outcome. Improved clinical and biological understanding of ICC

  12. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of cancer stem cell markers CD44 and CD133 in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li; Wu, Menglin; Sun, Longhao; Li, Weidong; Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Xuening; Liu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In recent years, CD44 and CD133 have been identified as 2 common used cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in gastric cancer. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers in gastric cancer remains controversial; moreover, there is lack of comparison of these 2 markers’ roles in clinical applications. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate these markers’ clinicopathological features and association with prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified and odds ratios (ORs), hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Heterogeneity and sensitivity were analyzed as well. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger tests. Results: The meta-analysis included 26 studies involving 4729 patients. High expression of CD44 was associated with Lauren type (intestinal type) (OR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.02–2.30]; P = 0.038) and lymphatic vessel invasion (OR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.06–1.76]; P = 0.021). CD133 overexpression was related to high TNM stage (III/IV) (OR, 3.18 [95% CI, 2.48–4.07]; P = 0.000), high depth of invasion (T3/T4) (OR, 2.97 [95% CI, 2.20–4.03]; P = 0.000), lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.82 [95% CI, 2.16–3.69]; P = 0.000), vascular invasion (OR, 6.71 [95% CI, 1.63–27.63]; P = 0.008), and distant metastasis (OR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.64–3.29]; P = 0.000). In addition, survival analysis demonstrated a significant association between CD44, as well as CD133 and poor 5-year overall survival (HR, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.55–2.26]; P = 0.000; HR, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.76–2.44]; P = 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: These data suggest that upregulated expression of CD44 and CD133 correlates with several clinicopathological features and poor prognosis. Since the related features do not overlap, combined detection of CD44 and CD133 expression can be an especially effective tool for pathological diagnosis

  13. Lower expressed miR-198 and its potential targets in hepatocellular carcinoma: a clinicopathological and in silico study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Ting; Wang, Han-Lin; Yang, Hong; Ren, Fang-Hui; Luo, Yi-Huan; Huang, Chun-Qin; Liang, Yue-Ya; Liang, Hai-Wei; Chen, Gang; Dang, Yi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinicopathological value and potential roles of microRNA-198 (miR-198) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Ninety-five formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded HCC and the para-cancerous liver tissues were gathered. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to determine the miR-198 expression. The association between the miR-198 expression and clinicopathological features was examined. Meanwhile, potential target messenger RNAs of miR-198 in HCC were obtained from 14 miRNA prediction databases and natural language processing method, in which we pooled the genes related to the tumorigenesis and progression of HCC and classified them by their frequency. The selected target genes were finally analyzed in the Gene Ontology analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway. Results miR-198 expression was significantly lower in HCC than that in adjacent noncancerous liver tissues (1.30±0.72 vs 2.01±0.58, P<0.001). Low miR-198 expression was also correlated to hepatitis C virus infection (r=−0.48, P<0.001), tumor capsular infiltration (r=−0.43, P<0.001), metastasis (r=−0.26, P<0.010), number of tumor nodes (r=−0.25, P=0.013), vaso-invasion (r=−0.24, P=0.017), and clinical tumor node metastasis stage (r=−0.23, P=0.024). Altogether, 1,048 genes were achieved by the concurrent prediction from at least four databases and natural language processing indicated 1,800 genes for HCC. Further, 127 overlapping targets were further proceeded with for pathway analysis. The most enriched Gene Ontology terms in the potential target messenger RNAs of miR-198 were cell motion, cell migration, cell motility, and regulation of cell proliferation in biological process; organelle lumen, membrane-enclosed lumen, and nuclear lumen in cellular component; and enzyme binding, protein domain-specific binding, and protein kinase activity in molecular function. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis

  14. A Comparative Clinicopathologic Study of Collagenous Gastritis in Children and Adults: The Same Disorder With Associated Immune-mediated Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changqing; Park, Jason Y; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Arnold, Christina A; McDonald, Oliver G; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Salaria, Safia N; Limketkai, Berkeley N; McGrath, Kevin M; Musahl, Tina; Singhi, Aatur D

    2015-06-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition characterized by surface epithelial damage, subepithelial collagen deposition, and a lamina propria inflammatory infiltrate. Previous studies have proposed 2 clinicopathologic subtypes: (1) children (18 y of age or younger) presenting with severe anemia, nodular gastric mucosa, and isolated gastric disease; and (2) adults with chronic watery diarrhea that is associated with diffuse collagenous involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. However, notable exceptions exist. In fact, broad variability in clinical presentation, etiology, treatment and disease course has been reported. To better define the clinicopathologic features of collagenous gastritis, we have collected 10 pediatric and 21 adult cases and describe their clinical, endoscopic, pathologic, and follow-up findings. Both children and adults presented with similar clinical symptoms such as anemia (50%, 35%, respectively), epigastric/abdominal pain (50%, 45%), and diarrhea (40%, 55%). Concomitant immune disorders were identified in 2 (20%) children and 3 (14%) adults. Further, 7 of 17 (41%) adults were taking medications associated with other immune-related gastrointestinal diseases including olmesartan and antidepressants. Histologically, there were no differences between children and adults with collagenous gastritis in the location of gastric involvement, mean collagenous layer thickness, and prominence of eosinophils (P>0.05). Extragastric collagenous involvement was also seen with comparable frequencies in each cohort (44%, 59%). Follow-up information was available for 22 of 31 (71%) patients and ranged from 2 to 122 months (mean, 33.6 mo). Despite medical management in most cases, persistence of symptoms or collagenous gastritis on subsequent biopsies was seen in 100% of children and 82% of adults. Of note, treatment for 1 adult patient involved cessation of olmesartan resulting in resolution of both symptoms and subepithelial collagen deposition on subsequent

  15. Light-Front Holography, AdS/QCD, and Hadronic Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2009-12-09

    AdS/QCD, the correspondence between theories in a modified five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and confining field theories in physical space-time, provides a remarkable semiclassical model for hadron physics. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons at the amplitude level. We identify the AdS coordinate z with an invariant light-front coordinate {zeta} which separates the dynamics of quark and gluon binding from the kinematics of constituent spin and internal orbital angular momentum. The result is a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation with a confining potential which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The mapping of electromagnetic and gravitational form factors in AdS space to their corresponding expressions in light-front theory confirms this correspondence. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. The distinction between static structure functions, such as the probability distributions computed from the square of the light-front wavefunctions, versus dynamical structure functions which include the effects of rescattering, is emphasized. A new method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level, an event amplitude generator, is outlined.

  16. Spinning strings at one-loop in AdS4 × Bbb P3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLoughlin, Tristan; Roiban, Radu

    2008-12-01

    We analyze the folded spinning string in AdS4 × Bbb P3 with spin S in AdS4 and angular momentum J in Bbb P3. We calculate the one-loop correction to its energy in the scaling limit of both ln S and J large with their ratio kept fixed. This result should correspond to the first subleading strong coupling correction to the anomalous dimension of operators of the type Tr(DS(Y†Y)J) in the dual Script N = 6 Chern-Simons-matter theory. Our result appears to depart from the predictions for the generalized scaling function found from the all-loop Bethe equations conjectured for this AdS4/CFT3 duality. We comment on the possible origin of this difference.

  17. A stochasticity threshold in holography and the instability of AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Saurabh, Ayush

    2015-07-01

    We give strong numerical evidence that a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS, with only a few modes turned on initially, will undergo fast thermalization only if it is above a certain energetic threshold. Below the threshold the energy stays close to constant in a few modes for a very long time instead of cascading quickly. This indicates the existence of a Strong Stochasticity Threshold (SST) in holography. The idea of SST is familiar from certain statistical mechanical systems, and we suggest that it exists also in AdS gravity. This would naturally reconcile the generic nonlinear instability of AdS observed by Bizon and Rostworowski, with the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou-like quasiperiodicity noticed recently for some classes of initial conditions. We show that our simple setup captures many of the relevant features of the full gravity-scalar system.

  18. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  19. Asymptotically AdS Solutions of Five Dimensional Gravity-Dilaton Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nata Atmaja, Ardian

    2016-08-01

    We search for Asymptotically AdS solutions of the background metric in which dilaton back reacts to gravity in five-dimensional gravity-dilaton theory. The five-dimensional gravity-dilaton theory generally appears in the context of the low energy effective action of closed string theory in the Einstein frame. In particular, we consider dilaton which are minimally coupled to gravity in which the potential for dilation is taken to be simple and contain only one exponential term parametrized by a constant a. We solve analytically and show for a simple constant dilaton potential it appears there are no black hole solutions if we turn on the dilaton contribution. On the other hand, the exponential dilaton potential has black hole solutions but they are not in general Asymptotically AdS. We argue that there are some possible Asymptotically AdS black hole solutions in the range of |a| \\lt \\frac{4}{\\sqrt{6}}

  20. Superstring theory on AdS 2× S2 as a coset supermanifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovits, N.; Bershadsky, M.; Hauer, T.; Zhukov, S.; Zwiebach, B.

    We quantize the superstring on the AdS 2× S2 background with Ramond-Ramond flux using a PSU(1,1|2)/ U(1)× U(1) sigma model with a WZ term. One-loop conformal invariance of the model is guaranteed by a general mechanism which holds for coset spaces G/ H where G is Ricci-flat and H is the invariant locus of a Z4 automorphism of G. This mechanism gives conformal theories for the PSU(1,1|2)× PSU(2|2)/ SU(2)× SU(2) and PSU(2,2|4)/ SO(4,1)× SO(5) coset spaces, suggesting our results might be useful for quantizing the superstring on AdS 3× S3 and AdS 5× S5 backgrounds.

  1. Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.

  2. Clinicopathological characterization of two recombinant Newcastle disease viruses derived from a virulent Chinese strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four-week-old white Leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with either a virulent recombinant clone of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), rZJ1, or a modified rZJ1, containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP), (rZJ1-GFP). The ZJ1 parent strain was responsible for NDV outbreaks in Southern...

  3. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    PubMed

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  4. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    PubMed

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  5. Heterogeneous drying of colloidal polymer films: dependence on added salt.

    PubMed

    König, Alexander M; Weerakkody, Tecla G; Keddie, Joseph L; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2008-07-15

    Using magnetic resonance profiling coupled with dynamic light scattering, we have investigated the mechanisms leading to the formation of a partly coalesced surface layer, or "open skin", during film formation from waterborne polymer dispersions. We present the first use of the skewness of the distribution of free water as a model-free indicator of the spatial nonuniformity of drying. The skewness reaches a maximum at the same time at which a strong, static component, presumably originating from a skin at the film/air interface, appears in the light scattering data. Addition of salt to the dispersion increases both the skewness of the distribution of free water and the propensity for skin formation. Surprisingly, the drying is influenced not only by the concentration and valency of the ions in the salt but also by the particular ion. At intermediate particle densities, added salt strongly lowers the cooperative diffusion coefficient, Dcoop. When the particles reach close packing, Dcoop sharply increases. If the particles readily coalesce, the effects of the increased diffusivity will be counteracted, thereby inducing the formation of a skin. A modified Peclet number, Pe, using Dcoop, is proposed, so that the presence of salt is explicitly considered. This modified Pe is able to predict the nonuniformity in drying that leads to skin formation.

  6. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  7. Interpolating from Bianchi attractors to Lifshitz and AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachru, Shamit; Kundu, Nilay; Saha, Arpan; Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P.

    2014-03-01

    We construct classes of smooth metrics which interpolate from Bianchi attractor geometries of Types II, III, VI and IX in the IR to Lifshitz or AdS 2 × S 3 geometries in the UV. While we do not obtain these metrics as solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a simple matter field theory, we show that the matter sector stress-energy required to support these geometries (via the Einstein equations) does satisfy the weak, and therefore also the null, energy condition. Since Lifshitz or AdS 2 × S 3 geometries can in turn be connected to AdS 5 spacetime, our results show that there is no barrier, at least at the level of the energy conditions, for solutions to arise connecting these Bianchi attractor geometries to AdS 5 spacetime. The asymptotic AdS 5 spacetime has no non-normalizable metric deformation turned on, which suggests that furthermore, the Bianchi attractor geometries can be the IR geometries dual to field theories living in flat space, with the breaking of symmetries being either spontaneous or due to sources for other fields. Finally, we show that for a large class of flows which connect two Bianchi attractors, a C-function can be defined which is monotonically decreasing from the UV to the IR as long as the null energy condition is satisfied. However, except for special examples of Bianchi attractors (including AdS space), this function does not attain a finite and non-vanishing constant value at the end points.

  8. Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments, or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. There are more papers written than ever on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service that provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this paper we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser-known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.

  9. Flowing along the edge: Spinning up black holes in AdS spacetimes with test particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the consequences of throwing point particles into odd-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) backgrounds. We restrict our attention to the case in which the angular momenta of the background geometry are all equal. This process allows us to test the generalization of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture to asymptotically AdS spacetimes in higher dimensions. We find no evidence for overspinning in D =5,7,9 and 11 dimensions. Instead, test particles carrying the maximum possible angular momentum that still fall into an extremal rotating black hole generate a flow along the curve of extremal solutions.

  10. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: The hidden symmetry of higher dimensional Kerr NUT AdS spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiznák, David; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2007-02-01

    It is well known that four-dimensional Kerr NUT AdS spacetime possesses the hidden symmetry associated with the Killing Yano tensor. This tensor is 'universal' in the sense that there exist coordinates where it does not depend on any of the free parameters of the metric. Recently, the general higher dimensional Kerr NUT AdS solutions of the Einstein equations were obtained. We demonstrate that all these metrics with arbitrary rotation and NUT parameters admit a universal Killing Yano tensor. We give an explicit presentation of the Killing Yano tensor and associated second rank Killing tensor and briefly discuss their properties.

  11. {{AdS}}_{3}/{{CFT}}_{2} and q-Poincaré superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömwall, Joakim; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    We discover that a certain deformation of the 1+1 dimensional Poincaré superalgebra is exactly realised in the massless sector of the {{AdS}}3/{{CFT}}2 integrable scattering problem. Deformed Poincaré superalgebras were previously noticed to appear in the {{AdS}}5/{{CFT}}4 correspondence—which displays only massive excitations, but they were there only a partial symmetry. We obtain a representation of the boost operator and its coproduct, and show that the comultiplication exactly satisfies the homomorphism property. We present a classical limit, and finally speculate on an analogy with the physics of phonons.

  12. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; ReyBacaicoa, V.; Murray, S. S.

    2001-11-01

    The ADS Abstract Service contains over 2.3 million references in four databases: Astronomy/Astrophysics/Planetary Sciences, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and Preprints. We provide abstracts and articles free to the astronomical community for all major and many smaller astronomy journals, PhD theses, conference proceedings, and technical reports. These four databases can be queried either separately of jointly. The ADS also has scanned 1.3 million pages in 180,000 articles in the ADS Article Service. This literature archive contains all major Astronomy journals and many smaller journals, as well as conference proceedings, including the abstract books from all the LPSCs back to volume 2. A new feature gives our users the ability to see list of articles that were also read by the readers of a given article. This is a powerful tool to find out what current articles are relevant in a particular field of study. We have recently expanded the citation and reference query capabilities. It allows our users to select papers for which they want to see references or citations and then retrieve these citations/references. Another new capability is the ability to sort a list of articles by their citation count. As usual, users should be reminded that the citations in ADS are incomplete because we do not obtain reference lists from all publishers. In addition, we cannot match all references (e.g. in press, private communications, author errors, some conference papers, etc.). Anyone using the citations for analysis of publishing records should keep this in mind. More work on expanding the citation and reference features is planned over the next year. ADS Home Page http://ads.harvard.edu/

  13. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Kidney Disease: A Comprehensive Pictorial Review of the Imaging Spectrum, Mimickers, and Clinicopathological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Nieun; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) has recently been demonstrated to be an important part of IgG4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). However, since IgG4-KD is still relatively unfamiliar to radiologists and physicians as compared to IgG4-SD involving other organs, it could, therefore, be easily missed. In this article, we present a comprehensive pictorial review of IgG4-KD with regards to the imaging spectrum, mimickers, and clinicopathologic characteristics, based on our clinical experience with 48 patients during the past 13 years, as well as a literature review. Awareness of the broad imaging spectrum of IgG4-KD and differential diagnosis from its mimickers will thus facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26357500

  14. Clinico-pathological subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy and their differential impact on memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Coras, R; Blümcke, I

    2015-11-19

    Hippocampal anatomy and network organization are capable to generate drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in humans and particularly vulnerable to segmental neuronal cell loss. Surgical hippocampectomy has been proven successful in treatment and available human tissue specimens allow systematic clinico-pathological examination. Different patterns of hippocampal cell loss have been identified in TLE patients and are recently classified by the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) into four distinct subtypes in order to stratify the heterogenous group of TLE patients also with respect to postsurgical outcome. Another important aim of the international consensus classification system of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is to gain further insights into the morpho-functional organization of human memory frequently compromised in TLE patients. PMID:26254830

  15. Cavitation in block copolymer modified epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declet-Perez, Carmelo; Francis, Lorraine; Bates, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Today, brittleness in epoxy networks limits most commercial applications. Significant toughness can be imparted by adding small amounts of micelle forming block copolymers (BCP) without compromising critical properties such as high use temperature and modulus. Curing the network locks in the self-assembled BCP micellar structures formed in the monomer resin providing control of the resulting morphology. Despite significant research over the last decade, a complete description of the parameters influencing toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies is still lacking. In this presentation we compare the ultimate mechanical behavior of epoxies modified with spherical micelle forming BCP's containing rubbery and glassy cores using real-time in-situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) performed during tensile deformation. Striking differences in the 2D SAXS patterns were documented for epoxies modified with rubbery (PEP) versus glassy (PS) micelle cores. Rubbery cores dilate by 100% in volume upon specimen yielding, while the glassy micelle cores deform at approximately constant volume. These results provide direct evidence of a cavitation mediated mechanism for toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies. We further interpret characteristic butterfly features in the 2D SAXS patterns in terms of epoxy network deformation. Support was provided by the NSF sponsored MRSEC at the University of Minnesota

  16. DNA Copy Number Aberrations, and Human Papillomavirus Status in Penile Carcinoma. Clinico-Pathological Correlations and Potential Driver Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lambros, Maryou; Stankiewicz, Elzbieta; Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; Rajab, Ramzi; Tinwell, Brendan; Corbishley, Cathy; Watkin, Nick; Berney, Dan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease, in which somatic genetic aberrations have yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that gene copy aberrations might correlate with human papillomavirus status and clinico-pathological features. We sought to determine the spectrum of gene copy number aberrations in a large series of PSCCs and to define their correlations with human papillomavirus, histopathological subtype, and tumor grade, stage and lymph node status. Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded penile squamous cell carcinomas were centrally reviewed by expert uropathologists. DNA was extracted from micro-dissected samples, subjected to PCR-based human papillomavirus assessment and genotyping (INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus Genotyping Extra Assay) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization using a 32K Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array platform. Sixty-four samples yielded interpretable results. Recurrent gains were observed in chromosomes 1p13.3-q44 (88%), 3p12.3-q29 (86%), 5p15.33-p11 (67%) and 8p12-q24.3 (84%). Amplifications of 5p15.33-p11 and 11p14.1-p12 were found in seven (11%) and four (6%) cases, respectively. Losses were observed in chromosomes 2q33-q37.3 (86%), 3p26.3-q11.1 (83%) and 11q12.2-q25 (81%). Although many losses and gains were similar throughout the cohort, there were small significant differences observed at specific loci, between human papillomavirus positive and negative tumors, between tumor types, and tumor grade and nodal status. These results demonstrate that despite the diversity of genetic aberrations in penile squamous cell carcinomas, there are significant correlations between the clinico-pathological data and the genetic changes that may play a role in disease natural history and progression and highlight potential driver genes, which may feature in molecular pathways for existing therapeutic agents. PMID:26901676

  17. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    PIRES, Fábio Ramôa; RAMOS, Amanda Barreto; de OLIVEIRA, Jade Bittencourt Coutinho; TAVARES, Amanda Serra; da LUZ, Priscilla Silva Ribeiro; dos SANTOS, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. Objective The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. Material and Methods All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. Results A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (p<0.001). Mean time of complaint with the tumors was 10 months and site distribution showed that the border of the tongue (37%), alveolar mucosa/gingiva (20%) and floor of mouth/ventral tongue (19%) were the most common affected sites. Mean size of the tumors was 3.4 cm, with no differences for males and females (p=0.091) and males reported both tobacco and alcohol consumption more frequently than females. Histological grade of the tumors revealed that 27%, 40% and 21% of the tumors were, respectively, classified as well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC, 26 cases (7.5%) were microinvasive OSCC and 17 cases were OSCC variants. OSCC in males mostly affected the border of tongue, floor of mouth/ventral tongue and alveolar mucosa/gingival, while they were more frequent on the border of tongue, alveolar mucosa/gingival and buccal mucosa/buccal sulcus in females (p=0.004). Conclusions The present data reflect the epidemiological characteristics of OSCC diagnosed in a public Oral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients. PMID:24212993

  18. Methotrexate-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders presenting in the skin: A clinicopathologic and immunophenotypical study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Koens, Lianne; Senff, Nancy J; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; Jansen, Patty M

    2014-07-01

    Methotrexate (MTX)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (B-LPD) may first present in the skin, but their clinicopathologic features are still ill defined. Differentiation from primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT) is important, as MTX-associated B-LPD may show spontaneous regression after withdrawal of MTX therapy. In the present study, the clinicopathologic and phenotypical features of 10 patients with MTX-associated B-LPD first presenting in the skin, including 5 EBV(+) and 5 EBV(-) cases, were investigated. Six patients had skin-limited disease. Clinically, abrogation of MTX therapy resulted in a complete response in 4 cases and a partial response in another 2. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 90%. MTX-associated B-LPD differed from primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma by the presence of ulcerating and/or generalized skin lesions, an infiltrate composed of centroblasts/immunoblasts rather than large centrocytes, reduced staining for CD79a, and expression of BCL2, IRF4, and FOXP1 in most cases. EBV(+) MTX-associated B-LPD differed from PCLBCL-LT by the presence ulcerative skin lesions, marked tumor cell polymorphism, reduced staining for CD79a, and expression of CD30 and EBV. EBV(-) cases showed morphologic and immunophenotypical similarities to PCLBCL-LT but differed by presentation with generalized skin lesions in 4 of 5 cases. The results of this study, showing a relatively good clinical outcome and spontaneous disease regression after only withdrawal of MTX in a considerable proportion of patients, underscores the importance of a careful wait-and-see policy before considering more aggressive therapies in patients with MTX-associated B-LPD of the skin.

  19. Relationship between MLH-1, MSH-2, PMS-2,MSH-6 expression and clinicopathological features in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Birgül; Argon, Asuman; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Vardar, Enver

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancers are the third most common in both sexes and they are the second most common cause of cancer-related death. 12-15% of colorectal cancers develop through microsatellite instability (the hereditary mutation in at least one of DNA mismatch repair genes) pathway and they are 2-5% hereditary. In this study, we investigated the correlation between the clinicopathological features themselves and also the correlation between them and the immunohistochemical MLH-1, MSH-2, PMS-2, MSH-6 expressions in a total of 186 resection materials with colorectal adenocarcinoma between 2008 and 2012. All the cases were retrospectively evaluated in terms of age, sex, localization, size, accompanying polyp, multiple tumor, arising from polyp, differentiation, mucinous differentiation, pathological tumor stage, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, lymphocyte amount in the tumor microenvironment, surgical border and lymph node metastasis. We prepared multiple tissue blocks which had 4-millimeter tumor. Immunohistochemically, MLH-1, MSH-2, PMS-2, MSH-6 primary antibodies were studied. Statistically, “Kruskal-Wallis” ve “Pearson’s chi-squared” tests were used. We found a positive correlation between loss of MLH-1 and PMS-2 expressions and the right-colon location, poor and mucinous differentiation and dense lymphocytic infiltration. In addition, loss of MSH-2 and MSH-6 expressions was correlated with the right-colon location, poor and mucinous differentiation. We found a meaningful relationship between immunohistochemical markers and clinicopathological features usually observed in tumors with microsatellite instability. This finding may arouse suspicion for MSI. However, the findings in our study must be supported with studies conducted in large series including molecular methods. PMID:26097592

  20. The clinicopathological significance and drug target potential of FHIT in breast cancer, a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Su, Yunshu; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Jun; Xu, Junming; Xu, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    FHIT is a bona fide tumor-suppressor gene and its loss contributes to tumorigenesis of epithelial cancers including breast cancer (BC). However, the association and clinicopathological significance between FHIT promoter hypermethylation and BC remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis and literature review to investigate the clinicopathological significance of FHIT methylation in BC. A detailed literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Odds ratios with 95% corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. A total of seven relevant articles were available for meta-analysis, which included 985 patients. The frequency of FHIT hypermethylation was significantly increased in invasive ductal carcinoma compared to benign breast disease, the pooled odds ratio was 8.43, P<0.00001. The rate of FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly different between stage I/II and stage III/IV, odds ratio was 2.98, P=0.06. In addition, FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly associated with ER and PR status. FHIT hypermethylation was not significantly correlated with premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal carcinoma. In summary, our meta-analysis indicated that the frequency of FHIT hypermethylation was significantly increased in BC compared to benign breast disease. The rate of FHIT hypermethylation in advanced stages of BC was higher than in earlier stages; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Our data suggested that FHIT methylation could be a diagnostic biomarker of BC carcinogenesis. FHIT is a potential drug target for development of demethylation treatment for patients with BC. PMID:26491255

  1. Expression of claudin-5, claudin-7 and occludin in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their clinico-pathological significance

    PubMed Central

    Phattarataratip, Ekarat

    2016-01-01

    Background Claudin and occludin are the important tight junctions protein in human. The downregulation or upregulation of claudins and occludin might have a role in cancer development. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of claudin-5, claudin-7 and occludin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their relationships with the prognostically-related clinico-pathologic features. Material and Methods Standard indirect immunohistochemical technique using anti-claudin-5, anti-claudin-7 and anti-occludin was performed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 66 OSCC samples from Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University. The positive cases were divided into 2 groups, the low expression group (cases with less than 50% of positive cancer cells) and the high expression group for statistical analysis. Categorical analysis of the clinico-pathologic parameters together with univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test were performed. Results There were 22 male and 23 female patients enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 65.82+12.10 years. The claudin-5 immunoreactivity was observed in 26.6% of cases. The positive immunoreactivity of claudin-7 is more noted (93.3%). Only 4 cases showed occludin immunoreactivity (8.9%) and all of them show positivity less than 25% of cancer cells. Only loss of claudin-7 expression was associated with the high pathologic grade, advanced TNM staging, large tumor size, the presence of microscopic perineural, vascular invasions and regional lymph node involvement. There is a tendency towards the association of the higher claudin-7 expression and a longer survival time (P=0.012). Conclusions The results showed expression of claudin-5, claudin-7 and low expression of occludin in OSCC. Only claudin-7 expression showed impact on clinic-pathological parameter of OSCC. Key words:Claudin, occludin, oral squamous cell carcinoma, tight junctions, oral cancer. PMID:27398181

  2. A Case Presenting with Splenic Infarct Diagnosed as Primary Bone Marrow CD5 Positive DLBCL: A Clinicopathological Correlation.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anupriya; Mittal, Suchi; Dass, Jasmita; Gupta, Nitin; Agarwal, P K; Kotwal, Jyoti

    2016-06-01

    De novo CD5+ Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of DLBCL. It is a distinct clinicopathologic entity with complex molecular profile and poor prognosis. A 59 year old female presented with pyrexia of unknown origin since 1 month. On examination, there was severe pallor, hepatosplenomegaly and no palpable lymphadenopathy. Complete blood count revealed bicytopenia with normal total leucocyte count. Liver and renal function tests were normal. Ultrasonography abdomen revealed splenic enlargement with two focal lesions attributed to either splenic abscess or infarcts. Patient was being managed as splenic infarct but continued to have bicytopenia. Further investigation showed elevated serum ferritin, triglycerides and LDH. With a clinical suspicion of infection and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis bone marrow aspiration (BMA) and biopsy (BMBx) was done. BMA showed extensive haemophagocytosis and ~7.4 % large lymphoma-like cells. On this basis PET-CT was suggested which showed enlarged spleen with diffuse uptake. BMBx showed nodular and intrasinusoidal collection of abnormal lymphoid cells. On immunohistochemistry, these cells were positive for CD20, CD5, MUM1, BCL-2, BCL-6 and negative for CD3, CD10 and CD23. CD34 highlighted focal intrasinusoidal pattern. The complete clinicopathological profile suggested the diagnosis of de novo CD5+ DLBCL, with primary hepatosplenic pattern of involvement. CD5+ DLBCL presenting as splenic infarct is very rare. This case was unusual as the diagnosis of a primary aggressive lymphoma with haemophagocytosis was established in a patient who presented with fever and splenic infarct without lymphadenopathy. This indicates the importance of good morphological assessment of a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:27408381

  3. Roles of galectin-7 and S100A9 in cervical squamous carcinoma: Clinicopathological and in vitro evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Wu, Tian-Cong; Chen, Wei-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Wu, Yue; Zeng, Liang; Pei, Hai-Ping

    2013-03-01

    In our study, we for the first time assessed the association of galectin-7 and S100A9 with clinicopathological variables and survival outcomes in cervical squamous carcinoma patients and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms in cervical squamous carcinoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of 243 patient samples showed that the positive staining rate for galectin-7 and S100A9 gradually decreased from normal cervical tissue to intraepithelial neoplasia and to cervical squamous carcinoma. Both galectin-7 and S100A9 showed significant negative association with lymph node metastasis and staging of cervical squamous carcinoma. Cervical squamous carcinoma patients with negative staining of galectin-7 or S100A9 showed significantly lower 5-year overall survival rate than those with positive staining. Multivariate analysis with the Cox's proportional hazards model indicated that both galectin-7 and S100A9 had significant protective effect on cervical squamous carcinoma patients. Subsequent in vitro study in SiHa and C-33A human cervical squamous carcinoma cell lines revealed that knocking down galectin-7 or S100A9 enhanced tumor cell invasion and tumor cell viability against paclitaxel-induced apoptotic stress, likely through increasing the matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, respectively. Knocking down both galectin-7 and S100A9 produced a synergistic effect, with galectin-7 displaying more significant and consistent protective effects than S100A9 on cervical squamous carcinoma cells. In summary, our study for the first time provides clinicopathological and in vitro evidence showing that both galectin-7 and S100A9 play important protective roles in cervical squamous carcinoma, which provides fresh insights into the biology of cervical squamous carcinoma.

  4. Rectal cancer profiling identifies distinct subtypes in India based on age at onset, genetic, epigenetic and clinicopathological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Laskar, Ruhina Shirin; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Talukdar, Fazlur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that develops through multiple pathways characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations. India has a comparatively higher proportion of rectal cancers and early-onset cases. We analyzed genetic (KRAS, TP53 and BRAF mutations, and MSI), epigenetic alterations (CpG island methylation detection of 10 tumor-related genes/loci), the associated clinicopathological features and survival trend in 80 primary rectal cancer patients from India. MSI was detected using BAT 25 and BAT 26 mononucleotide markers and mutation of KRAS, TP53, and BRAF V600E was detected by direct sequencing. Methyl specific polymerase chain reaction was used to determine promoter methylation status of the classic CIMP panel markers (P16, hMLH1, MINT1, MINT2, and MINT31) as well as other tumor specific genes (DAPK, RASSF1, BRCA1, and GSTP1). MSI and BRAF mutations were uncommon but high frequencies of overall KRAS mutations (67.5%); low KRAS codon 12 and a novel KRAS G15S mutation with concomitant RASSF1 methylation in early onset cases were remarkable. Hierarchical clustering as well as principal component analysis identified three distinct subgroups of patients having discrete age at onset, clinicopathological, molecular and survival characteristics: (i) a KRAS associated CIMP-high subgroup; (ii) a significantly younger MSS, CIMP low, TP53 mutant group having differential KRAS mutation patterns, and (iii) a CIMP-negative, TP53 mutated group. The early onset subgroup exhibited the most unfavorable disease characteristics with advanced stage, poorly differentiated tumors and had the poorest survival compared to the other subgroups. Genetic and epigenetic profiling of rectal cancer patients identified distinct subtypes in Indian population.

  5. Oral verrucous hyperplasia versus oral verrucous carcinoma: A clinicopathologic dilemma revisited using p53 as immunohistochemical marker

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Preeti; Wadhwan, Vijay; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Anamika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) and oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) are two distinct clinicopathologic verrucous lesions. However, the distinction between the two lesions still remains enigmatic. It is almost impossible to distinguish them clinically. Thus, the final diagnosis rests on the histopathological characteristics of both lesions, being distinguished from each other by an exophytic and endophytic growth pattern, respectively. Methods: This institutional study was planned to review retrospectively two series of patients with histologic diagnoses of VH (n = 27) and VC (n = 27) to investigate their clinicopathological features and to analyze the role of immunohistochemical (IHC) marker p53 protein in distinguishing between the two verrucous lesions. The biopsies of the histopathologically diagnosed cases spanning last 10 years were retrieved from the archives of the Oral Pathology department of the institution. Clinical data were tabulated and analyzed for age, gender, site and tobacco habits. IHC staining was done on all the samples using p53 antibody. Results: Applying Chi-square test, the buccal mucosa was the most common affected site and tobacco chewing was more prevalent habit in both these lesions (P > 0.05). While the elderly males (>60 years) were the most commonly affected group in VC, a relatively younger age group of males (30–39 years) was more commonly affected in VH (P < 0.05). IHC staining with p53 antibody did not show any significant difference between these two verrucous lesions (P > 0.05). Conclusion: VH and VC are closely related lesions distinguished by an adequate biopsy sample. PMID:27721598

  6. Clinicopathological Significance and Diagnostic Accuracy of c-MET Expression by Immunohistochemistry in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Jung-Soo; Kang, Guhyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to elucidate the clinicopathological significance and diagnostic accuracy of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for determining the mesenchymal epidermal transition (c-MET) expression in patients with gastric cancer (GC). Materials and Methods The present meta-analysis investigated the correlation between c-MET expression as determined by IHC and the clinicopathological parameters in 8,395 GC patients from 37 studies that satisfied the eligibility criteria. In addition, a concordance analysis was performed between c-MET expression as determined by IHC and c-MET amplification, and the diagnostic test accuracy was reviewed. Results The estimated rate of c-MET overexpression was 0.403 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.327~0.484) and it was significantly correlated with male patients, poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, higher TNM stage, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity in IHC analysis. There was a significant correlation between c-MET expression and worse overall survival rate (hazard ratio, 1.588; 95% CI, 1.266~1.992). The concordance rates between c-MET expression and c-MET amplification were 0.967 (95% CI, 0.916~0.987) and 0.270 (95% CI, 0.173~0.395) for cases with non-overexpressed and overexpressed c-MET, respectively. In the diagnostic test accuracy review, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.56 (95% CI, 0.50~0.63) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.77~0.81), respectively. Conclusions The c-MET overexpression as determined by IHC was significantly correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and positive IHC status for HER2 in patients with GC. In addition, the c-MET expression status could be useful in the screening of c-MET amplification in patients with GC. PMID:27752391

  7. Evaluation of Lymphatic and Vascular Invasion in Relation to Clinicopathological Factors and Treatment Outcome in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Adel, Mohamad; Kao, Huang-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Huang, Jung-Ju; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Yenlin; Browne, Timothy; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Yu-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ping

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the associations between lymphatic and vascular invasion of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and clinicopathological manifestations, as well as their impact on patient outcomes after treatment.In total, 571 patients with primary OSCC who underwent surgery with or without adjuvant therapy were enrolled.Lymphatic and vascular invasion were found in 28 (5%) and 16 (3%) patients, respectively. Significant associations were found between lymphatic and vascular invasion and overall stage (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020, respectively), tumor stage (P = 0.009 and P = 0.025, respectively), nodal metastasis (both P < 0.001), extracapsular spread (both P < 0.001), perineural invasion (both P < 0.001), bone invasion (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively), depth of invasion (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively), and pathologic differentiation (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). In the analysis of adverse events during follow-up, neither lymphatic nor vascular invasion was statistically associated with local recurrence, neck recurrence, and distant metastasis. Although lymphatic invasion exhibited significant associations with poorer overall survival (P < 0.001), disease-specific survival (P < 0.001), and disease-free survival (P = 0.01), it was not demonstrated to be an independent prognostic factor in all multivariate analyses.Although both lymphatic and vascular invasion are associated with many clinicopathological manifestations, neither affects the occurrence of locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis in patients with OSCC after treatment. PMID:26512553

  8. Serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, and ferritin in horses with colic: Association with common clinicopathological variables and short-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Dondi, Francesco; Lukacs, Robert M; Gentilini, Fabio; Rinnovati, Riccardo; Spadari, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Noemi

    2015-07-01

    Equine colic may be associated with an acute phase response (APR). Measurement of acute phase proteins (APPs) allows the detection of an APR and may help clinicians in monitoring the disease; however, the role of APPs in colic is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin and ferritin in combination with an extended clinicopathological profile in equine colic. The medical records of 54 horses were retrospectively selected. Horses were grouped based on outcome (survivors vs. non-survivors), diagnosis (ischaemic/strangulating vs. non-ischaemic/non-strangulating), and treatment (medical treatment vs. surgery). Laboratory data were compared, and a logistic regression analysis was performed for outcome prediction upon admission. A high percentage of horses had abnormal SAA (29/54), haptoglobin (20/54), and ferritin (31/54) concentrations. In particular, haptoglobin was below the reference interval in 13/54 horses. Non-survivors had significantly decreased haptoglobin and increased ferritin concentrations compared with survivors. The ischaemic/strangulating group had significantly increased creatinine and ferritin and decreased haptoglobin concentrations compared with the non-ischaemic/non-strangulating group. Creatinine was the only significant predictor of mortality in the regression analysis. In conclusion, APPs including SAA, haptoglobin, and ferritin combined with clinicopathological variables may help clinicians to understand the pathogenesis of APR and underline potential complications of equine colic. The reduction in haptoglobin concentration may suggest haemolysis or muscle fibre damage; ferritin may indicate alteration in iron metabolism and tissue damage. Further prospective studies are needed to assess diagnostic and prognostic values of APPs in colic horses. PMID:25981935

  9. The range of chronic demyelinating neuropathy of infancy: a clinico-pathological and genetic study of 15 unrelated cases.

    PubMed

    Planté-Bordeneuve, V; Parman, Y; Guiochon-Mantel, A; Alj, Y; Deymeer, F; Serdaroglu, P; Eraksoy, M; Said, G

    2001-09-01

    The concept of Dejerine-Sottas disease, which corresponds to presumed recessive demyelinating neuropathies with onset in infancy, remains controversial. To learn more on the subject, we performed a clinico-pathological and molecular genetic study in 15 unrelated patients with the Dejerine-Sottas phenotype seen over a 16 year period. There were 12 females and 3 males, born to asymptomatic parents. Study of the PMP22, P0 and Egr2 genes was performed in all cases and 14 underwent a nerve biopsy. First manifestations of neuropathy occurred before 3 years of age in all patients. An inherited disorder was suspected in 10 patients, because of their family history and/or disclosure of a molecular genetic defect in 4 of them. One patient had a recessively transmitted homozygous point mutation (Arg157Trp) of the PMP22 gene. A heterozygous duplication of the 17p11.2-12 segment was detected in one offspring of a consanguineous marriage. One patient carried a "de novo" heterozygous Ser72Leu substitution in the PMP22. A heterozygous double mutation of the P0 gene including a "de novo" Val42 deletion and an Ala221Thr substitution, maternally inherited, were found in an apparently sporadic case. No mutation of the Egr2 gene was identified. A neuropathy with focally folded myelin sheaths (CMT4B) was diagnosed in the nerve biopsy specimens of two patients. In five patients, the clinico-pathological findings along with the absence of an identified mutation suggested the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy of infantile onset. Our findings illustrate the genetic heterogeneity of cases with identified mutations, the scarcity of cases with "demonstrated" recessive transmission and the likelihood of early acquired chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in several patients. PMID:11596785

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of HER2 in breast cancer: impact on HER2 testing and its clinicopathologic significance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Ling; Fan, Yu; Lang, Rong-Gang; Gu, Feng; Ren, Mei-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Min; Yin, Dong; Fu, Li

    2012-08-01

    In 2009, ASCO/CAP expanded its human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) testing guideline to define HER2 genetic heterogeneity (GH). However, the clinical significance of GH is unclear. We investigated the impact of HER2 GH on HER2 testing and studied its clinicopathologic significance. Paraffin-embedded tumor tissues of surgical resections of 617 non-consecutive breast carcinoma patients were studied by routine HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). HER2 GH was evaluated, and the results were correlated with HER2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry and HER2 gene amplification by FISH, and with various clinicopathologic parameters. HER2 GH was observed in 15.2 % (94/617) of the patients. It was associated with low-to-middle level of HER2 expression, and with none-to-low level of HER2 gene amplification. Among the 17 patients with equivocal HER2 FISH results, 35.3 % (6/17) of tumors displayed GH. In contrast with HER2-positive tumors without GH, tumors with HER2 GH demonstrated significant association with lower histologic grade, smaller tumor size, and proclivity to hormone receptor expression. HER2 GH is a substantial cause of equivocal HER2 testing results of breast cancer by FISH. Tumors with HER2 GH showed that biologic features resemble more of HER2-negative tumors than HER2-positive tumors without GH. The findings indicate a need of the guidelines to clarify whether tumors with HER2 GH truly benefit from HER2-targeted therapy of breast cancer.

  11. Elucidating the link between the modifiable risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Stephanie M; Klegeris, Andis

    2016-10-01

    Increased worldwide longevity through medical interventions, although beneficial, has allowed the age-related Alzheimer's disease (AD) to become an epidemic of the 21st century. AD pathology involves adverse activation of microglia, the immune cells of the brain and resulting chronic neuroinflammation. Certain diets, physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus have been identified as the risk factors for developing AD, which may increase the risk of AD by neuroimmune mechanisms primarily through the overactivation of microglia. Thus, modifying these risk factors may represent an alternative therapeutic strategy for lowering the incidence of AD. We highlight the link between select modifiable risk factors and neuroimmune mechanisms, and demonstrate that by controlling microglial activation and neuroinflammation the prevalence of AD may be decreased.

  12. Clinicopathological correlation of psychosis and brain vascular changes in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Simon Kang Seng; Hao, Ying; Chia, Pei Shi; Tan, Eng-King; Hameed, Shahul

    2016-01-01

    Psychosis is common in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, studies on neuropathology in vascular etiology contributing to psychosis in AD is lacking to date. The aim of this study was to investigate neuropathological vascular related changes in Alzheimer’s disease with psychosis. Data of patients with AD from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center between 2005 to September 2013 was accessed and reviewed. Presence of psychosis was determined based on Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire taken from the last visit within one year prior to death, and patients were divided into psychosis positive and negative group. Comparison of clinical details and neuropathological vascular changes between the groups was performed using Wilcoxon rank sum test and Chi-square/ Fisher’s exact test. Significant variables were further included in a multivariate logistic model. Overall, 145 patients was included. Of these, 50 patients were psychosis positive. Presence of one or more cortical microinfarcts and moderate to severe arteriosclerosis was found to be positively associated with psychosis. Our results suggest vascular changes correlate with psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26868671

  13. Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Laura; Scarpini, Elio; Galimberti, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques) and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition. PMID:24353405

  14. Family history and apoE genotype interaction in Alzheimer`s disease (AD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvik, G.P.; Kukull, W.A.; Goddards, K.

    1994-09-01

    The apoE {epsilon}4 allele is associated with increased risk and decreased age of onset of AD. The {epsilon}4 allele may have opposing effects. We determined that family history of a parent or sib with memory problems (famhx+) modified the effect of apoE genotype in a population-based, case (n=165, 72 famhx+)-control (n=233, 73 famhx+) sample. Logistic regression analyses detected a significant apoE genotype (E) by family history (F) by age (A) interaction (ExFxA, p=0.003) and ExF interaction (p=0.0001) in the prediction of AD. ExFxA remained significant when only {epsilon}4+ genotypes were included (p<0.01). ExFxSex (p=0.04) and ExF (p<0.0001) were significant when only {epsilon}4- genotypes were included. Similary, multiple regression detected significant ExF interaction in the prediction of age of AD onset for {epsilon}4+ genotypes (p=0.04) or {epsilon}4- genotypes (p=0.04). Sex did not interact in the prediction of age of onset. Famhx+ increased risk of AD differentially and reduced age of onset except in {epsilon}2+ genotypes. Family history modifies the apoE genotype influence on risk and onset age of AD, suggesting that non-apoE genetic effects interact with apoE in AD. It is most predictive of risk in those with the {epsilon}2{epsilon}3 genotype. Variation in risk and onset among both {epsilon}4+ and {epsilon}4- genotypes demonstrate that {epsilon}2 and {epsilon}3 mediate {epsilon}4 allele effects in AD.

  15. Offset compensation for A/D converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokl, S. S.; Hurd, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Analog-to-digital (A/D) converter eliminates dc offset in final digitized signal as well as in analog input by using digital feedback for compensation. Circuit could prove useful in data processing applications in which analog-format data are entered at high rates, as in point-of-sale data input systems.

  16. Value-Added Modeling in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Hushman, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The educational reform movement in the United States has resulted in a variety of states moving toward a system of value-added modeling (VAM) to measure a teacher's contribution to student achievement. Recently, many states have begun using VAM scores as part of a larger system to evaluate teacher performance. In the past decade, only "core…

  17. Fitting Value-Added Models in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Harold C.; Lockwood, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Value-added models of student achievement have received widespread attention in light of the current test-based accountability movement. These models use longitudinal growth modeling techniques to identify effective schools or teachers based upon the results of changes in student achievement test scores. Given their increasing popularity, this…

  18. Adding a Statistical Wrench to the "Toolbox"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; Lindsay, Nathan K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a formal statistical test that can be used to help researchers make decisions about alternative statistical model specifications. This test is commonly used by researchers who would like to test whether adding new variables to a model improves the model fit. However, we demonstrate that this formal test can also be employed…

  19. "Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the publishing pipeline…

  20. Double relaxation via AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri-Sharifi, S.; Ali-Akbari, M.; Kishani-Farahani, A.; Shafie, N.

    2016-08-01

    We exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate thermalization in an N = 2 strongly coupled gauge theory including massless fundamental matter (quark). More precisely, we consider the response of a zero temperature state of the gauge theory under influence of an external electric field which leads to a time-dependent current. The holographic dual of the above set-up is given by introducing a time-dependent electric field on the probe D7-brane embedded in an AdS5 ×S5 background. In the dual gravity theory an apparent horizon forms on the brane which, according to AdS/CFT dictionary, is the counterpart of the thermalization process in the gauge theory side. We classify different functions for time-dependent electric field and study their effect on the apparent horizon formation. In the case of pulse functions, where the electric field varies from zero to zero, apart from non-equilibrium phase, we observe the formation of two separate apparent horizons on the brane. This means that the state of the gauge theory experiences two different temperature regimes during its time evolution.

  1. Imago Mundi, Imago AD, Imago ADNI

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch in 2003 of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) in the USA, ever growing, similarly oriented consortia have been organized and assembled around the world. The various accomplishments of ADNI have contributed substantially to a better understanding of the underlying physiopathology of aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These accomplishments are basically predicated in the trinity of multimodality, standardization and sharing. This multimodality approach can now better identify those subjects with AD-specific traits that are more likely to present cognitive decline in the near future and that might represent the best candidates for smaller but more efficient therapeutic trials – trials that, through gained and shared knowledge, can be more focused on a specific target or a specific stage of the disease process. In summary, data generated from ADNI have helped elucidate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning aging and AD pathology, while contributing to the international effort in setting the groundwork for biomarker discovery and establishing standards for early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25478022

  2. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  3. The AD Nurse: Prepared to be Prepared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Lynne; Junker, Mary H.

    1977-01-01

    It is not enough for the new associate degree (AD) nursing graduate to know the theory and be willing to learn. She must also have some skill in providing basic nursing care. Examples of applicants, both ADNs and BSNs, are described to illustrate the nursing talent necessary to practice sensitively and effectively. (Editor/TA)

  4. Value Added School Review Field Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Value-Added School Review (VSR)" is an analytical model designed to assist schools in identifying and addressing opportunities for school improvement. The model works best when it is focused purposefully on students and the student learning outcomes as defined in the "Guide to Education". It complements the processes described in Alberta…

  5. "Value Added" Proves Beneficial to Teacher Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The use of "value added" information appears poised to expand into the nation's teacher colleges, with more than a dozen states planning to use the technique to analyze how graduates of training programs fare in classrooms. Supporters say the data could help determine which teacher education pathways produce teachers who are at least as…

  6. Drag force in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2006-12-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence and a classical test string approximation are used to calculate the drag force on an external quark moving in a thermal plasma of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This computation is motivated by the phenomenon of jet-quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  7. Cutting Budget Corners While Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veile, Craig N.; Carpenter, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how one school district saved money while adding long- term value to its capital improvement project. Planning issues involving square footage requirements, quality of material to be used, and heating and cooling system selection are discussed as are concepts to increase student learning capacity for the same construction dollars. (GR)

  8. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  9. Value-Added Analysis in Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Michael R.; Brown, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added data provide a viable alternative for gauging school effectiveness--one virtually free of the confounding effects of student demographics and other factors relating to student learning. How is it different from other measuring methods? It concentrates on growth, rather than attainment. This strengthens the concept and measurement of…

  10. Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

  11. Holographic Hydrodynamics with Baryon Chemical Potential for Charged AdS Black Hole

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2009-12-15

    We work out the decoupling problem and hydrodynamic analysis for the sound mode in charged AdS black hole and calculate the sound velocity, the charge susceptibility and the electrical conductivity. We find that Einstein relation among the conductivity, the diffusion constant and the susceptibility holds exactly.

  12. Avoiding Ad Avoidance: Factors Affecting the Perception of Online Banner Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the effect of search type, ad saliency, and ad repetition on the perception of online banner advertisements. In the first study, 48 student participants conducted simulated search tasks using mixed factorial design where search type (known-item vs. exploratory) was manipulated within-subject and the banner saliency level…

  13. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  14. Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, En-Hua

    In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile

  15. Hairy black holes in AdS5 × S 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markeviciute, Julija; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We use numerical methods to exhaustively study a novel family of hairy black hole solutions in AdS5. These solutions can be uplifted to solutions of type IIB supergravity with AdS5 × S 5 asymptotics and are thus expected to play an important role in our understanding of AdS/CFT. We find an intricate phase diagram, with the aforementioned family of hairy black hole solutions branching from the Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of the superradiance instability. We analyse black holes with spherical and planar horizon topology and explain how they connect in the phase diagram. Finally, we detail their global and local thermodynamic stability across several ensembles.

  16. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  17. AdS/CFT connection between Boltzmann and Einstein equations: Kinetic theory and pure gravity in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2010-04-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence defines a sector with universal strongly coupled dynamics in the field theory as the dual of pure gravity in AdS described by Einstein's equation with a negative cosmological constant. We explain here, from the field-theoretic viewpoint how the dynamics in this sector gets determined by the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We first show that the Boltzmann equation has very special solutions which could be functionally completely determined in terms of the energy-momentum tensor alone. We call these solutions conservative solutions. We indicate why conservative solutions should also exist when we refine this kinetic description to go closer to the exact microscopic theory or even move away from the regime of weak coupling so that no kinetic description could be employed. We argue that these conservative solutions form the universal sector dual to pure gravity at strong coupling and large N. Based on this observation, we propose a regularity condition on the energy-momentum tensor so that the dual solution in pure gravity has a smooth future horizon. We also study if irreversibility emerges only at long time scales of observation, unlike the case of the Boltzmann equation.

  18. Ad 2.0: a novel recombineering platform for high-throughput generation of tailored adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mück-Häusl, Martin; Solanki, Manish; Zhang, Wenli; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses containing a double-stranded DNA genome of 26–45 kb were broadly explored in basic virology, for vaccination purposes, for treatment of tumors based on oncolytic virotherapy, or simply as a tool for efficient gene transfer. However, the majority of recombinant adenoviral vectors (AdVs) is based on a small fraction of adenovirus types and their genetic modification. Recombineering techniques provide powerful tools for arbitrary engineering of recombinant DNA. Here, we adopted a seamless recombineering technology for high-throughput and arbitrary genetic engineering of recombinant adenoviral DNA molecules. Our cloning platform which also includes a novel recombination pipeline is based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). It enables generation of novel recombinant adenoviruses from different sources and switching between commonly used early generation AdVs and the last generation high-capacity AdVs lacking all viral coding sequences making them attractive candidates for clinical use. In combination with a novel recombination pipeline allowing cloning of AdVs containing large and complex transgenes and the possibility to generate arbitrary chimeric capsid-modified adenoviruses, these techniques allow generation of tailored AdVs with distinct features. Our technologies will pave the way toward broader applications of AdVs in molecular medicine including gene therapy and vaccination studies. PMID:25609697

  19. Gauge invariant two-point vertices of shadow fields, AdS/CFT, and conformal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2010-05-15

    In the framework of gauge invariant Stueckelberg approach, totally symmetric arbitrary spin shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. Gauge invariant two-point vertices for such shadow fields are obtained. We demonstrate that, in Stueckelberg gauge frame, these gauge invariant vertices become the standard two-point vertices of CFT. Light-cone gauge two-point vertices of the shadow fields are also obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for the shadow fields and the non-normalizable solutions of free massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields is studied. AdS fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge and this simplifies considerably the study of AdS/CFT correspondence. We demonstrate that the bulk action, when it is evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem, leads to the two-point gauge invariant vertex of shadow field. Also we show that the bulk action evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem leads to new description of conformal fields. The new description involves Stueckelberg gauge symmetries and gives simple higher-derivative Lagrangian for the conformal arbitrary spin field. In the Stueckelberg gauge frame, our Lagrangian becomes the standard Lagrangian of conformal field. Light-cone gauge Lagrangian of the arbitrary spin conformal field is also obtained.

  20. Sex steroid levels and AD-like pathology in 3xTgAD mice.

    PubMed

    Overk, C R; Perez, S E; Ma, C; Taves, M D; Soma, K K; Mufson, E J

    2013-02-01

    Decreases in testosterone and 17β-oestradiol (E(2)) are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been attributed to an increase in β-amyloid and tau pathological lesions. Although recent studies have used transgenic animal models to test the effects of sex steroid manipulations on AD-like pathology, almost none have systematically characterised the associations between AD lesions and sex steroid levels in the blood or brain in any mutant model. The present study evaluated age-related changes in testosterone and E(2) concentrations, as well as androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β expression, in brain regions displaying AD pathology in intact male and female 3xTgAD and nontransgenic (ntg) mice. We report for the first time that circulating and brain testosterone levels significantly increase in male 3xTgAD mice with age, but without changes in AR-immunoreactive (IR) cell number in the hippocampal CA1 or medial amygdala. The age-related increase in hippocampal testosterone levels correlated positively with increases in the conformational tau isoform, Alz50. These data suggest that the over-expression of human tau up-regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these mice. Although circulating and brain E(2) levels remained stable with age in both male and female 3xTgAD and ntg mice, ER-IR cell number in the hippocampus and medial amygdala decreased with age in female transgenic mice. Furthermore, E(2) levels were significantly higher in the hippocampus than in serum, suggesting local production of E(2). Although triple transgenic mice mimic AD-like pathology, they do not fully replicate changes in human sex steroid levels, and may not be the best model for studying the effects of sex steroids on AD lesions.

  1. The AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.

    2015-06-01

    We give a brief review of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which posits the equivalence between a certain gravitational theory and a lower-dimensional non-gravitational one. This remarkable duality, formulated in 1997, has sparked a vigorous research program that has gained in breadth over the years, with applications to many aspects of theoretical (and even experimental) physics, not least to general relativity and quantum gravity. To put the AdS/CFT correspondence into historical context, we start by reviewing the relevant aspects of string theory (of which no prior knowledge is assumed). We then develop the statement of the correspondence, and explain how the two sides of the duality map into each other. Finally, we discuss the implications and applications of the correspondence, and indicate some of the current trends in this subject. The presentation attempts to convey the main concepts in a simple and self-contained manner, relegating supplementary remarks to footnotes.

  2. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah A.; Berket, Karlo

    2003-07-14

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  3. LINAC for ADS application - accelerator technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, Robert W; Sheffreld, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Sifnificant high-current, high-intensity accelerator research and development have been done in the recent past in the US, centered primarily at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These efforts have included designs for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, and Accelerator Driven Systems, as well as many others. This past work and some specific design principles that were developed to optimie linac designs for ADS and other high-intensity applications will be discussed briefly.

  4. Merged Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2010-03-03

    The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.

  5. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  6. Adding coal dust to coal batch

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin

    2009-05-15

    The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

  7. Period-adding route in sparkling bubbles.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Tufaile, Alberto; Robillard, Bertrand; Jeandet, Philippe; Sartorelli, José Carlos

    2005-09-01

    Chains of bubbles are seen rising along the wall whenever champagne is poured into a glass. The careful observation of a given bubble chain often reveals that the interbubble distance suddenly changes during the degassing process, indicating different bubbling regimes in this elusive phenomenon of effervescence. We report the transitions between these different bubbling regimes that present sequences of multiple periods known as the period-adding route.

  8. Routing Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervaiz, Mohammad O.; Cardei, Mihaela; Wu, Jie

    Wireless networks provide rapid, untethered access to information and computing, eliminating the barriers of distance, time, and location for many applications ranging from collaborative, distributed mobile computing to disaster recovery (such as fire, flood, earthquake), law enforcement (crowd control, search, and rescue), and military communications (command, control, surveillance, and reconnaissance). An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration [11

  9. Bar Impact Tests on Alumina (AD995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazamias, James U.; Reinhart, William D.; Konrad, Carl H.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Bless, Stephan J.

    2002-07-01

    Dynamic strength may be inferred from bar impact tests, although interpretation of the data is affected by the time-to-failure of the target bar. To clarify the mechanics, tests with graded density impactors were conducted on bare and confined bars, 12 and 19 mm in diameter, cut from blocks of AD995 alumina. Manganin gauge and VISAR diagnostics were employed. Larger rods displayed higher strength. In some tests the "true" yield stress of ˜4.5 GPa was achieved.

  10. Modified Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of a rubber-modified experimental epoxy resin and a standard epoxy as composite matrices were studied. In addition, a brominated epoxy resin was used in varying quantities to improve the fire resistance of the composite. The experimental resin was tris-(hydroxyphenyl)methane triglycidyl ether, known as tris epoxy novolac (TEN). The standard epoxy resin used was tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM). The above resins were modified with carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber. It is concluded that: (1) modification of TEN resin with bromine gives better impact resistance than rubber modification alone; (2) 25% rubber addition is necessary to obtain significant improvement in impact resistance; (3) impact resistance increases with bromine content; (4) impact velocity does not significantly affect the energy absorbed by the test sample; (5) Tg did not decline with rubber modification; and (6) TEN resin had better hot/wet properties than TGDDM resin.

  11. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  12. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  13. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  14. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry. PMID:26906932

  15. ADS: The Next Generation Search Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Chyla, R.; Luker, J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Holachek, A.; Dave, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Four years after the last LISA meeting, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) finds itself in the middle of major changes to the infrastructure and contents of its database. In this paper we highlight a number of features of great importance to librarians and discuss the additional functionality that we are currently developing. Our citation coverage has doubled since 2010 and now consists of over 10 million citations. We are normalizing the affiliation information in our records and we have started collecting and linking funding sources with papers in our system. At the same time, we are undergoing major technology changes in the ADS platform. We have rolled out and are now enhancing a new high-performance search engine capable of performing full-text as well as metadata searches using an intuitive query language. We are currently able to index acknowledgments, affiliations, citations, and funding sources. While this effort is still ongoing, some of its benefits are already available through the ADS Labs user interface and API at http://adslabs.org/adsabs/.

  16. Entangled photon-added coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    We study the degree of entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of m, n photon-added coherent states (PACS) {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ u {|{{α },m}rangle }{|{{β },n }rangle }+ v {|{{β },n}rangle }{|{{α },m}rangle } using the concurrence and obtain the general conditions for maximal entanglement. We show that photon addition process can be identified as an entanglement enhancer operation for superpositions of coherent states (SCS). Specifically for the known bipartite positive SCS: {|{ψ }rangle } ∝ {|{α }rangle }_a{|{-α }rangle }_b + {|{-α }rangle }_a{|{α }rangle }_b whose entanglement tends to zero for α → 0, can be maximal if al least one photon is added in a subsystem. A full family of maximally entangled PACS is also presented. We also analyzed the decoherence effects in the entangled PACS induced by a simple depolarizing channel . We find that robustness against depolarization is increased by adding photons to the coherent states of the superposition. We obtain the dependence of the critical depolarization p_{ {crit}} for null entanglement as a function of m,n, α and β.

  17. A new AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastase, Horatiu Stefan; Siegel, Warren

    2000-10-01

    We consider a geometric zero-radius limit for strings on AdS5 × S5, where the Anti-de Sitter hyperboloid becomes the projective lightcone. In this limit the fifth dimension becomes non dynamical, yielding a different ``holographic'' interpretation than the usual ``bulk to boundary'' one. When quantized on the random lattice, the fifth coordinate acts as a new kind of Schwinger parameter, producing Feynman rules with normal propagators at the tree level: for example, in the bosonic case ordinary massless phi4 theory is obtained. In the superstring case we obtain new, manifestly Script N = 4 supersymmetric rules for Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills. These gluons are also different from those of the usual AdS/CFT correspondence: they are the ``partons'' that make up the usual ``hadrons'' of the open and closed strings in the familiar QCD string picture. Thus, their coupling gYM and rank N of the ``color'' gauge group are different from those of the ``flavor'' gauge group of the open string. As a result we obtain different perturbation expansions in radius, coupling, and 1/N.

  18. RNA-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2003-02-01

    A bewildering number of post-transcriptional modifications are introduced into cellular RNAs by enzymes that are often conserved among archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. The modifications range from those with well-understood functions, such as tRNA aminoacylation, to widespread but more mysterious ones, such as pseudouridylation. Recent structure determinations have included two types of RNA nucleobase modifying enzyme: pseudouridine synthases and tRNA guanine transglycosylases.

  19. Modified entropic force

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun

    2010-04-15

    The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

  20. Adsorption of β-carotene on modified magnesium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanshan; Guo, Ning; Fu, Yongfeng

    2016-02-01

    Modified flocculation magnesium silicate is prepared by a hydrothermal process at 120°C for 18 h after adding Al2(SO4)3 into the magnesium silicate gel. Compared with standard magnesium silicate with 328.116 m2 g-1 surface area, this modified magnesium silicate has a bigger BET surface area of 536.803 m2 g-1 and a lower interlayer water content. Modified magnesium silicate exhibits high β-carotene adsorption with a maximum adsorption capacity of 364.96 mg g-1. It is shown that when suspended in organic solvent, this material can be used effectively for carotenoid separation. Furthermore, our results suggest that modified magnesium silicate may be a promising candidate as an absorbent in the decoloring of oil.